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Sample records for sio2 fe2o3 composites

  1. PENGUJIAN AKTIVITAS KOMPOSIT Fe2O3-SiO2 SEBAGAI FOTOKATALIS PADA FOTODEGRADASI 4-KLOROFENOL (The Activity Test of Fe2O3-SiO2 Composite As Photocatalyst on 4-Chlorophenol Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Sri Kunarti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan pengujian aktivitas komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 sebagai fotokatalis pada fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol. Penelitian diawali dengan preparasi dan karakterisasi fotokatalis Fe2O3-SiO2. Preparasi dilakukan dengan metode sol-gel pada temperatur kamar menggunakan tetraetil ortosilikat (TEOS dan besi (III nitrat sebagai prekursor diikuti dengan perlakuan termal pada temperature 500 oC. Karakterisasi dilakukan dengan metode spektrometri inframerah, difraksi sinar-X dan spektrometri fluoresensi sinar-X. Uji aktivitas komposit untuk fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol dilakukan dalam reaktor tertutup yang dilengkapi dengan lampu UV. Pada uji ini telah dipelajari pengaruh waktu penyinaran dan pH larutan terhadap efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 dapat dipreparasi dengan metode sol-gel pada temperatur kamar diikuti perlakuan termal. Komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 dapat meningkatkan efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol dari 11,86 % menjadi 55,38 %. Efektivitas fotodegradasi 4- klorofenol dipengaruhi waktu penyinaran dan pH larutan yang semakin lama waktu penyinaran efektifitas fotodegradasi semakin tinggi, namun waktu penyinaran yang lebih lama dari 4 jam dapat menurunkan efektivitasnya. pH larutan memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda pada efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol.   ABSTRACT The activity test of Fe2O3-SiO2 composite as photocatalyst on 4-chlorophenol photodegradation has been studied. The research was initiated by preparation of Fe2O3-SiO2 photocatalyst and followed by characterization. The preparation was conducted by sol-gel method at room temperature using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS and iron (III nitrate as precursors followed by thermal treatment at a temperature of 500oC. The characterizations were performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Infrared and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometry. The photocatalytic activity test of composites for 4 chlorophenol

  2. Preparation, characterization and catalytic behavior of hierachically porous CuO/α-Fe2O3/SiO2 composite material for CO and o-DCB oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Ma; Xi Feng; Xuan He; Hongwen Guo; Lu Lü

    2011-01-01

    Hierachically porous (HP) CuO/α-Fe2O3/SiO2 composite material was fabricated by sol-gel method and multi-hydrothermal processes using HP-SiO2 as support.The resulting material was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption,X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.The as-prepared CuO/Fe2O3/HP-SiO2 sample,with α-Fe2O3 and CuO nanocrystals,possessed a co-continuous skeleton,through-macroporous and mesoporous structure.Its catalytic behavior for CO and o-DCB oxidation was investigated.The result showed that CuO/Fe2O3/HP-SiO2 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for both CO and o-DCB oxidation,indicating its potential application in combined abatement of CO and chlorinated volatile organic compounds.

  3. Moessbauer studies of magnetic Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancok, A.; Zaveta, K.; Savii, C.; Barcova, K.

    2006-01-01

    Fe 2 O 3 /SiO 2 magnetic nanocomposites rich in Fe 2 O 3 have been obtained by annealing at 1000 grad C the xerogel samples, prepared under various conditions. The target concentrations of iron oxide in inert matrix were 20% and 30%. As mesoporous matrices both silica and polyvinyl alcohol - silica hybrid ones were used. The xerogel nanocomposite samples were obtained in situ and by impregnation under ultrasonic activation. All obtained samples were annealed under moderate oxidation conditions (air) and inert atmosphere such as vacuum or nitrogen. Moessbauer spectra were obtained using a conventional Moessbauer spectrometer with a 57 Co/Rh source and constant acceleration. Velocity calibration was done using α-iron, and the Moessbauer parameters are given relative to this standard at room temperature. The Moessbauer spectra contained the sextets of ε-Fe 2 O 3 , hematite, and superparamagnetic component. The content of various phases in the samples depends on the conditions of preparation. In one of the samples also magnetite was present. The ranges of the ε-Fe 2 O 3 area of the samples are 39-76%. The hematite phase is only residual, after transformation due to heat treatment. (authors)

  4. Stabilization of the high coercivity ε-Fe2O3 phase in the CeO2–Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantlikova, A.; Poltierova Vejpravova, J.; Bittova, B.; Burianova, S.; Niznansky, D.; Ardu, A.; Cannas, C.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the processes leading to the formation of the Fe 2 O 3 and CeO 2 nanoparticles in the SiO 2 matrix in order to stabilize the ε-Fe 2 O 3 as the major phase. The samples with two different concentrations of the Fe were prepared by sol–gel method, subsequently annealed at different temperatures up to 1100 °C, and characterized by the Mössbauer spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and magnetic measurements. The evolution of the different Fe 2 O 3 phases under various conditions of preparation was investigated, starting with the preferential appearance of the γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase for the sample with low Fe concentration and low annealing temperature and stabilization of the major ε-Fe 2 O 3 phase for high Fe concentration and high annealing temperature, coexisting with the most stable α-Fe 2 O 3 phase. A continuous increase of the particle size of the CeO 2 nanocrystals with increasing annealing temperature was also observed. - Graphical abstract: The graphical abstract displays the most important results of our work. The significant change of the phase composition due to the variation of preparation conditions is demonstrated. As a result, significant change of the magnetic properties from superparamagnetic γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase with negligible coercivity to the high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 phase has been observed. Highlights: ► Research of the stabilization of the high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 in CeO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 /SiO 2 . ► Samples with two different concentrations of Fe and three annealing temperatures. ► Phase transition γ→ε→(β)→α with increasing annealing temperature and particle size. ► Elimination of the superparamagnetic phases in samples with higher content of Fe. ► Best conditions for high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 —higher Fe content and T A =1100°C.

  5. alpha-Fe2O3 versus beta-Fe2O3: Controlling the Phase of the Transformation Product of epsilon-Fe2O3 in the Fe2O3/SiO2 System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázda, Petr; Kohout, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Kmjec, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2014), s. 1039-1046 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0035 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : CHEMICAL-VAPOR-DEPOSITION * OXIDE THIN-FILMS * X-RAY * GAMMA-FE2O3 NANOPARTICLES * THERMAL-DECOMPOSITION Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.891, year: 2014

  6. Fabrication, characterization, and photocatalytic property of α-Fe2O3/graphene oxide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Zhao Qidong; Li Xinyong; Zhu Zhengru; Tade, Moses; Liu Shaomin

    2013-01-01

    Spindle-shaped microstructure of α-Fe 2 O 3 was successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The α-Fe 2 O 3 /graphene oxide (GO) composites was prepared using a modified Hummers’ strategy. The properties of the samples were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy (Raman) techniques. GO nanosheets act as supporting materials for anchoring the α-Fe 2 O 3 particles. The average crystallite sizes of the α-Fe 2 O 3 and α-Fe 2 O 3 /GO samples are ca. 27 and 24 nm, respectively. The possible growth of α-Fe 2 O 3 onto GO layers led to a higher absorbance capacity for visible light by α-Fe 2 O 3 /GO than α-Fe 2 O 3 composite. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene over the α-Fe 2 O 3 and α-Fe 2 O 3 /GO samples under xenon-lamp irradiation was comparatively studied by in situ FTIR technique. The results indicate that the α-Fe 2 O 3 /GO sample synthesized exhibited a higher capacity for the degradation of toluene. The composite of α-Fe 2 O 3 /GO could be promisingly applied in photo-driven air purification.

  7. Fabrication, characterization, and photocatalytic property of α-Fe2O3/graphene oxide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Zhao, Qidong; Li, Xinyong; Zhu, Zhengru; Tade, Moses; Liu, Shaomin

    2013-06-01

    Spindle-shaped microstructure of α-Fe2O3 was successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The α-Fe2O3/graphene oxide (GO) composites was prepared using a modified Hummers' strategy. The properties of the samples were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy (Raman) techniques. GO nanosheets act as supporting materials for anchoring the α-Fe2O3 particles. The average crystallite sizes of the α-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/GO samples are ca. 27 and 24 nm, respectively. The possible growth of α-Fe2O3 onto GO layers led to a higher absorbance capacity for visible light by α-Fe2O3/GO than α-Fe2O3 composite. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene over the α-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/GO samples under xenon-lamp irradiation was comparatively studied by in situ FTIR technique. The results indicate that the α-Fe2O3/GO sample synthesized exhibited a higher capacity for the degradation of toluene. The composite of α-Fe2O3/GO could be promisingly applied in photo-driven air purification.

  8. Effect of Fe2O3 and Binder on the Electrochemical Properties of Fe2O3/AB (Acetylene Black) Composite Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Trinh Tuan; Thuan, Vu Manh; Thang, Doan Ha; Hang, Bui Thi

    2017-06-01

    In an effort to find the best anode material for Fe/air batteries, a Fe2O3/AB (Acetylene Black) composite was prepared by dry-type ball milling using Fe2O3 nanoparticles and AB as the active and additive materials, respectively. The effects of various binders and Fe2O3 content on the electrochemical properties of Fe2O3/AB electrodes in alkaline solution were investigated. It was found that the content of Fe2O3 strongly affected the electrochemical behavior of Fe2O3/AB electrodes; with Fe2O3 nanopowder content reaching 70 wt.% for the electrode and showing improvement of the cyclability. When the electrode binder polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was used, clear redox peaks were observed via cyclic voltammetry (CV), while polyvinylidene fluoride-containing electrodes provided CV curves with unobservable redox peaks. Increasing either binder content in the electrode showed a negative effect in terms of the cyclability of the Fe2O3/AB electrode.

  9. The photodeposition of surface plasmon Ag metal on SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites sphere for enhancement of the photo-Fenton behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Kasimayan; Arjun, Nadarajan; Pan, Guan-Ting; Yang, Thomas C.-K.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a simple sol-gel method was used for the synthesis of a core-shell structure of SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites for employment as a visible light photocatalyst. It was observed that Ag nanoparticles about 20 nm in size were successfully deposited on the surface of the SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activity of the Ag-SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites catalyst was investigated by observing the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye in a photo-Fenton process. The results showed that the Ag nanoparticles acted as centers for photo induced electron transfer. The catalytic activity in the SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were enhanced due to the plasmoni c effect of Ag metal under visible light irradiation. The addition of H2O2 played an important role, generating more OH radicals which improved the photo-Fenton catalytic activity, resulting in quicker degradation of the MB dye using the Ag-SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite catalyst.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of reduced graphene sheets/Fe2O3 nanorods composites and their enhanced electrochemical performance for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanlu; Gao, Zan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Liu, Lianhe

    2013-06-01

    Reduced graphene nanosheets/Fe2O3 nanorods (GNS/Fe2O3) composite has been fabricated by a hydrothermal route for supercapacitor electrode materials. The obtained GNS/Fe2O3 composite formed a uniform structure with the Fe2O3 nanorods grew on the graphene surface and/or filled between the graphene sheets. The electrochemical performances of the GNS/Fe2O3 hybrid supercapacitor were tested by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Comparing with the pure Fe2O3 electrode, GNS/Fe2O3 composite electrode exhibits an enhanced specific capacitance of 320 F g-1 at 10 mA cm-2 and an excellent cycle-ability with capacity retention of about 97% after 500 cycles. The simple and cost-effective preparation technique of this composite with good capacitive behavior encourages its potential commercial application.

  11. Facile synthesis of nanorod-type graphitic carbon nitride/Fe2O3 composite with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangpeng; Li, Changqing; Cong, Jingkun; Liu, Ziwei; Zhang, Hanzhuo; Liang, Mei; Gao, Junkuo; Wang, Shunli; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a facile synthesis of nanorod-type graphitic carbon nitride/Fe 2 O 3 composite (Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 ) by using Fe-melamine supramolecular framework as precursor. The chemical and optical properties of the nanocomposites are well-characterized. The Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposite demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activities under visible light due to the efficient utilization of sunlight and the construction of Z-scheme electron transfer pathway. The results indicated that it could be a promising approach for the preparation of efficient g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites photocatalysts by using metal-melamine supramolecular framework as precursors. - Graphical abstract: Nanorod-type graphitic carbon nitride/Fe 2 O 3 composite (Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 ) was synthesized by using Fe-melamine supramolecular framework as precursor. The Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposite demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activities under visible light. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nanorod-type graphitic carbon nitride/Fe 2 O 3 composite (Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 ) was synthesized. • Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 showed strong optical absorption in the visible-light region. • The Fe 2 O 3 -g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposite demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activities.

  12. Silver-incorporated composites of Fe2O3 carbon nanofibers as anodes for high-performance lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingzhong; Li, Jiaxin; Wen, WeiWei; Chen, Luzhuo; Guan, Lunhui; Lai, Heng; Huang, Zhigao

    2014-12-01

    Composites of Ag-incorporated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) confined with Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Ag-Fe2O3/CNFs) have been synthesized through an electrospinning method and evaluated as anodes for lithium batteries (LIBs). The obtained Ag-Fe2O3/CNF anodes show good LIB performance with a capacity of 630 mAh g-1 tested at 800 mA g-1 after 150 cycles with almost no capacity loss and superb rate performance. The obtained properties for Ag-Fe2O3/CNF anodes are much better than Fe2O3/CNF anodes without Ag-incorporating. In addition, the low-temperature LIB performances for Ag-Fe2O3/CNF anodes have been investigated for revealing the enhanced mechanism of Ag-incorporating. The superior electrochemical performances of the Ag-Fe2O3/CNFs are associated with a synergistic effect of the CNF matrix and the highly conducting Ag incorporating. This unique configuration not only facilitates electron conduction especially at a relative temperature, but also maintains the structural integrity of active materials. Meanwhile, the related analysis of the AC impedance spectroscopy and the corresponding hypothesis for DC impedance confirm that such configuration can effectively enhance the charge-transfer efficiency and the lithium diffusion coefficient. Therefore, CNF-supported coupled with Ag incorporating synthesis supplied a promising route to obtain Fe2O3 based anodes with high-performance LIBs especially at low temperature.

  13. Novel ZnO/MgO/Fe2O3 composite optomagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamińska, I; Sikora, B; Fronc, K; Dziawa, P; Sobczak, K; Minikayev, R; Paszkowicz, W; Elbaum, D

    2013-01-01

    A facile sol–gel synthesis of novel ZnO/MgO/Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (NPs) is reported and their performance is compared to that of ZnO/MgO. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal the crystal structure of the prepared samples. The average particle size of the sample was found to be 4.8 nm. The optical properties were determined by UV–vis absorption and fluorescence measurements. The NPs are stable in biologically relevant solutions (phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 20 mM, pH = 7.0) contrary to ZnO/MgO NPs which degrade in the presence of inorganic phosphate. Superparamagnetic properties were determined with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Biocompatible and stable in PBS ZnO/MgO/Fe 2 O 3 core/shell composite nanocrystals show luminescent and magnetic properties confined to a single NP at room temperature (19–24 ° C), which may render the material to be potentially useful for biomedical applications. (paper)

  14. Influence of gamma-radiation on percolation threshold in PE/α-Fe2O3 composite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, N.S.; Bayramov, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : In this work it has been studied the change of specific volume resistance and also percolation threshold shift of the samples exposed to initial and gamma-irradiation depending on volume share of the filler α-Fe 2 O 3 in PE/α-Fe 2 O 3 composite. On the other hand while the volume share of the filler increases, the dimensions of polymer layer decreases on the border between phases

  15. Study of the phase composition of Fe2O3 and Fe2O3/TiO2 nanoparticles using X-ray diffraction and Debye formula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, V.; Poltierová Vejpravová, J.; Holý, V.; Tyrpekl, Václav; Brázda, P.; Doyle, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2010), s. 1399-1404 ISSN 1862-6351 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Fe2O3/TiO2 * nanocomposites * structure * phase transition * annealing Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  16. Radio frequency shielding behaviour of silane treated Fe2O3/E-glass fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun prakash, V. R.; Rajadurai, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, radio frequency shielding behaviour of polymer (epoxy) matrixes composed of E-glass fibres and Fe2O3 fillers have been studied. The principal aim of this project is to prepare suitable shielding material for RFID application. When RFID unit is pasted on a metal plate without shielding material, the sensing distance is reduced, resulting in a less than useful RFID system. To improve RF shielding of epoxy, fibres and fillers were utilized. Magnetic behaviour of epoxy polymer composites was measured by hysteresis graphs (B-H) followed by radio frequency identifier setup. Fe2O3 particles of sizes 800, 200 and 100 nm and E-glass fibre woven mat of 600 g/m2 were used to make composites. Particle sizes of 800 nm and 200 nm were prepared by high-energy ball milling, whereas particles of 100 nm were prepared by sol-gel method. To enhance better dispersion of particles within the epoxy matrix, a surface modification process was carried out on fillers by an amino functional coupling agent called 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Crystalline and functional groups of siliconized Fe2O3 particles were characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Variable quantity of E-glass fibre (25, 35, and 45 vol%) was laid down along with 0.5 and 1.0 vol% of 800, 200, and 100 nm size Fe2O3 particles into the matrix, to fabricate the hybrid composites. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images reveal the shape and size of Fe2O3 particles for different milling times and particle dispersion in the epoxy matrix. The maximum improved sensing distance of 45.2, 39.4 and 43.5 % was observed for low-, high-, and ultra-high radio frequency identifier setup along with shielding composite consist of epoxy, 1 vol% 200 nm Fe2O3 particles and 45 vol% of E-glass fibre.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ALKALI RESISTANT GLASS FIBER FOR CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT AND CHEMICAL DURABILITY COMPARISON WITH SrO-Mn2O3-Fe2O3-MgO-ZrO2-SiO2 (SMFMZS SYSTEM GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göktuğ GÜNKAYA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the relevant literature, the utilization of different kind of glass fibers in concrete introduces positive effect on the mechanical behavior, especially toughness. There are many glassfibers available to reinforce concretes. Glass fiber composition is so important because it may change the properties such as strength, elastic modulus and alkali resistance. Its most important property to be used in concrete is the alkali resistance. Some glasses of SrO–MgO–ZrO2–SiO2 (SMZS quaternary system, such as 26SrO, 20MgO, 14ZrO2, 40SiO2 (Zrn glass, have been found to be highly alkali resistant thanks to their high ZrO2 and MgO contents. Previous researches on these glasses with MnO and/or Fe2O3 partially replacing SrO have been made with the aim of improving the chemical resistance and decreasing the production cost.The main target of the present study, first of all, was to characterize commercially available alkali resistant glass fiber for concrete reinforcement and then to compare its alkali durability with those of the SrO-Mn2O3-Fe2O3-MgO-ZrO2-SiO2 (SMFMZS system glasses. For such purposes, XRF, Tg-DTA, alkali resistance tests and SEM analysis conducted with EDX were employed. According tothe alkali endurance test results it was revealed that some of the SMFMZS system glass powders are 10 times resistant to alkali environments than the commercial glass fibers used in this study.Therefore, they can be considered as alternative filling materials on the evolution of chemically resistant concrete structures.

  18. Static yield stress of a magnetorheological fluid containing Pickering emulsion polymerized Fe2O3/polystyrene composite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwook P; Kwak, Soonjong; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Seo, Yongsok

    2016-02-01

    The flow behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) suspensions containing Pickering emulsion polymerized Fe2O3/polystyrene (PS) composite particles were reanalyzed using the Seo-Seo model. The experimental shear stress data obtained experimentally from the magnetorheological fluid fit well to the Seo-Seo model, indicating that this model can describe the structural reformation process of the aligned fibers at various shear rates. Unlike the dynamic yield stress obtained from the Cho-Choi-Jhon (CCJ) model, the static yield stresses obtained from the Seo-Seo model exhibit the same quadratic dependence on the magnetic field strength for both pure Fe2O3 particle suspension and Fe2O3/PS particle suspensions, which is in agreement with the predictions of the polarization model. The static yield stress plausibly explains the difference in underlying mechanism of MR fluids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication and EMI shielding effectiveness of Ag-decorated highly porous poly(vinyl alcohol)/Fe2O3 nanofibrous composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae-Rim; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The Ag-decorated poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite nanofibrous webs incorporating Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were fabricated by electrospinning and metal-deposition methods for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications. The Ag-decorated PVA/Fe 2 O 3 composite nanofiber webs with various Ag thicknesses and different amounts of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were prepared and used for EMI shielding measurement. For the EMI SE measurement, a near-field antenna measurement system was used. The measurement of EMI SE was carried out at the frequency range from 0.5 to 18 GHz, and the electromagnetic parameters were measured. The morphologies and microstructures of the resultant PVA/Fe 2 O 3 composite nanofiber webs were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The effects of surface morphologies and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the EMI shielding effectiveness of Ag-decorated PVA/Fe 2 O 3 composite nanofiber webs were investigated. -- Highlights: ► We prepare Ag-decorated poly(vinyl alcohol) nanowebs incorporating Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. ► Solvents will affect the fiber morphologies and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles dispersion. ► EMI shielding effectiveness depends on the metal thickness and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles dispersion.

  20. Understanding the magnetic behavior of heat treated CaO-P2O5-Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2 bioactive glass using electron paramagnetic resonance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.

    2014-09-01

    Bioactive glass of composition 41CaO-44SiO2-4P2O5-8Fe2O3-3Na2O has been heat treated in the temperature (TA) range of 750-1150 °C for time periods (tA) ranging from 1 h to 3 h to yield magnetic bioactive glass ceramics (MBCs). X-ray diffraction studies indicate the presence of bone mineral (hydroxyapatite and wollastonite) and magnetic (magnetite and α-hematite) phases in nanocrystalline form in the MBCs. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study was carried out to understand the variation in saturation magnetization and coercivity of the MBCs with TA and tA. These studies reveal the nature and amount of iron ions present in the MBCs and their interaction in the glassy oxide matrix as a function of annealing parameters. The deterioration in the magnetic properties of the glass heat treated above 1050 °C is attributed to the crystallization of the non-magnetic α-hematite phase. These results are expected to be useful in the application of these MBCs as thermoseeds in hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  1. Nonstoichiometric Zn Ferrite and ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 Composite Spheres: Preparation, Magnetic Properties, and Chromium Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Chun-Liang; Yang, Li-Xia; Sun, Chang-Mei; Liang, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Monodisperse and porous nonstoichiometric Zn ferrite can be prepared by a solvothermal method. Such non-Zn ferrite was used to be the precursor for synthesis of ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composite via calcination at 600°C for 3 h in air. X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) proved the nonstoichiometry of Zn ferrite synthesized by solvothermal method and the formation of ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composite via calcination. TEM image showed that non-Zn ferrite spheres with wormlike nanopore structure were made of primary nanocrystals. BET surface area of non-Zn ferrite was much higher than that of ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composite. Saturation magnetization of non-Zn ferrites was significantly higher than that of ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composites. Calcination of non-Zn ferrite resulted in the formation of large amount of non-magnetic Fe2O3,which caused a low magnetization of composite. Because of higher BET surface area and higher saturation magnetization, non-Zn ferrite presented better Cr6+ adsorption property than ZnFe2O4/Fe2O3 composites.

  2. One-step facile hydrothermal synthesis of Fe2O3@LiCoO2 composite as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, Chandu V. V. Muralee; Somasekha, A.; Reddy, Araveeti Eswar; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2018-03-01

    Herein, for the first time, we demonstrate the fabrication of Fe2O3@LiCoO2 hybrid nanostructures on Ni foam substrate by facile one-step hydrothermal technique. Morphological studies reveal that aggregated Fe2O3 nanoflakes anchored on the surface of sphere-like LiCoO2 nanoflakes. Electrochemical studies are used to examine the performance of the supercapacitor electrodes. The composite Fe2O3@LiCoO2 electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical performance than Fe2O3 and LiCoO2 electrodes, such as a low charge transfer resistance, a high specific capacitance of 489 F g-1 at 5 mA cm-2 and an enhanced capacity retention of 108% over 3000 cycles at 15 mA cm-2. The composite Fe2O3@LiCoO2 holds great promise for electrochemical applications due to well-defined hierarchical morphology, synergetic effect of Fe2O3 and LiCoO2, enhanced electrical conductivity, efficient electrolyte penetration and fast electron transfer.

  3. High performance of mesoporous γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle/Ketjen Black composite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Hui; Xu, Yunlong; Ji, Mandi; Zhang, Huang; Zhao, Zhen; Zhao, Chongjun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A mesoporous γ-Fe 2 O 3 /KB composite was synthesized via solvothermal method. • KB was used as a carbon template to improve electrochemical performance of γ-Fe 2 O 3 . • 3D network structure can relieve volume change and improve the ionic transport. • The composite exhibited an ultrahigh capacity and high rate performance. - Abstract: A type of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticle/Ketjen Black (KB) composite material is synthesized by a solvothermal method combined with precursor thermal transformation. The structure and morphology are characterized by XRD, raman spectra, TG, nitrogen sorption, SEM, TEM and EDS. The results show that the composite has a uniform nanoporous network and well-dispersed γ-Fe 2 O 3 particles with a size of ca. 5 nm are embedded in the mesopores of KB. The γ-Fe 2 O 3 /KB exhibits superior eletrochemical performances to the bare γ-Fe 2 O 3 , especially at high current rate. The discharge capacity of the composite is 1100 mAh·g −1 at the first cycle and remains 988.8 mAh·g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. Moreover, it also maintains a high discharge capacity of 697.8 mAh·g −1 at 2 C and 410.1 mAh·g −1 at 5 C after 100 cycles, respectively. Such improved electrochemical performances could be attributed to the superior conductivity and favorable structure of KB, which contributes to the improvement in electronic conductivity and structure stability of γ-Fe 2 O 3 during the lithium ion insertion/desertion process

  4. Preparation, characterization, and cytotoxicity of CPT/Fe2O3-embedded PLGA ultrafine composite fibers: a synergistic approach to develop promising anticancer material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Touseef Amna1, M Shamshi Hassan2, Ki-Taek Nam2, Yang You Bing3, Nasser AM Barakat2, Myung-Seob Khil2, Hak Yong Kim1,21Center for Healthcare Technology Development, 2Department of Organic Materials and Fiber Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea; 3Animal Science and Technology College, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, ChinaAbstract: The aim of this study was to fabricate camptothecin/iron(III oxide (CPT/Fe2O3-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA composite mats to modulate the CPT release and to improve the structural integrity and antitumor activity of the released drug. The CPT/ Fe2O3-loaded PLGA ultrafine fibers were prepared for the first time by electrospinning a composite solution of CPT/Fe2O3 and neat PLGA (4 weight percent. The physicochemical characterization of the electrospun composite mat was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern. The medicated composite fibers were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on C2C12 cells using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, St Louis, MO. The in vitro studies indicated a slow and prolonged release over a period of 96 hours with mild initial burst. Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the interaction of CPT/Fe2O3 with the PLGA matrix and showed that the crystallinity of CPT decreased after loading. Incorporation of CPT in the polymer media affected both the morphology and the size of the CPT/Fe2O3-loaded PLGA composite fibers. Electron probe microanalysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results confirmed well-oriented composite ultrafine fibers with good incorporation of CPT/Fe2O3. The cytotoxicity results illustrate that the pristine PLGA did not exhibit noteworthy cytotoxicity; conversely, the CPT/Fe

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of Fe_2O_3/polypyrrole/graphene oxide composites as highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Suzhen; Ma, Shaobo; Yang, Ying; Mao, Qing; Hao, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Fe_2O_3/polypyrrole/graphene oxide electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are successfully prepared through one simple polypyrrole-assisted hydrothermal method and possess very high ORR activity and are able to selectively reduce O_2 to water through the four-electron transfer reaction mechanism in alkaline electrolyte. - Abstract: Advantages in low cost, and excellent catalytic activity of Fe-based nanomaterials dispersed on nitrogen-doped graphene supports render them to be good electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Here, Fe_2O_3/polypyrrole/graphene oxide (Fe_2O_3/Ppy/GO) composites with the Fe_2O_3 embedded in the Ppy modified GO are synthesized using hydrothermal method. With an optimal iron atom content ratio of 1.6% in graphene oxide and heat treatment at 800 °C, the Fe_2O_3/Ppy/GO exhibited enhanced catalytic performance for ORR with the onset potential of −0.1 V (vs SCE), cathodic potential of −0.24 V (vs SCE), an approximate 4e"− transfer process in O_2-saturated 0.1 M KOH, and superior stability that only reduced 5% catalytic activity after 5000 cycles. The decisive factors in improving the electrocatalytic and durable performance are the intimate and large contact interfaces between nanocrystallines of Fe_2O_3 and Ppy/GO, in addition to the high electron withdrawing/storing ability and the high conductivity of GO doped with nitrogen from Ppy during the hydrothermal reaction. The Fe_2O_3/Ppy/GO showed significantly improved ORR properties and confirmed that Fe-N-C-based electrocatalysts played a key role in fuel cells.

  6. Enhanced Water Oxidation Photoactivity of Nano-Architectured α-Fe2O3-WO3 Composite Synthesized by Single-Step Hydrothermal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Gul; Joo, Oh-Shim; Chae, Sang Youn; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali; Mian, Shabeer Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    This study reports the one-step in situ synthesis of a hematite-tungsten oxide (α-Fe2O3-WO3) composite on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate via a simple hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that the addition of tungsten (W) precursor into the reaction mixture altered the surface morphology from nanorods to nanospindles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of W content in the composite. From the ultraviolet-visible spectrum of α-Fe2O3-WO3, it was observed that absorption began at ˜ 600 nm which corresponded to the bandgap energy of ˜ 2.01 eV. The α-Fe2O3-WO3 electrode demonstrated superior performance, with water oxidation photocurrent density of 0.80 mA/cm2 (at 1.6 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode under standard illumination conditions; AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2) which is 2.4 times higher than α-Fe2O3 (0.34 mA/cm2). This enhanced water oxidation performance can be attributed to the better charge separation properties in addition to the large interfacial area of small-sized particles present in the α-Fe2O3-WO3 nanocomposite film.

  7. Self-assembly and electrical characteristics of 4-pentynoic acid functionalized Fe3O4-γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on SiO2/n-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Aainaa Aqilah; Ang, Bee Chin; Wong, Yew Hoong

    2017-11-01

    A novel investigation on a relationship between temperature-influential self-assembly (70-300 °C) of 4-pentynoic acid functionalized Fe3O4-γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) on SiO2/n-Si with electrical properties was reported with the interests for metal-oxide-semiconductor applications. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis conveyed that 8 ± 1 nm of the NPs were assembled. Increasing heating temperature induced growth of native oxide (SiO2). Raman analysis confirmed the coexistence of Fe3O4-γ-Fe2O3. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared (ATR-IR) spectra showed that self-assembly occurred via Sisbnd Osbnd C linkages. While Sisbnd Osbnd C linkages were broken down at elevated temperatures, formations of Si-OH defects were amplified; a consequence of physisorbed surfactants disintegration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that sample with more physisorbed surfactants exhibited the highest root-mean-square (RMS) roughness (18.12 ± 7.13 nm) whereas sample with lesser physisorbed surfactants displayed otherwise (12.99 ± 4.39 nm RMS roughness). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) analysis showed non-uniform aggregation of the NPs, deposited as film (12.6 μm thickness). The increased saturation magnetization (71.527 A m2/kg) and coercivity (929.942 A/m) acquired by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) of the sample heated at 300 °C verified the surfactants' disintegration. Leakage current density-electric field (J-E) characteristics showed that sample heated at 150 °C with the most aggregated NPs as well as the most developed Sisbnd Osbnd C linkages demonstrated the highest breakdown field and barrier height at 2.58 × 10-3 MV/cm and 0.38 eV respectively. Whereas sample heated at 300 °C with the least Sisbnd Osbnd C linkages as well as lesser aggregated NPs showed the lowest breakdown field and barrier height at 1.08 × 10-3 MV/cm and 0.19 eV respectively. This study opens up better understandings on how formation and breaking down of covalent

  8. α-Fe2O3 nanotubes-reduced graphene oxide composites as synergistic electrochemical capacitor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K K; Deng, S; Fan, H M; Mhaisalkar, S; Tan, H R; Tok, E S; Loh, K P; Chin, W S; Sow, C H

    2012-04-28

    We present a facile approach for the fabrication of a nanocomposite comprising α-Fe(2)O(3) nanotubes (NTs) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for electrochemical capacitors (ECs). The hollow tubular structure of the α-Fe(2)O(3) NTs presents a high surface area for reaction, while the incorporation of rGO provides an efficient two-dimensional conductive pathway to allow fast, reversible redox reaction. As a result, the nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacitance which is remarkably higher (~7 times) than α-Fe(2)O(3) NTs alone. In addition, the nanocomposites show excellent cycling life and large negative potential window. These findings suggest that such nanocomposites are a promising candidate as negative electrodes in asymmetrical capacitors with neutral electrolytes. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Design of a neutral electro-Fenton system with Fe-Fe2O3/ACF composite cathode for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinpo; Ai Zhihui; Zhang Lizhi

    2009-01-01

    The narrow pH range limits the wide application of Fenton reaction in the wastewater treatment. It is of great importance to widen working pH range of Fenton reaction from strong acidic condition to neutral, even basic ones. In this study, for the first time nanostructured Fe-Fe 2 O 3 was loaded on active carbon fiber (ACF) as an oxygen diffusion cathode to be used in a heterogeneous electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) oxidation system. This novel Fe-Fe 2 O 3 /ACF composite cathode was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and element mapping. On the degradation of dye pollutant rhodamine B in water, this heterogeneous E-Fenton system with the Fe-Fe 2 O 3 /ACF cathode showed much higher activity than other E-Fenton systems with commercial zero valent iron powders (Fe 0 ) and ferrous ions (Fe 2+ ) under neutral pH. On the basis of experimental results, we proposed a possible pathway of rhodamine B degradation in this heterogeneous Fe-Fe 2 O 3 /ACF E-Fenton process. This heterogeneous E-Fenton system is very promising to remove organic pollutants in water at neutral pH

  10. Nanotextured Spikes of α-Fe2O3/NiFe2O4 Composite for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Oxidation of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shabeeb; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Waleed, Aashir; Virk, Umar Siddique; Yang, Shihe; Waseem, Amir; Fan, Zhiyong; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2018-03-27

    We demonstrate for the first time the application of p-NiFe 2 O 4 /n-Fe 2 O 3 composite thin films as anode materials for light-assisted electrolysis of water. The p-NiFe 2 O 4 /n-Fe 2 O 3 composite thin films were deposited on planar fluorinated tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass as well as on 3D array of nanospike (NSP) substrates. The effect of substrate (planar FTO and 3D-NSP) and percentage change of each component (i.e., NiFe 2 O 4 and Fe 2 O 3 ) of composite was studied on photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation reaction. This work also includes the performance comparison of p-NiFe 2 O 4 /n-Fe 2 O 3 composite (planar and NSP) devices with pure hematite for PEC water oxidation. Overall, the nanostructured p-NiFe 2 O 4 /n-Fe 2 O 3 device with equal molar 1:1 ratio of NiFe 2 O 4 and Fe 2 O 3 was found to be highly efficient for PEC water oxidation as compared with pure hematite, 1:2 and 1:3 molar ratios of composite. The photocurrent density of 1:1 composite thin film on planar substrate was equal to 1.07 mA/cm 2 at 1.23 V RHE , which was 1.7 times higher current density as compared with pure hematite device (0.63 mA/cm 2 at 1.23 V RHE ). The performance of p-NiFe 2 O 4 /n-Fe 2 O 3 composites in PEC water oxidation was further enhanced by their deposition over 3D-NSP substrate. The highest photocurrent density of 2.1 mA/cm 2 at 1.23 V RHE was obtained for the 1:1 molar ratio p-NiFe 2 O 4 /n-Fe 2 O 3 composite on NSP (NF1-NSP), which was 3.3 times more photocurrent density than pure hematite. The measured applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) value of NF1-NSP (0.206%) was found to be 1.87 times higher than that of NF1-P (0.11%) and 4.7 times higher than that of pure hematite deposited on FTO-coated glass (0.044%). The higher PEC water oxidation activity of p-NiFe 2 O 4 /n-Fe 2 O 3 composite thin film as compared with pure hematite is attributed to the Z-path scheme and better separation of electrons and holes. The increased surface area and greater light

  11. Optimization of the composition of bimetallic core/shell Fe2O3/Au nanoparticles for MRI/CT dual-mode imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Song; Qi, Yueyong; Yang, Hua; Gong, Mingfu; Zhang, Dong; Zou, Liguang

    2013-01-01

    Bimetallic core/shell Fe 2 O 3 /Au nanoparticles are promising candidate dual-mode contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. However, the gold coating on the hybrid nanoparticles (hybrids) affects the MRI and CT imaging quality. A thick gold nanoshell increases the X-ray attenuation effect but decreases the magnetic saturation of the hybrids. Therefore, we studied the effect of the Fe 2 O 3 and Au composition on these properties to find a suitable hybrid for MRI and CT imaging. Water-soluble, Au-coated magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by iteratively reducing Au 3+ onto the Fe 2 O 3 surface via hydroxylamine seeding. The properties of the hybrids obtained after different numbers of Au seeding cycles were studied using transmission electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectrophotometry, a vibrating swatch gaussmeter, MRI, CT, and an MTT assay. The hybrids obtained after three Au seeding cycles had an Fe 2 O 3 :Au molar ratio of 7.2:26.8, a mean diameter of 48.3 nm, a UV–Vis absorbance peak of 550 nm, a saturation magnetization of 49.0 emu/g, and no cytotoxicity at a concentration of 500 μg/mL after incubation with RAW 264.7 cells for up to 72 h. The hybrids obtained after three Au seeding cycles are the preferred candidates for MRI and CT applications because of their relatively high R2 relaxivity (95 mM −1  s −1 ) and X-ray attenuation (1.87 times that of iodine) compared to those of the other hybrids investigated in this study

  12. Effect of MgO on compositions of the system CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3. Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, Ángel

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different compositions belonging to the equilibrium system CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3 were dopep with a fixed quantity of MgO (6,5% wt. The compositions, which lie in different primary fields of crystallization and in different triangles of compatibility, were submitted to several thermal treatments. Each composition, which had previously been melted, originates in its solidification the aluminates and ferrites which are usual in the interstitial phase of clinker Portland, although they are in different microstructural arrangements. The effect of MgO on the generated microstructures has been shown. Also, the solubility of MgO on the aluminic and ferritic phases has been measured.CCinco composiciones diferentes pertenecientes al sistema de equilibrio CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3 fueron dopadas con una cantidad fija de MgO (6,5%. Las cinco composiciones, que están situadas sobre diferentes campos primarios de cristalización y/o sobre diferentes triángulos de compatibilidad, fueron sometidas a varios tratamientos térmicos. Cada composición (previamente fundida origina en su solidificación los aluminatos y ferritos habituales en la fase intersticial del clinker portland, aunque ordenados en microestructuras diferentes. Se ha comprobado el efecto del MgO sobre las microestructuras generadas, así como su solubilidad en las fases alumínicas y ferríticas.

  13. Thermal Decomposition Behaviors and Burning Characteristics of AN/RDX-Based Composite Propellants Supplemented with MnO2 and Fe2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohga, Makoto; Naya, Tomoki

    2015-10-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)-based composite propellants have gained popularity because of the clean burning nature of AN as an oxidizer. However, such propellants have several disadvantages such as poor ignition and low burning rate. The burning characteristics of the AN propellant were improved when a portion of this propellant was replaced by an energetic material and the addition of a catalyst. In this study, RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine) was used as the energetic material, and Fe2O3 and MnO2 were used as catalysts. The burning characteristics of the AN/RDX propellants supplemented with catalysts were investigated, and the effects of the replacement of AN by RDX and the catalyst addition were evaluated.

  14. Simultaneous influence of gas mixture composition and process temperature on Fe2O3->FeO reduction kinetics: neural network modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Piotrowski

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of Fe2O3->FeO reaction was investigated. The thermogravimetric (TGA data covered the reduction of hematite both by pure species (nitrogen diluted CO or H2 and by their mixture. The conventional analysis has indicated that initially the reduction of hematite is a complex, surface controlled process, however once a thin layer of lower oxidation state iron oxides (magnetite, wüstite is formed on the surface, it changes to diffusion control. Artificial Neural Network (ANN has proved to be a convenient tool for modeling of this complex, heterogeneous reaction runs within the both (kinetic and diffusion regions, correctly considering influence of temperature and gas composition effects and their complex interactions. ANN's model shows the capability to mimic some extreme (minimum of the reaction rate within the determined temperature window, while the Arrhenius dependency is of limited use.

  15. Magnetic diatomite(Kieselguhr)/Fe2O3/TiO2 composite as an efficient photo-Fenton system for dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Isaltino A.; Zanatta, Lucas D.; Espimpolo, Daniela M.; da Silva, Douglas L.; Nascimento, Leandro F.; Zanardi, Fabrício B.; de Sousa Filho, Paulo C.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Iamamoto, Yassuko

    2017-10-01

    We explored the potential use of diatomite/Fe2O3/TiO2 composites as catalysts for heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of methylene blue under neutral pH. Such system consists in magnetic solids synthesized by co-precipitation with Fe2+/Fe3+ in the presence of diatomite, followed by impregnation of TiO2. The results showed that the optimal amount of the catalyst was 2.0 g L-1, since aggregation phenomena become significant above this concentration, which decreases the photodegradation activity. The catalyst is highly efficient in the degradation of methylene blue and shows an easy recovery by an external magnetic field. This allows for an effective catalyst reuse without significant loss of activity in catalytic cycles, which is a highly interesting prospect for recyclable dye degradation systems.

  16. Equation of State of Aluminum-Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) - Epoxy Composite: Modeling and Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Jennifer L; Ferranti, Louis; Thadhani, Naresh N; Benson, David; Dick, Richard D; Austin, Ryan; McDowell, David

    2007-01-01

    .... Gas gun experiments were performed on the same composites at lower pressures, using PVDF stress gauges to record the input and propagated stresses and the shock velocity based on the time of travel...

  17. Magnetically separable photocatalytic composite gamma-Fe(2)O(3)@TiO(2) synthesized by heterogeneous precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tyrpekl, Václav; Vejpravová, J.P.; Roca, A.G.; Murafa, Nataliya; Szatmáry, Lórant; Nižňanský, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 11 (2011), s. 4844-4848 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA AV ČR KAN400100653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : nano composite * oxides * magnetic properties * transmission electron microscopy * X-ray powder diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2011

  18. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe2O3/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Delun; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qingxiang

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe 2 O 3 (fFe 2 O 3 ), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS–fFe 2 O 3 –ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS–fFe 2 O 3 –ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS–fFe 2 O 3 –ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10 −6 M to 1.0 × 10 −4 M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5 × 10 −7 M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. - Highlights: • Fishbone-shaped Fe 2 O 3 (fFe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple template-free solvothermal method. • The nanocomposite of fFe 2 O 3 , graphene and chitosan was used as the sensing platform for gallic acid. • The sensor shows a wide linear range and low detection limit for gallic acid. • The antioxidant capacity index of wines was successfully evaluated by the sensor

  19. Fe2O3/ZnO/ZnFe2O4 composites for the efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Jin, Bo; Huang, Jingwen; Zhang, Qingchun; Peng, Rufang; Chu, Shijin

    2018-06-01

    In this study, novel ternary Fe2O3/ZnO/ZnFe2O4 (ZFO) composites were successfully prepared through a simple hydrothermal reaction with subsequent thermal treatment. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) measurement, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) under visible light irradiation indicated that the ZFO composites calcined at 500 °C has the best photocatalytic activity (the photocatalytic degradation efficiency can reach up to 95.7% within 60 min) and can maintain a stable photocatalytic degradation efficiency for at least three cycles. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of ZFO composites toward dye decomposition follows the order cationic Rh B > anionic methyl orange. Finally, using different scavengers, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were identified as the primary active species during the degradation reaction of Rh B.

  20. Mechanical properties, microstructure and magnetic properties of composite magnet base on SrO.6Fe_2O_3 (SRM)-thermoplastic and thermoset polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace Tj Sulungbudi; Aloma Karo Karo; Mujamilah; Sudirman

    2010-01-01

    The use of magnets in industrial applications do not always require high magnetic properties. Therefore, the use of polymer as a matrix that serves as a binder can be applied to obtain lightweight, flexible and cheap composite magnet. This report discuss composite magnet base on SrO.6Fe_2O_3(SRM)-thermoplastic and thermoset polymer. Thermoplastic polymer consist of polypropylene (PP) type of PP2 and PP10 and polyethylene (PE) type of LDPE were used. For thermoset polymer, epoxy and polyester were used. Synthesis of composite magnet based on thermoplastic polymer (PP2, PP10, LDPE) were carried using the blending method, while the thermoset composites magnet using casting method. Thermoplastic composite magnets were prepared with compositions of 50, 41, 38, 33 and 29 % weight of SRM with the blending temperature of 160 °C for LDPE and 180 °C for PP2 and PP10. For thermoset composite magnets, the compositions were 30, 40, 50 and 60 % by weight of SRM. The mechanical test conducted include tensile strength and elongation at break. Microstructure on the surface of the composite materials were observed using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and the magnetic properties were measured using VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer). The SEM results showed the formation of flat shape powder particle with size of 1.6 µm. In general, the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymer composite magnet are better than that using polyethylene (LDPE) binder. For polypropylene binder PP10 is better than PP2. Magnetic properties are not significantly affected by the change of polymer or binder types. (author)

  1. Design and manufacture of X-ray analyser of CaO, Fe2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3, investment opportunity of Vietnam cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuy; Luong Duc Long

    2008-01-01

    Cement is produced by heating naturally occurring raw materials containing the required oxides in kiln, which results in a product called clinker. To obtain the finished cement, the clinker is then ground together with gypsum, which controls setting properties, to a fine powder. Portland cement is a mixture of compounds formed from the oxides of Ca(CaO), Si(SiO 2 ), Al(Al 2 O 3 ), and Fe(Fe 2 O 3 ). In addition to these four main constituents it also contains smaller amounts of MgO, K 2 O, SO 3 , etc. Effective process control of cement is important to ensure high quality of the product. Traditionally wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers are used for cement quality control at the modern cement factories. The XRF-NCS02 is a compact energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analyzer. These spectrometers also are used for cement quality control at the small size cement plant. Product description: The XRF-NCS02 , table-top cement analyzer is a computer-based EDXRF spectrometer. The high efficiency and high resolution Si PIN detector is coupled to a 4096 channel MCA for data collection. The special low-power x-ray tube of the system requires no cooling and obligates the need for radioisotopes, as commonly found on such instruments. Computer: Compatible notebook or desktop PC, Pentium processor with CD-ROM. Software: XRF - NCS02 software for quantitative analysis; Interactive, operation under Windows XP. Installation: dimensions 500x380x300 mm (W x D x H); weight: 10 kg. (author)

  2. Fe2O3/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Fe3O4 Composite in Situ Grown on Fe Foil for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chongjun; Shao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yuxiao; Qian, Xiuzhen

    2016-11-09

    A Fe 2 O 3 /reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite in situ grown on Fe foil was synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal growth process, where the iron foil served as support, reductant of graphene oxide, Fe source of Fe 3 O 4 , and also the current collector of the electrode. When it directly acted as the electrode of a supercapacitor, as-synthesized Fe 2 O 3 /RGO/Fe 3 O 4 @Fe exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a high capability of 337.5 mF/cm 2 at 20 mA/cm 2 and a superior cyclability with 2.3% capacity loss from the 600th to the 2000th cycle.

  3. Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow microspheres: Preparation and application for hydrogen peroxide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhiping; Liao, Fang; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Tingting

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple approach for preparing α-Fe2O3 hollow spheres by mixing ferric nitrate aqueous and glucose in 180 °C. The glucose was found to act as a soft template in the process of α-Fe2O3 hollow spheres formation. Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow nanocomposite was obtained under UV irradiation without additional reducing agents or initiators. Synthesized Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow composites exhibited remarkable catalytic performance toward H2O2 reduction. The electrocatalytic activity mechanism of Ag/α-Fe2O3/GCE were discussed toward the reduction of H2O2 in this paper.

  4. Inverse CeO2sbnd Fe2O3 catalyst for superior low-temperature CO conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongming; Chen, Ran; Peng, Wen; Tang, Guangbei; Gao, Xiaoya

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents a rational design of highly efficient and affordable catalysts for CO oxidation with a low operating temperature. A series of ceria-iron catalysts were inversely built via a co-precipitation method. The catalytic activity of low-temperature CO oxidation was much higher with CeO2-modified Fe2O3 (CeO2sbnd Fe2O3) than with Fe2O3-modified CeO2 (Fe2O3sbnd CeO2). In particular, the 7.5% CeO2sbnd Fe2O3 catalyst had the highest activity, reaching 96.17% CO conversion at just 25 °C. Catalyst characterization was carried out to explore the cause of the significantly different CO conversion efficiencies between the Fe2O3sbnd CeO2 and Fe2O3sbnd CeO2 catalysts. HRTEM showed a significant inhomogeneous phase in 7.5% CeO2sbnd Fe2O3 with small CeO2 nanoparticles highly dispersed on the rod-shaped Fe2O3 surface. Furthermore, the 7.5% CeO2sbnd Fe2O3 composite catalyst exhibited the highest ratios of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Ce3+/Ce4+ as well as the largest pore volume. These properties are believed to benefit the CO conversion in 7.5% CeO2sbnd Fe2O3.

  5. Removal of Dibenzothiophene Using Activated Carbon/γ-Fe2O3 Nano-Composite: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Investigation of the Removal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fayazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT from model oil (n-hexane was investigated using magnetic activated carbon (MAC nano-composite adsorbent. The synthesized nano-composite was characterized by FT-IR, FE-SEM, BET and VSM techniques. The MAC nano-composite exhibited a nearly superparamagnetic property with a saturation magnetization (Ms of 29.2 emu g-1, which made it desirable for separation under an external magnetic field. The magnetic adsorbent afforded a maximum adsorption capacity of 38.0 mg DBT g-1 at the optimized conditions (adsorbent dose, 8 g l-1; contact time, 1 h; temperature, 25 °C. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to fit equilibrium data for MAC nano-composite. Adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir model. Kinetic studies were carried out and showed the sorption kinetics of DBT was best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, the MAC nano-composite exhibited good capability of recycling to adsorb DBT in gasoline deep desulfurization.

  6. Ag/α-Fe2O3 hollow microspheres: Preparation and application for hydrogen peroxide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhiping; Liao, Fang; Zhang, Tingting; Guo, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a simple approach for preparing α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow spheres by mixing ferric nitrate aqueous and glucose in 180 °C. The glucose was found to act as a soft template in the process of α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow spheres formation. Ag/α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow nanocomposite was obtained under UV irradiation without additional reducing agents or initiators. Synthesized Ag/α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow composites exhibited remarkable catalytic performance toward H 2 O 2 reduction. The electrocatalytic activity mechanism of Ag/α-Fe 2 O 3 /GCE were discussed toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Glucose is carbonized as carbon balls in the 180 °C hydrothermal carbonization process, which plays a role of a soft template. Carbon spherical shell is rich in many hydroxyls, which have good hydrophilicity and surface reactivity. When Fe(NO 3 ) 3 is added to the aqueous solution of Glucose, the hydrophilic -OH will adsorb Fe 3+ to form coordination compound by coordination bond. α-FeOOH is formed on the surface of carbon balls by hydrothermal reaction. After calcination at 500 °C, carbon spheres react with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, which disappears in the air. Meanwhile α-FeOOH is calcined to form α-Fe 2 O 3 hollow spheres.

  7. Synthesis of ferrite grade γ-Fe2O3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    carboxylates in air yield α-Fe2O3, but the controlled atmosphere of moisture requires for the oxalates to stabi- ... structure form, α-Fe2O3, is made to react with the cubic divalent metal .... water of crystallization show multistep exothermic peaks.

  8. Photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide modified by Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodka, Dawid; Socha, Robert P.; Bielańska, Elżbieta; Elżbieciak-Wodka, Magdalena; Nowak, Paweł; Warszyński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 1% Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 composite showing high activity in the photocatalytic oxidation of organics was synthetized. • Electrochemical analysis indicated that surface modification of Degussa P25 by Fe 2 O 3 causes the appearance of surface states in such a material. • The enhanced activity of the prepared composite may be ascribed to the occurrence of the photo-Fenton process. - Abstract: Photocatalytic activity of Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 composites obtained by precipitation was investigated. The composite material containing 1.0 wt% of iron(III) oxide nanoparticles was obtained by depositing Fe 2 O 3 on the Evonic-Degussa P25 titania surface. SEM, XPS, DRS, CV and EIS techniques were applied to examine synthetized pale orange photocatalyst. The XPS measurements revealed that iron is present mainly in the +3 oxidation state but iron in the +2 oxidation state can be also detected. Electrochemical analysis indicated that surface modification of Degussa P25 by Fe 2 O 3 causes the appearance of surface states in such a material. Nevertheless, based on the DRS measurement it was shown that iron(III) oxide nanoparticles modified the P25 spectral properties but they did not change the band gap width. The photocatalytic activity of Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 composite was compared to photocatalytic activity of pristine P25 in photooxidation reaction of model compounds: oxalic acid (OxA) and formic acid (FA). Photodecomposition reaction was investigated in a batch reactor containing aqueous suspension of a photocatalyst illuminated by either UV or artificial sunlight (halogen lamp). The tests proved that nanoparticles deposited on titania surface triggers the increase in photocatalytic activity, this increase depends however on the decomposed substance

  9. The Mechanical and Reaction Behavior of PTFE/Al/Fe2O3 under Impact and Quasi-Static Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yi Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static compression and drop-weight test were used to characterize the mechanical and reaction behavior of PTFE/Al/Fe2O3 composites. Two kinds of PTFE/Al/Fe2O3 composites were prepared with different mass of PTFE, and the reaction phenomenon and stress-strain curves were recorded; the residuals after reaction were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results showed that, under quasi-static compression condition, the strength of the materials is increased (from 37.1 Mpa to 77.2 Mpa with the increase of PTFE, and the reaction phenomenon occurred only in materials with high PTFE content. XRD analysis showed that the reaction between Al and Fe2O3 was not triggered with identical experimental conditions. In drop-weight tests, PTFE/Al/Fe2O3 specimens with low PTFE content were found to be more insensitive by high-speed photography, and a High Temperature Metal Slag Spray (HTMSS phenomenon was observed in both kinds of PTFE/Al/Fe2O3 composites, indicating the existence of thermite reaction, which was confirmed by XRD. In PTFE/Al/Fe2O3 system, the reaction between PTFE and Al precedes the reaction between Al and Fe2O3.

  10. CNTs in situ attached to α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres for enhancing lithium storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guo; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Qiu, Peiyu; Sun, Rongjin; Yin, Ting; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal method for synthesis of hybrid α-Fe2O3-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) architectures (α-Fe2O3-CNTs-1 and α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2). The CNTs are in situ attached to the α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres and form three-dimensional network robust architectures. The increase in the amount of CNTs in the network α-Fe2O3-CNTs architectures will significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance, as the flexible and robust CNTs could ensure the fast electron transport pathways, enhance the electronic conductivity, and improve the structural stability of the electrode. As for pure α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres, the capacity decreased significantly and retained at 377.4 mAh g(-1) after 11 cycles, and the capacity has a slightly increasing trend at the following cycling. In contrast, the network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 electrode shows the most remarkable performance. At the 60th cycle, the capacity of network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 (764.5 mAh g(-1)) is 1.78 times than that of α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres (428.3 mAh g(-1)). The long-term cycling performance (1000 cycles) of samples at a high current density of 5 C showed that the capacity of α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres fade to ∼37.3 mAh g(-1) at the 400th cycle and gradually increased to ∼116.7 mAh g(-1) at the 1000th cycle. The capacity of network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 maintained at ∼220.2 mAh g(-1) before the 400th cycle, arrived at ∼326.5 mAh g(-1) in the 615th, cycle and retained this value until 1000th cycle. The network α-Fe2O3-CNTs-2 composite could significantly enhance the cycling and rate performance than pure α-Fe2O3 submicron spheres composite.

  11. Facilely synthesized Fe2O3–graphene nanocomposite as novel electrode materials for supercapacitors with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Chunyan; Wang, Hailin; Liu, Zonghuai; Hao, Zhengping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Fe 2 O 3 Graphene nanocomposite was synthesized in a simple hydrothermal way by using urea to adjust the system pH value, by this method the reduction of graphite oxide and the formation of Fe 2 O 3 nanocomposite are finished in one step. The specific capacitance of the Fe 2 O 3 Graphene electrode reached 226 F/g at a discharge current density of 1 A g –1 . Highlights: ► The Fe 2 O 3 –graphene nanocomposite was obtained by friendly method with urea in one step. ► The addition of Fe 2 O 3 composites has positive effect on the electrical performance of the graphene nanosheets. ► The specific capacitance of the Fe 2 O 3 –graphene electrode was 226 F/g at a discharge current density of 1 A g −1 . -- Abstract: Fe 2 O 3 –graphene nanocomposite with high capacitive properties had been prepared friendly and facilely by hydrothermal method in one-step. The morphology and structure of the obtained material were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. It was revealed by TEM images that Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles grow well on the surface of graphene and the formation of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles hinders the aggregation of graphene (reduced graphene oxide, namely, RGO). Electrochemical properties of the synthesized materials were characterized by serials of electrochemical measurements in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte. Fe 2 O 3 –graphene nanocomposite electrode show higher specific capacitance than graphene, indicating an accelerative effect of Fe 2 O 3 and graphene on improving the electrochemical performance of the electrode. The specific capacitance of Fe 2 O 3 –graphene nanocomposite is 226 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g. These attractive results indicate it is possible to seek and develop the promising, environmentally benign and commercial electrodes material based on Fe 2 O 3 and graphene

  12. Phase identification and morphology study of hematite (Fe2O3) with sintering time varitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazirin, Cepi; Puspitasari, Poppy; Sasongko, Muhammad Ilman Nur; Tsamroh, Dewi Izzatus; Risdanareni, Puput

    2017-09-01

    Iron oxide has been the interest of many studies due to its applications in various scientific and industrial fields including in environment, corrosion, soil science, and exhaust emissions. Iron oxide (Fe2O3) has potential applications in catalytic reactions in electronic devices such as semiconductors, paint formulations, and lithium rechargeable batteries. Fe2O3 can be synthesized through the process of stirring, decomposition of organic iron, sol-gel, combustion, and evaporating solvents. Most of the methods used involve several steps and take a long time. The aim of this research was to investigate the phase and morphology characterization of iron oxide (Fe2O3) powder with solvent ethylene glycol after being sintered for 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours. The characterization tools utilized were XRD, SEM-EDX, and FTIR. The results of XRD analysis showed that the Fe2O3 sintered for 1 hour had the smallest crystallite size with a diameter of 21.05 nm. In the XRD test, the beam of X-ray was shot directly at the grain being tested. The results of SEM analysis showed thatthe Fe2O3 sintered for 1 hour produced the best result due to its crystallite size of 12.36 nm and hada shape of homogeneous nanosphere; the duration of sintering indeed had a great influence on the grain size of iron oxide (Fe2O3). In addition, the results of the elemental composition analysis indicate that the longer the sintering process, the higher the concentration of O but the lower the Fe.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties of Ag@α-Fe2O3 Core–Shell Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ag@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite having a core–shell structure was synthesized by a two-step reduction-sol gel approach, including Ag nanoparticles synthesis by sodium borohydride as the reducing agent in a first step and the subsequent mixing with a Fe+3 sol for α-Fe2O3 coating. The synthesized Ag@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite has been characterized by various techniques, such as SEM, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The electrical and gas sensing properties of the synthesized composite towards low concentrations of ethanol have been evaluated. The Ag@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite showed better sensing characteristics than the pure α-Fe2O3. The peculiar hierarchical nano-architecture and the chemical and electronic sensitization effect of Ag nanoparticles in Ag@α-Fe2O3 sensors were postulated to play a key role in modulating gas-sensing properties in comparison to pristine α-Fe2O3 sensors.

