Sample records for sio2 cao p2o5

  1. Cinétique de dissolution de bioverres du système (SiO2 -Na2O -CaO -P2O5)


    Carbonnel Vadala, Patricia


    Afin de mieux comprendre la cohesion entre les bioverres et le tissu osseux, on a realise des essais de dissolution a ph non controle, dans le tampon tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane et a ph stabilise, sur des verres du systeme sio::(2)-na::(2)o-cao-p::(2)o::(5) sous forme de poudres ou d'esquilles; Pas de résumé

  2. Investigation of 70SiO2-15CaO-10P2O5-5Na2O Glass Composition for Bone Regeneration Applications

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    Vikas Anand


    Full Text Available Glass with the composition 70SiO2-15CaO -10P2O5-5Na2O has been prepared by using sol gel technique. Bioactive behavior of the glass sample has been checked by in vitro study using TRIS simulated body fluid. Bioactive properties of the sample has been analyzed by using XRD, Raman, FE-SEM, EDX and Brunauer Emmett Teller studies. pH study has been conducted to check the non- acidic nature of the glass sample. Drug delivery behavior of the sample has been estimated by using gentamicin as an antibiotic. Reported sample has been found to be potential candidate for bone regeneration applications.

  3. Processamento e caracterização de espumas vitrocerâmicas do sistema sncp (Sio2-Na2o-Cao-P2 O5)


    Mundstock,Karoline Bastos; Moraes,Elizangela Guzi de; Hotza,Dachamir; Oliveira,Antonio Pedro Novaes de; Siligardi,Cristina; Rogero,Sizue Ota


    Glass-ceramics foams prepared from glasses of the SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 by replication process were obtained and characterized in terms of their chemical and physical properties by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction, thermal analysis, density, mechanical strength, microstructural and cytotoxic analysis. The results showed that it is possible to produce glass-ceramic foams by the replication method with optimized properties but cytotoxic analysis indicates that the glass-cer...

  4. Processamento e caracterização de espumas vitrocerâmicas do sistema sncp (Sio2-Na2o-Cao-P2 O5) Processing and characterization of sncp (Sio2-Na2o-Cao-P2o5) glass-ceramic foams


    Karoline Bastos Mundstock; Elizangela Guzi de Moraes; Dachamir Hotza; Antonio Pedro Novaes de Oliveira; Cristina Siligardi; Sizue Ota Rogero


    Glass-ceramics foams prepared from glasses of the SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 by replication process were obtained and characterized in terms of their chemical and physical properties by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction, thermal analysis, density, mechanical strength, microstructural and cytotoxic analysis. The results showed that it is possible to produce glass-ceramic foams by the replication method with optimized properties but cytotoxic analysis indicates that the glass-cer...

  5. Processamento e caracterização de espumas vitrocerâmicas do sistema sncp (Sio2-Na2o-Cao-P2 O5 Processing and characterization of sncp (Sio2-Na2o-Cao-P2o5 glass-ceramic foams

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    Karoline Bastos Mundstock


    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics foams prepared from glasses of the SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 by replication process were obtained and characterized in terms of their chemical and physical properties by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction, thermal analysis, density, mechanical strength, microstructural and cytotoxic analysis. The results showed that it is possible to produce glass-ceramic foams by the replication method with optimized properties but cytotoxic analysis indicates that the glass-ceramic foams are not bioactive materials. Mechanical strength values varying from 0.5 to 1.0 MPa and from 0.8 to 2.3 MPa were reached for mean particle sizes of 10 and 6 µm, respectively.

  6. In vitro bioactivity of glass and glass-ceramics of the 3CaO x P2O5-CaO x SiO2-CaO x MgO x 2SiO2 system. (United States)

    Salinas, A J; Román, J; Vallet-Regí, M; Oliveira, J M; Correia, R N; Fernandes, M H


    A glass of nominal composition (wt%) 40.0 CaO-34.5 SiO2-16.5 P2O5-8.5 MgO-0.5 CaF2 has been obtained (G13). The glass showed in vitro bioactivity evidenced by the formation on its surface of a calcium phosphate-rich layer when soaked in a solution with ionic composition analogous to human plasma. By thermal treatments of G13, a glass-ceramic (GC13) containing apatite, diopside, althausite and akermanite as crystalline phases was developed. GC13 as-made did not show in vitro bioactivity. However, after chemical treatment of GC13 with 1 M HCl (GC13-HCl), the in vitro studies showed the formation of an apatite-like layer covering certain areas of the material surface. The influence of both chemical and morphological factors on the in vitro bioactivity has been studied.

  7. Étude de bioverres sol-gel à base de SiO2, CaO, Na2O, P2O5 et dopés à l'argent


    Catteaux, Rémy


    Bioglasses of quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 obtained by melting are cast at 1400 ° C, which does not allow the shape of complex materials, for example macroporous bioceramics composites (HA and TCP) coated with an uniform layer of bioglass. To overcome this limitation, the sol-gel process has been used in this study. The aim has been to synthesize by sol-gel process, two quaternary compositions usually obtained by melting in the SiO2- CaO-Na2O-P2O5 system. These are two compositions: 4...

  8. Effects of sodium and potassium ions on a novel SeO2-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5-CaO bioactive system (United States)

    Trandafir, D. L.; Ponta, O.; Ciceo-Lucacel, R.; Simon, V.


    The study is focused on Na2O and/or K2O influence on a new sol-gel derived SeO2-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5-CaO bioactive system. The structural changes induced by Na2O and/or K2O addition were correlated with the samples behavior in simulated biological media. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and the type of the chemical bonds. The morphology of the samples was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results pointed out a prevalent vitreous structure with an incipient hydroxyapatite (HA) crystalline phase. FTIR results revealed a complex network consisting of silicate, phosphate and borate units, as well as the development of both A- and B-type of carbonate-substituted HA. The bioactivity of the samples was tested in vitro following the evolution of the apatite layers self-assembled on the samples surface in simulated body fluid. Their biocompatibility was investigated after samples surface functionalization with protein. The results indicate that sodium and potassium addition improves the biocompatibility by enhancement of protein adherence on samples surface and without to prevent the samples bioactivity.

  9. In vitro mineralization of a glass-ceramic of the MgO-3CaO x P2O5-SiO2 system: wettability studies. (United States)

    Serro, A P; Fernandes, A C; Saramago, B; Fernandes, M H V


    The calcium phosphate deposition on the surface of a bioactive glass-ceramic of the MgO-3CaO. P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) system during a 1-week immersion in biological model fluids, was investigated through wettability studies. Two model fluids with chemical composition similar to the human blood plasma were tested: Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) and a simulated body fluid (SBF) with a higher calcium content. The effect of the presence of albumin, both in solution or previously adsorbed to the surface, was assessed. The behavior observed using two SBF solutions prepared with and without TRIS buffer was compared. The surface free energy of the glass-ceramic samples was determined, before and after immersion, and dynamic contact angle analysis was performed using the biological model fluids as scanning liquids. Scanning electron microscope observations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis were performed to complement the wettability studies. The experimental results led to the conclusion that the precipitation of a calcium phosphate film in HBSS occurred mainly when the immersion solution was renewed daily or in the presence of adsorbed albumin. In SBF, the addition of TRIS buffer seemed to inhibit the formation of the calcium phosphate film. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of Sol-Gel Ageing Time on Three Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Structure of 80SiO2-15CaO-5P2O5 Bioactive Glasses

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    Thanida CHAROENSUK


    Full Text Available Three dimensionally ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, namely 80SiO2-15CaO-5P2O5, were synthesized by sol-gel method. PMMA colloidal crystals and non-ionic block copolymers P123 were used as cotemplates. The amorphous 3DOM-BGs had skeletal walls enclosing macropores. Such structure resulted from octahedral and tetrahedral holes of the face-centered cubic (fcc closest packed PMMA templates and windows interconnecting through macropores network. The thicknesses of the walls were around 50 nm – 80 nm and the windows were 90 nm – 110 nm in diameter. These wall thickness is increased by with an increase in ageing time up to 24 h and  then gradually reduced with further increase in aging time. Vibration bands of Si–O–Si and P–O were evident in infrared spectra which are in agreement with EDS spectra indicating Si, P and Ca compositions. After in vitro bioactivity testing by soaking 3DOM-BGs in simulated body fluid at 37 °C, the crystallization of amorphous calcium phosphate layers compatible to the bone component of hydroxyl carbonate apatite were rapidly formed within 3 h. These results indicated that these 3DOM-BGs resembled ideal bone implant materials.DOI:


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    Bizari D.


    Full Text Available In this study, we performed a new bioactive glass formulation with the molar composition 64 % SiO2 - 31 % CaO - 5 % P2O5 by the sol-gel method. Sol-gel derived bioglass material was produced in nanopowder using planetary milling machine, followed by sintering at 700°C, for applications as bioactive material in bioactive scaffolds or in orthopaedic. The obtained material was evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM and nitrogen adsorption pore size. The biocompatibility evaluation of the formed glass was assessed through in vitro cell culture by evaluation of alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts and immersion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF for different time intervals while monitoring the pH changes and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and silicon in the SBF medium as key factors in the rapid bonding of this bioactive glass to bone tissue as a high bioactive glass. The present investigation revealed that the sol-gel derived ternary bioglass system has the ability to support the growth of human fetal osteoblastic cells (hFOB 1.19. Finally, this material proved to be non-toxic and compatible for the proposed work in segmental defects in the goat model in vivo.

  12. Effective role of CaO/P2O5 ratio on SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass system

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    P. Kiran


    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of the CaO/P2O5 ratio on the composition of sol-gel synthesized 58SiO2-(19 − xP2O5–(23 + xCaO (x = 0, 5, 10 and 15 mol% glass samples was studied. Further, the effect of NBO/BO ratio on hydroxy carbonated apatite layer (HCA forming ability based on dissolution behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF solution was also investigated. CaO/P2O5 ratios of synthesized glass samples were 1.2, 2, 3.6, and 9.5, respectively. NBO/BO ratios were obtained using Raman spectroscopic analysis as 0.58, 1.20, 1.46, and 1.78, respectively. All samples were soaked in the SBF solution for 7 days. The calculated weight losses of these samples were 58%, 64%, 83%, and 89% for corresponding NBO/BO ratios. The increase in CaO/P2O5 ratio increases the NBO/BO ratios. However, the increase in NBO/BO ratio increases HCA forming ability of SBF treated samples. The HCA crystalline layer formation was confirmed through X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Raman and Infrared spectroscopic analysis. Higher CaO/P2O5 ratio favors the increase in HCA formation for SBF treated calcium phospho silicate glasses.

  13. Bioactivity of three CaO-P2O5-SiO2 sol-gel glasses. (United States)

    Salinas, A J; Martin, A I; Vallet-Regí, M


    Three gel glasses containing 25 mol % of CaO and SiO(2) + P(2)O(5) contents (in mol %): 75 + 0 (S75); 72.5 + 2.5 (S72.5P2.5); and 70 + 5 (S70P5), respectively, were obtained, characterized, and studied when soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The influence of composition in both textural properties (surface area and porosity) and in vitro behavior of glasses was studied. In as prepared S72.5P2.5 and S70P5 glasses, crystalline phosphate nuclei were detected through XRD and FTIR. In addition, N(2) adsorption and Hg porosimetry measurements showed that the surface area increased, whereas the pore volume and the pore diameter decreased as P(2)O(5) in glasses increased. These variations were explained on the basis of the withdrawal of calcium from the glass silica network, due to the calcium-phosphorous bonding. In vitro studies showed that the three compositions were bioactive, because an apatite layer was formed after soaking in SBF. S75 presented the highest initial reactivity but the lowest crystallization rate of the apatite-like phase. For S72.5P2.5, and S70P5 the amorphous calcium phosphate formation was slower than for S75, but the crystallization of apatite was observed after shorter periods in SBF. Furthermore, after 7 days of soaking, the layer thickness decreased as P(2)O(5) in glasses increased. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Reduction of P2O5 and F from Phosphogypsum by CaO addition

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    Juliastuti Sri Rachmania


    Full Text Available Waste of Phosphoric acid industry, which called phosphogypsum consists of 65% gypsum, 25% water and 10% impurities. Phosphogypsum can only be used up to 15% and the rest is thrown away. The objective purpose of this study is to reduce the content of P2O5 and F using best variable CaO and stirring during coagulation process, flocculation and sedimentation. The method of this experiment is conducted by using the ratio of phosphogypsum and variable distilled water 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, and then put it into a jar test using the variable stirring of 100 and 150 rpm. Then 11, 12 and 13 gram CaO and 50 ml distilled water is added as variables for coagulation – flocculation process. pH is kept at 6 by adding 4% NaOH. Polyalumunium chloride (PAC 0.1% as much as 1.75 mg/l is added into the mixture and stirred at 30 rpm for 20 minutes. The separation of P2O5 and F, is done by the sedimentation process. These experimental results show that variable 1:2 (w/v, 12 gram CaO and 150 rpm stirring able to reduce fluoride and P2O5 up to 98.5% and 50% from phospogypsum.

  15. Long-Lasting Phosphorescent Properties of Tb3+ Doped ZnO-P2O5-SiO2 Glasses (United States)

    Cao, Yuxia


    The long-lasting phosphorescent glass with the composition of ZnO-P2O5-SiO2: Tb3+ was prepared by melt-quenched method. After irradiation by 254 nm light, a visible greenish light can be observed with the naked eyes, in the dark for up to 9 h after removal of the activating light. The luminescent properties of ZnO-P2O5-SiO2: Tb3+ were studied by fluorescence spectra, afterglow spectra and thermoluminescence spectra. The results show that the luminescent properties of the glasses become better with the increase of ZnO contents. The luminescent properties of glasses increase with the increase of Tb3+ contents. When 2% of ZnO is replaced by 2% of RO (RO=CaO, SrO, BaO), the luminescent property of glasses become worse in the order of CaO, SrO, BaO. The higher the contents of RO (RO=CaO, SrO, BaO) are, the worse the luminescent properties of the glasses become.

  16. Calcium phosphate formation on porous sol-gel-derived SiO2 and CaO-P2O5-SiO2 substrates in vitro. (United States)

    Peltola, T; Jokinen, M; Rahiala, H; Levänen, E; Rosenholm, J B; Kangasniemi, I; Yli-Urpo, A


    Sol-gel-derived SiO2 and CaO-P2O5-SiO2 have been shown to be bioactive and bone bonding. In this study bioactive sol-gel-derived SiO2 and CaO-P2O5-SiO2 systems were tested for in in vitro bioactivity. The calcined ceramic monoliths were immersed in a simulated body fluid and analyzed to follow the hydroxyapatite formation on the ceramic surface. Apatite-forming ability was investigated in terms of structural changes by changing the composition and the preparation method. The role of Ca and P dopants in the substrate structure is complicated, and careful characterization is needed. The composition and structure together determine the in vitro bioactivity. The pore structure was analyzed using N2-adsorption/desorption isotherms. The results indicate that a great mesopore volume and a wide mesopore size distribution favor hydroxycarbonate apatite nucleation and a great surface area is not needed. The performed preparation process for silica in a basic environment provides a convenient way to prepare a mesoporous material. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. In vitro proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts on nanocomposite scaffolds based on bioactive glass (64SiO2-31CaO-5P2O5)-poly-l-lactic acid nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning method. (United States)

    Shamsi, M; Karimi, M; Ghollasi, M; Nezafati, N; Shahrousvand, M; Kamali, M; Salimi, A


    Electrospinning method was employed for fabrication of SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 bioactive glass (BG) nanofibers, poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) nanofibers and nanocomposite scaffolds fabricated from as-prepared nanofibers. Characterization of the prepared nanofibers and scaffolds by XRD, FTIR, and SEM techniques revealed the formation of nanofibers with mean diameter of about 500nm and fully fibrous scaffolds with porous structure and interconnected pores. The growth, viability and proliferation of cultured human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the fabricated nanofibers and bioactive glass-poly-l-lactic acid (BG-PLLA) nanocomposite scaffolds were studied using various biological assays including MTT, ALP activity, calcium deposit content, Alizarin red staining, and RT-PCR test. Based on the obtained results, incorporation of BG nanofibers in the nanocomposite scaffolds causes the better biological behavior of the scaffolds. In addition, three-dimensional and fibrous-porous structure of the scaffolds further contributes to their improved cell behavior compared to the components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytic acid derived bioactive CaO-P2O5-SiO2 gel-glasses. (United States)

    Li, Ailing; Qiu, Dong


    The possibility of using phytic acid as a precursor to synthesize CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) glasses by sol-gel method has been explored and the pseudo ternary phase diagram has been established. It was shown that gel-glasses over a broader range of compositions could be prepared compared to other phosphorus precursors or melt-quenching method. Furthermore, phytic acid was found to assist calcium being incorporated into glass networks. In vitro tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed on the above gel-glasses and it was found that they were bioactive over a much broader compositional range especially at high phosphate content, thus enabling one to design bioactive materials with various degradation rates by adjusting the phosphate content.

  19. Effects of CaO/P2O5 ratio on the structure and elastic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioglasses. (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Cherng; Chen, Shih-Fan; Leung, Kak Si; Shen, Pouyan


    The evolution of elastic properties and structure upon the change of CaO/P(2)O(5) ratio in SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5) glasses (45S5-derived and 55S4-derived) at ambient conditions has been studied by using both Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy coupled with X-ray diffraction. Under the same SiO(2)/Na(2)O ratio, it is found that a decrease in CaO/P(2)O(5) molar ratio has caused a more-polymerized silicate network via a net consumption of Q(0), Q(1), and Q(2) species yet enriching in Q(3) and Q(4) species. Brillouin experiments revealed that all the bulk, shear and Young's moduli of the glasses studied increases with the increase of CaO/P(2)O(5) molar ratio. The unexpected variation trend in shear modulus can be correlated to the contribution from cohesion, the less-polymerized phosphate Q species, and density. Compared to the 45S5-derived, the more-polymerized 55S4-deived glass has a lower bulk but slightly higher shear modulus at the given CaO/P(2)O(5) ratio.

  20. Effect of magnesia on the degradability and bioactivity of sol-gel derived SiO2-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system glasses. (United States)

    Ma, J; Chen, C Z; Wang, D G; Jiao, Y; Shi, J Z


    Mesoporous 58SiO(2)-(38-x)CaO-xMgO-4P(2)O(5) glasses (where x=0, 5, 10 and 20 mol%) have been prepared by the sol-gel synthesis route. The effects of the substitution of MgO for CaO on glass degradation and bioactivity were studied in tris-(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane and hydrochloric acid buffer solution (Tris-HCl) and simulated body fluid (SBF), respectively. It is observed that the synthesized glasses with various MgO contents possess the similar textural properties. The studies of in vitro degradability and bioactivity show that the rate of glass degradation gradually decreases with the increase of MgO and the formation of apatite layer on glass surface is retarded. The influences of the composition upon glass properties are explained in terms of their internal structures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioactivity of gel-glass powders in the CaO-SiO2 system: a comparison with ternary (CaO-P2O5-SiO2) and quaternary glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O). (United States)

    Saravanapavan, Priya; Jones, Julian R; Pryce, Russell S; Hench, Larry L


    Bioactive glasses react chemically with body fluids in a manner that is compatible with the repair processes of the tissues. This results in the formation of an interfacial bond between the glasses and living tissue. Bioactive glasses also stimulate bone-cell proliferation. This behavior is dependent on the chemical composition as well as the surface texture of the glasses. It has been recently reported that gel-derived monolith specimens in the binary SiO2 - CaO are bioactive over a similar molar range of SiO2 content as the previously studied ternary CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system. In this report, the preparation and bioactivity of the binary gel-glass powder with 70 mol % SiO2 is discussed and its bioactivity is compared with the melt-derived 45S5 (quaternary) Bioglass and sol-gel-derived 58S (ternary) bioactive gel-glass compositions. Dissolution kinetic parameters K(1) and K(2) were also computed based on the silicon release for all glass powders. It was shown that the simple two-component SiO2-CaO gel-glass powder is bioactive with comparable dissolution rates as the clinically used melt-derived 45S5 Bioglass powder and extensively studied sol-gel-derived 58S gel-glass powder. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The sol-gel prepared SiO2-CaO-P2O5 composites doped with Metronidazole for application in local delivery systems. (United States)

    Czarnobaj, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Wiesław


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties, chemical structure and bioactivity of sol-gel processed oxide (SiO(2)-CaO-P(2)O(5)) composites used as controlled release materials for Metronidazole-drug applied in periodontal disease treatment. The obtained composite materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) technique and further monitoring in the ultraviolet and visible light regions (UV-Vis) of the in vitro release of the drug over time. Using tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) as a precursor of silica matrix and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO(3))(2) 4H(2)O), triethyl phosphite (P(OC(2)H(5))(3)) as precursors of CaO and P(2)O(5) respectively, xerogels with different morphology and physical properties were obtained. The applied modifications improved also the bioactivity and changed the profile of the drug release. Based on the presented results of this study, it may be concluded that applied xerogel matrices could be promising candidates for the formulation in local delivery systems.

  3. The influence of SiO2 Addition on 2MgO-Al2O3-3.3P2O5 Glass

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    Larsen, P.H.; Poulsen, F.W.; Berg, Rolf W.


    2MgO-Al2O3-3.3P2O5 glasses with increasing amounts of SiO2 are considered for sealing applications in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). The change in chemical durability under SOFC anode conditions and the linear thermal expansion is measured as functions of the SiO2 concentration. Raman spectroscopy...

  4. Silver effect on the structure of SiO2-CaO-P2O5 ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulpoi, Adriana; Baia, Lucian; Simon, Simion; Simon, Viorica


    In this study are reported results obtained from the structural, morphological and textural investigations of 56SiO 2 ∙(40-x)CaO·4P 2 O 5 ·xAg 2 O system, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 10 mol%. The samples obtained by sol–gel method were annealed and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrational spectroscopy (Raman, FTIR), N 2 -adsorption measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD patterns of the investigated samples exhibit tricalcium phosphate (TCP) nanostructured phase and show the existence of metallic silver as dispersed phase. The presence of apatite-like phase is underlined by the recorded Raman and especially FT-IR spectra. TEM pictures indicate the presence of silver nanoparticles of almost spherical shapes and various sizes inside the matrix, depending on the Ag 2 O content. Regarding the textural properties, it was observed both a decrease of the specific surface area as well as a progressive change of the mesoporous characteristics with the silver addition, the latter behavior recommending the potential use of these samples for applications, where the morphology control is required.

  5. Microstructural dependence on relevant physical-mechanical properties on SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 biological glasses. (United States)

    Rajendran, V; Begum, A Nishara; Azooz, M A; el Batal, F H


    Bioactive glasses of the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 have been prepared by the normal melting and annealing technique. The elastic moduli, attenuation, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and fracture surface energy have been obtained using the known method at room temperature. The temperature dependence of elastic moduli and attenuation measurements have been extended over a wide range of temperature from 150 to 500 K. The SiO2 content dependence of velocities, attenuation, elastic moduli, and other parameters show an interesting observation at 45 wt% of SiO2 by exhibiting an anomalous behaviour. A linear relation is developed for Tg, which explores the influence of Na2O on SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses. The measured hardness, fracture toughness and fracture surface energy show a linear relation with Young's modulus. It is also interesting to note that the observed results are functions of polymerisation and the number of non-bridging oxygens (NBO) prevailing in the network with change in SiO2 content. The temperature dependence of velocities, attenuation and elastic moduli show the existence of softening in the glass network structure as temperature increases.

  6. Heat treatment of Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO2 bioactive glasses: densification processes and postsintering bioactivity. (United States)

    Sola, A; Bellucci, D; Raucci, M G; Zeppetelli, S; Ambrosio, L; Cannillo, V


    Because of their excellent bioactivity, bioactive glasses are increasingly diffused to produce biomedical devices for bone prostheses, to face the dysfunctions that may be caused by traumatic events, diseases, or even natural aging. However, several processing routes, such as the production of scaffolds or the deposition of coatings, include a thermal treatment to apply or sinter the glass. The exposure to high temperature may induce a devetrification phenomenon, altering the properties and, in particular, the bioactivity of the glass. The present contribution offers an overview of the thermal behavior and properties of two glasses belonging to the Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system, to be compared to the standard 45S5 Bioglass(®). The basic goal is to understand the effect of both the original composition and the thermal treatment on the performance of the sintered glasses. The new glasses, the one (BG_Na) with a high content of Na2O, the other (BG_Ca) with a high content of CaO, were fully characterized and sintering tests were performed to define the most interesting firing cycles. The sintered samples, treated at 880°C and 800°C respectively, were investigated from a microstructural point of view and their mechanical properties were compared to those of the bulk (not sintered) glass counterparts. The effect of sintering was especially striking on the BG_Ca material, whose Vickers hardness increased from 598.9 ± 46.7 HV to 1053.4 ± 35.0 HV. The in vitro tests confirmed the ability of the glasses, both in bulk and sintered form, of generating a hydroxyapatite surface layer when immersed in a simulated body fluid. More accurate biological tests performed on the sintered glasses proved the high bioactivity of the CaO-rich composition even after a heat treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Synthis and Phisical And Chemical; Properties of SiO2 - B2O3 and SiO2 - P2O5 Thin Film Systems and Powders (United States)

    Mal'chik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Seregin, V. I.; Rodionov, P. V.; Kryuchkova, S. O.


    The SiO2 - B2O3 and SiO2 - P2O5 films were synthesized by using film forming solutions having a P2O5 content of up to 30% and B2O3 up to 40%. Properties of the filmforming solutions and binary oxides were examined. The physical and chemical processes occurring in the solution during the heat treatment of films were examined. The conditions for producing films of different thicknesses were determined. The kinetic parameters were calculated.

  8. Sol-Gel SiO2-CaO-P2O5 biofilm with surface engineered for medical application

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    Sonia Regina Federman


    Full Text Available Sol-gel film in the SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system was prepared from TEOS, TEP, alcohol and hydrated calcium nitrate in an acidic medium. The coatings were deposited on stainless steel using the dip-coating technique. After deposition, the composite was submitted to heat treatment, at different temperatures and exposure times to investigate the influence of such parameters on the surface morphology of the composite. The coated surfaces were characterized by AFM, SEM and FTIR. The present study showed that the formation of different textures (an important parameter in implant fixation could be controlled by temperature and time of heat treatment.