  14. Fe2O3 hollow sphere nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wen, Yang; Xu, Bing; Lu, Lu; Ren, Reiming

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted increasing interest in electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites were successfully prepared through facile low temperature water-bath method with carbon sphere as hard template. The morphology and microstructure of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Through hydrolysis mechanism, using ferric chloride direct hydrolysis, iron hydroxide coated on the surface of carbon sphere, after high temperature calcination can form the hollow spherical iron oxide materials. Electrochemical performances of the hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammery (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge. The Pure hollow sphere Fe2O3 nanocomposites achieves a specific capacitance of 125 F g-1 at the current density of 85 mA g-1. The results indicate that the uniform dispersion of hollow ball structure can effectively reduce the particle reunion in the process of charging and discharging.

  15. Review on α-Fe2O3 based negative electrode for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, V. D.; Arul, N. Sabari

    2016-09-01

    Supercapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device which has drawn attention of the researchers in recent years due to its high power density and long cycle life. Recently, an enormous effort has been imposed to improve the energy density of supercapacitor and might be attained through asymmetric cell configuration that offer wider potential window. Until now, a significant advancement has been achieved in the fabrication of positive electrodes for asymmetric cell. Nevertheless, the electrochemical performance of negative electrode materials is less explored, especially Hematite (α-Fe2O3). The α-Fe2O3 has been proved to be a promising negative electrode in supercapacitor application due to its wide operating potential, high redox activity, low cost, abundant availability and eco-friendliness. In this review, we have chosen α-Fe2O3 as the negative electrode and discussed its latest research progress with emphasis on various surface engineering synthesis strategies such as, carbon, polymer, metal-metal oxide, and ternary based α-Fe2O3 composites for supercapacitor. Besides, the importance of their synergistic effects over the supercapacitive performance in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, cycling life and rate capability are highlighted. Also, an extensive analysis of the literature about its symmetric/asymmetric cell performance is explored.

  16. Fe2O3/MWCNTs nanocomposite decorated glassy carbon electrode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... (GCE) was prepared by drop casting Fe2O3/MWCNTs onto the surface of GCE. Scanning .... three times with ethanol and distilled water, and then dried in the oven at 60 .... and could undergo the following conversion: 2H.

  17. Thermal stability of nanocrystalline ε-Fe2O3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázda, Petr; Večerníková, Eva; Pližingrová, Eva; Lančok, Adriana; Nižňanský, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2014), s. 85-91 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0035 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : ε-Fe2O3 * Differential thermal analysis * Evolved gas analysis * Infrared spectroscopy * Thermogravimetry * X-ray powder diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2014

  18. Cobalt surface modification during γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle synthesis by chemical-induced transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junming; Li, Jian; Chen, Longlong; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Gong, Xiaomin; Li, Decai

    2015-01-01

    In the chemical-induced transition of FeCl 2 solution, the FeOOH/Mg(OH) 2 precursor was transformed into spinel structured γ-Fe 2 O 3 crystallites, coated with a FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O layer. CoCl 2 surface modified γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were prepared by adding Co(NO 3 ) 2 during the synthesis. CoFe 2 O 4 modified γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were prepared by adding NaOH during the surface modification with Co(NO 3 ) 2 . The CoFe 2 O 4 layer grew epitaxially on the γ-Fe 2 O 3 crystallite to form a composite crystallite, which was coated by CoCl 2 ·6H 2 O. The composite could not be distinguished using X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, since CoFe 2 O 4 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 possess similar spinel structures and lattice constants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to distinguish them. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the spinel structured γ-Fe 2 O 3 -based nanoparticles were related to the grain size. - Highlights: • γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical induced transition. • CoCl 2 modified nanoparticles were prepared by additional Co(NO 3 ) 2 during synthesization. • CoFe 2 O 4 modified nanoparticles were prepared by additional Co(NO 3 ) 2 and NaOH. • The magnetism of the nanoparticles is related to the grain size

  19. ZIF-8 derived hexagonal-like α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au nanoplates with tunable surface heterostructures for superior ethanol gas-sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Hui; Ma, Qian; Che, Quande; Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Gang; Yang, Ping

    2018-05-01

    A series of hexagonal-like α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au nanoplate heterostructures with tunable morphologies and superior ethanol gas-sensing performance were successfully synthesized via the facile multi-step reaction processes. Hexagonal-like α-Fe2O3 nanoplates with uniform size around 150 nm are employed as new sensor substrates for loading the well-distributed ZnO and Au nanoparticles with adjustable size distribution on the different surfaces. Brunauer-EmmeQ-Teller (BET) surface areas of α-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3/ZnO samples are evaluated to be 37.94 and 61.27 m2/g, respectively, while α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au composites present the highest value of 79.08 m2/g. These α-Fe2O3-based functional materials can exhibit outstanding sensing properties to ethanol. When the ethanol concentration is 100 ppm, the response value of α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au composites can reach up to 170, which is 14.6 and 80.3 times higher than that of α-Fe2O3/ZnO and pure α-Fe2O3, respectively. The recycling stability and long-time effectiveness can be availably maintained within 30 days, as well as the response and recovery times are shortened to 4 and 5 s, respectively. Significantly, the response value of α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au composite is still up to 63 at an operating temperature of 280 °C even though the ethanol concentration decreases to 10 ppm. The enhanced gas sensing mechanism would be focused on the synergistic effects of phase compositions, surface heterogeneous structures, large specific surface area, and the selective depositions of Au nanoparticles in α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au sensors. The synergistic effect of different surface heterostructures referring to α-Fe2O3/Au and α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au and their novel electron transport processes on the surfaces are first investigated and discussed in details. It is expected that hexagonal-like α-Fe2O3/ZnO/Au nanoplate heterostructures with excellent sensing performance can be the promising highly-sensitive materials in the actual application for monitoring and detecting ethanol.

  20. Three-dimensional (3D α-Fe2O3/polypyrrole (PPy nanocomposite for effective electromagnetic absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchun Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The lightweight and 3-dimensional reticulated α-Fe2O3/PPy hybrids were successfully fabricated via a facile one-pot polyreaction. The measured complex permittivity and microwave attenuation performance suggest that the dielectric properties of PPy can be regulated by the mass ratio of added α-Fe2O3. The two dielectric resonance peaks of complex permittivity can be ascribed to the interface capacitor-like structure. An equivalent circuit model was established to explain the nonlinear resonance behavior of the α-Fe2O3/PPy wax composites. The addition of α-Fe2O3 properly tuned the dielectric constant to endow the composites with highly efficient microwave absorption. The minimum reflection loss of α-Fe2O3/PPy wax composites were enhanced to nearly −29dB with an effective bandwidth (RL≤ − 10dB up to 5.0GHz. The numerical method was proposed to calculate the optimum thickness for minimum RL at expected frequency by detailed investigation on the transmission formula. Moreover, the required thickness for optimum absorption efficiency at expected frequency can be obtained directly.

  1. Faraday rotation enhancement of gold coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles: comparison of experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Raj Kumar; Wang, Hongwang; Bossmann, Stefan H; Wysin, Gary; Chikan, Viktor

    2011-12-14

    Understanding plasmonic enhancement of nanoscale magnetic materials is important to evaluate their potential for application. In this study, the Faraday rotation (FR) enhancement of gold coated Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles (NP) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiment shows that the Faraday rotation of a Fe(2)O(3) NP solution changes from approximately 3 rad/Tm to 10 rad/Tm as 5 nm gold shell is coated on a 9.7 nm Fe(2)O(3) core at 632 nm. The results also show how the volume fraction normalized Faraday rotation varies with the gold shell thickness. From the comparison of experiment and calculated Faraday rotation based on the Maxwell-Garnett theory, it is concluded that the enhancement and shell dependence of Faraday rotation of Fe(2)O(3) NPs is a result of the shifting plasmon resonance of the composite NP. In addition, the clustering of the NPs induces a different phase lag on the Faraday signal, which suggests that the collective response of the magnetic NP aggregates needs to be considered even in solution. From the Faraday phase lag, the estimated time of the full alignment of the magnetic spins of bare (cluster size 160 nm) and gold coated NPs (cluster size 90 nm) are found to be 0.65 and 0.17 μs. The calculation includes a simple theoretical approach based on the Bruggeman theory to account for the aggregation and its effect on the Faraday rotation. The Bruggeman model provides a qualitatively better agreement with the experimentally observed Faraday rotation and points out the importance of making a connection between component properties and the average "effective" optical behavior of the Faraday medium containing magnetic nanoparticles. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  2. Synthesis and photocatalytic application of α-Fe2O3/ZnO fine particles prepared by two-step chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patij Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite iron oxide-Zinc oxide (α-Fe2O3/ZnO was synthesized by two-step method: in the first one step uniform α-Fe2O3 particles were prepared through a hydrolysis process of ferric chloride at 80 °C. In the second step, the ZnO particles were included in the α-Fe2O3 particles by a zinc acetate [Zn(Ac2·2H2O] assisted hydrothermal method at low temperature (90°C±C. The α-Fe2O3 and ZnO phases were identified by XRD, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. The photoreactivities of α-Fe2O3/ZnO nanoparticles under UV irradiation were quantified by the degradation of formaldehyde.

  3. Spin reorientation in α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles induced by interparticle exchange interactions in alpha-Fe2O3/NiO nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Cathrine; Lefmann, Kim; Lebech, Bente

    2011-01-01

    We report that the spin structure of alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles rotates coherently out of the basal (001) plane at low temperatures when interacting with thin plate-shaped NiO nanoparticles. The observed spin reorientation (up to similar to 70 degrees) in alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has, in appearan......, similarities to the Morin transition in bulk alpha-Fe2O3, but its origin is different-it is caused by exchange coupling between aggregated nanoparticles of alpha-Fe2O3 and NiO with different directions of easy axes of magnetization.......We report that the spin structure of alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles rotates coherently out of the basal (001) plane at low temperatures when interacting with thin plate-shaped NiO nanoparticles. The observed spin reorientation (up to similar to 70 degrees) in alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has, in appearance...

  4. The Partial Molar Volume and Thermal Expansivity of Fe2O3 in Alkali Silicate Liquids: Evidence for the Average Coordination of Fe3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Lange, R.

    2003-12-01

    Ferric iron is an important component in magmatic liquids, especially in those formed at subduction zones. Although it has long been known that Fe3+ occurs in four-, five- and six-fold coordination in crystalline compounds, only recently have all three Fe3+ coordination sites been confirmed in silicate glasses utilizing XANES spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge (Farges et al., 2003). Because the density of a magmatic liquid is largely determined by the geometrical packing of its network-forming cations (e.g., Si4+, Al3+, Ti4+, and Fe3+), the capacity of Fe3+ to undergo composition-induced coordination change affects the partial molar volume of the Fe2O3 component, which must be known to calculate how the ferric-ferrous ratio in magmatic liquids changes with pressure. Previous work has shown that the partial molar volume of Fe2O3 (VFe2O3) varies between calcic vs. sodic silicate melts (Mo et al., 1982; Dingwell and Brearley, 1988; Dingwell et al., 1988). The purpose of this study is to extend the data set in order to search for systematic variations in VFe2O3 with melt composition. High temperature (867-1534° C) density measurements were performed on eleven liquids in the Na2O-Fe2O3-FeO-SiO2 (NFS) system and five liquids in the K2O-Fe2O3-FeO-SiO2 (KFS) system using Pt double-bob Archimedean method. The ferric-ferrous ratio in the sodic and potassic liquids at each temperature of density measurement were calculated from the experimentally calibrated models of Lange and Carmichael (1989) and Tangeman et al. (2001) respectively. Compositions range (in mol%) from 4-18 Fe2O3, 0-3 FeO, 12-39 Na2O, 25-37 K2O, and 43-78 SiO2. Our density data are consistent with those of Dingwell et al. (1988) on similar sodic liquids. Our results indicate that for all five KFS liquids and for eight of eleven NFS liquids, the partial molar volume of the Fe2O3 component is a constant (41.57 ñ 0.14 cm3/mol) and exhibits zero thermal expansivity (similar to that for the SiO2 component). This value

  5. Cube-like α-Fe2O3 supported on ordered multimodal porous carbon as high performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nitin K; Chaudhari, Sudeshna; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-11-01

    Well-dispersed cube-like iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) supported on ordered multimodal porous carbon (OMPC) are synthesized for the first time by a facile and efficient glycine-assisted hydrothermal route. The effect of OPMC support on growth and formation mechanism of the Fe2O3 NPs is discussed. OMPC as a supporting material plays a pivotal role of controlling the shape, size, and dispersion of the Fe2O3 NPs. As-synthesized α-Fe2O3/OMPC composites reveal significant improvement in the performance as electrode material for supercapacitors. Compared to the bare Fe2O3 and OMPC, the composite exhibits excellent cycling stability, rate capability, and enhanced specific capacitances of 294 F g(-1) at 1.5 A g(-1), which is twice that of OMPC (145 F g(-1)) and about four times higher than that of bare Fe2O3 (85 F g(-1)). The improved electrochemical performance of the composite can be attributed to the well-defined structure, high conductivity, and hierarchical porosity of OMPC as well as the unique α-Fe2O3 NPs with cube-like morphology well-anchored on the OMPC support, which makes the composite a promising candidate for supercapacitors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of Fe2O3 on the sintering and stabilization of ZrO2-MgO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, E.; Paskocimas, C.A.; Ambrosecchia, J.R.; Weffort, L.C.; Baldo, J.B.; Leite, L.R.; Varela, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Through X-ray diffraction, it was studied the influence of the iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) as a mineralizer in the development of partially stabilized zirconia phases (cubic/tetragonal) within the system ZrO 2 -MgO. In the preparation of the studied compositions it was utilized a Brazilian comercial zirconia powder and different precursors for the MgO and Fe 2 O 3 additives. It was observed that the main effect of iron oxide consisted on the speed up of the solid solution formation process of Mg + 2 in the Zr +4 sub-lattice, as well as being a very effective sintering agent. (author) [pt

  7. Insights from in situ and environmental TEM on the oriented attachment of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles during α-Fe2O3 nanorod formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Fay, Michael W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    Acicular α-Fe2O3 nanorods (NRs), at an intermediate stage of development, were isolated using a snapshot valve-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (HS) technique, for the purpose of complementary in situ transmission electron microscopy (iTEM) and environmental TEM (ETEM) investigations of the effect......’ with the developing NR to adopt a perfect single crystal. Conversely, the heating of partially developed α-Fe2O3 NRs up to 250 °C, under vacuum, during iTEM, demonstrated the progressive coalescence of loosely packed α-Fe2O3 NPs and the coarsening of α-Fe2O3 NRs, without any direct evidence for an intermediate OA...... stage. Direct evidence was obtained for the action of an OA mechanism prior to the consumption of α-Fe2O3 NPs at the tips of developing α-Fe2O3 NRs during ETEM investigation, under an He pressure of 5 mbar at 500 °C. However, α-Fe2O3 NPs more strongly attached to the side-walls of developing α-Fe2O3 NRs...

  8. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Enzuo; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The 3D core-shell Fe_2O_3@C/CC structure is fabricated by simple hydrothermal route. • The composite connected 3D carbon networks consist of carbon cloth, Fe_2O_3 nanorods and outer carbon layer. • The Fe_2O_3@C/CC used as binder-free anode in LIBs, demonstrates excellent performances. - Abstract: A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe_2O_3 nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe_2O_3 nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe_2O_3 to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  9. A practical pathway for the preparation of Fe_2O_3 decorated TiO_2 photocatalyst with enhanced visible-light photoactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Li; Qiu, Shoufei; Chen, Juanrong; Shao, Jian; Cao, Shunsheng

    2017-01-01

    Shifting the ultra-violet of titania to visible light driven photocatalysis can be realized by coupling with metallic or non-metallic elements. However, time-consuming multi-step process and significant loss of UV photocatalytic activity of such TiO_2-based photocatalysts severely hinder their practical applications. In this work, we explore the idea of creating a practical method for the preparation of Fe_2O_3 decorated TiO_2 (TiO_2/Fe_2O_3) photocatalyst with controlled visible-light photoactivity. This method only involves the calcination of the mixture (commercial P25 powders and magnetic Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles) prepared by a mechanical process. The morphology and properties of TiO_2/Fe_2O_3 composites were characterized by Transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results confirm the fusion of TiO_2 and Fe_2O_3, which promotes photo-generated electrons/holes migration and separation. Because of the strong synergistic effect, the as-synthesized TiO_2/Fe_2O_3 composites manifest an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. Especially, the TiO_2/Fe_2O_3 photocatalyst is very easy to be constructed via an one-step protocol that efficiently overcomes the time-consuming multi-step processes used in existed strategies for the preparation of Fe_2O_3/TiO_2 photocatalysts, providing a new insight into the practical application of TiO_2/Fe_2O_3 visible light photocatalyst. - Highlights: • We introduced a practical preparation of Fe_2O_3 decorated TiO_2 photocatalyst. • TiO_2/Fe_2O_3 was developed using commercial precursors in a high efficient manner. • Visible-light activity of TiO_2/Fe_2O_3 could be tuned by changing amount of Fe_3O_4 precursor. • TiO_2/Fe_2O_3 exhibited a higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than P25.

  10. Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimers: controlled synthesis and magnetically recyclable catalytic application for dehalogenation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavan, Bahar; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Natalio, Filipe; Panthöfer, Martin; Gao, Haitao; Dietzsch, Michael; Andre, Rute; Gasi, Teuta; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Branscheid, Robert; Kolb, Ute; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimer nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of organometallic reactants. After functionalization, these Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimers became water soluble. The pristine heterodimeric NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. A special advantage of the heterodimers lies in the fact that nanodomains of different composition can be used as catalysts for the removal of environmentally hazardous halogenated pollutants.Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimer nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of organometallic reactants. After functionalization, these Ni@Fe2O3 heterodimers became water soluble. The pristine heterodimeric NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. A special advantage of the heterodimers lies in the fact that nanodomains of different composition can be used as catalysts for the removal of environmentally hazardous halogenated pollutants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr12121b

  11. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite GO@α-Fe2O3:Efficient material for dye removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, B.; Panda, J.; Tudu, B.

    2018-05-01

    In this work a composite of Graphene Oxide (GO) supported α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (GF) has been synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method. Structural, and morphological study of nanocomposite (GF) are examined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD study indicates that Graphene oxide is implanted with well crystalline α-Fe2O3 which has pure rhombohedral phase. Surface morphological study of SEM depicts sphere-like shaped α-Fe2O3 particles with formation of clusters have been embedded on Graphene oxide nano sheet. TEM image reveals that GO sheet acts as a good supporting material for anchoring nano sized α -Fe2O3 particles. Efficiency of dye removal of the prepared GF composite has been measured by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The degradation of the dye has been evaluated by a UV-visible spectroscopy, by decrease in the intensity of absorbance and concentration. The degradation efficiency of GF is found to be 90% towards MB.

  12. Synthesis of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanorod-nanotube arrays by filling TiO2 nanotubes with Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Susanta K; Banerjee, Subarna; Misra, Mano

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanostructures on a titania (TiO 2 ) nanotubular template is carried out using a pulsed electrodeposition technique. The TiO 2 nanotubes are prepared by the sonoelectrochemical anodization method and are filled with iron (Fe) by pulsed electrodeposition. The Fe/TiO 2 composite is then annealed in an O 2 atmosphere to convert it to Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The length of the Fe 2 O 3 inside the TiO 2 nanotubes can be tuned from 50 to 550 nm by changing the deposition time. The composite material is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible studies to confirm the formation of one-dimensional Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod-nanotube arrays. The present approach can be used for designing variable one-dimensional metal oxide heterostructures

  13. Solvothermal Synthesis of Fe2O3 Loaded Activated Carbon as Electrode Materials for High-performance Electrochemical Capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Kang, Litao; Bai, Gailing; Li, Peiyang; Deng, Jiachun; Liu, Xuguang; Yang, Yongzhen; Gao, Feng; Liang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a facile solvothermal synthesis method to prepare Fe 2 O 3 /AC composites for electrochemical capacitors from Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl 3 ·6H 2 O), activated carbon (AC, from petroleum coke), and four different precipitants (i.e., NaOH, CH 3 COONa, HMT, CO(NH 2 ) 2 ). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis show that the products consisted of nanosized α-Fe 2 O 3 (weight ratios: 48.1, 47.9, 44.2, 44.3%) loaded onto AC particles (∼ 20 μm). Significantly, both kind and dosage of precipitants exhibit effects on the specific capacitances of Fe 2 O 3 /AC composites. The highest specific capacitance reaches up to 240 F g −1 (at a current density of 1 A g −1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte) when the molar ratio of CH 3 COONa: FeCl 3 is 9. On the other hand, the sample prepared with NaOH: FeCl 3 molar ratio being 1.5 exhibits excellent rate capability with specific capacitance of 215 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 , and 89.3, 82.3, 78.1, 72.6 and 65.1% capacity retention at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 A g −1 , respectively. These electrochemical performances are superior to other materials consisted of Fe 2 O 3 /carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites, demonstrating the great potential of Fe 2 O 3 /AC composites in the development of high-performance electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

  14. Bioaccumulation of Fe2O3(magnetic) nanoparticles in Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ji; Wang Demin; Wang Jiangtao; Wang Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    While nano-Fe 2 O 3 (magnetic) is generally considered non-toxic, it could serve as a carrier of other toxic chemicals such as As(V) and enhance their toxicity. The bioaccumulation of nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m) with different exposure times, NP concentrations, and pH conditions was investigated using Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) as the model organism. Under natural pH conditions, C. dubia significantly accumulated nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m) in the gut, with the maximum accumulation being achieved after 6 h of exposure. The concentration of nano-Fe 2 O 3 also impacted its accumulation, with the maximum uptake occurring at 20 mg/L or more. In addition, the highest bioaccumulation occurred in a pH range of 7–8 where the highest feeding rate was reported, confirming that the ingestion of NPs is the main route of nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m) bioaccumulation. In a clean environment without NPs, depuration of nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m) occurred, and food addition accelerated the depuration process. - Highlights: ► Nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m) enhances the toxicity of As(V). ► C. dubia significantly accumulate nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m) through ingestion. ► The bioaccumulation of nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m) is affected by time, NP concentration, and pH. ► Food addition accelerates the depuration process of accumulated nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m). - Nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m) could enhance the toxicity of As(V) due to the significant accumulation of nano-Fe 2 O 3 (m) along with sorbed As(V) by C. dubia through ingestion.

  15. Temperature dependent magnetic behavior of α-Fe2O3/GO nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amodini; Moahnty, T.; Kuanr, B. K.

    2018-04-01

    Here, α-Fe2O3/GO nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by using the co-precipitation method. The phase formation of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The study of surface morphology of α-Fe2O3/GO nanocomposites was performed by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) technique. Magnetic property measurement and determination of various magnetic parameters of α-Fe2O3/GO nanocomposites was carried out by physical property measurement system (PPMS).

  16. Influence of oxygen on the thermal behavior of the ZrO2-Fe2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanic, G.; Grzeta, B.; Music, S.

    2000-01-01

    Amorphous precursors of the ZrO 2 -Fe 2 O 3 system at the ZrO 2 -rich side of the concentration range were prepared by co-precipitation of the corresponding nitrates from aqueous solutions. The thermal behavior of the amorphous samples obtained was investigated using differential thermal analysis. It was found that amorphous precursors with Fe 2 O 3 content up to 30 mol% are single co-gels. In situ phase development during the calcination of the samples at low air pressure (∝4 x 10 -3 Pa) was investigated using X-ray diffraction at high temperature. The results were compared with the results of phase analysis after calcination and cooling in the presence of air at atmospheric pressure (∝10 5 Pa). The phase compositions of the samples at room temperature were determined using X-ray diffraction and laser Raman spectroscopy. The incorporation of Fe 3+ cations partially stabilized cubic ZrO 2 during the calcination in the presence of air at atmospheric pressure, but destabilized this polymorph during calcination at very low pressure. The observed differences in the phase development were attributed to the influence of oxygen vacancies introduced during calcination at very low pressure. The solubility of Fe 2 O 3 in ZrO 2 also depended on the calcination procedure. During calcination at atmospheric pressure, the solubility limits of Fe 2 O 3 in ZrO 2 decreased from more than 30 mol% at 600 C to ∝2 mol% at 1100 C. On the other hand, the solubility of Fe 2 O 3 in ZrO 2 was shown to be significantly higher during calcination at up to 1200 C at very low pressure. (orig.)

  17. Investigations on the Synthesis and Properties of Fe2O3/Bi2O2CO3 in the Photocatalytic and Fenton-like Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongxue; Shen, Tingting; Sun, Jing; Wang, Chen; Wang, Xikui

    2018-01-01

    Catalyst of Bi2O2CO3 and Fe2O3 modified Bi2O2CO3 (Fe2O3/Bi2O2CO3) were prepared by hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffractions (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-vis DRS. The catalytic activity of Bi2O2CO3 and Fe2O3/Bi2O2CO3 were comparatively investigated in the photodegradation and Fento-like process. Rhodamine B(RhB) was selected as the target pollutant under the irradiation of 300 W xenon lamp. The results indicated that Fe2O3 plays a great role in the enhancing the treatment efficiency and the and the maximum reaction rate was achieved at the Fe2O3 loading of 1.5%. The Fenton-like degradation rate constant of RhB with bare Bi2O2CO3 in dark is 0.4 min-1, while that with 1.5 Fe2O3/Bi2O2CO3 increases to 28.4 min-1 under visible light irradiation, a 71-fold improvement. It is expected to shed a new light for the constructing novel composite photocatalyst and also provide a potential method for the removal of dyes in the aqueous system.

  18. Carbon nanotube-wrapped Fe2O3 anode with improved performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metall oxides have been proven to be potential candidates for the anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs because they offer high theoretical capacities, and are environmentally friendly and widely available. However, the low electronic conductivity and severe irreversible lithium storage have hindered a practical application. Herein, we employed ethanolamine as precursor to prepare Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composites through a simple hydrothermal synthesis. When these composites were used as electrode material in lithium-ion batteries, a reversible capacity of 711.2 mAh·g−1 at a current density of 500 mA·g−1 after 400 cycles was obtained. The result indicated that Fe2O3/COOH-MWCNT composite is a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  19. A new combustion route to γ-Fe2O3 synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new combustion route for the synthesis of -Fe2O3 is reported by employing purified -Fe2O3 as aprecursor in the present investigation. This synthesis which is similar to a self propagation combustion reaction, involves fewer steps, a shorter overall processing time, is a low energy reaction without the need of any ...

  20. High electrochemical performance of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles embedded ordered mesoporous carbon as a supercapacitor electrode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yin, Longwei; Wang, Chenxiang; Zhang, Luyuan

    2016-01-01

    The electrode materials RuO_2 or RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticle embedded OMC (ordered mesoporous carbon) are prepared by the method of impregnation and heating in situ. The mesoporous structure optimized the electron and proton conducting pathways, leading to the enhanced capacitive performances of the composite materials. The average nanoparticle size of RuO_2 and RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 is 2.54 and 1.96 nm, respectively. The fine RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles are dispersed evenly in the pore channel wall of the two-dimensional mesoporous carbon without blocking the mesoporous channel, and they have a higher specific surface area, a larger pore volume, a proper pore size and a small charge transfer impedance value. The special electrochemical capacitance of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC tested in acid electrolyte (H_2SO_4) is measured to be as high as 1668 F g"−"1, which is higher than that of RuO_2/OMC. Meanwhile, the supercapacitor properties of the RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC composites show a good cycling performance of 93% capacitance retention (3000 cycles), a better reversibility, a higher energy density (134 Wh kg"−"1) and power density (4000 W kg"−"1). The composite electrode of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC, which combines a double layer capacitance with pseudo-capacitance, is proved to be suitable for ideal high performance electrode material of a hybrid supercapacitor application. - Highlights: • The nanocomposites of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC are prepared by impregnation and heating in situ. • The fine RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles distribute in the pore channel wall of OMC. • We discuss a reversible redox reaction mechanism of RuO_2–Fe_2O_3/OMC in acid solutions. • RuO_2–Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles embedded OMC shows a higher supercapacitive performance.

  1. Controllable synthesis, magnetic and biocompatible properties of Fe3O4 and α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xi; Shi, Yanfeng; Ren, Lei; Bao, Shixiong; Han, Yu; Wu, Shichao; Zhang, Honggang; Zhong, Lubin; Zhang, Qiqing

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanocrystals (NCs) with a series of well-controlled morphologies (octahedron, rod, wire, cube and plate) and compositions (Fe 3 O 4 and α-Fe 2 O 3 ) were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal process. The morphological and compositional control of various iron oxide NCs was based on the regulations of precursor thermolysis kinetics and surfactants. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, SQUID and cytotoxicity test. These as-prepared iron oxide NCs showed excellent magnetic properties and good biocompatibility, paving the way for their high-efficiency bio-separation and bio-detection applications. - Graphical Abstract: Schematic illustration for the formation of iron oxide NCs (Fe 3 O 4 and α-Fe 2 O 3 ) with different controlled morphologies and compositions. Highlights: ► Iron oxide NCs with a series of well-controlled morphologies (octahedron, rod, wire, cube, and plate) and compositions (Fe 3 O 4 and α-Fe 2 O 3 ) were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. ► The mechanism of the morphological and compositional control process is directly related to precursor thermolysis kinetics and surfactants. ► These iron oxide NCs exhibited excellent magnetic response and good biocompatibility, which should have great applications in the cell separation and biodetection.

  2. Effect of Fe2O3 on the crystallization behavior of glass-ceramics produced from naturally cooled yellow phosphorus furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-pan; Huang, Xiao-feng; Ma, Li-ping; Chen, Dan-li; Shang, Zhi-biao; Jiang, Ming

    2017-03-01

    CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) glass-ceramics were prepared via a melting method using naturally cooled yellow phosphorus furnace slag as the main raw material. The effects of the addition of Fe2O3 on the crystallization behavior and properties of the prepared glass-ceramics were studied by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The crystallization activation energy was calculated using the modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. The results show that the intrinsic nucleating agent in the yellow phosphorus furnace slag could effectively promote the crystallization of CAS. The crystallization activation energy first increased and then decreased with increasing amount of added Fe2O3. At 4wt% of added Fe2O3, the crystallization activation energy reached a maximum of 676.374 kJ·mol-1. The type of the main crystalline phase did not change with the amount of added Fe2O3. The primary and secondary crystalline phases were identified as wollastonite (CaSiO3) and hedenbergite (CaFe(Si2O6)), respectively.

  3. Nanostructure and Volatile Organic Compounds Sensing Properties of α-Fe2O3/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Derived by Spray Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolghadr, S.; Kimiagar, S.; Khojier, K.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite as a volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sensor. The α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites of about 370 nm thickness were synthesized by a spray method with different rGO contents (3%, 4%, and 5%) on SiO2/Si substrates. The samples were structurally and morphologically characterized by x-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. These analyses showed that an increase in rGO content decreases the crystallinity of the samples. In order to study the VOCs sensing properties, the sensitivity and selectivity of the samples were tested with different VOCs vapors including ethanol, methanol, toluene, benzene, and formic acid in the temperature range of 200-400°C. The results show that the α-Fe2O3/rGO nanocomposites are more selective to ethanol than the other vapors, while an increase in rGO content decreases the sensitivity of the samples. The α-Fe2O3/rGO (3%)-based ethanol sensor also shows a good stability with respect to relative humidity in the range of 20-50% with a 1-ppm detection limit at the operating temperature of 280°C.

  4. Fe2 O3 addition influence on the Sn O2.Co O.Nb2 O5 varistors system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, A.C.; Antunes, S.R.M.; Castilhos, J.G.R.; Pianaro, S.R.; Zara, J.A.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect 0.05 to 0.30 mol% Fe 2 0 3 addition on the electrical and microstructural properties of ternary varistor system composed by tin oxide, niobium oxide and cobaltum oxide was studied in this work. The samples were sintered at 1300 deg C for two hours. The characterizations were performed by Vxi measurements, scanning electron microscopy and X - ray diffraction. The Fe 2 O 3 additions up to 0,10% increased the α values breakdown electric fields (E r ) and it was observed that the barrier voltage (v b ) depends on the chemical composition. The second phase had high concentration of iron that precipitated in the grain boundaries and inhibited the grain growth during sintering. Fe 2 O 3 concentrations upper 0,10 mol% were deleterious for electrical properties of the ceramics. (author)

  5. A simple way to prepare reduced graphene oxide nanosheets/Fe2O3-Pd/N-doped carbon nanosheets and their application in catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tongjie; Zhang, Junshuai; Zuo, Quan; Wang, Hao; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Xiao; Cui, Tieyu

    2016-04-15

    The catalysts with Pd and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles embedded between reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGS) and N-doped carbon nanosheets (NCS) were prepared through a two-step method. Firstly, graphene oxide nanosheets (GS)/prussian blue (PB)-Pd/polypyrrole (PPy) composites were synthesized by using pyrrole monomer as reductant, K3Fe(CN)6 and PdCl2 as oxidants in the presence of GS via a redox reaction. Subsequently, the as-obtained GS/PB-Pd/PPy composites were calcinated in N2 atmosphere. During the heat-treatment, carbonization of PPy to NCS, conversion of nonmagnetic PB to magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, and reduction of GS to rGS were finished, simultaneously. rGS/Fe2O3-Pd/NCS composites exhibited good catalytic activity toward reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The rate constant k and turnover frequency were calculated and compared with recent reports. Owing to γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, the rGS/Fe2O3-Pd/NCS composites could be quickly separated by magnet and reused without obvious decrease in activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to ... gaku D-max γA diffractometer with graphite mono- chromized ... FT–IR absorption spectra of TiO2-doped SiO2 com-.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic diphase ZnFe2O4/γ-Fe2O3 electrospun fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, M.; Pantojas, V.M.; Perales, O.; Otano, W.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic nanofibers of ZnFe 2 O 4 /γ-Fe 2 O 3 composite were synthesized by electrospinning from a sol-gel solution containing a molar ratio (Fe/Zn) of 3. The effects of the calcination temperature on phase composition, particle size and magnetic properties have been investigated. Zinc ferrite fibers were obtained by calcinating the electrospun fibers in air from 300 to 800 deg. C and characterized by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibration sample magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy. The resulting fibers, with diameters ranging from 90 to 150 nm, were ferrimagnetic with high saturation magnetization as compared to bulk. An increase in the calcination temperature resulted in an increase in particle size and saturation magnetization. The observed increase in saturation magnetization was most likely due to the formation and growth of ZnFe 2 O 4 /γ-Fe 2 O 3 diphase crystals. The highest saturation magnetization (45 emu/g) was obtained for fibers calcined at 800 deg. C. - Research highlights: → Nanofibers were produced by electrospinning from a sol-gel. → ZnFe 2 O 4 /γ-Fe 2 O 3 formed after cacination in air from 300 to 800 deg. C. → Fibers were ferrimagnetic with high saturation magnetization. → Crystallite particle size and saturation magnetization increase with temperature. → Magnetic domains with sizes similar to topographical grains were observed.

  8. Stabilization/Solidification of Radioactive LiCl-KCl Waste Salt by Using SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5(SAP) Inorganic Composite: Part 2. The Effect of SAP Composition on Stabilization/Solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Soo Na; Park, Hwan Seo; Cho, In Hak; Kim, In Tae; Cho, Yong Zun

    2012-01-01

    Metal chloride waste is generated as a main waste streams in a series of electrolytic processes of a pyrochemical process. Different from carbonate or nitrate salt, metal chloride is not decomposed into oxide and chlorine but it is just vaporized. Also, it has low compatibility with conventional silicate glasses. Our research group adapted the dechlorination approach for the immobilization of waste salt. In this study, the composition of SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ) was adjusted to enhance the reactivity and to simplify the solidification process as a subsequent research. The addition of Fe 2 O 3 into the basic SAP decreased the SAP/Salt ratio in weight from 3 for SAP 1071 to 2.25 for M-SAP(Fe=0.1). The experimental results indicated that the addition of Fe 2 O 3 increased the reactivity of M-SAP with LiCl-KCl but the reactivity gradually decreased above Fe=0.1. Also, introducing B 2 O 3 into M-SAP requires no glass binder for the consolidation of reaction products. U-SAP (SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 ) could effectively dechlorinate the LiCl-KCl waste and its reaction product could be consolidated as a monolithic form without a glass binder. The leaching test result indicated that U-SAP 1071 was more durable than other SAPs wasteform. By using U-SAP, 1 g of waste salt could generated 3 - 4 g of wasteform for final disposal. The final volume would be about 3 - 4 times lower than the glass-bonded sodalite. From these results, it could be concluded that the dechlorination approach using U-SAP would be one of prospective methods to manage the volatile waste salt.

  9. Hydrophilic Fe2O3 dynamic membrane mitigating fouling of support ceramic membrane in ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Xinglin; Liu, Qianliang; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion is daily produced and difficult to be treated effectively. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration is one of reliable processes for the treatment of O/W emulsion, yet still hindered by membrane fouling. In this study, two types of Fe2O3 dynamic membranes (i.e., pre-coated dynamic membrane and self-forming dynamic membrane) were prepared to mitigate the fouling of support ceramic membrane in O/W emulsion treatment. Pre-coated dynamic membrane (DM) significantly reduced the fouling of ceramic membrane (i.e., 10% increase of flux recovery rate), while self-forming dynamic membrane aggravated ceramic membrane fouling (i.e., 8.6% decrease of flux recovery rate) after four filtration cycles. A possible fouling mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon, which was then confirmed by optical images of fouled membranes and the analysis of COD rejection. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of composite membranes (i.e., Fe2O3 dynamic membrane and support ceramic membrane) was enhanced by substitution of alkalescent water backwash for deionized water backwash. The possible reason for this enhancement was also explained. Our result suggests that pre-coated Fe2O3 dynamic membrane with alkalescent water backwash can be a promising technology to reduce the fouling of ceramic membrane and enhance membrane cleaning efficiency in the treatment of oily wastewater.

  10. Hydrophilic Fe2O3 dynamic membrane mitigating fouling of support ceramic membrane in ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2016-03-17

    Oil/water (O/W) emulsion is daily produced and difficult to be treated effectively. Ceramic membrane ultrafiltration is one of reliable processes for the treatment of O/W emulsion, yet still hindered by membrane fouling. In this study, two types of Fe2O3 dynamic membranes (i.e., pre-coated dynamic membrane and self-forming dynamic membrane) were prepared to mitigate the fouling of support ceramic membrane in O/W emulsion treatment. Pre-coated dynamic membrane (DM) significantly reduced the fouling of ceramic membrane (i.e., 10% increase of flux recovery rate), while self-forming dynamic membrane aggravated ceramic membrane fouling (i.e., 8.6% decrease of flux recovery rate) after four filtration cycles. A possible fouling mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon, which was then confirmed by optical images of fouled membranes and the analysis of COD rejection. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of composite membranes (i.e., Fe2O3 dynamic membrane and support ceramic membrane) was enhanced by substitution of alkalescent water backwash for deionized water backwash. The possible reason for this enhancement was also explained. Our result suggests that pre-coated Fe2O3 dynamic membrane with alkalescent water backwash can be a promising technology to reduce the fouling of ceramic membrane and enhance membrane cleaning efficiency in the treatment of oily wastewater.

  11. Facile fabrication of carbon microspheres decorated with B(OH) 3 and α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles: superior microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo

    2017-06-02

    We demonstrate that novel three-dimensional (3D) B(OH)3 and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles decorated carbon microspheres (B(OH)3/α-Fe2O3-CMSs) can be fabricated via a facile thermal treatment process. The carbon microspheres with diameter of 1 to 3 μm and decorated B(OH)3 and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with diameters of several to tens of nanometers are successfully fabricated. These novel 3D B(OH)3/α-Fe2O3-CMS composites exhibit enhanced microwave absorption with tunable strong absorption wavebands in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. They have a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -52.69 dB at a thickness of 3.0 mm, and the effective absorption bandwidth for RL less than -10 dB is as large as 5.64 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance arises from the synergy of the impedance matching caused by the B(OH)3 nanoparticles, dielectric loss as well as the enhancement of multiple reflection among 3D α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals. These results provide a new strategy to tune electromagnetic properties and enhance the capacity of high-efficient microwave absorbers.

  12. Facile fabrication of carbon microspheres decorated with B(OH) 3 and α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles: superior microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo; Wang, Chaojun; Yu, Yuanlie; Xia, Long; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that novel three-dimensional (3D) B(OH)3 and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles decorated carbon microspheres (B(OH)3/α-Fe2O3-CMSs) can be fabricated via a facile thermal treatment process. The carbon microspheres with diameter of 1 to 3 μm and decorated B(OH)3 and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with diameters of several to tens of nanometers are successfully fabricated. These novel 3D B(OH)3/α-Fe2O3-CMS composites exhibit enhanced microwave absorption with tunable strong absorption wavebands in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. They have a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -52.69 dB at a thickness of 3.0 mm, and the effective absorption bandwidth for RL less than -10 dB is as large as 5.64 GHz. The enhanced microwave absorption performance arises from the synergy of the impedance matching caused by the B(OH)3 nanoparticles, dielectric loss as well as the enhancement of multiple reflection among 3D α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals. These results provide a new strategy to tune electromagnetic properties and enhance the capacity of high-efficient microwave absorbers.

  13. Enhanced photoelectrochemical response of plasmonic Au embedded BiVO4/Fe2O3 heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anuradha; Srivastav, Anupam; Khan, Saif A; Rani Satsangi, Vibha; Shrivastav, Rohit; Kumar Avasthi, Devesh; Dass, Sahab

    2017-06-14

    The effect of embedding Au nanoparticles (NPs) in a BiVO 4 /Fe 2 O 3 heterojunction for photoelectrochemical water splitting is studied here for the first time. The present nanostructured heterojunction offers three major advantages over pristine BiVO 4 and Fe 2 O 3 : (i) the formation of a heterojunction between BiVO 4 and Fe 2 O 3 enhances the charge carrier separation and transfer, (ii) the layer of Fe 2 O 3 provides protection to BiVO 4 from photocorrosion and, (iii) the Au NPs possessing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhance the photoelectrochemical response by transferring energy to metal oxides by hot electron transfer (HET) and plasmon resonant energy transfer (PRET). The present study reveals that the heterojunction ITO/BiVO 4 /Fe 2 O 3 (with 32% v/v Au solution in both layers) gives the best performance and mitigates the limitations of both pristine Fe 2 O 3 and BiVO 4 . A thirteen-fold increment in applied bias photon-to-current conversion efficiency (ABPE) was observed at 1.24 V vs. RHE under the condition of 1 Sun illumination. Monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements indicated that an Au embedded heterojunction is more effective in harvesting visible light in comparison to a heterojunction without Au NPs.

  14. Investigation of genotoxic potential of various sizes Fe2O3 nanoparticles with comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    In this study, genotoxic potential of <50 nm and <100 nm Fe2O3 nanoparticles were investigated by using Comet Assay. Allium cepa root meristems were exposed with five doses (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 mM of <50 nm for 4 hour and three doses (2.5, 5 (EC50, 10 mM for <100 nm of Fe2O3 nanoparticle for 24 and 96 h. Methyl methanesulfonate -MMS (10 ppm was used as a positive control. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS by Windows, 18.0. It was determined that different doses of <50 nm Fe2O3 nanoparticle have no genotoxic effect of DNA. Different doses of <100 nm Fe2O3 have no genotoxic but only 10 mM dose have genotoxic effect on DNA. When compared <50 nm with <100 nm of Fe2O3 nanoparticle; <50 nm have more effects than <100 nm of Fe2O3 on DNA damage.

  15. Synthesis of Mesoporous ?-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles by Non-ionic Soft Template and Their Applications to Heavy Oil Upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chulwoo; Jung, Jinhwan; Lee, Chul Wee; Cho, Joungmo

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthetic route of 3-D network shape ?-Fe2O3 from aqueous solutions of iron precursor using a non-ionic polymeric soft-template, Pluronic P123. During the synthesis of ?-Fe2O3, particle sizes, crystal phases and morphologies were significantly influenced by pH, concentrations of precursor and template. The unique shape of worm-like hematite was obtained only when a starting solution was prepared by a weakly basic pH condition and a very specific composition of constitue...

  16. An eco-friendly route of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles formation and investigation of the mechanical properties of the HPMC-γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Joy; Mollick, Md Masud Rahaman; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2017-03-01

    In recent times, biosynthetic approaches toward the synthesis of nanoparticles have been shown to have several advantages over physical and chemical methods. Here, we report the extracellular mycosynthesis of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles by Alternaria alternata. The fungal biomass when exposed to aqueous iron(III) chloride solution led to the formation of highly stable γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles extracellularly. The influence of these biosynthesized γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the properties of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose was also investigated. Characterization of the biosynthesized γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles and HPMC-γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanocomposite films were done by the different types of spectral and electron microscopic analysis. The size of the γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles ranges from 75 to 650 nm. The mechanical effect of the agglomerated γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles into the HPMC polymer matrix was also investigated.

  17. Electrostatic interactions for directed assembly of high performance nanostructured energetic materials of Al/Fe2O3/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Guoping; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Benbo; Luo, Yunjun

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic self-assembly in organic solvent without intensively oxidative or corrosive environments, was adopted to prepare Al/Fe 2 O 3 /MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials as an energy generating material. The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe 2 O 3 (oxide) nanoparticles. This spontaneous assembly method without any surfactant chemistry or other chemical and biological moieties decreased the aggregation of the same nanoparticles largely, moreover, the poor interfacial contact between the Al (fuel) and Fe 2 O 3 (oxide) nanoparticles was improved significantly, which was the key characteristic of high performance nanostructured energetic materials. In addition, the assembly process was confirmed as Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. The assembled Al/Fe 2 O 3 /MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials showed excellent performance with heat release of 2400 J/g, peak pressure of 0.42 MPa and pressurization rate of 105.71 MPa/s, superior to that in the control group Al/Fe 2 O 3 nanostructured energetic materials prepared by sonication with heat release of 1326 J/g, peak pressure of 0.19 MPa and pressurization rate of 33.33 MPa/s. Therefore, the approach, which is facile, opens a promising route to the high performance nanostructured energetic materials. - Graphical abstract: The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe 2 O 3 (oxide) nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A facile spontaneous electrostatic assembly strategy without surfactant was adopted. • The fuels and oxidizers assembled into densely packed nanostructured composites. • The assembled nanostructured energetic materials have excellent performance. • This high performance energetic material can be scaled up for practical application. • This strategy can be applied into other nanostructured

  18. CATALYTIC PERFORMANCES OF Fe2O3/TS-1 CATALYST IN PHENOL HYDROXYLATION REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Prasetyoko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxylation reaction of phenol into diphenol, such as hydroquinone and catechol, has a great role in many industrial applications. Phenol hydroxylation reaction can be carried out using Titanium Silicalite-1 (TS-1 as catalyst and H2O2 as an oxidant. TS-1 catalyst shows high activity and selectivity for phenol hydroxylation reaction. However, its hydrophobic sites lead to slow H2O2 adsorption toward the active site of TS-1. Consequently, the reaction rate of phenol hydroxylation reaction is tends to be low. Addition of metal oxide Fe2O3 enhanced hydrophilicity of TS-1 catalyst. Liquid phase catalytic phenol hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant was carried out over iron (III oxide-modified TS-1 catalyst (Fe2O3/TS-1, that were prepared by impregnation method using iron (III nitrate as precursor and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, pyridine adsorption, and hydrophilicity techniques. Catalysts 1Fe2O3/TS-1 showed maximum catalytic activity of hydroquinone product. In this research, the increase of hydroquinone formation rate is due to the higher hydrophilicity of Fe2O3/TS-1 catalysts compare to the parent catalyst, TS-1.   Keywords: Fe2O3/TS-1, hydrophilic site, phenol hydroxylation

  19. Porous Fe2O3 Microspheres as Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, L.; Indra, M. A. T.; Purwaningsih, H.; Subhan, A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, Fe2O3 was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal process at low temperature. FeCl3.6H2O as precursor and variation of lysine as hydrolyzing agent were used to preparing Fe2O3. SEM images show that the morphology of Fe2O3 is porous microsphere with sizes in the range of (1 to 5) µm in diameter. The as-prepared Fe2O3 with the 2 M of lysine exhibits excellent cycling performance when used as the anode for lithium ion batteries, obtaining reversible discharge capacity of 172.33 mA·h·g‑1 at 0.5 C after 50 cycles. It is attributed to the unique structure of porous microspheres providing a large surface area which maintains good electronic contact between particles during charge-discharge process. This result demonstrates that Fe2O3 porous microsphere has a high potential as anode material for application of lithium-ion battery.

  20. Microbicidal Effect of Fe2O3 Nanoparticles in Antimicrobial Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Abdul Hadi Mahdy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial antibiotics resistance is considered a serious health issue in the Middle East and developing countries. In this study, the Fe2O3 nanoparticles was prepared chemically, and the particles size and shape were analyzed by using Scan electron microscope (SEM and X-Ray diffraction (XRD. Different concentration of Fe2O3 nanoparticles were used and examined on E.coli and S. aureus. Using liquid dilution and in vitro cytotoxicity assay by microplate toxicity test (MTT. The microbial cell metabolic activity was measured on gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria and fungi after treating with different concentrations of Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The results of liquid dilution method showed that the MIC of Fe2O3 nanoparticles are 30 μg/ml and 40 μg/ml on E.coli and S. aureus respectively. The results of MTT assay exhibited the ability of Fe2O3 nanoparticles to eliminate the gram negative bacteria (E.coli and K. pneumoniae at 20 µg/ml, while S. aureus, M. luteus, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis were totally eliminated at 30 µg/ml.

  1. Growth of Fe2O3 thin films by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie, M.; Fjellvag, H.; Kjekshus, A.

    2005-01-01

    Thin films of α-Fe 2 O 3 (α-Al 2 O 3 -type crystal structure) and γ-Fe 2 O 3 (defect-spinel-type crystal structure) have been grown by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique with Fe(thd) 3 (iron derivative of Hthd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dione) and ozone as precursors. It has been shown that an ALD window exists between 160 and 210 deg. C. The films have been characterized by various techniques and are shown to comprise (001)-oriented columns of α-Fe 2 O 3 with no in-plane orientation when grown on soda-lime-glass and Si(100) substrates. Good quality films have been made with thicknesses ranging from 10 to 130 nm. Films grown on α-Al 2 O 3 (001) and MgO(100) substrates have the α-Fe 2 O 3 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 crystal structure, respectively, and consist of highly oriented columns with in-plane orientations matching those of the substrates

  2. Manufacture of barium hexaferrite (BaO3.98Fe2O3) from iron oxide waste of grinding process by using calcination process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idayanti, N.; Dedi; Kristiantoro, T.; Mulyadi, D.; Sudrajat, N.; Alam, G. F. N.

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of iron oxide waste of grinding process as raw materials for making barium hexaferrite has been completed by powder metallurgy method. The iron oxide waste was purified by roasting at 800 °C temperature for 3 hours. The method used varying calcination temperature at 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1250 °C for 3 hours. The starting iron oxide waste (Fe2O3) and barium carbonate (BaCO3) were prepared by mol ratio of Fe2O3:BaCO3 from the formula BaO3.98Fe2O3. Some additives such as calcium oxide (CaO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were added after calcination process. The samples were formed at the pressure of 2 ton/cm2 and sintered at the temperature of 1250 °C for 1 hour. The formation of barium hexaferrite compounds after calcination is determined by X-Ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were observed by Permagraph-Magnet Physik with the optimum characteristic at calcination temperature of 1250 °C with the induction of remanence (Br) = 1.38 kG, coercivity (HcJ) = 4.533 kOe, product energy maximum (BHmax) = 1.086 MGOe, and density = 4.33 g/cm3.

  3. Correlation of gas sensitivite properties with microstructure of Fe2O3-SnO2 ceramics prepared by high energy ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lu, S.W.; Zhou, Y.X.

    1997-01-01

    A remarkable gas sensitivity to ethnaol gas has been observed in nanostructured Fe2O3-SnO2 materials with a composition of 6.4 mol% SnO2 prepared by high energy ball milling. The microstructure of the materials has been examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mossbauer spectroscopy. It was found...

  4. The use of emanation thermal analysis for the evaluation of Fe2O3 reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1977-01-01

    The ETA method using 220 Rn was applied in studying the ZnO - Fe 2 O 3 reaction. The higher is the temperature at which the maximum is reached on the emanation vs. temperature curve of the mixture, the lower the indicated reactivity of Fe 2 O 3 used (temperature range 790 to 980 degC). The degree of order in the lattice of the ZnFe 2 O 4 formed may be judged from the emanation power at 850 to 1000 degC. Fe 2 O 3 pre-annealed to 1100 degC shows the lowest reactivity with ZnO. Associated with it is a lower capacity of forming the perfect ZnFe 2 O 4 structure. The ETA results are compared with those obtained by DTA and by dilatometry. (M.K.)

  5. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3 Short-Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao XH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a rational synthesis of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3 short-nanotubes (SNTs by a convenient hydrothermal method and subsequent annealing process. The structure, shape, and magnetic properties of the SNTs were investigated. Room-temperature and low-temperature magnetic measurements show that the as-fabricated γ-Fe2O3 SNTs are ferromagnetic, and its coercivity is nonzero when the temperature above blocking temperature (TB. The hysteresis loop was operated to show that the magnetic properties of γ-Fe2O3 SNTs are strongly influenced by the morphology of the crystal. The unique magnetic behaviors were interpreted by the competition of the demagnetization energy of quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of particles in SNTs.

  6. Mechanical alloying of an immiscible α-Fe2O3-SnO2 ceramic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, Rong; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    in the immiscible ceramic oxide system. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy investigations show that mechanical milling of alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 involves alloying on an atomic scale and that true solid solution formation occurs. We suggest that the high defect concentration and the chemical enthalpy of Fe3......+-O2--Sn4+ interfaces between nanostructured alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 regions may serve as a driving force for the formation of a solid solution in the immiscible ceramic system....

  7. Superparamagnetic gamma-Fe2O3-SiO2 Nanocomposites from Fe2O3-SiO2-PVA Hybrid Xerogels: Characterization and MRI Preliminary Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ianasi, C.; Costisor, O.; Putz, A.-M.; Plocek, Jiří; Sacarescu, L.; Nižňanský, Daniel; Savii, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 27 (2017), s. 2783-2791 ISSN 1385-2728 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : nanocomposite * oxides * magnetic properties * saturation magnetization * superparamagnetic behaviour Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2016

  8. Microwave electromagnetic and absorption properties of SiO2/C core/shell composites plated with metal cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guozhu; Fang, Xumin; Wu, Hongyan; Wei, Hongyu; Li, Jingfa; Li, Kaipeng; Mei, Buqing; Xu, Yewen

    2017-04-01

    A facile method has been developed to fabricate magnetic core/shell SiO2/C/Co sub-microspheres via the pyrolysis of SiO2/PANI (polyaniline) and electroless plating method. The electromagnetic parameters of these SiO2/C and SiO2/C/Co composites were measured and the microwave reflection loss properties were evaluated in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The results show that the dielectric loss of SiO2/C composite increases with the increase of carbonization temperature and the magnetic loss enhances due to the deposition of cobalt on the SiO2/C sub-microspheres. The reflection loss results exhibit that the microwave absorption properties of the SiO2/C/Co composites are more excellent than those of SiO2/C composites for each thickness. The maximum effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss ≤ -10 dB) arrives at 5.0 GHz (13.0-18 GHz) for SiO2/C/Co composite with 1.5 mm of thickness and the minimum reflection loss value is -24.0 dB at 5.0 GHz with 4.0 mm of thickness. The microwave loss mechanism of the SiO2/C/Co composites was also discussed in this paper.

  9. Electrochemical performance and structure evolution of core-shell nano-ring α-Fe_2O_3@Carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yan-Hui; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Feng-Chen; Nan, Jun-Min

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell nano-ring α-Fe_2O_3@Carbon (CSNR) composites with different carbon content (CSNR-5%C and CSNR-13%C) are synthesized using a hydrothermal method by controlling different amounts of glucose and α-Fe_2O_3 nano-rings with further annealing. The CSNR electrodes exhibit much improved specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability compared with that of bare nano-ring α-Fe_2O_3 (BNR), which is attributed to the core-shell nano-ring structure of CSNR. The carbon shell in the inner and outer surface of CSNR composite can increase electron conductivity of the electrode and inhibit the volume change of α-Fe_2O_3 during discharge/charge processes, and the nano-ring structure of CSNR can buffer the volume change too. The CSNR-5%C electrode shows super high initial discharge/charge capacities of 1570/1220 mAh g"−"1 and retains 920/897 mAh g"−"1 after 200 cycles at 500 mA g"−"1 (0.5C). Even at 2000 mA g"−"1 (2C), the electrode delivers the initial capacities of 1400/900 mAh g"−"1, and still maintains 630/610 mAh g"−"1 after 200 cycles. The core-shell nano-rings opened during cycling and rebuilt a new flower-like structure consisting of α-Fe_2O_3@Carbon nano-sheets. The space among the nano-sheet networks can further buffer the volume expansion of α-Fe_2O_3 and facilitate the transportation of electrons and Li"+ ions during the charge/discharge processes, which increases the capacity and rate capability of the electrode. It is the first time that the evolution of core-shell α-Fe_2O_3@Carbon changing to flower-like networks during lithiation/de-lithiation has been reported.

  10. Electrochemical performance and structure evolution of core-shell nano-ring α-Fe2O3@Carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Hui; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Feng-Chen; Nan, Jun-Min

    2016-12-01

    Core-shell nano-ring α-Fe2O3@Carbon (CSNR) composites with different carbon content (CSNR-5%C and CSNR-13%C) are synthesized using a hydrothermal method by controlling different amounts of glucose and α-Fe2O3 nano-rings with further annealing. The CSNR electrodes exhibit much improved specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability compared with that of bare nano-ring α-Fe2O3 (BNR), which is attributed to the core-shell nano-ring structure of CSNR. The carbon shell in the inner and outer surface of CSNR composite can increase electron conductivity of the electrode and inhibit the volume change of α-Fe2O3 during discharge/charge processes, and the nano-ring structure of CSNR can buffer the volume change too. The CSNR-5%C electrode shows super high initial discharge/charge capacities of 1570/1220 mAh g-1 and retains 920/897 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 500 mA g-1 (0.5C). Even at 2000 mA g-1 (2C), the electrode delivers the initial capacities of 1400/900 mAh g-1, and still maintains 630/610 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles. The core-shell nano-rings opened during cycling and rebuilt a new flower-like structure consisting of α-Fe2O3@Carbon nano-sheets. The space among the nano-sheet networks can further buffer the volume expansion of α-Fe2O3 and facilitate the transportation of electrons and Li+ ions during the charge/discharge processes, which increases the capacity and rate capability of the electrode. It is the first time that the evolution of core-shell α-Fe2O3@Carbon changing to flower-like networks during lithiation/de-lithiation has been reported.

  11. Ex situ synthesis of G/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite and its catalytic effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... situ synthesis in the presence of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and GO solution. .... tion, washed several times with deionized water and ethanol and then dried at ..... where α is the extent of conversion, T is the temperature,. A is the ...

  12. Phosphine Plasma Activation of α-Fe 2 O 3 for High Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Xia, Chuan; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Miao, Xiaohe; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2018-01-01

    , the asymmetric supercapacitor devices based on plasma-activated Fe2O3 anodes and electrodeposited MnO2 cathodes can achieve a high stack energy density of 0.42 mWh cm-3 at a stack power density of 10.3 mW cm-3 along with good stability (88% capacitance retention

  13. Chemical quenching of positronium in Fe2O3/Al2O3 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Zhang, H.J.; Chen, Z.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Fe 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 catalysts were prepared by solid state reaction method using α-Fe 2 O 3 and γ-Al 2 O 3 nano powders. The microstructure and surface properties of the catalyst were studied using positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening annihilation radiation measurements. The positron lifetime spectrum shows four components. The two long lifetimes τ 3 and τ 4 are attributed to positronium annihilation in two types of pores distributed inside Al 2 O 3 grain and between the grains, respectively. With increasing Fe 2 O 3 content from 3 wt% to 40 wt%, the lifetime τ 3 keeps nearly unchanged, while the longest lifetime τ 4 shows decrease from 96 ns to 64 ns. Its intensity decreases drastically from 24% to less than 8%. The Doppler broadening S parameter shows also a continuous decrease. Further analysis of the Doppler broadening spectra reveals a decrease in the p-Ps intensity with increasing Fe 2 O 3 content, which rules out the possibility of spin-conversion of positronium. Therefore the decrease of τ 4 is most probably due to the chemical quenching reaction of positronium with Fe ions on the surface of the large pores.

  14. Chemical quenching of positronium in Fe 2O 3/Al 2O 3 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Zhang, H. J.; Chen, Z. Q.

    2010-09-01

    Fe 2O 3/Al 2O 3 catalysts were prepared by solid state reaction method using α-Fe 2O 3 and γ-Al 2O 3 nano powders. The microstructure and surface properties of the catalyst were studied using positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening annihilation radiation measurements. The positron lifetime spectrum shows four components. The two long lifetimes τ3 and τ4 are attributed to positronium annihilation in two types of pores distributed inside Al 2O 3 grain and between the grains, respectively. With increasing Fe 2O 3 content from 3 wt% to 40 wt%, the lifetime τ3 keeps nearly unchanged, while the longest lifetime τ4 shows decrease from 96 ns to 64 ns. Its intensity decreases drastically from 24% to less than 8%. The Doppler broadening S parameter shows also a continuous decrease. Further analysis of the Doppler broadening spectra reveals a decrease in the p-Ps intensity with increasing Fe 2O 3 content, which rules out the possibility of spin-conversion of positronium. Therefore the decrease of τ4 is most probably due to the chemical quenching reaction of positronium with Fe ions on the surface of the large pores.

  15. Phosphine Plasma Activation of α-Fe 2 O 3 for High Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2018-04-12

    We report a phosphine (PH3) plasma activation strategy for significantly boosting the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor electrodes. Using Fe2O3 as a demonstration, we show that the plasma activation simultaneously improves the conductivity, creates atomic-scale vacancies (defects), as well as increases active surface area, and thus leading to a greatly enhanced performance with a high areal capacitance of 340 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2, compared to 66 mF cm-2 of pristine Fe2O3. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor devices based on plasma-activated Fe2O3 anodes and electrodeposited MnO2 cathodes can achieve a high stack energy density of 0.42 mWh cm-3 at a stack power density of 10.3 mW cm-3 along with good stability (88% capacitance retention after 9000 cycles at 10 mA cm-2). Our work provides a simple yet effective strategy to greatly enhance the electrochemical performance of Fe2O3 anodes and to further promote their application in asymmetric supercapacitors.

  16. and α-Fe 2 O 3 nano powders synthesized by emulsion precipitation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nano crystals of γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) were synthesized by emulsion precipitation method using kerosene as oil phase, SPAN- 80 (sorbitane monooleate) as the surfactant and sodium hydroxide as the precipitating agent. The characterization of the samples by FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) ...

  17. Structural and optical properties of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, influence by holmium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevula, L. E.; Noto, L. L.; Mothudi, B. M.; Dhlamini, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    α-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3 doped with different concentration of holmium ions were synthesized by a simple sol-gel method. The XRD data confirmed the hexagonal structure of α-Fe2O3 for un-doped and holmium doped samples. The crystallite size was found to be decreasing with increasing holmium concentration. The amount of holmium was quantified using an EDS, which shows an increase in holmium quantity as concentration increases. The UV-Vis measurement shows an absorption edge around 570 nm. The band gap was estimated using the Kubelka-Munk relation and it was found to be fluctuating between 1.94 eV and 2.04 eV. The PL spectra confirmed the effect of holmium ions on luminescence properties of α-Fe2O3 which showed a maximum intensity at 0.1 mol% Holmium, and quenching as the concentration is increased from 0.3 mol% to 0.9 mol%.

  18. Iron 1s X-ray photoemission of Fe2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, P. S.; Borgatti, F.; Offi, F.; Panaccione, G.; de Groot, F. M. F.

    We present the Is X-ray photoemission spectrum of alpha-Fe2O3 in comparison with its 2p photoemission spectrum. We show that in case of transition metal oxides, because the 1s core hole is not affected by core hole spin-orbit coupling and almost not affected by core-valence multiplet effects, the Fe

  19. Synthesis and gas-sensing characteristics of α-Fe2O3 hollow balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Manh Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of porous metal-oxide semiconductors for gas-sensing application is attracting increased interest. In this study, α-Fe2O3 hollow balls were synthesized using an inexpensive, scalable, and template-free hydrothermal method. The gas-sensing characteristics of the semiconductors were systematically investigated. Material characterization by XRD, SEM, HRTEM, and EDS reveals that single-phase α-Fe2O3 hollow balls with an average diameter of 1.5 μm were obtained. The hollow balls were formed by self assembly of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an average diameter of 100 nm. The hollow structure and nanopores between the nanoparticles resulted in the significantly high response of the α-Fe2O3 hollow balls to ethanol at working temperatures ranging from 250 °C to 450 °C. The sensor also showed good selectivity over other gases, such as CO and NH3 promising significant application.

  20. Synthesis, electronic transport and optical properties of Si:α-Fe2O3 single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettie, A.J.E.; Chemelewski, W.D.; Wygant, B.R.; Lindemuth, J.; Lin, J.F.; Eisenberg, D.; Brauer, C.S.; Johnson, T.J.; Beiswenger, T.N.; Ash, R.D.; Li, X.; Zhou, J.; Mullins, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis of silicon-doped hematite (Si:alpha-Fe2O3) single crystals via chemical vapor transport, with Si incorporation on the order of 1019 cm(-3). The conductivity, Seebeck and Hall effect were measured in the basal plane between 200 and 400 K. Distinct differences in electron

  1. Mechanical alloying in Fe2O3-MO (M: Zn, Ni, Cu, Mg) systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gerward, Leif; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    of MFe2O4 ferrites are critically discussed. No significant with respect to ferrite formation rates was observed in open and closed containers used here. In the Fe2O3/ZnO system, a single ferrite phase can be synthesized but in other systems no significant amounts of ferrites are formed by high...

  2. Synthesis of γ–Fe2O3 nanoparticles with crystallographic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical ... In most of the reported methods, initially the particles have been synthesized in a non polar ... Carbon coated copper grid and was used for TEM characterization using an FEI ..... Currently he is Professor of Physics at IIT Kanpur working in the areas of ...

  3. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on MgB2 superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparan, E.T.; Sidorenko, A.; Yanmaz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Since the discovery of superconductivity in binary MgB 2 compounds, extensive studies have been carried out because of its excellent properties for technological applications, such as high transition temperature (T c = 39 K), high upper critical field (H c2 ), high critical current density (J c ). Thin films are important for fundamental research as well as technological applications of any functional materials. Technological applications primarily depend on critical current density. The strong field dependence of J c for MgB 2 necessitates an enhancement in flux pinning performance in order to improve values in high magnetic fields. An effective way to improve the flux pinning is to introduce flux pinning centers into MgB 2 through a dopant having size comparable to the coherence length of MgB 2 . In this study, MgB 2 film with a thickness of about 600 nm was deposited on the MgO (100) single crystal substrate using a 'two-step' synthesis technique. Firstly, deposition of boron thin film was carried out by rf magnetron sputtering on MgO substrates and followed by a post deposition annealing at 850 degrees Celsius in magnesium vapour. In order to investigate the effect of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the structural and magnetic properties of films, MgB 2 films were coated with different concentrations of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles by a spin coating process. The effects of different concentrations of ferromagnetic Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on superconducting properties of obtained films were carried out by using structural (XRD, SEM, AFM), electrical (R-T) and magnetization (M-H, M-T and AC Susceptibility) measurements. It was calculated that anisotropic coefficient was about γ = 1.2 and coherence length of 5 nm for the uncoated film. As a result of coherence length, the appropriate diameters of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were found to be 10 nm, indicating that these nanoparticles served as the pinning centers. Based on the data obtained from this study, it can be

  4. Magnetic epoxy nanocomposites reinforced with hierarchical α-Fe2O3 nanoflowers: a study of mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balguri, Praveen Kumar; Harris Samuel, D. G.; Thumu, Udayabhaskararao

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we presented the potentiality of monodispersed 3D hierarchical α-Fe2O3 nanoflowers (α-Fe2O3) as reinforcement for epoxy polymer. α-Fe2O3 are synthesized through the thermal decomposition of iron alkoxide precursor in ethylene glycol. α-Fe2O3/epoxy nanocomposites (0.1 wt% of α-Fe2O3) show 109%, 59%, 13%, and 15% enhancement in impact (un-notched), impact (notched), flexural and tensile properties, respectively. The uniformly embedded α- Fe2O3 nanoflowers in epoxy polymer not only provide mechanical strength but also induced magnetic nature to the nanocomposite as observed from the Scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer.

  5. Controlled synthesis of graphitic carbon-encapsulated α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite via low-temperature catalytic graphitization of biomass and its lithium storage property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Feng; Huang, Rong; Mu, Daobin; Wu, Borong; Chen, Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile synthesis of graphitic carbon/α-Fe 2 O 3 nano-sized anode composite. • In situ low temperature catalytic graphitization of biomass material. • Onion-like graphitic carbon layers conformally encapsulating around α-Fe 2 O 3 core. • High lithium storage properties, especially, outstanding cycle performance. - Abstract: A delicate structure of graphitic carbon-encapsulated α-Fe 2 O 3 nanocomposite is in situ constructed via “Absorption–Catalytic graphitization–Oxidation” strategy, taking use of biomass matter of degreasing cotton as carbon precursor and solution reservoir. With the assistance of the catalytic graphitization effect of iron core, onion-like graphitic carbon (GC) shell is made directly from the biomass at low temperature (650 °C). The nanosized α-Fe 2 O 3 particles would effectively mitigate volumetric strain and shorten Li + transport path during charge/discharge process. The graphitic carbon shells may promote charge transfer and protect active particles from directly exposing to electrolyte to maintain interfacial stability. As a result, the as-prepared α-Fe 2 O 3 @GC composite displays an outstanding cycle performance with a reversible capacity of 1070 mA h g −1 after 430 cycles at 0.2C, as well as a good rate capability of ∼ 950 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 1C and ∼ 850 mA h g −1 even up to 200 cycles at a 2C rate.

  6. A novel hydrothermal approach for synthesizing α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 mesoporous magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, S. Amala; Nathan, D. Muthu Gnana Theresa; Jayashainy, J.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel method to synthesize the three phases of iron oxide nanoparticles (hematite, maghemite and magnetite) using the same non-toxic inorganic precursors via a water–organic interface under the low temperature hydrothermal conditions is reported. The synthesized particles are characterized by Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) results reveal the mesoporous nature of the particles. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are studied by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at various low temperatures and also at room temperature. The XRD peaks corresponding to each sample clearly depict the presence of the respective phase of the as-prepared magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of maghemite and magnetite have saturation magnetization of 58.56 and 40.30 emu/g respectively at room temperature, whereas the particles of hematite possess very low saturation magnetization value of 1.89 emu/g. Further, the magnetization is studied at four different temperatures and the zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization are reported. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hematite, maghemite and magnetite are obtained under hydrothermal synthesis. • α-Fe 2 O 3 , γ-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 prepared are mesoporous and nearly monodisperse. • Near superparamagnetism is observed at room temperature for maghemite and magnetite

  7. Tunable flux pinning landscapes achieved by functional ferromagnetic Fe2O3:CeO2 vertically aligned nanocomposites in YBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chen-Fong; Huang, Jijie; Lee, Joon-Hwan; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Chen, Li; Chen, Aiping; Su, Qing; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional ferromagnetic (Fe 2 O 3 ) x :(CeO 2 ) 1−x vertically aligned nanocomposites (VAN). • An ordered arrangement of ferromagnetic Fe 2 O 3 nanoinclusions. • Significant in-field improvement of J c (H//c) in both VAN nanolayer capped and buffered samples. • T c above 90 K and the J c sf maximized at 3.07 MA/cm 2 (75 K) and 9.2 MA/cm 2 (65 K) for 30% Fe 2 O 3 sample. - Abstract: Functional ferromagnetic (Fe 2 O 3 ) x :(CeO 2 ) 1−x vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) layers were deposited as either buffer or cap layers for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ (YBCO) thin films. The composition of Fe 2 O 3 dopants in the VAN nanolayers is controlled at 10%, 30% and 50% in order to create different arrangements of Fe 2 O 3 and CeO 2 nanopillars and therefore to tune the flux pining landscapes. The composition variation provides tunable and ordered arrangements of magnetic nanodopants and interfacial defects as pinning centers in the YBCO thin films. The superconducting property measurements show that most doped samples obtain a T c above 90 K and the J c sf measured at 75 K and 65 K maximized at 3.07 MA/cm 2 and 9.2 MA/cm 2 for 30% Fe 2 O 3 VAN doped sample. As the temperature decreased to 5 K, the sample with 50% Fe 2 O 3 VAN doped sample show the best pinning effect due to pronounced magnetic pinning effects. This work demonstrates the tunable density of magnetic pinning centers can be achieved by VAN to meet the specific pinning requirement

  8. Structural and Physical Properties of Fe2O3-B2O3-V2O5 Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Kundu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural and physical properties of xFe2O3-(40-x B2O3-60V2O5  (0≤x≤20 glass system have been investigated. The samples were prepared by normal melt-quench technique. The structural changes were inferred by means of FTIR by monitoring the infrared (IR spectra in the spectral range 600–4000 cm-1. The absence of boroxol ring (806 cm-1 in the present glass system suggested that these glasses consist of randomly connected BO3 and BO4 units. The conversion of BO3 to BO4 and VO5 to VO4 tetrahedra along with the formation of non-bridging oxygen's (NBOs attached to boron and vanadium takes place in the glasses under investigation. The density and molar volume of the present glass system were found to depend on Fe2O3 content. DC conductivity of the glass system has been determined in the temperature range 310–500 K. It was found that the general behavior of electrical conductivity was similar for all glass compositions and found to increase with increasing iron content. The parameters such as activation energy, average separation between transition metal ions (TMIs, polaron radius, and so forth have been calculated in adiabatic region and are found consistent with Mott's model of phonon-assisted polaronic hopping.

  9. Nanosized As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia selectively target liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yu; Song, Jian; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2009-06-28

    To study the methods of preparing the magnetic nano-microspheres of Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) complexes and their therapeutic effects with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). Nanospheres were prepared by chemical co-precipitation and their shape and diameter were observed. Hemolysis, micronucleus, cell viability, and LD(50) along with other in vivo tests were performed to evaluate the Fe(2)O(3) microsphere biocompatibility. The inhibition ratio of tumors after Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) injections combined with induced hyperthermia in xenograft human hepatocarcinoma was calculated. Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) particles were round with an average diameter of 20 nm and 100 nm as observed under transmission electron microscope. Upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), the temperature of the suspension of magnetic particles increased to 41-51 degrees C, depending on different particle concentrations, and remained stable thereafter. Nanosized Fe(2)O(3) microspheres are a new kind of biomaterial without cytotoxic effects. The LD(50) of both Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) in mice was higher than 5 g/kg. One to four weeks after Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) complex injections into healthy pig livers, no significant differences were found in serum AST, ALT, BUN and Cr levels among the pigs of all groups (P > 0.05), and no obvious pathological alterations were observed. After exposure to alternating magnetic fields, the inhibition ratio of the tumors was significantly different from controls in the Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) groups (68.74% and 82.79%, respectively; P < 0.01). Tumors of mice in treatment groups showed obvious necrosis, while normal tissues adjoining the tumor and internal organs did not. Fe(2)O(3) and As(2)O(3)/Fe(2)O(3) complexes exerted radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia and drug toxicity on tumors without any liver or kidney damage. Therefore, nanospheres are ideal carriers for tumor-targeted therapy.

  10. Enhanced Water Splitting by Fe2O3-TiO2-FTO Photoanode with Modified Energy Band Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eul Noh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of TiO2 layer applied to the conventional Fe2O3/FTO photoanode to improve the photoelectrochemical performance was assessed from the viewpoint of the microstructure and energy band structure. Regardless of the location of the TiO2 layer in the photoanodes, that is, Fe2O3/TiO2/FTO or TiO2/Fe2O3/FTO, high performance was obtained when α-Fe2O3 and H-TiNT/anatase-TiO2 phases existed in the constituent Fe2O3 and TiO2 layers after optimized heat treatments. The presence of the Fe2O3 nanoparticles with high uniformity in the each layer of the Fe2O3/TiO2/FTO photoanode achieved by a simple dipping process seemed to positively affect the performance improvement by modifying the energy band structure to a more favorable one for efficient electrons transfer. Our current study suggests that the application of the TiO2 interlayer, together with α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles present in the each constituent layers, could significantly contribute to the performance improvement of the conventional Fe2O3 photoanode.

  11. Novel SiO2-C composite adsorptive material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volzone, C.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work is about the development of a Novel Composite that has several properties in only one material. This material is composed by a silica network with a sharpened pore size distribution - diameter near 1000 Å - intercrossed with another carbon network that has carbonaceous microdomains of high activity. The first network facilitates the entrance of big molecules to the interior of the material grains so they quickly reach the active sites of the carbonous network, minimizing the diffusional resistance observed when high performance activated carbons are used in adsorption processes or catalytic applications. These two intercrossed structures are self-supporting and independent among them, so one from the other can be isolated without losing the original shape and volume of the starting composite, then, their possible uses may be multiplied. The Novel Composite is stable with respect to other support or adsorbent materials due to its high obtention temperature (1550 ºC. The obtention methods of the composite and its isolated structures are described. The material was characterized by different techniques (XRD, IR, Loss on ignition, pore size distribution, specific surface area, adsorption desorption isotherms, methylene blue adsorption and SEM.En el presente trabajo se describe el desarrollo de un nuevo material compuesto que reúne distintas propiedades en un solo material. Dicho material está formado por una red de sílice con distribución de tamaño de poro estrecha - diámetro cercano a los 1000 Å - entrecruzada con otra red de carbón pseudografítica donde los microdominios carbonosos son de alta actividad. La primer red facilita la entrada de grandes moléculas al interior de los granos del material permitiendo su rápido acceso a los sitios activos de la red carbonosa, esto minimiza la resistencia difusional observada cuando se utilizan carbones activados de alto rendimiento en los procesos de adsorción o aplicaciones

  12. Thickness and composition of ultrathin SiO2 layers on Si

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, C; Verheijen, M.A.; Tamminga, Y; Pijnenburg, RHW; Tombros, N; Cubaynes, F

    2004-01-01

    Ultrathin SiO2 layers are of importance for the semiconductor industry. One of the techniques that can be used to determine the chemical composition and thickness of this type of layers is x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As shown by Seah and Spencer [Surf. Interface Anal. 33, 640 (2002)], it

  13. Preparation of TiO2-SiO2 composite photocatalysts for environmental applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paušová, Š.; Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Prevot, V.; Mailhot, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 8 (2014), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0268-2575 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : photocatalysis * TiO2/SiO2 * composite Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.349, year: 2014

  14. CoFe2O4-SiO2 Composites: Preparation and Magnetodielectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 and silica (SiO2 nanopowders have been prepared by the microwave hydrothermal (M-H method using metal nitrates as precursors of CoFe2O4 and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a precursor of SiO2. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD and FESEM. The (100-x (CoFe2O4 + xSiO2 (where x = 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% composites with different weight percentages have been prepared using ball mill method. The composite samples were sintered at 800°C/60 min using the microwave sintering method and then their structural and morphological studies were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR spectra, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The effect of SiO2 content on the magnetic and electrical properties of CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanocomposites has been studied via the magnetic hysteresis loops, complex permeability, permittivity spectra, and DC resistivity measurements. The synthesized nanocomposites with adjustable grain sizes and controllable magnetic properties make the applicability of cobalt ferrite even more versatile.

  15. Investigation of the Morin transition in α-Fe2O3 by the Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobler, L.; Kuendig, W.; Savic, I.

    1981-01-01

    Hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) is an antiferromagnet with the corundum structure D 63 sub(d). Below the Morin temperature (Tsub(M) approx. equal to 260 K) the Fe-spins are parallel to the trigonal axis. Between Tsub(M) and the Neel temperature (Tsub(N) = 960 K), the spins lie in the basal plane. A small angle between the spins of the two magnetic sublattices leads to a weak ferromagnetism at T > Tsub(M). In the experiment to be described the Morin transition was investigated by the Moessbauer effect. This work was stimulated by μSR-investigations on α-Fe 2 O 3 . (orig.)

  16. Spin Seebeck effect in insulating epitaxial γ−Fe2O3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Cavero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of high crystal quality epitaxial thin films of maghemite (γ−Fe2O3, a classic ferrimagnetic insulating iron oxide. Spin Seebeck effect (SSE measurements in γ−Fe2O3/Pt bilayers as a function of sample preparation conditions and temperature yield a SSE coefficient of 0.5(1 μV/K at room temperature. Dependence on temperature allows us to estimate the magnon diffusion length in maghemite to be in the range of tens of nanometers, in good agreement with that of conducting iron oxide magnetite (Fe3O4, establishing the relevance of spin currents of magnonic origin in magnetic iron oxides.

  17. Pressure response of vacancy ordered maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and high pressure transformed hematite (α-Fe2O3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearne, Giovanni; Pischedda, Vittoria

    2012-01-01

    Combined XRD and Mössbauer effect spectroscopy studies to high pressures of ∼30 GPa of vacancy ordered maghemite are presented. The vacancy ordered superstructure is robust and remains intact up to the pressure-induced onset transition to hematite at 13–16 GPa. The pressure transformed hematite is shown to be crystallographically textured, unlike the randomised low pressure maghemite phase. This arises out of a pressure or stress instigated topotactic transformation of the cubic-spinel to hexagonal-corundum structure. The textured sample permits us to obtain information on the spin reorientation behavior of the pressure transformed hematite in compression and decompression sequences. Spin reorientation is restricted to ∼15° over wide pressure ranges, attributable to the effect of entrapped vacancies in the high pressure structure. Thus there are structural and magnetic peculiarities specific to pressure transformed hematite not evident in pressurized hematite starting material. These are triggered by the maghemite→hematite transformation. - Graphical abstract: Pressure instigated topotactic transformation of vacancy ordered γ-Fe 2 O 3 →α-Fe 2 O 3 . There is restricted spin (B hf ) reorientation in the new pressure transformed hematite due to entrapped vacancies. The change in direction of V zz signifies a distortion of the FeO 6 octahedral local environment. Highlights: ► Robust vacancy ordered superstructure in maghemite to high pressures. ► Pressure instigated topotactic transformation to hematite and subsequent texture. ► Defect trapping in the pressure transformed hematite. ► Entrapped defects restricts spin reorientation in pressure transformed hematite. ► Contrasting behavior with pressurized hematite starting material.

  18. Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2O3 @polyaniline for lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Kyoung G; Chang, Sung-Jin; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young Boo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kwon, Soonjo; Lee, Gaehang; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2013-11-20

    Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2 O3 @polyaniline are fabricated by template-free synthesis of iron oxides followed by a post in- and exterior construction. A combination of large surface area with porous structure, fast ion/electron transport, and mechanical integrity renders this material attractive as a lithium-ion anode, showing superior rate capability and cycling performance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Coprecipitation synthesis of zinc ferrit (FE 2 O 3 /ZNO) nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc ferrite (Fe2O3/ZnO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by simple co-precipitation method via iron (III) nitrate 9-hydrate (Fe(NO3)3.9H2O) and zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2.6H2O) as precursor in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. The samples were characterized by ...

  20. Steam reforming of ethanol over Co3O4–Fe2O3 mixed oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, A.; Daly, H.; Saih, Y.; Morgan, K.; Mohamed, M.A.; Halawy, S.A.; Hardacre, C.

    2013-01-01

    solvent/dispersing agent. The catalysts were studied in the steam reforming of ethanol to investigate the effect of the partial substitution of Co3O4 with Fe2O 3 on the catalytic behaviour. The reforming activity over Fe 2O3, while initially high

  1. Origin of Ferrimagnetism and Ferroelectricity in Room-Temperature Multiferroic ɛ -Fe2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Feng, J. S.; Liu, Z. P.; Xiang, H. J.

    2018-04-01

    Exploring and identifying room-temperature multiferroics is critical for developing better nonvolatile random-access memory devices. Recently, ɛ -Fe2O3 was found to be a promising room-temperature multiferroic with a large polarization and magnetization. However, the origin of the multiferroicity in ɛ -Fe2O3 is still puzzling. In this work, we perform density-functional-theory calculations to reveal that the spin frustration between tetrahedral-site Fe3 + spins gives rise to the unexpected ferrimagnetism. For the ferroelectricity, we identify a low-energy polarization switching path with an energy barrier of 85 meV /f .u . by performing a stochastic surface walking simulation. The switching of the ferroelectric polarization is achieved by swapping the tetrahedral Fe ion with the octahedral Fe ion, different from the usual case (e.g., in BaTiO3 and BiFeO3 ) where the coordination number remains unchanged after the switching. Our results not only confirm that ɛ -Fe2O3 is a promising room-temperature multiferroic but also provide guiding principles to design high-performance multiferroics.

  2. Magnetic properties of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle synthesized by a new hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, S.; Samanta, S.; Maji, S.; Ganguli, S.; Bhaumik, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nanoparticles of α-Fe 2 O 3 have been prepared using a hydrothermal synthesis method in aqueous-organic microemulsion under mild alkaline condition. The condensation reaction was optimized in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). It was found that the size and nature of the α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticle strongly depends on the pH, oxalic acid and CTAB as well as tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH, alkali source) concentrations. The uniformity of the particle size was checked by the transmission electron microscopy while the single phase of the nanocrystalline α-Fe 2 O 3 was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction. The Moessbauer study exhibited a sextet pattern with internal field smaller than that of the bulk counterpart. The temperature variation of magnetization showed a broad maximum at around 125 K while the field-cooled effect of the magnetization showed the branching between the field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization up to 340 K. A large anisotropy has been observed from the analysis of magnetization curve as well as from the large blocking temperature. The estimation of the particle size from the magnetization curve was found to be in close agreement with the TEM results

  3. Single step thermal decomposition approach to prepare supported γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Geetu; Jeevanandam, P.

    2012-01-01

    γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles supported on MgO (macro-crystalline and nanocrystalline) were prepared by an easy single step thermal decomposition method. Thermal decomposition of iron acetylacetonate in diphenyl ether, in the presence of the supports followed by calcination, leads to iron oxide nanoparticles supported on MgO. The X-ray diffraction results indicate the stability of γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase on MgO (macro-crystalline and nanocrystalline) up to 1150 °C. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the supported iron oxide nanoparticles are agglomerated while the energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicates the presence of iron, magnesium and oxygen in the samples. Transmission electron microscopy images indicate the presence of smaller γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on nanocrystalline MgO. The magnetic properties of the supported magnetic nanoparticles at various calcination temperatures (350-1150 °C) were studied using a superconducting quantum interference device which indicates superparamagnetic behavior.

  4. Magnetic properties of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles incorporated in a polystyrene resin matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnava, P. P.; Senaratne, U.; Buc, E. C.; Naik, R.; Naik, V. M.; Tsoi, G. M.; Wenger, L. E.

    2007-07-01

    γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles ranging in average diameter from 3to10nm were synthesized into a polystyrene resin matrix by an ion-exchange method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and SQUID magnetometry. The average particle size as determined from XRD and TEM was found to be strongly dependent upon the initial Fe valence state of the starting chloride salt(s) and on the number of steps that the salt introduction and ion-exchange process were repeated. Regardless of the initial Fe valence state and processing conditions, Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed that the Fe in the resulting nanoparticles existed only as Fe(III) ions and that γ-Fe2O3 was the only phase present. The values of the saturation magnetization at 5K were found to be dependent upon the processing conditions and ranged from 203to333emu/cm3 , which are significantly smaller than the bulk value (408emu/cm3) for γ-Fe2O3 . As expected, the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior with the magnetic moments becoming frozen with decreasing temperature as evidenced by the appearance of a six-line splitting in the Mössbauer spectra, a bifurcation in the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetizations, and an opening in the MV -vs- H hysteresis curves. The values of magnetic anisotropy constant (1.2-2.1×106ergs/cm3) determined from the differences between the ZFC and FC magnetizations were found to be higher than the bulk value (1.1×105ergs/cm3) for γ-Fe2O3 , and are probably due to surface effects. Likewise, the nanoparticle size distributions as deduced from the blocking temperature distribution function f(TB) based on fits to the difference in the ZFC and FC magnetization curves as well as from fits of the MV -vs- H curves in the superparamagnetic regime with a Langevin function indicate fairly broad distributions of particle sizes with the particle sizes being comparable to those deduced from XRD

  5. Removal of congo red from water using quercetin modified α-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles as effective nanoadsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh, R.; Vignesh, K.; Rajarajan, M.; Suganthi, A.; Sreekantan, Srimala; Kang, Misook; Kwak, Byeong Sub

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, Quercetin modified α-Fe_2O_3 nanoadsorbent (Qur-Fe_2O_3) is synthesized by a simple chemical impregnation method, followed by characterization and evaluated for the removal of congo red dye (CR) from the aqueous solution. The adsorption of CR onto the novel Qur-Fe_2O_3 is investigated with variable parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of CR, adsorbent dosage and pH of solution using batch adsorption technique. It is found that the adsorption of CR on Qur-Fe_2O_3 is rapid during the initial stages and reached a steady-state condition with an uptake of approximately 95.4% after 140 min. Langmuir and the Freundlich adsorption isotherms are used to observe and quantify the interaction of CR and Qur-Fe_2O_3. Dye adsorption equilibrium data are well-fit with Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm. The maximum monolayer dye adsorption capacity at the optimum pH 5.4 by applying the Langmuir equation is 427.35 mg g"−"1 at 25 °C for Qur-Fe_2O_3_. Thermodynamic examination demonstrated that CR adsorption on the Qur-Fe_2O_3 nanoadsorbent was reasonably spontaneous and endothermic. A comparison of kinetic models showed that the overall adsorption process is described in well manner by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model described that the rate-limiting step is not the diffusion of intraparticle alone. Moreover, the adsorption capacity is about 81.64% of the initial saturation adsorption capacity after being used four times. Thus, Qur-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles are good candidate for efficient CR removal process from wastewater and for the deep-purification of polluted water. - Graphical abstract: The photographs for colour changes in Congo red (35 mg L"−"1) dye in the presence of Qur – Fe_2O_3 adsorbent at different time intervals. - Highlights: • Quercetin modified α-Fe_2O_3 (Qur-Fe_2O_3) was used as adsorbent. • Adsorption studies were performed for the removal of congo

  6. Effect of the synthesis method on the microstructure, morphology and electrochemical characteristics of α-Fe2O3 anodes for Lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzunov, I.; Klissurski, D.; Uzunova, S.; Aleksandrova, A.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of the synthesis method and temperature on some structural characteristics and electrochemical behaviour was investigated for samples of α-Fe 2 O 3 prepared from different precursors. The phase composition, morphology and crystallinity of the obtained materials were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical behaviour of the synthesized samples was studied within voltage range 0.01-2.5V and various current densities. The electrochemical behaviour of the obtained active anode materials was found to depend mostly on the ratio between mean particle size (MPS) and mean coherent domain size (MCDS). It was found that the ratio depends on the synthesis method and calcination temperature. By optimization of the synthesis processes α-Fe 2 O 3 was prepared with optimal microstructure and particle size, a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. (authors)

  7. Cube-like Fe3O4@SiO2@Au@Ag magnetic nanoparticles: a highly efficient SERS substrate for pesticide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Zhao, Aiwu; Wang, Dapeng; Wang, Jin; Chen, Ping; Sun, Henghui

    2018-04-01

    As a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) nanocomposite, cube-like Fe3O4@SiO2@Au@Ag magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized for the first time. Cube-like α-Fe2O3 NPs with uniform size were achieved by optimizing reaction temperature and time. Firstly, the cube-like Fe3O4@SiO2 with good dispersity was achieved by calcining α-Fe2O3@SiO2 NPs in hydrogen atmosphere at 360 °C for 2.5 h, followed by self-assembling a PEI shell via sonication. Furthermore, the Au@Ag particles were densely assembled on the Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs to form the Fe3O4@SiO2@Au@Ag composite structure via strong Ag-N interaction. The obtained nanocomposites exhibited an excellent SERS behavior, reflected by the low detection of limit (p-ATP) at the 5 × 10-14 M level. Moreover, these nanocubes were used for the detection of thiram, and the detection limit can reach 5 × 10-11 M. Meanwhile, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency specifies that the residue in fruit must be lower than 7 ppm. Hence, the resulting substrate with high SERS activity has great practical potential applications in the rapid detection of chemical, biological, and environment pollutants with a simple portable Raman instrument at trace level.

  8. Incorporation of Fe2O3, FeO and Al2O3 in silicate glasses and its effect on their structure and chemical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Iseghem, P; De Grave, E; Peters, L; De Batist, R

    1983-09-01

    Large amounts of the glass intermediates Al2O3, Fe2O3 and FeO are present in the amorphous silicate slags developed at the S.C.K./C.E.N. for the conditioning of Pu contaminated radioactive waste. Strong ambiguity exists in literature about both the structural incorporation and the effect on the chemical stability of Fe2O3 and FeO. The chemical stability and its relationship to the glass structure therefore was investigated for a number of silicate base glasses, taking into consideration the following parameters (the amount of glass modifiers was kept constant at 16 mole %, equimolarly spread over Li2O, K2O, MgO and CaO): 1) Fe2Ox concentrations (x = 2 or 3) varying between 2.5 and 30 mole % (compensated by changes in SiO2 concentration); 2)Equimolar replacement of Fe2Ox by Al2O3 and Fe2Ox in all glasses listed in 1. The structural incorporation of Fe2Ox was investigated by 57 Fe Mossbauer Spectroscopy, the chemical stability by the Soxhlet corrosion test. The sample weight was measured after 14 days of corrosion, after drying and removal of the weakly bounded surface layer.

  9. Tri-functional Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO nanoframework: magnetically retrievable antimicrobial photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Vinayagamoorthy, Pazhamalai

    2016-11-01

    Fe2O3-encased ZnO nanoframework was obtained by hydrothermal method and was doped with Ag through photoreduction process. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, selected area electron diffractometry, x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy were employed for the structural characterization of the synthesized material. While the charge transfer resistance of the prepared nanomaterial is larger than those of Fe2O3 and ZnO the coercivity of the nanocomposite is less than that of hydrothermally obtained Fe2O3 nanostructures. Although Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO exhibits weak visible light absorption its band gap energy does not differ from that of ZnO. The photoluminescence of the fabricated nanoframework is similar to that of ZnO. The radiative recombination of charge carriers is slightly slower in Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO than in ZnO. The synthesized Fe2O3-encased Ag-doped ZnO, under UV A light, exhibits sustainable photocatalytic activity to degrade dye and is magnetically recoverable. Also, the Fe2O3/Ag-ZnO nanocomposite disinfects bacteria effectively in absence of direct illumination.

  10. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of liquid phase deposited α-Fe2O3 films under visible light illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Man; Pu, Wenhong; Pan, Shichang; Okoth, Otieno Kevin; Yang, Changzhu; Zhang, Jingdong

    2015-01-01

    Liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique was employed to prepare α-Fe 2 O 3 films for photoelectrocatalytic degradation of pollutants. The obtained LPD films were characterized by various surface analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that α-Fe 2 O 3 films with porous structure were successfully deposited on the titanium substrates by the LPD process. The UV–Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopic (DRS) analysis showed that the obtained LPD α-Fe 2 O 3 film mainly absorbed visible light, which was advantageous to the utilization of solar energy. Under visible light illumination, the Fe 2 O 3 film electrodes exhibited sensitive photocurrent responses, which were affected by the calcination temperature. Consistent with the photocurrent analysis, the α-Fe 2 O 3 film calcined at 600 °C showed the best photoelectrocatalytic performance, and different organic pollutants such as methyl orange (MO) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) were effectively degraded over the LPD film electrode by photoelectrocatalytic treatment under visible light illumination. - Highlights: • α-Fe 2 O 3 film is prepared by liquid phase deposition process. • LPD α-Fe 2 O 3 film has a porous structure and absorbs visible light. • Calcination temperature shows a significant effect on the PEC performance of α-Fe 2 O 3 film. • α-Fe 2 O 3 film is efficient for photoelectrocatalytic degradation of pollutants

  11. Thickness and composition of ultrathin SiO2 layers on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marel, C. van der; Verheijen, M.A.; Tamminga, Y.; Pijnenburg, R.H.W.; Tombros, N.; Cubaynes, F.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrathin SiO 2 layers are of importance for the semiconductor industry. One of the techniques that can be used to determine the chemical composition and thickness of this type of layers is x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As shown by Seah and Spencer [Surf. Interface Anal. 33, 640 (2002)], it is not trivial to characterize this type of layer by means of XPS in a reliable way. We have investigated a series of ultrathin layers of SiO 2 on Si (in the range from 0.3 to 3 nm) using XPS. The samples were also analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and ellipsometry. The thickness of the SiO 2 layers (d) was determined from the XPS results using three different approaches: the 'standard' equation (Seah and Spencer) for d, an overlayer-substrate model calculation, and the QUASES-Tougaard [Surf. Interface Anal. 26, 249 (1998), QUASES-Tougaard: Software package for Quantitative Analysis of Surfaces by Electron Spectroscopy, version 4.4 (2000); http://www.quases.com] method. Good agreement was obtained between the results of XPS analyses using the 'standard' equation, the overlayer-substrate model calculation, and RBS results. The QUASES-Tougaard results were approximately 62% above the other XPS results. The optical values for the thickness were always slightly higher than the thickness according to XPS or RBS. Using the model calculation, these (relatively small) deviations from the optical results could be explained as being a consequence of surface contaminations with hydrocarbons. For a thickness above 2.5 nm, the TEM results were in good agreement with the results obtained from the other techniques (apart from QUASES-Tougaard). Below 2.5 nm, significant deviations were found between RBS, XPS, and optical data on the one hand and TEM results on the other hand; the deviations became larger as the thickness of the SiO 2 decreased. This effect may be related to interface states of oxygen, which have been

  12. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of Fe2O3-TiO2 nanoparticles and nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadi Golsefidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pepper Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized via a fast microwave method. Then Fe2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by a sonochemical-assisted method. The prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photocatalytic behaviour of Fe2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites was evaluated using the degradation of Rhodamine B under ultra violet irradiation. The results show that nanocomposites have applicable magnetic and photocatalytic performance.

  13. The effect of gamma-irradiation of Fe2O3 suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Motoaki; Irie, Setsuko; Kinoshita, Shosaku

    1979-01-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the sedimentation of suspended particles in distilled water has not been satisfactorily considered for disappearance of this effect. Therefore, we investigated the increase in sedimentation by irradiation, it's reappearance and the dependency on the coagulation. The following conclusion became clear; 1) the irradiation against Fe 2 O 3 suspension has the ability to increase the sedimentation velocity of interface and to decrease the turbidity, 2) these phenomena are due to the increase of coagulation induced by irradiation. (author)

  14. Electrical resistivity surface for FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J. G.; Kinser, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The dc electrical properties and microstructure of x(FeO-Fe2O3)-(100-x)P2O5 glasses were investigated up to a maximum of x = 75 mol %. Results indicate that, in general, the minimum resistivity of the glass does not occur at equal Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) concentrations, although for the special case where x = 55 mol % the minimum does occur at Fe(2+)/Fe total = 0.5, as reported by other investigators. Evidence presented shows that the position of the minimum resistivity is a function of total iron content. The minimum shifts to glasses richer in Fe(2+) at higher total iron concentrations.

  15. Interactions in γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laha, S.S.; Tackett, R.J.; Lawes, G.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated interaction effects in two different systems of iron oxide nanoparticles. Samples of γ-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a matrix-mediated precipitation reaction and a chemical co-precipitation technique respectively. The structural properties of these nanoparticles were studied using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. We also used temperature dependent ac magnetic susceptibility measurements to carefully investigate the interactions among these nanoparticles. Our analysis showed that the characteristic interaction energy does not depend simply on the average spacing between the nanoparticles but is likely to be strongly influenced by the fluctuations in the nanoparticle distribution

  16. Study on the water durability of zinc boro-phosphate glasses doped with MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Moon Kyung; Ryu, Bong Ki

    2016-07-01

    The water durability of zinc boro-phosphate (PZB) glasses with the composition 60P2O5-20ZnO-20B2O3- xMeO ( x = 0, 2, 4, 6 and MeO = MgO, Fe2O3, or TiO2) (mol%) was measured, and PZB glass was studied in terms of its thermal properties, density, and FTIR characteristics. The surface conditions and corrosion byproducts were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. When MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2 were doped into the PZB glass, Q2 was decreased and Q1 was increased in the phosphate structure, while the number of BO4 structures increased with increasing MeO content. The density of the PZB glass was increased by the addition of Fe2O3 and TiO2, while the glass transition temperature ( T g ) and dilatometric softening temperature ( T d ) were increased when additional MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2 were added. From the weight loss analysis (95 ◦ C, 96 h), TiO2 doped glass showed the lowest weight loss (1.70 × 10 -3 g/cm2) while MgO doped glass showed the highest value (2.44 × 10 -3 g/cm2), compared with PZB glass (3.07 × 10 -3 g/cm2). These results were discussed in terms of the Me n+ ions in the glass structure, and their different coordination numbers and bonding strengths.

  17. Facile one-pot construction of α-Fe_2O_3/g-C_3N_4 heterojunction for arsenic removal by synchronous visible light catalysis oxidation and adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Suwen; Ji, Chunnuan; Wu, Lingling; Chi, Shenghua; Qu, Rongjun; Li, Yan; Lu, Yangxiao; Sun, Changmei; Xue, Zhongxin

    2017-01-01

    α-Fe_2O_3/g-C_3N_4 composites with heterojunction were prepared by facile one-pot synthesis using ferric chloride and dicyandiamide as precursors. The newly formed composites were applied to remove arsenic from aqueous solution for the first time through synchronous visible light catalysis oxidation and adsorption. α-Fe_2O_3/g-C_3N_4 composites were characterized by wide-angle X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and BET surface analysis. Under visible light irradiation, As(III) was oxidized to As(V) efficiently on the surface of α-Fe_2O_3/g-C_3N_4. In addition, the oxidized arsenic could be adsorbed in situ, resulting in the effective arsenic removal. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity the composites was attributed to the construction of heterojunction between α-Fe_2O_3 and g-C_3N_4. A possible oxidation mechanism of the as-composites for As(III) under visible light irradiation was also elucidated. - Highlights: • α-Fe_2O_3/g-C_3N_4 composites with heterojunction was prepared by facile one-pot synthesis. • The photocatalytic activity of α-Fe_2O_3/g-C_3N_4 composites under visible light irradiation for As(III) was evaluated. • Synchronous visible light catalysis oxidation and adsorption were achieved for the removal of arsenic. • The reasonable oxidation mechanism of the composites for As(III) under visible light irradiation was investigated.

  18. Rapid preparation of α-FeOOH and α-Fe2O3 nanostructures by microwave heating and their application in electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, J.Z.; Montes, R.H.O.; Moura, A.P. de; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Munoz, R.A.A.; Lima, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple microwave method leads to the rapid formation of the goethite and hematite. • Homogenous nucleation and growth of particles are controlled by synthesis time. • Modified electrode with α-FeOOH nanoplates improved the electrochemical response. • The sample is directly heated by microwaves and its crystallization is accelerated. • Fe 3+ nanostructures are promising for development of electrochemical sensors. - Abstract: α-FeOOH (goethite) and α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) nanostructures have been successfully synthesized using the microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method and by the rapid burning in a microwave oven of the as-prepared goethite, respectively. The orthorhombic α-FeOOH to rhombohedralα-Fe 2 O 3 structural transformation was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy results. Plates-like α-FeOOH prepared in 2 min and rounded and quasi-octahedral shaped α-Fe 2 O 3 particles obtained in 10 min were observed using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The use of microwave heating allowed iron oxides to be prepared with shorter reaction times when compared to other synthesis methods. α-FeOOH nanoplates were incorporated into graphite-composite electrodes, which presented electrocatalytic properties towards the electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid in comparison with unmodified electrodes. This result demonstrates that such α-FeOOH nanostructures are very promising chemical modifiers for the development of improved electrochemical sensors

  19. Synthesis of Mesoporous α-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles by Non-ionic Soft Template and Their Applications to Heavy Oil Upgrading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulwoo; Jung, Jinhwan; Lee, Chul Wee; Cho, Joungmo

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the synthetic route of 3-D network shape α-Fe2O3 from aqueous solutions of iron precursor using a non-ionic polymeric soft-template, Pluronic P123. During the synthesis of α-Fe2O3, particle sizes, crystal phases and morphologies were significantly influenced by pH, concentrations of precursor and template. The unique shape of worm-like hematite was obtained only when a starting solution was prepared by a weakly basic pH condition and a very specific composition of constituents. The synthesized nanocrystal at this condition had a narrow pore size distribution and high surface area compared to the bulk α-Fe2O3 or the one synthesized from lower pH conditions. The hydrocracking performance was tested over the synthesized iron oxide catalysts with different morphologies. The worm-like shape of iron oxide showed a superior performance, including overall yield of liquid fuel product and coke formation, over the hydrocracking of heavy petroleum oil.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and degradation activity of Methyl orange Azo dye using synthesized CuO/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehdipour Ghazi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the photo-degradation of methyl orange (MO as a type of azo dye using a CuO/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite. A CuO/α-Fe2O3 powder with a crystalline size in the range of 27-49 nm was successfully prepared using simple co-precipitation along with a sonication method. The characterization of the synthesized sample was done via XRD, FE-SEM, EDS, FTIR and DRS analyses. The Tauc equation revealed that the band gap of the nano composite in the direct mood was 2.05 ev, which is in the visible light range. The effect of operating factors containing dye concentration, photocatalyst dosage and pH on dye degradation efficiency was measured. Response Surface Method (RSM was employed to specify the parameter effects. The photocatalytic activity of the CuO/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite was evaluated by degradation of MO under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the pH value played a very effective role in the dye degradation process efficiency. Also, the photocatalytic degradation of MO obtained was equal to 88.47% in the optimal values.

  1. CuO, MnO2 and Fe2O3 doped biomass ash as silica source for glass production in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Srisittipokakun

    Full Text Available In this research, glass productions from rice husk ash (RHA and the effect of BaO, CuO, MnO2 and Fe2O3 on physical and optical properties were investigated. All properties were compared with glass made from SiO2 using same preparations. The results show that a higher density and refractive index of BaO, CuO, MnO2 and Fe2O3 doped in RHA glasses were obtained, compared with SiO2 glasses. The optical spectra show no significant difference between both glasses. The color of CuO glasses show blue from the absorption band near 800 nm (2B1g → 2B2g due to Cu2+ ion in octahedral coordination with a strong tetragonal distortion. The color of MnO2 glasses shows brown from broad band absorption at around 500 nm. This absorption band is assigned to a single allowed 5Eg → 5T2g transition which arises from the Mn3+ ions (3d4 configuration in octahedral symmetry. The yellow color derives from F2O3 glass due to the homogeneous distribution of Fe3+ (460 nm and Fe2+ (1050 nm ions in the glass matrices. Glass production from RHA is possible and is a new option for recycling waste from biomass power plant systems and air pollution reduction. Keywords: Rice husk ash, Glass, Optical, Physical

  2. Preparation of α-Fe2O3 nanotubes via electrospinning and research on their catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hao; Zhang, Xuebin; Chen, Fanyan; Liu, Shasha; Ji, Yi; Zhu, Yajun; Feng, Yi

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, smooth α-Fe2O3 nanotubes have been successfully synthesized by electrospinning of ferric nitrate-polyvinyl alcohol solution followed by calcination in air. The morphologies and structures of the samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The catalytic properties were studied by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicated that the as-prepared α-Fe2O3 nanotubes showed a continuous morphology and an extremely high degree of crystallization. The average inner and outer diameters of the obtained α-Fe2O3 nanotubes were about 60 nm and 100 nm, respectively. The obtained α-Fe2O3 nanotubes were able to lower the temperature of the high-temperature thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate, while they had little effect on the crystallographic phase transformation and the low-temperature thermal decomposition.

  3. Environmental TEM investigation of the reduction of α-Fe2O3 nanorods under H2 atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Fay, Michael W.; Zhu, Yanqiu

    2012-01-01

    The thermal reduction of hydrothermally synthesised α-Fe2O3 nanorods (NRs) to Fe3O4 NRs under hydrogen is investigated. Complete reduction of α-Fe2O3 NRs to Fe3O4 NRs was achieved during in situ XRD under 1 bar H2 atmosphere at 360°C. Complementary environmental transmission electron microscope...... investigation at high resolution, during in situ heating under an H2 pressure of 5 mbar at 500°C, provided evidence for the very first stages of transformation, supporting a model for the migration of oxygen along favoured α-Fe2O3 lattice planes during the templated thermal reduction of α-Fe2O3 NRs to Fe3O4 NRs....

  4. Strain Effect on Electronic Structure and Work Function in α-Fe2O3 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the electronic structure and work function modulation of α-Fe2O3 films by strain based on the density functional method. We find that the band gap of clean α-Fe2O3 films is a function of the strain and is influenced significantly by the element termination on the surface. The px and py orbitals keep close to Fermi level and account for a pronounced narrowing band gap under compressive strain, while unoccupied dz2 orbitals from conduction band minimum draw nearer to Fermi level and are responsible for the pronounced narrowing band gap under tensile strain. The spin polarized surface state, arising from localized dangling-bond states, is insensitive to strain, while the bulk band, especially for pz orbital, arising from extended Bloch states, is very sensitive to strain, which plays an important role for work function decreasing (increasing under compressive (tensile strain in Fe termination films. In particular, the work function in O terminated films is insensitive to strain because pz orbitals are less sensitive to strain than that of Fe termination films. Our findings confirm that the strain is an effective means to manipulate electronic structures and corrosion potential.

  5. Self assembly of SiO2-encapsulated carbon microsphere composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongzhen; Song Jingjing; Han Yanxing; Guo Xingmei; Liu Xuguang; Xu Bingshe

    2011-01-01

    SiO 2 was firstly coated onto the surface of carbon microspheres (CMSs) using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor by Stoeber method. Then SiO 2 -encapsulated CMS (CMS-SiO 2 ) composites were self-assembled by vertical deposition, in which the effects of deposition temperature and suspension concentration on the quality of self-assembling film were investigated. Morphologies and structures of the samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. The results show that uniform CMS-SiO 2 composites with good mono-dispersion were prepared by Stober method with 0.5 g of CMSs, 2 mL of TEOS, 30 mL of ammonia and 12 h of reaction time, the CMSs-based films with ordered and denser structure were prepared by vertical deposition using CMS-SiO 2 composites as monodipersion spheres under suspension concentration of 1 wt% and deposition temperature of 50 deg. C. The ultraviolet-visible absorption measurement shows that the absorbance of CMS-SiO 2 composite films grew steadily with increasing suspension concentration.

  6. Study of SiO2/PMMA/CE tri-component interpenetrating polymer network composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junlong; Wang Chuang; Jiao Gengsheng; Wang Qiuya

    2010-01-01

    A technology of conjugated tri-component interpenetrating polymer networks was applied to synthesize a nano-SiO 2 /polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/cyanate (CE) composite through an asynchronous synthesis way. The microstructure of the composite was characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical properties were measured in German-made DL-1000B and XCL-40 universal material test machines, respectively. Results showed that both the impact strength and the flexural strength were in the optimum status when 3% SiO 2 /PMMA/CE was chosen as a sample with the PMMA/CE ratio of 20/80. Compared with the strengths of pure cyanate, those of the composite were raised by 137.28% and 31.29%, respectively. When 3% nano-SiO 2 was added, the impact strength was increased by 29.96% and the flexural strength by 20.05%, compared with the strengths of polymers without SiO 2 . Analysis and measurements by IR and TEM indicated that no chemical reactions took place among components in the composite. The interpenetration of the conjugated tri-component improved the loading capacity of the polymer, hence the toughness enhancement of cyanate.

  7. A Highly Selective Room Temperature NH3 Gas Sensor based on Nanocrystalline a-Fe2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka A. PATIL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline a-Fe2O3 powder was synthesized by simple, inexpensive sol-gel method. The obtained powder was calcined at 700 0C in air atmosphere for 2 hours. The structural and morphological properties of calcined powder were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM respectively. Thermal properties of dried gel were studied by Thermogravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC. The XRD pattern of the powder confirmed the a-Fe2O3 (hematite phase of iron oxide with average crystalline size of 30.87 nm calculated from Scherrer equation. The FESEM images showed uniform wormlike morphology of a-Fe2O3 powder. TGA result indicated that a-Fe2O3 is thermodynamically stable. Room temperature NH3 sensing characteristics of a-Fe2O3 were studied for various concentration levels (250-2500 ppm of NH3 at various humid conditions. The sensor based on a-Fe2O3 exhibited good selectivity and excellent sensitivity (S=92 towards 1000 ppm of NH3 with quick response of 4 sec and fast recovery of 9 sec. Room temperature sensing mechanism is also discussed.

  8. Bacteria-assisted preparation of nano α-Fe2O3 red pigment powders from waste ferrous sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Chuankai; Zeng, Yu; Li, Panyu; Xie, Tonghui; Zhang, Yongkui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A route to prepare nano α-Fe 2 O 3 red pigment from waste ferrous sulfate is proposed. • Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is introduced for accelerating iron oxidation. • The particle size of synthetic α-Fe 2 O 3 is ranged from 22 nm to 86 nm. • The prepared nano α-Fe 2 O 3 red pigment fulfills ISO 1248-2006. - Abstract: Massive ferrous sulfate with excess sulfuric acid is produced in titanium dioxide industry each year, ending up stockpiled or in landfills as solid waste, which is hazardous to environment and in urgent demand to be recycled. In this study, waste ferrous sulfate was used as a second raw material to synthesize nano α-Fe 2 O 3 red pigment powders with a bacteria-assisted oxidation process by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The synthesis route, mainly consisting of bio-oxidation, precipitation and calcination, was investigated by means of titration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to obtain optimum conditions. Under the optimum conditions, nano α-Fe 2 O 3 red pigment powders contained 98.24 wt.% of Fe 2 O 3 were successfully prepared, with a morphology of spheroidal and particle size ranged from 22 nm to 86 nm and averaged at 45 nm. Moreover, the resulting product fulfilled ISO 1248-2006, the standards of iron oxide pigments.

  9. Steam reforming of ethanol over Co3O4–Fe2O3 mixed oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, A.

    2013-05-03

    Co3O4, Fe2O3 and a mixture of the two oxides Co-Fe (molar ratio of Co3O4/Fe 2O3 = 0.67 and atomic ratio of Co/Fe = 1) were prepared by the calcination of cobalt oxalate and/or iron oxalate salts at 500 C for 2 h in static air using water as a solvent/dispersing agent. The catalysts were studied in the steam reforming of ethanol to investigate the effect of the partial substitution of Co3O4 with Fe2O 3 on the catalytic behaviour. The reforming activity over Fe 2O3, while initially high, underwent fast deactivation. In comparison, over the Co-Fe catalyst both the H2 yield and stability were higher than that found over the pure Co3O4 or Fe 2O3 catalysts. DRIFTS-MS studies under the reaction feed highlighted that the Co-Fe catalyst had increased amounts of adsorbed OH/water; similar to Fe2O3. Increasing the amount of reactive species (water/OH species) adsorbed on the Co-Fe catalyst surface is proposed to facilitate the steam reforming reaction rather than decomposition reactions reducing by-product formation and providing a higher H2 yield. © Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Friction and wear properties of ZrO2/SiO2 composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Zheng Shaohua; Cao Bingqiang; Ma Shiyu

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the lubrication properties of ZrO 2 /SiO 2 composite nanoparticles modified with aluminum zirconium coupling agent as additives in lubricating oil under variable applied load and concentration fraction were reported. It was demonstrated that the modified nanoparticles as additives in lubrication can effectively improve the lubricating properties. Under an optimized concentration of 0.1 wt%, the average friction coefficient was reduced by 16.24%. This was because the nanoparticles go into the friction zone with the flow of lubricant, and then the sliding friction changed to rolling friction with a result of the reduction of the friction coefficient.

  11. Enhanced lithium-ion storage performance by structural phase transition from two-dimensional rhombohedral Fe_2O_3 to cubic Fe_3O_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yurong; Wang, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaobing; Ding, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The rhombohedral Fe_2O_3 transforms to the cubic Fe_3O_4 via a calcination treatment. • Phase structure of anodes has great influences on their electrochemical performances. • Fe_3O_4/reduced graphene oxide shows a high capacity of 825.3 mAh g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of a material varies with its structural phase transition. It is found that the rhombohedral Fe_2O_3 can transform to the cubic Fe_3O_4 via a calcination treatment in a nitrogen atmosphere, and lithium-ion storage performances of Fe_3O_4 get an obvious improvement due to its structural advantages. On the basis of data calculated by X-ray diffraction, the larger unit cell volume as well as the higher void fraction of cubic Fe_3O_4 provides lithium-ions with more transport channels for Li ions diffusion and storage without serious volume change, and thus the cubic Fe_3O_4 delivers an excellent reversible capacity of 921.1 mAh g"−"1 after 15 cycles at the current density of 50 mA g"−"1, which is much higher than 328.3 mAh g"−"1 for the rhombohedral Fe_2O_3. To further enhance the structural stability of electrodes, reduced graphene oxide is introduced. The Fe_3O_4/reduced graphene oxide show an excellent specific capacity of 825.3 mAh g"−"1 after 40 cycles and impressive rate performance of 600 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 400 mA g"−"1, which are much higher than that of Fe_3O_4 (417 and 300 mAh g"−"1), Fe_2O_3 (137.4 and 95 mAh g"−"1) and Fe_2O_3/reduced graphene oxide (390.1 and 480 mAh g"−"1). These results demonstrate that the structural phase transition and reduced graphene oxide of Fe_3O_4/reduced graphene oxide composites offer unique characteristics suitable for high-performance energy storage application.

  12. Preparation and characterization of silane-modified SiO2 particles reinforced resin composites with fluorinated acrylate polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Wang, Zengyao; Zhao, Chengji; Bu, Wenhuan; Na, Hui

    2018-04-01

    A series of fluorinated dental resin composites were prepared with two kinds of SiO 2 particles. Bis-GMA (bisphenol A-glycerolate dimethacrylate)/4-TF-PQEA (fluorinated acrylate monomer)/TEGDMA (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (40/30/30, wt/wt/wt) was introduced as resin matrix. SiO 2 nanopartices (30nm) and SiO 2 microparticles (0.3µm) were silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) and used as fillers. After mixing the resin matrix with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% SiO 2 nanopartices and 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% SiO 2 microparticles, respectively, the fluorinated resin composites were obtained. Properties including double bond conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (PS), water sorption (W p ), water solubility (W y ), mechanical properties and cytotoxicity were investigated in comparison with those of neat resin system. The results showed that, filler particles could improve the overall performance of resin composites, particularly in improving mechanical properties and reducing PS of composites along with the addition of filler loading. Compared to resin composites containing SiO 2 microparticles, SiO 2 nanoparticles resin composites had higher DC, higher mechanical properties, lower PS and lower W p under the same filler content. Especially, 50% SiO 2 microparticles reinforced resins exhibited the best flexural strength (104.04 ± 7.40MPa), flexural modulus (5.62 ± 0.16GPa), vickers microhardness (37.34 ± 1.13 HV), compressive strength (301.54 ± 5.66MPa) and the lowest polymerization (3.42 ± 0.22%). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Particle size distribution and physico-chemical composition of clay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    <300µm, <106µm, <63µm and <44µm respectively. There was no remarkable difference in silica (SiO2) as particle fractions reduced from <. 300µm - < 106µm - < 63µm but an observed. Table 1.0 Chemical composition of crude clay. Component wt (%). SiO2. 38.48. Al2O3. 12.46. Fe2O3. 6.18. TiO2. 1.85. MgO. 14.67. CaO.