  9. Development and in vitro characterization of sol-gel derived CaO-P2O5-SiO2-ZnO bioglass. (United States)

    Balamurugan, Anbalagan; Balossier, Gerard; Kannan, Sanjeevi; Michel, Jean; Rebelo, Avito H S; Ferreira, Jose M F


    A CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2)-ZnO bioglass was formed by the sol-gel technique and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface reactivity of the resultant glass-ceramic specimens was analyzed by immersion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF). SEM-EDXS and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry techniques were used to monitor changes in the glass surface and SBF composition. Osteoblast cell culture experiments were performed to assess the biocompatibility and the alkaline phosphatase activity. Cell counts of the osteoblasts cultured on the bioglass samples were studied and compared with the polystyrene plates. The cells cultured on the bioglass disks consistently showed a higher alkaline phosphatase activity and cell counts compared to cells cultured on either polystyrene plates or the base CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) bioglass. This was due to cell proliferation and differentiation promoted by the zinc-substituted bioglass.

  10. Sol-gel-derived bioactive glass containing SiO2-MgO-CaO-P2O5 as an antibacterial scaffold. (United States)

    Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Hafezi, Forough; Hosseinnejad, Fatemeh; Nourani, Mohammad Reza


    Bioactive glass (BG) composites with a base of SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 are biocompatible biomaterials. The assessment of their abilities for medical applications has interested researchers. We produced a BG-containing SiO2-MgO-CaO-P2O5 by the sol-gel method. To determine the antibacterial effects, we analyzed the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) properties of this product on three microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, known causative agents for biofilm formation on implant surfaces. In addition, we performed the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay to study the cytotoxic effects of our composite on animal cells. Our results demonstrated that our BG product inhibited the growth of bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner without any cytotoxic effects. Therefore, our BG product can be utilized as an appropriate implant for treating bone and tooth defects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Ultrasonic, FTIR and thermal investigations of SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 glasses doped with CeO2 (United States)

    Marzouk, Samir Y.


    The longitudinal and shear ultrasonic wave velocities for different compositions of SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 glasses were measured at room temperature (305 K) using a pulse-echo method at a frequency of 4 MHz. The elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, microhardness, Debye temperature and other ultrasonic parameters were obtained from experimental data and analyzed using bond compression theory. By calculating the number of network bonds per unit volume, the average stretching constant, and the average ring size, information about the structure of the glass can be deduced. Structural changes after doping with CeO2 were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy, and by measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient, glass transition and softening temperature to throw more light on the characterization of these glasses.

  12. Characterization of SiO2-Na2O-Fe2O3-CaO-P2O5-B2O3 glass ceramics. (United States)

    Singh, K; Bahadur, D


    Bioactivity and magnetic properties were investigated in glass and glass ceramics based on the SiO2-Na2O-Fe2O3-CaO-P2O5-B2O3 system to find their suitability as thermoseed for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. The effect of change in compositions on bioactivity was examined in simulated body fluids. The glass ceramic samples exhibit Na3CaSi3O8 and Na3-XFeXPO4 phases. After dipping the glass ceramic samples in simulated body fluids silica hydrogel first forms, followed by an amorphous calcium phosphate layer. Magnetic and microwave resonance experiments further demonstrate the potential of these glass ceramics for possible use in hyperthermia.

  13. In-vitro study of copper doped SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system for bioactivity and antimicrobial properties (United States)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J.; Anand, Vikas; Kaur, Harpreet; Arora, Daljit Singh


    Samples of the xCuO-(45-x)CaO-10P2O5-45SiO2 system (x varies from 0 to 4 mole%) have been synthesized for application as biomaterials to slow or inhibit the growth of living organisms (fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms) by the combination of sol-gel and co-precipitation processes. Prepared samples have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. Antimicrobial activity of samples has been investigated against Staphylococcus aureus. Releasing of Cu2+and other ions in the simulated body fluid has been determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to ensure the use of prepared material as biomaterial with good antibacterial properties.

  14. Sol–gel hybrid membranes loaded with meso/macroporous SiO2, TiO2–P2O5 and SiO2–TiO2–P2O5 materials with high proton conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Yolanda; Mosa, Jadra; Aparicio, Mario; Pérez-Carrillo, Lourdes A.; Vílchez, Susana; Esquena, Jordi; Durán, Alicia


    In this work, highly conductive hybrid organic–inorganic membranes loaded with SiO 2 , TiO 2 –P 2 O 5 and SiO 2 –TiO 2 –P 2 O 5 meso/macroporous particles were prepared via a sol–gel process. Meso/macroporous particles were incorporated to hybrid membranes, for improving water retention and enhancing electrochemical performance. These particles with a polymodal pore size distribution were prepared by templating in highly concentrated emulsions, the particles showed a specific surface area between 50 m 2 /g (TiO 2 –P 2 O 5 ) and 300 m 2 /g (SiO 2 –TiO 2 –P 2 O 5 ). The particles were dispersed in a hybrid silica sol and further sprayed onto glass paper. The films were polymerized and sintered; those loaded with meso/macroporous particles had a homogenous distribution. High temperature proton conductivity measurements confirmed a high water retention. Conductivity of these materials is higher than that of Nafion ® at higher temperatures (120 °C) (2·10 −2  S/cm). This study provides processing guideline to achieve hybrid electrolytes for efficient conduction of protons due to their high surface area and porous structure. - Highlights: • Hybrid electrolyte with meso/macroporous particles were synthesized by sol–gel. • Depositions of hybrid solutions by spraying onto glass substrates were performed. • Proton conductivity was evaluated as a function of composition and porous structure

  15. Bending strength of glass-ceramics based on 3CaO.P2O5-SiO2-MgO glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguano, J.K.M.F.; Suzuki, P.A.; Santos, C.; Fernandes, M.H.V.; Elias, C.N.


    In this work, the Modulus of Rupture of bioactive glass-ceramic based on 3CaO.P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 -MgO system was investigated, aiming its use in bone-restorations. The mechanical property was correlated with microstructural and crystallographic features of this material. High-purity starting-powders, CaCO 3 , SiO 2 , MgO, Ca (H 2 PO 4 ).H 2 O, were used in this study. The powders were mixed in a stoichiometric ratio, using planetary ball-mill. The suspensions were dried, sieved and melted at 1600 deg C, for 4h. The casting ones were cooled quickly until annealing temperature 700 deg C, in which remained for 2h, with controlled cooling-rate until ambient temperature. Bulks of glass were heat-treated with temperatures varying between 700 deg C and 1100 deg C, for 4h, being after that, cooled at 3 deg C/min. Bioactive glass and glass-ceramic were characterized by HRXRD (high resolution X-ray diffraction), where whitlockite was main phase. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. Modulus of Rupture was determined by four-point bending testing using specimens of 1.5 x 2 x 25 mm and glasses presented strength near to 70MPa, while glass ceramics treated at 975 deg C-4h, presented bending strength of 120MPa. (author)


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    Full Text Available The influence of CaO and P2O5 upon the reactivity of cement raw meal was investigated in this paper. Ash of bone meal containing Ca3(PO42 - 3CaO·P2O5 was used as the source of P2O5. Two series of samples with different content of the ash of bone meal were prepared. In the first series, the ash of bone was added into cement raw meal. The second series of samples were prepared by considering ash as one of CaO sources. Therefore, the total content of CaO in cement raw meal was kept constant, while the amount of P2O5 increased. These different series of samples were investigated by analyzing free lime content in the clinkers. The XRD analysis and Electron Micro Probe Analyzer analysis of the clinkers were also carried out. Two parameters were used to characterize the reactivity of cement raw meal: content of free lime and Burnability Index (BI calculated from free lime content in both series of samples burnt at 1350 ºC, 1400 ºC, 1450 ºC and 1500 ºC. According to the first parameter, P2O5 content that drastically makes worse the reactivity of cement raw meal was found at 1.11 wt.% in the first series, while this limit has reached 1.52 wt.% in the second one. According to the BI, the limit of P2O5 was found at 1.42 wt. % in the first series and 1, 61 wt.% in the second one. Furthermore, EPMA has demonstrated the presence of P2O5 in both calcium silicate phases forming thus solid solutions.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel-derived SiO2-CaO-P2O5-MgO bioglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, A.; Rabiee, M.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Sheikhi, M.; Tahriri, M.; Karimi, M.


    In this study, the synthesis of SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 -MgO bioactive glass was performed by the sol-gel method. Sol-gel-derived bioglass material was produced both in powder and in discs form by uniaxial pressing, followed by sintering at 700 deg. C. The obtained material was evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. The biocompatibility evaluation of the formed glass was assessed through in vitro cell culture [alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity of osteoblasts] experiments and immersion studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time intervals while monitoring the pH changes and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in the SBF medium. The SEM, XRD and FTIR studies were conducted before and after soaking of the material in SBF. At first, an amorphous calcium phosphate was formed; after 7 days this surface consisted of deposited crystalline apatite. The present investigation also revealed that the sol-gel derived quaternary bioglass system has the ability to support the growth of human fetal osteoblastic cells (hFOB 1.19). Finally, this material proved to be non-toxic and compatible for the proposed work in segmental defects in the goat model in vivo

  18. Strengthening of glass-ionomer cement by compounding short fibres with CaO-P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3 glass. (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Kon, M; Miyai, K; Asaoka, K


    The purpose of this study was to determine if short fibres of CaO-P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3 (CPSA) glass possessing a particular aspect ratio (length/diameter) could be used as a reinforcing agent for glass-ionomer cement. The powder of a commercial glass-ionomer cement (not resin modified) was mixed with variously sized CPSA glass short fibres before mixing with the liquid of the glass-ionomer cement. The mixed powders containing 60 mass% CPSA glass short fibres (diameter, 9.7 +/- 2.1 microm, aspect ratio, 5.0 +/- 0.9) obtained maximum values of 18 and 35 MPa for the diametral tensile strength (DTS) and flexural strength (FS) of set cements, respectively, after 24 h. These DTS and FS values were 1.8 and 4.5 times larger, respectively, than those of the set glass-ionomer cement not containing short fibres. Moreover, it was found that the addition of CPSA glass short fibres was remarkably more effective in the strengthening than electric glass (a typical glass fibre) short fibres. The results suggested that the CPSA glass short fibres acted as a reinforcing agent for strengthening the glass-ionomer cement, because of the shape of short fibres and reactivity between the mixing liquid and short fibres.

  19. Influence of the zirconium and titanium oxides on bioactivity of materials constituted by Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO2

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    Silvia Denofre de Campos


    Full Text Available In this work were synthesized by conventional fusion, biomaterials based on Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO2 with titanium oxide and zirconium oxide at different concentrations. The bioglasses, when submitted to the heat treatment in the crystallization temperatures, obtained by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA showed an internal reorganization indicated by the presence of different crystalline phases observed in X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples. These crystalline phases, rich in calcium phosphates and calcium silicates, are probably the actives sites useful to the ion exchange process between solid and solution to apatite and hydroxyapatite formation, being responsible by bioactive behavior. Biocompatibility tests for the synthesized materials were made by placing the samples in contact with a solution simulating the blood plasma (SBP. There was a variation of the initial pH of this solution to the more basic pH (from 8.5 to 12.0, indicating the interaction between the solid and the SBP solution. This effect was more pronounced to materials with TiO2 that can be understood as a greater bioactivity and compatibility on these materials.

  20. Understanding the magnetic behavior of heat treated CaO-P2O5-Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2 bioactive glass using electron paramagnetic resonance studies (United States)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.


    Bioactive glass of composition 41CaO-44SiO2-4P2O5-8Fe2O3-3Na2O has been heat treated in the temperature (TA) range of 750-1150 °C for time periods (tA) ranging from 1 h to 3 h to yield magnetic bioactive glass ceramics (MBCs). X-ray diffraction studies indicate the presence of bone mineral (hydroxyapatite and wollastonite) and magnetic (magnetite and α-hematite) phases in nanocrystalline form in the MBCs. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study was carried out to understand the variation in saturation magnetization and coercivity of the MBCs with TA and tA. These studies reveal the nature and amount of iron ions present in the MBCs and their interaction in the glassy oxide matrix as a function of annealing parameters. The deterioration in the magnetic properties of the glass heat treated above 1050 °C is attributed to the crystallization of the non-magnetic α-hematite phase. These results are expected to be useful in the application of these MBCs as thermoseeds in hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  1. Effect of alkali earth oxides on hydroxy-carbonated apatite nano layer formation for SiO2-BaO-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 glass system (United States)

    Kiran, P.; Ramakrishna, V.; Shashikala, H. D.; Udayashankar, N. K.


    Barium soda lime phosphosilicate [(58SiO2-(32 - x)BaO- xCao-6Na2O-4P2O5 (where x = 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol%)] samples were synthesised using conventional sol-gel method at 700 °C sintering temperature. Thermal, structural properties were studied using thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Using Raman spectra non-bridging oxygen concentrations were estimated. The hydroxy-carbonated apatite (HCA) layer formation on samples was analysed for 7 days using simulated body fluid (SBF) soaked samples. The growth of HCA layers self-assembled on the sample surface was discussed as a function of NBO/BO ratio. Results indicated that the number of Ca2+ ions released into SBF solution in dissolution process and weight loss of SB-treated samples vary with NBO/BO ratio. The changes in NBO/BO ratios were observed to be proportional to HCA forming ability of barium soda lime phosphosilicate glasses.

  2. Determinação da espessura de filme bioativo SiO2-CaO-P2O5 obtido via sol-gel Evaluation of the thickness of SiO2-CaO-P2O5 bioactive film obtained via sol-gel

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    S. R. Federman


    Full Text Available Foi preparado um filme bioativo do sistema SiO2-CaO-P2O5 via sol-gel pela hidrólise e condensação de TEOS, TEP, álcool e nitrato de cálcio em meio ácido. Após a mistura, a solução sintetizada serviu para revestir substrato de aço inoxidável pelo método de imersão utilizando baixa velocidade de emersão. Após o revestimento, o compósito foi tratado termicamente em diferentes temperaturas durante 1 h, com o propósito de avaliar a influência do tratamento térmico especificamente na espessura do filme revestindo o substrato metálico. A influência da variação da temperatura foi acessada através das técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e espectroscopia de centelhamento (GDS. Os resultados comprovaram a influência da temperatura na espessura do filme obtido. A reduzida espessura do filme bioativo foi determinada por MEV e GDS.A sol-gel bioactive film of the SiO2-CaO-P2O5 system was prepared, via a sol-gel method, by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylortosilicate [TEOS], triethylphosphate [TEP] and hydrated calcium nitrate under acidic conditions. After mixing, the as-obtained solution was used to coat stainless steel substrates by dip-coating in a low withdraw speed. After deposition, the composite was heat treated at different temperatures for 1 h to evaluate the temperature influence on the thickness of the coating over the stainless steel substrate. The development of the coating thickness was accessed through the techniques of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM and glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS. Results indicated the heat treatment effect on the film thickness. Also, the SEM and the GDS techniques were used to determine the thin bioactive coating thickness.

  3. Avaliação da biocompatibilidade de vidro e vitrocerâmica do sistema SNCP (SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5

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    Karoline Bastos Mundstock


    Full Text Available This article reports research results related to bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests using neutral red uptake method for glass powders and bulk glass ceramics belonging to the SNCP (SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 system. The obtained materials showed bioactivity when immersed in SBF promoting the surface deposition of HAp. When analyzed as powders, cytotoxicity was evidenced in the processed materials but not when bulk samples were tested.

  4. High-temperature mass spectrometric study of the vaporization processes and thermodynamic properties of samples in the Bi2O3-P2O5-SiO2system. (United States)

    Vorozhtcov, Viktor A; Stolyarova, Valentina L; Lopatin, Sergey I; Shugurov, Sergey M; Shilov, Andrey L; Sapega, Vladimir F


    The Bi 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 system possesses a number of valuable properties that may be of use for various practical applications, both for obtaining new materials, e.g. optical fibers, and for replacing systems based on toxic lead silicate. Information on vaporization processes and thermodynamic properties obtained in the present study will be useful for the development of synthetic methods and approaches for modeling the thermodynamic properties of materials based on this system. High-temperature Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry was used to study the vaporization processes and to determine the thermodynamic properties of the components in the Bi 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 system. Measurements were performed with a MS-1301 magnetic sector mass spectrometer. Vaporization was carried out using an iridium-plated molybdenum twin effusion cell containing the sample under study and pure bismuth(III) oxide as a reference substance. Electron ionization at an energy of 30 eV was employed in the study. At a temperature of 950 K, Bi and O 2 were found to be the main vapor species over the samples studied. The Bi 2 O 3 activity as a function of composition in the Bi 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 system was derived from the obtained Bi partial pressures. The excess Gibbs energy of the system studied was calculated at 950 K and 1273 K. The possibility of using the Kohler method for the calculation of thermodynamic properties in the Bi 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 system was illustrated. The excess Gibbs energy of the Bi 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 system obtained in the present study using the Knudsen mass spectrometric method at 950 K and 1273 K demonstrated significant negative deviations from ideal behavior. The excess Gibbs energy values calculated by the Kohler method were shown to be in good agreement with those obtained from experimental data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Comparative behavior of sol gel derived 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system for the growth of hydroxyl apatite layer from XRD and Raman studies (United States)

    Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, K. J.


    Bioactive samples of 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5- SiO2 compositions have been prepared in the laboratory. XRD and Raman techniques have been employed to infer the structural information of the samples before and after in vitro test. In vitro tests have been undertaken by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid. Formation of hydroxyl apatite layer on the surface of samples indicates that all the prepared samples are bioactive in nature. Reported investigations are important to improve the antibacterial properties of the future bioactive implant materials.

  6. Bioactivity and cell proliferation in radiopaque gel-derived CaO-P2O5-SiO2-ZrO2 glass and glass-ceramic powders. (United States)

    Montazerian, Maziar; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Marghussian, Vahak Kaspari; Bellani, Caroline Faria; Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra


    In this study, 10 mol% ZrO2 was added to a 27CaO-5P2O5-68SiO2 (mol%) base composition synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. This composition is similar to that of a frequently investigated bioactive gel-glass. The effects of ZrO2 on the in vitro bioactivity and MG-63 cell proliferation of the glass and its derivative polycrystalline (glass-ceramic) powder were investigated. The samples were characterized using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Release of Si, Ca, P and Zr into simulated body fluid (SBF) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Upon heat treatment at 1000 °C, the glass powder crystallized into an apatite-wollastonite-zirconia glass-ceramic powder. Hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the surface of the glass and glass-ceramic particles containing ZrO2 was confirmed by FTIR and SEM. Addition of ZrO2 to the base glass composition decreased the rate of HCA formation in vitro from one day to three days, and hence, ZrO2 could be employed to control the rate of apatite formation. However, the rate of HCA formation on the glass-ceramic powder containing ZrO2 crystal was equal to that in the base glassy powder. Tests with a cultured human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells revealed that the glass and glass-ceramic materials stimulated cell proliferation, indicating that they are biocompatible and are not cytotoxic in vitro. Moreover, zirconia clearly increased osteoblast proliferation over that of the Zr-free samples. This increase is likely associated with the lower solubility of these samples and, consequently, a smaller variation in the media pH. Despite the low solubility of these materials, bioactivity was maintained, indicating that these glassy and polycrystalline powders are potential candidates for bone graft substitutes and bone cements with

  7. Compositional dependence of bioactivity of glasses in the system Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-B2O3-P2O5-SiO2. (United States)

    Brink, M; Turunen, T; Happonen, R P; Yli-Urpo, A


    The bioactivity, i.e., bone-bonding ability, of 26 glasses in the system Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-B2O3-P2O5-SiO2 was studied in vivo. This investigation of bioactivity was performed to establish the compositional dependence of bioactivity, and enabled a model to be developed that describes the relation between reactions in vivo and glass composition. Reactions in vivo were investigated by inserting glass implants into rabbit tibia for 8 weeks. The glasses and the surrounding tissue were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). For most of the glasses containing SiO2, SEM and EDXA showed two distinct layers at the glass surface after implantation, one silica-rich and another containing calcium phosphate. The build-up of these layers in vivo was taken as a sign of bioactivity. The in vivo experiments showed that glasses in the investigated system are bioactive when they contain 14-30 mol % alkali oxides, 14-30 mol % alkaline earth oxides, and SiO2. Glasses containing potassium and magnesium bonded to bone in a similar way as bioactive glasses developed so far.

  8. Bioactivity analysis of the Ta (V doped SiO2–CaO–Na2O–P2O5 ceramics prepared by solid state sintering method

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    Rehana Zia


    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to control the degradation rate of material at a higher degradation rate improving the chemical stability of the material. Ta is known to have good chemical resistance, biocompatibility and show no adverse biological response. In the present study, SiO2–Na2O–CaO–P2O5 bioceramics with different Ta2O5 contents was prepared by solid state sintering method at 1000 °C. The as-sintered ceramics were subjected to immersion studies in stimulated body fluid (SBF for 21 days under static condition and characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and AAS. The findings of the research indicate that the addition of Ta2O5 controlled degradability, and all samples showed sufficient bioactivity.

  9. Recubrimientos meso-porosos de SiO2-TiO2-P2O5 para aplicaciones en pilas de combustible de intercambio protónico

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    Castro, Y.


    Full Text Available The article describes the preparation of mesoporous SiO2-TiO2-P2O5 coatings by Sol-Gel process combined to EISA method for using as proton exchange membranes fuel cells. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, methyl triethoxysilane (MTES, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and phosphorus trichloride (PCl3 have used as precursors and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB as porous generator agent. Films were deposited by immersion technique controlling the relative humidity at 40 and 20-70% and treated at 400 to 500° C for 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The variation of the refractive index and thickness have studied as a function of temperature and sintering time as well as the pore volume and density of the coatings by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Moreover, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the coatings has been studied by Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and by contact angle measurements, following the loss of methyl groups with the temperature and sintering time. The results show that these parameters are crucial to obtain coatings with high porosity and low contact angle, important to obtain high proton conductivity conditions. The sintering conditions were fixed to 400°C / 60 min. Conductivity measurements at four points show high proton conductivity, 0,16 and 0,85 S/cm, up and down ramp, respectively, at 80°C and 80 % of humidity. These coatings are good candidates for PEMFC membranes, if they are deposited onto electrodes.El artículo describe la preparación de recubrimientos mesoporosos de SiO2-TiO2-P2O5 por el método sol-gel combinado con el método EISA para su aplicación como membranas en pilas de intercambio protónico. Se han utilizado como precursores el tetraetilortosilicato (TEOS, metil-trietoxi-silano (MTES, tetracloruro de titanio (TiCl4 y el tricloruro de fosforo (PCl3 y como agente generador de porosidad el bromuro de cetil trimetilamonio (CTAB. Los recubrimientos se depositaron mediante la técnica de inmersión controlando la

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 containing BaO-Fe2O3 glass-ceramics (United States)

    Leenakul, W.; Kantha, P.; Pisitpipathsin, N.; Rujijanagul, G.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.


    The incorporation method was employed to produce bioactive glass-ceramics from the BaFe12O19-SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 glass system. The ferrimagnetic BaFe12O19 was first prepared using a simple mixed oxide method, where the oxide precursors of 45S5 bioglass were initially mixed and then melted to form glass. The devitrification of Na3Ca6(PO4)5 and Fe3O4 was observed in all of the quenched glass samples. The glass samples were then subjected to a heat treatment schedule for further crystallization. It was found that the small traces of BaFe12O19 phases started to crystallize in high BF content samples of 20 and 40 wt%. These samples also exhibited good magnetic properties comparable to that of other magnetic glass-ceramics. The bioactivity of the BF glass-ceramics improved with increasing BF content as was evident by the formation of bone-like apatite layers on the surface of all of the glass-ceramics after soaking in SBF for 14 days. The results support the use of these bioactive glass-ceramics for hyperthermia treatment within the human body.

  11. Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and hydroxyapatite formation in 27-Tris-SBF for sol-gel based CaO-P2O5-SiO2-B2O3-ZnO bioactive glasses. (United States)

    Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, G; Kimsawatde, G; Homa, D; Allbee, H A; Sriranganathan, N


    CaO-P2O5-SiO2-B2O3-ZnO bioactive glasses were prepared via an optimized sol-gel method. The current investigation was focused on producing novel zinc based calcium phosphoborosilicate glasses and to evaluate their mechanical, rheological, and biocompatible properties. The morphology and composition of these glasses were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size, mechanical and flexural strength was also determined. Furthermore, the zeta potential of all the glasses were determined to estimate their flocculation tendency. The thermal analysis and weight loss measurements were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. For assessing the in-vitro bioactive character of synthesized glasses, the ability for apatite formation on their surface upon their immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was checked using SEM and pH measurements. MTS assay cytotoxicity assay and live-dead cell viability test were conducted on J774A.1 cells murine macrophage cells for different glass concentrations.

  12. Influences of TiO2 Addition on the Crystallization Behavior, Microstructure, and Magnetic Properties of Li2O-MnO2-Fe2O3-CaO-P2O5-SiO2 Glasses (United States)

    Cheng, Huy-Zu; Lin, Huey-Jiuan; Wang, Moo-Chin; Wang, Chien-Fa; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Zhao, XiuJian; Jiang, Hong; Li, Chang-Jiu; Lu, Peng


    Influences of TiO2 addition on the phase transformation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of Li2O-MnO2-Fe2O3-CaO-P2O5-SiO2 (LMFCPS) glass have been studied using DTA, XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM, SAED, and SQUID. When LMFCPS glass, with and without TiO2 content, is crystallized at 1123 K (850 °C) for 2 hours, the magnetite (FeFe2O4), β-wollastonite (β-CaSiO3), lithium orthophosphate (Li3PO4), and triphylite (Li(Mn0.5Fe0.5)PO4) phases are formed. The β-wollastonite and lithium silicate formed with evident directionality were observed in the LMFCPS glass-ceramics without adding TiO2. However, when the LMFCPS glass with various TiO2 content is crystallized at 1123 K (850 °C) for 16 hours, very small remnant magnetic induction and coercive field hysteresis loops were found showing the ferromagnetic property in a magnetic field smaller than 2000 Oe. Additionally, when LMFCPS glass with various TiO2 contents is crystallized at 1123 K (850 °C) for 16 hours, the glass-ceramics showed super-paramagnetic property in a magnetic field of 60 kOe due to the small grains of the iron-rich phases.