  14. Polyaniline nanotubes coated with TiO2&γ-Fe2O3@graphene oxide as a novel and effective visible light photocatalyst for removal of rhodamine B from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Monireh; Kassaee, Mohammad Zaman; Mohammadi, Reza; Koohi, Maryam; Haerizadeh, Bibi Narjes

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of polyaniline-nanotubes (PANI-NT), in the presence of TiO2 and γ-Fe2O3 functionalized graphene oxide (GO), gives a green and magnetically recyclable photocatalyst, TiO2&γ-Fe2O3@GO/PANI-NT. The later orchestrates 94% photocatalytic efficiency in removal of rhodamine B (RB) from water, under simulated solar light irradiation. This is far higher than the 36% observed in the presence of TiO2&γ-Fe2O3@GO alone, where PANI-NT is excluded from the structure. Morphology, composition, and structural properties of our economically sound photocatalyst are characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma, RAMAN and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

  15. Nanoscale TiO2 and Fe2O3 Architectures for Solar Energy Conversion Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedach, Pavel Anatolyvich

    The direct conversion of sunlight into more useable forms of energy has the potential of alleviating the environmental and social problems associated with a dependence on fossil fuels. If solar energy is to be utilized en-masse, however, it must be inexpensive and widely available. In this vein, the focus of this thesis is on nanostructured materials relevant to solar energy conversion and storage. Specifically, this thesis describes the ambient sol-gel synthesis of titanium dioxide (Ti02) nanowires designed for enhanced charge-transfer in solar collection devices, and the synthesis of novel disordered metal-oxide (MOx) catalysts for water oxidation. The introductory chapter of this thesis gives an overview of the various approaches to solar energy conversion. Sol---gel reaction conditions that enable the growth of one-dimensional (1-D) anatase TiO2 nanostructures from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) for photovoltaics (PVs) are described in the second chapter. The generation of these linear nanostructures in the absence of an external bias or template is achieved by using facile experimental conditions (e.g., acetic acid (HOAc) and titanium isopropoxide (Ti(OiPr)4) in anhydrous heptane). The procedure was developed by functionalizing base-treated substrates with Ti-oxide nucleation sites that serve as a foundation for the growth of linear Ti-oxide macromolecules, which upon calcination, render uniform films of randomly oriented anatase TiO2 nanowires. A systematic evaluation of how reaction conditions (e.g., solvent volume, stoichiometry of reagents, substrate base treatment) affect the generation of these TiO 2 films is presented. A photo-organic MO. deposition route (i.e., photochemical metal-organic deposition (PMOD)) used to deposit thin-films of amorphous iron oxide (a-Fe2O3) for water oxidation catalysis is detailed in third chapter. It is shown that the irradiation of a spin-coated metal-organic film produces a film of non-crystalline a-Fe203. It is shown

  16. Gummic acid stabilized γ-Fe2O3 aqueous suspensions for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaefthymiou, G. C.; Rabias, I.; Fardis, M.; Devlin, E.; Boukos, N.; Tsitrouli, D.; Papavassiliou, G.

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles depend critically on their preparation as aqueous colloidal suspensions, or ferrofluids, with long term stability under physiological conditions. Dispersion of the magnetic nanoparticles is generally achieved by the use of protein cages, polysaccharide, polypeptide and charged macromolecular coatings, which minimize interparticle magnetic interactions, particle agglomeration and precipitation. The synthesis and characterization of gummic-acid stabilized maghemite ferrofluids is reported. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering measurements give a γ-Fe 2 O 3 magnetic core diameter of 8 nm and a nanocomposite particle hydrodynamic diameter of 50 nm. Moessbauer and magnetization measurements indicate the presence of isolated, sterically stabilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles resistant to aging, and thus, promising agents for the production of novel magneto-pharmaceuticals.

  17. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansi Rani, B.; Mageswari, R.; Ravi, G.; Ganesh, V.; Yuvakkumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of processing parameters on the physicochemical properties of hematite α-Fe2O3 nanostructures was investigated. X-ray diffraction results revealed the hematite phase rhombohedral structure. Scanning electron microscope results explored nanospheres, nanohexagonal platelets, nanoellipsoids, distorted nanocubes, and interconnected platelets nanostructures. Rhombohedral single-phase hematite was confirmed through five Raman active modes. 2 P 3/2 (1) → 2 P 1/2 transition in photoluminescence spectra and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy band observed at 555 cm-1 revealed the hematite formation. The highest specific capacitance value of 151.09 F/g for scan rate of 10 mV/s was obtained for the hydrothermal-assisted product using an Fe(NO3)2·9H2O precursor in KOH electrolyte solutions.

  18. In-situ preparation of Fe2O3 hierarchical arrays on stainless steel substrate for high efficient catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zeheng; Wang, Kun; Shao, Zongming; Tian, Yuan; Chen, Gongde; Wang, Kai; Chen, Zhangxian; Dou, Yan; Zhang, Weixin

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical array catalysts with micro/nano structures on substrates not only possess high reactivity from large surface area and suitable interface, but intensify mass transfer through shortening the diffusion paths of both reactants and products for high catalytic efficiency. Herein, we first demonstrate fabrication of Fe 2 O 3 hierarchical arrays grown on stainless-steel substrates via in-situ hydrothermal chemical oxidation followed by heat treatment in N 2 atmosphere. As a Fenton-like catalyst, Fe 2 O 3 hierarchical arrays exhibit excellent catalytic activity and life cycle performance for methylene blue (MB) dye degradation in aqueous solution in the presence of H 2 O 2 . The Fe 2 O 3 catalyst with unique hierarchical structures and efficient transport channels, effectively activates H 2 O 2 to generate large quantity of • OH radicals and highly promotes reaction kinetics between MB and • OH radicals. Immobilization of hierarchical array catalysts on stainless-steel can prevent particles agglomeration, facilitate the recovery and reuse of the catalysts, which is expected promising applications in wastewater remediation. - Graphical abstract: The in-situ synthesis of Fe 2 O 3 hierarchical arrays on stainless-steel substrates was reported for the first time, which exhibit excellent catalytic activity performance for methylene blue (MB) dye degradation in aqueous solution in the presence of H 2 O 2 . - Highlights: • Fe 2 O 3 hierarchical arrays was prepared by in-situ hydrothermal chemical oxidation. • F − ions play an important role in the formation of the Fe 2 O 3 hierarchical arrays. • Fe 2 O 3 hierarchical arrays show high catalytic activity to methylene blue degradation.

  19. Photodegradation of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in the γ-Fe2O3/oxalate suspension under UVA light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xugang; Liu Chengshuai; Li Xiaomin; Li Fangbai; Zhou Shungui

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various factors on the photodegradation of organic pollutants in natural environment with co-existence of iron oxides and oxalic acid. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) was selected as a model pollutant, while γ-Fe 2 O 3 was selected as iron oxide. The crystal structure and morphology of the prepared γ-Fe 2 O 3 was determined by X-ray diffractograms (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The specific surface area was 14.36 m 2 /g by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The adsorption behavior of γ-Fe 2 O 3 was evaluated by Langmuir model. The effect of the dosage of iron oxide, initial concentration of oxalic acid (C ox 0 ), initial pH value, the light intensity and additional transition metal cations on MBT photodegradation was investigated in the γ-Fe 2 O 3 /oxalate suspension under UVA light irradiation. The optimal γ-Fe 2 O 3 dosage was 0.4 g/L and the optimal C ox 0 was 0.8 mM with the UVA light intensity of 1800 mW/cm 2 . And the optimal dosage of γ-Fe 2 O 3 and C ox 0 for MBT degradation also depended strongly on the light intensity. The optimal γ-Fe 2 O 3 dosage was 0.1, 0.25 and 0.4 g/L, and the optimal C ox 0 was 1.0, 0.8, and 0.8 mM with the light intensity of 600, 1200 and 1800 mW/cm 2 , respectively. The optimal initial pH value was at 3.0. The additional transition metal cations including Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ or Mn 2+ could significantly accelerate MBT degradation. This investigation will give a new insight to understanding the MBT photodegradation in natural environment

  20. High ink absorption performance of inkjet printing based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, YiFan; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Li; Du, Yunzhe; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, LiWei; Huang, YuDong

    2018-04-01

    The increasing growth of the inkjet market makes the inkjet printing more necessary. A composite material based on core-shell structure has been developed and applied to prepare inkjet printing layer. In this contribution, the ink printing record layers based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell composite was elaborated. The prepared core-shell composite materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved the presence of electrostatic adsorption between SiO2 molecules and Al13 molecules with the formation of the well-dispersed system. In addition, based on the adsorption and the liquid permeability analysis, SiO2@Al13 ink printing record layer achieved a relatively high ink uptake (2.5 gmm-1) and permeability (87%), respectively. The smoothness and glossiness of SiO2@Al13 record layers were higher than SiO2 record layers. The core-shell structure facilitated the dispersion of the silica, thereby improved its ink absorption performance and made the clear printed image. Thus, the proposed procedure based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell structure of dye particles could be applied as a promising strategy for inkjet printing.

  1. Study of structure and optical properties of Fe2O3.CaO.Bi2O3 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, Sujata; Duhan, Sarita; Agarwal, Ashish; Aghamkar, Praveen

    2009-01-01

    Glasses with compositions 0.05Fe 2 O 3 .0.95{xCaO.(100 - x)Bi 2 O 3 } (20 ≤ x ≤ 40 mol.%) have been prepared using the normal melt quench technique. The density and molar volume have been determined. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to investigate the structure of the glass matrix. The optical studies in the UV-VIS-NIR region for all these glasses show a sharp cutoff and a large transmitting window. The values of both of the optical band gap (E g ) and width tails (ΔE) are determined. It is observed that E g is decreased and ΔE increased with the increase of CaO in the glass matrix. The metallization criterion (M), interaction parameter (A th ), average electronic polarizability of the oxide ion (α O 2- ) and optical basicity (Λ) of these glasses are determined from the values of optical band gap. Small value of M makes them appealing candidates for non-linear optical materials. Both α O 2- and Λ increase with increase in CaO content. The compositional dependence of the above properties are discussed and correlated to the structure of the glass.

  2. Nanostructured Fe2O3/Al2O3 Adsorbent for removal of As (V from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Akhlaghian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of arsenate in drinking water causes adverse health effects including skin lesions, diabetes, cancer, damage to the nervous system, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the removal of As (V from water is necessary. In this work, nanostructured adsorbent Fe2O3/Al2O3 was synthesized via the sol-gel method and applied to remove arsenate from polluted waters. First, the Fe2O3 load of the adsorbent was optimized. The Fe2O3/Al2O3 adsorbent was characterized by means of XRF, XRD, ASAP, and SEM techniques. The effects of the operating conditions of the batch process of As (V adsorption such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration of As (V solution were studied, and optimized. The thermodynamic study of the process showed that arsenate adsorption was endothermic. The kinetic model corresponded to the pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm was better fitted to the experimental data. The Fe2O3/Al2O3 adsorbent was immobilized on leca granules and applied for As (V adsorption. The results showed that the immobilization of Fe2O3/Al2O3 on leca particles improved the As (V removal efficiency.

  3. Enhanced visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity of α-Fe2O3 adsorbing redox enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kamada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report fabrication of hybrid photocatalyst composed of an n-type semiconductor (α-Fe2O3 and a redox enzyme (horseradish peroxidase; HRP, and its performance for oxidation of luminol in an aqueous solution. The hybrid photocatalyst is simply formed via physical adsorption of HRP to an α-Fe2O3 sintered body. Under visible light irradiation, the bare α-Fe2O3 with a narrow bandgap photocatalytically oxidizes luminol along with blue emission that can be used as an indicator of the photocatalytic performance. The blue emission is largely strengthened after the adsorption of HRP, demonstrating that the presence of enzyme improves apparent photocatalytic activity of α-Fe2O3. The favorable effect is derived from synergistic oxidation of luminol by the biocatalysts (HRP as well as by the photocatalyst (α-Fe2O3. In this paper, influence of excitation wavelength, adsorption amount of HRP, and reaction temperature on the overall photocatalytic activity are elucidated, and then a reaction mechanism of the proposed novel hybrid photocatalyst is discussed in detail.

  4. Fast-LPG Sensors at Room Temperature by α-Fe2O3/CNT Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chaitongrat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present performance of a room temperature LPG sensor based on α-Fe2O3/CNT (carbon nanotube nanocomposite films. The nanocomposite film was fabricated via the metallic Fe catalyst particle on CNTs in which both the catalyst particles and the CNT were simultaneously synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD synthesis and were subsequently annealed in air to create α-Fe2O3. These methods are simple, inexpensive, and suitable for large-scale production. The structure, surface morphologies, and LPG response of nanocomposite films were investigated. Raman spectroscopy and XPS analysis showed the formation of α-Fe2O3 on small CNTs (SWNTs. Morphological analysis using FE-SEM and AFM revealed the formation of the porous surface along with roughness surface. Additionally, the sensing performance of α-Fe2O3/CNTs showed that it could detect LPG concentration at lower value than 25% of LEL with response/recovery time of less than 30 seconds at room temperature. These results suggest that the α-Fe2O3/CNTs films are challenging materials for monitoring LPG operating at room temperature.

  5. Compressive strength and magnetic properties of calcium silicate-zirconia-iron (III) oxide composite cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzwan, Hendrie Johann Muhamad; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Ismail, Hamisah; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Awang, Rozidawati Binti

    2018-04-01

    In this study, ZrO2 microparticles and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been added into calcium silicate based cements. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the compressive strength and magnetic properties of the prepared composite cement. Calcium silicate (CAS) powder was prepared by hydrothermal method. SiO2 and CaO obtained from rice husk ash and limestone respectively were autoclaved at 135 °C for 8 h and sintered at 950°C to obtain CAS powder. SiO2:CaO ratio was set at 45:55. CAS/ZrO2 sample were prepared with varying ZrO2 microparticles concentrations by 0-40 wt. %. Compressive strength value of CAS/ZrO2 cements range from 1.44 to 2.44 MPa. CAS/ZrO2/γ-Fe2O3 sample with 40 wt. % ZrO2 were prepared with varying γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles concentrations (1-5 wt. %). The additions of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles showed up to twofold increase in the compressive strength of the cement. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the formation of mixed phases in the produced composite cements. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis revealed that the ferromagnetic behaviour has been observed in CAS/ZrO2/γ-Fe2O3 composite cements.

  6. Electrical conduction of glasses in the system Fe2O3-Sb2O3-TeO2; Fe2O3-Sb2O3-TeO2 kei garasu no denki dendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Honghua; Mori, H; Sakata, H; Hirayama, T [Tokai Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-01-01

    In this study, taking into consideration that TeO2 is a component of the glass network and Sb2O3 shows the redox effect in the glasses reducing its possibility of transformation of Sb{sup 3+} to Sb{sup 5+} as well as glass basicity, highly conductive tellurite based glasses have been prepared by the press-quenching method selecting the Fe2O3-Sb2O3-TeO2 system, and the electroconductive mechanism of the glasses has been examined by measuring its D.C. conductivity {sigma}. Part of the obtained information is as follows; the glass formation range of the Fe2O3-Sb2O3-TeO2 system has been 0 {le} Fe2O3 {le} 15mol%, 0 {le} Sb2O3 {le} 18mol% and 78 {le} TeO2 {le} 100mol% and about 15mol% of the additional amount of Fe2O3 has been the limit of glass formation. As the amount of Fe2O3 has increased, C{sub Fe} has also increased and with this, the linear electroconductivity of the glasses has increased from 1.86 {times} 10{sup -7}S{center_dot}cm{sup -1} to 1.62 {times} 10{sup -6}S{center_dot}cm{sup -1} and the glasses have been confirmed as the n-type semiconductor. The factor determining {sigma} of the glasses has been C{sub Fe} which has increased as the amount of Fe2O3 has increased. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Surface modification of Fe_2O_3/Fe_3O_4 nanocomposites for use in immobilization of glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, I.L.T.; Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Oliveira, L.S.C.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in the number of people with diabetes in recent years and the high cost-benefit ratio of the existing biosensor technology have increased the interest for the development of glucose detection biosensor based on immobilization of glucose-oxidase (GOD) mainly using magnetic nanoparticles. In this context, nanocomposites of Fe_2O_3/Fe_3O_4 were prepared by combustion reaction and their surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane via silanization reaction and with chitosan via functionalization to obtain a hybrid material that was evaluated as possible GOD immobilizer. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic properties and in vitro cytotoxicity. The results revealed that it was possible to obtain the ferrimagnetic composite, the surface modification reduced the saturation magnetization, but maintained the ferrimagnetic characteristics, and all samples were considered non-toxic. For preliminary testing of the GOD immobilization it was revealed that the nanocomposite modified with silane and chitosan showed the better result, about 2.7 mg of immobilized GOD for 100 mg of nanocomposite, which makes this material a potential alternative to manufacture GOD biosensors. (author)

  8. Environmental transmission electron microscopy investigations of Pt-Fe2O3 nanoparticles for nucleating carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Jin, Hua; Zhang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    electron microscopy, restructuring of the acorn-like Pt-Fe2O3 nanoparticles at reaction conditions is investigated. Upon heating to reaction temperature, ε-Fe2O3 is converted to β-Fe2O3, which can be subsequently reduced to metallic Fe once introducing CO. As Pt promotes the carburization of Fe, part...... of the metallic Fe reacts with active carbon atoms to form Fe2.5C instead of Fe3C, catalyzing the nucleation of carbon nanotubes. Nanobeam electron diffraction characterizations on SWCNTs grown under ambient pressure at 800 °C demonstrate that their chiral angle and diameter distributions are similar to those...

  9. Enhanced the hydrophobic surface and the photo-activity of TiO2-SiO2 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, S.; Prasetya, A. T.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is to develop nanomaterials for coating applications. This research studied the effect of various TiO2-SiO2 composites in acrylic paint to enhance the hydrophobic properties of the substrate. Titanium dioxide containing silica in the range 20-35 mol% has been synthesized using sol-gel route. The XRD’s spectra show that increasing SiO2 content in the composite, decreasing its crystalline properties but increasing the surface area. TiO2-SiO2 composite was dispersed in acrylic paint in 2% composition by weight. The largest contact angle was 70, which produced by the substrate coated with TS-35-modified acrylic paint. This study also investigated the enhanced photo-activity of TiO2-SiO2 modified with poly-aniline. The XRD spectra show that the treatment does not change the crystal structure of TiO2. The photo-activity of the composite was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine-B with visible light. The best performance of the degradation process was handled by the composite treated with 0.1mL anilines per gram of TiO2-SiO2 composite (TSP-A). On the other side, the contact angle 70 has not shown an excellent hydrophobic activity. However, the AFM spectra showed that nanoroughness has started to form on the surface of acrylic paint modified with TiO2-SiO2 than acrylic alone.

  10. Moessbauer spectroscopy study on the hydrothermal transformation α-FeOOH → α-Fe2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, D.; Diamandescu, L.; Mihaila-Tarabsanu, D.; Rusi, A.; Moraria, M.

    1990-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of the hydrothermal transformation α-FeOOH→α-Fe 2 O 3 was studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. From the reaction isotherms, a monomolecular, first order reaction was found to characterise the hydrothermal transformation of alpha oxihydroxide to the alpha iron oxide. The rate constant as well as the activation energy of this process were determined. No intermediate phases were identified in the hydrothermal samples. The thermodynamic properties of the hydrothermal system α-FeOOH→α-Fe 2 O 3 in correlation with Moessbauer spectroscopy data are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of size and morphology of ZnO and Fe2O3 nanoparticles in dispersive media by SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Wang Meng; Zhu Motao; Zhao Yuliang; Wu Zhonghua

    2007-01-01

    The size and shape of ZnO and Fe 2 O 3 nano-particles in 1% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose were measured by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of synchrotron radiation. Compared with the TEM results, the SAXS results indicated that the ZnO and Fe 2 O 3 nano-particles in 1% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose were agglomerated. However, the size and shape of the agglomerated particles were almost unchanged along with the increase of particle concentration, indicating that the particles in 1% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose were stable. (authors)

  12. INVESTIGATION ON PHYSICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SiO2-ZnO NANOCOMPOSITE AT DIFFERENT COMPOSITION MIXINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Sinol

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and electrical properties of The SiO2-ZnO mixing at different compositions were investigated. The experiment used simple mixing method at the sintering temperature 600oC. It was used the composition mixing ratio of SiO2:ZnO ie. 0:10; 7:3; 5:5; 3:7; and 10:0 (%Wt. Based on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results, it obtained that a new phase in each sample was not formed even though having different diffraction peak. The mixing ratio of SiO2: ZnO nanocomposite (7:3 %wt had the biggest grain size (77,92 nm, the highest dielectric constant (3.00E+05 and the smallest conductivity (0,726549 (Ωm-1. On the other side, the mixing ratio of SiO2: ZnO nanocomposite (5:5 %wt had the smallest grain size (35.42nm, dielectric constant (3.00E+2 and the highest conductivity (25.36729  (Ωm-1. It can be concluded that the difference of composition ratio offered the change on both physical and electrical properties of SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite.

  13. Liquidus Temperature of SrO-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass-Forming Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Brett M.; Morgan, James M.; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    . In the composition range of interest for industrial glasses, Tliq tends to decrease with increasing strontium-to-alumina ratio. We find that cristobalite, mullite, and slawsonite are the dominant devitrification phases for the compositions with high SiO2, SiO2+Al2O3, and SrO contents, respectively. By comparison...... with the phase diagrams for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 systems, we have found that for the highest [RO]/[Al2O3] ratios, Tliq exhibits a minimum value for R = Ca. Based on the phase diagram established here, the composition of glass materials, for example, for liquid crystal display substrates, belonging...... to the SrO-Al2O3-SiO2 family may be designed with a more exact control of the glass-forming ability by avoiding the regions of high liquidus temperature....

  14. EPR spectroscopic investigations in 15BaO-25Li2O-(60-x) B2O3-xFe2O3 glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogi, Ashok; Kumar, R. Vijaya; Kistaiah, P.

    2018-05-01

    Glasses with composition 15BaO-25Li2O-(60-x) B2O3 -xFe2O3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mol %) were prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. These glasses were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations have been carried out as a function of iron ion concentration. The observed EPR spectra of Fe3+ ion exhibits resonance signals at g= 2.0, 4.3 and 8.0. The resonance signal at g= 4.3 is due to isolated Fe3+ ions in site with rhombic symmetry where as the g= 2.0 resonance signal is attributed to the Fe3+ ions coupled by exchange interaction in a distorted octahedral environment and the signal at g= 8.0 arises from axially distorted sites. The number of spins participating in resonance (N) and its paramagnetic susceptibilities (χ) have also been evaluated. The peak-to-peak line width ΔB for the resonance lines at g ≈ 4.3 and at g ≈ 2.0 is increasing as function of the iron ion content. The line intensity of the resonance centered at g ≈ 4.3 and at g ≈ 2.0 increases up to 0.8 mol% of Fe2O3 and for 1 mol% of Fe2O3 its value is found to decrease. The analysis of these results indicated that the conversion some of Fe3+ cations to Fe2+ ions beyond 0.8 mol%.

  15. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Investigation of multiphase equilibria in the subsolidus of BaO–CoO–Fe2O3–Al2O3 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyrkin Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems related to the development of new nonmetal materials and their performance characteristics is to predict the phase composition. The most comprehensive information on phase interactions and the thermodynamic stability of phase combinations is given by the state diagrams. The materials synthesized in the system subsolidus domain can be predicted the most accurately, because their sintering occurs without participation of the melt. Due to the above fact, the studies of the subsolidus structure of BaO – CoO – Fe2O3 – Al2O3 system are of great interest, because on the basis of this system we can obtain a huge amount of nonmetal materials with prescribed properties, for example ferrimagnetic materials to protect from electromagnetic radiation, because the system compounds have cementing, refractory and ferrimagnetic properties. To study the structure of BaO – CoO – Fe2O3 – Al2O3 system in detail the authors summed up already known data on the thermodynamic constants of system compounds. This allowed us to do the thermodynamic analysis of multiphase equilibrium processes that occur in the subsolidus of BaO – CoO – Fe2O3 – Al2O3 system that was used as a basis for the plotting of the state diagram for the subsolidus domain of the system. A promising field for the application of obtained data is the cement production technology. The produced cement can be used independently and as a binding material to produce special cements and materials that retain their properties when exposed to the action of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Covalent immobilization of lipase onto aminopropyl-functionalized hydroxyapatite-encapsulated-γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles: A magnetic biocatalyst for interesterification of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenlei; Zang, Xuezhen

    2017-07-15

    Hydroxyapatite-encapsulated γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were prepared, and lipase from Candida rugosa was then covalently bound onto the magnetic materials via covalent linkages. The magnetic carrier and immobilized lipase were characterized by enzyme activity assays, XRD, FT-IR, TEM, VSM and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques. Results demonstrated that γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were coated with the hydroxyapatite, and the lipase was indeed tethered to the magnetic carriers without damage to their structure. The immobilized lipase showed a strong magnetic responsiveness and displayed high catalytic activities towards the interesterification of soybean oil. The interesterified products were evaluated for their total fatty acid (FA) composition, slip melting point (SMP), iodine value, triacylglycerols (TAGs) profile and FA composition at sn-2 position in TAGs. The FA positional distributions and TAG species significantly changed after the enzymatic interesterification. Besides this, the interesterified products showed an obvious reduction in their SMP in comparison with the physical blends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 1s2p resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in a-Fe2O3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caliebe, W.A.; Kao, C.-C.; Hastings, J.B.; Taguchi, M.; Kotani, A.; Uozumi, T.; Groot, F.M.F. de

    1998-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on the Fe K edge x-ray absorption spectrum and 1s2p resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra in a-Fe2O3 . The results are interpreted using an FeO6^9- cluster model with intra-atomic multiplet coupling and interatomic covalency

  19. Thick Fe2O3, Fe3O4 films prepared by the chemical solution deposition method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Josef; Košovan, P.; Šubrt, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2006), s. 85-94 ISSN 0928-0707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : chemical solution deposition * thick films * alpha-Fe2O3 Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.009, year: 2006

  20. Quantum Mechanical Study of γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticle as a Nanocarrier for Anticancer Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Hadi; Morsali, Ali; Heravi, Mohammad Momen

    2018-05-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT), noncovalent interactions and four mechanisms of covalent functionalization of melphalan anticancer drug onto γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been studied. Quantum molecular descriptors of noncovalent configurations were investigated. It was specified that binding of melphalan onto γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles is thermodynamically suitable. Hardness and the gap of energy between LUMO and HOMO of melphalan are higher than the noncovalent configurations, showing the reactivity of drug increases in the presence of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Melphalan can bond to γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles through NH2 (k1 mechanism), OH (k2 mechanism), C=O (k3 mechanism) and Cl (k4 mechanism) groups. The activation energies, the activation enthalpies and the activation Gibbs free energies of these reactions were calculated. Thermodynamic data indicate that k3 mechanism is exothermic and spontaneous and can take place at room temperature. These results could be generalized to other similar drugs.

  1. α-Fe2O3 lithium battery anodes by nanocasting strategy from ordered 2D and 3D templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lupo, F.; Gerbaldi, C.; Casino, S.; Francia, C.; Meligrana, G.; Tuel, A.; Penazzi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanosized α-Fe 2 O 3 lithium battery conversion anodes with tunable morphology. • Nanocasting technique using MCM-41 and MCM-48 silica moulds is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • α-Fe 2 O 3 replica of MCM-41 exhibits stable capacity (∼300 mA h g −1 ) after 100 cycles. • α-Fe 2 O 3 replica of MCM-41 shows promising prospects as high-capacity Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Nanocasting strategy is here proposed as effective approach to tune structure and size of α-Fe 2 O 3 active nanoparticles as a promising anode material for Li-ion cells. MCM-41 and MCM-48 silicas, presenting hexagonal 2D and cubic 3D symmetry, respectively, and regular pore diameter of about 4 nm are selected as moulds. The structural–morphological and electrochemical characteristics are assessed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N 2 physisorption at 77 K, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge/charge cycling. It is here demonstrated that structural–morphological features change accordingly to the template used and careful control of the texture/particle characteristics is likely a fundamental variable noticeably affecting the cycling behaviour

  2. Evaporated self-supporting foils of enriched iron from the in-situ reduction of Fe2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riel, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the reduction of isotopically enriched Fe 2 O 3 usng a controlled thermite reaction. The method will produce strain free evaporated films of 100-300 μg/cm 2 which can be floated and mounted, using standard techniques, to make strong self-supporting targets. (author)

  3. Study on adsorption of 99Tc on Fe, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The absorption behavior of 99 Tc on Fe, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 powders from aqueous 99 TcO 4 - solutions is studied by batch method in atmospheric conditions. After the adsorption reaches equilibrium, the valence state of 99 Tc in the aqueous solution is examined by extraction with tetraphenylarsonium chloride. The experimental results show that the adsorption ratio of 99 Tc on iron powders decreases with the increase of pH (in the range of 5-8) and of CO 3 2- concentration (in the range of 1 x 10 -8 -1 x 10 -2 mol/L). In opposite, the two factors have no significant influence on the absorption of 99 Tc on both Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 powders. The adsorption isotherms of 99 TcO 4 - on Fe, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 powders can be well described by the Freundlich's equation. The major valence state of 99 Tc is deduced to be Tc(IV) when iron powders is used as the absorbent. In the case of Fe 2 O 3 or Fe 3 O 4 as an absorbent, the 99 Tc remains as the TcO 4 - form

  4. Acetone sensors based on microsheet-assembled hierarchical Fe2O3 with different Fe3+ concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Yan, Lei; Li, Shuo; Li, Yu; Liu, Li; Du, Liting; Duan, Haojie; Cheng, Yali

    2018-02-01

    Several different morphologies of microsheet-assembled Fe2O3 have been fabricated by hydrothermal method using diverse concentrations of Fe3+ precursor solutions (0.025, 0.020, 0.015, 0.010 mol/L Fe3+). The as-synthesized materials have been characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The SEM images reflect that the morphologies of as-synthesized materials are affected by the concentrations of Fe3+ in precursor solutions. The less concentration of Fe3+, the more porous of Fe2O3 microflowers, and thinner of slices distributed on the surface. Furthermore, gas sensors based on these Fe2O3 microflowers manufactured and tested to various common gases. The optimum response value to 100 ppm acetone is 52 at the working temperature of 220 °C. Meanwhile, the Fe2O3 microflower sensors possess ultrafast response-recovery speed, which are 8 and 19 s, respectively. The possible sensing mechanism was mainly attributed to the high surface area, three-dimensional porous structure.

  5. Microstructure and gas sensitive properties of alpha-Fe2O3-MO2 (M: Sn and Ti) materials prepared by ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, R.; Mørup, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Metastable alpha-Fe2O3-MO2 (M: Sn and Ti) solid solutions can be synthesized by mechanical alloying. The alloy formation, microstructure, and gas sensitive properties of mechanically milled alpha-Fe2O3-SnO2 materials are discussed. Tin ions in alpha-Fe2O3 are found to occupy the empty octahedral...... holes in the alpha-Fe2O3 lattice. This interstitial model can also describe the structure of alpha-Fe2O3-TiO2 solid solutions. Finally, a correlation of gas sensitive properties with microstructure of alpha-Fe2O3-SnO2 materials is presented....

  6. Mesoporous silica (MCM-41)-Fe2O3 as a novel magnetic nanosensor for determination of trace amounts of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Shadjou, Nasrin; Omidinia, Eskandar

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic (Fe2O3) mobile crystalline material-41 (MCM-41) was prepared and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. Due to the large surface area (1213 m(2)g(-1)) and remarkable electrocatalytic properties of MCM-41-Fe2O3, the MCM-41-Fe2O3 modified glassy carbon electrode (MCM-41-Fe2O3/GCE) exhibits potent electrocatalytic activity toward the electro-oxidation of amino acids. MCM-41-Fe2O3/GCE brings new capabilities for electrochemical sensing by combining the advantages of Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles and MCM-41 with very large surface area. Cyclic voltammetry, hydrodynamic amperometry and flow injection analysis used to determination of amino acids at higher concentration range. Fast response time, excellent catalytic activity, and ease of preparation are the advantages of the proposed amino acid sensor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In-situ grown CNTs modified SiO2/C composites as anode with improved cycling stability and rate capability for lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siqi; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; He, Fang; Ma, Liying

    2018-03-01

    Silica (SiO2) is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries owing to its high theoretical specific capacity, relatively low operation potentials, abundance, environmental benignity and low cost. However, the low intrinsic electrical conductivity and large volume change of SiO2 during the discharge/charge cycles usually results in poor electrochemical performance. In this work, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified SiO2/C composites have been fabricated through an in-situ chemical vapor deposition method. The results show that the electrical conductivity of the SiO2/C/CNTs is visibly enhanced through a robust connection between the CNTs and SiO2/C particles. Compared with the pristine SiO2 and SiO2/C composites, the SiO2/C/CNTs composites display a high initial capacity of 1267.2 mA h g-1. Besides, an excellent cycling stability with the capacity of 315.7 mA h g-1 is achieved after 1000th cycles at a rate of 1 A g-1. The significantly improved electrochemical properties of the SiO2/C/CNTs composites are mainly attributed to the formation of three dimensional CNT networks in the SiO2/C substrate, which can not only shorten the Li-ion diffusion path but also relieve the volume change during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction processes.

  8. Plasma dynamic synthesis and obtaining ultrafine powders of iron oxides with high content of ε-Fe2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkov, Alexander; Naiden, Evgenii; Ivashutenko, Alexander; Shanenkov, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafine iron oxide powders were successfully synthesized using the plasma dynamic synthesis method, based on the use of a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with the iron electrode system. The synthesis was implemented in the high-speed iron-containing plasma jet, flowing into the space of the sealed chamber, filled with the gaseous mixture of oxygen and argon at different ratios. The XRD investigations showed that the synthesized products were heterophase and consisted of three main phases such as magnetite Fe3O4, hematite α-Fe2O3 and ε-Fe2O3. The SEM data confirmed the presence of three particle types: the hollow spheroids with sizes about hundreds of micrometers (magnetite), the particles with sizes up to 100 μm from the porous material of sintered submicron particles (hematite), and nanoscale particles (ε-phase). We found that at the higher oxygen concentration the content of ε-Fe2O3 is increased up to 50% at the same time with decreasing the Fe3O4 phase. The magnetic properties of the products are mainly determined by magnetite characteristics and are significantly reduced with decreasing its content in the powder. In order to investigate the synthesized ε-Fe2O3 on the ability to absorb the electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range, we separated the product with the higher ε-phase concentration. The fraction mainly, consisting of ε-Fe2O3, showed the occurrence of the natural resonance at frequencies of 8.3 GHz and 130 GHz.

  9. Self-Assembled α-Fe2O3 mesocrystals/graphene nanohybrid for enhanced electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuhua; Song, Xuefeng; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2014-06-12

    Self-assembled α-Fe2O3 mesocrystals/graphene nanohybrids have been successfully synthesized and have a unique mesocrystal porous structure, a large specific surface area, and high conductivity. Mesocrystal structures have recently attracted unparalleled attention owing to their promising application in energy storage as electrochemical capacitors. However, mesocrystal/graphene nanohybrids and their growth mechanism have not been clearly investigated. Here we show a facile fabrication of short rod-like α-Fe2O3 mesocrystals/graphene nanohybrids by self-assembly of FeOOH nanorods as the primary building blocks on graphene under hydrothermal conditions, accompanied and promoted by concomitant phase transition from FeOOH to α-Fe2O3. A systematic study of the formation mechanism is also presented. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curve shows a superior specific capacitance of the as-prepared α-Fe2O3 mesocrystals/graphene nanohybrid (based on total mass of active materials), which is 306.9 F g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) in the aqueous electrolyte under voltage ranges of up to 1 V. The nanohybrid with unique sufficient porous structure and high electrical conductivity allows for effective ion and charge transport in the whole electrode. Even at a high discharge current density of 10 A g(-1), the enhanced ion and charge transport still yields a higher capacitance (98.2 F g(-1)), exhibiting enhanced rate capability. The α-Fe2O3 mesocrystal/graphene nanohybrid electrode also demonstrates excellent cyclic performance, which is superior to previously reported graphene-based hematite electrode, suggesting it is highly stable as an electrochemical capacitor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Sprayed alpha-Fe2O3 Thin Films : Influence of Si Doping and SnO2 Interfacial Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Y.; Enache, C.S.; Van De Krol, R.

    2008-01-01

    a-Fe2O3 thin film photoanodes for solar water splitting were prepared by spray pyrolysis of Fe(AcAc)3. The donor density in the Fe2O3 films could be tuned between 10171020cm-3 by doping with silicon. By depositing a 5 nm SnO2 interfacial layer between the Fe2O3 films and the transparent conducting

  11. Composite SiOx/hydrocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of SiO2 and polyimide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabik, M.; Kousal, J.; Pinosh, Y.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Macková, Anna; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Pešička, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 7 (2007), s. 920-927 ISSN 0042-207X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite films * magnetron * sputtering * polyimide * SiO2 Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2007

  12. Wear and friction performance of PTFE filled epoxy composites with a high concentration of SiO2 particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J.T.; Top, M.; Pei, Y.T.; de Hosson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the tribological performance of PTFE filled SiO2 particles–epoxy composites is investigated. Under a load of 60 N (~140 MPa contact pressure), the optimum content of PTFE lies between 10 and 15 wt%, which yields an ultralow coefficient of friction (CoF) in conjunction with a low wear

  13. Facile synthesis of microporous SiO2/triangular Ag composite nanostructures for photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sidhharth; Singh, Anandpreet; Dagar, Chakit; Saini, Gajender; Pani, Balaram; Nain, Ratyakshi

    2017-11-01

    In this article, we present a novel fabrication of microporous SiO2/triangular Ag nanoparticles for dye (methylene blue) adsorption and plasmon-mediated degradation. Microporous SiO2 nanoparticles with pore size aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane) to introduce amine groups. Amine-functionalized microporous silica was used for adsorption of triangular silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The synthesized microporous SiO2 nanostructures were investigated for adsorption of different dyes including methylene blue, congo red, direct green 26 and curcumin crystalline. Amine-functionalized microporous SiO2/triangular Ag nanostructures were used for plasmon-mediated photocatalysis of methylene blue. The experimental results revealed that the large surface area of microporous silica facilitated adsorption of dye. Triangular Ag nanoparticles, due to their better charge carrier generation and enhanced surface plasmon resonance, further enhanced the photocatalysis performance.

  14. Rapid removal of uranium from aqueous solutions using magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 composite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fang-Li; Qin, Zhi; Bai, Jing; Rong, Wei-Dong; Fan, Fu-You; Tian, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Liang

    2012-04-01

    Rapid removal of U(VI) from aqueous solutions was investigated using magnetic Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) composite particles as the novel adsorbent. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of initial pH, amount of adsorbent, shaking time and initial U(VI) concentrations on uranium sorption efficiency as well as the desorbing of U(VI). The sorption of uranium on Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) composite particles was pH-dependent, and the optimal pH was 6.0. In kinetics studies, the sorption equilibrium can be reached within 180 min, and the experimental data were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order model, and the equilibrium sorption capacities calculated by the model were almost the same as those determined by experiments. The Langmuir sorption isotherm model correlates well with the uranium sorption equilibrium data for the concentration range of 20-200 mg/L. The maximum uranium sorption capacity onto magnetic Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) composite particles was estimated to be about 52 mg/g at 25 °C. The highest values of uranium desorption (98%) was achieved using 0.01 M HCl as the desorbing agent. Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) composite particles showed a good selectivity for uranium from aqueous solution with other interfering cation ions. Present study suggested that magnetic Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) composite particles can be used as a potential adsorbent for sorption uranium and also provided a simple, fast separation method for removal of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of SiO2 Addition on Properties of PTFE/TiO2 Microwave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Wang, Jie; Yao, Minghao; Tang, Bin; Li, Enzhu; Zhang, Shuren

    2018-01-01

    Composite substrates for microwave circuit applications have been fabricated by filling polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer matrix with ceramic powder consisting of rutile TiO2 ( D 50 ≈ 5 μm) partially substituted with fused amorphous SiO2 ( D 50 ≈ 8 μm) with composition x vol.% SiO2 + (50 - x) vol.% TiO2 ( x = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12), and the effects of SiO2 addition on characteristics such as the density, moisture absorption, microwave dielectric properties, and thermal properties systematically investigated. The results show that the filler was well distributed throughout the matrix. High dielectric constant ( ɛ r > 7.19) and extremely low moisture absorption (ceramic particles served as barriers and improved the thermal stability of the PTFE polymer, retarding its decomposition. The temperature coefficient of dielectric constant ( τ ɛ ) of the composites shifted toward the positive direction (from - 309 ppm/°C to - 179 ppm/°C) as the SiO2 content was increased, while the coefficient of thermal expansion remained almost unchanged (˜ 35 ppm/°C).

  16. Enhanced Performance of Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting with ITO@α-Fe2O3 Core-Shell Nanowire Array as Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Hu, Yingfei; Luo, Wenjun; Zhu, Weidong; Fu, Gao; Li, Zhaosheng; Gao, Hao; Li, Faming; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-12-09

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is one of the most promising candidates for photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical water splitting system. However, the low visible light absorption coefficient and short hole diffusion length of pure α-Fe2O3 limits the performance of α-Fe2O3 photoelectrodes in water splitting. Herein, to overcome these drawbacks, single-crystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowire core and α-Fe2O3 nanocrystal shell (ITO@α-Fe2O3) electrodes were fabricated by covering the chemical vapor deposited ITO nanowire array with compact thin α-Fe2O3 nanocrystal film using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The J-V curves and IPCE of ITO@α-Fe2O3 core-shell nanowire array electrode showed nearly twice as high performance as those of the α-Fe2O3 on planar Pt-coated silicon wafers (Pt/Si) and on planar ITO substrates, which was considered to be attributed to more efficient hole collection and more loading of α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals in the core-shell structure than planar structure. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) characterization demonstrated a low interface resistance between α-Fe2O3 and ITO nanowire arrays, which benefits from the well contact between the core and shell. The stability test indicated that the prepared ITO@α-Fe2O3 core-shell nanowire array electrode was stable under AM1.5 illumination during the test period of 40,000 s.

  17. Experimental evidence for simultaneous relaxation processes in super spin glass γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, V.; Perovic, M.; Kusigerski, V.; Boskovic, M.; Mrakovic, A.; Blanusa, J.; Spasojevic, V.

    2015-03-01

    Spherical γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the narrow size distribution of (5 ± 1) nm were synthesized by the method of thermal decomposition from iron acetyl acetonate precursor. The existence of super spin-glass state at low temperatures and in low applied magnetic fields was confirmed by DC magnetization measurements on a SQUID magnetometer. The comprehensive investigation of magnetic relaxation dynamics in low-temperature region was conducted through the measurements of single-stop and multiple stop ZFC memory effects, ZFC magnetization relaxation, and AC susceptibility measurements. The experimental findings revealed the peculiar change of magnetic relaxation dynamics at T ≈ 10 K, which arose as a consequence of simultaneous existence of different relaxation processes in Fe2O3 nanoparticle system. Complementarity of the applied measurements was utilized in order to single out distinct relaxation processes as well as to elucidate complex relaxation mechanisms in the investigated interacting nanoparticle system.

  18. In situ QXAFS observation of the reduction of Fe2O3 and CaFe2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masao; Takayama, Toru; Murao, Reiko; Nomura, Masaharu; Uemura, Yohei; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    In situ QXAFS studies of the reduction of α-Fe 2 O 3 and CaFe 2 O 4 were conducted to determine their reduction kinetics and mechanisms. The reduction of α-Fe 2 O 3 involved two steps, the first being a very fast process in which Fe 3+ was reduced to Fe 2+ and the second being the reduction of Fe 2+ to Fe metal over a longer period. In contrast, the reduction of Fe in CaFe 2 O 4 was a single first-order reaction, although an induction period was clearly observed at the beginning of the reduction process. The reduction processes were successfully studied using a combination of in situ QXAFS spectra at the Ca and Fe K-edges.

  19. Three-dimensional graphene anchored Fe2O3@C core-shell nanoparticles as supercapacitor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Miao; Sha, Junwei; Miao, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    as remarkable specific surface area. The electrochemical performance in supercapacitor has been characterized, and the as-prepared Fe2O3@C-rGO electrode shows a significant high specific capacitance of 211.4 F/g at 0.5 A/g and 177.2 F/g at 20 A/g with no visible performance decay even after 2500 cycles testing...

  20. Synthesis, morphology and microstructure of pomegranate-like hematite (α-Fe2O3) superstructure with high coercivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadic, Marin; Citakovic, Nada; Panjan, Matjaz; Stanojevic, Boban; Markovic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Đorđe; Spasojevic, Vojislav

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found superior magnetic properties of the hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). ► TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure. ► Magnetic measurements display high coercivity H C = 4350 Oe at the room temperature. - Abstract: We found novel and superior magnetic properties of the hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) that originate from an internal microstructure of particles and strong inter-particle interactions between nanocrystal sub-units. The hematite particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate without any template or surfactant. The purity, size, crystallinity, morphology, microstructure and magnetic features of the as-prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and SQUID magnetometry. An XRD study reveals a pure phase of α-Fe 2 O 3 whereas TEM shows α-Fe 2 O 3 spheres with a diameter of about 150 nm. RS also shows high quality and purity of the sample. Moreover, TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure and evidence that the spherical particles are composed of individual well-crystallized nanoparticle sub-units (self-assembled nanoparticles) with a size of about 20 nm. Magnetic measurements display hysteretic behavior at the room temperature with remanent magnetization M r = 0.731 emu/g, saturation magnetization M S = 6.83 emu/g and coercivity H C = 4350 Oe, as well as the Morin transition at T M = 261 K. These results and comparison with those in the literature reveal that the sample has extremely high coercivity. The magnetic properties of the sample are discussed in relation to morphology, internal microstructure, surface effects and exchange and dipole–dipole interactions.

  1. Surface Photochemistry of Adsorbed Nitrate: The Role of Adsorbed Water in the Formation of Reduced Nitrogen Species on α-Fe2O3 Particle Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanayakkara, C.E.; Jayaweera, P.M.; Rubasinghege, G; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Grassian, V.H.

    2014-01-01

    The surface photochemistry of nitrate, formed from nitric acid adsorption, on hematite (α-Fe2O3) particle surfaces under different environmental conditions is investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following exposure of α-Fe2O3 particle surfaces to gas-phase nitric acid, a peak

  2. Preparation and properties of hybrid monodispersed magnetic α-Fe2O3 based chitosan nanocomposite film for industrial and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay; Srivastava, M; Dutta, Joydeep; Dutta, P K

    2011-01-01

    In this study, hydrothermally prepared magnetic α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were dispersed in chitosan (CH) solution to fabricate nanocomposite film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were pure α-Fe2O3 with rhombohedral structures, and the fabrication of CH did not result in a phase change. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that the hexagonal and spherical monodispersed α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were encapsulated into the spherical dumb shaped CH-α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite film with a mean diameter of ∼87 and ∼110 nm respectively. The α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and CH-α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite film were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic measurements revealed that the saturated magnetization (Ms) and remanent magnetization (Mr) of the pure α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles reached 0.573 emu/g and 0.100 emu/g respectively and the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of weak ferromagnetic before and after coating with CH. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Double-shell Fe2O3 hollow box-like structure for enhanced photo-Fenton degradation of malachite green dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De Bin; Liu, Xiaoying; Xu, Xuan; Zhang, Yu Xin

    2018-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the synthesis of novel Fe2O3 nanosheets with double-shell hollow morphology by replica molding from diatomite framework. The nanostructures of Fe2O3 nanosheets were examined by focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results reveal that (1) Pure Fe2O3 nanosheets were successfully obtained; (2) The double-shell Fe2O3 hollow structure achieved via the NaOH etching silica method was observed; (3) Fe2O3 nanosheets possessed uniformly distributed porous nanosheets. Such structural features enlarged the specific surface area of Fe2O3 nanosheets and led to more catalytic active sites. In the heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction, the double-shell Fe2O3 hollow morphology exhibited excellent catalytic capability for the degradation of malachite green (MG) at circumneutral pH condition. Under optimum condition, MG solution was almost completely decolorized in 60 min (99.9%). The Fe2O3 nanosheets also showed good stability and recyclability, demonstrating great potential as a promising photo-Fenton catalyst for the effective degradation of MG dye in wastewater.

  4. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on physiology and insecticide activity in non-transgenic and Bt-transgenic cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan eLe Van

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg·L−1 but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg·L−1. Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health.

  5. Synthesis of pigments of Fe2O3·SiO2 system, with Ca, Mg, or Co oxide additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Dimitrov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research work is based on the comparative evaluation of the Ca, Mg, and Co dopant impact on the properties of new ceramic pigments from the system Fe2O3·SiO2 obtained via classical ceramic technology. This approach enabled determination of the optimal temperature for the synthesis and the most appropriate mineralizer. The obtained specimens were submitted to systematical analysis, including X-ray Diffraction (XRD spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy for crystalline phase determination. The color characteristics are quantified by spectrophotometric measurements. The pigments particle size has been determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, combined by Energy Dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The obtained results enabled to determine the correlation between the calcination temperature and the phase compositions of the obtained pigments. In addition, some interesting magnetic properties were detected for the Co-doped composition.

  6. Synthesis of pigments of Fe2O3·SiO2 system, with Ca, Mg, or Co oxide additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, T.; Kozhukharov, S.; Velinov, N.

    2017-07-01

    The present research work is based on the comparative evaluation of the Ca, Mg, and Co dopant impact on the properties of new ceramic pigments from the system Fe2O3·SiO2 obtained via classical ceramic technology. This approach enabled determination of the optimal temperature for the synthesis and the most appropriate mineralizer. The obtained specimens were submitted to systematical analysis, including X-ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy for crystalline phase determination. The color characteristics are quantified by spectrophotometric measurements. The pigments particle size has been determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined by Energy Dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The obtained results enabled to determine the correlation between the calcination temperature and the phase compositions of the obtained pigments. In addition, some interesting magnetic properties were detected for the Co-doped composition. (Author)

  7. Electrical Investigation of Nanostructured Fe2O3/p-Si Heterojunction Diode Fabricated Using the Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Shehab A.; Ibrahim, Mervat M.

    2017-11-01

    Iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanocrystals have been synthesized via the sol-gel technique. The structural and morphological features of these nanocrystals were studied using x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Colloidal solution of synthesized α-Fe2O3 (hematite) was spin-coated onto a single-crystal p-type silicon (p-Si) wafer to fabricate a heterojunction diode with Mansourconfiguration Ag/Fe2O3/p-Si/Al. This diode was electrically characterized at room temperature using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in the voltage range from -9 V to +9 V. The fabricated diode showed a good rectification behavior with a rectification factor 1.115 × 102 at 6 V. The junction parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance and shunt resistance are determined using conventional I-V characteristics. For low forward voltage, the conduction mechanism is dominated by the defect-assisted tunneling process with conventional electron-hole recombination. However, at higher voltage, I-V ohmic and space charge-limited current conduction was became less effective with the contribution of the trapped-charge-limited current at the highest voltage range.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation properties of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles for dibutyl phthalate in aqueous solution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Sun, Nan; Hu, Jianshe; Li, Song; Qin, Gaowu

    2018-04-01

    The phthalate ester compounds in industrial wastewater, as kinds of environmental toxic organic pollutants, may interfere with the body's endocrine system, resulting in great harm to humans. In this work, the photocatalytic degradation properties of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were investigated using α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and H2O2 in aqueous solution system. The optimal parameters and mechanism of degradation were discussed by changing the morphology and usage amount of catalysts, the dosage of H2O2, pH value and the initial concentration of DBP. Hollow α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles showed the highest degradation efficiency when 30 mg of catalyst and 50 µl of H2O2 were used in the DBP solution with the initial concentration of 13 mg l-1 at pH = 6.5. When the reaction time was 90 min, DBP was degraded 93% for the above optimal parameters. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of DBP was studied by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The result showed that the main degradation intermediates of DBP were ortho-phthalate monobutyl ester, methyl benzoic acid, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde, and heptyl aldehyde when the reaction time was 2 h. DBP and its intermediates were almost completely degraded to CO2 and H2O in 12 h in the α-Fe2O3/ H2O2/UV system.

  9. The nature of the Pt(111)/α -Fe2O3(0001) interfaces revealed by DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Agnes; Deleuze, Pierre-Marie; Dupont, Céline

    2018-05-01

    Density functional theory calculations are performed to give a thorough description of structural, energetic, and electronic properties of Pt(111)/α-Fe2O3(0001) systems by spin-polarized calculations, accounting for the on-site Coulomb interaction. Toward the better understanding of Pt(111)/α-Fe2O3(0001) interfaces, two terminations of α-Fe2O3(0001) surface, namely, the single Fe- and the O3-termination, are considered and coupled with the four possible (top, hcp, fcc, and bridge) sites on Pt(111). The effect of the strain on clean hematite surfaces due to the lattice mismatch between the substrate and the overlayer is included in the analysis. Among the possible adsorption configurations, bridge sites are unstable, while the most favorable configurations are the ones at hollow sites. The stability of the interfaces is not only influenced by the termination of the overlayer but also influenced by the degree of its structural relaxation and the relative position of the first layer of O atoms in hematite with respect to Pt. To elucidate the different nature of the two terminations of the overlayer on Pt, projected density of states and 3D charge density difference plots are also discussed.

  10. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) study on graphene oxide based hematite thin films heterojunction (R-GO/Fe2O3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Zachariah, Michael; Ehrman, Sheryl; Shrivastava, Rohit; Dass, Sahab; Satsangi, Vibha; Michael Zachariah, Sheryl Ehrman Collaboration; Rohit Shrivastava, Sahab Dass Collaboration; Vibha R Satsangi, Poonam Sharma Team

    2013-03-01

    Graphene has an excellent electronic conductivity, a high theoretical surface area of 2630 m2/g and excellent mechanical properties and, thus, is a promising component for high-performance electrode materials. Following this, GO has been used to modify the PEC response of photoactive material hematite thin films in PEC cell. A reduced graphene oxide/iron oxide (R-GO/Fe2O3) thin film structure has been successfully prepared on ITO by directly growing iron oxide particles on the thermally reduced graphene oxide sheets prepared from suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide. R-GO/Fe2O3 thin films were tested in PEC cell and offered ten times higher photocurrent density than pristine Fe2O3 thin film sample. XRD, SEM, EDS, UV-Vis, Mott-Schottky and Raman studies were carried out to study spectro-electrochemical properties. Enhanced PEC performance of these photoelectrodes was attributed to its porous morphology, improved conductivity upon favorable carrier transfer across the oxides interface.

  11. Formation, characterization and magnetic properties of maghemite γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, I.S.; Ivanova, O.S.; Petrakovskaja, E.A.; Velikanov, D.A.; Tarasov, I.A.; Zubavichus, Y.V.; Trofimova, N.N.; Zaikovskii, V.I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe and large-ion-radius elements (Y, Bi, Pb, and Sm) co-doped borate glasses were prepared. • Maghemite, γ-Fe 2 O 3 , nanoparticles arise in the glasses as a result of the thermal treatment. • The particles structure is the same for all large-ion-radius elements used. • The particle size depends on the large-ion-radius elements nature and concentration. • The glass magnetic properties correlate with the particles size. - Abstract: A new type of nanocomposite materials based on maghemite, γ-Fe 2 O 3 , nanoparticles dispersed in borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron together with the larger radius element combinations: Y and Bi, or Sm and Pb, or Y and Pb is studied. Nanoparticles arise as a result of heat treatment of the glasses which gives them properties characteristic of magnetically ordered substances. Transmission electron microscopy and XRD show that only one magnetic phase, namely γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles, occurs in glasses subjected to the thermal treatment at 540 °C during 24 h independently on the doping element nature. At the same time doping element and their concentrations ratio in every combination affect the particles average size and glass magnetic properties, such as magnetization temperature dependences, Faraday rotation value and electron magnetic resonance spectrum characteristics

  12. Interconnected α-Fe2O3 nanosheet arrays as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Dandan; Li, Dongdong; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Suqing; Wang, Haihui

    2016-01-01

    The electrode materials with structure stability and binder-free are urgently required for improving the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, interconnected α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays directly grown on Ti foil were fabricated via a facile galvanostatic electrodeposition method followed by thermal treatment. The as-prepared α-Fe 2 O 3 has an open network structure constituted of interconnected nanosheets and can be directly used as integrated electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays exhibit a high reversible capacity of 986.3 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . Moreover, a reversible capacity of ca. 425.9 mAh g −1 is achieved even at a superhigh current density of 10 A g −1 , which is higher than the theoretical capacity of commercially used graphite. The excellent performance could be attributed to the efficient electron transport, the large electrode/electrolyte interfaces and the good accommodations for volume expansion from the interconnected nanosheet arrays structure.

  13. Core-Shell Nano structure of a-Fe2O3/Fe3O4: Synthesis and Photo catalysis for Methyl Orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Wu, D.; Yu, B.; Jia, X.; Zhan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle was synthesized in the solution involving water and ethanol. Then, a-Fe 2 O 3 shell was produced in situ on the surface of the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle by surface oxidation in molten salts, forming α-Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 core-shell nano structure. It was showed that the magnetic properties transformed from ferromagnetism to superparamagnetism after the primary Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were oxidized. Furthermore, the obtained a-Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 core-shell nanoparticles were used to photo catalyse solution of methyl orange, and the results revealed that a-Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were more efficient than the self-prepared α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. At the same time, the photo catalyzer was recyclable by applying an appropriate magnetic field.

  14. In-situ synthesis of SiO2@MOF composites for high-efficiency removal of aniline from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tongtong; Li, Caifeng; Guo, Xiangyu; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-12-01

    A series of SiO2@aluminum-MOF(MIL-68) composites with different SiO2 loadings have been synthesized by a simple and mild compositing strategy for high-efficiency removal of aniline. As evidenced from SEM and TEM images as well as the particle size distribution, the incorporation of SiO2 can improve the dispersity of MIL-68(Al) in composites, and result in the smaller particle size than that of pristine MIL-68(Al). Besides, the adsorption of aniline over SiO2, MIL-68(Al), the physical mixture of these two materials, and SiO2@MIL-68(Al) composites was investigated comparatively, demonstrating a relatively high adsorption capacity (531.9 mg g-1) of 7% SiO2@MIL-68(Al) towards aniline. Combining the ultrafast adsorption dynamics (reaching equilibrium within 40 s) and great reusability, 7% SiO2@MIL-68(Al) shows excellent adsorption performance. This indicates that the SiO2@MIL-68(Al) composites possess great potential applications as a kind of fascinating adsorbent in water pollution protection.

  15. Synthesis of ZnFe2O4/SiO2 composites derived from a diatomite template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoting; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhou, Han; Zhang, Di; Gong, Xiaolu; Guo, Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    A novel porous ZnFe2O4/SiO2 composite product has been generated with a template-directed assembly method from porous diatomite under different synthesis conditions, such as precursor concentrations (metallic nitrates), calcination temperature and diatomite type. The phase composition and morphology of all the materials were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that an inherited hierarchical porous structure from the diatomite template can be obtained, and the synthesis conditions were found to have clear effects on the formation of the ZnFe2O4/SiO2 composite. The ideal composite of ZnFe2O4/SiO2 can be obtained through optimization of diatomite template type, precursor solution and calcination temperature. Furthermore, the adsorption abilities of two types of diatomites were analyzed in detail using FTIR spectra and nitrogen adsorption measurements etc, which proved that A-diatomite (Shengzhou-diatomite) is better than B-diatomite (Changbai-diatomite) on the aspect of adsorbing Zn and Fe ions, and of forming the ZnFe2O4.