  13. Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and hydroxyapatite formation in 27-Tris-SBF for sol-gel based CaO-P2O5-SiO2-B2O3-ZnO bioactive glasses (United States)

    Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, G.; Kimsawatde, G.; Homa, D.; Allbee, H. A.; Sriranganathan, N.


    CaO-P2O5-SiO2-B2O3-ZnO bioactive glasses were prepared via an optimized sol–gel method. The current investigation was focused on producing novel zinc based calcium phosphoborosilicate glasses and to evaluate their mechanical, rheological, and biocompatible properties. The morphology and composition of these glasses were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size, mechanical and flexural strength was also determined. Furthermore, the zeta potential of all the glasses were determined to estimate their flocculation tendency. The thermal analysis and weight loss measurements were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. For assessing the in-vitro bioactive character of synthesized glasses, the ability for apatite formation on their surface upon their immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) was checked using SEM and pH measurements. MTS assay cytotoxicity assay and live-dead cell viability test were conducted on J774A.1 cells murine macrophage cells for different glass concentrations. PMID:24637634

  14. Role of acid attack in the in vitro bioactivity of a glass-ceramic of the 3CaO.P2O5-CaO.SiO2-CaO.MgO.2SiO2 system. (United States)

    Roman, J; Salinas, A J; Vallet-Regi, M; Oliveira, J M; Correia, R N; Fernandes, M H


    A non-bioactive glass-ceramic (GC13) that contains hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH), diopside (CaMg(SiO3)2) and althausite (Mg2 PO4OH) as crystalline phases has been obtained by thermal treatment of a parent bioactive glass (G13) of nominal composition (wt%) 40.0 CaO-34.5 SiO2-16.5 P2O5-8.5 MgO-0.5CaF2. To induce bioactivity, GC13 was chemically treated with 1 M HCl for different periods of time. After chemical etching the in vitro studies showed formation of an apatite-like surface layer. In this article the influence of etching time both on the surface composition of the glass-ceramic and on the growth rate of the apatite layer is studied. It is concluded that the presence of hydroxyapatite in the glass-ceramic, associated to microstructural fluctuations, can favour apatite deposition in vitro.

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of SiO2 - P2O5 - CaO - MgO glass coatings on titanium substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanni Ednan


    Full Text Available Thin films of bioactive glass-ceramic have been deposited on titanium substrates by the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique under different experimental conditions. The effect of parameters such as deposition pressure and temperature of heat treatments was studied. The microstructure and the crystalline phases of the coatings were characterized using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis; the phases present were titanium oxides, calcium magnesium silicates and phosphates. The adhesion of the as-deposited films has been examined by scratch tests. The interfacial adhesion of the coatings was better when the deposition was performed at low pressure. Samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF, and a calcium-phosphate precipitate was observed on the surface of less crystallized samples, suggesting that there is some relationship between surface reactivity and crystallinity.

  16. Formation Mechanism of 2CaO·SiO2 and 3CaO·P2O5 Solid Solution in CaO-SiO2-FetO-P2O5 Slags (United States)

    Dou, Xiaofei; Zhu, Mingmei; Lin, Tiancheng; Wang, Yu; Xie, Bin; Zhu, Bin; Zhou, Hong

    In this study, the formation of 2CaO·SiO2 and 3CaO·P2O5 solid solution (nC2S-C3P) in hot metal dephosphorization process is discussed. The variations of CaO and SiO2 mass, both in nC2S-C3P solid solution phase and liquid slag phase with increasing P2O5 mass in CaO-SiO2-FetO-P2O5 slags were calculated using Factsage software. CaO-SiO2-FeOt-P2O5 slag containing up to 18 % P2O5 was melted at 1823 K then cooled to 1673 K. The contents of CaO and SiO2 both in the solid solution phase and liquid slag phase of quenched samples were observed and analyzed by SEM/EDS. Both the calculated and experimental results show that the contents of CaO and SiO2 in the solid solution phase decreased, just opposite in the liquid slag phase, with increasing P2O5 content in the slags. Formation mechanism of nC2S-C3P solid solution in the slags was derived based on the ionic structure theory of molten slag. The SiO44- in the nC2S-C3P solid solution can be replaced by PO43- in the liquid phase resulting in the increasing of free Ca2+ and SiO44- in liquid phase.

  17. Magnetic bioactive glass ceramic in the system CaO-P2O5-SiO2-MgO-CaF2-MnO2-Fe2O3 for hyperthermia treatment of bone tumor. (United States)

    Li, Guangda; Feng, Shuying; Zhou, Dali


    Magnetic bioactive glass ceramic (MG) in the system CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-MgO-CaF(2)-MnO(2)-Fe(2)O(3) for hyperthermia treatment of bone tumor was synthesized. The phase composition was investigated by XRD. The magnetic property was measured by VSM. The in vitro bioactivity was investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking experiment. Cell growth on the surface of the material was evaluated by co-culturing osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells with materials for 7 days. The results showed that MG contained CaSiO(3) and Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F as the main phases, and MnFe(2)O(4) and Fe(3)O(4) as the magnetic phases. Under a magnetic field of 10,000 Oe, the saturation magnetization and coercive force of MG were 6.4 emu/g and 198 Oe, respectively. After soaking in SBF for 14 days, hydroxyapatite containing CO(3)(2-) was observed on the surface of MG. The experiment of co-culturing cells with material showed that cells could successfully attach and well proliferate on MG.

  18. Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containing systems (United States)

    Hudon, Pierre; Jung, In-Ho


    P2O5 is an important oxide component in the late stage products of numerous igneous rocks such as granites and pegmatites. Typically, P2O5 combines with CaO and crystallizes in the form of apatite, while in volatile-free conditions, Ca-whitlockite is formed. In spite of their interest, the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containg systems are not well known yet. In the case of the pure P2O5 for example, no experimental thermodynamic data are available for the liquid and the O and O' solid phases. As a result, we re-evaluated all the thermodynamic and phase diagram data of the P2O5 unary system [1]. Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of the binary P2O5 systems was then performed including the Li2O-, Na2O-, MgO-, CaO-, BaO-, MnO-, FeO-, Fe2O3-, ZnO-, Al2O3-, and SiO2-P2O5 [2] systems. All available thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data were simultaneously reproduced in order to obtain a set of model equations for the Gibbs energies of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In particular, the Gibbs energy of the liquid solution was described using the Modified Quasichemical Model [3-5] implemented in the FactSage software [6]. Thermodynamic modeling of the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system, which include many granite-forming minerals such as nepheline, leucite, pyroxene, melilite, feldspar and spinel is currently in progress. [1] Jung, I.-H., Hudon, P. (2012) Thermodynamic assessment of P2O5. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 95 (11), 3665-3672. [2] Rahman, M., Hudon, P. and Jung, I.-H. (2013) A coupled experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of the SiO2-P2O5 system. Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 44 (4), 837-852. [3] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1984) Computer-assisted analysis of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of slags. Proc. AIME Symp. Metall. Slags Fluxes, TMS-AIME, 281-294. [4] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1986) Thermodynamic analysis of ordered liquid solutions by a modified

  19. Effect of CaO/ SiO2 ratio on viscosity and structure of slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Řeháčková


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is experimental determination of temperature dependences of viscosity of the molten CaO – Al2O3 - SiO2 system and assessment of impact of CaO/SiO2 ratio on viscosity and structure of this system. Experimental measurements of viscosity were performed with use of the high-temperature viscometer Anton Paar FRS 1 600. Viscosity was measured in a rotational mode during heating at the rate of 3,3 °C/min in the temperature interval from 1 673 to 1 873 K. Viscosity in the molten oxide system is determined by the internal structure. Exact clarification of the change of structure of the oxide system caused by the increased content of CaO was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Research of the lime rich portions of the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.


    Full Text Available A detailed study has been carried out to explain the influence of Pp^ in silicate phases and in industrial raw meals upon their mineralogical compositions. Some compositions in the lime rich portion of the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system are studied using laboratory reactants. The results showed that the compositions lying in the range of CaO = 69,5-70,1; P2O5= 16,2-19,5; SiO2 = 11,1-13,6 (wt% give, at 1000 °C, the mineralogical composition (HAp, β-C2S, C5PS which can develop a high strength in chemically bonded ceramics. At high temperature (1400 ºC these compositions give a large amount of silicocarnotite (C5PS and 2C2.C3P phase. A selected composition of the industrial raw meal with added phosphate: CaO = 62,66; SiO2 -= 17,33; Al2O3 = 4,88; Fe2O3 = 4,29; P2O5 = 8,73; MgO = 2,09 (wt% forms at 1350 ºC a clinker containing high amount of α-C2S to replace C3S. Such a clinker may have good applications in the synthesis of active belite cement.Se estudia con detalle la influencia del P2O5 sobre las composiciones mineralógicas en fases silicato y en un crudo industrial. Asimismo se estudian algunas composiciones de la zona rica en cal del sistema CaO-SiO2-P2O5 utilizando reactivos químicos. Los resultados demuestran que, a presión atmosférica y recinto abierto, las composiciones dentro de los límites CaO = 69,5-70,1; P2O5= 16,2-19,5; SiO2 = 11,1-13,6 (% en peso dan a 1000ºC la composición mineralógica siguiente: HAp, β-C2S, C5PS; pueden desarrollar una alta resistencia química en "chemically bonded ceramics". A altas temperaturas (1400°C producen una elevada proporción de silicocarnotita (C5PS S y la fase 2C2.C3P. Con la adición de fosfato a una determinada dosificación de crudo industrial (CaO = 62,66; SiO2 = 17,33; Al2O3 = 4,88; Fe2O3 = 4,29; P2O5 = 8,73; MgO = 2,09 -% en peso- se forma, a 1350°C, un clinker que contiene una alta proporción de α-C2S que reemplaza al C3S. Este clinker puede tener buenas aplicaciones en la obtención de

  1. Biocompatibility property of 100% strontium-substituted SiO2 -Al2 O3 -P2 O5 -CaO-CaF2 glass ceramics over 26 weeks implantation in rabbit model: Histology and micro-Computed Tomography analysis. (United States)

    Basu, Bikramjit; Sabareeswaran, A; Shenoy, S J


    One of the desired properties for any new biomaterial composition is its long-term stability in a suitable animal model and such property cannot be appropriately assessed by performing short-term implantation studies. While hydroxyapatite (HA) or bioglass coated metallic biomaterials are being investigated for in vivo biocompatibility properties, such study is not extensively being pursued for bulk glass ceramics. In view of their inherent brittle nature, the implant stability as well as impact of long-term release of metallic ions on bone regeneration have been a major concern. In this perspective, the present article reports the results of the in vivo implantation experiments carried out using 100% strontium (Sr)-substituted glass ceramics with the nominal composition of 4.5 SiO2 -3Al2 O3 -1.5P2 O5 -3SrO-2SrF2 for 26 weeks in cylindrical bone defects in rabbit model. The combination of histological and micro-computed tomography analysis provided a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the bone regeneration around the glass ceramic implants in comparison to the highly bioactive HA bioglass implants (control). The sequential polychrome labeling of bone during in vivo osseointegration using three fluorochromes followed by fluorescence microscopy observation confirmed homogeneous bone formation around the test implants. The results of the present study unequivocally confirm the long-term implant stability as well as osteoconductive property of 100% Sr-substituted glass ceramics, which is comparable to that of a known bioactive implant, that is, HA-based bioglass. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Enhanced osteocalcin expression by osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) exposed to bioactive coating glass (SiO2-CaO-P2O5-MgO-K2O-Na2O system) ions. (United States)

    Varanasi, V G; Saiz, E; Loomer, P M; Ancheta, B; Uritani, N; Ho, S P; Tomsia, A P; Marshall, S J; Marshall, G W


    This study tested the hypothesis that bioactive coating glass (SiO(2)-CaO-P(2)O(5)-MgO-K(2)O-Na(2)O system), used for implant coatings, enhanced the induction of collagen type 1 synthesis and in turn enhanced the expression of downstream markers alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and osteocalcin during osteoblast differentiation. The ions from experimental bioactive glass (6P53-b) and commercial Bioglass(TM) (45S5) were added to osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cultures as a supplemented ion extract (glass conditioned medium (GCM)). Ion extracts contained significantly higher concentrations of Si and Ca (Si, 47.9+/-10.4 ppm; Ca, 69.8+/-14.0 for 45S5; Si, 33.4+/-3.8 ppm; Ca, 57.1+/-2.8 ppm for 6P53-b) compared with the control extract (Si<0.1 ppm, Ca 49.0 ppm in alpha-MEM) (ANOVA, p<0.05). Cell proliferation rate was enhanced (1.5x control) within the first 3 days after adding 45S5 and 6P53-b GCM. MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cultures were then studied for their response to the addition of test media (GCM and control medium along with ascorbic acid (AA; 50 ppm)). Each GCM+AA treatment enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis as observed in both gene expression results (day 1, Col1alpha1, 45S5 GCM+AA: 3x control+AA; 6P53-b GCM+AA: 4x control+AA; day 5, Col1alpha2, 45S5 GCM+AA: 3.15x control+AA; 6P53-b GCM+AA: 2.35x control+AA) and in histological studies (Picrosirius stain) throughout the time course of early differentiation. Continued addition of each GCM and AA treatment led to enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (1.4x control+AA after 5 days, 2x control+AA after 10 days), Runx2 (2x control+AA after 7 days) and osteocalcin gene (day 3, 45S5 GCM+AA: 14x control+AA; day 5, 6P53-b GCM+AA: 19x control+AA) and protein expression (40x-70x control+AA after 6 days). These results indicated the enhanced effect of bioactive glass ions on key osteogenic markers important for the bone healing process.

  3. P2O5-doping in waste glasses: evolution of viscosity and crystallization processes (United States)

    Tarrago, Mariona; Espuñes, Alex; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martinez, Salvador


    Current concern for environmental preservation is the main motive for the study of new, more sustainable materials. Increasing amounts of sewage sludge are produced in wastewater treatment plants over the world every day. This fact represents a major problem for the municipalities and industries due to the volume of waste and also to the contaminant elements it may bear, which require expensive conditions for disposal in landfills. Vitrification is an established technique in the inertization of different types of toxic wastes (such as nuclear wastes and contaminated soils) that has been used successfully for sewage sludge. Glasses of basaltic composition (43.48SiO2-14.00Al2O3-12.86Fe2O3-10.00CaO-9.94MgO-3.27Na2O-1.96K2O-0.17MnO-0.55P2O5-2.48TiO2) are used as a laboratory analogous of wastes such as sewage sludge and galvanic sludge to study the properties of the inertization matrix. This basaltic matrix is doped by adding 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 20% of P5O5 in order to cover the compositional range of phosphate in sewage sludge encountered in the literature. In this study, the focus has been placed in the effect of the concentration of phosphate (P2O5) in glass stability, thermal properties and evolution of viscosity with temperature. The dependence of viscosity on temperature and the thermal behaviour of these glasses are critical parameters in the design of their production process. Regarding the compositional limits of the mixture, it has been observed that melt reactivity is much increased when P2O5 content is over 4%, hindering the glass conformation process. Moreover, stanfieldite (calcium and magnesium phosphate) crystallized during glass making when phosphate concentration approached 20%, hence establishing the upper limit for glass stability. Viscosity is also dramatically increased in this range, hence requiring production amends. Differential thermal analysis has provided nucleation and crystallization temperatures of the glasses around 915°C and 1050

  4. Porosity of Lead Agglomerate as Function of CaO and SiO2 Proportion


    , A. Haxhiaj; , A. Terziqi; , E. Haxhiaj


    Agglomerate porosity is correlated with strength of its pieces and it is main parameter for reductive melting process in Water-jacket furnace. Treatment is oriented toward achieving porosity and optimal strength. The paper deals with the process in te-mperature about 9000C and with less than 10% composition CaO in rapport with lead. In order to achieve optimal results of agglomerate porosity and quality, it is necessary during the roasting process of lead concentration to correlate the conten...

  5. Bioactivity, pre-osteoblastic cell responses, and osteoconductivity evaluations of the electrospun non-woven SiO2-CaO gel fabrics. (United States)

    Seol, Yang-Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Kang, Young Mi; Kim, In Ae; Rhee, Sang-Hoon


    The evaluations of the fibers characteristics, bioactivity, pre-osteoblastic cell responses, and osteoconductivity of the non-woven SiO(2)-CaO gel fabric made by electrospinning method was carried out. Silica gels with four different calcium contents were prepared by condensation following hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate under acidic conditions. The molar ratios of Ca to Si prepared ranged from 0 to 0.15. SiO(2)-CaO gel fabrics were heat-treated at 300 degrees C for 3 h after spinning under an electric field of 2 kV/cm. As the Ca to Si ratio increased, the diameter of electrospun SiO(2)-CaO gel fibers increased because the viscosity of the SiO(2)-CaO gel solution increased. The apatite-forming ability of heat-treated, non-woven SiO(2)-CaO gel fabric was evaluated in simulated body fluid and tended to increase with an increasing Ca to Si molar ratio. However, proliferation and differentiation tended to decrease with an increasing Ca to Si molar ratio. The sample which had the Ca to Si ratio as 0.10 showed good osteoconductivity in vivo in the calvarial defect New Zealand white rabbit model compared to that had the Ca to Si ratio as 0 and empty defect. These results strongly suggest that non-woven SiO(2)-CaO gel fabric made by the electrospinning method has potential for application as a bone grafting material.

  6. Investigation of bioactive CaO-P2O5-MgO-SiO2 ceramic composition for orthopedic applications (United States)

    Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, K. J.; Sood, Henna; Arora, Daljit Singh


    Bioactive sample of the composition 41CaO-8P2O5-17MgO-34SiO2 has been prepared in the laboratory by quick alkali mediated sol-gel method. 1M ammonia solution has been used to form the gel. Bioactivity of the sample has been analyzed by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid. Degradation study has also undertaken to check the degradation behavior of the sample. MTT cytotoxic test has also been done to know the toxicity of the sample and results show that samples has good percentage of cell viability in the cell culture media. Formation of the hydroxyapatite has been confirmed by the XRD, Raman spectroscopy and FESEM-EDX study.

  7. Preparation, structural characterization, and in vitro cell studies of three-dimensional SiO2-CaO binary glass scaffolds built ofultra-small nanofibers. (United States)

    Luo, Honglin; Li, Wei; Ao, Haiyong; Li, Gen; Tu, Junpin; Xiong, Guangyao; Zhu, Yong; Wan, Yizao


    Three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous scaffolds hold great promises in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, for the first time, 3D SiO 2 -CaO binary glass nanofibrous scaffolds have been fabricated via a combined method of template-assisted sol-gel and calcination by using bacterial cellulose as the template. SEM with EDS, TEM, and AFM confirm that the molar ratio of Ca to Si and fiber diameter of the resultant SiO 2 -CaO nanofibers can be controlled by immersion time in the solution of tetraethyl orthosilicate and ethanol. The optimal immersion time was 6h which produced the SiO 2 -CaO binary glass containing 60at.% Si and 40at.% Ca (named 60S40C). The fiber diameter of 60S40C scaffold is as small as 29nm. In addition, the scaffold has highly porous 3D nanostructure with dominant mesopores at 10.6nm and macropores at 20μm as well as a large BET surface area (240.9m 2 g -1 ), which endow the 60S40C scaffold excellent biocompatibility and high ALP activity as revealed by cell studies using osteoblast cells. These results suggest that the 60S40C scaffold has great potential in bone tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SiO2–CaO–P2O5

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mineralization and skeletal system (Yamaguchi 1998; Towler et al 2009; Hanzi et al 2010) and activates bone formation. (Yamaguchi et al 1987) by promoting the proliferation of osteoblasts (Kishi and Yamaguchi 1994). It also improves mechanical and thermal properties of silica glass. In the case of phosphate glass, it ...

  9. Effect of Some Additive on the Properties of Glasses in the SiO2-Al2O3MgO-CaO System, (United States)

    of the SiO2 -Al2O3-MgO- CaO system, and of two glasses that have the same MgO and CaO molar content. (Author)...the effect of P2O5 , TiO2, ZrSiO4, Cr2O3, and fluorine additives on the physicochemical properties of a glass which lies in the lowest melting region

  10. Thermodynamics of the 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 Solid Solution at Steelmaking Temperature (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Zhong, Ming; Gao, Xu; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    Recently the application of CaO-based multi-phase flux has received much attention and thus various physicochemical properties of the CaO-FeO-SiO2 slags have been investigated. In the present paper, the thermodynamic properties of the 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution which is the main solid phase constituting the multi-phase flux were studied. The activity of P2O5 was measured by the chemical equilibration method between molten iron and the solid solution, the solid solution and CaO mixture, or the solid solution and MgO mixture at 1823 and 1873 K with low oxygen partial pressure. The activities of P2O5, 3CaO·P2O5 and 3MgO·P2O5 were calculated by analyzed compositions and reported thermodynamic data. The activity of P2O5, 3CaO·P2O5 or 3MgO·P2O5 increased with the increase of 3CaO·P2O5 content in the solid solution.

  11. Fabrication and biocompatibility of a porous bioglass ceramic in a Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system. (United States)

    Lin, F H; Huang, Y Y; Hon, M H; Wu, S C


    A porous bioglass ceramic was prepared from a finely pulverized bioglass powder mixed with particles of two sizes (5 and 500 microns) of 30% by weight with the foaming agent polyethylene glycol 4000 (HO (C2H4O) nH). The batch composition of the bioglass was Na2O 12%, CaO 28%, SiO2 50% and P2O5 10% by weight. The specimens, formed by pressing, were sintered in a high temperature furnace. In this study we are concerned with the preparation and microstructure of the material and its performance in biological tests. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the material were investigated by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In a biomedical examination, it was shown that the porous material was compatible with animal tissues. The microstructure of the implant indicated that newly grown bone interlocked well with the glass ceramic and that macropores and micropores were distributed uniformly in the material, which provided channels for bone ingrowth and improved the microscopic bioresorption.

  12. Compositional and microstructural design of highly bioactive P2O5-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass-ceramics. (United States)

    Peitl, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar D; Serbena, Francisco C; Hench, Larry L


    Bioactive glasses having chemical compositions between 1Na(2)O-2CaO-3SiO(2) (1N2C3S) and 1.5Na(2)O-1.5CaO-3SiO(2) (1N1C2S) containing 0, 4 and 6 wt.% P(2)O(5) were crystallized through two stage thermal treatments. By carefully controlling these treatments we separately studied the effects on the mechanical properties of two important microstructural features not studied before, crystallized volume fraction and crystal size. Fracture strength, elastic modulus and indentation fracture toughness were measured as a function of crystallized volume fraction for a constant crystal size. Glass-ceramics with a crystalline volume fraction between 34% and 60% exhibited a three-fold improvement in fracture strength and an increase of 40% in indentation fracture toughness compared with the parent glass. For the optimal crystalline concentration (34% and 60%) these mechanical properties were then measured for different grain sizes, from 5 to 21 μm. The glass-ceramic with the highest fracture strength and indentation fracture toughness was that with 34% crystallized volume fracture and 13 μm crystals. Compared with the parent glass, the average fracture strength of this glass-ceramic was increased from 80 to 210 MPa, and the fracture toughness from 0.60 to 0.95 MPa.m(1/2). The increase in indentation fracture toughness was analyzed using different theoretical models, which demonstrated that it is due to crack deflection. Fortunately, the elastic modulus E increased only slightly; from 60 to 70 GPa (the elastic modulus of biomaterials should be as close as possible to that of cortical bone). In summary, the flexural strength of our best material (215 MPa) is significantly greater than that of cortical bone and comparable with that of apatite-wollastonite (A/W) bioglass ceramics, with the advantage that it shows a much lower elastic modulus. These results thus provide a relevant guide for the design of bioactive glass-ceramics with improved microstructure. Copyright © 2011 Acta

  13. Synthesis of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 mesoporous bioactive glasses with high P2O5 content by evaporation induced self assembly process. (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Li, Yanbao; Li, Dongxu


    Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) of the CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5) system containing relatively high P(2)O(5) contents (10-30 mol%) were prepared from a sol-gel. An evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) technique was used with poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (EO(20)-PO(70)-EO(20), P123) acting as a template. The structural, morphological and textural properties of MBGs were investigated by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and a N(2) sorption/desorption technique. SAXRD and TEM results display the reduced long-range ordering of mesopores with increasing P(2)O(5) content. N(2) sorption/desorption analysis shows that all three samples exhibit a type IV isotherm with type H1 hysteresis loops, characteristic of independent cylindrical slim pore channels and this material has a Barret-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model pore size of ~4 nm and BET specific surface area ~430 m(2)/g. NMR results indicate a more condensed framework for samples with 30 mol% P(2)O(5) than samples with 10 mol% P(2)O(5). For in vitro bioactivity tests where samples were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF), samples with 30 mol% P(2)O(5) showed higher crystallinity than those with lower P(2)O(5) contents Silicon concentration increased in SBF solution during the soaking period, which indicates MBGs can be degradable in SBF solution.

  14. CAOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup


    This paper presents some principles of terminological ontologies implemented in the prototype that has been developed in the research project CAOS - Computer-Aided Ontology Structuring. Furthermore, some issues that have to be faced to further develop facilities for automatic consistency checking...

  15. SiO2-CaO-P2O5 Bioactive Glasses: A Promising Curcuminoids Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nicolini


    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the study of the loading and the release of curcuminoids by bioactive glasses (BG and mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG. Through a detailed spectroscopic study, it was possible to determine the amount and the type of molecules released in water and in simulated body fluid (SBF. In particular, curcumin and K2T21 show a good ability to be released in di-keto and keto-enolic form, depending from the pH. However, after 24 h, the amount of pristine curcumin release is very low with a consequent increment of degradation products derived by curcuminoids. The presence of –OH groups on curcuminoids is a fundamental pre-requisite in order to obtain a high loading and release in polar solution such as water and SBF. The substrate on which we loaded the drugs does not seem to affect significantly the loading and the release of the drugs. The environment, instead, affects the release: for all the drugs, the release in SBF, buffered at pH of 7.4, is slightly worse than the release in water (basic pH values.