  16. Effect of surface Fe2O3 clusters on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for phenol degradation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiong; Leng, Wenhua; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface modified TiO 2 with iron oxide clusters through adsorption and decomposition of a large Fe(III) complex shows an enhanced activity for phenol degradation in water under UV light. But it was only observed with the clusters in a small size and at very low coverage on anatase. Highlights: ► Iron oxide clusters are made by decomposition of a large Fe(III) complex on TiO 2 . ► The modified anatase shows an enhanced activity for phenol photodegradation. ► The composite catalyst is very stable during four repeated experiments. - Abstract: Surface modification of TiO 2 with Fe 2 O 3 clusters was made through chemisorption of ferric phthalocyaninetetracarboxylate onto TiO 2 , followed by sintering in air to remove organic moiety. Solid characterization with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and other techniques showed that ferric oxides were highly dispersed on TiO 2 as a noncrystallized cluster, while TiO 2 phases remained unchanged. For phenol degradation in aerated aqueous suspension, only the sample containing less than 0.3 at.% Fe was more active than bare TiO 2 under UV light, whereas no activity was found under visible light. As anatase thermally transferred into rutile, the Fe-containing catalyst became less active than bare TiO 2 , mainly ascribed to the increased size of Fe 2 O 3 clusters. In the presence of H 2 O 2 , all Fe-containing catalysts were more active than bare TiO 2 . Moreover, similar trend in activity among different catalysts was also observed with the formation of hydroxyl radicals, and with the generation of photocurrent measured under N 2 with Fe/TiO 2 electrode. Present work clearly shows that only Fe 2 O 3 clusters in a small size and at low coverage on TiO 2 are beneficial to the photocatalytic reaction, while excess iron oxide is detrimental. Possible mechanism is discussed in the text.

  17. Nanoparticle Metamorphosis: An in Situ High-Temperature Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Structural Evolution of Heterogeneous Au:Fe 2 O 3 Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.

    2014-05-27

    High-temperature in situ electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have revealed that Au and Fe2O3 particles fuse in a fluid fashion at temperatures far below their size-reduced melting points. With increasing temperature, the fused particles undergo a sequence of complex structural transformations from surface alloy to phase segregated and ultimately core-shell structures. The combination of in situ electron microscopy and spectroscopy provides insights into fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic aspects governing the formation of heterogeneous nanostructures. The observed structural transformations present an interesting analogy to thin film growth on the curved surface of a nanoparticle. Using single-particle observations, we constructed a phase diagram illustrating the complex relationships among composition, morphology, temperature, and particle size. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Nanoparticle Metamorphosis: An in Situ High-Temperature Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Structural Evolution of Heterogeneous Au:Fe 2 O 3 Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.; Yu, Yingchao; Hovden, Robert; Honrao, Shreyas; Hennig, Richard G.; Abruñ a, Hé ctor D.; Muller, David; Hanrath, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature in situ electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have revealed that Au and Fe2O3 particles fuse in a fluid fashion at temperatures far below their size-reduced melting points. With increasing temperature, the fused particles undergo a sequence of complex structural transformations from surface alloy to phase segregated and ultimately core-shell structures. The combination of in situ electron microscopy and spectroscopy provides insights into fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic aspects governing the formation of heterogeneous nanostructures. The observed structural transformations present an interesting analogy to thin film growth on the curved surface of a nanoparticle. Using single-particle observations, we constructed a phase diagram illustrating the complex relationships among composition, morphology, temperature, and particle size. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Electrospinning direct preparation of SnO2/Fe2O3 heterojunction nanotubes as an efficient visible-light photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chengquan; Li, Yuren; Su, Qing; Lu, Bingan; Pan, Jiaqi; Zhang, Jiawang; Xie, Erqing; Lan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •SnO 2 /Fe 2 O 3 nano-heterojunction-tubes are prepared by a facile electrospinning technique. •The formation mechanism of heterojunction tubes is proposed for self-polymer-templates action. •SnO 2 /Fe 2 O 3 nano-heterojunction-tubes show high photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. •The reasons for the high photocatalytic activity are investigated in detail. -- Abstract: Herein SnO 2 /Fe 2 O 3 heterojunction nanotubes are prepared by a facile electrospinning technique. The heterojunction nanotubes with a diameter of about 200 nm uniformly distribute SnO 2 and Fe 2 O 3 nanocrystals and present the obvious interfaces between them, which form perfect SnO 2 /Fe 2 O 3 nano-heterojunctions. A possible mechanism based on self-polymer-templates is proposed to explain the formation of SnO 2 /Fe 2 O 3 heterojunction nanotubes. The heterojunction nanotubes show high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of RhB dye under visible light irradiation. The prepared SnO 2 /Fe 2 O 3 heterojunction nanotubes can also be applied to other fields such as sensor, lithium-ion batteries

  20. Magnetically Separable Fe2O3/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites with Cocoon-Like Shape: Magnetic Properties and Photocatalytic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojia; Yang, Xiaoyu; Li, Guang

    2018-01-01

    We report magnetically separable Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanocomposites as a photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation in this study. The Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were synthesized through a two-step hydrothermal method. The Fe2O3 with cocoon-like shape was obviously dispersed on the surface of g-C3N4 with porous and layered nanostructure as seen from micrographs of the particles. Furthermore, the magnetic conversion of the samples was studied via vibrating sample magnetometer technology. It was found that the saturated magnetization Ms of the Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanoparticles obviously decreased in the presence of g-C3N4, and the photocatalytic activity of the samples investigated by degrading Rhodamine B suggested that the Fe2O3/g-C3N4 photocatalyst was prior to the pure Fe2O3 and g-C3N4 samples. In addition, the magnetically separable ability of Fe2O3/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was efficiently exhibited by an external magnet.

  1. Microscopic studies of a SnO2/α-Fe2O3 architectural nanocomposite using Moessbauer spectroscopic and magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Naoaki; Muranaka, Shigetoshi; Yamamoto, Shinpei; Takano, Mikio; Zhang Dongfeng; Sun Lingdong; Yan Chunhua

    2008-01-01

    A SnO 2 /α-Fe 2 O 3 architectural nanocomposite, which was evidenced as SnO 2 nanorod arrays assembled on the surface of α-Fe 2 O 3 nanotubes in our previous study, was investigated microscopically by means of Moessbauer spectroscopic and magnetic measurements. It was found for the SnO 2 nanorods that Fe 3+ ions substituted slightly to Sn 0.998 Fe 0.002 O 2 . Concerning the α-Fe 2 O 3 tubes, the Morin transition, which was completely suppressed in the mother, SnO 2 -free α-Fe 2 O 3 nanotubes, was found to be recovered locally. We speculate that it takes place in the interface area as a result of structural modification needed for the connection with the SnO 2 nanorods. - Graphic abstract: 57 Fe Moessbauer spectrum of SnO 2 /α-Fe 2 O 3 architectural nanocomposite evidenced as SnO 2 nanorod arrays assembled on the surface of α-Fe 2 O 3 nanotubes. (I: Fe-doped SnO 2 nanorods, II: α-Fe 2 O 3 nanotubes) It was found for the SnO 2 nanorods that Fe 3+ ions substituted slightly to Sn 0.998 Fe 0.002 O 2

  2. Pyrrolic-N-doped graphene oxide/Fe2O3 mesocrystal nanocomposite: Efficient charge transfer and enhanced photo-Fenton catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Tian, Lihong; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinfeng; Guan, Rong; Chen, Xiaobo

    2017-11-01

    Though α-Fe2O3 has attracted much attention in photocatalytic or Fenton-catalytic degradation of organic contaminants, its performance is still unsatisfactory due to fast recombination of electrons and holes in photocatalytic process and the difficult conversion of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Fenton reaction. Herein, a pyrrolic N-doped graphene oxide/Fe2O3 mesocrystal (NG-Fe2O3) nanocomposite with good distribution is synthesized by a simple solvothermal method and adjusting the oxygen-containing groups on graphene oxide. The morphology of NG-Fe2O3 contributes to a relatively large BET surface area and an intimate contact between NG and Fe2O3. These two important factors along with the excellent electro-conductivity of pyrrolic-N doped GO result in the efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and fast conversion of Fe(II)and Fe(III) in photo-Fenton synergistic reaction. Thus, a remarkably improved photo-Fenton catalytic activity of NG-Fe2O3 is obtained. The degrading rate on methyl blue increases by 1.5 times and the conversion rate of glyphosate increases by 2.3 times under visible light irradiation, compared to pristine α-Fe2O3 mesocrystals.

  3. Fe2 PO5 -Encapsulated Reverse Energetic ZnO/Fe2 O3 Heterojunction Nanowire for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Oxidation of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dong-Dong; He, Cai-Hua; Li, Yang; Trammel, Antonio C; Gu, Jing; Chen, Jing; Yan, Yong; Shan, Duo-Liang; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Quan, Jing-Jing; Tao, Chun-Lan; Lu, Xiao-Quan

    2017-07-10

    Zinc oxide is regarded as a promising candidate for application in photoelectrochemical water oxidation due to its higher electron mobility. However, its instability under alkaline conditions limits its application in a practical setting. Herein, we demonstrate an easily achieved wet-chemical route to chemically stabilize ZnO nanowires (NWs) by protecting them with a thin layer Fe 2 O 3 shell. This shell, in which the thickness can be tuned by varying reaction times, forms an intact interface with ZnO NWs, thus protecting ZnO from corrosion in a basic solution. The reverse energetic heterojunction nanowires are subsequently activated by introducing an amorphous iron phosphate, which substantially suppressed surface recombination as a passivation layer and improved photoelectrochemical performance as a potential catalyst. Compared with pure ZnO NWs (0.4 mA cm -2 ), a maximal photocurrent of 1.0 mA cm -2 is achieved with ZnO/Fe 2 O 3 core-shell NWs and 2.3 mA cm -2 was achieved for the PH 3 -treated NWs at 1.23 V versus RHE. The PH 3 low-temperature treatment creates a dual function, passivation and catalyst layer (Fe 2 PO 5 ), examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, TEM, photoelectrochemical characterization, and impedance measurements. Such a nano-composition design offers great promise to improve the overall performance of the photoanode material. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. CdS Nanoparticle-Modified α-Fe2O3/TiO2 Nanorod Array Photoanode for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ruiyang; Liu, Mingyang; Tang, Rui; Yin, Longwei

    2017-09-02

    In this work, we demonstrate a facile successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process accompanied by hydrothermal method to synthesize CdS nanoparticle-modified α-Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 nanorod array for efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. By integrating CdS/α-Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 ternary system, light absorption ability of the photoanode can be effectively improved with an obviously broadened optical-response to visible light region, greatly facilitates the separation of photogenerated carriers, giving rise to the enhancement of PEC water oxidation performance. Importantly, for the designed abnormal type-II heterostructure between Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 , the conduction band position of Fe 2 O 3 is higher than that of TiO 2 , the photogenerated electrons from Fe 2 O 3 will rapidly recombine with the photogenerated holes from TiO 2 , thus leads to an efficient separation of photogenerated electrons from Fe 2 O 3 /holes from TiO 2 at the Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 interface, greatly improving the separation efficiency of photogenerated holes within Fe 2 O 3 and enhances the photogenerated electron injection efficiency in TiO 2 . Working as the photoanodes of PEC water oxidation, CdS/α-Fe 2 O 3 /TiO 2 heterostucture electrode exhibits improved photocurrent density of 0.62 mA cm - 2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in alkaline electrolyte, with an obviously negatively shifted onset potential of 80 mV. This work provides promising methods to enhance the PEC water oxidation performance of the TiO 2 -based heterostructure photoanodes.

  5. Smooth and rapid microwave synthesis of MIL-53(Fe) including superparamagnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengert, Simon; Albrecht, Joachim; Ruoss, Stephen; Stahl, Claudia; Schütz, Gisela; Schäfer, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    MIL-53(Fe) linked to superparamagnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was created using time-efficient microwave synthesis. Intermediates as well as the final product have been characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). It is found that this route allows the production of Fe nanoparticles with typical sizes of about 80 nm that are embedded inside the metal-organic structures. Detailed magnetization measurements using SQUID magnetometry revealed a nearly reversible magnetization loop indicating essentially superparamagnetic behavior.

  6. Surface modification of Fe2O3 nanoparticles with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS): An attempt to investigate surface treatment on surface chemistry and mechanical properties of polyurethane/Fe2O3 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palimi, M.J.; Rostami, M.; Mahdavian, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface treatment of Fe 2 O 3 with amino propyl tri methoxy silane. • The surface chemistry pigments were affected by the chemical treatment. • Surface treatment of the nanoparticles by silane resulted in the significant improvement of the mechanical properties of the polyurethane coating. • The improvement was most pronounced when the nanoparticles were modified with 3 gr silane/5 g nanoparticles. - Abstract: Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were modified with various amounts of 3-amino propyl trimethoxy silane (APTMS). Modified and unmodified nanoparticles were introduced into the polyurethane matrix at different concentrations. Fourier transform infrared radiation (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS) were employed in order to investigate the APTMS grafting on the nanoparticles field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was utilized in order to investigate nanoparticles dispersion in the polyurethane coating matrix as well as the fracture behavior of the nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and tensile test. The FTIR spectra and XPS analysis clearly showed that APTMS was grafted on the surface of nanoparticles successfully and formed chemical bonds with the surface. Also, surface treatment of the nanoparticles by silane resulted in the significant improvement of the mechanical properties of the polyurethane coating. The improvement was most pronounced when the nanoparticles were modified with 3 gr silane/5 g nanoparticles

  7. Growth of Fe2O3/SnO2 nanobelt arrays on iron foil for efficient photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Rui; Ni, Hongwei; Chen, Rongsheng; Zhang, Bowei; Zhan, Weiting; Li, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Tin(IV) oxide has been intensively employed in optoelectronic devices due to its excellent electrical and optical properties. But the high recombination rates of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs of SnO2 nanomaterials often results in low photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, we proposed a facile route to prepare a novel Fe2O3/SnO2 heterojunction structure. The nanobelt arrays grown on iron foil naturally form a Schottky-type contact and provide a direct pathway for the photogenerated excitons. Hence, the Fe2O3/SnO2 nanobelt arrays exhibit much improved photocatalytic performance with the degradation rate constant on the Fe2O3/SnO2 film of approximately 12 times to that of α-Fe2O3 nanobelt arrays.

  8. Fluxing template-assisted synthesis of sponge-like Fe2O3 microspheres toward efficient catalysis for CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenge; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Jiang, Yi; Wang, Yang; Huang, Su; Biswas, Pratim; Li, Chunzhong

    2018-06-01

    Constructing a porous architecture is a considerable strategy to enhance the catalytic activity of metal oxides catalysts for CO oxidation. In this work, we have developed porous sponge-like Fe2O3 microspheres by employing a facile aerosol spray pyrolysis. The NaNO3 salt in the spray solution plays a crucial role as a fluxing sacrifice template in the formation of the sponge-like structure, in which a high surface area of 216.2 m2 g-1 and an average pore size of 4 nm are obtained. This novel Fe2O3 catalyst exhibits an improved catalytic activity compared to usual iron oxides catalysts. Nearly 50% CO conversion at a relatively low temperature of 200 °C and 100% CO conversion at 300 °C at a space velocity of 60 000 ml h-1 g-1 are achieved. Furthermore, it displays an outstanding catalytic stability without distinct decay for 1000 min in a continuous stream at 300 °C. In addition to the effect of plentiful adsorption sites for the gas reactant, the promoted catalytic performance is also attributed to the function of abundant OH groups rooted in the large surface of the sponge-like structure, which induces faster reaction rate of CO oxidation via a bicarbonate route.

  9. Temperature-dependent electrochemical capacitive performance of the α-Fe2O3 hollow nanoshuttles as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Yihui; Yu, Yinsheng; Zhang, Guangjie; Shen, Yanwei; Liang, Qijie; Liao, Qingliang; Zhang, Yue

    2016-03-15

    The design and optimization of supercapacitors electrodes nanostructures are critically important since the properties of supercapacitors can be dramatically enhanced by tunable ion transport channels. Herein, we demonstrate high-performance supercapacitor electrodes materials based on α-Fe2O3 by rationally designing the electrode microstructure. The large solid-liquid reaction interfaces induced by hollow nanoshuttle-like structures not only provide more active sites for faradic reactions but also facilitate the diffusion of the electrolyte into electrodes. These result in the optimized electrodes with high capacitance of 249 F g(-1) at a discharging current density of 0.5 A g(-1) as well as good cycle stability. In addition, the relationship between charge storage and the operating temperature has been researched. The specific capacitance has no significant change when the working temperature increased from 20 °C to 60 °C (e.g. 203 F g(-1) and 234 F g(-1) at 20 °C and 60 °C, respectively), manifesting the electrodes can work stably in a wide temperature range. These findings here elucidate the α-Fe2O3 hollow nanoshuttles can be applied as a promising supercapacitor electrode material for the efficient energy storage at various potential temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Potentiometric and electrokinetic signatures of iron(II) interactions with (α,γ)-Fe2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczydłowska, Diana; Kędra-Królik, Karolina; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Preočanin, Tajana; Rosso, Kevin M; Zarzycki, Piotr

    2015-10-21

    The electrochemical signatures of Fe(II) interactions with iron(III) oxides are poorly understood, despite their importance in controlling the amount of mobilized iron. Here, we report the potentiometric titration of α,γ-Fe2O3 oxides exposed to Fe(II) ions. We monitored in situ surface and ζ potentials, the ratio of mobilized ferric to ferrous, and the periodically analyzed nanoparticle crystal structure using X-ray diffraction. Electrokinetic potential reveals weak but still noticeable specific sorption of Fe(II) to the oxide surface under acidic conditions, and pronounced adsorption under alkaline conditions that results in a surface potential reversal. By monitoring the aqueous iron(II/III) fraction, we found that the addition of Fe(II) ions produces platinum electrode response consistent with the iron solubility-activity curve. Although, XRD analysis showed no evidence of γ-Fe2O3 transformations along the titration pathway despite iron cycling between aqueous and solid reservoirs, the magnetite formation cannot be ruled out.

  11. Density functional study on the heterogeneous oxidation of NO over α-Fe_2O_3 catalyst by H_2O_2: Effect of oxygen vacancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Zijian; Wang, Ben; Yu, Jie; Ma, Chuan; Zhou, Changsong; Chen, Tao; Yan, Qianqian; Wang, Ke; Sun, Lushi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NO and H_2O_2 adsorption on perfect and oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface were studied by DFT calculations. • H_2O_2 shows high chemical reactivity for its adsorption on oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface. • Oxygen vacancy plays an important role of the catalytic oxidation of NO by H_2O_2 over the α-Fe_2O_3 catalyst surfaces. • Mechanism of NO oxidation over α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface by H_2O_2 was explained. - Abstract: Catalytic oxidation with H_2O_2 is a promising method for NOx emission control in coal-fired power plants. Hematite-based catalysts are attracting increased attention because of their surface redox reactivity. To elucidate the NO oxidation mechanism on α-Fe_2O_3 surfaces, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted by investigating the adsorption characteristics of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) on perfect and oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surfaces. Results show that NO was molecularly adsorbed on two kinds of surfaces. H_2O_2 adsorption on perfect surface was also in a molecular form; however, H_2O_2 dissociation occurred on oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface. The adsorption intensities of the two gas molecules in perfect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface followed the order NO > H_2O_2, and the opposite was true for the oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1). Oxygen vacancy remarkably enhanced the adsorption intensities of NO and H_2O_2 and promoted H_2O_2 decomposition on catalyst surface. As an oxidative product of NO, HNO_2 was synthesized when NO and H_2O_2 co-adsorbed on the oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface. Analyses of Mulliken population, electron density difference, and partial density of states showed that H_2O_2 decomposition followed the Haber–Weiss mechanism. The trends of equilibrium constants suggested that NO adsorption on α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface was more favorable at low than at high temperatures, whereas H_2O_2 adsorption was favorable between 375 and

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles induced dielectric enhancement in (La, Gd)2O3: SiO2 composite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, T. H.; Mukherjee, S.; Yang, H. D.

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic Gd2O3 and non-magnetic La2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized together with different doping concentrations in SiO2 matrix via sol-gel route calcination at 700 °C and above. Properly annealed NP-glass composite systems show enhancement of dielectric constant and magnetodielectric effect (MDE) near room temperature, depending on superparamagnetic NPs concentrations. From application point of view, the enhancement of dielectric constant along with MDE can be achieved by tuning the NPs size through varying calcination temperature and/or increasing the doping concentration of magnetic rare earth oxide.

  13. Surface spins disorder in uncoated and SiO2 coated maghemite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, F.; Nadeem, K.; Shah, S. Kamran Ali; Kamran, M.; Gul, I. Hussain; Ali, L.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the surface spins disorder in uncoated and silica (SiO 2 ) coated maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles using temperature and time dependent magnetization. The average crystallite size for SiO 2 coated and uncoated nanoparticles was about 12 and 29 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the nanoparticles are spherical in shape and well separated. Temperature scans of zero field cooled (ZFC)/field cooled (FC) magnetization measurements showed lower average blocking temperature (T B ) for SiO 2 coated maghemite nanoparticles as compared to uncoated nanoparticles. The saturation magnetization (M s ) of SiO 2 coated maghemite nanoparticles was also lower than the uncoated nanoparticles and is attributed to smaller average crystallite size of SiO 2 coated nanoparticles. For saturation magnetization vs. temperature data, Bloch's law (M(T)= M(0).(1− BT b )) was fitted well for both uncoated and SiO 2 coated nanoparticles and yields: B =3×10 −7 K -b , b=2.22 and B=0.0127 K -b , b=0.57 for uncoated and SiO 2 coated nanoparticles, respectively. Higher value of B for SiO 2 coated nanoparticles depicts decrease in exchange coupling due to enhanced surface spins disorder (broken surface bonds) as compared to uncoated nanoparticles. The Bloch's exponent b was decreased for SiO 2 coated nanoparticles which is due to their smaller average crystallite size or finite size effects. Furthermore, a sharp increase of coercivity at low temperatures (<25 K) was observed for SiO 2 coated nanoparticles which is also due to contribution of increased surface anisotropy or frozen surface spins in these smaller nanoparticles. The FC magnetic relaxation data was fitted to stretched exponential law which revealed slower magnetic relaxation for SiO 2 coated nanoparticles. All these measurements revealed smaller average crystallite size and enhanced surface spins disorder in SiO 2 coated nanoparticles than in uncoated γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles

  14. Enhanced coercivity in Co-doped α-Fe2O3 cubic nanocrystal assemblies prepared via a magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal Gandha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic Co-doped α-Fe2O3 cubic shaped nanocrystal assemblies (NAs with a high coercivity of 5.5 kOe have been synthesized via a magnetic field (2 kOe assisted hydrothermal process. The X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectra of α-Fe2O3 and Co-doped α-Fe2O3 NAs confirms the formation of single-phase α-Fe2O3 with a rhombohedral crystal structure. Electron microscopy analysis depict that the Co-doped α-Fe2O3 NAs synthesized under the influence of the magnetic field are consist of aggregated nanocrystals (∼30 nm and of average assembly size 2 μm. In contrast to the NAs synthesized with no magnetic field, the average NAs size and coercivity of the Co-doped α-Fe2O3 NAs prepared with magnetic field is increased by 1 μm and 1.4 kOe, respectively. The enhanced coercivity could be related to the well-known spin–orbit coupling strength of Co2+ cations and the redistribution of the cations. The size increment indicates that the small ferromagnetic nanocrystals assemble into cubic NAs with increased size in the magnetic field that also lead to the enhanced coercivity.

  15. TiO2 nanotubes with different spacing, Fe2O3 decoration and their evaluation for Li-ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Selda; Cha, Gihoon; Mazare, Anca; Schmuki, Patrik

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we report on the use of organized TiO2 nanotube (NT) layers with a regular intertube spacing for the growth of highly defined α-Fe2O3 nano-needles in the interspace. These α-Fe2O3 decorated TiO2 NTs are then explored for Li-ion battery applications and compared to classic close-packed (CP) NTs that are decorated with various amounts of nanoscale α-Fe2O3. We show that NTs with tube-to-tube spacing allow uniform decoration of individual NTs with regular arrangements of hematite nano-needles. The tube spacing also facilitates the electrolyte penetration as well as yielding better ion diffusion. While bare CP NTs show a higher capacitance of 71 μAh cm-2 compared to bare spaced NTs with a capacitance of 54 μAh cm-2, the hierarchical decoration with secondary metal oxide, α-Fe2O3, remarkably enhances the Li-ion battery performance. Namely, spaced NTs with α-Fe2O3 decoration have an areal capacitance of 477 μAh cm-2, i.e. they have nearly ˜8 times higher capacitance. However, the areal capacitance of CP NTs with α-Fe2O3 decoration saturates at 208 μAh cm-2, i.e. is limited to ˜3 times increase.

  16. Design Of A Bi-Functional α-Fe2O3/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ By Layer-By-Layer Assembly Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design of bi-functional α-Fe2O3/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ using a two-step coating process. We propose a combination of pigments (α-Fe2O3 and phosphor (Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ glaze which is assembled using a layer-by-layer method. A silica-coated α-Fe2O3 pigment was obtained by a sol-gel method and a Zn2+ precursor was then added to the silica-coated α-Fe2O3 to create a ZnO layer. Finally, the Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ layer was prepared with the addition of Mn2+ ions to serve as a phosphor precursor in the multi-coated α-Fe2O3, followed by annealing at a temperature above 1000°C. Details of the phase structure, color and optical properties of the multi-functional α-Fe2O3/Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses.

  17. Effect of surface Fe-S hybrid structure on the activity of the perfect and reduced α-Fe2O3(001) for chemical looping combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xianbin; Qin, Wu; Wang, Jianye; Li, Junhao; Dong, Changqing

    2018-05-01

    Sulfurization of the gradually reduced Fe2O3 surfaces is inevitable while Fe2O3 is used as an oxygen carrier (OC) for coal chemical looping combustion (CLC), which will result in formation of Fe-S hybrid structure on the surfaces. The Fe-S hybrid structure will directly alter the reactivity of the surfaces. Therefore, detailed properties of Fe-S hybrid structure over the perfect and reduced Fe2O3(001) surfaces, and its effect on the interfacial interactions, including CO oxidization and decomposition on the surfaces, were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The S atom prefers to chemically bind to Fe site with electron transfer from the surfaces to the S atom, and a deeper reduction of Fe2O3(001) leads to an increasing interaction between S and Fe. The formation of Fe-S hybrid structure alters the electronic properties of the gradually reduced Fe2O3(001) surfaces, promoting CO oxidation on the surfaces ranging from Fe2O3 to FeO, but depressing carbon deposition on the surfaces ranging from FeO to Fe. The sulfurized FeO acts as a watershed to realize relatively high CO oxidation rate and low carbon deposition. Results provided a fundamental understanding for controlling and optimizing the CLC processes.

  18. Enhancement of Fenton processes at initial circumneutral pH for the degradation of norfloxacin with Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyi; Hu, Wenyong; Sun, Maogui; Xiong, Ouyang; Yu, Haibin; Feng, Haopeng; Wu, Xuan; Tang, Lin; Zhou, Yaoyu

    2018-06-13

    The degradation of norfloxacin by Fenton reagent with core-shell Fe@Fe 2 O 3 nanomaterials was studied under neutral conditions in a closed batch system. Norfloxacin was significantly degraded (90%) in the Fenton system with Fe@Fe 2 O 3 in 30 min at the initial pH 7.0, but slightly degraded in Fenton system without Fe@Fe 2 O 3 under the same experimental conditions. The intermediate products were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the possible Fenton oxidation pathway of norfloxacin in the presence of Fe@Fe 2 O 3 nanowires was proposed. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy was used to identify and characterize the free radicals generated, and the mechanism for norfloxacin degradation was also revealed. Finally, the reusability and the stability of Fe@Fe 2 O 3 nanomaterials were studied using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, which indicated that Fe@Fe 2 O 3 is a stable catalyst and can be used repetitively in environmental pollution control.

  19. Atomistic simulation of the thermal conductivity in amorphous SiO2 matrix/Ge nanocrystal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryliuk, Vasyl V.; Korotchenkov, Oleg A.

    2017-04-01

    We use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations with the Tersoff potential aiming to provide a comprehensive picture of the thermal conductivity of amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2) matrix with embedded Ge nanocrystals (nc-Ge). The modelling predicts the a-SiO2 matrix thermal conductivity in a temperature range of 50 fair agreement with experiment at around room temperature. It is worth noticing that the predicted room-temperature thermal conductivity in a-SiO2 is in very good agreement with the experimental result, which is in marked contrast with the thermal conductivity calculated employing the widely used van Beest-Kramer-van Santen (BKS) potential. We show that the thermal conductivity of composite nc-Ge/a-SiO2 systems decreases steadily with increasing the volume fraction of Ge inclusions, indicative of enhanced interface scattering of phonons imposed by embedded Ge nanocrystals. We also observe that increasing the volume fractions above a certain threshold value results in a progressively increased thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite, which can be explained by increasing volume fraction of a better thermally conducting Ge. Finally, non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations with the Tersoff potential are promising for computing the thermal conductivity of nanocomposites based on amorphous SiO2 and can be readily scaled to more complex composite structures with embedded nanoparticles, which thus help design nanocomposites with desired thermal properties.

  20. A Ti-doped γ-Fe2O3/SDS nano-photocatalyst as an efficient adsorbent for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, Naghmeh Sadat; Sabbaghi, Samad

    2018-05-01

    Synthetic dyes are among the most important environmental pollutants in wastewaters. Consequently, elimination of the synthetic dyes from wastewaters using non-toxic materials and eco-friendly technologies has been of considerable interests. In this study, magnetically separable Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 photocatalysts were synthesized for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from a dye-contaminated aqueous solution (as a model of dye-polluted wastewaters). Compared to the pristine γ-Fe 2 O 3 , the 1.78 v% Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 significantly increased the adsorption of MB by 57% in the dark condition as a result of the improved BET surface area in this photocatalyst. Moreover, the contact time required for the photocatalytic degradation of MB by the 1.78 v% Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 decreased due to the higher concentration of charge carriers in this photocatalyst than that of the pristine γ-Fe 2 O 3 . The effect of different experimental parameters on the adsorption property and photocatalytic activity of the 1.78 v% Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 photocatalyst showed that the solution pH had a remarkable influence on the removal performance of this photocatalyst. Surface treatment of the 1.78 v% Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resulted in the formation of a negatively charged Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 /SDS photocatalyst, which showed a higher tendency for the adsorption and removal of MB than the untreated photocatalyst. Moreover, the MB removal efficiency of this photocatalyst was among the best performances that have been reported for the γ-Fe 2 O 3 -based photocatalysts. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by various techniques, and a plausible mechanism for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions by the Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 /SDS photocatalyst was purposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetics of CO Oxidation over Unloaded and Pd-Loaded α-Fe2O3 Spherical Submicron Powder Catalysts: Photoacoustic Investigations at Low Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-Seok Roh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, α-Fe2O3 spherical particles with an average diameter of approximately 200 nm were synthesized by a solvothermal method for use as both a catalyst and medium for a Pd catalyst. The kinetics of CO oxidation over powders of α-Fe2O3 spherical particles and 14 wt % Pd/α-Fe2O3 spherical particles were measured in a static reactor by using a CO2 laser-based photoacoustic technique. The total pressure was fixed at 40 Torr for the CO/O2/N2 mixture for temperatures in the range of 225–350 °C. The variation in the CO2 photoacoustic signal with the CO2 concentration during CO oxidation was recorded as a function of time, and the CO2 photoacoustic data at the early reaction stage was used to estimate the rates of CO2 formation. Based on plots of ln(rate vs. 1/T, apparent activation energies were calculated as 13.4 kcal/mol for the α-Fe2O3 submicron powder and 13.2 kcal/mol for the 14 wt % Pd/α-Fe2O3 submicron powder. Reaction orders with respect to CO and O2 were determined from the rates measured at various partial pressures of CO and O2 at 350 °C. The zero-order of the reaction with respect to Po2 was observed for CO oxidation over α-Fe2O3 submicron powder, while 0.48 order to Po2 was observed for CO oxidation over Pd/α-Fe2O3 submicron powder. The partial orders with respect to PCO were determined as 0.58 and 0.54 for the α-Fe2O3, and the Pd/α-Fe2O3 submicron powders, respectively. The kinetic results obtained from both catalysts were compared with those for the α-Fe2O3 fine powder catalysts and were used to understand the reaction mechanism.

  2. Microestructura de Al2O3/TZP codopado con Fe2O3 y TiO2 fabricado por reacción (RBAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, M.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Reaction-bonded 80 vol% Al2O3/TZP (2 mol% Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals composites co-doped with 1 vol% Fe2O3 and 1 vol% TiO2 have been produced, and then presureless sintered (1450 ºC, 60 min or sinter-forged (20 MPa, 1200 ºC, 60 min. The resulting microstructures have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Both types of materials are dense, with a fine and homogeneous dual microstructure consisting of Al2O3 and TZP grains without intermediate grain boundary phases. Sinter-forged composites exhibit a very narrow pore size distribution, essentially smaller than the grain size of the alumina and zirconia phases. Co-doping promotes the sintering of alumina at lower temperatures, while still retains a fine grain size due to the presence of the dispersed zirconia phase. First results on presureless sintered RBAO materials show a fracture strength higher than in conventionally sintered and sinter-forged composites.Se han fabricado compuestos de 80% vol. Al2O3/TZP (ZrO2 estabilizada con 2% mol Y2O3 codopados con 1% vol. Fe2O3 y 1% vol. TiO2 mediante la tecnología RBAO (“Reaction Bonding of Aluminum Oxide”, que se han sinterizado libremente (1450 ºC, 60 min y bajo carga uniaxial (20 MPa, 1200 ºC, 60 min. Se ha caracterizado la microestructura mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. Ambos materiales son densos con una microestructura homogénea formada por granos de alúmina y de circona, sin fases en juntas de grano. En el caso de la sinterización bajo carga, la distribución del tamaño de los poros es muy estrecha, y esencialmente menor que las correspondientes a los granos de Al2O3 y TZP. El codopado promueve la sinterización de la alúmina, mientras que los granos dispersos de circona inhiben su crecimiento de grano. Los ensayos preliminares de flexión en cuatro puntos realizados sobre los materiales sinterizados sin carga indican una resistencia a la fractura superior a la que presentan los

  3. Effects of SiO2 nano-particles on tribological and mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composites by different dispersion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Mahboobeh; Zolfaghari, Mehrdad; Rezanezhad, Saeid; Azadi, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    This study has been presented with mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composites, reinforced by SiO2 nano-particles. The stir casting method was employed to produce various aluminum matrix composites. Different composites by varying the SiO2 nano-particle content (including 0.5 and 1 weight percents) and two dispersion methods (including ball-milling and pre-heating) were made. Then, the density, the hardness, the compression strength, the wear resistance and the microstructure of nano-composites have been studied in this research. Besides, the distribution of nano-particles in the aluminum matrix for all composites has been also evaluated by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Obtained results showed that the density, the elongation and the ultimate compressive strength of various nano-composites decreased by the presence of SiO2 nano-particles; however, the hardness, the wear resistance, the yield strength and the elastic modulus of composites increased by auditioning of nano-particles to the aluminum alloy. FESEM images indicated better wetting of the SiO2 reinforcement in the aluminum matrix, prepared by the pre-heating dispersion method, comparing to ball-milling. When SiO2 nano-particles were added to the aluminum alloy, the morphology of the Si phase and intermetallic phases changed, which enhanced mechanical properties. In addition, the wear mechanism plus the friction coefficient value were changed for various nano-composites with respect to the aluminum alloy.

  4. Interaction of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with Citrus maxima leaves and the corresponding physiological effects via foliar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Li, Junli; Wang, Yunqiang; Xiao, Lian; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-07-11

    Nutrient-containing nanomaterials have been developed as fertilizers to foster plant growth and agricultural yield through root applications. However, if applied through leaves, how these nanomaterials, e.g. γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (NPs), influence the plant growth and health are largely unknown. This study is aimed to assess the effects of foliar-applied γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and their ionic counterparts on plant physiology of Citrus maxima and the associated mechanisms. No significant changes of chlorophyll content and root activity were observed upon the exposure of 20-100 mg/L γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ . In C. maxima roots, no oxidative stress occurred under all Fe treatments. In the shoots, 20 and 50 mg/L γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs did not induce oxidative stress while 100 mg/L γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs did. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the dosages of γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ and iron accumulation in shoots. However, the accumulated iron in shoots was not translocated down to roots. We observed down-regulation of ferric-chelate reductase (FRO2) gene expression exposed to γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ treatments. The gene expression of a Fe 2+ transporter, Nramp3, was down regulated as well under γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs exposure. Although 100 mg/L γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and 20-100 mg/L Fe 3+ led to higher wax content, genes associated with wax formation (WIN1) and transport (ABCG12) were downregulated or unchanged compared to the control. Our results showed that both γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ exposure via foliar spray had an inconsequential effect on plant growth, but γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs can reduce nutrient loss due to their the strong adsorption ability. C. maxima plants exposed to γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ were in iron-replete status. Moreover, the biosynthesis and transport of wax is a collaborative and multigene controlled process. This study compared the various effects of γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs, Fe 3+ and Fe chelate and exhibited the advantages of NPs as a foliar fertilizer

  5. Mössbauer spectroscopy study of 60P2O5-40Fe2O3 glass crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoch Paweł

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 60P2O5-40Fe2O3 glass was synthesized and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was presented. The main goal of the research was to investigate structural changes of local environment of iron ions during gradual crystallization of the glass. It was observed that some changes were evidenced at temperature of heat treatment higher than 400°C, above which content of tetrahedrally coordinated Fe3+ was increased in cost of octahedral sites. This led to formation of areas of nucleation of α-FePO4. Crystallization of α-Fe3(P2O72 and Fe2P2O7 was also observed.

  6. The Effect of Thickness on the Physical Properties of Fe2O3 Thin Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baha'a A. Al-Hilli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the influence of nano-particle Fe2O3 thin film thickness on some physical properties which were prepared by magnetron DC- sputtering on glass substrate at room temperature. The structure was tested with X-Ray diffraction and it was to be amorphous and to become single crystal with recognized peak in (003 after annealing at temperature 500oC. The physical properties as a function of deposition parameters and then film thickness were studied. The optical properties such as absorbance, energy gap and some optical constants are measured and found that of about (3eV energy gap.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of hollow α-Fe2O3 sub-micron spheres prepared by sol–gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, Lizbet; Bustamante, Angel; Osorio, Ana; Olarte, G. S.; Santos Valladares, Luis De Los; Barnes, Crispin H. W.; Majima, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the preparation of magnetic hematite hollow sub-micron spheres (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) by colloidal suspensions of ferric nitrate nine-hydrate (Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O) particles in citric acid solution by following the sol–gel method. After the gel formation, the samples were annealed at different temperatures in an oxidizing atmosphere. Annealing at 180°C resulted in an amorphous phase, without iron oxide formation. Annealing at 250°C resulted in coexisting phases of hematite, maghemite and magnetite, whereas at 400°C, only hematite and maghemite were found. Pure hematite hollow sub-micron spheres with porous shells were formed after annealing at 600°C. The characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  8. α Fe2O3 films grown by the spin-on sol-gel deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila G, A.; Carbajal F, G.; Tiburcio S, A.; Barrera C, E.; Andrade I, E.

    2003-01-01

    α-Fe 2 O 3 polycrystalline films with grains larger than 31 nm were grown by the spin-on sol-gel deposition method. The particular sol used was prepared starting from two distinct precursor reagents. Both precursors leaded to similar films. Order within the films was altered by adding tin to the samples. Transmittance measurements confirmed that the hematite phase is obtained by annealing the samples above 400 C and yielded an optical gap of about 2.2 eV, but additional transitions at 2.7 eV were also observed. From RBS measurements it was found that tin inclusion decreases iron content as expected, but also increases oxygen concentration within the films. This last observation was associated to the disorder rise when introducing tin atoms. (Author)

  9. A Density Functional Theory Study of the Adsorption of Benzene on Hematite (α-Fe2O3 Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Y. Dzade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of mineral surfaces in the fundamental processes of adsorption, dissolution or growth, and electron transfer is directly tied to their atomic structure. However, unraveling the relationship between the atomic surface structure and other physical and chemical properties of complex metal oxides is challenging due to the mixed ionic and covalent bonding that can occur in these minerals. Nonetheless, with the rapid increase in computer processing speed and memory, computer simulations using different theoretical techniques can now probe the nature of matter at both the atomic and sub-atomic levels and are rapidly becoming an effective and quantitatively accurate method for successfully predicting structures, properties and processes occurring at mineral surfaces. In this study, we have used Density Functional Theory calculations to study the adsorption of benzene on hematite (α-Fe2O3 surfaces. The strong electron correlation effects of the Fe 3d-electrons in α-Fe2O3 were described by a Hubbard-type on-site Coulomb repulsion (the DFT+U approach, which was found to provide an accurate description of the electronic and magnetic properties of hematite. For the adsorption of benzene on the hematite surfaces, we show that the adsorption geometries parallel to the surface are energetically more stable than the vertical ones. The benzene molecule interacts with the hematite surfaces through π-bonding in the parallel adsorption geometries and through weak hydrogen bonds in the vertical geometries. Van der Waals interactions are found to play a significant role in stabilizing the absorbed benzene molecule. Analyses of the electronic structures reveal that upon benzene adsorption, the conduction band edge of the surface atoms is shifted towards the valence bands, thereby considerably reducing the band gap and the magnetic moments of the surface Fe atoms.

  10. Effect of layer thickness in selective laser melting on microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 powder consolidated parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadbakhsh, Sasan; Hao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM) to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75  μm layer thickness, and 50  μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance) were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe) oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  11. Effect of Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting on Microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 Powder Consolidated Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Dadbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75 μm layer thickness, and 50 μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  12. Nano-sized Fe2O3/Fe3O4 facilitate anaerobic transformation of hexavalent chromium in soil-water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxian; Li, Hua; Gong, Libo; Dong, Guowen; Shen, Liang; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Qingbiao

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of nano-sized or submicro Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 on the bioreduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and to evaluate the effects of nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 on the microbial communities from the anaerobic flooding soil. The results indicated that the net decreases upon Cr(VI) concentration from biotic soil samples amended with nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 (317.1±2.1mg/L) and Fe 3 O 4 (324.0±22.2mg/L) within 21days, which were approximately 2-fold of Cr(VI) concentration released from blank control assays (117.1±5.6mg/L). Furthermore, the results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and high-throughput sequencing indicated a greater variety of microbes within the microbial community in amendments with nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 than the control assays. Especially, Proteobacteria occupied a predominant status on the phylum level within the indigenous microbial communities from chromium-contaminated soils. Besides, some partial decrease of soluble Cr(VI) in abiotic nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 amendments was responsible for the adsorption of nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 to soluble Cr(VI). Hence, the presence of nano-sized Fe 2 O 3 /Fe 3 O 4 could largely facilitate the mobilization and biotransformation of Cr(VI) from flooding soils by adsorption and bio-mediated processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Development ceramic composites based on Al2O3, SiO2 and IG-017 additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurovics, E.; Shmakova, A.; Kanev, B.; Gömze, L. A.

    2017-02-01

    Based on high purity alumina and quartz powders and IG-017 bio-original additives the authors have developed new ceramic composite materials for different industrial purposes. The main goal was to fine a material and morphological structures of high performance ceramic composites as frames for development complex materials for extreme consumptions in the future. For this the mixed powders of Al2O3 , SiO2 and IG-017 bio-original additive were uniaxially pressed at different compaction pressures into disc shapes and were sintered in electric kiln under air (1) and nitrogrn (2) atmosphere. The grain size distributions of the raw materials were determined by laser granulometry. There thermo-physical properties were also determined by derivatography. The prepared and sintered specimens were tested on geometrical sizes, microstructure and morphology by scanning electron microscopy, porosity and water absorption. In this work the authors present the results of their research and investigation.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of a mechanochemically activated Ti-Fe2O3 solid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristobal, A.A.; Ramos, C.P.; Bercoff, P.G.; Conconi, S.; Aglietti, E.F.; Botta, P.M.; Lopez, J.M. Porto

    2010-01-01

    The mechanochemical effects on the reactivity and properties of a titanium/hematite powder mixture with molar ratio of 1/2 are investigated. Crystalline-phase structure, composition, hyperfine and magnetic behaviors were analyzed as a function of activation time by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed that at relatively short activation times metallic Ti reduces part of the ferric ions, yielding a complex product formed mainly by a mix of two solid solutions Fe 3-x Ti x O 4 (titanomagnetites), both with very different x values (0 < x < 1). Also metallic iron and superparamagnetic hematite particles were detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy. As the mechanical treatment extends the composition of the reactive mixture changes, prevailing in the end the solid solution with higher x value. In contrast, when these activated samples are thermally treated the fraction of the solid solution which is richer in Ti diminishes. This fact produces a significant variation of the saturation magnetization of the obtained material.

  15. Manipulating Conduction in Metal Oxide Semiconductors: Mechanism Investigation and Conductance Tuning in Doped Fe2O3 Hematite and Metal/Ga2O3/Metal Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo

    This study aims at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of conduction in several metal oxide semiconductors, namely alpha-Fe2O 3 and beta-Ga2O3, and how it could be tuned to desired values/states to enable a wide range of application. In the first effort, by adding Ti dopant, we successfully turned Fe2O3 from insulating to conductive by fabricated compositionally and structurally well-defined epitaxial alpha-(TixFe1-x)2 O3(0001) films for x ≤ 0.09. All films were grown by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3(0001) sapphire substrate with a buffer layer of Cr2O3 to relax the strain from lattice mismatch. Van der Pauw resistivity and Hall effect measurements reveal carrier concentrations between 1019 and 1020 cm-3 at room temperature and mobilities in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 cm2/V˙s. Such low mobility, unlike conventional band-conduction semiconductor, was attributed to hopping mechanism due to strong electron-phonon interaction in the lattice. More interestingly, conduction mechanism transitions from small-polaron hopping at higher temperatures to variable range hopping at lower temperatures with a transition temperature between 180 to 140 K. Consequently, by adding Ti dopant, conductive Fe 2O3 hematite thin films were achieved with a well-understood conducting mechanism that could guide further device application such as spin transistor and water splitting. In the case of Ga2O3, while having a band gap as high as 5 eV, they are usually conductive for commercially available samples due to unintentional Si doping. However, we discovered the conductance could be repeatedly switched between high resistance state and low resistance state when made into metal/Ga2O3 /metal heterostructure. However, to obtain well controlled switching process with consistent switching voltages and resistances, understanding switching mechanism is the key. In this study, we fabricated resistive switching devices utilizing a Ni/Ga2O3/Ir heterostructure. Bipolar

  16. Magnetic Alignment of γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles in Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Andrew; Kumar, Sanat K.; Jestin, Jacques

    Recent work in nanocomposites has been heavily focused on controlling the dispersion state of filler particles. The use of internal self-assembly based on matrix properties provides a limited solution to the desire for specified organizations. By introducing a magnetic field during the casting of a polymer solution it has been shown that particles can be oriented to form anisotropic structures - commonly sought after for improved mechanical properties. Here, magnetic nanoparticles were cast in two different polymer matrices to study the effect of various forces that lead to this highly desired alignment. The addition of the magnetic field as an external trigger was shown to not necessarily force the clustering, but rather orient the agglomerates already available in solution. This demonstrates the importance of other dominant forces introduced into the system by characteristics of the polymers themselves. While this magnetic field provides a direction for the sample, the key forces lie in the interactions between the polymers and nanoparticles (as well as their solvent). The study shows a dependence of anisotropy on the particle loading, matrix, and casting time, from which continued work hopes to quantify the clustering necessary to optimize alignment in the composite.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of CdS nanorods anchored on α-Fe2O3 nanotube arrays with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Rui; Ni, Hongwei; Chen, Rongsheng; Gu, Huazhi; Zhang, Bowei; Zhan, Weiting

    2018-03-15

    As an n-type semiconductor with an excellent physicochemical properties, iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) has been extensively used in the fields of environmental pollution control and solar energy conversion. However, the high recombination rate of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs and poor charge mobility for Fe 2 O 3 nanomaterial generally result in low photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, an uniform CdS nanorods grown directly on one-dimensional α-Fe 2 O 3 nanotube arrays (NTAs) are successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method and the constructed heterojunction can be a kind of efficient and recyclable photocatalysts. Successful deposition of CdS nanorods onto the α-Fe 2 O 3 NTAs is verified by field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates that α-Fe 2 O 3 /CdS NTAs possess the intense visible light absorption and also display a red-shift of the band-edge compared with the pure α-Fe 2 O 3 NTAs. The as-obtained α-Fe 2 O 3 /CdS NTAs display excellent photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and phenol under visible light illumination. Among all the tested photocatalysts, the film synthesized for 3h with good stability exhibits the best photocatalytic properties and produces the highest photocurrent of 1.43 mA/cm 2 at 0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode, owing to its well formed heterojunction structure, effective electron-hole pair separation and direct electron transfer pathway along the CdS nanorods and α-Fe 2 O 3 NTAs. Besides, the photogenerated holes (h + ) and superoxide radicals (O 2 - ) play dominant roles in the photocatalytic process. On the basis of the photocatalytic results and energy band diagram, the photocatalytic process mechanism is proposed. Considering the easy preparation and excellent performance, α-Fe 2 O 3 /CdS NTAs could

  18. Uptake, translocation and physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles in corn (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Hu, Jing; Ma, Chuanxin; Wang, Yunqiang; Wu, Chan; Huang, Jin; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-09-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3 NPs) have emerged as an innovative and promising method of iron application in agricultural systems. However, the possible toxicity of γ-Fe2O3 NPs and its uptake and translocation require further study prior to large-scale field application. In this study, we investigated uptake and distribution of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in corn (Zea mays L.) and its impacts on seed germination, antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and chlorophyll content were determined. 20 mg/L of γ-Fe2O3 NPs significantly promoted root elongation by 11.5%, and increased germination index and vigor index by 27.2% and 39.6%, respectively. However, 50 and 100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs remarkably decreased root length by 13.5% and 12.5%, respectively. Additionally, evidence for γ-Fe2O3 NPs induced oxidative stress was exclusively found in the root. Exposures of different concentrations of NPs induced notably high levels of MDA in corn roots, and the MDA levels of corn roots treated by γ-Fe2O3 NPs (20-100 mg/L) were 5-7-fold higher than that observed in the control plants. Meanwhile, the chlorophyll contents were decreased by 11.6%, 39.9% and 19.6%, respectively, upon NPs treatment relative to the control group. Images from fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that γ-Fe2O3 NPs could enter plant roots and migrate apoplastically from the epidermis to the endodermis and accumulate the vacuole. Furthermore, we found that NPs mostly existed around the epidermis of root and no translocation of NPs from roots to shoots was observed. Our results will be highly meaningful on understanding the fate and physiological effects of γ-Fe2O3 NPs in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of temperature on the crystallization of α-Fe2O3 particles from dense β-FeOOH suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zic, Mark; Ristic, Mira; Music, Svetozar

    2010-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the crystallization of α-Fe 2 O 3 particles from dense β-FeOOH suspensions was monitored by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Dense suspensions of very long laterally arranged β-FeOOH fibrils were obtained at 90 deg. C. Crystallization at 120 deg. C between 18 and 72 h yielded monodisperse α-Fe 2 O 3 particles of a shape close to that of double spheres with ring. The double spheres with ring showed two narrow particle size distributions. In these particles a substructure was detected, i.e., the spheres consisted of the linear chains of interconnected α-Fe 2 O 3 subparticles. With further rise in the crystallization temperature the increase in α-Fe 2 O 3 particles and porosity became pronounced. Obviously, the aggregation mechanism played an important role in the formation of α-Fe 2 O 3 particles.

  20. Preparation of raspberry-like γ-Fe2O3/crackled nitrogen-doped carbon capsules and their application as supports to improve catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junshuai; Yao, Tongjie; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Jie

    2016-11-10

    In this manuscript, we have introduced a novel method to improve the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles via optimizing the support structure. To this end, raspberry-like γ-Fe 2 O 3 /crackled nitrogen-doped carbon (CNC) capsules were prepared by a two-step method. Compared with traditional magnetic capsules, in γ-Fe 2 O 3 /CNC capsules, the γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were embedded in a CNC shell; therefore, they neither occupied the anchoring sites for metal nanoparticles nor came into contact with them, which was beneficial for increasing the metal nanoparticle loading. Numerous tiny cracks appeared on the porous CNC shell, which effectively improved the mass diffusion and transport in catalytic reactions. Additionally, the coordination interaction could be generated between the precursor metal ions and doped-nitrogen atoms in the capsule shell. With the help of these structural merits, γ-Fe 2 O 3 /CNC capsules were ideal supports for Pd nanoparticles, because they were beneficial for improving the Pd loading, reducing the nanoparticle size, increasing their dispersity and maximizing the catalytic performance of Pd nanoparticles anchored on the inner shell surface. As expected, γ-Fe 2 O 3 /CNC@Pd catalysts exhibited a dramatically enhanced catalytic activity towards hydrophilic 4-nitrophenol and hydrophobic nitrobenzene. The reaction rate constant k was compared with recent work and the corresponding reference samples. Moreover, they could be easily recycled by using a magnet and reused without an obvious loss of catalytic activity.

  1. Preparation and Study of NH3 Gas Sensing Behavior of Fe2O3 Doped ZnO Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Patil

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The preparation, characterization and gas sensing properties of pure and Fe2O3-ZnO mixed oxide semiconductors have been investigated. The mixed oxides were obtained by mixing ZnO and Fe2O3 in the proportion 1:1, 1:0.5 and 0.5:1. Pure ZnO was observed to be insensitive to NH3 gas. However, mixed oxides (with ZnO: Fe2O3 =1:0.5 were observed to be highly sensitive to ammonia gas. Upon exposure to NH3 gas, the barrier height of Fe2O3-ZnO intergranular regions decreases markedly due to the chemical transformation of Fe2O3 into well conducting ferric ammonium hydroxide leading to a drastic decrease in resistance. The crucial gas response was found to NH3 gas at 3500C and no cross response was observed to other hazardous and polluting gases. The effects of microstructure and doping concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response and recovery of the sensor in the presence of NH3 gas were studied and discussed.

  2. Simple synthesis of graphene nanocomposites MgO-rGO and Fe2O3-rGO for multifunctional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, Seham K.; Ionov, Andrey; Mozhchil, R. N.; Naqvi, Alim H.

    2018-05-01

    Hummer's method was used to prepare graphene oxide (GO) by chemical exfoliation of graphite. Simple precipitation method was used for the preparation of hybrid nanocomposites MgO-rGO and Fe2O3-rGO. A 0.3 Molar of corresponding metal nitrate solution and GO solution are used for the preparation process. XRD, FT-IR, and XPS were used to characterize the prepared nanocomposites. The reduction of GO into reduced rGO in the formed nanocomposites was confirmed. Morphological characterization showed the formation of needle-shaped nanocrystals of MgO successfully grown on graphene nanosheet with average crystallite size 8.4 nm. Hematite nanocomposite Fe2O3-rGO forms rod-shaped crystals with average crystallite size 27.5 nm. The saturation magnetization observed for Fe2O3-rGO is less than reported value for the pure Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Thermal properties of as-prepared hybrid nanocomposites MgO-rGO and Fe2O3-rGO showed thermal stability of the prepared nanocomposite over long range of temperature.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties of undoped and Zn-doped γ-Fe2O3-based gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, undoped and Zn-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanopowders have been prepared using Fe(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O as starting materials and lauryl alcohol as anhydrous medium. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) were employed to characterize the products. Sensitivity characteristics of the undoped and Zn-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 semiconductor gas sensors have been investigated. The results show that both of the undoped and 15 mol% Zn-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 -based gas sensors present good sensitivity and selectivity to acetone and ethanol in presence of CH 4 , H 2 and CO at the operating temperatures of 240 and 270 deg. C, respectively. After being doped with 15 mol% Zn addition, the γ-Fe 2 O 3 -based gas element displays higher sensitivity and selectivity as well as shorter response-recovery time compared with the undoped, suggesting that the promoting effect of ZnO is excellent. So, it seems that the γ-Fe 2 O 3 -based gas sensor doped with 15 mol% Zn is expected to be a promising sensor for detecting acetone and ethanol

  4. Cs2.5H0.5PWO40/SiO2 as addition self-humidifying composite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Yi, B.L.; Zhang, H.M.; Xing, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we first reported a novel self-humidifying composite membrane for the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 /SiO 2 catalyst particles were dispersed uniformly into the Nafion (registered) resin, and then Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 -SiO 2 /Nafion composite membrane was prepared using solution-cast method. Compared with the H 3 PWO 40 (PTA) , the Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 /SiO 2 was steady due to the substitute of H + with Cs + and the interaction between the Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 and SiO 2 . And compared with the performance of the fuel cell with commercial Nafion (registered) NRE-212 membrane, the cell performance with the self-humidifying composite membrane was obviously improved under both humidified and dry conditions at 60 and 80 o C. The best performance under dry condition was obtained at 60 o C. The self-humidifying composite membrane could minimize membrane conductivity loss under dry conditions due to the presence of catalyst and hydrophilic Cs 2.5 H 0.5 PWO 40 /SiO 2 particles

  5. Floral Biosynthesis of Mn3O4 and Fe2O3 Nanoparticles Using Chaenomeles sp. Flower Extracts for Efficient Medicinal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Dmitry, Arkhipov; Ishteev, Artur; Gusev, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-08-01

    Manganese oxide (Mn3O4) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized with the flower extracts of Chaenomeles sp. This is the first ever approach to synthesize nanoparticles from Chaenomeles sp. flower extracts. The organic molecules present in the flower extracts actively converted the nitrate precursor into its corresponding nanoparticles. The organic molecules that are involved in the synthesis of nanoparticles are identified using different phytochemical and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The identified components are glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, quinines, and steroids. The structural and chemical compositions of the synthesized powder were also analyzed. The x-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the particles show tetragonal and rhombohedral crystalline phases. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the functional groups that are involved in the reduction of nitrates into the corresponding nanoparticles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of the elements in the synthesized nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 30-100 nm. Antioxidant analysis showed that the synthesized nanoparticles had excellent antioxidant potential. The antibacterial study showed that they inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. Thus, this study proposes a new eco-friendly and nontoxic method to synthesize nanoparticles for medicinal applications.

  6. Detection and Quantification of 4-Methylimidazole in Cola by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Fe2O3 Nanoparticles on Zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yosuke; Ding, Yuqi; Umezawa, Taichi; Akimoto, Takafumi; Xu, Jiawei; Uchida, Takashi; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2018-01-01

    Food additives generally used in carbonated drinks, such as 4-methylimidazole (4MI), caffeine (Caf?), citric acid (CA), and aspartame (Apm), were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) using nanometer-sized particles of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 NPs). The quantification of 4MI in Coca Cola (C-cola) was carried out. In order to improve the reproducibility of the peak intensities, Fe 2 O 3 NPs loaded on ZSM5 zeolite were used as the matrix for quantification. By using 2-ethylimidazole (2EI) as the internal standard, the amount of 4MI in C-cola was determined to range from 88 to 65 μg/355 mL. The results agree with the published value (approx. 72 μg/355 mL). It was found that MALDI using Fe 2 O 3 was applicable to the quantification of 4MI in C-cola.