  16. SiO2-CaO-P2O5 Bioactive Glasses: A Promising Curcuminoids Delivery System (United States)

    Nicolini, Valentina; Caselli, Monica; Ferrari, Erika; Menabue, Ledi; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Saladini, Monica; Malavasi, Gianluca


    In this paper, we report the study of the loading and the release of curcuminoids by bioactive glasses (BG) and mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBG). Through a detailed spectroscopic study, it was possible to determine the amount and the type of molecules released in water and in simulated body fluid (SBF). In particular, curcumin and K2T21 show a good ability to be released in di-keto and keto-enolic form, depending from the pH. However, after 24 h, the amount of pristine curcumin release is very low with a consequent increment of degradation products derived by curcuminoids. The presence of –OH groups on curcuminoids is a fundamental pre-requisite in order to obtain a high loading and release in polar solution such as water and SBF. The substrate on which we loaded the drugs does not seem to affect significantly the loading and the release of the drugs. The environment, instead, affects the release: for all the drugs, the release in SBF, buffered at pH of 7.4, is slightly worse than the release in water (basic pH values). PMID:28773414

  17. Thermodynamic Properties of Phosphorus Oxide in the 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 Solid Solution Saturated with MgO (United States)

    Zhong, Ming; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka


    Molten iron was equilibrated with various compositions of the 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution saturated with MgO with the oxygen partial pressure of 5.22 × 10-12 atm at 1823 K (1550 °C) and 1.41 × 10-11 atm at 1873 K (1600 °C). From the concentration of P in molten iron at equilibrium, the activity of P2O5 relative to the hypothetical pure liquid P2O5 was determined. The saturating MgO phase at equilibrium was detected by X-ray diffraction for each sample, and thus, the activity of 3MgO·P2O5 was also estimated. The activity of P2O5 and 3MgO·P2O5 increased with the increase of 3CaO·P2O5 content in the solid solution. In addition, the activity of P2O5 in the 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution saturated with MgO was larger than that saturated with CaO.

  18. Bone bonding behavior of MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass (mother glass of A.W-glass-ceramics). (United States)

    Kitsugi, T; Yamamuro, T; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T


    In this study, it was found that a Ca-P layer and a Si layer were formed on the interface of the mother glass of apatite-wollastonite containing glass-ceramics (designated AW) and bone tissue. The dissolution of Si, Ca, and P from glass (MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2) is necessary to form a chemical film (a Si layer and a Ca-P layer). The three kinds of glasses used were 1) a mirror surface of the mother glass (MgO 4.6, CaO 44.9, SiO2 34.2, P2O5 16.3, CaF 0.5 weight ratio) of AW (designated G-AW (mirror], 2) an abraded surface of G-AW (designated G-AW (#2000)), 3) a mirror surface SiO2 glass (designated G-Si, 100% SiO2). The glass plates (15 mm x 10 mm x 2 mm) were implanted into the metaphysis of tibia of mature male rabbits for 10 and 25 weeks. The failure load, when an implant detached from the bone or when the bone itself broke, was measured by a detaching test and the interface of glass/bone was observed by SEM-EPMA. Failure loads in G-Si, G-AW (mirror), and G-AW (#2000) 10 weeks after implantation were 0.18 +/- 0.24, 3.06 +/- 1.29, and 2.94 +/- 1.77 kg, respectively. Those in G-Si, G-AW (mirror), and G-AW (#2000) 25 weeks after implantation were 1.30 +/- 1.18, 3.88 +/- 1.06, and 3.55 +/- 1.51, respectively. The failure loads in G-Si vs. G-AW (mirror) and those in G-Si vs. G-AW (#2000) differed significantly (P less than 0.01). There were no significant differences in the failure load according to the surface roughness of G-AW. As shown by SEM-EPMA observation, a Si layer next to G was adjacent to a Ca-P layer next to the bone. The chemical film showed no increase in thickness as time passed. A Ca-P layer did not form on the interface of Si-G and bone.

  19. Ladle and Continuous Casting Process Models for Reduction of SiO2 in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO Slags by Al in Fe-Al(-Si) Melts (United States)

    Park, Jiwon; Sridhar, S.; Fruehan, Richard J.


    Based on a mixed control or two-phase mass transfer model considering mass transport in the metal and the slag phases, process models for ladle and continuous castor mold were developed to predict the changes in the metal and the slag chemistry and viscosity. In the ladle process model, the rate of reaction is primarily determined by stirring gas flow rate, which greatly alters the mass transports of the metal and the slag phases. In the continuous casting process model, the effects of the Al, Si, and SiO2 contents in the incoming flow of the fluid phases, casting speed, mold flux consumption rate, and depth of the liquid mold flux pool on the steady-state compositions of the metal and the mold flux were assessed.

  20. Acoustic study of nano-crystal embedded PbO–P2O5 glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Nano-crystal embedded PbO–P2O5 glass has been prepared and characterized by XRD and TEM measurements. The ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measured within the temperature range 80–300 K show significant structure and interesting feature with the presence of nano-crystalline region. The glass ...

  1. Electrical resistivity surface for FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 glasses (United States)

    Vaughan, J. G.; Kinser, D. L.


    The dc electrical properties and microstructure of x(FeO-Fe2O3)-(100-x)P2O5 glasses were investigated up to a maximum of x = 75 mol %. Results indicate that, in general, the minimum resistivity of the glass does not occur at equal Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) concentrations, although for the special case where x = 55 mol % the minimum does occur at Fe(2+)/Fe total = 0.5, as reported by other investigators. Evidence presented shows that the position of the minimum resistivity is a function of total iron content. The minimum shifts to glasses richer in Fe(2+) at higher total iron concentrations.

  2. Influence of thermal treatment on the structure and in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel prepared CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar Radev


    Full Text Available Nowadays there is a substantial practical interest in the in vitro bioactivity of calcium silicate phosphate (CSP glass-ceramics and carbonate apatite (CO3HA formation on their surfaces after in vitro test in simulated body fluid (SBF. The main purpose of the presented article is the evaluation of the chemical composition of the gel with nominal composition 70.59 CaO:28.23 SiO2:1.18 P2O5 (mol.% on the structure, crystallization behaviour and in vitro bioactivity in SBF solution for 14 and 28 days. The prepared glass-ceramics have been synthesized via a polystep sol-gel method. The structure of the obtaining samples was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. After thermal treatment of the samples XRD confirmed the presence of -Ca2SiO4 and Ca15(PO42(SiO46, and indicated that at 1500 °C Ca15(PO42(SiO46 becomes predominant phase. FTIR revealed the presence of all characteristics bands for calcium silicate phosphate (CSP bonds. SEM monitors the presence of particles with different morphology. After in vitro test in SBF, FTIR depicted that B-type carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CO3HA is preferentially formed on the immersed glass-ceramics. SEMof the precipitated layers showed the presence of HA spheres. The changes in SBF solution after soaking the samples were recorded by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES.

  3. In vitro bioactivity of biphasic calcium phosphate silicate glassceramic in CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar Radev


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is the evaluation of the influence of chemical composition of the gel of the synthesized 15CaO·0.5P2O5·6SiO2 glass-ceramic on the structure, crystallization behaviour and in vitro bioactivity in static conditions for different periods of time - 3, 9 and 30 days in 1.5SBF. The obtained glass-ceramic was synthesized via polystep sol-gel technique. The structure of the prepared and the one thermally treated at 1200°C for 2 h powder was studied by XRD, 29Si MAS NMR, FTIR and SEM.

  4. Distribution of P2O5 and Na2O Between Solid Solution and Liquid Phase in the CaO-SiO2-Fe2O3-P2O5-Na2O Slag System with High P2O5 Content (United States)

    Du, Chuan-ming; Gao, Xu; Ueda, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shin-ya


    The phosphorus content in hot metal will increase in future, because iron ores are steadily deteriorating in quality. Na2O addition to slag is considered an effective method for increasing the efficiency of dephosphorization. In addition, Na2O modification also facilitates phosphorus recovery from dephosphorization slag with high P2O5 content by selective leaching. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the distribution ratios of P2O5 and Na2O between solid solution and liquid phase in the CaO-SiO2-Fe2O3-P2O5-Na2O slag system. A linear relationship was found between the distribution ratio of P2O5 and the Na2O content in slag, and was independent of P2O5 content. When the Na2O content was high, the Na2O content in the solid solution approached saturation and a new 2CaO·SiO2-2CaO·Na2O·P2O5 solid solution formed. The addition of Na2O decreased the P2O5 content in solid solution, while it increased the mass fraction of solid solution in slag. The distribution ratio of P2O5 increased with increase in the Fe2O3 content and basicity of slag. An increase in P2O5 content in slag results in an increase in the activity coefficient of P2O5 both in the liquid phase and in the solid solution.

  5. The Effects of Different P2O5 Content and Basicity on Phosphorus Enrichment in the CaO-SiO2-FetO-P2O5 Slag System (United States)

    Zhao, L. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhou, H. M.; Xu, P.; Bao, Y. P.


    To improve the additional value of phosphorusenrichment phase in slag, it is necessary to make phosphorus to be enriched in the slag. This paper elaborates the effects of different P2O5 content and basicity on phosphorus enrichment in the CaO-SiO2-FetO-P2O5 slag system through the experiment. Slag morphology can be observed by SEM+EDS and the composition of the phase can be ascertained by XRD. Then Lp and Cp in both phosphorus-enrichment phase and matrix phase were calculated respectively. It has been found that P2O5 content in the slag and the basicity of the slag have effects on the existing form of the phosphorus in the slag, and also influence the distribution ratio of P2O5 in the slag.

  6. Avaliação da biocompatibilidade do compósito aço/filme bioativo SiO2-CaO para aplicação biomédica Biocompatibility evaluation of SiO2-CaO/stainless steel composite bioactive film for biomedical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Federman


    Full Text Available Foi obtido um filme bioativo sol-gel do sistema SiO2-CaO através da mistura de precursor de silício (TEOS - tetraetil ortosilicato, precursor de cálcio (nitrato de cálcio tetrahidratado e álcool em meio ácido. Após a mistura, a solução serviu para revestir o aço inoxidável através do método de imersão empregando baixa velocidade de emersão. O compósito obtido foi então submetido a tratamento térmico para densificação do filme a 400 ºC durante 1 h. A biocompatibilidade do compósito foi avaliada através de dois métodos no sistema in vitro: a solução concentrada similar ao fluido fisiológico - SFC 1,5 - e b cultura de células. Imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia de energia dispersiva comprovaram a precipitação de precursor da hidroxiapatita na superfície do filme bioativo após exposição à solução SFC durante 3 semanas. Imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura confirmaram aderência, crescimento e espalhamento celular na superfície do filme bioativo sol-gel após 24 h de cultivo celular, empregando células VERO (ATCC CCL-81, sugerindo que o compósito é um material potencialmente aplicável nas áreas de medicina e odontologia. Resultados obtidos com o ensaio de viabilidade celular através de MTT [brometo de 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-YL-2,5-difeniltetrazolio] indicaram total ausência de toxicidade na interface filme sol-gel/células VERO.Sol-gel film in the SiO2-CaO system was prepared via reacting silicate precursor (TEOS - tetraethyl orthosilicate, calcium precursor (tetrahydrated calcium nitrate, alcohol in an acidic medium. After mixing, the coating was deposited on stainless steel by dip-coating technique at a low withdraw speed. After deposition, the composite was submitted to heat treatment, in air, at 400 ºC for 1 h. The composite biocompatibility has been analyzed by in vitro studies using two methods: a concentrated simulated body fluid - SBF 1.5 - and b cell

  7. Synthesis and properties of materials based on SiO2-CaO-P2O5-TiO2 for biomedical usage (United States)

    Borilo, Lyudmila; Lyutova, Ekaterina


    Thin films of film-forming solutions based on calcium chloride, tetraethoxysilane, tetrabutoxytitanium, and phosphoric acid have been synthesized in the paper. Thin films were obtained from film-forming solutions on single-crystal silicon substrates (model substrate) by centrifugation at a rotation speed of 3000 revolutions/min. Followed by heat treatment at 60 ° C for 20 minutes and at 600 and 800 °C for 1 hour. The solutions are suitable for obtaining uniform films up to 5 days. The properties of the material were investigated by the methods of infrared spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis, and thermal analysis. Biological activity was studied under artificial conditions in the simulation body fluid medium. With an increase in the weight content of titanium oxide in the system up to 10%, the bioactivity of the material increases.

  8. Research on the biological activity and doxorubicin release behavior in vitro of mesoporous bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass nanospheres (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Gen; Zhang, Ying


    Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) nanospheres have been synthesized by a facile method of sacrificing template using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant. The prepared MBG nanospheres possess high specific surface area (632 m2 g-1) as well as uniform size (∼100 nm). In addition, MBG nanospheres exhibited a quick in vitro bioactive response in simulated body fluids (SBF) and excellent bioactivity of inducing hydroxyapatite (HA) forming on the surface of MBG nanospheres. Furthermore, MBG nanospheres can sustain release of doxorubicin (DOX) with a higher encapsulation efficiency (63.6%) and show distinct degradation in PBS by releasing Si and Ca ions. The encapsulation efficiency and DOX release of MBG nanospheres could be controlled by mesoporous structure and local pH environment. The greater surface area and pore volumes of prepared MBG nanospheres are conducive to bioactive response and drug release in vitro. The amino groups in DOX can be easily protonated at acidic medium to become positively charged NH+3, which allow these drug molecules to be desorbed from the surface of MBG nanospheres via electrostatic effect. Therefore, the synthesized MBG nanospheres have a pH-sensitive drug release capability. In addition, the cytotoxicity of MBG nanospheres was assessed using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), and results showed that the synthesized MBG nanospheres had no significant cytotoxicity to MC3T3 cells. These all indicated that as-prepared MBG nanospheres are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering.

  9. Resposta do feijão-vagem a P2O5 em solo arenoso com baixo teor de fósforo Response of snap bean to P2O5 levels applied in a poor phosphorus sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta do feijão-vagem cultivar Macarrão Trepador a doses de P2O5 em um trabalho em Neossolo Regolítico Psamítico Típico, na UFPB, em Areia, entre maio e setembro/2002. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos (0; 100; 200; 300 e 400 kg ha-1 de P2O5, em quatro repetições. A parcela constou de 60 plantas, no espaçamento de 1,0 m x 0,20 m. O número máximo de 22 vagens por planta foi alcançado com a dose de 267 kg ha-1 de P2 O5. A dose de 252 kg ha-1 de P2O5 proporcionou a produção máxima estimada de vagens (30,13 t ha-1. Entretanto, a dose mais econômica foi alcançada com 231 kg ha-1 de P2O5, que produziu 30 t ha-1 de vagens. As doses de P2O5, com as quais obtiveram-se a máxima produção e retorno econômico quanto a produção de vagem, se correlacionam, respectivamente, com 54 e 51 mg dm-3 de P disponível no solo, obtido pelo extrator de Mehlich 1. A probabilidade para ocorrência de resposta do feijão-vagem à adubação fosfatada em solos semelhantes ao do presente estudo será minimizada quando o teor de P disponível for superior a 51 mg dm-3. Verificou-se função linear decrescente para o teor de fibra, com redução de 0,0004% de fibra para cada kg de P2O5 aplicado, com valor máximo (1,1% e mínimo (0,94% nas doses zero e 400 kg ha-1 de P2O5, respectivamente. Para o solo em estudo a dose de 231 kg ha-1 de P2O5, deve ser recomendada para a fertilização do feijão-vagem.This research was carried out to evaluate the responses of snap bean 'Macarrão Trepador' cultivated under different P2O5 levels. An experiment was carried out using a randomized blocks design with four replications in a soil classified as Neossolo Regolítico Typical Psamítico, in Areia, Paraiba State, Brazil, from May to September/2002. The P2O5 levels applied were 0; 100; 200; 300 and 400 kg ha-1. The plot consisted of 60 plants, with spacings of 1.00 m x 0.20 m. The maximum number of pods in a

  10. Cluster formation in Ag2O-P2O5-CdCl2 glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.S.; Singh, N.B.


    Ag 2 O-P 2 O 5 and Ag 2 O-P 2 O 5 -20 wt% CdCl 2 glasses were prepared by melt quenching method and characterized with the help of several experimental techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction study indicated that the glasses are amorphous in nature. DSC studies showed that CdCl 2 doped glass is chemically more durable. Electrical conductivity and ionic transference number measurements have shown that both the glasses are ionic conductors with Ag + ions as the charge carriers. The electrical conductivity of the doped glass is found to be higher than the undoped one. Structures of the glasses have been proposed on the basis of IR spectral analysis. From SEM studies it has been inferred that addition of 20 wt% CdCl 2 modifies the morphology of Ag 2 O-P 2 O 5 glass and in its presence formation of clusters composed of nanofibers occur

  11. Viscosity and Structure of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-FetO System with Varying P2O5 and FeO Content (United States)

    Diao, Jiang; Gu, Pan; Liu, De-Man; Jiang, Lu; Wang, Cong; Xie, Bing


    A rotary viscosimeter and Raman spectrum were employed to measure the viscosity and structural information of the CaO-SiO2-P2O5-FetO system at 1673 K. The experimental data have been compared with the calculated results using different viscosity models. It shows that the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Pal models fit the CaO-SiO2-P2O5-FeOt system better. With the P2O5 content increasing from 5% to 14%, the viscosity increases from 0.12 Pa s to 0.27 Pa s. With the FeO content increasing from 30% to 40%, the viscosity decreases from 0.21 Pa s to 0.12 Pa s. Increasing FeO content makes the complicated molten melts become simple, and increasing P2O5 content will complicate the molten melts. The linear relation between viscosity and structure parameter Q(Si + P) was obtained by regression analysis. The calculated viscosity by using the optimized NPL and Pal model are almost identical with the fitted values.

  12. Effect of P2O5 and FetO on the Viscosity and Slag Structure in Steelmaking Slags (United States)

    Wang, Z. J.; Shu, Q. F.; Sridhar, S.; Zhang, M.; Guo, M.; Zhang, Z. T.


    The present paper investigates the influence of P2O5 and FetO on the viscosity and structure of steelmaking slags. An understanding of the viscous behavior and structure of FetO-bearing smelting slags is essential to control the dephosphorization in steelmaking process and to efficiently recycle the phosphorus from steelmaking slags. It is found that the viscosity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO-P2O5 slags slightly increases with increasing P2O5 content, while the viscosity decreases with increasing FetO content. The degree of the polymerization of quenched slags, determined from Raman spectra, is found to increase with increasing P2O5 content and decrease with increasing FetO content. It is also noted that the peaks of Raman spectra between 800 and 1200 cm-1 were nearly absent at the FetO content of 22.46 wt pct; whereas according to 29Si MAS-NMR and FTIR analysis, it is clearly seen that the [SiO4]-tetrahedra-related peaks existed even for the same slag. This may confirm that small quantities of extra-framework iron species can absorb the Raman scattering and damp the Raman signal intensity and the presence of FetO in the slag does not necessarily eliminate [SiO4]-tetrahedra.

  13. Structural Properties of Molten CaO-SiO2-P2O5-FeO System (United States)

    Diao, Jiang; Ke, Zhaoqun; Jiang, Lu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Bing


    The structural properties of molten CaO-SiO2-P2O5-FeO slag system with varying slag basicity have been investigated by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations using the pairwise potential model. The result shows that more than 95 % Si and 98 % P are four coordinated and form tetrahedral structures. Non-bridging oxygen occupies a predominant position in the system. With basicity increasing from 0.6 to 1.5, the proportion of non-bridging oxygen increases from 66.3 % to 77.3 %, whilst the bridging oxygen decreases from 30.1 % to 10.2 %. Both the result of MD simulations and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the proportion of Q0 increases with increasing slag basicity, whilst Q2 and Q3 decrease. The degree of polymerization of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-FeO system decreases with increasing slag basicity.

  14. Structural Investigation of Phosphorus in CaO-SiO2-P2O5 Ternary Glass (United States)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Cai, Shengjia; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhang, Zuotai


    The system of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 ternary glass is not only among the major constituents of steelmaking slags in iron and steel industry, but also play a significant role in other industrial process, such as chemical engineering and glass industry. In the present study, the structure of CaO-SiO2-P2O5 ternary glass with varying P2O5 content from 0 to 15 wt pct at a fixed CaO/SiO2 = 1.4 was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra techniques. The results indicated that P5+ ions have a higher affinity to Ca2+ ions which are then stripped away from the silicate network with the addition of P2O5, resulting in the formation of Ca-O-P and Si-O-Si linkages. In addition, almost all P5+ ions displayed as {{Q}}_{{P}}0 ( {{Q}}_{{P}}n , n is the number of bridging oxygen in one [PO4]-tetrahedra units) and a small fraction of P5+ ions behave as {{Q}}_{{P}}1 (P-O-P) and P-O-Si. The enhanced degree of polymerization can be detected from the increase of {{X}}_{{Si}}3 and X_{{P}}1 /X_{{P}}0 (mole fraction of {{Q}}_{{Si}}i or {{Q}}_{{P}}i ). Furthermore, the ratio of Raman scattering coefficients for Q_{{Si}}i /Q_{{Si}}1 and Q_{{P}}i /Q_{{P}}1 were determined by combining MD simulated result with Raman spectra, which were considered to be suitable to the present study.

  15. Characterization of 50wt%SiO2-20wt%P2O5-30wt%CaO glass-ceramic powders prepared by the sol-gel process. (United States)

    Taira, M; Okazaki, M; Takahashi, J


    Glass-ceramic powders with the oxide batch formulation 50wt%SiO2, 20wt%P2O5 and 30wt%CaO were prepared by the sol-gel process using tetraethoxysilane, calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid as raw materials. The obtained gels and powders were characterized by TG-DTA thermal analysis, FTIR analyses and XRD measurements. The results indicated that (1) heating to more than 600 degrees C brought about elimination of -OC2H5 side chains from gels, and formation of a SiO2-based glass network, (2) crystallization such as Ca3(PO4)2 notably occurred in the SiO2-based glass matrix when heated to more than 900 degrees C, (3) -OH groups existed on SiO2-based glass-ceramic surfaces in the temperature region less than 900 degrees C, and (4) the melting point of this composition was more than 1400 degrees C. This study suggests that sol-gel-derived SiO2-based glass-ceramic powder containing P and Ca might be useful as bioactive implant materials.

  16. Evaluation of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-Na2O-Fe2O3 bioglass-ceramics for hyperthermia application. (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra Kumar; Srinivasan, A; Kothiyal, G P


    Magnetic bioglass ceramics (MBC) are being considered for use as thermoseeds in hyperthermia treatment of cancer. While the bioactivity in MBCs is attributed to the formation of the bone minerals such as crystalline apatite, wollastonite, etc. in a physiological environment, the magnetic property arises from the magnetite [Fe3O4] present in these implant materials. A new set of bioglasses with compositions 41CaO x (52-x)SiO2 x 4P2O5 x xFe2O3 x 3Na2O (2 or = 2 mol% Fe2O3. Room temperature magnetic property of the heat treated samples was investigated using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. Field scans up to 20 kOe revealed that the glass ceramic samples had a high saturation magnetization and low coercivity. Room temperature hysteresis cycles were also recorded at 500 Oe to ascertain the magnetic properties at clinically amenable field strengths. The area under the magnetic hysteresis loop is a measure of the heat generated by the MBC. The coercivity of the samples is another important factor for hyperthermia applications. The area under the loop increases with an increase in Fe2O3 molar concentration and the. coercivity decreases with an increase in Fe2O3 molar concentration The evolution of magnetic properties in these MBCs as a function of Fe2O3 molar concentration is discussed and correlated with the amount of magnetite present in them.

  17. Effect of boron oxide addition on fibre drawing, mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour of phosphate-based glass fibres with fixed 40, 45 and 50 mol% P2O5. (United States)

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty


    Previous studies investigating manufacture of phosphate-based glass fibres from glasses fixed with P2O5 content less than 50 mol% showed that continuous manufacture without breakage was very difficult. In this study, nine phosphate-based glass formulations from the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-MgO-B2O3 were prepared with P2O5 contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%, where Na2O was replaced by 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 and MgO and CaO were fixed to 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. The effect of B2O3 addition on the fibre drawing, fibre mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour was investigated. It was found that addition of 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 enabled successful drawing of continuous fibres from glasses with phosphate (P2O5) contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%. The mechanical properties of the fibres were found to significantly increase with increasing B2O3 content. The highest tensile strength (1200 ± 130 MPa) was recorded for 45P2O5-16CaO-5Na2O-24MgO-10B2O3 glass fibres. The fibres were annealed, and a comparison of the mechanical properties and mode of degradation of annealed and non-annealed fibres were investigated. A decrease in tensile strength and an increase in tensile modulus were observed for the annealed fibres. An assessment of the change in mechanical properties of both the annealed and non-annealed fibres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37℃ for 28 and 60 days, respectively. Initial loss of mechanical properties due to annealing was found to be recovered with degradation. The B2O3-containing glass fibres were found to degrade at a much slower rate as compared to the non-B2O3-containing fibres. Both annealed and non-annealed fibres exhibited a peeling effect of the fibre's outer layer during degradation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  18. Diagramas de equilibrio cuaternarios ZrO2-Al2O 3-SiO 2- (CaO, MgO, TiO2. Una poderosa herramienta para el desarrollo de nuevos materiales por sinterización reactiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pena, P.


    Full Text Available In this paper we set out, discuss and evaluate the work on Mullite-zirconia composites obtained by reaction sintering led and inspired by Salvador de Aza on the basis of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2(CaO, MgO, TiO2 multicomponent phase equilibrium diagrams. We analyze their impact on different areas of ceramic science and technology such as refractory grogs, aluminum industry, etc. The possible fields of future applications such as dental prosthesis replacing partially stabilized zirconia materials with rare earths are also reported.En este articulo se exponen, discuten y evalúan los trabajos que sobre materiales de Mullita-Circona obtenidos por sinterización reactiva dirigió e inspiro Salvador de Aza sobre la base de los diagramas de equilibrio de fase multicomponentes ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2-(CaO, MgO, TiO2. Se analiza su impacto en distintas áreas de la ciencia y tecnología cerámicas tales como chamotas refractarias, industria del aluminio, etc. También se proponen posibles campos de aplicación futura como es el caso de prótesis dentales sustituyendo a los materiales de circona parcialmente estabilizada con tierras raras.

  19. Selective Crystallization Behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO-P2O5 Steelmaking Slags Modified through P2O5 and Al2O3 (United States)

    Wang, Zhanjun; Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhang, Zuotai


    In this study, the selective crystallization behavior of synthetic FetO-rich steelmaking slags modified by P2O5 and Al2O3 additions was explored using non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams of Fe-enriched and P-enriched phases were constructed. It was found that P2O5 addition can suppress the crystallization due to the increasing viscosity caused by increasing degree of polymerization; however, an increase of Al2O3 content accelerated the precipitation of dystectic MgFeAlO4, copolymerized by [AlO4]-tetrahedra and [FeO4]-tetrahedra units. It was also noted that the content of phosphorus in P-enriched phase can reach a high value as 28.71 wt pct for the slags modified by 15.17 wt pct Al2O3. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics derived from activation energy and the structure of the slags explained by Raman spectra were further analyzed, which was well in accordance with the above analysis.

  20. The system La(PO3)3-Ca(PO3)2-P2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungowska, W.; Znamierowska, T.


    Ternary system La(PO 3 ) 3 -Ca(PO 3 ) 2 -P 2 O 5 has been studied by means of thermal and roentgenography analysis. The existence of single intermediate compound CaLa(PO 3 ) 5 has been observed. The phase diagrams for the ternary system as well as for two binary systems La(PO 3 ) 3 -Ca(PO 3 ) 2 and CaLa(PO 3 ) 5 -LaP 5 O 11 have been shown. 7 refs, 3 figs

  1. Gamma ray shielding and structural properties of PbO-P2O5-Na2WO4 glass system (United States)

    Dogra, Mridula; Singh, K. J.; Kaur, Kulwinder; Anand, Vikas; Kaur, Parminder


    The present work has been undertaken to study the gamma ray shielding properties of PbO-P2O5-Na2WO4 glass system. The values of mass attenuation coefficient and half value layer parameter at photon energies 511, 662 and 1173 KeV have been determined using XCOM computer software developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology. The density, molar volume, XRD, UV-VIS and Raman studies have been performed to study the structural properties of the prepared glass system to check the possibility of the use of prepared samples as an alternate to conventional concrete for gamma ray shielding applications.

  2. Influences of gas stream conditions on efficiency of tritiated moisture collection with P2O5-desiccant and isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoh, Kenji; Miura, Katsuya; Kashio, Yousuke; Nishikawa, Masabumi


    A method was proposed previously for collection and measurement of tritiated moisture in gas stream using P 2 O 5 -desiccant. Influences of the gas humidity, the gas flow rate and the distance between gas nozzle and P 2 O 5 -desiccant layer surface on the moisture collection efficiency have been examined through experiments, and the isotope effect on the collection has been investigated. The collection efficiency is the ratio of collected to supplied moisture, and the moisture supplying rate is in proportion to the humidity and flow rate of feed gas. The experiments show that; the collection efficiency dose not depend on the gas humidity, but is affected by the gas flow rate and by the nozzle-layer distance. The effects of the flow rate and the nozzle position are related to the mass transfer distance from the bulk of gas stream to the desiccant layer surface in the collection cell. The moisture collecting rate is promoted by the approach of the gas stream to the layer surface. An expression of effective separation factor has been derived to explain the isotope effect on the moisture collection. Experimental data distribution of the separation factor have been reasonably simulated by the analysis. (author)

  3. Effect of PbO on the elastic behavior of ZnO–P2O5 glass systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.A. Sidek

    Full Text Available A series of ternary phosphate glasses in the form of 40(P2O5–(60 − xZnO–xPbO and 50(P2O5–(50 − xZnO–xPbO where x = 0–60 mol%, have been successfully prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. Both longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities were measured in different compositions of PbO using the MBS8000 ultrasonic data acquisition system at 10 MHz frequency and at room temperature. The ultrasonic velocity data, the density and the calculated elastic moduli are found to be composition dependent and discussed in terms of PbO modifiers. The correlation of elastic moduli with the atomic packing density of these glasses was discussed. To predict the compositional dependence of elastic moduli of this glass system, the interpretation of the variation in the experimental elastic behavior observed has been studied based on various of the bond compression and the Makishima–Mackenzie models. Keywords: Elastic moduli, Glasses, Zinc phosphate, Bond compression, Makishima–Mackenzie models

  4. Study of phase equilibria and glass formation in the CaO-WO3-P2O5 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielis, I.Ya.


    The method of quenching has been used to investigate the liquidus surface of a portion of the CaO-WO 3 -P 2 O 5 system limited by the Ca(PO 3 ) 2 -W 2 O 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and CaWO 4 -Ca 2 P 2 O 7 cross-sections. The primary crystallization fields on the compounds: WO 3 , W 2 O 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , CaWO 4 , Ca 2 P 7 O 7 , Ca(PO 3 ) 2 are separated. The liquidus surface isotherms at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C have been plotted on the concentration triangle plane. It has been found that the cross-sections of W 2 O 3 (PO 4 ) 2 -Ca(PO 3 ) 2 , WO 3 -Ca(PO 3 ) 2 , WO 3 -Ca 2 P 2 O 7 and CaWO 4 -Ca 2 P 2 O 7 are eutectic-type quasi-binary systems. The position of the glass transition region in the CaO-WO 3 -P 2 O 5 system has been determined for the treatment temperatures of 1100, 1200 and 1300 deg C and a correlation between the configuration of the glass transition region and the phase diagram of the system has been demonstrated [ru

  5. Effect of P2O5 and MnO2 on crystallization of magnetic glass ceramics. (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, Salwa A M; Marzouk, Mohamed A; Farag, Mohamed M


    This work pointed out the effect of adding P2O5 and/or MnO2 on the crystallization behavior of magnetic glass ceramic in the system Fe2O3·ZnO·CaO·SiO2·B2O3. The differential thermal analysis of the quenched samples revealed decrease in the thermal effects by adding P2O5 and/or MnO2 to the base sample. The X-ray diffraction patterns show the development of nanometric magnetite crystals in a glassy matrix. Heat treatment at 800 °C for 2 h, under reducing atmosphere, caused an increase in the amount of the crystallized magnetite with the appearance of minor hematite and Ca2SiO4. The transmission electron microscope revealed a crystallite size in the range 10-30 nm. Magnetic hysteresis cycles were analyzed with a maximum applied field of 25 kOe at room temperature. The prepared magnetic glass ceramics are expected to be useful for localized treatment of cancer.

  6. FT-IR and thermoluminescence investigation of P2O5-BaO-K2O glass system (United States)

    Ivascu, C.; Timar-Gabor, A.; Cozar, O.


    The 0.5P2O5ṡxBaOṡ(0.5-x)K2O glass system (0≤x≤0.5mol%) is investigated by FT-IR and thermoluminescence as a possible dosimetic material. FT-IR spectra show structural network modifications with the composition variations of the studied glasses. The predominant absorption bands are characterized by two broad peaks near 500 cm-1, two weak peaks around 740 cm-1 and three peaks in the 900-1270 cm-1 region. The shift in the position of the band assigned to asymmetric stretching of PO2- group, υas(PO2-) modes from ˜1100 cm-1 to 1085 cm-1 and the decrease in its relative intensity with the increasing of K2O content shows a network modifier role of this oxide.. Luminescence investigations show that by adding modifier oxides in the phosphate glass a dose dependent TL signals result upon irradiation. Thus P2O5-BaO-K2O glass system is a possible candidate material for dosimetry in the dose 0 - 50 Gy range.

  7. IR spectra and structure of glasses in the BaO-WO3-P2O5 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshnichenko, O.Ya.; Mombelli, V.V.


    Studied are IR absorption spectra and determined are the main structural characteristics of tungstophosphate glasses of the BaO-WO 3 -P 2 O 5 system in all the area of glass formation. It is shown that the main structural components of their anion network are phosphate chains consisting of PO 4 tetrahedrons and tungstate chains consisting of WO 4 tetrahedrons and of WO 6 octahedrons. These chains are connected by P-O-W bridges into three-dimentional tungstophosphate network, where the ratio of phosphate and tungstate structural units and their polymerization degree change without limits depending on the glass composition. Analysis of concentration frequency dependence and spectral band intensity permit to clarify the effect of each component on the glass structure in all the area of glass formation of the triple system

  8. Zero photoelastic and water durable ZnO-SnO-P2O5-B2O3 glasses (United States)

    Saitoh, Akira; Nakata, Kohei; Tricot, Grégory; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takebe, Hiromichi


    We report properties of zero birefringent xZnO-(67-x)SnO-(33-y)P2O5-y B2O3 glasses, within 18.5 ≤ x ≤ 22 and y = 0, 3, and 10 mol. %. These compositions of boro-phosphate glasses provide both zero photoelastic constant (PEC) and improved water durability. x = 19 and y = 3 compositions show minimum PEC of -0.002 × 10-12 Pa-1, which can contribute to candidate material for fiber current sensor devise without lead. The structures of zero photoelastic glasses were investigated by Raman scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Compositions of zero PEC glasses are explained by the empirical model proposed by Zwanziger et al. [Chem. Mater. 19, 286-290 (2007)].

  9. Mössbauer spectroscopy study of 60P2O5-40Fe2O3 glass crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoch Paweł


    Full Text Available 60P2O5-40Fe2O3 glass was synthesized and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was presented. The main goal of the research was to investigate structural changes of local environment of iron ions during gradual crystallization of the glass. It was observed that some changes were evidenced at temperature of heat treatment higher than 400°C, above which content of tetrahedrally coordinated Fe3+ was increased in cost of octahedral sites. This led to formation of areas of nucleation of α-FePO4. Crystallization of α-Fe3(P2O72 and Fe2P2O7 was also observed.

  10. Physical-chemical properties of the surface of B2O3-P2O5-MeOx/SiO2 catalysts and its effect on the parameters of the process of aldol condensation of propionic acid with formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yivasyiv, V.V.; Pyikh, Z.G.; Zhiznevs'kij, V.M.; Nebesnij, R.V.


    Effect of catalyst B 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -MeO x /SiO 2 composition on its physical-chemical properties has been investigated. Relations between physical-chemical and catalytic properties of catalysts in the gas-phase reaction of propionic acid with formaldehyde to methacrylic acid have been found. Effect of the specific surface area and the specific surface acidity on the propionic acid conversion has been determined. Effect of the acidic active site's strength on the selectivity of reaction products has been determined. It has been pointed that methacrylic acid is formed on the moderate strength acidic active sites, whereas the by-product (diethyl ketone) - on the strong acidic active sites of the catalyst.

  11. Bone-bonding ability of P2O5-free CaO.SiO2 glasses. (United States)

    Ohura, K; Nakamura, T; Yamamuro, T; Kokubo, T; Ebisawa, Y; Kotoura, Y; Oka, M


    An apatite- and wollastonite-containing glass-ceramic (A.W-GC) has been reported to form a tight bond with living bone through an apatite layer formed on its surface. This layer is considered to be formed by dissolution of Ca2+ and HSiO3- ions from the glass-ceramic into the surrounding body fluids. In order to confirm this proposed mechanism for the surface reaction of A.W-GC, three kinds of glass in the systems CaO-SiO2, CaO-SiO2-CaF2, and CaO-SiO2-P2O5 were implanted into the tibiae of rabbits for 3 or 8 weeks. Contact microradiography and SEM-EPMA showed that all three kinds of glass formed a Ca,P-rich layer in combination with a Si-rich layer on their surfaces within 3 weeks and formed a direct bond with bone via these layers. The detaching test, performed 8 weeks after implantation, showed that the loads required to detach the implants from the bone were almost equal for the phosphorus-free and the phosphorus-containing glasses. It was concluded that even P2O5-free CaO.SiO2 glass formed a Ca,P-rich layer on its surface and bonded tightly with living bone. If glasses and glass-ceramics release at least Ca2+ and HSiO3- ions, this would be sufficient for them to form the Ca,P-rich layer on their surfaces in vivo, enabling them to bond directly with bone.

  12. Effect of ZnO addition on bioactive CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics containing apatite and wollastonite. (United States)

    Kamitakahara, M; Ohtsuki, C; Inada, H; Tanihara, M; Miyazaki, T


    Some ceramics show bone-bonding ability, i.e. bioactivity. Apatite formation on ceramics is an essential condition to bring about direct bonding to living bone when implanted into bony defects. A controlled surface reaction of the ceramic is an important factor governing the bioactivity and biodegradation of the implanted ceramic. Among bioactive ceramics, glass-ceramic A-W containing apatite and wollastonite shows high bioactivity, as well as high mechanical strength. In this study, glass-ceramics containing zinc oxide were prepared by modification of the composition of the glass-ceramic A-W. Zinc oxide was selected to control the reactivity of the glass-ceramics since zinc is a trace element that shows stimulatory effects on bone formation. Glass-ceramics were prepared by heat treatment of glasses with the general composition: xZnOx(57.0-x)CaOx35.4SiO(2)x7.2P(2)O(5)x0.4CaF(2) (where x=0-14.2mol.%). Addition of ZnO increased the chemical durability of the glass-ceramics, resulting in a decrease in the rate of apatite formation in a simulated body fluid. On the other hand, the release of zinc from the glass-ceramics increased with increasing ZnO content. Addition of ZnO may provide bioactive CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) glass-ceramics with the capacity for appropriate biodegradation, as well as enhancement of bone formation.

  13. Separation of Phosphorus- and Iron-Enriched Phase from CaO-SiO2-FeO-MgO-P2O5 Melt with Super Gravity (United States)

    Li, Chong; Gao, Jintao; Guo, Zhancheng


    Super gravity technology was used to separate the phosphorus- and iron-enriched phase from CaO-SiO2-FeO-MgO-P2O5 melt. The microstructure and X-ray diffraction showed that the P-enriched phase was intercepted by the filter screen, while the residual slag mainly composed of Fe-enriched phase that went through the filter. The recovery ratio of P2O5 in the P-enriched slag was up to 76.67 pct, and that of FeO in the Fe-enriched slag was up to 85.02 pct.

  14. Phosphate enrichment mechanism in CaO-SiO2-FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 steelmaking slags with lower binary basicity (United States)

    Li, Jin-yan; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Yang, Xue-min


    The addition of silica to steelmaking slags to decrease the binary basicity can promote phosphate enrichment in quenched slag samples. In this study, we experimentally investigated phosphate enrichment behavior in CaO-SiO2-FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 slags with a P2O5 content of 5.00% and the binary basicity B ranging from 1.0 to 2.0, where the (%Fe t O)/(%CaO) mass percentage ratio was maintained at 0.955. The experimental results are explained by the defined enrichment degree R_{C_2 S - C_3 P} of solid solution 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 (C2S-C3P), where R_{C_2 S - C_3 P} is a component of the developed ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT)- N i model for calculating the mass action concentrations N i of structural units in the slags on the basis of the IMCT. The asymmetrically inverse V-shaped relation between phosphate enrichment and binary basicity B was observed to be correlated in the slags under applied two-stage cooling conditions. The maximum content of P2O5 in the C2S-C3P solid solution reached approximately 30.0% when the binary basicity B was controlled at 1.3.

  15. Structural investigation of V2O5–P2O5–K2O glass system with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 3. Structural investigation of V 2 O 5 –P 2 O 5 –K 2 O glass system with antibacterial potential. N S VEDEANU I B COZAR R STANESCU R STEFAN D VODNAR O COZAR. Volume 39 Issue 3 June 2016 pp 697-702 ...

  16. Thermal and electrical properties of 60V2O5–5P2O5–(35− x) B2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The samples of composition 60V2O5–5P2O5–(35−)B2O3–CeO2, = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mol% were prepared by the melt-quench method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis and impedance spectroscopy. The activation energies were evaluated ...

  17. Thermal and electrical properties of 60V2O5–5P2O5–(35− x) B2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2. Thermal and electrical properties of 60V2O5–5P2O5–(35−)B2O3–CeO2(1 ≤ ≤ 5) glasses. R V Barde S A Waghuley. Volume 38 Issue 2 April 2015 pp 557-563. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Preparation and characterization of Li2O–CaO–Al2O3–P2O5–SiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The aim of the present investigation was to study the role of Al2O3 in the Li2O–CaO–P2O5–SiO2 bioac- tive glass for improving the bioactivity and other physico-mechanical properties of glass. A comparative study on structural and physico-mechanical properties and bioactivity of glasses were reported.

  19. Structural investigation of V2O5–P2O5–K2O glass system with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terial effect on S. aureus (Gram positive) and E. coli (Gram negative) bacteria was tested by optical density ... mined by a serial dilution of the broth into 0.1% pep- tone water and plating onto nutrient agar plates. .... xV2O(1−x)[0.8 P2O5 · 0.2 K2O] glasses containing S. aureus and. E. coli bacteria (the error bars are provided ...

  20. Effect of chemical composition on hydrophobicity and zeta potential of plasma sprayed HA/CaO-P2O5 glass coatings. (United States)

    Ferraz, M P; Monteiro, F J; Serro, A P; Saramago, B; Gibson, I R; Santos, J D


    Multilayered plasma sprayed coatings on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V alloys have been prepared, which were composed of an underlayer of HA and a surface layer of a CaO-P2O5 glass-HA composite, with 2 or 4wt% of glass. Contact angle and surface tension variation with time, for both water and a protein solution, were determined by the sessile and pendent drop methods respectively using the ADSA-P software. Wettability studies showed that hydrophobicity of the coatings increase with the glass addition. The work of adhesion of albumin was also altered in a controlled manner by the addition of the CaO-P2O5 glass, being lower on the composite coatings than on HA. Zeta potential (ZP) results showed that composite coatings presented a higher net negative charge than HA coatings and that ZP values were also influenced by the content of the glass. This study demonstrated that the surface properties of those coatings may be modified by the addition of CaO-P2O5 glass.

  1. Surface reactions of a plasma-sprayed CaO-P2O5-SiO2-based glass with albumin, fibroblasts and granulocytes studied by XPS, fluorescence and chemiluminescence. (United States)

    Polzonetti, G; Iucci, G; Frontini, A; Infante, G; Furlani, C; Avigliano, L; Del Principe, D; Palumbo, G; Rosato, N


    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to define the chemical composition of the outermost surface layer and the surface modification of a plasma-coated phospho-silicate glass (identified as BVA) when immersed in K-phosphate buffer or in phosphate buffered human albumin solution. Its behavior was compared with that of a soda-lime-based glass (identified as BVH) treated in the same way. The surface % composition of plasma-sprayed glass was consistent with bulk composition. After incubation with buffer, a Ca-P-rich layer developed only on the surface of BVA glass. Human serum albumin was bound reversibly to both glasses maintaining its native state. However, the protein completely covered the BVA glass surface within 24 h, with the formation of a mixed albumin-Ca-P layer, while 4 days incubation was necessary for complete coverage of BVH glass surface. Murine fibroblasts seeded on plasma-coated BVA glass showed a proliferation pattern similar to that of control cells grown on Petri dish, while cells seeded on BVH had more restricted growth. A limited response was induced in polymorphonuclear granulocytes by both bulk glasses powder. In conclusion, the glass identified as BVA has the suitable characteristics of its surface layers to be considered biologically active from both a chemical and a cellular point of view.

  2. The recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash as a raw material for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramic production. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Yulei; Liang, Xuanye; Li, Aimin


    In this paper, the recycling of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) into glass-ceramic materials by a two-stage sintering cycle of nucleation stage and crystallization stage without any pressure and binder is presented. The parent glasses were subjected to the following nucleation/crystallization temperature and time level: (A) 790°C, 1.0 h/870°C, 1.0-3.0 h; (B) 790°C, 1.0 h/945°C, 1.0-3.0 h and (C) 790°C, 1.0 h/1065°C, 1.0-3.0 h. X-ray power diffraction analysis results revealed that multiple crystalline phases coexisted in the glass-ceramic materials and the crystalline phase compositions were more affected by crystallization temperature than crystallization time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed an interlocking microstructure of glass phases and crystals with different sizes and spatial distribution. The glass-ceramics crystallized at 945°C for 2.0 h exhibited optimal properties of density of 2.88±0.08 g/cm3, compression strength of 247±12 MPa, bending strength of 118±14 MPa and water absorption of 0.42±0.04. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals were far lower than the limits required by the regulatory standard of EPA. This paper provides a feasible, low-cost and promising method to produce ISSA-based glass-ceramics and highlights the principal characteristics that must be taken into account to use ISSA correctly in glass-ceramics.

  3. Sintering temperature and atmosphere modulated evolution of structure and luminescence of 2CaO-P2O5-B2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C. F.; Wang, J.; Ren, X. R.


    Europium doped 2CaO-P2O5-B2O3 phosphors prepared via high temperature solid state reactions are reported. The evolution of luminescence and structure of the phosphors induced by variation of sintering temperature and atmosphere is investigated using photoluminescence spectra and X-ray diffraction...... techniques. We found that the optical performance and structure of the phosphors are sensitive to the sintering temperature and atmosphere. The luminescence intensity due to 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ is decreased with increasing sintering temperature. CaBPO5 and BPO4 crystals co-exist in the as...

  4. Thermally Tunable Dual Emission of the d8–d8 Dimer [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4–

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofbeck, T.; Lam, Y.; Ch.; Kalbáč, Martin; Záliš, Stanislav; Vlček, Antonín; Yersin, H.


    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2016), s. 2441-2449 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13015; GA MŠk LD14129; GA MŠk LL1301 Grant - others:COST(XE) cm1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : High-resolution fluorescence * phosphorescence spectra * [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4− (Pt(pop-BF2)) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  5. Thermally Tunable Dual Emission of the d8–d8 Dimer [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4–

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofbeck, T.; Lam, Y.; Ch.; Kalbáč, Martin; Záliš, Stanislav; Vlček, Antonín; Yersin, H.


    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2016), s. 2441-2449 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13015; GA MŠk LD14129; GA MŠk LL1301 Grant - others:COST(XE) cm1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : High-resolution fluorescence * phosphorescence spectra * [Pt2(μ-P2O5(BF2)2)4]4− (Pt( pop -BF2)) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  6. Stabilization/solidification of radioactive salt waste by using xSiO2-yAl2O3-zP2O5 (SAP) material at molten salt state. (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong-Zun; Eun, Hee-Chul; Lee, Han-Soo


    The molten salt waste from the pyroprocess is one of the problematic wastes to directly apply a conventional process such as vitrification or ceramization. This study suggested a novel method using a reactive material for metal chlorides at a molten temperature of salt waste, and then converting them into manageable product at a high temperature. The inorganic composite, SAP (SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5), synthesized by a conventional sol-gel process has three or four distinctive domains that are bonded sequentially, Si-O-Si-O-A-O-P-O-P. The P-rich phase in the SAP composite is unstable for producing a series of reactive sites when in contact with a molten LiCl salt. After the reaction, metal aluminosilicate, metal aluminophosphate, metal phosphates and gaseous chlorines are generated. From this process, the volatile salt waste is stabilized and it is possible to apply a high temperature process. The reaction products were fabricated successfully by using a borosilicate glass with an arbitrary composition as a chemical binder. There was a low possibility for the valorization of radionuclides up to 1200 degrees C, based on the result of the thermo gravimetric analysis. The Cs and Sr leach rates by the PCT-A method were about 1 x 10(-3) g/(m2 day). For the final disposal of the problematic salt waste, this approach suggested the design concept of an effective stabilizer for metal chlorides and revealed the chemical route to the fabrication of monolithic wasteform by using a composite as an example. Using this method, we could obtain a higher disposal efficiency and lower waste volume, compared with the present immobilization methods.

  7. Preliminary investigation of the effect of doping of copper oxide in CaO-SiO2-P2O5-MgO bioactive composition for bone repair applications. (United States)

    Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, K J; Yadav, Arun Kumar; Sood, Henna; Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Ramandeep; Arora, Daljit Singh; Kaur, Sukhraj


    A diopside based bioactive system with a nominal composition of xCuO-(45.55-x)CaO-29.44 SiO 2 -10.28P 2 O 5 -14.73 MgO (x=0,1,3 and 5mol%) has been prepared by sol gel technique in the laboratory. X-ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red and Raman Spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy along with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis and pH studies have been undertaken on the prepared samples before and after dipping the samples in simulated body fluid. It has been observed that hydroxyapatite layer starts to form with in 24h during immersion in simulated body fluid. Degradation studies have also been employed to check the degradation behavior in Tris-HCl. Dynamic light scattering studies show that particles are mostly agglomerated and have an average size of 356nm. Zeta potential studies have been undertaken to check the surface charge and it has been estimated that samples carry negative charge when dipped in simulated body fluid. Negative surface charge may contribute to attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts. Samples have also shown the antimicrobial properties against the Vibro cholerae and Escherichia coli pathogens. To check the non-toxic nature of the samples, cell cytotoxic and cell culture studies have been undertaken using the MG-63 cell lines. Samples have shown good response with good percentage viability of the cells in the culture media and hence, provides friendly environment to the growth of cells. The particle size, bioactivity, negative values of zeta potential, antimicrobial properties and good cell viability indicate the potential of the synthesized compositions as possible candidates for bone repair applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 glass containing nucleation agent P2O5/TiO2 (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Yongya; Luo, Wenqin; Li, Jingfen; Li, Jianyou


    Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 glass ceramics containing nucleation agent P2O5/TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The activation energy and kinetic parameters for crystallization of the samples were calculated by the Johnson-Mehi-Avrami (JMA) model and Augis-Bennett method according to the results of DSC. The results showed that the crystallization mechanism of Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 glass, whose non-isothermal kinetic parameter n = 2.3, was consistent with surface crystallization of the JMA model. The kinetics model function of Fe2O3-CaO-SiO2 glass, f(α) = 2.3(1-α)[-ln(1-α)]0.57, was also obtained. The addition of nucleation agent P2O5/TiO2 could reduce the activation energy, which made the crystal growth modes change from onedimensional to three-dimensional.