  7. Imidazolium ionic liquid induced one-step synthesis of -Fe2O3 nanorods and nanorod assemblies for lithium-ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuting Xie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available α-Fe2O3 nanorods and nanorod assemblies are prepared via a facile one-step method with the assistance of imidazolium-based ionic liquid. The aspect ratio of synthesized nanorods is determined by the alkyl chain length of [Cnmim]+. The inter-molecular π−π interaction and intra-molecular dipole-dipole interaction among imidazole rings of [C4mim]+[PhCOO]− play critical roles in both nucleation and assembly processes of α-Fe2O3 nanorods. The α-Fe2O3 nanorod assemblies show an excellent performance in lithium-ion batteries with a reversible capacity of 1007.3 mA h g−1 at the rate of 500 mA g−1 after 150 cycles.

  8. One-Step Self-Assembly Synthesis α-Fe2O3 with Carbon-Coated Nanoparticles for Stabilized and Enhanced Supercapacitors Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhi Yan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A cocoon-like α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite with a novel carbon-coated structure was synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal self-assembly method and employed as supercapacitor electrode material. It was observed from electrochemical measurements that the obtained α-Fe2O3@C electrode showed a good specific capacitance (406.9 Fg−1 at 0.5 Ag−1 and excellent cycling stability, with 90.7% specific capacitance retained after 2000 cycles at high current density of 10 Ag−1. These impressive results, presented here, demonstrated that α-Fe2O3@C could be a promising alternative material for application in high energy density storage.

  9. Graphene/Fe2O3/SnO2 ternary nanocomposites as a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guofeng; Li, Ning; Li, Deyu; Liu, Ruiqing; Wang, Chen; Li, Qing; Lü, Xujie; Spendelow, Jacob S; Zhang, Junliang; Wu, Gang

    2013-09-11

    We report an rGO/Fe2O3/SnO2 ternary nanocomposite synthesized via homogeneous precipitation of Fe2O3 nanoparticles onto graphene oxide (GO) followed by reduction of GO with SnCl2. The reduction mechanism of GO with SnCl2 and the effects of reduction temperature and time were examined. Accompanying the reduction of GO, particles of SnO2 were deposited on the GO surface. In the graphene nanocomposite, Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a size of ∼20 nm were uniformly dispersed surrounded by SnO2 nanoparticles, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Due to the different lithium insertion/extraction potentials, the major role of SnO2 nanoparticles is to prevent aggregation of Fe2O3 during the cycling. Graphene can serve as a matrix for Li+ and electron transport and is capable of relieving the stress that would otherwise accumulate in the Fe2O3 nanoparticles during Li uptake/release. In turn, the dispersion of nanoparticles on graphene can mitigate the restacking of graphene sheets. As a result, the electrochemical performance of rGO/Fe2O3/SnO2 ternary nanocomposite as an anode in Li ion batteries is significantly improved, showing high initial discharge and charge capacities of 1179 and 746 mAhg(-1), respectively. Importantly, nearly 100% discharge-charge efficiency is maintained during the subsequent 100 cycles with a specific capacity above 700 mAhg(-1).

  10. Highly Sensitive Ethanol Chemical Sensor Based on Novel Ag-Doped Mesoporous α-Fe2O3 Prepared by Modified Sol-Gel Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Moteb M.; Ali, Atif M.; Harraz, Farid A.; Faisal, M.; Ismail, Adel A.; Sayed, Mahmoud A.; Al-Assiri, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    Mesoporous α-Fe2O3 has been synthesized via a simple sol-gel procedure in the presence of Pluronic (F-127) triblock copolymer as structure directing agent. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were deposited onto α-Fe2O3 matrix by the photochemical reduction approach. Morphological analysis revealed the formation of Ag nanoparticles with small sizes < 20 nm onto the mesoporous structure of α-Fe2O3 possessing < 50 nm semi-spherical shape. The XRD, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, PL, and N2 sorption isotherm studies confirmed the high crystallinity, mesoporosity, and optical characteristics of the synthesized product. The electrochemical sensing toward liquid ethanol has been performed using the current devolved Ag/α-Fe2O3-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry ( CV) and current potential ( I-V) techniques, and the obtained results were compared with bare GCE or pure α-Fe2O3. Mesoporous Ag/α-Fe2O3 was found to largely enhance the sensor sensitivity and it exhibited excellent sensing characteristics during the precision detection of low concentrations of ethanol. High and reproducible sensitivity of 41.27 μAmM- 1 cm- 2 at lower ethanol concentration region (0.05 to 0.8 mM) and 2.93 μAmM- 1 cm- 2 at higher concentration zone (0.8 to 15 mM), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 15.4 μM have been achieved. Investigation on reaction kinetics revealed a characteristic behavior of mixed surface and diffusion-controlled processes. Detailed sensing studies revealed also that the sensitivity toward ethanol was higher than that of methanol or isopropanol. With further effort in developing the synthesis and fabrication approaches, a proper utility for the current proposed protocol for fabricating a better sensor device performance is possible.

  11. EMR searching of quantum behavior of magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated into poly(propylene imine dendrimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobeva V.E., Domracheva N.E., Gruzdev M.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The superparamagnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (average diameter of 2.5 nm encapsulated in poly(propylene imine dendrimer have been investigated by electron magnetic resonance (EMR. EMR measurements have been recorded in perpendicular and parallel configurations in the wide temperature range (4.2-300 K. It has been shown that the model based on the spin value S = 30, corresponding to the total magnetic moment of the nanoparticle, can be used to interpret the experimental results and the proof of the quantum behavior of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles.

  12. Ni_0_,_5Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_3 ferrite synthesized by combustion and Pechini method for use in nanomedicine: methods evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, I.L.T. de; Nascimento, A.L.C.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesize the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O3 ferrite by combustion reaction and Pechini method, and to evaluate structural characteristics and magnetic behavior for its use in nanomedicine. The synthesized ferrite was characterized by DRX, BET, TG and magnetic properties. According to the results of XRD, the Ni_0_,_5Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_3 ferrite synthesized by both methods presented nano crystallite sizes, high crystallinity, surface area, stable at high temperatures and with high saturation magnetization, being higher in the ferrite synthesized by combustion reaction. Both methods produced materials that could be used in nanomedicine

  13. Pd-isatin Schiff base complex immobilized onγ-Fe2O3 as a magnetically recyclable catalyst for the Heck and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Sobhani; Farzaneh Zarifi

    2015-01-01

    A Pd‐isatin Schiff base complex immobilized onγ‐Fe2O3 (Pd‐isatin Schiff base‐γ‐Fe2O3) was synthe‐sized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, high resolu‐tion transmission electron microscopy, X‐ray diffraction, thermogravimetric gravimetric analysis, inductively‐coupled plasma, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. It was used as a magnetically reusable Pd catalyst for the Heck and Suzuki cross‐coupling reactions.

  14. Composition and crystallization kinetics of R2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Dehua; Cheng, Jinshu; Li, Hong

    2010-01-01

    The crystallization behavior and microstructure of R 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (R means K, Na and Li) glass were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallization kinetic parameters including the crystallization apparent activation energy (E a ), the Avrami parameter (n), glass transition temperature (T g ) and the activity energy of glass transition (E t ) were also measured with different methods. The results have shown that: the DSC traces of composition A parent glass have two different precipitation crystallization peaks corresponding to E a1 (A) = 151.4 kJ/mol (Li 2 SiO 3 ) and E a2 (A) = 623.1 kJ/mol (Li 2 Si 2 O 5 ), the average value of n = 1.70 (Li 2 Si 2 O 5 ) for the surface crystallization and E t (A) = 202.8 kJ/mol. And E a (B) = 50.7 kJ/mol (Li 2 SiO 3 ), the average value of n = 3.89 (Li 2 SiO 3 ) for the bulk crystallization and E t (B) = 220.4 kJ/mol for the composition B parent glass. Because of the content of R 2 O is bigger than composition A, composition B parent glass has a lower E a , T g and a larger n, E t .

  15. Silane effects on the surface morphology and abrasion resistance of transparent SiO2/UV-curable resin nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Chang, Yu-Lun; Chen, Chi-Yu; Yen, Fu-Su

    2011-01-01

    Transparent ultraviolet curable nano-composite coatings consisting of nano-sized SiO 2 and acrylate resin have been developed to improve the abrasion resistance of organic polymers. The nano-sized SiO 2 particles were surface-modified using various amounts of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane concentration effects on the surface morphology and abrasion resistance of the transparent SiO 2 /ultraviolet-curable resin nano-composites were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that as the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.6, the dispersion, compatibility and cross-linking density between the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane-modified SiO 2 particles and acrylate resin were improved, leading to an increase in abrasion resistance. However, as the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio was increased to 1.5, the additional 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane may exceed that needed to fill the pores with the probability of SiO 2 nano-particles existing on the coating surface was lower than that for samples with a 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio of 0.6. This produced a decrease in abrasion resistance.

  16. Liquid Adsorption of Organic Compounds on Hematite α-Fe2O3 Using ReaxFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chung-Lim; Avendaño, Carlos; Siperstein, Flor R; Filip, Sorin

    2017-10-24

    ReaxFF-based molecular dynamics simulations are used in this work to study the effect of the polarity of adsorbed molecules in the liquid phase on the structure and polarization of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). We compared the adsorption of organic molecules with different polarities on a rigid hematite surface and on a flexible and polarizable surface. We show that the displacements of surface atoms and surface polarization in a flexible hematite model are proportional to the adsorbed molecule's polarity. The increase in electrostatic interactions resulting from charge transfer in the outermost solid atoms in a flexible hematite model results in better-defined adsorbed layers that are less ordered than those obtained assuming a rigid solid. These results suggest that care must be taken when parametrizing empirical transferable force fields because the calculated charges on a solid slab in vacuum may not be representative of a real system, especially when the solid is in contact with a polar liquid.

  17. Confinement and surface effects on the physical properties of rhombohedral-shape hematite (α-Fe_2O_3) nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, Carlos; Cuan-Guerra, Aída D.; Barriga-Castro, Enrique D.; Núñez, Nuria O.; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniform rhombohedral hematite nanocrystals (RHNCs) have been obtained. • A detailed formation mechanism of these HNCS has been proposed. • Phonon confinement effects were revealed in the RHNCS vibrational bands. • Quantum confinement effects on the optical and electronic properties were found. - Abstract: Morphological, microstructural and vibrational properties of hematite (α-Fe_2O_3) nanocrystals with a rhombohedral shape and rounded edges, obtained by forced hydrolysis of iron(III) solutions under a fast nucleation, have been investigated in detail as a function of aging time. These studies allowed us to propose a detailed formation mechanism and revealed that these nanocrystals are composed of four {104} side facets, two {110} faces at the edges of the long diagonal of the nanocrystals and two {−441} facets as the top and bottom faces. Also, the presence of nanoscopic pores and fissures was evidenced. The vibrational bands of such nanocrystals were shifted to lower frequencies in comparison with bulk hematite ones as the nanocrystal size was reduced due to phonon confinement effects. Also, the indirect and direct transition band gaps displayed interesting dependences on the aging time arising from quantum confinement and surface effects

  18. Preparation and crystallization of hollow α-Fe2O3 microspheres following the gas-bubble template method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, L. de los Santos; León Félix, L.; Espinoza Suarez, S.M.; Bustamante Dominguez, A.G.; Mitrelias, T.; Holmes, S.; Moreno, N.O.; Albino Aguiar, J.; Barnes, C.H.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report the formation of hollow α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) microspheres by the gas-bubble template method. This technique is simple and it does not require hard templates, surfactants, special conditions of atmosphere or complex steps. After reacting Fe(NO 3 ) 3 .9H 2 O and citric acid in water by sol–gel, the precursor was annealed in air at different temperatures between 180 and 600 °C. Annealing at 550 and 600 °C generates bubbles on the melt which crystallize and oxidizes to form hematite hollow spheres after quenching. The morphology and crystal evolution are studied by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. We found that after annealing at 250–400 °C, the sample consist of a mixture of magnetite, maghemite and hematite. Single hematite phase in the form of hollow microspheres is obtained after annealing at 550 and 600 °C. The crystallization and crystal size of the hematite shells increase with annealing temperature. A possible mechanism for hollow sphere formation is presented. - Highlights: • Formation of hollow hematite microspheres by the gas-bubble template method. • This technique does not require hard templates or special conditions of atmosphere. • Annealing promotes the transition magnetite to maghemite to hematite. • Crystallization of the hematite shells increase with annealing temperature.

  19. Effect of hydrophobic coating on the magnetic anisotropy and radiofrequency heating of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mandeep; Ulbrich, Pavel; Prokopec, Vadym; Svoboda, Pavel; Šantavá, Eva; Štěpánek, František

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a hydrophobic (oleic acid) coating on the magnetic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles was investigated. The nanoparticles were prepared by a novel bi-phasic co-precipitation route and their properties compared with uncoated nanoparticles and nanoparticles prepared by a standard single-phase process. The oleic acid coated nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 6 nm when the two-phase precipitation procedure was used compared to 12 nm for nanoparticles prepared in a single phase under otherwise identical conditions. Super Quantum Interference Device measurements show superparamagnetism of the nanoparticles, with a saturation magnetization at 4 K to be 66.4 emu/g and 89.0 emu/g for the coated nanoparticles obtained by two- and single-phase procedure, respectively. Zero-field-cooled and field-cooled curves reveal a dramatic shift in the blocking temperature of the coated nanoparticles, and a significant change in their anisotropy. The hydrophobic nanoparticles were able to form stable ferrofluids in a range of organic solvents and show good heating rates in a 400 kHz alternating magnetic field. - Highlights: ► Hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a new microemulsion approach. ► Strong influence of oleic acid coating on blocking temperature observed. ► Stable non-aqueous ferrofluids prepared. ► Favorable heating rates under alternating magnetic field

  20. Anti-corrosion mechanism of epoxy-resin and different content Fe2O3 coatings on magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Kong, Fan-mei; Bai, Rui-qin; Zhang, Ru-liang

    2016-12-01

    In this study, anti-corrosion coatings were prepared and coated successfully on magnesium alloy substrates by mixing nanopowders, solvent, curing agent with epoxy resin. The effect of the amount of iron trioxide (Fe2O3) on the adhesion strength and corrosion resistance on magnesium alloy was investigated with standard protocols, and electrochemical measurements were also made in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions. The surface morphology and corrosion mechanism after corrosion tests was characterized using FESEM analysis. Nanoparticles in matrix acted as filler, and interstitial cross-linked spaces and other coating artifacts regions (micro cracks and voids) would all affect the anti-corrosion properties of coating. The results showed the proper powder content not only provided adhesion strength to these coatings but also improved obviously their anticorrosion. Hydrogen bound to the amine nitrogen (1N) could take part in the curing process rather than hydrogen of the amide site due to the smaller Δ G and the more stable configuration.

  1. Spectral and magnetic properties of hematite Fe2O3 (001) surface: results from DFT+DMFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Alamgir; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Rahman, Talat S.

    2015-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that strong correlation effects may significantly modify the spectrum of a system, in particular leading to an increase of the bandgap and to a change in the orbital occupancies, which affects the magnetic properties of the system. With this in mind, we have examined the spectral and magnetic properties of the hematite Fe2O3 film system with (001) surface orientation by using the combined density functional theory (DFT) and dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) approach. We pay special attention to the surface geometry and electronic structure, magnetization and magnetic anisotropy (MA) of the system by performing calculations at different values of the parameters for the local Coulomb repulsion and exchange energy. To calculate the MA of the system, we propose and apply a combined Bruno model within DMFT, and demonstrate that under-coordinated surface Fe atoms contribute significantly to the MA of the film. We also compare our results with the DFT+U solution and show that the dynamical effects taken into account by the DMFT significantly affect system properties, notably leading to a decrease of the atomic magnetic moments. Work supported in part by DOE Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-07ER46354.

  2. Origin of the Ability of α-Fe2 O3 Mesopores to Activate C-H Bonds in Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bing; Han, Zhen; Zhang, Yongbo; Yu, Youyi; Kong, Aiguo; Shan, Yongkui

    2016-02-01

    Methane is a most abundant and inexpensive hydrocarbon feedstock for the production of chemicals and fuels. However, it is extremely difficult to directly convert methane to higher hydrocarbons because the C-H bonds in methane are the most stable C-H bonds of all hydrocarbons. The activation of the C-H bonds in methane by using an efficient and mild route remains a daunting challenge. Here, we show that the inner surface structures of the pore walls in mesoporous α-Fe 2 O 3 possess excellent catalytic performance for methane activation and convert C-H bonds into the C-O bonds in an O 2 atmosphere at 140 °C. We found that such unusual structures are mainly comprised of turbostratic ribbons and K crystal faces and have higher catalytic activity than the (110) plane. These results are without precedent in the history of catalysis chemistry and will provide a new pathway for designing and preparing highly efficient catalytic materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Preparation and morphological and optical characterization of azo-polymer-based SiO2 sonogel hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Saavedra, Omar G; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G; Torres-Zúñiga, Vicente; Guadalupe-Bañuelos, José; Ortega-Martínez, Roberto; Rivera, Ernesto; García, Tonatiuh

    2009-01-01

    The well-established catalyst-free sonogel route was successfully implemented to fabricate highly pure, optically active, solid state polymeric azo- dye/SiO 2 -based hybrid composites. Bulk samples exhibit controllable geometrical shapes and monolithic structure with variable dopant concentrations. Since the implemented azo-dye chromophores exhibit a push–pull structure, hybrid film samples were spin-coated on ITO-covered glass substrates; molecular alignment was then performed via electrical poling in order to explore the quadratic nonlinear optical performance of this kind of composite. Comprehensive morphological, spectroscopic and optical characterization of the samples were performed with several experimental techniques: atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and infrared, Raman, photoluminescent and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies. The linear refractive indices of both bulk and thin film samples were measured according to the Brewster angle technique and a numerical analysis of the transmission spectral data, respectively. Regardless of the low glass transition temperatures of the studied polymers, some hybrid film samples were able to display stable nonlinear optical activity such as second harmonic generation. Results show that the chromophores were satisfactorily embedded into the highly pure SiO 2 sonogel network without significant guest–host molecular interactions, thus preserving their optical properties and producing sol–gel hybrid glasses suitable for optical applications

  4. Preparation and Application of a Nano α-Fe2O3/SAPO-34 Photocatalyst for Removal of the Anti-cancer Drug Doxorubicin using the Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigtan Mohammad Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of α-Fe2O3/SAPO-34 nano photocatalyst was the first step of this study. The α-Fe2O3 nanocatalyst was synthesized applying forced hydrolysis and reflux condensation followed by solid-state dispersion that was used for supporting α-Fe2O3 on SAPO-34. The next step was a characterization of the catalyst that was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR. Then, for optimizing the operational parameters in Doxorubicin’s degradation process the effect of Doxorubicin concentration, the amount of α-Fe2O3/SAPO-34 nano photocatalyst, the pH, and H2O2 concentration was studied via the Taguchi method. The AL9 orthogonal array was adjusted and nine crucial runs were conducted. For calculating Signal/Noise ratio, each run was repeated three times. As the results showed, the concentration of Doxorubicin is the most effective parameter. Optimized conditions for removing the anti-cancer drug (based on Signal/Noise ratio were Doxorubicin concentration (20 ppm, H2O2 concentration (3 mol/L, catalyst amount (50 mg/L and pH = 8.

  5. High Efficient Photo-Fenton Catalyst of α-Fe2O3/MoS2 Hierarchical Nanoheterostructures: Reutilization for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xijia; Sun, Haiming; Zhang, Lishu; Zhao, Lijun; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing

    2016-08-01

    A novel three-dimensional (3D) α-Fe2O3/MoS2 hierarchical nanoheterostructure is effectively synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The zero-dimensional (0D) Fe2O3 nanoparticles guide the growth of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets and formed 3D flower-like structures, while MoS2 facilitates the good dispersion of porous Fe2O3 with abundant oxygen vacancies. This charming 3D-structure with perfect match of non-equal dimension exhibits high recyclable photo-Fenton catalytic activity for Methyl orange pollutant and nice specific capacity in reusing as supercapacitor after catalysis. The synergistic effect between Fe2O3 and MoS2, the intermediate nanointerfaces, the 3D porous structures, and the abundant oxygen vacancies both contribute to highly active catalysis, nice electrochemical performance and stable cycling. This strategy is simple, cheap, and feasible for maximizing the value of the materials, as well as eliminating the secondary pollution.

  6. Application of a fluorescent biosensor based-on magneto-γ-Fe2 O3 -methyldopa nanoparticles for adsorption of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Maghsudi, Maryam; Shiri, Farshad

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and controlling the interaction between the polymer methyldopa (2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl-propanoic acid) (PMDP)-γ-Fe2 O3 nanoparticles and biological fluids is important if the potential of nanoparticles (NPs) in biomedicine is to be realized. Physicochemical studies on the interactions between proteins and NPs are influenced by the surface properties of the NPs. To identify the effects of the NP surface, interactions between human serum albumin (HSA) and PMDP-γ-Fe2 O3 NPs were investigated. Here, the adsorption of HSA onto small (10-30 nm diameter) PMDP-γ-Fe2 O3 NPs was quantitatively analyzed using spectroscopic methods. The fluorescence quenching data were checked for the inner-filter effect, the main confounding factor in the observed quenching. The binding constants, Ka , were calculated at different temperatures, using a nonlinear fit to the experimental data, and the thermodynamic parameters ∆H, ∆S and ∆G were given. The obtained thermodynamic signature suggests that hydrophobic interactions at least are present. This result indicates that the structure of the protein turns from a structureless denatured state at pH 3 into an ordered biologically active native state on addition of PMDP-γ-Fe2 O3 NPs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of Fe2O3/graphene nanocomposite for selective determination of ascorbic acid in the presence of uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Li, Hejun; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Xinmeng; Liu, Ningkun; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we had demonstrated a hydrothermal method to prepare Fe 2 O 3 /graphene (RG) nanocomposite for the determination of ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence of uric acid (UA). The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). As a sensor, the Fe 2 O 3 /RG nanocomposite modified electrode exhibited synergistic effects which not only improved the electrochemical catalytic oxidation of AA, but also resolved the overlapping anodic peaks of AA and UA. And the results showed that Fe 2 O 3 /RG could be used for the determination of AA in the presence of low concentration of UA. Using the modified electrode with different concentrations of AA, the linear response range for the determination of AA in the presence UA was 0.57–3.97 mM (R = 0.9994). The detection limit (S/N = 3) was found to be 0.543 μM for the determination of AA. The results suggested that the Fe 2 O 3 /RG nanocomposite had the advantages of simplicity, high sensitivity and good selectivity for determination of AA

  8. Magneto-optical properties of α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanocomposites prepared by the high energy ball-milling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Chandana Roy; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Das, Anusree; Das, Dipankar

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic-fluorescent nanocomposites (NCs) with 10 wt% of α-Fe2O3 in ZnO have been prepared by the high energy ball-milling. The crystallite sizes of α-Fe2O3 and ZnO in the NCs are found to vary from 65 nm to 20 nm and 47 nm to 15 nm respectively as milling time is increased from 2 to 30 h. XRD analysis confirms presence of α-Fe2O3 and ZnO in pure form in all the NCs. UV-vis study of the NCs shows a continuous blue-shift of the absorption peak and a steady increase of band gap of ZnO with increasing milling duration that are assigned to decreasing particle size of ZnO in the NCs. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the NCs reveal three weak emission bands in the visible region at 421, 445 and 485 nm along with the strong near band edge emission at 391 nm. These weak emission bands are attributed to different defect - related energy levels e.g. Zn-vacancy, Zn interstitial and oxygen vacancy. Dc and ac magnetization measurements show presence of weakly interacting superparamagnetic (SPM) α-Fe2O3 particles in the NCs. 57Fe-Mössbauer study confirms presence of SPM hematite in the sample milled for 30 h. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements indicate presence of cation vacancies in ZnO nanostructures confirming results of PL studies.

  9. X-Ray Magnetic Dichroism of Antiferromagnet Fe2O3 : The Orientation of Magnetic Moments Observed by Fe 2p X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Searle, Barry G.; Rudolf, Petra; Tjeng, L.H.; Chen, C.T.

    1993-01-01

    We report strong magnetic linear dichroism at the Fe L2,3 edge of the antiferromagnet Fe2O3 (hematite). The relative difference in absorption for light polarized parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic moment is as high as 40% at the Fe L2 edge. The spectra are in excellent agreement with

  10. Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Sprayed α-Fe2O3 Thin Films: Influence of Si Doping and SnO2 Interfacial Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Liang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Fe2O3 thin film photoanodes for solar water splitting were prepared by spray pyrolysis of Fe(AcAc3. The donor density in the Fe2O3 films could be tuned between 1017–1020 cm-3 by doping with silicon. By depositing a 5 nm SnO2 interfacial layer between the Fe2O3 films and the transparent conducting substrates, both the reproducibility and the photocurrent can be enhanced. The effects of Si doping and the presence of the SnO2 interfacial layer were systematically studied. The highest photoresponse is obtained for Fe2O3 doped with 0.2% Si, resulting in a photocurrent of 0.37 mA/cm2 at 1.23 VRHE in a 1.0 M KOH solution under 80 mW/cm2 AM1.5 illumination.

  11. Fabrication of γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles by Solid-State Thermolysis of a Metal-Organic Framework, MIL-100(Fe, for Heavy Metal Ions Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Hei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were prepared via a solid-state conversion process of a mesoporous iron(III carboxylate crystal, MIL-100(Fe. First, the MIL-100(Fe crystal that served as the template of the metal oxide was synthesized by a low-temperature (<100°C synthesis route. Subsequently, the porous γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were fabricated by facile thermolysis of the MIL-100(Fe powders via a two-step calcination treatment. The obtained γ-Fe2O3 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques, and then used as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions removal in water treatment. This study illustrates that the metal-organic frameworks may be suitable precursors for the fabrication of metal oxides nanomaterials with large specific surface area, and the prepared porous γ-Fe2O3 exhibits a superior adsorption performance for As(V and As(III ions removal in water treatment.

  12. Voltammetric and impedimetric properties of nano-scaled -Fe2O3 catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes: catalytic detection of dopamine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The MWCNT-Fe2O3 based electrodes demonstrated fastest electron transport and current response towards DA compared to other electrodes studied, giving a catalytic rate constant of 16.4 x 105 cm3mol-1s-1...

  13. Structure of high alumina content Al2O3-SiO2 composition glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Richard; Sen, Sabyasachi; Youngman, Randall E; Hart, Robert T; Benmore, Chris J

    2008-12-25

    The structure of binary aluminosilicate glasses containing 60-67 mol % Al2O3 were investigated using high-resolution 27Al NMR and X-ray and neutron diffraction. The glasses were made by aerodynamic levitation of molten oxides. The 67% alumina composition required a cooling rate of approximately 1600 degrees C s(1-) to form glass from submillimeter sized samples. NMR results show that the glasses contain aluminum in 4-, 5-, and 6-fold coordination in the approximate ratio 4:5:1. The average Al coordination increases from 4.57 to 4.73 as the fraction of octahedral Al increases with alumina content. The diffraction results on the 67% composition are consistent with a disordered Al framework with Al ions in a range of coordination environments that are substantially different from those found in the equilibrium crystalline phases. Analysis of the neutron and X-ray structure factors yields an average bond angle of 125 +/- 4 degrees between an Al ion and the adjoining cation via a bridging oxygen. We propose that the structure of the glass is a "transition state" between the alumina-rich liquid and the equilibrium mullite phase that are dominated by 4- and 6-coordinated aluminum ions, respectively.

  14. Mg shallow doping effects on the ac magnetic self-heating characteristics of γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic nanoparticles for highly efficient hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jung-tak; Bae, Seongtae

    2017-10-01

    The effects of Mg doping on the magnetic and AC self-heating temperature rising characteristics of γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) were investigated for hyperthermia applications in biomedicine. The doping concentration of nonmagnetic Mg2+ cation was systematically controlled from 0 to 0.15 at. % in Mgx-γFe2O3 SPNPs during chemically and thermally modified one-pot thermal decomposition synthesis under bubbling O2/Ar gas mixture. It was empirically observed that the saturation magnetization (Ms) and the out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility ( χm″)of Mgx-γFe2O3 SPNPs were increased by increasing the Mg2+ cation doping concentration from 0.05 to 0.13 at. %. Correspondingly, the AC magnetically induced self-heating temperature (Tac,max) in solid state and the intrinsic loss power in water were increased up to 184 °C and 14.2 nH m2 kg-1 (Mgx-γFe2O3, x = 0.13), respectively, at the biologically and physiologically safe range of AC magnetic field (Happl × fappl = 1.2 × 109 A m-1 s-1). All the chemically and physically analyzed results confirmed that the dramatically improved AC magnetic induction heating characteristics and the magnetic properties of Mgx-γFe2O3 SPNPs (x = 0.13) are primarily due to the significantly enhanced magnetic susceptibility (particularly, χm″) and the improved AC/DC magnetic softness (lower AC/DC magnetic anisotropy) resulting from the systematically controlled nonmagnetic Mg2+ cation concentrations and distributions (occupation ratio) in the Fe vacancy sites of γ-Fe2O3 (approximately 12% vacancy), instead of typically well-known Fe3O4 (no vacancy) SPNPs. The cell viability and biocompatibility with U87 MG cell lines demonstrated that Mgx-γFe2O3 SPNPs (x = 0.13) has promising bio-feasibility for hyperthermia agent applications.

  15. SiO2/ZnO Composite Hollow Sub-Micron Fibers: Fabrication from Facile Single Capillary Electrospinning and Their Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanying Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers were fabricated by a facile single capillary electrospinning technique followed by calcination, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and ZnO nanoparticles as raw materials. The characterization results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra indicated that the asprepared composite hollow fibers consisted of amorphous SiO2 and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO. The products revealed uniform tubular structure with outer diameters of 400–500 nm and wall thickness of 50–60 nm. The gases generated and the directional escaped mechanism was proposed to illustrate the formation of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers. Furthermore, a broad blue emission band was observed in the photoluminescence (PL of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers, exhibiting great potential applications as blue light-emitting candidate materials.

  16. The Effect of Composition on Spinel Crystals Equilibrium in Low-Silica High-Level Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiricka, Milos; Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.

    2003-01-01

    The liquidus temperature (TL) and the equilibrium mass fraction of spinel were measured in the regions of low-silica (less than 42 mass% SiO2) high-level waste borosilicate glasses within the spinel primary phase field as functions of glass composition. The components that varied, one at a time, were Al2O3, B2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, Li2O, MnO, Na2O, NiO, SiO2, and ZrO2. The effects of Al2O3, B2O3, Fe2O3, NiO, SiO2, and ZrO2 on the TL in this region and in glasses with 42 to 56 mass% SiO2 were similar. However, in the low-silica region, Cr2O3 increased the TL substantially less, and Li2O and Na2O decreased the TL significantly less than in the region with 42 to 56 mass% SiO2. The effect of MnO on the TL of the higher SiO2 glasses is not yet understood with sufficient accuracy. The temperature at which the equilibrium mass fraction of spinel was 1 mass% was 25C to 64C below the TL

  17. Ni-doped α-Fe 2 O 3 as electron transporting material for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with improved efficiency, reduced hysteresis and ultraviolet stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Liu, Tao; Wang, Ning; Luo, Qiang; Lin, Hong; Li, Jianbao; Jiang, Qinglong; Wu, Lili; Guo, Zhanhu

    2017-08-01

    We report on high-efficiency planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) employing Ni-doped alpha-Fe2O3 as electron-transporting layer (ETL). The suitable addition of nickel (Ni) dopant could enhance the electron conductivity as well as induce downward shift of the conduction band minimum for alpha-Fe2O3, which facilitate electrons injection and transfer from the conduction band of the perovskite. As a consequence, a substantial reduction in the charge accumulation at the perovskite/ETL interface makes the device much less sensitive to scanning rate and direction, i.e., lower hysteresis. With a reverse scan for the optimized PSC under standard AM-1.5 sunlight illumination, it generates a competitive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2% with a large short circuit current (J(sc)) of 22.35 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photovoltage (V-oc) of 0.92 V and a fill factor (FF) of 69.1%. Due to the small J-V hysteresis behavior, a higher stabilized PCE up to 11.6% near the maximum power point can be reached for the device fabricated with 4 mol% Ni-doped alpha-Fe2O3 ETL compared with the undoped alpha-Fe2O3 based cell (9.2%). Furthermore, a good stability of devices with exposure to ambient air and high levels of ultraviolet (UV)-light can be achieved. Overall, our results demonstrate that the simple solution-processed Ni-doped alpha-Fe2O3 can be a good candidate of the n-type collection layer for commercialization of PSCs.

  18. Control of the shape and size of iron oxide (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles synthesized through the chemical precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Lassoued

    Full Text Available Hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple chemical precipitation method. The impact of varying the concentration of precursor on the crystalline phase, size and morphology of α-Fe2O3 products was explored. The characteristic of the synthesized hematite nanoparticles were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA, Ultraviolet–Visible (UV–Vis analysis and Photoluminescence (PL. XRD data revealed a rhombohedral (hexagonal structure with the space group R-3c in all samples. Uniform spherical like morphology was confirmed by TEM and SEM. The result revealed that the particle sizes were varied between 21 and 82 nm and that the increase in precursor concentration (FeCl3, 6H2O is accompanied by an increase in the particle size of 21 nm for pure α-Fe2O3 synthesized with [Fe3+] = 0.05 M at 82 nm for pure α-Fe2O3 synthesized with [Fe3+] = 0.4 M. FT-IR confirms the phase purity of the nanoparticles synthesized. The Raman spectroscopy was used not only to prove that we have synthesized pure hematite but also to identify their phonon modes. The thermal behavior of compound was studied by using TGA/DTA results: The TGA showed three mass losses, whereas DTA resulted in three endothermic peaks. Besides, the optical investigation revealed that samples have an optical gap of about 2.1 eV and that this value varies as a function of the precursor concentration. Keywords: Nanoparticles, Hematite (α-Fe2O3, Precipitation, Precursor, Size, Band gap

  19. Flexible Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers as binder-free electrodes for high-performance all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He; Niu, Hao; Yang, Xue; Sun, Zhiqin; Li, Fuzhi; Wang, Qian; Qu, Fengyu

    2018-04-16

    Flexible highly porous Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers are synthesized by a facile electrospinning method followed by calcination treatment and directly used as binder-free electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. These Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers interconnect with each other and construct three-dimensional hierarchical porous films with high specific surface area. Benefiting from the unique structural features, the intriguing binder-free Fe2O3 and V2O5 porous nanofiber electrodes possess high specific capacitance of 255 F g-1 and 256 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1 in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte, respectively. An all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers as negative and positive electrodes, respectively, and the all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can be operated up to 1.8 V attributed to the wide and opposite potential window of both electrodes. The assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor achieves a high energy density up to 32.2 Wh kg-1 at an average power density of 128.7 W kg-1 as well as excellent cycling stability and power capability. The effective and facile synthesis method and superior electrochemical performance provided in this work make electrospun Fe2O3 and V2O5 nanofibers promising electrode materials for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Characterizations of diverse mole of pure and Ni-doped α-Fe2O3 synthesized nanoparticles through chemical precipitation route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Anusuya, D; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J; Venkatesan, A; Soundhirarajan, P

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, an attempt has been made for characterization and synthesis of pure and Ni-doped α-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method. The synthesized products have been studied by X-ray diffraction (X-RD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The estimated average diameter of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were calculated by using the Debye-Scherrer equation and established as 31 nm. SEM micrographs showed the surface morphology as well as structures and particles distributions of synthesized samples. The UV-Vis DRS showed the indirect and direct band gap energies of pure and Ni-doped α-Fe2O3, these were reduced from 1.9847 to 1.52 eV and 2.0503 to 1.76 eV respectively. This result suggested the dopant enhanced the semiconducting behavior of iron oxide nanoparticles to an extent proportional to its nickel doped in the α-Fe2O3. Further, the magnetic properties of the pure and doped samples were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and evaluated the information of pure and doped samples exhibited saturated hysteresis loop at room temperature, which is indicating that the weak ferromagnetism in nature of our synthesized samples. In addition, it has been found from the magnetization hysteresis curves of Ni-doping, resulting from increased the saturation of magnetization and reduced the coercivity of used samples. Therefore, the present study showed the reduction in band gap energies and coercive field for α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles due to nickel doped. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of tin-doped α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Houda; Bargougui, Radhouane; Autret-Lambert, Cécile; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Sn-doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles with various dopant concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 mol% were prepared successfully using a simple co-precipitation technique. The effects of Sn doping on the structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. XRD analysis showed that all of the samples had a typical hematite-type hexagonal structure of Fe2O3 without any additional peaks due to spurious phases. The cell parameters a and c decreased monotonically as the Sn content increased, thereby indicating that Sn ions were substituted into the α-Fe2O3 lattice. These results and the TEM analyses showed that the size of the nanoparticles decreased to 10 nm as the Sn doping concentration increased. UV-visible absorption measurements showed that the decrease in particle size was accompanied by a decrease in the band gap value from 2.07 eV for α-Fe2O3 to 1.87 eV with 6 mol% Sn doping. Furthermore, the magnetic properties demonstrated that all of the samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were studied based on the degradation of methylene blue as a model compound, where the results showed that an appropriate amount of Sn dopant could greatly increase the amount of hydroxyl radicals generated by α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which were responsible for the obvious increase in the photocatalytic activity.

  2. From core/shell to hollow Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles: evolution of the magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, Z; Khurshid, H; Alonso, J; Phan, M H; Mukherjee, P; Srikanth, H

    2015-01-01

    High quality Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 core/shell, core/void/shell, and hollow nanoparticles with two different sizes of 8 and 12 nm were synthesized, and the effect of morphology, surface and finite-size effects on their magnetic properties including the exchange bias (EB) effect were systematically investigated. We find a general trend for both systems that as the morphology changes from core/shell to core/void/shell, the magnetization of the system decays and inter-particle interactions become weaker, while the effective anisotropy and the EB effect increase. The changes are more drastic when the nanoparticles become completely hollow. Noticeably, the morphological change from core/shell to hollow increases the mean blocking temperature for the 12 nm particles but decreases for the 8 nm particles. The low-temperature magnetic behavior of the 12 nm particles changes from a collective super-spin-glass system mediated by dipolar interactions for the core/shell nanoparticles to a frustrated cluster glass-like state for the shell nanograins in the hollow morphology. On the other hand for the 8 nm nanoparticles core/shell and hollow particles the magnetic behavior is more similar, and a conventional spin glass-like transition is obtained at low temperatures. In the case of the hollow nanoparticles, the coupling between the inner and outer spin layers in the shell gives rise to an enhanced EB effect, which increases with increasing shell thickness. This indicates that the morphology of the shell plays a crucial role in this kind of exchange-biased systems. (paper)

  3. MAGNETIC AND HYPERFINE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE THERMAL TRANSFORMATION CuO - Fe2O3 TO Fe3O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Betancur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic study about the thermal transformation of hematite doped with CuO (Fe2O3 + CuO is presented. The heat treatment was carried out at a temperature of 375 ± 1 ºC, in a controlled atmosphere composed by 20% hydrogen and 80% nitrogen. Samples were characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature, magnetization as a function of temperature and hysteresis loops at 10K. Our results suggest that both the hyperfine fields and linewidths of the A and B sites remain essentially constant with increasing the CuO concentration, while at the same time a paramagnetic component arises, which is indicative of the appearance of a precipitate or a new phase of Fe-Cu, i.e. there is not an effective incorporation of the copper into the structure of the magnetite. The saturation magnetization falls from approximately 87 emu/g to 78 emu/g, consistent with such a paramagnetic phase. Also, an increase in the coercivity from ~576 Oe up to ~621 Oe by increasing the percentage of CuO from 2% up to 20% is observed. Such increase is also attributed to the paramagnetic phase acting as pinning center for domain walls, besides also de pinning effect due to vacancies induced by the thermal treatment. Finally, an inversion of the magnetization in the Verwey temperature is observed. The data suggest that by means of the synthesis method employed, it is possible to obtain Fe3O4 magnetite particles coexisting with precipitates of Fe-Cu, giving rise to a modification in the magnetic properties and generatingan interesting effect in the magnetization at the Verwey temperature.

  4. Facile synthesis of Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe/porous N-doped carbon nanosheet as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Guangshe; Yu, Meijie; Fan, Jianming; Li, Baoyun; Li, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Iron nitrides are considered as highly promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their nontoxicity, high abundance, low cost, and higher electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, their limited synthesis routes are available and practical application is still hindered by their fast capacity decay. Herein, a facile and green route is developed to synthesize Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe/porous N-doped carbon nanosheet composite. The size of Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe particles is small (10-40 nm) and they are confined in porous N-doped carbon nanosheet. These features are conducive to accommodate volume change well, shorten the diffusion distance and further elevate electrical conductivity. When tested as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, a high discharge capacity of 554 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and 389 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles at 1000 mA g-1 are retained. Even at 2000 mA g-1, a high capacity of 330 mA h g-1 can be achieved, demonstrating superior cycling stability and rate performance. New prospects will be brought by this work for the synthesis and the potential application of iron nitrides materials as an anode for LIBs.

  5. First Measurements of Time-Dependent Nucleation as a Function of Composition in Na2O.2CaO.3SiO2 Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, K. F.; Narayan, K. Lakshmi

    1996-01-01

    The first measurements in any system of the composition dependence of the time-dependent nucleation rate are presented Nucleation rates of the stoichiometric crystalline phase, Na2O.2CaO.3SiO2, from quenched glasses made with different SiO2 concentrations were determined as a function of temperature and glass composition. A strong compositional dependence of the nucleation rates and a weak dependence for the induction times are observed. Using measured values of the liquidus temperatures and growth velocities as a function of glass composition, these data are shown to be consistent with predictions from the classical theory of nucleation, assuming a composition-dependent interfacial energy.

  6. Preparation and characterization of Fe3O4/SiO2/Bi2MoO6 composite as magnetically separable photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xuemei; Tian, Yanlong; Zhang, Xiang; Dou, Shuliang; Pan, Lei; Wang, Wenjia; Li, Yao; Zhao, Jiupeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 composite was prepared by a hydrothermal method. • The composite has an enhanced visible absorption compared with pure Bi 2 MoO 6 . • The magnetic photocatalyst displayed excellent stability and reusability. • O 2 ·− and · OH play a major role during the photocatalytic process. - Abstract: In this paper, Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 microspheres were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results revealed that flower-like three dimensional (3D) Bi 2 MoO 6 microspheres were decorated with Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 magnetic nanoparticles. The UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra showed extended absorption within the visible light range compared with pure Bi 2 MoO 6 . We evaluated the photocatalytic activities of Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 microspheres on the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation and found that the obtained composite exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure Bi 2 MoO 6 and P25. Moreover, the Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 composite also displayed excellent stability and their photocatalytic activity decreased slightly after reusing 5 cycles. Meanwhile, the composite could be easily separated by applying an external magnetic field. The trapping experiment results suggest that superoxide radical species O 2 ·− and hydroxyl radicals · OH play a major role in Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /Bi 2 MoO 6 system under visible light irradiation. The combination of flower-like three dimensional (3D) Bi 2 MoO 6 microspheres and Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 magnetic nanospheres provides a useful strategy for designing multifunctional nanostructure materials with enhanced photocatalytic activities in the potential applications of water purification

  7. Conductivity And Thermal Stability of Solid Acid Composites CsH2PO4 /NaH2PO4/ SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyahida Mohammad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abdul Amir Hassan Kadhum

    2016-01-01

    Solid acid composites CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 with different mole ratios of CsH 2 PO 4 and NaH 2 PO 4 to SiO 2 were synthesized and characterized. Preliminary infrared measurements of CsH 2 PO 4 and its composites indicated that hydrogen bonds breaking and formation were detected between 1710 to 2710 cm -1 , while the rotation of phosphate tetrahedral anions occurred between 900 and 1200 cm -1 . The superprotonic transition of CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 composite was identified at superprotonic temperatures between 230 and 260 degree Celcius, under atmospheric pressure. This study reveals higher conductivity values for composites with higher CsH 2 PO 4 (CDP) content. Solid acid composite CDP 613 appeared as the composite with the highest conductivity that is 7.2x10 -3 S cm -1 at 230 degree Celcius. Thermal stability of the solid acid composites such as temperature of dehydration, melting and decomposition were investigated. The addition of NaH 2 PO 4 lowers the dehydration temperature of the solid acid composites. (author)

  8. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO2 coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. L.; Xiao, Q. F.; Mei, D. D.; Zhong, Z. C.; Tong, Y. X.; Zheng, Y. F.; Li, L.

    2017-03-01

    Amorphous SiO2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the "coral reef" like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 μm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO2 and a few amorphous Fe2O3 and Nd2O3. The amorphous SiO2 coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees.

  9. Synthesis of raspberry-like monodisperse magnetic hollow hybrid nanospheres by coating polystyrene template with Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yan, Juntao; Cui, Xuejun; Wang, Hongyan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for the preparation of raspberry-like monodisperse magnetic hollow hybrid nanospheres with γ-Fe(2)O(3)@SiO(2) particles as the outer shell. PS@Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) composite nanoparticles were successfully prepared on the principle of the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged silica and positively charged polystyrene, and then raspberry-like magnetic hollow hybrid nanospheres with large cavities were achieved by means of calcinations, simultaneously, the magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) was transformed into maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the obtained magnetic hollow silica nanospheres with the perfect spherical profile were well monodisperse and uniform with the mean size of 253nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) provided the sufficient evidences for the presence of Fe(3)O(4) in the silica shell. Moreover, the magnetic hollow silica nanospheres possessed a characteristic of superparamagnetic with saturation magnetization value of about 7.84emu/g by the magnetization curve measurement. In addition, the nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement exhibited that the pore size, BET surface area, pore volume of magnetic hollow silica nanospheres were 3.5-5.5nm, 307m(2)g(-1) and 1.33cm(3)g(-1), respectively. Therefore, the magnetic hollow nanospheres possess a promising future in controlled drug delivery and targeted drug applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphological, structural and magnetic properties of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in an amorphous alumina matrix obtained by aqueous combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadic, Marin; Kusigerski, Vladan; Markovic, Dragana; Citakovic, Nada; Remskar, Maja; Spasojevic, Vojislav

    2009-01-01

    We report on morphological, structural and magnetic properties of α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles in an amorphous alumina matrix synthesized by aqueous combustion method. The sample was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and SQUID magnetometry. XRPD study reveals the phase purity of α-Fe 2 O 3 whereas HREM images show an unusual spongy structure and well-crystallized nanoparticles with a size of about 25 nm. Magnetic measurements show a high irreversibility temperature T irr ∼ 350 K, Morin transition at T M ∼ 210 K, increase of the magnetization below T ∼ 45 K and hysteretic behavior below T M at 5 K and 200 K.

  11. Ferrite formation in the MeO – Fe2O3 (Me - Zn, Cd, Cu) systems and its impact for the zinc hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, Boyan S.; Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara

    2011-01-01

    Study on the solid state interactions between MeO (Me - Zn, Cd, Cu) and α-Fe 2 O 3 is very important for metallurgy as well as for the preparation of magnetic materials and new catalysts. Zinc, copper and cadmium ferrites are obtained by the conventional ceramic technology. Chemical, DTA and TG analyses, Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray phase analysis have been used in the study of intermediate and final products of solid state interactions. The kinetics of formation of MeFe 2 O 4 is investigated by different kinetics equations and the activation energy values are obtained. The ferrite formation process in the system ZnO - α-Fe 2 O 3 and the effectiveness of zinc extraction during the hydrometallurgical treatment of the zinc calcine and the fuming of zinc containing slags are discussed. Key words: ferrites, zinc, copper, cadmium, kinetics, zinc concentrate, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Xray phase analysis

  12. The Formation of Lithiated Ti-Doped α-Fe2O3 Nanocrystalline Particles by Mechanical Milling of Ti-Doped Lithium Spinel Ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widatallah, H. M.; Gismelseed, A. M.; Bouziane, K.; Berry, F. J.; Al Rawas, A. D.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Yousif, A. A.; Elzain, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The milling of spinel-related Ti-doped Li 0.5 Fe 2.5 O 4 for different times is studied with XRD, Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Milling converts the material to Li-Ti-doped α-Fe 2 O 3 nanocrystalline particles via an intermediate γ-LiFeO 2 -related phase. The role played by the dopant Ti-ion in the process is emphasized.

  13. Toxicity effects of Fe2O3, TiO2, ZnO, and Ag engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) on the macrophyte Spirodela species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thwala, Melusi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available and also waste disposal where they will pose some level of risk. Four of these highly-used enms are selected for the current study. Fe2O3 (iron oxide) nanoscale iron is extensively used in bioremediation (Zhang 2003) and its use in environmental clean...-up operations is increasing. therefore a significant portion of nanoscale iron entering the environment will be introduced intentionally during environmental bioremediation. considering the potential benefits and increasing usage of nanoscale iron and also...

  14. Meso-porous α-Fe2O3 thin films synthesized via the sol-gel process for light-driven water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamd, Wael; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Sanchez, Clement; Cobo, Saioa; Fize, Jennifer; Artero, Vincent; Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Schwartz, Wilfrid; Reymermier, Maryse; Pereira, Alexandre; Fontecave, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This work reports a facile and cost-effective method for synthesizing photoactive α-Fe 2 O 3 films as well as their performances when used as photoanodes for water oxidation. Transparent α-Fe 2 O 3 meso-porous films were fabricated by template-directed sol-gel chemistry coupled with the dip-coating approach, followed by annealing at various temperatures from 350 degrees C to 750 degrees C in air. α-Fe 2 O 3 films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, XPS, FE-SEM and electrochemical measurements. The photoelectrochemical performance of α-Fe 2 O 3 photoanodes was characterized and optimized through the deposition of Co-based co-catalysts via different methods (impregnation, electro-deposition and photo-electro-deposition). Interestingly, the resulting hematite films heat-treated at relatively low temperature (500 degrees C), and therefore devoid of any extrinsic dopant, achieve light-driven water oxidation under near-to-neutral (pH = 8) aqueous conditions after decoration with a Co catalyst. The onset potential is 0.75 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), thus corresponding to 450 mV light-induced under potential, although modest photocurrent density values (40 μAcm -2 ) are obtained below 1.23 V vs. RHE. These new materials with a very large interfacial area in contact with the electrolyte and allowing for a high loading of water oxidation catalysts open new avenues for the optimization of photo-electrochemical water splitting. (authors)

  15. Treatment of Oily Wastewater by the Optimization of Fe2O3 Calcination Temperatures in Innovative Bio-Electron-Fenton Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chen Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that Iron oxide (Fe2O3 is known to have a good effect on the photochemical reaction of catalysts, an investigation in this study into the enhancement of the degradation performance of bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells (Bio-E-Fenton MFCs was carried out using three photocatalytic cathodes. These cathodes were produced at different calcination temperatures of Fe2O3 ranging from 500 °C to 900 °C for realizing their performance as photo catalysts within the cathodic chamber of an MFC, and they were compared for their ability to degrade oily wastewater. Results show that a suitable temperature for the calcination of iron oxide would have a significantly positive effect on the performance of Bio-E-Fenton MFCs. An optimal calcination temperature of 500 °C for Fe2O3 in the electrode material of the cathode was observed to produce a maximum power density of 52.5 mW/m2 and a chemical oxygen demand (COD degradation rate of oily wastewater (catholyte of 99.3% within one hour of operation. These novel findings will be useful for the improvement of the performance and applications of Bio-E-Fenton MFCs and their future applications in the field of wastewater treatment.

  16. The influence of Fe2O3 in the humidity sensor performance of ZrO2:TiO2-based porous ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, I.C.; Muccillo, E.N.S.; Muccillo, R.

    2007-01-01

    ZrO 2 :TiO 2 ceramics were prepared with different porosity values by two methods: (a) sintering at 1150, 1300 and 1500 deg. C, corresponding to the temperatures of the first, second and third sintering stages, according to dilatometry results; (b) adding Fe 2 O 3 (2.0 and 5.0 mol%) to ZrO 2 :TiO 2 powders before sintering. The ZrO 2 :TiO 2 specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectroscopy analysis was carried out under different relative humidities. The bulk electrical resistivity in the low frequency region (10-100 Hz) decreases for increasing relative humidity. Increasing the sintering temperature from the first to the third sintering stage promoted grain growth, as expected, with consequent decrease of the intergranular porosity. The use of Fe 2 O 3 as sintering aid reduced the porosity of the specimens, but increased the electrical response under humid environments in comparison with specimens sintered without Fe 2 O 3

  17. Ultrathin Epitaxial Ferromagneticγ-Fe2O3Layer as High Efficiency Spin Filtering Materials for Spintronics Device Based on Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In spintronics, identifying an effective technique for generating spin-polarized current has fundamental importance. The spin-filtering effect across a ferromagnetic insulating layer originates from unequal tunneling barrier heights for spin-up and spin-down electrons, which has shown great promise for use in different ferromagnetic materials. However, the low spin-filtering efficiency in some materials can be ascribed partially to the difficulty in fabricating high-quality thin film with high Curie temperature and/or partially to the improper model used to extract the spin-filtering efficiency. In this work, a new technique is successfully developed to fabricate high quality, ferrimagnetic insulating γ-Fe2O3 films as spin filter. To extract the spin-filtering effect of γ-Fe2O3 films more accurately, a new model is proposed based on Fowler–Nordheim tunneling and Zeeman effect to obtain the spin polarization of the tunneling currents. Spin polarization of the tunneled current can be as high as −94.3% at 2 K in γ-Fe2O3 layer with 6.5 nm thick, and the spin polarization decays monotonically with temperature. Although the spin-filter effect is not very high at room temperature, this work demonstrates that spinel ferrites are very promising materials for spin injection into semiconductors at low temperature, which is important for development of novel spintronics devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  18. Enhanced photochemical catalysis of TiO2 inverse opals by modification with ZnO or Fe2O3 using ALD and the hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiatong; Sun, Cuifeng; Fu, Ming; Long, Jie; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng

    2018-02-01

    The development of porous materials exhibiting photon regulation abilities for improved photoelectrochemical catalysis performance is always one of the important goals of solar energy harvesting. In this study, methods to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 inverse opals were discussed. TiO2 inverse opals were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using colloidal crystal templates. In addition, TiO2 inverse opal heterostructures were fabricated using colloidal heterocrystals by repeated vertical deposition using different colloidal spheres. The hydrothermal method and ALD were used to prepare ZnO- or Fe2O3-modified TiO2 inverse opals on the internal surfaces of the TiO2 porous structures. Although the photonic reflection band was not significantly varied by oxide modification, the presence of Fe2O3 in the TiO2 inverse opals enhanced their visible absorption. The conformally modified oxides on the TiO2 inverse opals could also form energy barriers and avoid the recombination of electrons and holes. The fabrication of the TiO2 photonic crystal heterostructures and modification with ZnO or Fe2O3 can enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 inverse opals.

  19. Combined effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 on compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity in cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjuán, M.A.; Argiz, C.; Gálvez, J.C.; Reyes, E.

    2018-01-01

    The compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity properties of cement mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 are studied. Amorphous silica is the main component of pozzolanic materials due to its reaction with calcium hydroxide formed from calcium silicate (C3S and C2S) hydration. The pozzolanic reaction rate is not only proportional to the amount of amorphous silica but also to the surface area available for reaction. Subsequently, fine nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles in mortars are expected to improve mortar performance. The experimental results showed that the compressive strength of mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles were lower than those obtained with the reference mortar at seven and 28 days. It was shown that the nano-particles were not able to enhance mechanical strength on every occasion. The continuous microstructural progress monitored by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) measurements, pore-size distribution (PSD), total porosity and critical pore diameter also confirmed such results. [es

  20. Combined effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 on compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity in cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sanjuán

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity properties of cement mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 are studied. Amorphous silica is the main component of pozzolanic materials due to its reaction with calcium hydroxide formed from calcium silicate (C3S and C2S hydration. The pozzolanic reaction rate is not only proportional to the amount of amorphous silica but also to the surface area available for reaction. Subsequently, fine nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles in mortars are expected to improve mortar performance. The experimental results showed that the compressive strength of mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles were lower than those obtained with the reference mortar at seven and 28 days. It was shown that the nano-particles were not able to enhance mechanical strength on every occasion. The continuous microstructural progress monitored by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP measurements, pore-size distribution (PSD, total porosity and critical pore diameter also confirmed such results.

  1. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Highly Ordered SBA-15 Nanocomposites Modified with Fe2O3 and Co3O4 Nanoparticles

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    P. F. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the unique order mesopores, mesoporous SBA-15 could be used as the carrier of the magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles in the frame and the mesopores lead to the exchange-coupling interaction or other interactions, which could improve the magnetic properties of SBA-15 nanocomposites. Mesoporous Fe/SBA-15 had been prepared via in situ anchoring Fe2O3 into the frame and the micropores of SBA-15 using the sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Co3O4 nanoparticles had been impregnated into the mesopores of Fe/SBA-15 to form mesoporous Fe/SBA-15-Co3O4 nanocomposites. XRD, HRTEM, VSM, and N2 physisorption isotherms were used to characterize the mesostructure and magnetic properties of the SBA-15 nanocomposites, and all results indicated that the Fe2O3 nanoparticles presented into the frame and micropores, while the Co3O4 nanoparticles existed inside the mesopores of Fe/SBA-15. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of SBA-15 could be conveniently adjusted by the Fe2O3 and Co3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Fe/SBA-15 exhibited ferromagnetic properties, while the impregnation of Co3O4 nanoparticles greatly improved the coercivity with a value of 1424.6 Oe, which was much higher than that of Fe/SBA-15.

  2. The Semi-Quantitative Study of Magnetization Process on Milling and Reannealing of Barium Hexaferrite (BaO.6Fe2O3

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    Ridwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaferrite (BaO.6Fe2O3 is as a hard magnetic material with good chemical stability which has been intensively used as permanent magnet components. Many works have been done in order to improve their magnetic properties either through chemical process or powders metallurgy technique. In this work, commercial BaO.6Fe2O3 was milled using high-energy milling machine for 10, 20 and 30 hours and followed by reannealing for 3 hours at 1000⁰C in air. X-ray diffraction pattern indicate no phase decomposition occurred caused the mill processing, annealing of milled powders recovered the crystal system and promoted crystallite growth. The magnetic hysteresis curve measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM shows the coercivity of annealed BaO.6Fe2O3 increases to two times higher than the original one. By using Jiles-Atherton model, all the hysteresis parameters Ms, k, α, a and c, have been determined adopted to the Genetic Algorithm (GA. The analyzed hysteretic parameters obtained from this work is congruent to the change of magnetic properties of as-milled and annealed powders of barium hexaferrite.

  3. Synthesis, structural, morphological, optical and magnetic characterization of iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles by precipitation method: Effect of varying the nature of precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Dkhil, Brahim; Ammar, Salah; Gadri, Abdellatif

    2018-03-01

    α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were prepared via a precipitation method using each of three different precursors ((FeCl3, 6H2O), (Fe (C5H7O2)3) and (Fe (NO3)3, 9H2O)). The impact of varying the nature of the precursor on crystalline phase, size and magnetic parameters of α-Fe2O3 was examined. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern disclosed rhombohedral structure. The TEM and SEM results showed that the size of α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals was between 21 and 38 nm. FT-IR confirms the phase purity of prepared compounds. Raman studies showed the phonon modes. The TGA showed three mass losses, whereas DTA resulted in three endothermic peaks. The optical investigation exhibited that samples have an optical gap of 2.1 eV. The products exhibited the attractive magnetic properties with high saturation magnetization, which were examined by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).

  4. Study on the Effect of Different Fe2O3/ZrO2 Ratio on the Properties of Silicate Glass Fibers

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    Jianxun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of silicate glass fibers with different ratios of Fe2O3/ZrO2 were prepared, and their corrosion resistance, mass loss, and strength loss were characterized. The crystallization and melting properties of the fibers were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, high temperature viscometer, and high temperature microscope. The results show that the deformation temperature, sphere temperature, hemisphere temperature, and crystallization temperature of the fiber initially decrease and then increase with the increase of Fe2O3/ZrO2 ratio, while the molding temperature decreases with the increase of the ratio of Fe2O3/ZrO2. When the ratio is close to 1 : 1, its alkali resistance is almost same as that of AR-glass fiber, and the drawing process performance is better. However, with the increase of the ratio, its alkali resistance continues to decline and the poor wire drawing performance is not conducive to the drawing operation.