  9. Computational Study of the Transport Properties of Molten CaO-SiO2-P2O5-FeO System (United States)

    Diao, Jiang; Zhang, Quan; Qiao, Yong; Jiang, Lu; Xie, Bing


    MD simulations have been accomplished to study the transport properties of molten CaO-SiO2-P2O5-FeO system. The self-diffusion coefficients of Ca, Si, P, Fe and O ions increase with increasing slag basicity and FeO content, while decrease with increasing P2O5 content. The diffusivities of these ions in the quaternary melts follow the sequence of Ca>Fe>O>P>Si. The calculated viscosities are in good agreement with the experimental ones. It is obvious that increasing the amount of network formers (e. g., Si and P ions) leads to larger viscosity and degree of slag polymerization, while adding network modifiers (e. g., Fe and Ca ions) causes viscosity and slag polymerization to decrease. Except for the calculation, the FT-IR analysis also confirmed the relationship between structural properties of the slag and composition. The viscosity of the slag increases linearly with increasing the parameter of Q(Si+P).

  10. Bacterial adherence to SiO2-based multifunctional bioceramics. (United States)

    Kinnari, Teemu J; Esteban, Jaime; Gomez-Barrena, Enrique; Zamora, Nieves; Fernandez-Roblas, Ricardo; Nieto, Alejandra; Doadrio, Juan C; López-Noriega, Adolfo; Ruiz-Hernández, Eduardo; Arcos, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, María


    The bacterial adherence onto different multifunctional silica-based bioceramics has been evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were chosen, as they cause the majority of the implant-related infections in this field. Two SiO2 mesoporous materials (MCM-41, SBA-15), an ordered SiO2-CaO-P2O5 mesoporous glass (OMG), and a biphasic magnetic bioceramic (BMB), were incubated with S. aureus and S. epidermidis for 90 min, and subsequently sonicated to quantify the number of adhered bacteria on each material. It was found that S. aureus and S. epidermidis (10(8) CFU/mL) adhered significantly less to BMB samples when compared to MCM-41, SBA-15, or OMG. However, when the material pores accessible for bacteria in each material were taken into account, the lowest bacterial adherence was found in MCM-41, and the highest in SBA-15. The results show that bacterial adherence is higher on mesoporous bioceramics, although this higher microbial attachment is mainly due to the intergranular porosity and grain size morphology rather than to the mesoporous structure. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cao Lin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Cao Lin. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 35 Issue 5 October 2012 pp 767-772. Anti-tumor activity of self-charged (Eu,Ca):WO3 and Eu:CaWO4 nanoparticles · Cao Lin Cao Jiexin Wang Cong Che Ping Pan De'an Alex A Volinsky · More Details Abstract ...

  12. Wear of MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-F-Based Glass Ceramics Compared to Selected Dental Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongee Park


    Full Text Available Wear of a glass-ceramic produced through controlled crystallization of a glass in the MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-F system has been evaluated and compared to various commercial dental ceramics including IPS Empress 2, Cergo Pressable Ceramic, Cerco Ceram, and Super porcelain EX-3. Wear tests were performed in accord with the ASTM G99 for wear testing with a pin-on-disk apparatus. The friction coefficient and specific wear rate of the materials investigated were determined at a load of 10 N and at ambient laboratory conditions. Microhardness of the materials was also measured to elucidate the appropriateness of these materials for dental applications.

  13. Zero photoelastic and water durable ZnO–SnO–P2O5–B2O3 glasses

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    Akira Saitoh


    Full Text Available We report properties of zero birefringent xZnO–(67–xSnO–(33–yP2O5–y B2O3 glasses, within 18.5 ≤ x ≤ 22 and y = 0, 3, and 10 mol. %. These compositions of boro-phosphate glasses provide both zero photoelastic constant (PEC and improved water durability. x = 19 and y = 3 compositions show minimum PEC of −0.002 × 10−12 Pa−1, which can contribute to candidate material for fiber current sensor devise without lead. The structures of zero photoelastic glasses were investigated by Raman scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Compositions of zero PEC glasses are explained by the empirical model proposed by Zwanziger et al. [Chem. Mater. 19, 286-290 (2007].

  14. In vitro bioactivity evaluation, mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses (United States)

    Abo-Naf, Sherief M.; Khalil, El-Sayed M.; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M.; Zayed, Hamdia A.; Youness, Rasha A.


    Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been prepared by the melt-quenching method. B2O3 content was systematically increased from 5 to 30 mol%, at the expense of P2O5, in the chemical composition of these glasses. Density, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness of the prepared glasses were measured. In vitro bioactivity of the glasses was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 3, 7, 14 and 30 days. The glasses were tested in the form of glass grains as well as bulk slabs. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The kinetics of degradation of the glass particles were monitored by measuring the weight loss of the particles and the ionic concentration of Ca, P and B in the SBF solution using inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The obtained results revealed the formation of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) layer, composed of nano-crystallites, on the surface of glass grains after the in vitro assays. The results have been used to understand the formation of HA as a function of glass composition and soaking time in the SBF. It can be pointed out that increasing B2O3 content in glass composition enhances the bioactivity of glasses. The nanometric particle size of the formed HA and in vitro bioactivity of the studied glasses make them possible candidates for tissue engineering application.

  15. Improving the Dissolution of Phosphorus from 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 Solid Solution in Aqueous Solutions (United States)

    Du, Chuan-ming; Gao, Xu; Kim, Sun-joong; Ueda, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    Steelmaking slag is a potential P resource in Japan, because the P quantity in it is almost equal to that in imported phosphate ores. P2O5 is mainly concentrated in the 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 solid solution in slag. It has been clarified that P can be selectively leached out from C2S-C3P rather than the matrix phase of slag. To recover P from slag, its dissolution ratio from C2S-C3P should be increased. In this study, the effects of leaching agent and Na2SiO3 modification on the dissolution of the C2S-C3P solid solution and slag in aqueous solutions have been investigated. H3C6H5O7 is beneficial for P dissolution from C2S-C3P in aqueous solutions because of the formation of the CaC6H5O{7/-} complex, which can suppress phosphate precipitation. The P-rich phase is changed from the original C2S-C3P to C2S-C2NP with higher water solubility by Na2SiO3 modification, which facilitates P dissolution. At pH=5, 85.7% of P from the modified C2S-C3P can be dissolved in the H3C6H5O7 solution. The selective leaching of P from the CaO-SiO2- Fe2O3 system slag can be achieved by Na2SiO3 modification and leaching in the H3C6H5O7 solution at pH=5. The P dissolution ratio reaches 78.4%, and only 19.7% of Fe is dissolved.

  16. Lihua Cao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIHUA CAO. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 90 Issue 2 August 2011 pp 339-342 Research Note. Novel vitamin D 1-hydroxylase gene mutations in a Chinese vitamin-D-dependent rickets type I patient · Lihua Cao Fang Liu Yu Wang Jian Ma Shusen Wang Libo Wang Yang Zhang Chen Chen Yang Luo ...

  17. Li Cao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Li Cao. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 123 Issue 5 September 2011 pp 687-696. Solvothermal synthesis and theoretical study of a polypyridium trimesylate adduct · Yulan Zhu Feng Ma Kuirong Ma Li Cao Lianhua Zhao · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  18. Yong Cao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Yong Cao. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 121 Issue 2 March 2009 pp 225-229 Full Papers. Catalytic synthesis of nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes using layered double hydroxides as catalyst precursors · Yong Cao Yun Zhao Qingxia ...

  19. Ke Cao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Ke Cao. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 34 Issue 4 July 2011 pp 943-946. Hardness of metallic crystals · Wuhui Li Fengzhang Ren Juanhua Su Zhanhong Ma Ke Cao Baohong Tian · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. This paper presents a new formula ...

  20. Características produtivas da batata-doce em função de doses de P2O5, de espaçamentos e de sistemas de plantio Yield characteristic of sweet potato affected by P2O5 levels, in the spacings and planting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da adubação fosfatada, espaçamentos e sistemas de plantio na produção de raízes de batata-doce cv. Rainha Branca, conduziu-se um experimento no período de fevereiro a julho de 2004 em um NEOSSOLO REGOLÍTICO Psamítico típico, textura areia-franca, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental empregado foi de blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testados vinte tratamentos formados por cinco doses de P2O5 (0, 100, 200, 300 e 400 kg ha-1, combinado fatorialmente com quatro espaçamentos entre plantas (0,20, 0,30, 0,40 e 0,50 m por 0,80 m entre linhas; e nas subparcelas, dois sistemas de plantio (uma e duas ramas/cova. A maior produção de raízes comerciais/planta (662 g foi obtida no sistema de plantio com uma rama/cova, no espaçamento de 0,80 m x 0,50 m (25.000 plantas ha-1, na dose estimada de 180 kg ha-1 de P2O5, enquanto que a menor (108 g, no espaçamento de 0,80 m x 0,20 m com duas ramas/cova, na ausência de P2O5. A produtividade comercial de raízes de batata-doce, em resposta às doses de fósforo no sistema de plantio com uma rama/cova, foi de 18,7 t ha-1, obtida com 210 kg de P2O5 ha-1. No sistema de plantio com duas ramas/cova, essa produtividade foi de 18,9 t ha-1, alcançada com 231 kg de P2O5 ha-1. A maior produtividade de raízes comerciais em função dos espaçamentos (19,64 t ha-1 foi obtida com 0,30 m entre plantas, no sistema de plantio com duas ramas/cova (83.330 plantas ha-1.The influence of phosphate fertilization, spacing and planting systems were evaluated on the yield of sweet potato roots Rainha Branca cv. The experiment was carried out from February to July/2004 in Quartz Psamment soil, in the Universidade Federal of Paraíba, Areia-PB, Brazil. It was used experimental design of randomized blocks in sub divided plots in four replications. In the main plots, twenty treatments were tested

  1. Dosimetric UV Exposure Effect on the Optical Properties of Ag2O Doped P2O5-ZnO-CuO Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Al Mugren


    Full Text Available Silver phosphate glass types within composition 60P2O5-30ZnO-10CuO-100000 ppm Ag2O were prepared by melt-quenching technique. The optical properties of these glass types were studied under UV exposure at different times, 0, 20, 80, 105, and 115 minutes. The optical absorbance spectra were measured in the range of wavelength from 190 to 3200 nm. The absorbance bandwidth decreases with increasing the time of UV exposure. The optical energy gap, Eg, linear refractive index, n, ratio between molar refraction, Rm, and molar volume, Vm, and metallization criterion (M were estimated. The value of Eg decreases from 2.132 to 1.91 eV with increasing the time of UV exposure from 0 to 115 min. Otherwise n value and metallization increase with increase in the time of UV exposure. The results indicated that these glass types are promising for using an ultraviolet radiation dosimeter.

  2. Structural and spectroscopic analyses of copper doped P2O5 -ZnO-K2O-Bi2O3 glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia H. Elbashar


    Full Text Available Homogeneous glass samples with different compositions 42 (P2O5·40 (ZnO·(16 −x(K2O·2 (Bi2O3·x(Cu2O (where x = 1, 2 and 3 mol% were prepared by conventional melt-quenched technique under controlled conditions. The structure of the prepared glass samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Optical properties (transmittance and reflectance of the glasses were measured in the wavelength range 200–900 nm. The optical band gap energy of the investigated glasses with 1, 2 and 3 mol% Cu2O was estimated from absorption data using the Mott and Davis relation and found to be 2.33, 2.45 and 2.53 eV, respectively. The mechanism of optical absorption was found to be direct. The band tail width was also estimated and found to lay in the acceptable range. Refractive index, absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and real/imaginary parts of dielectric constants were calculated. Further to this, some theoretical investigation of the spectral problems was carried out. The investigation was based on finite difference method.

  3. [Clinical and histopathological observation of CaO-P2O5-MgO-SiO2-CaF system glass ceramic tooth implants in monkeys]. (United States)

    Hongo, O; Mukainakano, Y; Asano, M; Kawanami, M; Kato, H


    The present study was undertaken to determine the biocompatibility of a newly-developed CaO-P2O5-MgO-SiO2-CaF system glass ceramic tooth implant. Two adult male monkeys were selected and 12 weeks after extraction of M1 and P1, 8 glass ceramic teeth were implanted into alveolar bone. At 1 week after implantation, 6 teeth were allowed occlusal function, and 2 teeth were left free from occlusion as control teeth. The implants were observed for 4-12 weeks and examined histopathologically. The results were as follows: 1. Seven implanted teeth were well maintained clinically, and only one tooth was lost after 5 weeks. 2. In histopathological observation, implanted teeth were surrounded by bone, and connected by bonyankylosis. At cervix of dental implant, connective tissue as also attached firmly to implanted tooth surfaces and epithelial attachment was observed. 3. Although these implants were allowed occlusal function at an early stage (1 week after implantation), osteogenesis around implants was not disturbed. These results suggest that the new glass ceramic implant has good biocompatibility and is useful as an implant tooth.

  4. Carbonate apatite formation on novel multiphase CaO-SiO2-P2O5-MgO glass-ceramics in TRIS-HCl buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar Radev


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the presented article is the preparation of novel glass-ceramics in CaO-SiO2-P2O5-MgO system and evaluation of carbonate apatite formation after soaking in TRIS-HCl buffer solution for 14 days. The investigated samples were prepared via sol-gel method and structure of the obtained samples was studied using XRD, FTIR, SEM, XPS and ICP-AES. XRD of the thermally treated samples showed that the presence of some crystalline phases is depended on the gel composition. FTIR revealed the existence of all characteristic bands for the observed crystalline phases. SEM monitored the presence of particles with different morphology. After soaking in TRIS-HCl solution, FTIR confirmed that carbonate apatite was formed on the soaked surface. The obtained data are in a good agreement with XPS analysis. The change of ions concentrations in TRIS-HCl buffer solution after immersion of the prepared glass-ceramics was recorded by ICP-AES measurements.

  5. Neutron scattering study on cathode LiMn2O4 and solid electrolyte 5(Li2O)(P2O5) (United States)

    Kartini, E.; Putra, Teguh P.; Jahya, A. K.; Insani, A.; Adams, S.


    Neutron scattering is very important technique in order to investigate the energy storage materials such as lithium-ion battery. The unique advantages, neutron can see the light atoms such as Hydrogen, Lithium, and Oxygen, where those elements are negligible by other corresponding X-ray method. On the other hand, the energy storage materials, such as lithium ion battery is very important for the application in the electric vehicles, electronic devices or home appliances. The battery contains electrodes (anode and cathode), and the electrolyte materials. There are many challenging to improve the existing lithium ion battery materials, in order to increase their life time, cyclic ability and also its stability. One of the most scientific challenging is to investigate the crystal structure of both electrode and electrolyte, such as cathodes LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, and solid electrolyte Li3PO4. Since all those battery materials contain Lithium ions and Oxygen, the used of neutron scattering techniques to study their structure and related properties are very important and indispensable. This article will review some works of investigating electrodes and electrolytes, LiMn2O4 and 5(Li2O)(P2O5), by using a high resolution powder diffraction (HRPD) at the multipurpose research reactor, RSG-Sywabessy of the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Indonesia.

  6. Structural study of Al2O3-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses as a function of aluminium content. (United States)

    Smith, J M; King, S P; Barney, E R; Hanna, J V; Newport, R J; Pickup, D M


    Calcium phosphate based biomaterials are extensively used in the context of tissue engineering: small changes in composition can lead to significant changes in properties allowing their use in a wide range of applications. Samples of composition (Al(2)O(3))(x)(Na(2)O)(0.11-x)(CaO)(0.445)(P(2)O(5))(0.445), where x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08, were prepared by melt quenching. The atomic-scale structure has been studied using neutron diffraction and solid state (27)Al MAS NMR, and these data have been rationalised with the determined density of the final glass product. With increasing aluminium concentration the density increases initially, but beyond about 3 mol. % Al(2)O(3) the density starts to decrease. Neutron diffraction data show a concomitant change in the aluminium speciation, which is confirmed by (27)Al MAS NMR studies. The NMR data reveal that aluminium is present in 4, 5, and 6-fold coordination and that the relative concentrations of these environments change with increasing aluminium concentration. Materials containing aluminium in 6-fold coordination tend to have higher densities than analogous materials with the aluminium found in 4-fold coordination. Thus, the density changes may readily be explained in terms of an increase in the relative concentration of 4-coordinated aluminium at the expense of 6-fold aluminium as the Al(2)O(3) content is increased beyond 3 mol. %.

  7. Preparation of orthophosphate glasses in the MgO-CaO-SiO2-Nb2O5-P2O5 system. (United States)

    Lee, Sungho; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki; Nakano, Takayoshi; Kasuga, Toshihiro


    Niobia/magnesia-containing orthophosphate invert glasses were successfully prepared in our earlier work. Orthophosphate groups in the glasses were cross-linked by tetrahedral niobia (NbO4) and magnesia. The aim of this work is to prepare calcium orthophosphate invert glasses containing magnesia and niobia, incorporating silica, and to evaluate their structures and releasing behaviors. The glasses were prepared by melt-quenching, and their structures and ion-releasing behaviors were evaluated. 31P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopies showed the glasses consist of orthophosphate (PO4), orthosilicate (SiO4), and NbO4 tetrahedra. NbO4 and MgO in the glasses act as network formers. By incorporating SiO2 into the glasses, the chemical durability of the glasses was slightly improved. The glasses reheated at 800°C formed the orthophosphate crystalline phases, such as β-Ca3(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2 and Mg3Ca3(PO4)4 in the glasses. The chemical durability of the crystallized glasses was slightly improved. Orthosilicate groups and NbO4 in the glasses coordinated with each other to form Si-O-Nb bonds. The chemical durability of the glasses was slightly improved by addition of SiO2, since the field strength of Si is larger than that of Ca or Mg.

  8. Influence of fluoride additions on biological and mechanical properties of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics. (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z


    Two series of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics doped with NH4HF2 (G-NH4HF2) or CaF2 (G-CaF2) have been prepared by sol-gel method. The glass-ceramic phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The mechanical properties and thermal expansion coefficient were measured by a microhardness tester, an electronic tensile machine and a thermal expansion coefficient tester. The structure difference between these two glass-ceramics was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the in vitro bioactivity of the glass-ceramics was determined by in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test, systemic toxicity test and the implanted experiment in animals were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the glass-ceramics. The mechanical properties of sample G-NH4HF2 are lower than that of sample G-CaF2, and the bioactivity of sample G-NH4HF2 is better than that of sample G-CaF2. The thermal expansion coefficients of these two glass-ceramics are all closer to that of Ti6Al4V. After 7 days of SBF immersion, apatites were induced on glass-ceramic surface, indicating that the glass-ceramics have bioactivity. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test and systemic toxicity test demonstrate that the glass-ceramics do not cause hemolysis reaction, and have no toxicity to cell and living animal. The implanted experiment in animals shows that bone tissue can form a good osseointegration with the implant after implantation for two months, indicating that the glass-ceramics are safe to serve as implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo evaluation of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics coating on Steinman pins. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Hong, Kug Sun; Baek, Hae-Ri; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Mee; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Hyun-Kyung


    Surface coating using ceramics improves the bone bonding strength of an implant. We questioned whether a new type of glass-ceramics (BGS-7) coating (CaO-SiO2 -P2 O5 -B2 O3 ) would improve the osseointegration of Steinman pins (S-pins) both biomechanically and histomorphometrically. An in vivo study was performed using rabbits by inserting three S-pins into each iliac bone. The pins were 2.2-mm S-pins with a coating of 30-μm-thick BGS-7 and 550-nm-thick hydroxyapatite (HA), as opposed to an S-pin without coating. A tensile strength test and histomorphometrical evaluation was performed. In the 2-week group, the BGS-7 implant showed a significantly higher tensile strength than the S-pin. In the 4- and 8-week groups, the BGS-7 implants had significantly higher tensile strengths than the S-pins and HA implants. The histomorphometrical study revealed that the BGS-7 implant had a significantly higher contact ratio than the S-pin and HA implants in the 4-week group. The biomechanical and histomorphometrical tests showed that the BGS-7 coating had superior bone bonding properties than the groups without the coating from the initial stage of insertion. The BGS-7 coating of an S-pin will enhance the bone bonding strength, and there might also be an advantage in human bone bonding. © 2013, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2013, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Biomateriais à base de Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 preparados com serragem e com glucose de milho: influência na porosidade e na cristalinidade Biomaterials based on Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 prepared with sawdust or corn glucose: effects on porosity and crystallinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. de Campos


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho biomateriais à base de Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 foram obtidos pelo método clássico de fusão e os biovidros submetidos ao tratamento térmico a diferentes temperaturas. A porosidade das peças foi controlada pela adição de serragem e/ou glucose de milho.A porosidade e a cristalinidade das amostras sintetizadas foram acompanhadas com auxílio das técnicas de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura e difração de raios X, respectivamente. Amostras tratadas termicamente a 800 °C mostraram uma reorganização estrutural e conseqüente aumento da dureza. Observou-se que em ambas as cerâmicas tanto a adição de serragem quanto de glucose de milho aumentou a porosidade das peças. Contudo, a estrutura mais organizada e poros mais homogêneos foram obtidos para a mistura vidro/glucose de milho.In this work, biomaterials constituted of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 were obtained by the classic method of melt and the bioglasses submitted to the thermal treatment at different temperatures, where the porosity of the pieces were controlled by the addition of sawdust and/ or corn glucose. Samples submitted to temperatures above 800 °C became completely opaque, indicating a reorganization of the structure and consequent increase of the hardness of the material. The influence of the sawdust in the process of crystallization of the glass was observed. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used in both ceramics and results showed the increase of the porosity as so much the sawdust or corn glucose was added. However the most organized structure and more homogeneous pores were obtained for the glass/corn glucose mixture.

  11. Qilong Cao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Qilong Cao. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 39 Issue 1 February 2016 pp 119-123. Structural and magnetic properties of Sr1−xLaxFe12−x(Cu0.5Co0.5)xO19 hexaferrites prepared by the solid-state reaction method · Yujie Yang Fanhou Wang Juxiang ...

  12. A 90-day intravenous administration toxicity study of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics (BGS-7) in rat. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki


    CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-B(2)O(3) glass ceramics directly bond to bone and have potential use as a bone substitute material. The present study evaluated the toxicity from subchronic intravenous administration of CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-B(2)O(3) glass ceramics to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of 10 male and 10 female rats, and administered different amounts of CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-B(2)O(3) glass ceramics (aqueous extract 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mL/kg body weight/day and saline) 7 days per week for 90 consecutive days. During the experiment, no deaths were observed in any groups, and there were no remarkable changes in clinical signs, body weight, food and water intake, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, organ weight, and histopathological findings between the control and treated groups. The results show no adverse toxic effects of CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-B(2)O(3) glass ceramics (aqueous extract 5 mL/kg body weight/day) to rats of either sex.

  13. Low temperature biosynthesis of Li2O–MgO–P2O5–TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure exhibiting fast lithium ion conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, X.Y.; He, W.; Zhang, X.D.


    We demonstrate a biomimetic synthesis methodology that allows us to create Li2O–MgO–P2O5–TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure at lower temperature. We design a ‘nanocrystal-glass’ configuration to build a nanoarchitecture by means of yeast cell templates self-assembly followed...... by the controlled in-situ biomineralization of materials on the cell wall. Electrochemically active nanocrystals are used as the lamellar building blocks of mesopores, and the semiconductive glass phase can act both as the ‘glue’ between nanocrystals and functionalized component. The Li2O–MgO–P2O5–TiO2...

  14. In-Situ Observation of Rare Earth Containing Precipitated Phase Crystallization and Solidification of CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 and CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3-P2O5 Melts (United States)

    Le, Thu Hoai; Aketagawa, Mayu; Malfliet, Annelies; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    In order to optimize the recycling process, fundamental understanding of the rare earths distribution in the slag and the precipitation behavior of the REE containing compounds during slag solidification are of significant importance. In this work, "in-situ" observations of rare earth containing phase precipitation, and solidification behavior of the CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3 and CaO-SiO2-Nd2O3-P2O5 melts were performed using a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) combined with an infrared imaging furnace heating (IIF). The compositions of the precipitates formed during cooling of those slags were examined using EPMA method. The addition of P2O5 was found to influence the precipitation behavior and to decrease the liquidus as well as the solidus temperatures of the slags.

  15. Comparison of fusion rate and clinical results between CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3bioactive glass ceramics spacer with titanium cages in posterior lumbar interbody fusion. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Kong, Chang-Bae; Yang, Jae Jun; Shim, Hee-Jong; Koo, Ki-Hyoung; Kim, Jeehyoung; Lee, Choon-Ki; Chang, Bong-Soon


    The CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics spacer generates chemical bonding to adjacent bones with high mechanical stability to produce a union with the end plate, and ultimately stability. The authors aimed to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics with a titanium cage that is widely used for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery in the clinical field. This is a prospective, stratified randomized, multicenter, single-blinded, comparator-controlled non-inferiority trial. The present study was conducted in four hospitals and enrolled a total of 86 patients between 30 and 80 years of age who required one-level PLIF due to severe spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, or huge disc herniation. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and pain visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The spinal fusion rate was assessed at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The spinal fusion rate and the area of fusion, subsidence of each CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics and titanium cage, and the extent of osteolysis were evaluated using a dynamic plain radiography and a three-dimensional computed tomography at 12 months after surgery. The present study was supported by BioAlpha, and some authors (JHL, C-KL, and B-SC) have stock ownership (CaO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 glass ceramics spacer showed a similar fusion rates and clinical outcomes compared with titanium cage. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of hydroxyapatite onto glasses of the CaO-MgO-SiO2 system with B2O3, Na2O, CaF2 and P2O5 additives. (United States)

    Agathopoulos, S; Tulyaganov, D U; Ventura, J M G; Kannan, S; Karakassides, M A; Ferreira, J M F


    New bioactive glasses with compositions based on the CaO-MgO-SiO(2) system and additives of B(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Na(2)O, and CaF(2) were prepared. The in vitro mineralization behaviour was tested by immersion of powders or bulk glasses in simulated body fluid (SBF). Monitoring of ionic concentrations in SBF and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations at the surface of the glasses were conducted over immersion time. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy shed light on the structural evolution occurring at the surface of the glasses that leads to formation of hydroxyapatite.

  17. Structure, glass transition temperature and spectroscopic properties of 10Li2O-xP2O5-(89-x)TeO2-1CuO (5≤x≤25 mol%) glass system. (United States)

    Upender, G; Babu, J Chinna; Mouli, V Chandra


    X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR), Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption studies on 10Li2O-xP2O5-(89-x)TeO2-1CuO glasses (where x=5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mol%) have been carried out. The amorphous nature of the glasses was confirmed using XRD and FESEM measurements. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of glass samples have been estimated from DSC traces and found that the Tg increases with increasing P2O5 content. Both the IR and Raman studies have been showed that the present glass system consists of [TeO3], [TeO4], [PO3] and [PO4] units. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters such as g∥, g⊥, and A∥ have been determined from EPR spectra and it was found that the Cu2+ ion is present in tetragonal distorted octahedral site with [Formula: see text] as the ground state. Bonding parameters and bonding symmetry of Cu2+ ions have been calculated by correlating EPR and optical data and were found to be composition dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Features of the local structural disorder in Li 2O-CaF 2-P 2O 5 glass-ceramics with Cr 2O 3 as nucleating agent (United States)

    Murali Krishna, G.; Gandhi, Y.; Venkatramaiah, N.; Venkatesan, R.; Veeraiah, N.


    Li 2O-CaF 2-P 2O 5 glasses mixed with different concentrations of Cr 2O 3 (ranging from 0 to 1.0 mol%) were crystallized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential thermal analysis and conventional spectroscopic techniques. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies reveal the presence of lithium phosphate, calcium phosphate and chromium phosphate (complexes of Cr 3+, Cr 5+ and Cr 6+ ions) crystal phases. The study on DTA suggests that the crystallization is predominantly due to the surface crystallization when the concentration of nucleating agent Cr 2O 3 is around 0.8 mol%. The IR and Raman spectral studies of these samples indicate that the sample crystallized with 0.8 mol% Cr 2O 3 is more compact and possesses high rigidity due to the presence of chromium ions largely in tetrahedral positions.

  19. Synthesis, bioactivity and preliminary biocompatibility studies of glasses in the system CaO-MgO-SiO2-Na2O-P2O5-CaF2. (United States)

    Tulyaganov, D U; Agathopoulos, S; Valerio, P; Balamurugan, A; Saranti, A; Karakassides, M A; Ferreira, J M F


    New compositions of bioactive glasses are proposed in the CaO-MgO-SiO(2)-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) system. Mineralization tests with immersion of the investigated glasses in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C showed that the glasses favour the surface formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) from the early stages of the experiments. In the case of daily renewable SBF, monetite (CaHPO(4)) formation competed with the formation of HA. The influence of structural features of the glasses on their mineralization (bioactivity) performance is discussed. Preliminary in vitro experiments with osteoblasts' cell-cultures showed that the glasses are biocompatible and there is no evidence of toxicity. Sintering and devitrification studies of glass powder compacts were also performed. Glass-ceramics with attractive properties were obtained after heat treatment of the glasses at relatively low temperatures (up to 850°C).

  20. Mechanical and biological properties of two types of bioactive bone cements containing MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass and glass-ceramic powder. (United States)

    Tamura, J; Kawanabe, K; Kobayashi, M; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T; Yoshihara, S; Shibuya, T


    In this study two types of bioactive bone cement containing either MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass (type A) or glass-ceramic powder (type B) were made to evaluate the effect of the crystalline phases on their mechanical and biological properties. Type A bone cement was produced from glass powder and bisphenol-a-glycidyl methacrylate (BIS-GMA) resin, and type B from glass-ceramic powder containing apatite and wollastonite crystals and BIS-GMA resin. Glass or glass-ceramic powder (30, 50, 70, and 80 by wt %) was added to the cement. The compressive strength of type A (153-180 MPa) and B (167-194 MPa) cement were more than twice that of conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement (68 MPa). Histological examination of rat tibiae showed that all the bioactive cements formed direct contact with the bone. A reactive layer was seen at the bone-cement interface. In specimens with type A cement the reactive layer consisted of two layers, a radiopaque outer layer (Ca-P-rich layer) and a relatively radiolucent inner layer (low-calcium-level layer). With type B cement, although the Ca-P-rich layer was seen, the radiolucent inner layer was absent. Up to 26 weeks there was progressive bone formation around each cement (70 wt %) and no evidence of biodegradation. The mechanical and biological properties of the cements were compared with those of a previously reported bone cement containing MgO-free CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass powder (designated type C).

  1. Influencia del contenido de óxido de magnesio y del tratamiento térmico en la disolución de Ca+2 de un material cerámico bioactivo del tipo 31SiO2-11P2O5-(58-xCaO-xMgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Los materiales bioactivos generan un enlace cohesivo con los tejidos vivos debido a la formación de una capa superficial de hidroxicarbonato de apatita. Esta capa se forma por el intercambio de iones calcio (Ca2+ y fosfato (PO43- que ocurre entre el biomaterial y los fluidos circundantes. El presente trabajo establece la influencia que tiene sobre un material bioactivo, la presencia de óxido de magnesio en su tendencia de cristalización por tratamiento térmico. Además, relaciona el tipo de fases generadas con el grado de intercambio de iones Ca2+ entre el vitrocerámico y un fluido fisiológico simulado. El estudio se inició con la obtención de muestras vítreas de diferentes porcentajes de óxido de magnesio, posteriormente se determinó la temperatura de tratamiento térmico a la que el material se convierte en vitrocerámico; por último, las muestras fueron inmersas en una solución Ringer para disolución de Ca+2 mediante ensayo in vitro. La caracterización del grado de cristalinidad de las muestras se realizó mediante difracción de rayos x (DRX y microscopía óptica de luz reflejada (MO, y la disolución de Ca2+ en la solución Ringer se determinó mediante absorción atómica. Los resultados muestran que en el intercambio de iones calcio con la solución, no es determinante la cantidad presente de óxido de calcio en el vitrocerámico, sino la forma en la que el ión Ca2+ se encuentra dentro de la estructura del biomaterial.

  2. Effect of ZrO(2) additions on the crystallization, mechanical and biological properties of MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics. (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Meng, X G; Chen, C Z


    A series of ZrO(2) doped MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics were obtained by sintering method. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, morphology and structure of glass-ceramics were characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, micro-hardness and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of glass-ceramics were investigated. The in vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests were used to evaluate the bioactivity and biocompatibility of glass-ceramics. The sedimentation mechanism and growth process of apatites on sample surface were discussed. The results showed that the mainly crystalline phases of glass-ceramics were Ca(5)(PO4)3F (fluorapatite) and β-CaSiO(3). (β-wollastonite). m-ZrO(2) (monoclinic zirconia) declined the crystallization temperatures of glasses. t-ZrO(2) (tetragonal zirconia) increased the crystallization temperature of Ca(5)(PO4)(3)F and declined the crystallization temperature of β-CaSiO(3). t-ZrO(2) greatly increased the fracture toughness, bending strength and micro-hardness of glass-ceramics. The nanometer apatites were induced on the surface of glass-ceramic after soaking 28 days in SBF (simulated body fluid), indicating the glass-ceramic has good bioactivity. The in vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated the glass-ceramic has no toxicity to cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of pH values on surface modification and solubility of phosphate bioglass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system (United States)

    Li, Xudong; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Wenjuang; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Wei


    The bioactive glass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system were synthesized by the sol-gel technique, and then chemically treated at different pH values to study the solubility and surface modification. Samples sintered at 650 °C for 4 h consisted of the crystalline phase β-Ca 2P 2O 7 and the glass matrix. After soaking in the solution at pH 1.0, the residual glass matrix on the surface appeared entirely dissolved and no new phase could be detected. Whereas at pH 3.0, web-like layer exhibiting peaks corresponding to CaP 2O 6 was formed and covered the entire surface of the sample. When conducted at pH 10.0, only part of the glass matrix was dissolved and a new phase Ca 4P 6O 19 was precipitated, forming the petaline layer. The chemical treatment can easily change the surface morphologies and phase composition of this bioactive glass-ceramics. The higher level of surface roughness resulting from the new-formed layer would improve the interface bonding and benefit for cell adhesion.

  4. [Application of CaO-P2O5-MgO-SiO2-CaF system glass ceramics to periodontal therapy. Histopathological observation after implantation in furcation bony defect in monkeys]. (United States)

    Mukainakano, Y; Hongo, O; Asano, M; Kawanami, M; Kato, H


    This study was carried out in order to determine the efficacy of CaO-P2O5-MgO-SiO2-CaF system glass ceramics, which are made as implant materials, for treatment of furcation lesions. Glass ceramic granules were implanted in artificial class II furcation bony defects in monkeys. As controls, non-implanted sites were preserved. Radiographic and various clinical examinations were performed before surgery and at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. Two, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation, two monkeys were sacrificed and the mandibles were sectioned for histopathological observation. The results obtained were as follows; 1. During the experiment, no clinical problems or abnormal response at the sites of glass ceramic implantation were observed. 2. In clinical observation, no remarkable differences were obtained between control sites and implanted sites. 3. Two and 4 weeks after surgery, remarkable regeneration of bone was shown in the implanted sites. However 8 weeks after surgery, the difference between implanted and control sites was not so clear.

  5. Effect of yttria addition on mechanical, physical and biological properties of bioactive MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass ceramic. (United States)

    Al-Haidary, J; Al-Haidari, M; Qrunfuleh, S


    Preparation of the bioactive MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass was carried out utilizing tap casting and powder metallurgy methods. The original composition was modified with 0.2% Y2O3 and carbon additions. The mother and the modified bioglass were examined, and comparative studies were performed between the mother and modified type to study the compositional modification effects on physical, mechanical and biological properties. The histology of mother type showed that this type has a good biocompatibility with no rejection or inflammation reaction with the host bone, and new bone generation and formation were shown in the region of implant. The modification with 0.2% Y2O3 achieved a good improvement in the mechanical properties when compared with the mother system. The histology of this type showed a normal acceptance with no inflammation reactions. On the other hand, the modification with carbon achieved a superior improvement in the mechanical properties compared to the mother bioglass and showed a good acceptance with no inflammation reactions with the host body as well.

  6. Influence of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of ZrO2-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics. (United States)

    Li, Huan-Cai; Wang, Dian-Gang; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Chen, Chuan-Zhong


    Zirconia-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics are prepared using sintering techniques, and a series of heat treatment procedures are designed to obtain a glass-ceramic with improved properties. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, and morphology of the glass-ceramics are characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and microhardness of the glass-ceramics are investigated, and the effect mechanism of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties is discussed. The bioactivity of glass-ceramics is then evaluated using the in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test, and the mechanism whereby apatite forms on the glass-ceramic surfaces in the SBF solution is discussed. The results indicate that the main crystal phase of the G-24 sample undergoing two heat treatment procedures is Ca5(PO4)3F (fluorapatite), and those of the G-2444 sample undergoing four heat treatment procedures are Ca5(PO4)3F and β-CaSiO3 (β-wollastonite). The heat treatment procedures are found to greatly influence the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic, and an apatite layer is induced on the glass-ceramic surface after soaking in the SBF solution.

  7. Effect of Alumina Incorporation on the Surface Mineralization and Degradation of a Bioactive Glass (CaO-MgO-SiO2-Na2O-P2O5-CaF2-Glycerol Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshat Tulyaganov


    Full Text Available This study investigates the dissolution behavior as well as the surface biomineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF of a paste composed of glycerol (gly and a bioactive glass in the system CaO-MgO-SiO2-Na2O-P2O5-CaF2 (BG. The synthesis of the bioactive glass in an alumina crucible has been shown to significantly affect its bioactivity due to the incorporation of aluminum (ca. 1.3–1.4 wt % into the glass network. Thus, the kinetics of the hydroxyapatite (HA mineralization on the glass prepared in the alumina crucible was found to be slower than that reported for the same glass composition prepared in a Pt crucible. It is considered that the synthesis conditions lead to the incorporation of small amount of aluminum into the BG network and thus delay the HA mineralization. Interestingly, the BG-gly paste was shown to have significantly higher bioactivity than that of the as-prepared BG. Structural analysis of the paste indicate that glycerol chemically interacts with the glass surface and strongly alter the glass network architecture, thus generating a more depolymerized network, as well as an increased amount of silanol groups at the surface of the glass. In particular, BG-gly paste features early intermediate calcite precipitation during immersion in SBF, followed by hydroxyapatite formation after ca. seven days of SBF exposure; whereas the HA mineralization seems to be suppressed in BG, probably a consequence of the incorporation of aluminum into the glass network. The results obtained within the present study reveal the positive effect of using pastes based on bioactive glasses and organic carriers (here alcohols which may be of interest not only due to their advantageous visco-elastic properties, but also due to the possibility of enhancing the glass bioactivity upon surface interactions with the organic carrier.

  8. Corrosion resistance and in-vitro bioactivity of BaO containing Na2O-CaO-P2O5 phosphate glass-ceramic coating prepared on 316 L, duplex stainless steel 2205 and Ti6Al4V (United States)

    Edathazhe, Akhila B.; Shashikala, H. D.


    The phosphate glass with composition 11Na2O-15BaO-29CaO-45P2O5 was coated on biomedical implant materials such as stainless steel 316 L, duplex stainless steel (DSS) 2205 and Ti6Al4V alloy by thermal enamelling method. The structural properties and composition of glass coated substrates were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The coatings were partially crystalline in nature with porous structure and pore size varied from micro to nanometer range. The polarization curve was obtained for uncoated and coated substrates from electrochemical corrosion test which was conducted at 37 °C in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS). The corrosion resistance of 316 L substrate increased after coating, whereas it decreased in case of DSS 2205 and Ti6Al4V. The XRD and SEM/EDS studies indicated the bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer formation on all the coated surfaces after electrochemical corrosion test, which improved the corrosion resistance. The observed electrochemical corrosion behavior can be explained based on protective HAp layer formation, composition and diffusion of ions on glass coated surfaces. The in-vitro bioactivity test was carried out at 37 °C in HBS solution for 14 days under static conditions for uncoated and coated substrates. pH and ion release rate measurements from the coated samples were conducted to substantiate the electrochemical corrosion test. The lower ion release rates of Na+ and Ca2+ from coated 316 L supported its higher electrochemical corrosion resistance among coated samples. Among the uncoated substrates, DSS showed higher electrochemical corrosion resistance. Amorphous calcium-phosphate (ACP) layer formation on all the coated substrates after in-vitro bioactivity test was confirmed by XRD, SEM/EDS and ion release measurements. The present work is a comparative study of corrosion resistance and bioactivity of glass coated and uncoated

  9. Le leggi del caos

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya


    Contro la concezione deterministica delle leggi di natura, teocratica e indifferente alla dimensione temporale, Prigogine riconosce nuova dignita al 'caos', la cui instabilità è fonte di disordine ma anche di ordine.

  10. Fabrication and evaluation of osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on novel CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Mee; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Baek, Hae-Ri


    Apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramics have high mechanical strength, and CaO-SiO2 -B2 O3 glass-ceramics showed excellent bioactivity and high biodegradability. A new type of CaO-SiO2 -P2 O5 -B2 O3 system of bioactive glass-ceramics (BGS-7) was fabricated, and the effect and usefulness was evaluated via bioactivity using simulated body fluid and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The purpose of this study was to compare BGS-7 and hydroxyapatite (HA) using hMSCs in order to evaluate the bioactivity of BGS-7 and its possibility as a bone graft extender. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, cell proliferation 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay, Alizarin Red-S (AR-S) staining, calcium levels, the mRNA expression of ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx-2) using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the protein expression of osteocalcin and runx-2 using Western blot were measured by transplanting hMSC onto a tissue culture plate, HA, and BGS-7. The ALP staining and AR-S staining of BGS-7 was greater than that of HA and control. The ALP value of BGS-7 was significantly higher than that of HA and control. The MTS results showed that BGS-7 had a higher value than the groups transplanted onto HA and control on day 15. The calcium level was higher than the control in both HA and BGS-7, and was especially high in BGS-7. There were more mineral products on BGS-7 than on the HA when analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The mRNA expression of ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and runx-2 were higher on BGS-7 than on HA and the control when analyzed by RT-PCR. The relative gene expression of osteopontin and runx-2 were found to be higher on BGS-7 than on HA and the control by Western blot. Accordingly, it is predicted that BGS-7 would have high biocompatibility and good osteoconductivity, and presents a possibility as a new

  11. Proton Environments in Biomimetic Calcium Phosphates Formed from Mesoporous Bioactive CaO–SiO2–P2O5 Glasses in Vitro: Insights from Solid-State NMR (United States)


    When exposed to body fluids, mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) of the CaO–SiO2–P2O5 system develop a bone-bonding surface layer that initially consists of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which transforms into hydroxy-carbonate apatite (HCA) with a very similar composition as bone/dentin mineral. Information from various 1H-based solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments was combined to elucidate the evolution of the proton speciations both at the MBG surface and within each ACP/HCA constituent of the biomimetic phosphate layer formed when each of three MBGs with distinct Ca, Si, and P contents was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for variable periods between 15 min and 30 days. Directly excited magic-angle-spinning (MAS) 1H NMR spectra mainly reflect the MBG component, whose surface is rich in water and silanol (SiOH) moieties. Double-quantum–single-quantum correlation 1H NMR experimentation at fast MAS revealed their interatomic proximities. The comparatively minor H species of each ACP and HCA component were probed selectively by heteronuclear 1H–31P NMR experimentation. The initially prevailing ACP phase comprises H2O and “nonapatitic” HPO42–/PO43– groups, whereas for prolonged MBG soaking over days, a well-progressed ACP → HCA transformation was evidenced by a dominating O1H resonance from HCA. We show that 1H-detected 1H → 31P cross-polarization NMR is markedly more sensitive than utilizing powder X-ray diffraction or 31P NMR for detecting the onset of HCA formation, notably so for P-bearing (M)BGs. In relation to the long-standing controversy as to whether bone mineral comprises ACP and/or forms via an ACP precursor, we discuss a recently accepted structural core–shell picture of both synthetic and biological HCA, highlighting the close relationship between the disordered surface layer and ACP. PMID:28663772


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. ZHI-LIE CAO. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 209-218 Article. Genetic diagnosis of a Chinese multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A family through whole genome sequencing · ZHEN-FANG DU PENG-FEI LI JIAN-QIANG ZHAO ZHI-LIE ...

  13. Jing-Ya Cao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Jing-Ya Cao. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 126 Issue 5 July 2017 pp 64. Geochemistry and geochronology of the mafic dikes in the Taipusi area, northern margin of North China Craton: Implications for Silurian tectonic evolution of the Central ...

  14. Microstructure, Thermal, Mechanical, and Dielectric Properties of BaO-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 Glass-Ceramics (United States)

    Li, Bo; Bian, Haibo; Fang, Yi


    BaO-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 (BCABS) glass-ceramics were prepared via the method of controlled crystallization. The effect of CaO modification on the microstructure, phase evolution, as well as thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties was investigated. XRD identified that quartz is the major crystal phase; cristobalite and bazirite are the minor crystal phases. Moreover, the increase of CaO could inhibit the phase transformation from quartz to cristobalite, but excessive CaO would increase the porosity of the ceramics. Additionally, with increasing the amount of CaO, the thermal expansion curve tends to be linear, and subsequently the CTE value decreases gradually, which is attributed to the decrease of cristobalite with high CTE and the formation of CaSiO3 with low CTE. The results indicated that a moderate amount of CaO helps attaining excellent mechanical, thermal, and dielectric properties, that is, the specimen with 9 wt% CaO sintered at 950 °C has a high CTE value (11.5 × 10-6/°C), a high flexural strength (165.7 MPa), and good dielectric properties (ɛr = 6.2, tanδ = 1.8 × 10-4, ρ = 4.6 × 1011 Ω•cm).

  15. Preparation , rare earth doping and characterization of glasses and transparent glass-ceramics in the system Pb F2-Cd F2-M O (M O=Si O2, B2 O3, Te O2 and P2 O5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.P.; Ribeiro, S.J.L.; Messaddeq, Y.; Briois, V.; Poulain, M.


    In this work, we presents general results on the preparation and characterization of some related glasses. Various well known glasses former oxides were used together with Pb F 2 -Cd F 2 towards the preparation of a new glasses. Results from thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and absorption (Exafs) are presented for the Pb F 2 -Cd F 2 -M O systems, where M O=Si O 2 , B 2 O 3 , Te O 2 and P 2 O 5 . (author)

  16. Caos, fluidos y flujos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Herrera Díaz


    Full Text Available Desde hace aproximadamente 30 años, el mundo de la ciencia se revolucionó debido al nacimiento de un nuevo paradigma; a esta forma de ver el mundo se le conoce con el nombre de Teoría del Caos. En su corta vida, ya ''ha tocado todas las ramas del conocimiento, incluyendo por supuesto la Ingeniería" dice Mora (1998. Es así como muchos de los reconocidos ingenieros, como Aris en el campo de los reactores químicos, Froment en catálisis heterogénea, Coppens, que investiga los fenómenos de difusión y reacción en las redes que presentan las Zeolitas, Julio Ottino en la mezcla de fluidos, han comenzado a replantear viejos esquemas a través de esta teoría. El presente artículo busca mostrar los principales conceptos en los que se basa la teoría del caos, a través de ejemplos sencillos y de mostrar principalmente dos de sus relaciones con la ingeniería química como son el flujo y la mezcla de fluidos.

  17. Caso e caos

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David


    Caso e caos – Il caso ha la sua ragione. Ma quale? E cos’è in realtà il caso? Da dove viene e come può fare irruzione nella nostra descrizione dell’universo? A tutte queste domande, in una chiara e lucida esposizione, cerca di dare risposta David Ruelle. Curiosando tra i risultati scientifici del XX secolo e soffermandosi anche su fenomeni e problemi estranei alla scienza tradizionale – le lotterie, gli oroscopi, la teoria dei giochi, la genesi della turbolenza – Ruelle ci guida a conoscere il caso avendo la matematica, la fisica e tutte le scienze naturali come compagne. Ancora oggi il modo in cui il caso irrompe nelle nostre vite e nel mondo può essere un mistero, ma grazie ai progressi della scienza, qui raccontati, riusciamo a saperne un poco di più.

  18. Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles in SiO2 matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez W, C.; Mondragon G, G.; Perez H, R.; Mendoza A, D.


    Metallic nanoparticles was synthesized in SiO 2 matrices by means of a process of two stages. The first one proceeded via sol-gel, incorporating the metallic precursors to the reaction system before the solidification of the matrix. Later on, the samples underwent a thermal treatment in atmosphere of H 2 , carrying out the reduction of the metals that finally formed to the nanoparticles. Then it was detected the presence of smaller nanoparticles than 20 nm, dispersed and with the property of being liberated easily of the matrix, conserving a free surface, chemically reactive and with response to external electromagnetic radiation. The system SiO 2 -Pd showed an important thermoluminescent response. (Author)

  19. Adsorption of uranyl in SiO2 porous glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, F. E.; Prado, M. O.


    Vitreous SiO 2 porous matrices can be used in many applications involving the uptake of chemical species on its solid surface. In this work, vitreous silica sponges were prepared from a sodium borosilicate glass manufactured in our laboratory. The product obtained was then separated into phases with subsequent leaching of the soluble phase rich in B and Na. The resulting porous matrices have a specific surface of 35 m2/gr. Adsorption of uranyl ions onto the SiO 2 porous surface was studied to evaluate the use of this material as a filter for treatment of uranium containing water. The effects of contact time, adsorbent mass and equilibrium concentration of solution were studied. The porous adsorbent exhibits a pseudo-second-order kinetic behavior. The sponges with adsorbed uranium were thermally sealed as a way of U immobilization. Retention of uranium was confirmed during the matrix sealing by TGA. Uranium concentration before and after adsorption tests were made by means of ICP-OES. For uranium concentration of 800 ppm, 72 hours contact time and pH of 3.5, the amount of uranium adsorbed was 21.06 ± 0.02 mg U per gram of vitreous porous SiO 2 . (author)

  20. A Novel SOFC/SOEC Sealing Glass with a Low SiO2 Content and a High Thermal Expansion Coefficient  

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Agersted, Karsten; Zielke, Philipp


    phase boundaries. To reduce the amount of Si emission, a low Si containing sealing glass (chemical composition: 48 mol% CaO, 19 mol% ZnO, 21 mol% B2O3 and 12 mol% SiO2) was developed at DTU. In this presentation, the results from thermal characterization, like thermal expansion coefficient, glass...... to investigate the durability of the glass seal when exposed to dual atmosphere environments. The seals performed well over 400 h under fuel cell and electrolysis operation conditions, and no cell degradation or leakage related to the sealing was found, indicating that the developed glass system is applicable...

  1. A Novel SOFC/SOEC Sealing Glass with a Low SiO2 Content and a High Thermal Expansion Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Agersted, Karsten; Zielke, Philipp


    the amount of Si emission, a low Si containing sealing glass (chemical composition: 50 mol% CaO, 20 mol% ZnO, 20 mol% B2O3 and 10 mol% SiO2) was developed at DTU. In this work, the results from thermal characterization, the crystallization behavior of the glass and the long-term stability and adhesion...... behavior of the glass were studied under SOFC and SOEC relevant conditions. The glass-ceramic sealant performed well over 400 h, and no cell degradation or leakage related to the seal was found, indicating that the developed glass system is applicable for the use in SOFC/SOEC stacks....