  5. Fabrication of hierarchical graphene@Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline quaternary composite and its improved electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Jianfeng; Yang, Haibo; Wang, Fen; Qin, Yi; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @polyaniline hierarchical structures have been fabricated. • The reflection loss of the composites is below −10 dB in 10.5–16.3 GHz. • The maximum absorption of the composites is −40.7 dB at 12.5 GHz. - Abstract: Hierarchical graphene@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @polyaniline quaternary composite is fabricated subtly. Their microwave absorption properties are also investigated in the 2–18 GHz frequency range. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal that Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @polyaniline core@shell@shell heteronanostructures are densely covered on the surfaces of graphene, and form hierarchical structures. Compared with two-dimensional binary nanocomposites of graphene@Fe 3 O 4 , the hierarchical structure exhibits enhanced EM absorption in terms of both the maximum reflection loss value and the absorption bandwidth. The maximum reflection loss value can reach −40.7 dB at 12.5 GHz with a thickness of 2.5 mm and the bandwidth corresponding to the reflection loss below −10 dB is 5.8 GHz (from 10.5 to 16.3 GHz)

  6. Cross-linked Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte using Mesoporous Methacrylate-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Cho, Jinhyun; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Liquid electrolytes composed of lithium salt in a mixture of organic solvents have been widely used for lithium-ion batteries. However, the high flammability of the organic solvents can lead to thermal runaway and explosions if the system is accidentally subjected to a short circuit or experiences local overheating. In this work, a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte was prepared and applied to lithium-ion polymer cells as a safer and more reliable electrolyte. Mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles containing reactive methacrylate groups as cross-linking sites were synthesized and dispersed into the fibrous polyacrylonitrile membrane. They directly reacted with gel electrolyte precursors containing tri(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, resulting in the formation of a cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and favorable interfacial characteristics. The mesoporous SiO2 particles also served as HF scavengers to reduce the HF content in the electrolyte at high temperature. As a result, the cycling performance of the lithium-ion polymer cells with cross-linked composite gel polymer electrolytes employing methacrylate-functionalized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles was remarkably improved at elevated temperatures. PMID:27189842

  7. Photocatalytic Removal of Phenol under Natural Sunlight over N-TiO2-SiO2 Catalyst: The Effect of Nitrogen Composition in TiO2-SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet-Cuong Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, high specific surface area and strong visible light absorption nitrogen doped TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by using sol-gel coupled with hydrothermal treatment method. Nitrogen was found to improve the specific surface area while it also distorted the crystal phase of the resulting N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst. As the N/ (TiO2-SiO2 molar ratio was more than 10%, the derived catalyst presented the superior specific surface area up to 260 m2/g. Nevertheless, its photoactivity towards phenol removal was observed to significantly decrease, which could results from the too low crystallinity. The nitrogen content in N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst was therefore necessary to be optimized in terms of phenol removal efficiency and found at ca. 5%. Under UVA light and natural sunlight irradiation of 80 min, N(5%-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst presented the phenol decomposition efficiencies of 68 and 100%, respectively. It was also interestingly found in this study that the reaction rate was successfully expressed using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H model, indicating the L-H nature of photocatalytic phenol decomposition reaction on the N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst.

  8. Heterogeneous Ag-TiO2-SiO2 composite materials as novel catalytic systems for selective epoxidation of cyclohexene by H2O2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2 composites were synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as the structure directing template. Self-assembly hexadecyltrimethyl- ammonium bromide TiO2-SiO2/(CTAB were soaked into silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solution. The Ag-TiO2-SiO2(Ag-TS composite were prepared via a precipitation of AgBr in soaking process and its decomposition at calcination stage. Structural characterization of the materials was carried out by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis. Characterization results revealed that Ag particles were incorporated into hierarchical TiO2-SiO2 without significantly affecting the structures of the supports. Further heating-treatment at 723 K was more favorable for enhancing the stability of the Ag-TS composite. The cyclohexene oxide was the major product in the epoxidation using H2O2 as the oxidant over the Ag-TS catalysts. Besides, the optimum catalytic activity and stability of Ag-TS catalysts were obtained under operational conditions of calcined at 723 K for 2 h, reaction time of 120 min, reaction temperature of 353 K, catalyst amount of 80 mg, aqueous H2O2 (30 wt.% as oxidant and chloroform as solvent. High catalytic activity with conversion rate up to 99.2% of cyclohexene oxide could be obtainable in water-bathing. The catalyst was found to be stable and could be reused three times without significant loss of catalytic activity under the optimized reaction conditions.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy joints brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti+TiH2+BN composite filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ag–Cu–Ti + TiH2+BN composite filler was prepared to braze SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy. The interfacial microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stress distribution of the brazed joints were investigated. The results show that a wave-like Fe2Ti–Ni3Ti structure appears in the Invar substrate and a thin TiN–TiB2 reaction layer forms adjacent to the SiO2-BN ceramic. The added BN particles react with Ti to form TiN–TiB fine-particles, which is beneficial to refine the microstructure of the brazing seam and to greatly inhibit the brittle compounds formation. The interfacial microstructure at various brazing temperatures was analyzed, and the mechanism for the interfacial reactions responsible for the bonding was proposed. The maximum shear strength of the joints brazed with the composite filler at 880 °C for 10 min is 39 MPa, which is 30% greater than that brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti alloy. The improvement of the joint strength is attributed to the variation of joint microstructure and the reduction of tensile stresses induced in the SiO2-BN ceramic. The finite element analysis indicates that the peak tensile stress decreases from 230 to 142 MPa due to the addition of BN particles in the ceramic.

  10. New intelligent multifunctional SiO2/VO2 composite films with enhanced infrared light regulation performance, solar modulation capability, and superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Li; Liang, Zihui; Dong, Binghai; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2017-01-01

    Highly transparent, energy-saving, and superhydrophobic nanostructured SiO 2 /VO 2 composite films have been fabricated using a sol-gel method. These composite films are composed of an underlying infrared (IR)-regulating VO 2 layer and a top protective layer that consists of SiO 2 nanoparticles. Experimental results showed that the composite structure could enhance the IR light regulation performance, solar modulation capability, and hydrophobicity of the pristine VO 2 layer. The transmittance of the composite films in visible region ( T lum ) was higher than 60%, which was sufficient to meet the requirements of glass lighting. Compared with pristine VO 2 films and tungsten-doped VO 2 film, the near IR control capability of the composite films was enhanced by 13.9% and 22.1%, respectively, whereas their solar modulation capability was enhanced by 10.9% and 22.9%, respectively. The water contact angles of the SiO 2 /VO 2 composite films were over 150°, indicating superhydrophobicity. The transparent superhydrophobic surface exhibited a high stability toward illumination as all the films retained their initial superhydrophobicity even after exposure to 365 nm light with an intensity of 160 mW . cm -2 for 10 h. In addition, the films possessed anti-oxidation and anti-acid properties. These characteristics are highly advantageous for intelligent windows or solar cell applications, given that they can provide surfaces with anti-fogging, rainproofing, and self-cleaning effects. Our technique offers a simple and low-cost solution to the development of stable and visible light transparent superhydrophobic surfaces for industrial applications.

  11. Chemical durability and Structural approach of the glass series (40-y) Na2O-yFe2O3-5Al2O3-55P2O5-by IR, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqdim, S; Sayouty, El H; Elouad, B; Greneche, J M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the composition and structure for the glasses of general composition (40-y)Na 2 O-yFe 2 O 3 -5Al 2 O 3 -55P 2 O 5 (5≤y≤20), has been studied. The chemical durability and density of these glasses increase with increasing Fe 2 O 3 content. The dissolution rate (D R ), calculated from the weight loss in distilled water at 90°C for up to 20 days was ≈ 3.10 −9 g/cm 2 /mn which is 30 times lower than that of window glass. The structure and valence states of the iron ions in the glasses were investigated using, X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, potentiometric analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Both Mössbauer spectrometry and potentiometric analysis allow to estimate both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ contents in all these glasses. X-ray diffraction indicates that the local structure of iron phosphate glasses is related to the short range structures of NaFeP 2 O 7 . Infrared spectra indicate the formation of P–O–Fe bonds in the pyrophosphate glasses that replace P–O–Na bonds. The presence of a small content of Al 2 O 3 in the glass seems to play a role as a network modifier. The addition of Fe 2 O 3 to Al 2 O 3 in phosphate glasses favours the enhancement of the formation of pyrophosphate units because iron ions have stronger effect on the depolymerization of metaphosphate chains than the aluminium ions. Finally, the I.R spectra indicate that the presence of P-O-Fe bands of these glasses containing more than 15 mol%Fe 2 O 3 is consistent with their good chemical durability.

  12. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance of α-Fe2O3 thin films by surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles coupled with surface passivation by atom layer deposition of Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuting; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Fan, Haowen; Cheng, Weijie; Lu, Linfeng; Song, Ye; Ma, Jing; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-12-01

    The short lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers of hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films strongly hindered the PEC performances. Herein, α-Fe2O3 thin films with surface nanowire were synthesized by electrodeposition and post annealing method for photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) water splitting. The thickness of the α-Fe2O3 films can be precisely controlled by adjusting the duration of the electrodeposition. The Au nanoparticles (NPs) and Al2O3 shell by atom layer deposition were further introduced to modify the photoelectrodes. Different constructions were made with different deposition orders of Au and Al2O3 on Fe2O3 films. The Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction shows the best PEC performance with 1.78 times enhancement by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of NPs in conjunction with surface passivation of Al2O3 shells. Numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the promotion mechanisms. The high PEC performance for Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction electrode could be attributed to the Al2O3 intensified LSPR, effective surface passivation by Al2O3 coating, and the efficient charge transfer due to the Fe2O3-Au Schottky junctions.

  13. Microstructure and Transparent Super-Hydrophobic Performance of Vacuum Cold-Sprayed Al2O3 and SiO2 Aerogel Composite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Kai; Pan, Xi-De; Li, Cheng-Xin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-02-01

    In this study, vacuum cold spraying was used as a simple and fast way to prepare transparent super-hydrophobic coatings. Submicrometer-sized Al2O3 powder modified by 1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecyltriethoxysilane and mixed with hydrophobic SiO2 aerogel was employed for the coating deposition. The deposition mechanisms of pure Al2O3 powder and Al2O3-SiO2 mixed powder were examined, and the effects of powder structure on the hydrophobicity and light transmittance of the coatings were evaluated. The results showed that appropriate contents of SiO2 aerogel in the mixed powder could provide sufficient cushioning to the deposition of submicrometer Al2O3 powder during spraying. The prepared composite coating surface showed rough structures with a large number of submicrometer convex deposited particles, characterized by being super-hydrophobic. Also, the transmittance of the obtained coating was higher than 80% in the range of visible light.

  14. Magnetic interactions in high-energy ball-milled NiZnFe2O4/SiO2 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo Lopez, G.; Silvetti, S.P.; Urreta, S.E.; Cabanillas, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    Composites Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 /SiO 2 are obtained after high-energy ball milling precursor oxides, in stoichiometric proportions, for 200 h at room temperature and further isothermal annealing for 1 h at 1273 K, under air and argon atmosphere, respectively. After 200 h grinding, a complex microstructure develops with small hematite crystals mixed with SiO 2 and remanent NiO and ZnO particles, and very small NiZn ferrite clusters, reaching a mean size of ∼9 nm. The high temperature treatments remove the hematite grains from the powder and promote the growth of NiZn ferrite grains to reach mean sizes nearly ∼20 nm. For treatments in oxidizing atmospheres, the major phases are SiO 2 and NiZn ferrite, while for annealing in Ar a new phase appears, fayalite, which is paramagnetic at room temperature. The M-H loops are all well described by the sum of a ferromagnetic and a superparamagnetic-like contribution. The observed properties are interpreted considering the different magnetic phases obtained, their crystal sizes and their mutual interactions

  15. Natural pigment sensitized solar cells based on ZnO-TiO2-Fe2O3 nanocomposite in quasi-solid state electrolyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mebrahtu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of Zn-Ti-Fe oxide using zinc as a host with different ratios of precursor salts were prepared by co-precipitation method to use as semiconductors for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. DSSCs based on the new semiconductors and di-tetrabutylammoniumcis-bis(isothiocyanatobis(2,2’-bipyridyl-4,4’-dicarboxylato-ruthenium(II (N719 dye has been constructed and characterized. Stability towards dissolution of deposited films of semiconductors in the acidic dye and conversion efficiency was obtained in the order of: ZnO(100% Fe2O3(30% Fe2O3(20%. Natural pigments were also extracted using ethanol and water as solvents from flowers of Guizotia scabra and Salvia leucantha plants. From UV-Vis spectra analysis all ethanol extracts of natural sensitizers absorb in the visible region. DSSCs were constructed using the natural pigments as sensitizers. The following best device parameter was achieved by the ethanol extract of Salvia leucantha and ZnO-TiO2-Fe2O3 nanocomposite semiconductor. When the potential is scanned: a Voc of 280 mV, Jsc of 0.01761 mAcm-2 at light intensity of 100 mWcm-2 were obtained; the maximum IPCE % was 1.7 and 25.7 for the N719 dye and Salvia luecantha, respectively.

  16. Stability investigation of a high number density Pt1/Fe2O3 single-atom catalyst under different gas environments by HAADF-STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Sibin; Wang, Rongming; Liu, Jingyue

    2018-05-01

    Catalysis by supported single metal atoms has demonstrated tremendous potential for practical applications due to their unique catalytic properties. Unless they are strongly anchored to the support surfaces, supported single atoms, however, are thermodynamically unstable, which poses a major obstacle for broad applications of single-atom catalysts (SACs). In order to develop strategies to improve the stability of SACs, we need to understand the intrinsic nature of the sintering processes of supported single metal atoms, especially under various gas environments that are relevant to important catalytic reactions. We report on the synthesis of high number density Pt1/Fe2O3 SACs using a facial strong adsorption method and the study of the mobility of these supported Pt single atoms at 250 °C under various gas environments that are relevant to CO oxidation, water–gas shift, and hydrogenation reactions. Under the oxidative gas environment, Fe2O3 supported Pt single atoms are stable even at high temperatures. The presence of either CO or H2 molecules in the gas environment, however, facilitates the movement of the Pt atoms. The strong interaction between CO and Pt weakens the binding between the Pt atoms and the support, facilitating the movement of the Pt single atoms. The dissociation of H2 molecules on the Pt atoms and their subsequent interaction with the oxygen species of the support surfaces dislodge the surface oxygen anchored Pt atoms, resulting in the formation of Pt clusters. The addition of H2O molecules to the CO or H2 significantly accelerates the sintering of the Fe2O3 supported Pt single atoms. An anchoring-site determined sintering mechanism is further proposed, which is related to the metal–support interaction.

  17. Pengaruh Suhu Pembakaran terhadap Karakteristik Listrik Keramik Film Tebal Berbasis Fe2O3–MnO–ZnO untuk Termistor NTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pembuatan keramik film tebal berbasis Fe2O3–MnO–ZnO untuk termistor NTC dari campuran Fe2O3 50% mol, MnO 25% mol, dan ZnO 25% mol telah dilakukan. Campuran serbuk Fe2O3, MnO dan ZnO yang telah digerus dicampurkan dengan organic vehicle (OV untuk membentuk pasta. Kemudian pasta dilapiskan di atas substrat alumina menggunakan teknik screen printing untuk membentuk film tebal. Film tebal mentah yang diperoleh, dibakar pada suhu yang berbeda yaitu 1000°C, 1100°C, dan 1200°C selama 2 jam. Sebelum dilakukan pengukuran resistansi, film tebal dilapisi perak terlebih dahulu sebagai kontak logam. Resistansi termistor diukur pada suhu 40°C–200 oC dengan beda suhu sebesar 5 oC. Analisis struktur kristal dan struktur mikro film tebal masing – masing dilakukan dengan menggunakan X – Ray Diffraction (XRD dan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Hasil analisis karakteristik listrik termistor yang dibakar pada suhu 1000 °C, 1100 °C, dan 1200 °C menghasilkan konstanta termistor berturut – turut sebesar 7700 K, 6995 K, dan 5701 K. Ketiga suhu pembakaran menghasilkan nilai konstanta termistor yang memenuhi kebutuhan pasar. Analisis struktur kristal menggunakan XRD menunjukkan bahwa keramik film tebal memiliki dua struktur yaitu struktur spinel kubik dan hematit heksagonal. Analisis struktur mikro menggunakan SEM menunjukkan bertambahnya ukuran butir sesuai dengan meningkatnya suhu pembakaran dengan ukuran butir film tebal yang dibakar pada suhu 1000 °C, 1100 °C, dan 1200 °C berturut – turut adalah 1.3 μm, 2.0 μm, dan 2.4 μm.

  18. Treatment of real industrial wastewaters through nano-TiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 photocatalysis: case study of mining and kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2018-06-01

    High quantities of industrial wastewaters containing a wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants are being directly discharged into the environment, sometimes without proper treatment. Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential improving the existing treatments or even develop new treatment solutions. In this study, nano-TiO 2 or nano-Fe 2 O 3 was used for the photocatalytic treatment of kraft pulp mill effluent and mining effluent. The experiments with the organic effluent lead to reduction percentages of 93.3%, 68.4% and 89.8%, for colour, aromatic compounds and chemical oxygen demand, respectively, when treated with nano-TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 /UV and nano-Fe 2 O 3 /H 2 O 2 /UV, at pH 3.0. Significant removal of metals from the mining effluent was recorded but only for Zn, Al and Cd, the highest removal attained with 1.0 g L -1 of nano-TiO 2 /UV and nano-Fe 2 O 3 /UV. Regarding the toxicity of the organic effluent to Vibrio fischeri, it was reduced with the treatments combining the oxidant and the catalyst. However, for the inorganic effluent, the best reduction was achieved using 1.0 g L -1 of catalyst. In fact, the increase in dose of the catalyst, especially for nano-TiO 2 , enhanced toxicity reduction. Our results have shown that the use of these NMs seemed to be more effective in the organic effluent than in metal-rich effluent.

  19. A Novel 2D Porous Print Fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 Sheet with High Performance as the Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Suyue; Zhang, Peigen; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Shen, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Anode materials are very crucial in lithium ion batteries. Exploring the simple and low cost production of anodes with excellent electrochemical performance remains a great challenge. Here, we used natural flower spikes of Typha orientalis as the bio-templates and organizers to prepare a novel two-dimensional (2D) porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheet with thickness of about 30 nm. The prepared large-area sheets were orderly assembled by many nanosheets or nanoparticles, and two kinds of pore structures, such as pores with average diameter of about 50 nm or pore channels with aspect ratio of ca. 4, presented between adjacent nanosheets. The pre-treatment by ammonium for flower spikes has a great effect on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the products. As the anode material for lithium ion battery (LIB), the as-obtained porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheets show an initial discharge capacity of 2264 mA h g"−"1 and the specific capacity of 1028 mA h g"−"1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1, which is higher than the theoretical capacity of α-Fe_2O_3 (1007 mA h g"−"1). This highly reversible capacity is attributed to the very thin large-area sheet structure, and many pores or pore channels among the interconnected nanosheets, which could increase lithium-ion mobility, facilitate the transport of electrons and shorten the distance for Li"+ diffusion, and also buffer large volume changes of the anodes during lithium insertion and extraction at the same time. The synthesis process is very simple, providing a low-cost production approach toward high-performance energy storage materials.

  20. Interfacial electron-transfer equilibria and flat-band potentials of α-Fe2O3 and TiO2 colloids studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, N.M.; Savic, D.; Micic, O.I.; Nozik, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics and equilibria of electron transfer between methylviologen cation radicals and α-Fe 2 O 3 or TiO 2 colloidal particles were studied with the pulse-radiolysis technique. The rates of electron transfer to both colloids are lower than those predicted for a diffusion-controlled reaction. For higher pHs (TiO 2 , pH > 2; α-Fe 2 O 3 , pH > 9) the established equilibrium MV + in equilibrium MV 2+ + (e - )/sub coll/ is strongly influenced by the MV 2+ concentration and pH. The MV + equilibrium concentration can be exploited to derive the flat-band potential of the semiconductor colloids. The method for determining the flat-band potential of the particles is independent of whether the injected electrons are free or trapped, and whether the electrons raise the bulk Fermi level toward the conduction band or just produce a space charge. The flat-band potentials for both colloids appear to be somewhat more negative (-0.1 to -0.2 V) than the corresponding single-crystal electrodes. Also, the flat-band potentials become slightly more negative with increasing radiation dose (initial MV + concentration). The effect of absorbed radiation dose is explained by the corresponding changes in the ratio of oxidized to reduced forms of the redox couple, which in turn changes the adsorbed ionic charge on the semiconductor surface. For colloidal particles of TiO 2 stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), the flat-band potentials were almost the same as those for PVA-free TiO 2 sols. The decrease of particle diameter from 800 to 70 A does not affect the value of the flat-band potentials for TiO 2 and α-Fe 2 O 3 colloids. 28 references, 9 figures

  1. Influence of ruthenium ions on the precipitation of α-FeOOH, α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 in highly alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Music, Svetozar

    2006-01-01

    The influence of ruthenium ions on the precipitation of goethite (α-FeOOH), α-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 in highly alkaline media was investigated by 57 Fe Moessbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, thermal field emission scanning electron microscope (FE SEM) and EDS. The presence of Ru-dopant strongly affected the precipitation of α-FeOOH at highly alkaline pH, i.e. the formation of α-Fe 2 O 3 was also noticed. A decrease of hyperfine magnetic field (HMF) at RT from 35.1 T (undoped α-FeOOH) to 31.3 T for sample with [Ru]/([Ru] + [Fe]) = 0.0196 was assigned to the incorporation of ruthenium ions into the α-FeOOH structure. Moessbauer spectroscopy showed the formation of stoichiometric Fe 3 O 4 for [Ru]/([Ru] + [Fe]) = 0.0291-0.0909. α-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 did not show a tendency to the formation of solid solutions with ruthenium ions. FE SEM observations of the samples showed that reference α-FeOOH sample contained acicular particles of good uniformity, which increased the length up to ∼5 times with increase of concentration of ruthenium ions. On the other hand, large octahedral Fe 3 O 4 crystals (particles) were associated with small particles of ruthenium (hydrous) oxide with a size in the range ∼100 nm or less. A possible catalytic action of ruthenium that created reduction conditions for Fe 3+ ions and formation of Fe 2+ ions for precipitation of Fe 3 O 4 was discussed

  2. Thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized Fe2O3/Au nanoparticles targeted to CD105: Synthesis, characterization and application in MR imaging of tumor angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Song; Gong, Mingfu; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Hua; Gao, Fabao; Zou, Liguang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect tumor angiogenesis in tumor-bearing mice using thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized Fe 2 O 3 /Au nanoparticles targeted to CD105 on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Fe 2 O 3 /Au nanoparticles (hybrids) were prepared by reducing Au 3+ on the surface of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. Hybrids were stabilized with thiol-PEG-carboxyl via the Au–S covalent bond, and further conjugated with anti-CD105 antibodies through amide linkages. Characteristics of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles were evaluated. Using these nanoparticles, the labeling specificity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was evaluated in vitro. MRI T2*-weighted images were obtained at different time points after intravenous administration of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles in the tumor-bearing mice. After MR imaging, the breast cancer xenografts were immediately resected for immunohistochemistry staining and Prussian blue staining to measure the tumor microvessel density (MVD) and evaluate the labeling of blood microvessels by the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles in vivo. Results: The mean diameter of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles was 56.6 ± 8.0 nm, as measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immune activity of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles was 53% of that of the anti-CD105 antibody, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specific binding of HUVECs with the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles was proved by immunostaining and Prussian blue staining in vitro. For breast cancer xenografts, the combination of the hybrid-PEG-CD105 nanoparticles with blood microvessels was detectable by MRI after 60 min administration of the contrast agent. The T2* relative signal intensity (SI R ) was positively correlated with the tumor MVD (R 2 = 0.8972). Conclusion: Anti-CD105 antibody-coupled, thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized core–shell Fe 2 O 3 /Au nanoparticles can efficiently target CD105 expressed by HUVECs. Furthermore, the hybrid-PEG-CD105

  3. Study of the ZrO2-FeO-Fe2O3 system by thermogravimetry in partial pressure of oxygen and temperatures up to 15000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, R.H.; Kiminami, A.

    1987-01-01

    The dissociation of iron oxide in the ZrO 2 -FeO-Fe 2 O 3 system was investigated in function of the temperature and the constant partial pressure of oxygen by thermal gravimetric analysis. The equilibrium diagram was constructed where the equilibrium relation between the solid phase of zirconium oxide, hematite and magnetite in 1437 0 C and PO 2 = 0.21 atm/m, as well as the equilibrium relation between the solid phase of zirconium oxide and hematite in lower temperatures than 1437 0 C were determined [pt

  4. Phase diagram study for the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO_2 -“Fe_2O_3 ” system in air with CaO/SiO_2 in 1.1 and PbO/(CaO+SiO_2) in 2.4 weight ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Josue; Romero-Serrano, Antonio; Hernandez-Ramirez, Aurelio; Cruz-Ramirez, Alejandro; Almaguer-Guzman, Isaias; Benavides-Perez, Ricardo; Flores-Favela, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study on the phase equilibrium and the liquidus isotherms for the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO_2 -“Fe_2O_3 ” system with CaO/SiO_2 in 1.1 and PbO/(CaO+SiO_2) in 2.4 weight ratios, respectively, was carried out in the temperature range 1100-1300 deg C (1373-1573 K). High temperature phases were determined by the equilibrium-quenching method. Results are presented in the form of pseudo-ternary sections “Fe_2O_3 ”-ZnO-(PbO+CaO+SiO_2). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM-EDS results showed that the phase equilibria in this system are dominated by the high melting temperature spinel and zincite phases. It was observed that if the system is at a temperature below 1300 deg C and the total (Fe_2O_3 + ZnO) is greater than 20 wt%, spinel and/or zincite will be present in the slag system. As an application of the phase diagram, the liquid phase compositions below the liquidus surface were estimated, then their viscosities were calculated using FACTSage software. (author)

  5. Morphology and Hardness Improvement of Lead Bearing Alloy through Composite Production: 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn/ 15% V/V SiO2 Particulate Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Okon ASUQUO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and hardness improvement of lead bearing alloy through composite production: 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn/ 15%v/v SiO2 particulate composite, was studied. 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn white bearing alloy produced at the foundry shop of National Metallurgical Development Centre Jos was used for the production of the composite using stir-cast method. The reinforcing agent was 63 microns passing particles of silica. This was produced from pulverizing quartz using laboratory ball mill. The specimens of the composite produced were then subjected to metallographic to study the morphology of the structures produced both in the as cast and aged conditions of the composite. The samples were also tested for hardness and the result showed that the as cast composite had a hardness value of 33 HRB which is an improvement over the hardness value of 27.7 HRB for the 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn alloy which was used for the production of the composite. The effect of age hardening on the produced composite was also investigated; the result showed that the maximum hardness of 34 HRB was obtained after ageing for 3 hours. The micrographs revealed inter-metallic compound SbSn, eutectic of two solid solutions-one tin-rich and the other lead-rich, reinforcing particles, and solid solution of β. The results revealed that particle hardening can be used to improve the hardness of 75Pb-15Sb-10Sn white bearing alloy for use as heavy duty bearing material.

  6. SiO2@FeSO4 nano composite: A recoverable nano-catalyst for eco-friendly synthesis oximes of carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Karimkoshteh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various aldoximes and ketoximes synthesis of corresponding aldehydes and ketones in the presence of SiO2@FeSO4 nano composite as recoverable nano catalyst and NH2OH·HCl. The SiO2@FeSO4 nano composite system was carried out between 10 to 15 min in oil bath (70-80 °C under solvent-free condition in excellent yields in addition this protocol can be used for industrial scales. This method offers some advantages in term of clean reaction conditions, easy work-up procedure, short reaction time, applied to convert α-diketones to α-diketoximes (as longer than other carbonyl compounds, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones to corresponding oximes and suppression of any side product. So we think that NH2OH•HCl/SiO2@FeSO4 nano composite system could be considered a new and useful addition to the present methodologies in this area. Structure of products and nano composite elucidation was carried out by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Multiphase Strengthened Al/Si/Al_2O_3/SiO_2/MWCNTs Nano composites Sintered by In Situ Vacuum Hot Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Jiang, X.; Zhu, D.; Zhu, M.; Shao, Z.; Johnson, S.; Luo, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Eutectic Al/Si binary alloy is technically one of the most important Al casting alloys due to its high corrosion resistance, evident shrinkage reduction, low thermal expansion coefficient, high fluidity, and good weldability. In this work, multi phased Al/Si matrix nano composites reinforced with Al_2O_3 and multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) have been sintered by an in situ vacuum hot-pressing method. The alumina Al_2O_3 nanoparticles were introduced by an in situ reaction of Al with SiO_2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the sintered Al/Si/Al_2O_3/SiO_2/MWCNTs nano composites with different alumina contents were investigated. The mechanical properties were determined by micro-Vickers hardness and compressive and shear strength tests. The results demonstrated that in situ alumina and MWCNTs had impacts on microstructure and mechanical properties of the nano composites. Based on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the nano composites, strengthening and fracture mechanisms by multiple reinforcements were analyzed

  8. Raman and infrared investigations of glass and glass-ceramics with composition 2Na2O·1CaO·3SiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemath, Ervino C.; Aegerter, Michel A.

    1994-01-01

    Precursor glass and glass-ceramics with molar composition 2Na2O·1CaO·3SiO2 are studied by infrared, conventional, and microprobe Raman techniques. The Gaussian deconvoluted Raman spectrum of the glass presents bands at 625 and 660 cm-1, attributed to bending vibrations of Si-O-Si bonds, and at 860, 920, 975 and 1030 cm-1, attributed to symmetric stretching vibrations of SiO4 tetrahedra with 4, 3, 2, and 1 nonbridging oxygens, respectively. The Raman microprobe spectrum of a highly crystalliz...

  9. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO2 coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.L.; Xiao, Q.F.; Mei, D.D.; Zhong, Z.C.; Tong, Y.X.; Zheng, Y.F.; Li, L.

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the “coral reef” like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 µm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO 2 and a few amorphous Fe 2 O 3 and Nd 2 O 3 . The amorphous SiO 2 coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees. - Highlights: • Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation. • The coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance. • The corrosion resistance could be enhanced by one order of magnitude. • The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples.

  10. Electrical conductivity in Fe_2O_3 and CoFe_2O_4 nanoparticle arrays and their application in gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luby, S.; Benkovicova, M.; Jergel, M.; Siffalovic, P.; Majkova, E.; Rella, R.; Capone, S.; Manera, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the results obtained as a by product of γ-Fe_2O_3 and CoFe_2O_4 sensors testing. Monodisperse γ-Fe_2O_3 and CoFe_2O_4 NPs with the size of 6.4 ± 0.6 and 7.6 ± 0.6 nm, respectively, were synthesized by high-temperature solution phase reaction from methyl acetylacetonates. The thickness of surfactant is 1 nm and 0.8 nm for two types of NPs, respectively. Surfactant stops the growth of NPs at a certain size. The self-assembled NP monolayers were prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett technique from the colloid solutions spread on the water sub-phase in a standard LB trough. M = 1, 2, 4 or 10 NP monolayers (L) were deposited onto auxiliary oxidized Si substrates or onto 2 mm x 2 mm Al_2O_3 sensor substrates equipped with 20 nm Ti/500 nm Pt comb electrodes to read the measuring current and with 20 nm Ti/500 nm Pt meander on the back side for the heating of the structure to a working temperature. Material properties of NPs and arrays were studied by SEM/EDS, GI XRD, GISAXS, XANES and ellipsometry. (authors)

  11. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Carbon Tetrachloride Adsorption and Degradation on a Natural a-Fe2O3(0001) Surface in Ultrahigh Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeg Rim, Kwang; Fitts, Jeffrey; Adib, Kaveh; Camillone, Nicholas, III; Schlosser, Peter; Osgood, Richard, Jr.; Flynn, George; Joyce, Stephen

    2001-03-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction have been used to study a natural a-Fe2O3(0001) surface and the adsorption and degradation of carbon tetrachloride on the reduced Fe3O4(111) terminated surface. A natural a-Fe2O3 (0001) surface was prepared by repeated cycles of Ar+ ion sputtering and annealing in vacuum or in O2 at 850 K. STM images and a LEED pattern indicate that an Fe3O4(111) terminated surface and a bi-phase can be formed depending on annealing conditions. The Fe3O4(111) terminated surface was dosed with CCl4 at room temperature, and flashed up to 590 K and 850 K. STM images show adsorbates on the surface at room temperature and the degradation products of CCl4 are isolated on the surface as the flashing temperature increases up to 850 K. Results from a companion temperature programmed desorption investigation are used in conjunction with the STM images to propose site specific reactions of CCl4 on the Fe3O4(111) terminated surface.

  12. H2S adsorption and decomposition on the gradually reduced α-Fe2O3(001) surface: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changfeng; Qin, Wu; Dong, Changqing

    2016-11-01

    Reduction of iron based desulfurizer occurs during hot gas desulfurization process, which will affect the interaction between H2S and the desulfurizer surface. In this work, a detailed adsorption behavior and dissociation mechanism of H2S on the perfect and reduced α-Fe2O3(001) surfaces, as well as the correlation between the interaction characteristic and reduction degree of iron oxide, have been studied by using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results demonstrate that H2S firstly chemisorbs on surface at relatively higher oxidation state (reduction degree χ 33%. Reduction of iron oxide benefits the H2S adsorption. Further, dissociation processes of H2S via molecular and dissociative adsorption were investigated. Results show that after reduction of Fe2O3 into the oxidation state around FeO and Fe, the reduced surface exhibits very strong catalytic capacity for H2S decomposition into S species. Meanwhile, the overall dissociation process on all surfaces is exothermic. These results provide a fundamental understanding of reduction effect of iron oxide on the interaction mechanism between H2S and desulfurizer surface, and indicate that rational control of reduction degree of desulfurizer is essential for optimizing the hot gas desulfurization process.

  13. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in α -Fe2O3 measured by magnetic circular dichroism in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Jun; Suga, Shigemasa; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Urasaki, Masato; Ikeno, Hidekazu; Niwa, Hideharu; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2017-12-01

    Fe L2 ,3-edge x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) of α -Fe2O3 were measured to identify the electronic structure responsible for its weak ferromagnetism caused by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) at room temperature. In contrast to negligible MCD in XAS, MCD in RIXS (RIXS-MCD) was clearly observed in the d d excitation at 1.8 eV via excitation to charge-transfer states. Furthermore, RIXS-MCD showed a crystal orientation dependence, indicating that the observed RIXS-MCD originated from DMI. The observed RIXS-MCD is well described by ab initio charge-transfer multiplet calculations, revealing that the RIXS-MCD derives from spin flip excitations at delocalized eg orbitals. By the combination of the experiments and calculations, RIXS-MCD has unraveled that the origin of DMI in α -Fe2O3 is the eg orbitals, which are strongly hybridized with the 2 p orbitals of oxygen atoms. The results demonstrate the importance of RIXS-MCD for identifying the electronic structure related to DMI.

  14. Ab initio simulation of structure and surface energy of low-index surfaces of stoichiometric α-Fe2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirner, Thomas; Scholz, David; Sun, Jizhong

    2018-05-01

    The structure and surface energy of a series of low-index surfaces of stoichiometric α-Fe2O3 (hematite) are investigated using the periodic Hartree-Fock approach with an a posteriori correction of the correlation energy. The simulations show that, amongst the modeled facets, (01 1 bar2) and (0001) are the most stable surfaces of hematite, which is consistent with the fact that the latter are the dominant growth faces exposed on natural α-Fe2O3. The Fe-terminated (0001) surface is shown to exhibit a large relaxation of the surface atoms. It is argued that this arises mainly due to the fact that the surface cations are located opposite empty cation sites in the filled-filled-unfilled cation sequence along the c-axis. In contrast, the (01 1 bar2) plane cuts the crystal through a plane of empty cation sites, thus giving rise to relatively small relaxations and surface energies. The small relaxations and concomitant exposure of five-coordinate cation sites may be important for the catalytic activity of hematite. The simulations also show that the relative stability of the investigated surfaces changes after a full lattice relaxation with the (0001) and (11 2 bar6) facets relaxing disproportionately large. Wherever possible, the simulations are compared with previous simulation data and experimental results. A Wulff-Gibbs construction is also presented.

  15. Sensors based on Ag-loaded hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles for methyl mercaptan detection at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensors based on Ag/α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been prepared by the coprecipitation method for sensing methyl mercaptan at room temperature. X-ray diffraction patterns of samples matched perfectly with characteristic peaks of hematite with no peaks assigned to Ag even at the highest concentration. STEM images and EDX analysis revealed the presence of Ag nanoparticles (from 2 to 5 nm which were highly dispersed onto α-Fe2O3 surface with an Ag/Fe ratio from 0.014 to 0.099. The Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the hematite surface. Sensing tests of Ag-loaded hematite nanoparticles showed much higher response signal than the unmodified sensor. Hematite loaded with 3%(Wt Ag showed the highest response with a linear dependence from 20 to 80 ppm. The sensor also depicted a good selectivity and stability during 4 days with short recovery time. The high dispersion of reduced Ag evaluated by XPS analysis played an important chemical role in the sensing mechanism that favored the contact of CH3SH with oxygen.

  16. Compositional dependence of absorption coefficient and band-gap for Nb2O5-SiO2 mixture thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho-Parramon, Jordi; Janicki, Vesna; Zorc, Hrvoje

    2008-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of composite films consisting of niobia (Nb 2 O 5 ) and silica (SiO 2 ) mixtures is studied for photon energies around the band gap. The films were deposited by co-evaporation and their composition was varied by changing the ratio of deposition rates of the two materials. Both, as-deposited and thermally annealed films were characterized by different techniques: the absorption coefficient was determined by spectrophotometric measurements and the structural properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The correlation between the variations of absorption properties and film composition and structure is established. The absorption coefficients determined experimentally are compared with the results derived from effective medium theories in order to evaluate the suitability of these theories for the studied composites

  17. High performance GaN-based LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate with patterned composite SiO2/Al2O3 passivation layers and TiO2/Al2O3 DBR backside reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Zhang, Xiong; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Peiyuan; Liu, Honggang; Chang, Hudong; Zhao, Wei; Liao, Qinghua; Cui, Yiping

    2013-09-09

    GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) backside reflector have been proposed and fabricated. Highly passivated Al(2)O(3) layer deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) layer with excellent uniformity and quality has been achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. With a 60 mA current injection, an enhancement of 21.6%, 59.7%, and 63.4% in the light output power (LOP) at 460 nm wavelength was realized for the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers, the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layers and Ag mirror + 3-pair TiO(2)/SiO(2) DBR backside reflector, and the LED with the patterned composite SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) passivation layer and Ag mirror + 3-pair ALD-grown TiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) DBR backside reflector as compared with the conventional LED only with a single SiO(2) passivation layer, respectively.

  18. The far infrared radiation characteristics for Li2O.Al2O3.4SiO2(LAS) glass-ceramics and transition-metal oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Jung; Yang, Joong Sik

    1991-01-01

    The far infrared radiation characteristic for Li 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .4SiO 2 (LAS) glass, the LAS glass-ceramic and sintered transition metal oxides such as CuO, Fe 2 O 3 and Co 3 O 4 , were investigated. LAS glass and LAS glass-ceramic was higher than that of the LAS glass. Heat-treated CuO and Co 3 o 4 had radiation characteristic of high efficiency infrared radiant, and heat-treated Fe 2 O 3 had radiation characteristic that infrared emissivity decreased in higher was length above 15μm. (Author)

  19. Preparation of SiO2-KCoFC composite ion-exchanger for removal of Cs in the soil decontamination waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Joon; Moon, Jei kwon; Lee, Kune Woo

    2009-01-01

    The soil decontamination process has been developed for remediate the soil wastes excavated from the TRIGA research reactor sites. Even though the process was proven to be very effective for decontaminate the radioactive nuclides such as cesium and cobalt, the secondary spent solution should be treated with an appropriate method to minimize the waste volume. There are mainly two components in the spent decontamination solution of Cs and Co. The Co in the waste solution can be removed easily by precipitation under a basic condition. However, since the Cs is hardly removed by precipitation, an appropriate selective removal method should be employed. In this study, an inorganic composite ion exchanger of SiO 2 -KCoFC was prepared by sol-gel method for a removal of Cs in the decontamination waste solution. An optimum condition for a preparation of the composite ion exchanger and the adsorption performances of the prepared composite ion exchangers were evaluated

  20. The Composition and Physical Properties of Some Clays of Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Research Review Vol. 2 (1). Jan.,. 2008. 91. Table 2: Ph and Chemical Composition of the Clay. Minerals (%). LOI : loss-on-ignition. Sample location. SiO2. Al2O3. Fe2O. 3. TiO2. CaO. MgO. Na2O K2O. LOI. TOTAL. pH. Ovonum. 51.25. 24.50. 3.35. 0.89. 1.19. 1.67. 1.02. 1.03. 15.55. 100.45. 4.5. Ikom. 51.25. 30.01.

  1. Synthesis of Y2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 composite coatings on carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composite by an electro-plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Lin, Xiang; Chen, Weiwei; Cheng, Huanwu; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper the Y2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 composite coating was successfully synthesized on carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composite by an electro-plasma process. The deposition process, microstructures and oxidation resistance of the coatings with different SiO2 concentrations were systematically investigated. A relatively dense microstructure was observed for the Y2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 composite coating with the SiO2 concentration above 5 g/L. The coating exhibited very good oxidation resistance at 1273 K with the mass loss rate as low as ∼30 wt.%, compared to 100 wt.% of the substrate. The formation of the ceramic composites was discussed in detail based on the electrochemical mechanism and the deposition dynamics in order to explain the effect of the plasma discharge. We believe that the electro-plasma process will find wide applications in preparing ceramics and coatings in industries.

  2. Design of laser-driven SiO2-YAG:Ce composite thick film: Facile synthesis, robust thermal performance, and application in solid-state laser lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Liu, Bingguo; Liu, Zhiwen; Gong, Yuxuan; Hu, Baofu; Wang, Jian; Li, Hui; Wang, Xinliang; Du, Baoli

    2018-01-01

    In recent times, there have been rapid advances in the solid-state laser lighting technology. Due to the large amounts of heat accumulated from the high flux laser radiation, color conversion materials used in solid-state laser lighting devices should possess high durability, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal quenching. The aim of this study is to develop a thermally robust SiO2-YAG:Ce composite thick film (CTF) for high-power solid-state laser lighting applications. Commercial colloidal silica which was used as the source of SiO2, played the roles of an adhesive, a filler, and a protecting agent. Compared to the YAG:Ce powder, the CTF exhibits remarkable thermal stability (11.3% intensity drop at 200 °C) and durability (4.5% intensity drop after 1000 h, at 85 °C and 85% humidity). Furthermore, the effects of the substrate material and the thickness of the CTF on the laser lighting performance were investigated in terms of their thermal quenching and luminescence saturation behaviors, respectively. The CTF with a thickness of 50 μm on a sapphire substrate does not show luminescence saturation, despite a high-power density of incident radiation i.e. 20 W/mm2. These results demonstrate the potential applicability of the CTF in solid-state laser lighting devices.

  3. Photocatalytic activity of Ti3+ self-doped dark TiO2 ultrafine nanorods, grey SiO2 nanotwin crystalline, and their composite under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renhui; Yang, Yingchang; Leng, Senlin; Wang, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Efficient electron-holes separation is of crucial importance for the improvement of photocatalytic activity for photocatalytic reaction. In this work, dark TiO2 (D-TiO2) nanorods, grey SiO2 (G-SiO2) and D-TiO2/G-SiO2 composite with surface defects are synthesized. We report that the efficiency of photo-generated electrons and holes separation is well enhanced by introducing G-SiO2 into D-TiO2 lattice. Using first-principles method, we find that surface defects (O or Si vacancy) can be conducive to improving the optical absorption under visible-light region. Combination of the experimental results, for D-TiO2/G-SiO2 composite, the surface defects of TiO2 nanocrystallines can significantly improve the photocatalytic efficiency.

  4. Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle multilayers deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique for gas sensors application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, S; Manera, M G; Taurino, A; Siciliano, P; Rella, R; Luby, S; Benkovicova, M; Siffalovic, P; Majkova, E

    2014-02-04

    Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) based thin films were used as active layers in solid state resistive chemical sensors. NPs were synthesized by high temperature solution phase reaction. Sensing NP monolayers (ML) were deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) techniques onto chemoresistive transduction platforms. The sensing ML were UV treated to remove NP insulating capping. Sensors surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Systematic gas sensing tests in controlled atmosphere were carried out toward NO2, CO, and acetone at different concentrations and working temperatures of the sensing layers. The best sensing performance results were obtained for sensors with higher NPs coverage (10 ML), mainly for NO2 gas showing interesting selectivity toward nitrogen oxides. Electrical properties and conduction mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Inactivation of Bacterial Spores and Vegetative Bacterial Cells by Interaction with ZnO-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles and UV Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Sánchez-Salas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (ZnO-Fe NPs were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The generation of chemical reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH was measured spectrophotometrically (UV-Vis by monitoring of p-nitrosodimethylaniline (pNDA bleaching. Inactivation of E. coli and B. subtilis spores in the presence of different concentrations of ZnO-Fe NPs, under UV365nm or visible radiation, was evaluated. We observed the best results under visible light, of which inactivation of E. coli of about 90% was accomplished in 30 minutes, while B. subtilis inactivation close to 90% was achieved in 120 minutes. These results indicate that the prepared photocatalytic systems are promising for improving water quality by reducing the viability of water-borne microorganisms, including bacterial spores.

  6. Effects of Preparation Method on the Structure and Catalytic Activity of Ag–Fe2O3 Catalysts Derived from MOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Ag–Fe2O3 catalysts were successfully prepared using several different methods. Our main intention was to investigate the effect of the preparation methods on the catalysts’ structure and their catalytic performance for CO oxidation. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, H2-temperature program reduction (H2-TPR and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Ag–Fe catalysts prepared by impregnating Ag into MIL-100 (Fe presented the best catalytic activity, over which CO could be completely oxidized at 160 °C. Based on the characterization, it was found that more metallic Ag species and porosity existed on Ag–Fe catalysts, which could efficiently absorb atmospheric oxygen and, thus, enhance the CO oxidation.

  7. Experimental and ab initio study of the nuclear quadrupole interaction of 181Ta-probes in an α-Fe2O3 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriba, G. N.; Muñoz, E. L.; Eversheim, P. D.; Rentería, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) experiments on 181 Hf (→ 181 Ta)-implanted corundum α-Fe 2 O 3 single crystal in order to determine the magnitude, symmetry and orientation of the electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor at Ta donor impurity sites of this semiconductor. These results are analyzed in the framework of ab initio full-potential augmented-plane wave plus local orbital (FP-APW+lo) calculations. This combined analysis enables us to quantify the magnitude of the lattice relaxations induced by the presence of the impurity and to determine the charge state of the impurity donor level introduced by Ta in the band gap of the semiconductor.

  8. Preparação do sistema Fe2O3/ZSM-5 para uso como catalisador na reação foto-Fenton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho objetivou a preparação da zeólita ZSM-5 suportada com nanopartículas de óxido de ferro para uso como catalisador na degradação de um poluente orgânico em solução aquosa a partir do processo foto-Fenton. A zeólita foi preparada usando gel nucleante como indutor de formação da estrutura tipo MFI. Nanopartículas de óxido de ferro foram suportadas sobre a zeólita através da técnica de impregnação incipiente. Além disso, nanopartículas de óxido de ferro foram preparadas para fins de comparação entre as atividades catalíticas na reação foto-Fenton. Os materiais produzidos foram caracterizados por difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e análise de adsorção/dessorção de nitrogênio. Os resultados revelaram a formação do sistema Fe2O3/ZSM-5 com propriedades intrínsecas que resultaram em satisfatória atividade catalítica, sendo superior ao óxido de ferro. Além disso, esse sistema apresentou excelente atividade e estabilidade após três ciclos de reuso. O material Fe2O3/ZSM-5 produzido neste trabalho apresenta-se como um catalisador promissor para uso na reação foto-Fenton para a degradação de poluentes orgânicos em soluções aquosas.

  9. Semiconductor Ceramic Mn0.5Fe1.5O3-Fe2O3 from Natural Minerals as Ethanol Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliah, H.; Syarif, D. G.; Iman, R. N.; Sawitri, A.; Sanjaya WS, M.; Nurul Subkhi, M.; Pitriana, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this research, Mn and Fe-based ceramic gas sensing were fabricated and characterized. This research used natural mineral which is widely available in Indonesia and intended to observe the characteristics of Mn and Fe-based semiconducting material. Fabricating process of the thick films started by synthesizing the ceramic powder of Fe(OH)3 and Mn oxide material using the precipitation method. The deposition from precipitation method previously was calcined at a temperature of 800 °C to produce nanoparticle powder. Nanoparticle powder that contains Mn and Fe oxide was mixed with an organic vehicle (OV) to produce a paste. Then, the paste was layered on the alumina substrate by using the screen printing method. XRD method was utilized to characterize the thick film crystal structure that has been produced. XRD spectra showed that the ceramic layer was formed from the solid Mn0.5Fe1.5O3 (bixbyite) and Fe2O3. In addition, the electrical properties (resistance) examination was held in the room that contains air and ethanol to determine the sensor sensitivity of ethanol gas. The sensor resistance decreases as the ethanol gas was added, showing that the sensor was sensitive to ethanol gas and an n-type semiconductor. Gas sensor exhibit sensitive characterization of ethanol gas on the concentration of (100 to 300) ppm at a temperature of (150 to 200) °C. This showed that the Mn0.5Fe1.5O3-Fe2O3 ceramic semiconductor could be utilized as the ethanol gas detector.

  10. Synthesis of α-Fe2O3 and Fe-Mn Oxide Foams with Highly Tunable Magnetic Properties by the Replication Method from Polyurethane Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Feng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Open cell foams consisting of Fe and Fe-Mn oxides are prepared from metallic Fe and Mn powder precursors by the replication method using porous polyurethane (PU templates. First, reticulated PU templates are coated by slurry impregnation. The templates are then thermally removed at 260 °C and the debinded powders are sintered at 1000 °C under N2 atmosphere. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties are studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. The obtained Fe and Fe-Mn oxide foams possess both high surface area and homogeneous open-cell structure. Hematite (α-Fe2O3 foams are obtained from the metallic iron slurry independently of the N2 flow. In contrast, the microstructure of the FeMn-based oxide foams can be tailored by adjusting the N2 flow. While the main phases for a N2 flow rate of 180 L/h are α-Fe2O3 and FeMnO3, the predominant phase for high N2 flow rates (e.g., 650 L/h is Fe2MnO4. Accordingly, a linear magnetization versus field behavior is observed for the hematite foams, while clear hysteresis loops are obtained for the Fe2MnO4 foams. Actually, the saturation magnetization of the foams containing Mn increases from 5 emu/g to 52 emu/g when the N2 flow rate (i.e., the amount of Fe2MnO4 is increased. The obtained foams are appealing for a wide range of applications, such as electromagnetic absorbers, catalysts supports, thermal and acoustic insulation systems or wirelessly magnetically-guided porous objects in fluids.

  11. Synthesis of α-Fe2O3 and Fe-Mn Oxide Foams with Highly Tunable Magnetic Properties by the Replication Method from Polyurethane Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuping; Fornell, Jordina; Zhang, Huiyan; Solsona, Pau; Barό, Maria Dolors; Suriñach, Santiago; Sort, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    Open cell foams consisting of Fe and Fe-Mn oxides are prepared from metallic Fe and Mn powder precursors by the replication method using porous polyurethane (PU) templates. First, reticulated PU templates are coated by slurry impregnation. The templates are then thermally removed at 260 °C and the debinded powders are sintered at 1000 °C under N2 atmosphere. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties are studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively. The obtained Fe and Fe-Mn oxide foams possess both high surface area and homogeneous open-cell structure. Hematite (α-Fe2O3) foams are obtained from the metallic iron slurry independently of the N2 flow. In contrast, the microstructure of the FeMn-based oxide foams can be tailored by adjusting the N2 flow. While the main phases for a N2 flow rate of 180 L/h are α-Fe2O3 and FeMnO3, the predominant phase for high N2 flow rates (e.g., 650 L/h) is Fe2MnO4. Accordingly, a linear magnetization versus field behavior is observed for the hematite foams, while clear hysteresis loops are obtained for the Fe2MnO4 foams. Actually, the saturation magnetization of the foams containing Mn increases from 5 emu/g to 52 emu/g when the N2 flow rate (i.e., the amount of Fe2MnO4) is increased. The obtained foams are appealing for a wide range of applications, such as electromagnetic absorbers, catalysts supports, thermal and acoustic insulation systems or wirelessly magnetically-guided porous objects in fluids. PMID:29439450

  12. Negative impact of oxygen molecular activation on Cr(VI) removal with core–shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yi; Wu, Hao; Ai, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The presence of oxygen inhibited Cr(VI) removal efficiency with nZVI by near 3 times. • Cr(VI) removal with nZVI was related to adsorption, reduction, co-precipitation, and adsorption reactions. • Molecular oxygen activation competed donor electrons from Fe 0 core and surface bound Fe(II) of nZVI. • Thicker Cr(III)/Fe(III)/Cr(VI) oxyhydroxides shell of nZVI leaded to the electron transfer inhibition. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of oxygen molecule can inhibit Cr(VI) removal with core–shell Fe@Fe 2 O 3 nanowires at neutral pH of 6.1. 100% of Cr(VI) removal was achieved by the Fe@Fe 2 O 3 nanowires within 60 min in the anoxic condition, in contrast, only 81.2% of Cr(VI) was sequestrated in the oxic condition. Removal kinetics analysis indicated that the presence of oxygen could inhibit the Cr(VI) removal efficiency by near 3 times. XRD, SEM, and XPS analysis revealed that either the anoxic or oxic Cr(VI) removal was involved with adsorption, reduction, co-precipitation, and re-adsorption processes. More Cr(VI) was bound in a reduced state of Cr(III) in the anoxic process, while a thicker Cr(III)/Fe(III)/Cr(VI) oxyhydroxides shell, leading to inhibiting the electron transfer, was found under the oxic process. The negative impact of oxygen molecule was attributed to the oxygen molecular activation which competed with Cr(VI) adsorbed for the consumption of donor electrons from Fe 0 core and ferrous ions bound on the iron oxides surface under the oxic condition. This study sheds light on the understanding of the fate and transport of Cr(VI) in oxic and anoxic environment, as well provides helpful guide for optimizing Cr(VI) removal conditions in real applications

  13. Size-dependent effects in supported highly dispersed Fe2O3 catalysts, doped with Pt and Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara; Shopska, Maya; Mitov, Ivan; Kadinov, Georgi

    2010-01-01

    Series of Fe and Fe–Me (Me = Pt or Pd) catalyst supported on γ-Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 (anatase) or diatomite were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The metal loading was 8 wt.% Fe and 0.7 wt.% noble metal. The preparation and pretreatment conditions of all studied samples were kept to be the same. X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reduction are used for characterization of the supports and the samples at different steps during their treatment and catalytic tests. The catalytic activity of the samples was tested in the reaction of total benzene oxidation. The physicochemical and catalytic properties of the obtained materials are compared with respect of the different chemical composition, dispersion of used carriers and of the supported phases. Samples with the same composition prepared by mechanical mixing are studied as catalysts for comparison and for clearing up the presence of size-dependent effect, also.

  14. Investigation on the utilization of ZrO2-SiO2 composite microspheres for Sr+2 sorption synthesized via sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, S.; Tel, H.; Altas, Y.; Eral, M.; Cetinkaya, B.; Inan, S.; Kasap, S.

    2009-01-01

    Multivalence metal ion's oxides and hydro oxides show high adsorption capacity. These are selective to some kind of ions and show thermal, chemical and radiation resistance. Because of these properties they can be used as a adsorbent for radioactive waste management. It is known that the mix oxide's acidic and basic surface sides and textural (surface area, por side and volume) properties related to mix oxide composition. The previously works shown that the ZrO 2 have high adsorption capacity for Sr + 2. Additionally ZrO 2 is used in production of heat resistance materials, glass and ceramic industries due to it's high melting point. Generally inorganic adsorbents which are crystal forms have low surface area. It is needed that the materials have high surface area and appropriate por size to targeted molecules for take inside adsorbent, in the practical adsorption proses. It is thought that the addition of oxide which has high surface area ( SiO 2 etc.) to between material layer increase it's surface area. Some works showed that the silica increase surface area when mixed Ti in materials structure. Sol-jell proses is a method which is show homogen hetero metal oxide bounds distribution and give advantages to prepare multicomponent oxide materials. In this study, ZrO 2 -SiO 2 -TiO 2 composite microspheres were synthesized by sol-gel method. In synthesis proses; peristaltic pump, nozzle-vibrator system and glass column were used. The optimum Sr 2 + adsorption conditions were determined by 'Central Composite Design' (CCD). Thermodynamic parameters related to adsorption such as ΔHo, ΔSo and ΔGo were calculated. The adsorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R isotherms.

  15. Investigation of 70SiO2-15CaO-10P2O5-5Na2O Glass Composition for Bone Regeneration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Anand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glass with the composition 70SiO2-15CaO -10P2O5-5Na2O has been prepared by using sol gel technique. Bioactive behavior of the glass sample has been checked by in vitro study using TRIS simulated body fluid. Bioactive properties of the sample has been analyzed by using XRD, Raman, FE-SEM, EDX and Brunauer Emmett Teller studies. pH study has been conducted to check the non- acidic nature of the glass sample. Drug delivery behavior of the sample has been estimated by using gentamicin as an antibiotic. Reported sample has been found to be potential candidate for bone regeneration applications.

  16. The structure and elemental composition of the SiO2 layers with zinc-based nano clusters created by high-dose implantation and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhovikov, M.A.; Komarov, F.F.; Vlasukova, L.A.; Mil'chanin, O.V.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.; Zhukovski, P.; Vengerek, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the structure and elemental composition of the SiO 2 layers after high-dose zinc implantation (10 16 - 10 17 sm -2 ) at room temperature and at 500°C, as well as after 700°C annealing. In the case of 'hot' implantation the formation of nano sized (to 5 nm) clusters containing atoms of zinc is registered in as-implanted samples. TEM-analysis proves crystalline structure of these precipitates. Subsequent annealing results in a redistribution of zinc within the implanted layer and in the formation of large crystallites (10 -12 nm for a dose of 5*10 16 cm -2 and 12-18 nm for a dose of 10 17 cm -2 ) in the area of high impurity concentration. (authors)

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of SiO2–CaO–Na2O–P2O5 containing BaO–Fe2O3 glass–ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenakul, W.; Kantha, P.; Pisitpipathsin, N.; Rujijanagul, G.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation method was employed to produce bioactive glass–ceramics from the BaFe 12 O 19 –SiO 2 –CaO–Na 2 O–P 2 O 5 glass system. The ferrimagnetic BaFe 12 O 19 was first prepared using a simple mixed oxide method, where the oxide precursors of 45S5 bioglass were initially mixed and then melted to form glass. The devitrification of Na 3 Ca 6 (PO 4 ) 5 and Fe 3 O 4 was observed in all of the quenched glass samples. The glass samples were then subjected to a heat treatment schedule for further crystallization. It was found that the small traces of BaFe 12 O 19 phases started to crystallize in high BF content samples of 20 and 40 wt%. These samples also exhibited good magnetic properties comparable to that of other magnetic glass–ceramics. The bioactivity of the BF glass–ceramics improved with increasing BF content as was evident by the formation of bone-like apatite layers on the surface of all of the glass–ceramics after soaking in SBF for 14 days. The results support the use of these bioactive glass–ceramics for hyperthermia treatment within the human body. - Highlights: ►BF addition improves the magnetic property and bioactivity of 45S5 bioglasses.►Bioglass-ceramics exhibited soft magnetic properties with Mr=14.850 emu/g.►Magnetic property can be enhanced by crystallization of BF in 45S5 bioglasses.

  18. Study of Ion Transport Behaviour in (PVA-NH4I):SIO2 Nano Composite Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Mridula; Trivedi, Shivangi; Upadhyay, Ruby; Singh, Markandey; Pandey, N. D.; Pandey, Kamlesh

    2013-07-01

    Development and characterization of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based nano composite polymer electrolytes comprising of (PVA-NH4I):SiO2 is reported. Sol-gel derived silica powder of nano dimension has been used as ceramic filler for development of nano composite electrolyte. Formation of nano composites, change in the structural and microscopic properties of the system have been investigated by X-ray differaction, SEM and conductivity.

  19. Ni2+ supported on hydroxyapatite-core@shell γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as new and green catalyst for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones under solvent-free condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Rezaee Nezhad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study Ni2+ supported on hydroxyapatite-core-shell magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3@HAp-Ni2+ as a green and recyclable catalyst for the Biginelli reaction under solvent-free conditions. One-pot multi-component condensation of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, urea and aldehydes at 80 oC affords the corresponding compounds in high yields and in short reaction times using γ-Fe2O3@HAp-Ni2+. The catalyst can be readily isolated using an external magnet and no obvious loss of activity was observed when the catalyst was reused in seven consecutive runs. The mean size and the surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transform infrared techniques.

  20. Preparation & characterization of SiO2 interface layer by dip coating technique on carbon fibre for Cf/SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kundan; Jariwala, C.; Pillai, R.; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.

    2015-08-01

    Carbon fibres (Cf) are one of the most important reinforced materials for ceramic matrix composites such as Cf - SiC composites and they are generally sought for high temperature applications in as space application, nuclear reactor and automobile industries. But the major problem arise when Cf reinforced composites exposed to high temperature in an oxidizing environment, Cf react with oxygen and burnt away. In present work, we have studied the effect of silica (SiO2) coating as a protective coating on Cf for the Cf / SiC composites. The silica solution prepared by the sol-gel process and coating on Cf is done by dip coating technique with varying the withdrawing speed i.e. 2, 5, 8 mm/s with fixed dipping cycle (3 Nos.). The uniform silica coating on the Cf is shown by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The tensile test shows the increase in tensile strength with respect to increase in withdrawing speed. The isothermal oxidation analysis confirmed enhancement of oxidation resistance of silica coated Cf as compared tothe uncoated Cf.

  1. Incorporation of Mg and Ca into nanostructured Fe2O3 improves Fe solubility in dilute acid and sensory characteristics in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, Florentine M; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Teleki, Alexandra; Krumeich, Frank; Hurrell, Richard F; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification can be an effective and sustainable strategy to reduce Fe deficiency but selection of iron fortificants remains a challenge. Water-soluble compounds, for example, FeSO(4), usually demonstrate high bioavailability but they often cause unacceptable sensory changes in foods. On the other hand, poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds, for example FePO(4), may cause fewer adverse sensory changes in foods but are usually not well bioavailable since they need to be dissolved in the stomach prior to absorption. The solubility and the bioavailability of poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds can be improved by decreasing their primary particle size and thereby increasing their specific surface area. Here, Fe oxide-based nanostructured compounds with added Mg or Ca were produced by scalable flame aerosol technology. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe solubility in dilute acid. Sensory properties of the Fe-based compounds were tested in 2 highly reactive, polyphenol-rich food matrices: chocolate milk and fruit yoghurt. The Fe solubility of nanostructured Fe(2)O(3) doped with Mg or Ca was higher than that of pure Fe(2)O(3). Since good solubility in dilute acid was obtained despite the inhomogeneity of the powders, inexpensive precursors, for example Fe- and Ca-nitrates, can be used for their manufacture. Adding Mg or Ca lightened powder color, while sensory changes when added to foods were less pronounced than for FeSO(4). The combination of high Fe solubility and low reactivity in foods makes these flame-made nanostructured compounds promising for food fortification. Practical Application: The nanostructured iron-containing compounds presented here may prove useful for iron fortification of certain foods; they are highly soluble in dilute acid and likely to be well absorbed in the gut but cause less severe

  2. Investigation on the utilization of ZrO2-SiO2 composite microspheres for Sr+2 sorption synthesized via sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, S.; Tel, H.; Altas, Y.; Eral, M.; Sert, S.; Cetinkaya, B.; Kaplan, U.

    2009-01-01

    Sr-90 is a typical fission product with a half life of approximately 30 years. The removal of long lived radiotoxic strontium from liquid radioactive waste is an important issue for the health safety. Besides, it reduces the storage problems and facilitates the disposal of the waste. Several methods are utilized for the removal of strontium from liquid radioactive waste. One of the important methods is adsorption processes using metal oxides. Especially, sorbents such as hydrous oxides of titanium, silicium and zirconium and their mixtures, titanium and zirconium phosphates, crystalline silico-titanate(CST) have a good thermal and radiation stability, chemical stability even in strong acidic media, high sorption capacity and compatibility to immobilisation step. The major disadvantage of synthetic inorganic sorbents is their unsuitable granulometric and mechanical properties to use in column applications. Preparation of homogen and uniform spherical particles of these composite sorbents by sol-gel method improves the flow dynamics for column operation and extends its practical applications in industry. In this study, ZrO 2 -SiO 2 composite microspheres were synthesized by sol-gel method. for the sorption of Sr 2 +. The optimum Sr 2 + adsorption conditions were determined by 'Central Composite Design' (CCD). Thermodynamic parameters related to adsorption such as ΔHo, ΔSo and ΔGo were calculated. The adsorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R isotherms.

  3. Topotactic Conversion of α-Fe2O3 Nanowires into FeP as a Superior Fluorosensor for Nucleic Acid Detection: Insights from Experiment and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Liu, Danni; Hao, Shuai; Qu, Fengli; Ge, Ruixiang; Ma, Yongjun; Du, Gu; Asiri, Abdullah M; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xuping

    2017-02-21

    Nanostructures possess distinct quenching ability toward fluorophores with different emission frequencies and have been intensively used as nanoquenchers for homogeneous nucleic acid detection. Complete understanding of such a sensing system will provide significant guidance for the design of superior sensing materials, which is still lacking. In this Letter, we demonstrate the development of FeP nanowires as a nanoquencher for high-performance fluorescent nucleic acid detection with much superior performance to α-Fe 2 O 3 counterparts. The whole detection process is complete within 1 min, and this fluorosensor presents a detection limit as low as 4 pM with strong discrimination of single-point mutation. Electrochemical tests and density functional theory calculations reveal that FeP NWs are superior in both conductivity for facilitated electron diffusion and hydrogen-evolving catalytic activity for favorable electron depletion, providing further experimental and theoretical insights into the enhanced sensing performance of the FeP nanosensor. Both faster electron transfer kinetics and stronger electron-consuming ability via catalyzed proton reduction enable FeP nanowires to be a superb nucleic acid nanosensor for applications.

  4. Interaction-induced partitioning and magnetization jumps in the mixed-spin oxide FeTiO3-Fe2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charilaou, M; Sahu, K K; Zhao, S; Löffler, J F; Gehring, A U

    2011-07-29

    In this study we report on jumps in the magnetic moment of the hemo-ilmenite solid solution (x)FeTiO(3)-(1-x)Fe(2)O(3) above Fe(III) percolation at low temperature (T<3 K). The first jumps appear at 2.5 K, one at each side of the magnetization loop, and their number increases with decreasing temperature and reaches 5 at T=0.5 K. The jumps occur after field reversal from a saturated state and are symmetrical in the trigger field and intensity with respect to the field axis. Moreover, an increase of the sample temperature by 2.8% at T=2.0 K indicates the energy released after the ignition of the magnetization jump, as the spin-currents generated by the event are dissipated in the lattice. The magnetization jumps are further investigated by Monte Carlo simulations, which show that these effects are a result of magnetic interaction-induced partitioning on a sublattice level. © 2011 American Physical Society

  5. Synthesis of core-shell hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates: Quantitative analysis of the particle structure and shape, high coercivity and low cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marin; Kopanja, Lazar; Panjan, Matjaz; Kralj, Slavko; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Stojanovic, Zoran

    2017-05-01

    Hematite core-shell nanoparticles with plate-like morphology were synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal synthesis. An XRPD analysis indicates that the sample consist of single-phase α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM measurements show that the hematite sample is composed of uniform core-shell nanoplates with 10-20 nm thickness, 80-100 nm landscape dimensions (aspect ratio ∼5) and 3-4 nm thickness of the surface shells. We used computational methods for the quantitative analysis of the core-shell particle structure and circularity shape descriptor for the quantitative shape analysis of the nanoparticles from TEM micrographs. The calculated results indicated that a percentage of the shell area in the nanoparticle area (share [%]) is significant. The determined values of circularity in the perpendicular and oblique perspective clearly show shape anisotropy of the nanoplates. The magnetic properties revealed the ferromagnetic-like properties at room temperature with high coercivity HC = 2340 Oe, pointing to the shape and surface effects. These results signify core-shell hematite nanoparticles' for practical applications in magnetic devices. The synthesized hematite plate-like nanoparticles exhibit low cytotoxicity levels on the human lung fibroblasts (MRC5) cell line demonstrating the safe use of these nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  6. Capacitance and voltage matching between MnO2 nanoflake cathode and Fe2O3 nanoparticle anode for high-performance asymmetric micro-supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zehua Liu; Xiaocong Tian; Xu Xu; Liang He; Mengyu Yan; Chunhua Han; Yan Li; Wei Yang; Liqiang Mai

    2017-01-01

    Planar micro-supercapacitors show great potential as the energy storage unit in miniaturized electronic devices.Asymmetric structures have been widely investigated in micro-supercapacitors,and carbon-based materials are commonly applied in the electrodes.To integrate different metal oxides in both electrodes in micro-supercapacitors,the critical challenge is the pairing of different faradic metal oxides.Herein,we propose a strategy of matching the voltage and capacitance of two faradic materials that are fully integrated into one high-performance asymmetric micro-supercapadtor by a fadle and controllable fabrication process.The fabricated micro-supercapacitors employ MnO2 as the positive active material and Fe2O3 as the negative active material,respectively.The planar asymmetric micro-supercapacitors possess a high capacitance of 60 F·cm-3,a high energy density of 12 mW·h·cm-3,and a broad operation voltage range up to 1.2 V.

  7. Thermal decomposition of barium ferrate(VI): Mechanism and formation of FeIV intermediate and nanocrystalline Fe2O3 and ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machala, Libor; Sharma, Virender K.; Kuzmann, Ernö; Homonnay, Zoltán; Filip, Jan; Kralchevska, Radina P.

    2016-01-01

    Simple high-valent iron-oxo species, ferrate(VI) (Fe VI O 4 2− , Fe(VI)) has applications in energy storage, organic synthesis, and water purification. Of the various salts of Fe(VI), barium ferrate(VI) (BaFeO 4 ) has also a great potential as a battery material. This paper presents the thermal decomposition of BaFeO 4 in static air and nitrogen atmosphere, monitored by combination of thermal analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and electron-microscopic techniques. The formation of Fe IV species in the form of BaFeO 3 was found to be the primary decomposition product of BaFeO 4 at temperature around 190 °C under both studied atmospheres. BaFeO 3 was unstable in air reacting with CO 2 to form barium carbonate and speromagnetic amorphous iron(III) oxide nanoparticles (<5 nm). Above 600 °C, a solid state reaction between BaCO 3 and Fe 2 O 3 occurred, leading to the formation of barium ferrite nanoparticles, BaFe 2 O 4 (20–100 nm). - Highlights: • We explained the mechanism of thermal decomposition of barium ferrate(VI). • We confirmed the formation of Fe(IV) intermediate phase during the decomposition. • The mechanism of the decomposition is influenced by a presence of carbon dioxide.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic property of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles and their protective coating with pepsin for bio-functionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandhu, A.; Sutradhar, S.; Mukherjee, S.; Greneche, J.M.; Chakrabarti, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Maghemite nanoparticles were prepared by a modified co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were then successfully coated with pepsin for bio-functionlization. • XRD and Mössbauer spectra confirmed the maghemite phase of the nanoparticles. • Magnetic data were analysed to evaluate particle size, anisotropy etc. - Abstract: Maghemite nanoparticles (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) are prepared by co-precipitation method. To obtain bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for magnetically controlled drug delivery, the prepared nanoparticles are successfully coated with pepsin, a bio-compatible polymer and digestive enzyme. Crystallographic phase of the nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray diffractograms (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. The average size of nanoparticles/nanocrystallites is estimated from the (3 1 1) peak of the XRD pattern using Debye–Scherrer formula. Results of HRTEM of coated and bare samples are in good agreement with those extracted from the XRD analysis. The dynamic magnetic properties are observed and different quantities viz., coercive field, magnetization, remanence, hysteresis losses etc., are estimated, which confirmed the presence of superparamagnetic relaxation of nanoparticles. Mössbauer spectra of the samples recorded at both 300 and 77 K, confirmed that the majority of particles are maghemite together with a very small fraction of magnetite nanoparticles

  9. Influence of ɣ and ultrasonic irradiations on the physicochemical properties of CeO2-Fe2O3-Al2O3 for textile dyes removal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa M.; El-Molla, Sahar A.; Ismail, Sahar A.

    2018-04-01

    In this study highly effective adsorbent ternary mixed oxide CeO2-Fe2O3-Al2O3 was prepared by precipitation method. Various methods used to treat the mixed hydroxide like calcination, ultrasonic, hydrothermal and ɣ radiation with different doses to obtain the ternary mixed oxide. XRD, TEM, EDX, FTIR and SBET are used to study the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. The CFAH and CFAɣ0.8 have the different morphologies and high surface area. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to remove anionic Remazol Red RB-133 dye. The experimental data showed that The CFAH and CFAɣ0.8 have high adsorption rate for removing of dye. The removal of dye is enhanced by ultrasonic radiation and high temperature. The adsorption process was fitted well for pseudo second order kinetics and followed the Freundlich isotherm model. In addition to, Thermodynamic results of adsorption process displayed that, the adsorption of dye on adsorbent was spontaneous, endothermic and chemisorptions process.

  10. γ-Fe_2O_3 magnetic nanoparticle functionalized with carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotube: Synthesis, characterization, analytical and biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılınç, Ersin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, magnetic nanoparticles attained special interest in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine due to their uniqe properties and biocompatibilities. From this perspective, hybride nanostructure composed from γ-Fe_2O_3 magnetic nanoparticle and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotube was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, VSM, SEM, HR-TEM and ICP-OES. Microscopy images showed that magnetic nanoparticles were nearly spherical structure that arranged on the axis of carboxylated MWCNT. Particle size was found lower than 10 nm. VSM results showed that the obtained magnetic nanoparticles presented superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. The magnetic saturation value was determined as 35.2 emu/g. It was used for the adsorption and controlled release of harmane, a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin. Maximum adsorption capacity was calculated as 151.5 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. Concentration of harmane was determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The antimicrobial activity of synthesized magnetic nanoparticle was investigated against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. However, no activity was observed. - Highlights: • A nanomaterial from gamma iron oxide and multi walled carbon nanotube was synthesized. • It was characterized and microstructure was investigated. • No antimicrobial activity was observed. • Adsorption and release of harmane on its were examined.

  11. Determination of Histamine in Silages Using Nanomaghemite Core (γ-Fe2O3-Titanium Dioxide Shell Nanoparticles Off-Line Coupled with Ion Exchange Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cernei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines is a hallmark of degraded food and its products. Herein, we focused on the utilization of magnetic nanoparticles off-line coupled with ion exchange chromatography with post-column ninhydrin derivatization and Vis detection for histamine (Him separation and detection. Primarily, we described the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with nanomaghemite core (γ-Fe2O3 functionalized with titanium dioxide and, then, applied these particles to specific isolation of Him. To obtain further insight into interactions between paramagnetic particles’ (PMP surface and Him, a scanning electron microscope was employed. It was shown that binding of histamine causes an increase of relative current response of deprotonated PMPs, which confirmed formation of Him-PMPs clusters. The recovery of the isolation showed that titanium dioxide-based particles were able to bind and preconcentrate Him with recovery exceeding 90%. Finally, we successfully carried out the analyses of real samples obtained from silage. We can conclude that our modified particles are suitable for Him isolation, and thus may serve as the first isolation step of Him from biological samples, as it is demonstrated on alfalfa seed variety Tereza silage.

  12. Study of the lithium insertion-deinsertion mechanism in nanocrystalline γ-Fe2O3 electrodes by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintin, M.; Devos, O.; Delville, M.H.; Campet, G.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium intercalation hosts are a key point to the energy density of the largely used LiCoO 2 (even if of high cost and toxicity) as well as of manganese oxides which have been investigated most extensively. Iron oxides are attractive electrode materials for low-voltage rechargeable lithium batteries from both cost and environmental standpoints. However, search for iron oxides of conventional crystalline structures and micrometer particle sizes as lithium intercalation cathodes, has been greeted with disappointing results. Here we report on the synthesis, characterizations, electrochemical study and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of a nanocrystalline γ-Fe 2 O 3 that simultaneously exhibits high lithium insertion capacity and good capacity retention upon cycling. These properties reveal thermodynamics of the nanocrystalline material inherently different from those of its microcrystalline counterpart. Moreover, EIS showed that the intercalation process of the lithium ion occurs according to two processes involving first the reduction of the surface Fe 3+ with concomitant charge neutralization by Li + ions onto the surface defects of the nanoparticle followed by the reduction of the core Fe 3+ with insertion of the Li + deeper in the particle

  13. Measurement and Evaluation of Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Micrometer - Sized SiO2 Particle - Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyu Sang; Kang, Hee Yong; Lee, Gyo Woo

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the thermal stability values of micrometer-sized silica particle-reinforced epoxy composite specimens were evaluated by measuring their thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli. For all specimens used in this study (from the baseline specimen to that containing 70 wt% silica filler), the thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli were gradually reduced down to 25% and increased up to 51%, respectively. The results of the experiment were compared with those of certain empirical models. The experimental results of the measurement of thermal expansion coefficients corresponded well with those of Kerner's model, which considers the bulk and shear moduli of the matrix and silica filler. However, the results of the measurement of Young's moduli using the empirical Mori-Tanaka model were observed to match better with those of the experiment. The comparison of the results of the experiment with those of the empirical models demonstrated that a reliable model for measuring the thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli of composite specimens needs to consider certain property variations in the composites in addition to volume fraction changes in the filler and matrix

  14. Ag-Decorated Fe3O4@SiO2 Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Degradation of Organic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs are successfully decorated on Fe3O4@SiO2 nanorods (NRs via a facile step-by-step strategy. This method involves coating α-Fe2O3 NRs with uniform silica layer, reduction in 10% H2/Ar atmosphere at 450°C to obtain Fe3O4@SiO2 NRs, and then depositing Ag NPs on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 NRs through a sonochemical step. It was found that the as-prepared Ag-decorated magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 NRs (Ag-MNRs exhibited a higher catalytic efficiency than bare Ag NPs in the degradation of organic dye and could be easily recovered by convenient magnetic separation, which show great application potential for environmental protection applications.

  15. Espectroscopia Mössbauer e refinamento estrutural no sistema cerâmico isomórfico (alfa-Fe2O3-(alfa-Al2O 3 Mössbauer spectroscopy and structural refinement in the isomorphic (alpha-Fe2O3-( alpha-Al2O3 ceramic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Moreto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os multiferróicos são materiais em que duas ou três propriedades tais como ferroeletricidade, ferromagnetismo e ferroelasticidade são observadas em uma mesma fase. Em particular, os multiferróicos magnetoelétricos representam os materiais que são simultaneamente (antiferromagnéticos e ferroelétricos, com ou sem ferroelasticidade. Especificamente, o sistema hematita (alfa-Fe2O3-alumina (alfa-Al2O3 tem sido estudado, principalmente devido às suas potencialidades para aplicações em metalurgia e como catalisador na síntese de amônia. Contudo, compostos deste sistema também podem apresentar efeitos magnetoelétricos. Neste trabalho um estudo estrutural do composto (alfa-Fe2O30,25(alfa-Al2O 30,75 submetido à moagem em altas energias e tratamento térmico pós-moagem é apresentado. As amostras foram caracterizadas por difração de raios X, refinamento estrutural Rietveld e espectroscopia Mössbauer. A determinação e identificação das fases cristalográficas, parâmetros de rede e volume de celas unitárias nas amostras moída e tratada termicamente permitiu verificar as mudanças dos parâmetros, a formação de espinélios e possíveis deformações relativas advindas do processo de moagem em altas energias.Multiferroics are materials in which two or all three of the properties, ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity occur in the same phase. In particular, multiferroic magnetoelectrics represent the materials that are simultaneously ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, with or without ferroelasticity. Specifically, the hematite (alpha-Fe2O3-alumina (alpha-Al2O3 system has been studied, mainly due to its potential applications in metallurgy and as catalyst of ammonia synthesis. However, compounds of this system also may present magnetoelectric effects. In this work, a structural study of the high-energy ball milled and annealed (alpha-Fe2O3 0.25(alpha-Al2O30.75 compound was carefully conducted. The samples were

  16. Quasi-Topotactic Transformation of FeOOH Nanorods to Robust Fe2O3 Porous Nanopillars Triggered with a Facile Rapid Dehydration Strategy for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Aizhen; He, Huichao; Tang, Lanqin; Li, Yichang; Zhang, Jiyuan; Chen, Jiani; Chen, Lan; Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhou, Yong; Zou, Zhigang

    2018-03-28

    A facile rapid dehydration (RD) strategy is explored for quasi-topotactic transformation of FeOOH nanorods to robust Fe 2 O 3 porous nanopillars, avoiding collapse, shrink, and coalescence, and compared with a conventional treatment route. Additionally, the so-called RD process is capable of generating a beneficial porous structure for photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The obtained RD-Fe 2 O 3 photoanode exhibits a photocurrent density as high as 2.0 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and a saturated photocurrent density of 3.5 mA cm -2 at 1.71 V versus RHE without any cocatalysts, which is about 270% improved photocurrent density over Fe 2 O 3 with the conventional temperature-rising route (0.75 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs RHE and 1.48 mA cm -2 at 1.71 V vs RHE, respectively). The enhanced photocurrent on RD-Fe 2 O 3 is attributed to a synergistic effect of the following factors: (i) preservation of single crystalline nanopillars decreases the charge-carrier recombination; (ii) formation of long nanopillars enhances light harvesting; and (iii) the porous structure shortens the hole transport distance from the bulk material to the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  17. The Implications of Fe2O3 and TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Removal of Trichloroethylene by Activated Carbon in the Presence and Absence of Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The implications of Fe2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on a granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber and their impact on the removal of Trichloroethylene (TCE) were investigated in the presence of humic acid (HA). The surface charge of the GAC and NPs was obtained in the presence...

  18. One-pot formation of SnO2 hollow nanospheres and α-Fe2O3@SnO2 nanorattles with large void space and their lithium storage properties

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jun Song; Li, Chang Ming; Zhou, Wen Wen; Yan, Qing Yu; Archer, Lynden A.; Lou, Xiong Wen

    2009-01-01

    -out Ostwald ripening mechanism. More importantly, this facile one-pot process can be extended to fabricate rattle-type hollow structures using α-Fe2O3@SnO2 as an example. Furthermore, the electrochemical lithium storage properties have been investigated

  19. High Ionic Conductivity of Composite Solid Polymer Electrolyte via In Situ Synthesis of Monodispersed SiO2 Nanospheres in Poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yayuan; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Kai; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-13

    High ionic conductivity solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) has long been desired for the next generation high energy and safe rechargeable lithium batteries. Among all of the SPEs, composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) with ceramic fillers has garnered great interest due to the enhancement of ionic conductivity. However, the high degree of polymer crystallinity, agglomeration of ceramic fillers, and weak polymer-ceramic interaction limit the further improvement of ionic conductivity. Different from the existing methods of blending preformed ceramic particles with polymers, here we introduce an in situ synthesis of ceramic filler particles in polymer electrolyte. Much stronger chemical/mechanical interactions between monodispersed 12 nm diameter SiO2 nanospheres and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains were produced by in situ hydrolysis, which significantly suppresses the crystallization of PEO and thus facilitates polymer segmental motion for ionic conduction. In addition, an improved degree of LiClO4 dissociation can also be achieved. All of these lead to good ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 60 °C, 4.4 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 30 °C). At the same time, largely extended electrochemical stability window up to 5.5 V can be observed. We further demonstrated all-solid-state lithium batteries showing excellent rate capability as well as good cycling performance.

  20. Manufacturing and investigation of physical properties of polyacrylonitrile nanofibre composites with SiO2, TiO2 and Bi2O3 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tański

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce nanocomposite polymer fibres, consisting of a matrix of polyacrylonitrile (PAN and a reinforcing phase in the form of SiO2/TiO2/Bi2O3 nanoparticles, by electrospinning the solution. The effect of the nanoparticles and the electrospinning process parameters on the morphology and physical properties of the obtained composite nanofibres was then examined. The morphology of the fibres and the dispersion of nanoparticles in their volume were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All of the physical properties, which included the band gap width, dielectric constant and refractive index, were tested and plotted against the concentration by weight of the used reinforcing phase, which was as follows: 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% for each type of nanoparticles. The width of the band gap was determined on the basis of the absorption spectra of radiation (UV–vis and ellipsometry methods. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used in order to determine the dielectric constant, refractive index and the thickness of the obtained fibrous mats.

  1. Rational Design of Multifunctional Fe@γ-Fe2 O3 @H-TiO2 Nanocomposites with Enhanced Magnetic and Photoconversion Effects for Wide Applications: From Photocatalysis to Imaging-Guided Photothermal Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meifang; Deng, Kerong; Lü, Wei; Deng, Xiaoran; Li, Kai; Shi, Yanshu; Ding, Binbin; Cheng, Ziyong; Xing, Bengang; Han, Gang; Hou, Zhiyao; Lin, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been widely investigated and used in many areas due to its high refractive index and ultraviolet light absorption, but the lack of absorption in the visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) region limits its application. Herein, multifunctional Fe@γ-Fe 2 O 3 @H-TiO 2 nanocomposites (NCs) with multilayer-structure are synthesized by one-step hydrogen reduction, which show remarkably improved magnetic and photoconversion effects as a promising generalists for photocatalysis, bioimaging, and photothermal therapy (PTT). Hydrogenation is used to turn white TiO 2 in to hydrogenated TiO 2 (H-TiO 2 ), thus improving the absorption in the Vis-NIR region. Based on the excellent solar-driven photocatalytic activities of the H-TiO 2 shell, the Fe@γ-Fe 2 O 3 magnetic core is introduced to make it convenient for separating and recovering the catalytic agents. More importantly, Fe@γ-Fe 2 O 3 @H-TiO 2 NCs show enhanced photothermal conversion efficiency due to more circuit loops for electron transitions between H-TiO 2 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 , and the electronic structures of Fe@γ-Fe 2 O 3 @H-TiO 2 NCs are calculated using the Vienna ab initio simulation package based on the density functional theory to account for the results. The reported core-shell NCs can serve as an NIR-responsive photothermal agent for magnetic-targeted photothermal therapy and as a multimodal imaging probe for cancer including infrared photothermal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and photoacoustic imaging. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The influence of Cd-dopant on the properties of α-FeOOH and α-Fe2O3 particles precipitated in highly alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Music, Svetozar

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Cd-dopant on the phenomenology of the precipitation of α-(Fe, Cd)OOH and α-(Fe, Cd) 2 O 3 particles, the formation of solid solutions, particle size and their geometrical shapes were investigated using Moessbauer and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The formation of merely α-(Fe, Cd)OOH solid solutions was measured up to r = 0.0196, where r = [Cd]/([Cd] + [Fe]). The formation of two types of solid solutions, α-(Fe, Cd)OOH and α-(Fe, Cd) 2 O 3 was found at r between 0.0291 and 0.0698, whereas the formation of an α-(Fe, Cd) 2 O 3 solid solution alone was obtained at r = 0.0909. The incorporation of Cd-substitutions into α-FeOOH and α-Fe 2 O 3 structures decreased the hf > values of the corresponding hyperfine magnetic field. The IR band at 639 cm -1 , recorded for α-FeOOH, was found to be sensitive to Cd-substitutions. With an increased r value a gradual elongation of α-(Fe, Cd)OOH particles along the c-axis was observed, with the maximum elongation (∼600-700 nm) obtained at r = 0.0476. At the same time, particle width (b-axis direction) and thickness (a-axis direction) showed a gradual decrease. With a further increase in the r value the length of α-(Fe, Cd)OOH particles rapidly decreased. α-(Fe, Cd) 2 O 3 particles ∼100-200 nm in size were obtained at r = 0.0909

  3. The influence of different electrodeposition E/t programs on the photoelectrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrebler, Ricardo S.; Altamirano, Hernan; Grez, Paula; Herrera, Francisco V.; Munoz, Eduardo C.; Ballesteros, Luis A.; Cordova, Ricardo A.; Gomez, Humberto; Dalchiele, Enrique A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work morphological, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of n-type α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) thin films synthetized by means of two different electrochemical procedures: potential cycling electrodeposition (PC) and potential pulsed electrodeposition (PP) have been studied. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the films obtained after a thermal treatment at 520 o C present a nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy allowed finding that hematite films obtained by PP technique exhibit nanostructured morphology. The electrochemical and capacitance (Mott-Schottky and parallel capacitance) measurements showed that when in the PC and PP procedures the anodic limit E λ,A is being made more anodic, a decrease of the majority carriers concentration (N D ) and the surface states number has been observed. The photovoltammetry measurements indicated that the hematite films formed with the PP technique present a photocurrent one order of magnitude higher than the ones exhibited by the iron oxide films formed by PC. For instance, PP hematite films exhibit photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 0.96% which are 2.5 times higher than the corresponding to the PC ones (0.38%). The maximum incident photon-to-current efficiency measured at λ = 370 and 600 nm was observed for hematite films grown by the PP procedure. By means of the photocurrent transient technique a decrease in the recombination process for those samples synthesized by PP was observed. The results obtained are discussed considering the influence of the anodic limit of the potential employed during the preparation of the iron oxyhydroxide (β-FeOOH) precursor film, all of this related to a decrease of the oxygen defects in this material and to a decrease of Fe(II) amount that is formed during the electrodeposition process.

  4. Cotton fabric finishing with TiO2/SiO2 composite hydrosol based on ionic cross-linking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.J.; Tian, Y.L.; Liu, H.L.; Du, Z.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the cotton finishing with TiO 2 /SiO 2 based on ionic cross-linking method. • The samples treated with CHTAC had lower value of whiteness. • The samples treated with BTCA achieved higher crease recovery angle and lower tensile strength. • The ionic cross-linking treatment (CHTAC + BTCA + TiO 2 /SiO 2 ) was better than with TiO 2 /SiO 2 sol alone. - Abstract: Cotton fabric was successfully modified by 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHTAC), 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) and TiO 2 /SiO 2 sol. Self-cleaning characteristic was investigated using a Color Measuring and Matching System with 6 h sunlight irradiation. And the stability of TiO 2 /SiO 2 coatings was explored by measuring the washing fastness and wrinkle resistance of treated cotton samples. In addition, whiteness index, crease recovery angle and tensile strength retention (%) of treated samples were evaluated. Moreover, the morphology, structure change and crystallinity of samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results revealed that the samples treated with CHTAC had lower value of whiteness index as compared with original cotton fabric. It was also found that samples treated with BTCA achieved higher crease recovery angle and lower tensile strength. Moreover, the treatment of CHTAC and BTCA had adverse effect on the crystallinity of cotton samples, as treated samples had lower crystallinity in comparison with raw cotton fabrics. Nevertheless, the stability of self-cleaning coatings was better for samples treated with ionic cross-linking treatment (CHTAC + BTCA + TiO 2 /SiO 2 ) than samples treated with TiO 2 /SiO 2 sol alone. Furthermore, compared with original samples the UV-blocking property of ionic cross-linking treated samples was obviously enhanced

  5. Effect of different additions on the crystallization behavior and magnetic properties of magnetic glass–ceramic in the system Fe2O3–ZnO–CaO–SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa A.M. Abdel-Hameed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work pointed out the preparation of a magnetic glass–ceramic in the system Fe2O3·ZnO·CaO·SiO2. The base composition was designed to crystallize about 60% magnetite. The influence of adding TiO2, Na2O and P2O5 separately or as mixtures was studied. The DTA of the glasses revealed a decrease in the thermal effects by adding P2O5, TiO2 and Na2O in an increasing order. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the presence of nanometric magnetite crystals in a glassy matrix after cooling from the melting temperature. The crystallization of magnetite increased by adding TiO2, and P2O5, respectively, and decreased by adding Na2O. Heat treatment was carried out for the glasses in the temperature range of 1000–1050 °C, for different time periods, and led to the appearance of hematite and β-wollastonite, which was slightly increased by adding P2O5 or TiO2 and greatly enhanced by adding Na2O. Samples containing mixtures of TiO2, Na2O, and P2O5 showed a summation of the effects of those oxides. The microstructure of the samples was examined by using TEM, which revealed a crystallite size of magnetite to be in the range of 52–90 nm. Magnetic hysteresis cycles were analyzed using a vibrating sample magnetometer with a maximum applied field of 10 kOe at room temperature in quasi-static conditions. From the obtained hysteresis loops, the saturation magnetization (Ms, remanence magnetization (Mr and coercivity (Hc were determined. The results showed that the prepared magnetic glass–ceramics are expected to be useful for a localized treatment of cancer.

  6. In vitro toxicity of FemOn, FemOn-SiO2 composite, and SiO2-FemOn core-shell magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toropova YG

    2017-01-01

    of uncoated, FemOn-SiO2 composite flake-like, and SiO2-FemOn core-shell IONPs on cell viability, function, and morphology were tested 48 h postincubation in human umbilical vein endothelial cell culture. Cell viability and apoptosis/necrosis rate were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and annexin V-phycoerythrin kit, respectively. Cell morphology was evaluated using bright-field microscopy and forward and lateral light scattering profiles obtained with flow cytometry analysis. All tested IONP types were used at three different doses, that is, 0.7, 7.0, and 70.0 µg. Dose-dependent changes in cell morphology, viability, and apoptosis rate were shown. At higher doses, all types of IONPs caused formation of binucleated cells suggesting impaired cytokinesis. FemOn-SiO2 composite flake-like and SiO2-FemOn core-shell IONPs were characterized by similar profile of cytotoxicity, whereas bare IONPs were shown to be less toxic. The presence of either silica core or silica nanoflakes in composite IONPs can promote cytotoxic effects. Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, composite nanoparticles, silica coating, silica nanoflakes, cytotoxicity

  7. Manipulation of isolated brain nerve terminals by an external magnetic field using D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nano-sized particles and assessment of their effects on glutamate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Borуsov, Arsenii; Sivko, Roman; Ostapchenko, Ludmila; Babic, Michal; Horak, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The manipulation of brain nerve terminals by an external magnetic field promises breakthroughs in nano-neurotechnology. D-Mannose-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts followed by oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and addition of D-mannose. Effects of D-mannose-coated superparamagnetic maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles on key characteristics of the glutamatergic neurotransmission were analysed. Using radiolabeled L-[(14)C]glutamate, it was shown that D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not affect high-affinity Na(+)-dependent uptake, tonic release and the extracellular level of L-[(14)C]glutamate in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Also, the membrane potential of synaptosomes and acidification of synaptic vesicles was not changed as a result of the application of D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. This was demonstrated with the potential-sensitive fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the pH-sensitive dye acridine orange. The study also focused on the analysis of the potential use of these nanoparticles for manipulation of nerve terminals by an external magnetic field. It was shown that more than 84.3 ± 5.0% of L-[(14)C]glutamate-loaded synaptosomes (1 mg of protein/mL) incubated for 5 min with D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (250 µg/mL) moved to an area, in which the magnet (250 mT, gradient 5.5 Т/m) was applied compared to 33.5 ± 3.0% of the control and 48.6 ± 3.0% of samples that were treated with uncoated nanoparticles. Therefore, isolated brain nerve terminals can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field using D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, while the key characteristics of glutamatergic neurotransmission are not affected. In other words, functionally active synaptosomes labeled with D-mannose-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were obtained.

  8. Incorporation of the Fe3O4 and SiO2 nanoparticles in epoxy-modified silicone resin as the coating for soft magnetic composites with enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dahao; Wu, Chen; Yan, Mi

    2018-04-01

    Three inorganic-organic hybrids have been designed by incorporating epoxy-modified silicone resin (ESR) with SiO2, Fe3O4 and their mixture in the application as the coating of Fe soft magnetic composites (SMCs). The introduced SiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in the ESR, while the Fe3O4 tends to agglomerate or even separate from the ESR. Simultaneous addition of the SiO2 and Fe3O4 gives rise to satisfactory distribution of both nanoparticles and optimized magnetic performance of the SMCs with high permeability (124.6) and low loss (807.8 mW/cm3). On one hand, introduction of the ferromagnetic Fe3O4 reduces the magnetic dilution effect, which is beneficial for improved magnetization and permeability. On the other hand, SiO2 incorporation prevents the agglomeration of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and gives rise to increased electrical resistivity for reduced core loss as well as enhanced mechanical strength of the SMCs.

  9. Novel polyvinyl alcohol-bioglass 45S5 based composite nanofibrous membranes as bone scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kumar, Manishekhar; Mandal, Biman B.; Srinivasan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Composite nanofibrous membranes based on sol-gel derived 45SiO 2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na 2 O 6 P 2 O 5 (bioglass, BG) and 43SiO 2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na 2 O 6 P 2 O 5 2Fe 2 O 3 (magnetic bioglass, MBG) blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have been electrospun. These low cost membranes were mostly amorphous in structure with minor crystalline (sodium calcium phosphate) precipitates. All membranes were biodegradable. Among these, the composites exhibited higher tensile strength, better proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells and higher alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity than the bare PVA membrane, indicating their potential in bone tissue engineering. The magnetic PVA-MBG scaffold was also found to be a promising candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application. - Highlights: • Electrospun low-cost PVA-45S5 bioglass (BG) nanofibrous membranes • PVA-BG membranes containing 2 wt.% Fe 2 O 3 exhibit spontaneous magnetization. • BG fillers strongly enhanced mechanical strength and bioresponse of membranes. • Membranes show promise for bone scaffold and hyperthermia applications.

  10. CCl 4 chemistry on the reduced selvedge of a α-Fe 2O 3(0 0 0 1) surface: a scanning tunneling microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kwang Taeg; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Müller, Thomas; Adib, Kaveh; Camillone, Nicholas; Osgood, Richard M.; Joyce, S. A.; Flynn, George W.

    2003-09-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) were used to study the degradation of CCl 4 on the reduced selvedge of a natural single crystal α-Fe 2O 3(0 0 0 1) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. Before exposure to CCl 4, STM images indicate that approximately 85% of the reduced surface exhibits a Fe 3O 4(1 1 1) 2 × 2 termination, while the remaining 15% is terminated by 1 × 1 and superstructure phases. Images obtained after room temperature dosing with CCl 4 and subsequent flashing to 600 K reveal that chlorine atoms are adsorbed only on surface regions with the Fe 3O 4(1 1 1) 2 × 2 termination, not on 1 × 1 and superstructure regions. Chlorine atoms from dissociative adsorption of CCl 4 are observed to occupy two distinct positions located atop lattice protrusions and in threefold oxygen vacancy sites. However, in companion chemical labeling experiments, chlorine atoms provided by room temperature, dissociative Cl 2 adsorption on this surface are found to occupy sites atop lattice protrusions exclusively. The clear dissimilarity in STM feature shape and brightness at the two distinct chlorine adsorption sites arising from CCl 4 dissociation as well as the results of the Cl 2 chemical labeling experiments are best explained via reactions on a Fe 3O 4(1 1 1) 2 × 2 selvedge terminated by a 1/4 monolayer of tetrahedrally coordinated iron atoms. On this surface, adsorption atop an iron atom occurs for both the CCl 4 and Cl 2 dissociative reactions. A second adsorption site, assigned as binding to second layer iron atoms left exposed following surface oxygen atom abstraction resulting in the formation of phosgene (COCl 2), only appears in the case of reaction with CCl 4. The reaction mechanism and active site requirements for CCl 4 degradation on iron oxide surfaces are discussed in light of this evidence and in the context of our previously reported results from Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), LEED, temperature-programmed desorption

  11. Combined effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 on compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity in cement mortars; Influencia de la combinación de nano-SiO2 y nano-Fe2O3 en la resistencia a compresión, resistencia a tracción, porosidad y resistividad eléctrica de morteros de cemento.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuán, M.A.; Argiz, C.; Gálvez, J.C.; Reyes, E.

    2018-04-01

    The compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity properties of cement mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 are studied. Amorphous silica is the main component of pozzolanic materials due to its reaction with calcium hydroxide formed from calcium silicate (C3S and C2S) hydration. The pozzolanic reaction rate is not only proportional to the amount of amorphous silica but also to the surface area available for reaction. Subsequently, fine nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles in mortars are expected to improve mortar performance. The experimental results showed that the compressive strength of mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles were lower than those obtained with the reference mortar at seven and 28 days. It was shown that the nano-particles were not able to enhance mechanical strength on every occasion. The continuous microstructural progress monitored by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) measurements, pore-size distribution (PSD), total porosity and critical pore diameter also confirmed such results. [Spanish] Se estudia la resistencia a compresión y flexión, porosidad y resistividad eléctrica de morteros de cemento con nano-Fe2O3 y nano-SiO2. La sílice amorfa reacciona con el hidróxido de calcio formado en la hidratación del C3S y C2S. La tasa de reacción puzolánica es proporcional a la cantidad de sílice amorfa y la superficie disponible para la reacción, esperando que las partículas finas de nano-Fe2O3 y nano-SiO2 mejoren las propiedades de los morteros. Los resultados experimentales han mostrado que la resistencia a compresión a siete y 28 días de morteros con partículas de nano-Fe2O3 y nano-SiO2 era, en ocasiones, inferior a la obtenida con el mortero de referencia. Se muestra que las nano-partículas no siempre son capaces de mejorar la resistencia de los morteros. Las medidas mediante porosimetría de intrusión de mercurio (PIM) de la distribución de tamaño de poro (DTP), porosidad total y di

  12. One-pot formation of SnO2 hollow nanospheres and α-Fe2O3@SnO2 nanorattles with large void space and their lithium storage properties

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jun Song

    2009-01-01

    In this work, uniform SnO2 hollow nanospheres with large void space have been synthesized by a modified facile method. The void space can be easily controlled by varying the reaction time. The formation of interior void space is based on an inside-out Ostwald ripening mechanism. More importantly, this facile one-pot process can be extended to fabricate rattle-type hollow structures using α-Fe2O3@SnO2 as an example. Furthermore, the electrochemical lithium storage properties have been investigated. It is found that α-Fe2O3@SnO 2 nanorattles manifest a much lower initial irreversible loss and higher reversible capacity compared to SnO2 hollow spheres. This interesting finding supports a general hypothesis that a synergistic effect between functional core and shell materials can lead to improved lithium storage capabilities. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009.

  13. An internal magnetic field strategy to reuse pulverized active materials for high performance: a magnetic three-dimensional ordered macroporous TiO2/CoPt/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiping; Hong, Liang; Li, Jiquan; Hou, Guangya; Cao, Huazhen; Wu, Liankui; Zheng, Guoqu; Wu, Qingliu

    2017-05-09

    A ferromagnetic three-dimensional ordered macroporous TiO 2 /CoPt/α-Fe 2 O 3 (3DOMTCF) nanocomposite was synthesized via a sol-gel approach templated by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres. After magnetization, it exhibited an extremely high reversible capacity and a long cycle life, which were ascribed to the internal magnetic field for reusing pulverized active materials and its unique structure.

  14. Microestrutura, fases cristalinas e propriedades elétricas de porcelanas aluminosas contendo diferentes concentrações de Fe2O3sinterizadas em atmosfera redutora e oxidante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Piva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoPorcelanas aluminosas contendo diferentes concentrações de Fe2O3 foram sinterizadas em atmosfera oxidante e redutora. A microestrutura e fases formadas foram investigadas com o auxílio de difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Espectroscopia de impedância foi utilizada para estudar as propriedades elétricas. Os resultados indicaram que todas as amostras apresentaram mulita e coríndon como fases majoritárias e pequenas frações de quartzo. A adição de Fe2O3 provocou o surgimento de hematita nas amostras sinterizadas em atmosfera oxidante e, ferro metálico nas amostras contendo > 3%p sinterizadas em atmosfera redutora. Os espectros de impedância indicam que as características da fase vítrea e interface entre fase vítrea /fases cristalinas regem o comportamento elétrico global das amostras. Não obstante, diferentes atmosferas de queima provocam efeitos opostos na resistividade elétrica das porcelanas contendo Fe2O3. A presença de hematita foi considerada a responsável pela diminuição da resistividade elétrica nas amostras sinterizadas em atmosfera oxidante, enquanto que o aumento na resistividade elétrica das amostras sinterizadas em atmosfera redutora foi atribuído à elevada quantidade de fase vítrea e porosidade. Estes resultados indicam que atmosfera redutora durante a queima pode favorecer o uso de matérias-primas com maiores concentrações de Fe2O3, desde que todo óxido de ferro tenha se dissolvido na fase liquida durante a queima.

  15. Manipulation of isolated brain nerve terminals by an external magnetic field using D-mannose-coated .gamma.-Fe2O3 nano-sized particles and assessment of their effects on glutamate transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.; Borysov, A.; Sivko, R.; Ostapchenko, L.; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, 4 June (2014), s. 778-788 ISSN 2190-4286 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : extracellular level * γ-Fe2O3 * glutamate uptake and release Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.670, year: 2014

  16. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors with high-energy density based on nanostructured MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films directly fabricated onto stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Girish S.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Cho, Jun Y.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro; Park, Chan; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2015-07-01

    The facile and economical electrochemical and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods have been employed in order to prepare manganese oxide (MnO2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) thin films, respectively with the fine optimized nanostructures on highly flexible stainless steel sheet. The symmetric and asymmetric flexible-solid-state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs) of nanostructured (nanosheets for MnO2 and nanoparticles for Fe2O3) electrodes with Na2SO4/Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel as a separator and electrolyte were assembled. MnO2 as positive and negative electrodes were used to fabricate symmetric SC, while the asymmetric SC was assembled by employing MnO2 as positive and Fe2O3 as negative electrode. Furthermore, the electrochemical features of symmetric and asymmetric SCs are systematically investigated. The results verify that the fabricated symmetric and asymmetric FSS-SCs present excellent reversibility (within the voltage window of 0-1 V and 0-2 V, respectively) and good cycling stability (83 and 91%, respectively for 3000 of CV cycles). Additionally, the asymmetric SC shows maximum specific capacitance of 92 Fg-1, about 2-fold of higher energy density (41.8 Wh kg-1) than symmetric SC and excellent mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, the “real-life” demonstration of fabricated SCs to the panel of SUK confirms that asymmetric SC has 2-fold higher energy density compare to symmetric SC.

  17. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors with high-energy density based on nanostructured MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films directly fabricated onto stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Girish S.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Cho, Jun Y.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro; Park, Chan; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2015-01-01

    The facile and economical electrochemical and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods have been employed in order to prepare manganese oxide (MnO2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) thin films, respectively with the fine optimized nanostructures on highly flexible stainless steel sheet. The symmetric and asymmetric flexible-solid-state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs) of nanostructured (nanosheets for MnO2 and nanoparticles for Fe2O3) electrodes with Na2SO4/Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel as a separator and electrolyte were assembled. MnO2 as positive and negative electrodes were used to fabricate symmetric SC, while the asymmetric SC was assembled by employing MnO2 as positive and Fe2O3 as negative electrode. Furthermore, the electrochemical features of symmetric and asymmetric SCs are systematically investigated. The results verify that the fabricated symmetric and asymmetric FSS-SCs present excellent reversibility (within the voltage window of 0–1 V and 0–2 V, respectively) and good cycling stability (83 and 91%, respectively for 3000 of CV cycles). Additionally, the asymmetric SC shows maximum specific capacitance of 92 Fg−1, about 2-fold of higher energy density (41.8 Wh kg−1) than symmetric SC and excellent mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, the “real-life” demonstration of fabricated SCs to the panel of SUK confirms that asymmetric SC has 2-fold higher energy density compare to symmetric SC. PMID:26208144

  18. The Role of Fe2O3 Species in Depressing the Formation of N2O in the Selective Reduction of NO by NH3 over V2O5/TiO2-Based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Hyeon Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of 2.73% Fe2O3 in an in-house-made V2O5-WO3/TiO2 (VWT and a commercial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 (c-VWT has been investigated as a cost effective approach to the suppression of N2O formation in the selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 (NH3-SCR. The promoted VWT and c-VWT catalysts all gave a significantly decreased N2O production at temperatures >400 °C compared to the unpromoted samples. However, such a promotion led to the loss in high temperature NO conversion, mainly due to the oxidation of NH3 to N-containing gases, particularly NO. Characterization of the unpromoted and promoted catalysts using X-ray diffraction (XRD, NH3 adsorption-desorption, and Raman spectroscopy techniques could explain the reason why the promotion showed much lower N2O formation levels at high temperatures. The addition of Fe2O3 to c-VWT resulted in redispersion of the V2O5 species, although this was not visible for 2.73% Fe2O3/VWT. The iron oxides exist as a highly-dispersed noncrystalline α-Fe2O3 in the promoted catalysts. These Raman spectra had a new Raman signal that could be tentatively assigned to Fe2O3-induced tetrahedrally coordinated polymeric vanadates and/or surface V-O-Fe species with significant electronic interactions between the both metal oxides. Calculations of the monolayer coverage of each metal oxide and the surface total coverage are reasonably consistent with Raman measurements. The proposed vanadia-based surface polymeric entities may play a key role for the substantial reduction of N2O formed at high temperatures by NH3 species adsorbed strongly on the promoted catalysts. This reaction is a main pathway to greatly suppress the extent of N2O formation in NH3-SCR reaction over the promoted catalysts.

  19. Effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition on oil and gas storage tap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.L. Anawe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of SnO2/SiO2 nano particle dispersant on the performance characteristic of complex zinc multi-doped composite coating produced through electrodeposition is studied. The degradation behaviour in term of wear and chemical corrosion activities were considered as a major factor in service. The wear mass loss was carried out with the help of reciprocating tester. The electrochemical corrosion characteristics were investigated using linear polarization technique in 3.5% simulated sodium chloride media. The outcome of the analysis shows that the developed coating was seen to provide a sound anti wear characteristics in its multidoped state. The corrosion resistance properties were observed to be massive compared to the binary based sample. It is expected that this characteristic will impact on the performance life span of storage tap in oil and gas. Keywords: Zn-SnO2-SiO2, Nanocomposite, Electrodeposition, Coatings and corrosion resistance

  20. One step process of decomposition and polymerization to fabricate SiO_2 hollow spheres/polyimide composite for foldable OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Dong Won; Moon, Soo Hyun; Shin, Dong-Wook; Oh, Tae Sik; Yoo, Ji Beom

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The SiO_2 hollow spheres and polyimide hybrid synthesized using one step process, simultaneous occurrence of decomposition and polymerization (SODP) is useful with a ultra-low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for flexible OLED. - Highlights: • We fabricated hybrid films of SHS/PI by using a one step process with SODP. • The film has ultralow dielectric constant (50 vol% at k = 1.67). • There is no collapse of SiO_2 hollow spheres in the PI matrix after bending test for 50,000 cycles. - Abstract: The fabrication of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) requires flexible materials with a low dielectric constant as well as materials with excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties for optimal device performance. Hybrid films of SiO_2 hollow spheres (SHS)/polyimide (PI) were prepared using a one-step process, with simultaneous occurrence of decomposition (polystyrene, PS) and polymerization (PI) (SODP). No collapse of SiO_2 hollow spheres in PI was observed from 10 vol% to 60 vol% SHS in hybrid films. The dielectric constant of hybrid films was reduced from 3.45 to 1.67 and was saturated at above 50 vol% of SHS due to the maximum fill factor of SHS in the PI matrix. The thermal stability was excellent up to 500 °C due to the inherent thermal property of PI. After a bending test for 50,000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm, the SHS/PI hybrid films retained their dielectric constant and current density. These results indicate the hybrid film to be the most promising candidate for flexible ILDs with a low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for foldable OLEDs.

  1. Manufacturing and investigation of surface morphology and optical properties of composite thin films reinforced by TiO2, Bi2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarka, Paweł; Tański, Tomasz; Matysiak, Wiktor; Krzemiński, Łukasz; Hajduk, Barbara; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of submitted paper is to present influence of manufacturing parameters on optical properties and surface morphology of composite materials with a polymer matrix reinforced by TiO2 and SiO2 and Bi2O3 nanoparticles. The novelty proposed by the authors is the use of TiO2 and SiO2 and Bi2O3 nanoparticles simultaneously in polymeric matrix. This allows using the combined effect of nanoparticles to a result composite material. The thin films of composite material were prepared by using spin-coating method with various spinning rates from solutions of different concentration of nanoparticles. In order to prepare the spinning solution polymer, Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used as a matrix. The reinforcing phase was the mixture of the nanoparticles of SiO2, TiO2 and B2O3. In order to identify the surface morphology of using thin films and arrangement of the reinforcing phase Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used. In order to study the optical properties of the obtained thin films, the thin films of composites was subjected to an ellipsometry analysis. The measurements of absorbance of the obtained materials, from which the value of the band gap width was specified, were carried out using the UV/VIS spectroscopy. The optical properties of obtain composite thin films depend not only on the individual components used, but also on the morphology and the interfacial characteristics. Controlling the participation of three kinds of nanoparticles of different sizes and optical parameters allows to obtaining the most optimal optical properties of nanocomposites and also controlling the deposition parameters allows to obtaining the most optimal surface morphology of nanocomposites.

  2. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of single-phase Ni ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, K.; Traussnig, T.; Letofsky-Papst, I.; Krenn, H.; Brossmann, U.; Wuerschum, R.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles of NiFe 2 O 4 dispersed in SiO 2 (25 wt%) matrix were synthesized by sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), as a precursor for SiO 2 . The sol-gel method for nanocomposites normally provides multi-phase nanoparticles. We investigated by a synopsis of different analysis methods, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SQUID-magnetometry, how the various chemical phases are transformed to a single-phase spinel structure during the various stages of annealing from 300 to 900 o C. We have developed a full phase diagram of chemical phases as a function of annealing temperature. The average particle size lies in the range 16-27 nm. The chemical phases formed below 900 o C are NiFe, NiO, γ-Fe 2 O 3 , α-Fe 2 O 3 , and NiFe 2 O 4 , respectively. The role of the TEOS prepared SiO 2 matrix is to restrict the particle size in a small range in order to rule out particle size effects. In the mid-infrared, a shift of the vibrational Fe-O bond is observed from 568 to 586 cm -1 for annealing between 500 and 700 o C which indicates an increasing NiFe 2 O 4 phase formation. A systematic study of coercivity field (ranging from 32 to 200 Oe) and saturation magnetic moment (ranging from 12.2 to 32.1 emu/g) for differently annealed samples supports our findings about the evolution of single-phase NiFe 2 O 4 at 900 o C. The opposite trend of saturation magnetic moment and coercivity with respect to annealing temperature clearly separates the different phases of metallic, antiferromagnetic, and finally single-phase spinel NiFe 2 O 4 .

  3. Density, thickness and composition measurements of TiO2 -SiO2 thin films by coupling X-ray reflectometry, ellipsometry and electron probe microanalysis-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodroj, A.; Roussel, H.; Crisci, A.; Robaut, F.; Gottlieb, U.; Deschanvres, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Mixed TiO 2 -SiO 2 thin films were deposited by aerosol atmospheric CVD method by using di-acetoxi di-butoxi silane (DADBS) and Ti tetra-butoxide as precursors. By varying the deposition temperatures between 470 and 600 deg. C and the ratios between the Si and Ti precursors (Si/Ti) from 2 up to 16, films with different compositions and thicknesses were deposited. The coupled analysis of the results of different characterisation methods was used in order to determine the variation of the composition, the thickness and the density of the films. First EPMA measurements were performed at different acceleration voltages with a Cameca SX50 system. By analysing, with specific software, the evolution of the intensity ratio I x /I std versus the voltage, the composition and the mass thickness (product of density by the thickness) were determined. In order to measure independently the density, X-ray reflectometry experiments were performed. By analysing the value of the critical angle and the Kiessig fringes, the density and the thickness of the layers were determined. The refractive index and the thickness of the films were also measured by ellipsometry. By assuming a linear interpolation between the index value of the pure SiO 2 and TiO 2 films, the film composition was deduced from the refractive index value. XPS measurements were also performed in order to obtain an independent value of the composition. A good agreement between the ways to measure the density is obtained

  4. One-dimensional fossil-like γ-Fe2O3@carbon nanostructure: preparation, structural characterization and application as adsorbent for fast and selective recovery of gold ions from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Poernomo; Xiao, Wen; Hao Chua, Marcus Wen; Poh-Choo Tan, Cheryl; Ding, Jun; Zhong, Ziyi

    2016-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) magnetic nanostructures with high thermal stability have important industrial applications, but their fabrication remains a big challenge. Herein we demonstrate a scalable approach for the preparation of stable 1D γ-Fe2O3@carbon, which is also applicable for other metal oxide-core and carbon-shell nanostructures, such as 1D TiO2@carbon. One-dimensional ferric oxyhydroxide (α-FeO(OH)) was initially prepared by a hydrothermal method, followed by carbon coating through hydrothermal treatment of the resulting metal oxide in glucose solution. After calcination in N2 gas at 500 °C and subsequent exposure to air, the initial carbon-coated 1D α-Fe2O3 was converted to 1D γ-Fe2O3@carbon, which was very stable without any observed changes even after 1.5 years of storage under ambient conditions. The materials were then used as adsorbents and found to be highly selective towards Au (III) adsorption, of which the maximum adsorption capacity is about 600 mg Au/g sorbent (1132 mg Au/g carbon). The spent sorbent containing Au after adsorption can be readily collected by applying a magnetic field due to the presence of the magnetic core, and the adsorbed Au particles are subsequently recovered after the combustion and dissolution of the sorbent. This work demonstrates not only a facile approach to the fabrication of robust 1D magnetic materials with a stable carbon shell, but also a possible cyanide-free process for the fast and selective recovery of gold from electronic waste and industrial water.

  5. Comparison of the solar photocatalytic activity of ZnO-Fe2O3 and ZnO-Fe(0) on 2,4-D degradation in a CPC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Treviño, M L; Villanueva-Rodríguez, M; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Hernández-Ramírez, A

    2015-03-01

    In this work a comparative study of the catalytic activity of ZnO-Fe2O3 and ZnO-Fe(0) 0.5 wt% materials was carried out in the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a commercial formulation Hierbamina®, using a compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor. The catalysts were synthesized by the sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy. The textural properties of solids were determined from N2 adsorption isotherms using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The incorporation of Fe(0) onto ZnO was demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The photocatalytic tests were performed at pH 7, using 10 mg L(-1) of herbicide and 0.5 g L(-1) of catalyst loading. The decay in herbicide concentration was followed by reversed-phase chromatography. A complete degradation of 2,4-D was achieved using ZnO-Fe(0) while 47% of herbicide removal was attained with ZnO-Fe2O3 mixed oxide for an accumulated energy QUV ≈ 2 kJ L(-1). The removal percentage of total organic carbon (TOC) during the solar photocatalytic process was superior using ZnO-Fe(0), achieving 45% compared to the 15% obtained with the mixed oxide catalyst.

  6. Boletus edulis loaded with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as a magnetic sorbent for preconcentration of Co(II) and Sn(II) prior