  2. Effects of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) degradability on the apatite-forming capacity of electrospun PLGA/SiO(2)-CaO nonwoven composite fabrics. (United States)

    Kim, In Ae; Rhee, Sang-Hoon


    We investigated the effects of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) degradability on the apatite-forming ability of electrospun PLGA/SiO(2)-CaO gel composite fabric. Two PLGA copolymer compositions with low and high degradability were used in experiments. A nonwoven polymer/ceramic composite fabric composed of randomly mixed microsized biodegradable PLGA fibers and nanosized bioactive SiO(2)-CaO gel fibers was prepared using a simultaneous electrospinning method. A 17 wt.% PLGA solution was prepared using 1,1,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol as a solvent, while the SiO(2)-CaO gel solution was prepared via a condensation reaction following hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate under acidic conditions. PLGA and SiO(2)-CaO gel solutions were spun simultaneously with two separate nozzles under electric fields of 1 and 2 kV/cm using two syringe pumps with flow rates of 7.5 and 5 mL/h, respectively. As controls, low and high degradable PLGA and SiO(2)-CaO gel nonwoven fabrics were also made by the same methods. The five nonwoven fabrics that were produced were exposed to simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 week. SBF exposure resulted in the deposition of a layer of apatite crystals on the surfaces of both the SiO(2)-CaO gel and the low degradable PLGA/SiO(2)-CaO gel composite fabrics, but not on the low and high degradable PLGA or the high degradable PLGA/SiO(2)-CaO gel composite fabrics. The results are explained in terms of the acidity of the PLGA degradation products, which could have a direct influence on apatite dissolution.

  3. Comparative study of Laser induce damage of HfO2/SiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 mirrors at 1064 nm. (United States)

    Jiao, Hongfei; Ding, Tao; Zhang, Qian


    A comparative study of laser induced damage of HfO2/SiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 mirrors at 1064 nm has been carried out. One TiO2/SiO2 mirror with absorption of 300 ppm and two HfO2/SiO2 mirrors with absorption of 40 and 4.5 ppm were fabricated using electron beam evaporation method. For r-on-1 test, all HfO2/SiO2 mirrors with low average absorption are above 150 J/cm2 at 10 ns. However, the TiO2/SiO2 mirrors with high average absorption are just 9.5 J/cm2, which are probably due to the rather high absorption and rather low band gap energy. Meanwhile, all the samples were irradiated from front and back side respectively using the raster scan test mode. In case of front side irradiation, it is found that: for TiO2/SiO2 high reflectors, the representative damage morphologies are shallow pits that were probably caused by absorbing centers. However, for HfO2/SiO2 high reflectors, the dominant damage morphologies are micrometer-sized nodules ejected pits and the delamination initiating from the pits. The absorption of HfO2/SiO2 coatings is low enough to have minor influence on the laser damage resistance. In case of backside irradiation, the morphology of TiO2/SiO2 mirrors is mainly center melted pits that are thermal melting induced damage. Meanwhile, HfO2/SiO2 mirrors with isometrical fracture rings damage morphology are thermal induced stress damage.

  4. Characterization of Si nanocrystals into SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravalidis, C.; Logothetidis, S.; Hatziaras, N.; Laskarakis, A.; Tsiaoussis, I.; Frangis, N.


    Silicon nanocrystals (nc-Si) have gained great interest due to their excellent optical and electronic properties and their applications in optoelectronics. The aim of this work is the study of growth mechanism of nc-Si into a-SiO 2 matrix from SiO/SiO 2 multilayer annealing, using non-destructive and destructive techniques. The multilayer were grown by e-beam evaporation from SiO and SiO 2 materials and annealing at temperatures up to 1100 deg. C in N 2 atmosphere. X-rays reflectivity (XRR) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used for the structural characterization and spectroscopic ellipsometry in IR (FTIRSE) energy region for the study of the bonding structure. The ellipsometric results gave a clear evidence of the formation of an a-SiO 2 matrix after the annealing process. The XRR data showed that the density is being increased in the range from 25 to 1100 deg. C. Finally, the HRTEM characterization proved the formation of nc-Si. Using the above results, we describe the growth mechanism of nc-Si into SiO 2 matrix under N 2 atmosphere

  5. Interactions of atomic hydrogen with amorphous SiO2 (United States)

    Yue, Yunliang; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yuqi; Song, Yu; Zuo, Xu


    Dozens of models are investigated by the first-principles calculations to simulate the interactions of an atomic hydrogen with a defect-free random network of amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2) and oxygen vacancies. A wide variety of stable configurations are discovered due to the disorder of a-SiO2, and their structures, charges, magnetic moments, spin densities, and density of states are calculated. The atomic hydrogen interacts with the defect-free a-SiO2 in positively or negatively charged state, and produces the structures absent in crystalline SiO2. It passivates the neutral oxygen vacancies and generates two neutral hydrogenated E‧ centers with different Si dangling bond projections. Electron spin resonance parameters, including Fermi contacts, and g-tensors, are calculated for these centers. The atomic hydrogen interacts with the positive oxygen vacancies in dimer configuration, and generate four different positive hydrogenated defects, two of which are puckered like the Eγ‧ centers. This research helps to understand the interactions between an atomic hydrogen, and defect-free a-SiO2 and oxygen vacancies, which may generate the hydrogen-complexed defects that play a key role in the degeneration of silicon/silica-based microelectronic devices.

  6. Concentration effect of Tm3+ on cathodoluminescence properties of SiO2: Tm3+ and SiO2:Ho3+, Tm3+ systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dhlamini, MS


    Full Text Available .physb.2011.09.091 Concentration effect of Tm3+ on cathodoluminescence properties of SiO2: Tm 3+ and SiO2:Ho 3+, Tm3+ systems M.S. Dhlamini, G.H. Mhlongo, H.C. Swart, O.M. Ntwaeaborwa, K.T. Hillie ABSTRACT: Cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of SiO...

  7. Effect of Commercial SiO2 and SiO2 from rice husk ash loading on biodegradation of Poly (lactic acid) and crosslinked Poly (lactic acid) (United States)

    Prapruddivongs, C.; Apichartsitporn, M.; Wongpreedee, T.


    In this work, biodegradation behavior of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and crosslinked PLA filled with two types of SiO2, precipitated SiO2 (commercial SiO2) and SiO2 from rice husk ash, were studied. Rice husks were first treated with 2 molar hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce high purity SiO2, before burnt in a furnace at 800°C for 6 hours. All components were melted bending by an internal mixer then hot pressed using compression molder to form tested specimens. FTIR spectra of SiO2 and PLA samples were investigated. The results showed the lack of silanol group (Si-OH) of rice husk ash after steric acid surface modification, while the addition of particles can affect the crosslinking of the PLA. For biodegradation test by evaluating total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved during 60 days incubation at a controlled temperature of 58±2°C, the results showed that the biodegradation of crosslinked PLA occurred slower than the neat PLA. However, SiO2 incorporation enhanced the degree of biodegradation In particular, introducing commercial SiO2 in PLA and crosslinked PLA tended to clearly increase the degree of biodegradation as a consequence of the more accelerated hydrolysis degradation.

  8. Measurements of Defect Structures by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy of the Tellurite Glass 70TeO2-5XO-10P2O5-10ZnO-5PbF2(X = Mg, Bi2, Ti) Doped with Ions of the Rare Earth Element Er3. (United States)

    Pach, K; Filipecki, J; Golis, E; Yousef, El S; Boyko, V


    The objective of the study was the structural analysis of the 70TeO 2 -5XO-10P 2 O 5 -10ZnO-5PbF 2 (X = Mg, Bi 2 , Ti) tellurite glasses doped with ions of the rare-earth elements Er 3+ , based on the PALS (positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy) method of measuring positron lifetimes. Values of positron lifetimes and the corresponding intensities may be connected with the sizes and number of structural defects, the sizes of which range from a few angstroms to a few dozen nanometers. Experimental positron lifetime spectrum revealed existence of two positron lifetime components τ 1 andτ 2 . Their interpretation was based on two-state positron trapping model where the physical parameters are the positron annihilation rate and positron trapping rate.

  9. Thermoluminescence of ion-implanted SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.


    Thermoluminescence (TL) has been measured from room temperature to 500 0 C for ion-implanted fused silica glasses, crystalline synthetic quartz and rf-sputtered SiO 2 films. Measurements of the TL spectra for widely varying values of electronic and atomic energy depositions, along with the known impurity concentrations of the various systems, has allowed some of the TL features to be identified. In particular, (1) a TL peak at 150 0 C in fused silica has been identified with defects formed by structural modification, (2) a 330 0 C peak in crystalline quartz and relatively impure fused silica is tentatively assigned to a center involving Al, (3) a 100 0 C peak, common to all silicas may be related to oxygen vacancies, and (4) an approximately 200 0 C peak may be the analog of the 245 nm impurity absorption band seen in some fused silica glasses

  10. Direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres via electrospinning. (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Shang, Tinghua; Yang, Guang; Jia, Xiaolong; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping


    The direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted SiO2 (SiO2-PMMA) nanospheres via electrospinning was investigated in detail. SiO2-PMMA nanospheres were successfully prepared, with the SiO2 nanospheres synthesized via the Stober method, followed by in situ surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Electrospinning was carried out with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the solvent to disperse SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. The size of the SiO2 core, the molecular weight of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution all had substantial effects on the morphology and structure of electrospun nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. When these determining factors were well-tailored, it was found that one-dimensional necklace-like nanofibres were obtained, with SiO2-PMMA nanospheres aligned one by one along the fibre. The successful fabrication of nanofibres by directly electrospinning the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution verified that polymer-grafted particles possess polymer-like characteristics, which endowed them with the ability to be processed into desirable shapes and structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Structural Optimization System CAOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, John


    CAOS is a system for structural shape optimization. It is closely integrated in a Computer Aided Design environment and controlled entirely from the CAD-system AutoCAD. The mathematical foundation of the system is briefly presented and a description of the CAD-integration strategy is given together...

  12. Interface States Densities Effect at SiO2/ Polysilicon and SiO2/ Monosilicon Surfaces on N-polysilicon /Oxide/ P-Monosilicon Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dib


    Full Text Available the interface states have a very significant role in the components containing MOS structures. In this paper we study the interface states densities effect at SiO2/ N-polysilicon and SiO2/ P- monosilicon surfaces on metal/polysilicon /oxide/ monosilicon capacitance. The numerical solution of poisson's equation and the determination of the charge variation in the structure induced by application of external bias (Vg allow simulating the capacitance-voltage MSPOS characteristics. The results show that the interface states at SiO2/ polysilicon and SiO2/ monosilicon surfaces translate the CT (V curve about positive voltage and cause the increase of the minimum value of capacitance. The effect of interface states on C (V curves is neglected for the polysilicon doping concentration in order to 1019 cm-3. For this doping level, the C (V curves are identical to the C (V of the monocristalline MOS structure.

  13. Phonon spectra in SiO2 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez R, J.F.; Jimenez S, S.; Gonzalez H, J.; Vorobiev, Y.V.; Hernandez L, M.A.; Parga T, J.R.


    Phonon spectra in SiO 2 sol-gel made glasses annealed under different conditions are investigated using infrared absorption and Raman scattering. These data are compared with those obtained in commercial optical-quality quartz. All the materials exhibit the same phonon bands, the exact position and the intensity depend on the measuring technique and on the sample preparation method. The phonon spectra in this material are interpreted on the basis of a simple quasi-linear description of elastic waves in an O-Si-O chain. It is shown that the main features observed in the range 400-1400 cm -1 can be predicted using a quasi-linear chain model in which the band at 1070 cm -1 is assigned to the longitudinal optical waves in the O-Si-O chain with the smallest possible wavelength at the Brillouin zone boundary, the band located around 450 cm -1 is assigned to the transversal optical waves and the band at 800 cm -1 to the longitudinal acoustical waves with the same wavelength. The degree of structural disorder can be also deduced within the framework of the proposed model. (Author)

  14. Scintillator based on SiO2-aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, I.R.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Esenak, K.; Kuhta, L.; Ruzicka, J.; Fainor, V.


    For increasing the light output of SiO 2 -aerogel two aerogel samples were doped with the wavelength shifter POPOP. As a result a scintillator with intermediate density between the gas and the solid state has been produced. The light pulse shapes of the both samples are well approximated by a sum of two exponents with the decay times 1.4±0.1 ns (58% of total light output) and 5.2±0.4 ns (42%). Under irradiation of 5.5 MeV α-particles the light output of the sample with smaller wavelength shifter concentration was 30% and that of the sample with larger concentration was 8% of the light output of a plastic scintillator (polysterene, 2% paraterphenil, 0.2% POPOP). The obtained data indicate that the α/β ratio for both samples is close to 1. This material can be used in experiments where the amount of substance in the way of particles to be detected is a critical factor. (orig.)

  15. Functionalized sio2 microspheres for extracting oil from produced water

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu


    Functionalized material, methods of producing the functionalized material, and use thereof for separation processes such as but not limited to use for separating and extracting a dissolved organic foulant, charged contaminant or oily matter or any combination thereof from water, such as produced water, are provided. In an embodiment, the functionalized material is a mineral material, such as mica, silica (e.g. an SiO2 microsphere) or a metal oxide, and the outer surface of the material is functionalized with an alkyl chain or a perfluorinated species. In an embodiment, the method of making the functionalized material, includes: a) providing a mineral material; b) providing an alkyl chain and/or a perfluorinated species, the alkyl chain or perfluorinated species selected to dissolve organic foulants, charged contaminants or oily matter from water or any combination thereof; c) hydroxylating the material via a concentrated acid solution or a basic solution; and d) grafting the alkyl chain and/or the perfluorinated species onto the material via a silanation reaction.

  16. Synthesis of TiO 2-doped SiO 2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In XRD, FT–IR, and TEM investigations of these TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films, the titanium oxide species are highly dispersed in the SiO2 matrixes and exist in a ... Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, P.R. China ...

  17. Assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on SiO2 monodisperse spheres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on SiO2 monodisperse spheres. K C BARICK and D BAHADUR*. Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,. Mumbai 400 076, India. Abstract. The assembly of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on submicroscopic SiO2 ...

  18. Field emission properties of SiO2-wrapped CNT field emitter (United States)

    Lim, Yu Dian; Hu, Liangxing; Xia, Xin; Ali, Zishan; Wang, Shaomeng; Tay, Beng Kang; Aditya, Sheel; Miao, Jianmin


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit unstable field emission (FE) behavior with low reliability due to uneven heights of as-grown CNTs. It has been reported that a mechanically polished SiO2-wrapped CNT field emitter gives consistent FE performance due to its uniform CNT heights. However, there are still a lack of studies on the comparison between the FE properties of freestanding and SiO2-wrapped CNTs. In this study, we have performed a comparative study on the FE properties of freestanding and SiO2-wrapped CNT field emitters. From the FE measurements, freestanding CNT field emitter requires lower applied voltage of 5.5 V μm‑1 to achieve FE current density of 22 mA cm‑2 whereas SiO2-wrapped field emitter requires 8.5 V μm‑1 to achieve the same current density. This can be attributed to the lower CNT tip electric field of CNTs embedded in SiO2, as obtained from the electric field simulation. Nevertheless, SiO2-wrapped CNTs show higher consistency in FE current than freestanding CNTs. Under repeated FE measurement, SiO2-wrapped CNT field emitter achieves consistent FE behavior from the 1st voltage sweep, whereas freestanding field emitter only achieved consistent FE performance after 3rd voltage sweep. At the same time, SiO2-wrapped CNTs exhibit better emission stability than freestanding CNTs over 4000 s continuous emission.

  19. Assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on SiO2 monodisperse spheres

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The assembly of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on submicroscopic SiO2 spheres have been prepared by an in situ reaction using different molar ratios of Fe3+/Fe2+ (50–200%). It has been observed that morphology of the assembly and properties of these hybrid materials composed of SiO2 as core ...

  20. Nitric acid oxidation of Si (NAOS) method for low temperature fabrication of SiO2/Si and SiO2/SiC structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Imamura, K.; Kim, W.-B.; Im, S.-S.; Asuha


    We have developed low temperature formation methods of SiO 2 /Si and SiO 2 /SiC structures by use of nitric acid, i.e., nitric acid oxidation of Si (or SiC) (NAOS) methods. By use of the azeotropic NAOS method (i.e., immersion in 68 wt% HNO 3 aqueous solutions at 120 deg. C), an ultrathin (i.e., 1.3-1.4 nm) SiO 2 layer with a low leakage current density can be formed on Si. The leakage current density can be further decreased by post-metallization anneal (PMA) at 200 deg. C in hydrogen atmosphere, and consequently the leakage current density at the gate bias voltage of 1 V becomes 1/4-1/20 of that of an ultrathin (i.e., 1.5 nm) thermal oxide layer usually formed at temperatures between 800 and 900 deg. C. The low leakage current density is attributable to (i) low interface state density, (ii) low SiO 2 gap-state density, and (iii) high band discontinuity energy at the SiO 2 /Si interface arising from the high atomic density of the NAOS SiO 2 layer. For the formation of a relatively thick (i.e., ≥10 nm) SiO 2 layer, we have developed the two-step NAOS method in which the initial and subsequent oxidation is performed by immersion in ∼40 wt% HNO 3 and azeotropic HNO 3 aqueous solutions, respectively. In this case, the SiO 2 formation rate does not depend on the Si surface orientation. Using the two-step NAOS method, a uniform thickness SiO 2 layer can be formed even on the rough surface of poly-crystalline Si thin films. The atomic density of the two-step NAOS SiO 2 layer is slightly higher than that for thermal oxide. When PMA at 250 deg. C in hydrogen is performed on the two-step NAOS SiO 2 layer, the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics become as good as those for thermal oxide formed at 900 deg. C. A relatively thick (i.e., ≥10 nm) SiO 2 layer can also be formed on SiC at 120 deg. C by use of the two-step NAOS method. With no treatment before the NAOS method, the leakage current density is very high, but by heat treatment at 400 deg. C in pure hydrogen, the leakage current density is decreased by approximately seven orders of magnitude. The hydrogen treatment greatly smoothens the SiC surface, and the subsequent NAOS method results in the formation of an atomically smooth SiO 2 /SiC interface and a uniform thickness SiO 2 .

  1. Hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 Heterostructure Nanowire Arrays. (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Chunrui; Xie, Qingqing; Cai, Junsheng; Zhang, Jing


    Novel hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays were fabricated on silicon substrates by a one-step thermal evaporation of CdS powder. The as-grown products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Studies reveal that a typical hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire is composed of a single crystalline Cd4SiS6 nanowire core sheathed with amorphous SiO2 sheath. Furthermore, secondary nanostructures of SiO2 nanowires are highly dense grown on the primary Cd4SiS6 core-SiO2 sheath nanowires and formed hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays which stand vertically on silicon substrates. The possible growth mechanism of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays is proposed. The optical properties of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays are investigated using Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of SiO2/SiCN Core-shell Ceramic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hai-yuan


    Full Text Available The SiO2/PSN core-shell microspheres were prepared via an emulsion reaction combined with the polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs method using polysilazane (PSN in situ polymerization on the surface of SiO2 modified by silane coupling agents MPS, followed by pyrolysis process to obtain SiO2/SiCN core-shell ceramic microspheres. The effects of raw mass ratio, curing time and pyrolysis temperature on the formation and the morphology of core-shell microspheres were studied. The morphology, chemical composition and phase transformation were characterized by SEM, EDS, TEM, FT-IR and XRD. The results show that after reaction for 4h at 200℃, SiO2 completely coated PSN forms a core-shell microsphere with rough surface when the mass ratio of SiO2 and PSN is 1:4; when pyrolysis temperature is at 800-1200℃, amorphous SiO2/SiCN core-shell ceramic microspheres are prepared; at 1400℃, the amorphous phase partially crystallizes to produce SiO2, SiC and Si3N4 phase.

  3. Hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 Heterostructure Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jian


    Full Text Available Abstract Novel hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays were fabricated on silicon substrates by a one-step thermal evaporation of CdS powder. The as-grown products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Studies reveal that a typical hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire is composed of a single crystalline Cd4SiS6 nanowire core sheathed with amorphous SiO2 sheath. Furthermore, secondary nanostructures of SiO2 nanowires are highly dense grown on the primary Cd4SiS6 core-SiO2 sheath nanowires and formed hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays which stand vertically on silicon substrates. The possible growth mechanism of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays is proposed. The optical properties of hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire arrays are investigated using Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  4. Enhanced antioxidation and microwave absorbing properties of SiO2-coated flaky carbonyl iron particles (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Xie, Hui; Zhou, Wancheng; Ren, Zhaowen


    SiO2 was successfully coated on the surface of flaky carbonyl iron particles using a chemical bath deposition method in the presence of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES). The morphologies, composition, valence states of elements, as well as antioxidation and electromagnetic properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric (TG) and microwave network analyzer. TG curve shows the obvious weight gain of carbonyl iron was deferred to 360 °C after SiO2-coated, which can be ascribed to the exits of SiO2 overlayer. Compared with the raw carbonyl iron, SiO2-coated sample shows good wave absorption performance due to its impedance matching. The electromagnetic properties of raw and SiO2-coated carbonyl iron particles were characterized in X band before and after heat treatment at 250 °C for 10 h. It was established that SiO2-coated carbonyl iron demonstrate good thermal stability, indicating SiO2-coating is useful in the usage of microwave absorbers operating at temperature up to 250 °C.

  5. Effect of SiO2 addition and gamma irradiation on the lithium borate glasses (United States)

    Raut, A. P.; Deshpande, V. K.


    The physical properties like density, glass transition temperature (Tg), and ionic conductivity of lithium borate (LB) glasses with SiO2 addition were measured before and after gamma irradiation. Remarkable changes in properties have been obtained in the physical properties of LB glasses with SiO2 addition and after gamma irradiation. The increase in density and glass transition temperature of LB glasses with SiO2 addition has been explained with the help of increase in density of cross linking due to SiO4 tetrahedra formation. The increase in ionic conductivity with SiO2 addition was explained with the help of ‘mixed glass former effect’. The increase in density and Tg of LB glasses with SiO2 addition after gamma irradiation has been attributed to fragmentation of bigger ring structure into smaller rings, which increases the density of cross linking and hence compaction. The exposure of gamma irradiation has lead to decrease in ionic conductivity of LB glasses with SiO2 addition. The atomic displacement caused by gamma irradiation resulted in filling of interstices and decrease in trapping sites. This explains the obtained decrease in ionic conductivity after gamma irradiation of glasses. The obtained results of effect of SiO2 addition and gamma irradiation on the density, Tg and ionic conductivity has been supported by FTIR results.

  6. Kinetics of Valeric Acid Ketonization and Ketenization in Catalytic Pyrolysis on Nanosized SiO2, γ-Al2O3, CeO2/SiO2, Al2O3/SiO2and TiO2/SiO2. (United States)

    Kulyk, Kostiantyn; Palianytsia, Borys; Alexander, John D; Azizova, Liana; Borysenko, Mykola; Kartel, Mykola; Larsson, Mats; Kulik, Tetiana


    Valeric acid is an important renewable platform chemical that can be produced efficiently from lignocellulosic biomass. Upgrading of valeric acid by catalytic pyrolysis has the potential to produce value added biofuels and chemicals on an industrial scale. Understanding the different mechanisms involved in the thermal transformations of valeric acid on the surface of nanometer-sized oxides is important for the development of efficient heterogeneously catalyzed pyrolytic conversion techniques. In this work, the thermal decomposition of valeric acid on the surface of nanoscale SiO 2 , γ-Al 2 O 3 , CeO 2 /SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 and TiO 2 /SiO 2 has been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has also been used to investigate the structure of valeric acid complexes on the oxide surfaces. Two main products of pyrolytic conversion were observed to be formed depending on the nano-catalyst used-dibutylketone and propylketene. Mechanisms of ketene and ketone formation from chemisorbed fragments of valeric acid are proposed and the kinetic parameters of the corresponding reactions were calculated. It was found that the activation energy of ketenization decreases in the order SiO 2 >γ-Al 2 O 3 >TiO 2 /SiO 2 >Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 , and the activation energy of ketonization decreases in the order γ-Al 2 O 3 >CeO 2 /SiO 2 . Nano-oxide CeO 2 /SiO 2 was found to selectively catalyze the ketonization reaction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cytotoxicity and effect on GJIC of SiO2 nanoparticles in HL-7702 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Tao; Jin Minghua; Liu Xiaomei; Du Zhongjun; Zhou Xianqing; Huang Peili; Sun Zhiwei


    Objective: To study the cytotoxicity and effect on gap junction intracellular communication (GJIC) of SiO 2 nanoparticles in HL-7702 cells, and to provide experimental basis for toxicity assessment and the security applications of SiO 2 nanoparticles. Methods: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to characterize two kinds of SiO 2 nanoparticles, verifying their size, dispersion and shape; dynamic light scattering (DLS) method was used to analyze the water dispersion and culture medium dispersion of the SiO 2 nanoparticles; MTT assay was carried out to examine the cytotoxicities of the two sizes SiO 2 nanoparticles on the cells; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay was performed to examine the integrity nano of the cell membrane; Scrape-loading and dye transfer assay was performed to examine the effect of SiO 2 nanoparticles on GJIC. Results: Based on the result of TEM, two kinds of SiO 2 nanoparticles were spherically shaped, uniformly sized and sporadically dispersed; the statistical analysis results showed the diameters of the two nanoparticles were (447.60±20.78) nm and (67.42±5.69) nm, respectively, thus they could be categorized as submicron scale and nano scale. The DLS method results manifested that the hydration nanoparticle sizes of the two SiO 2 nanoparticles were (684.37±18.76) nm, (128.31±7.64) nm in high purity water and (697.02±19.57) nm, (133.74±8.97) nm in RPMI-1640 solution, all the two nanoparticles were well dispersed without aggregation. MTT assay indicated that 24 h after treatment of SiO 2 nanoparticles, the cell viabilities were affected by both the size and the dose of the SiO 2 nanoparticles; the higher the dose was, the less viability the cells exhibited. Moreover, the nano scale particles inflicted more damage to the cells. LDH release assay indicated that the SiO 2 particles could also damage the cell membrane in a dose-dependent and size-dependent way. Scrape-loading and dye transfer assay indicated that the nano scale particles could cause GJIC inhibition in a dose-dependent way; and when at the same dose, the nanoparticles could cause a more obvious inhibition of GJIC than the submicron particles. Conclusion: SiO 2 nanoparticles have cytotoxicity on HL-7702 cells, and would cause GJIC inhibition. (authors)

  8. Hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 Heterostructure Nanowire Arrays


    Liu, Jian; Wang, Chunrui; Xie, Qingqing; Cai, Junsheng; Zhang, Jing


    Abstract Novel hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 based heterostructure nanowire arrays were fabricated on silicon substrates by a one-step thermal evaporation of CdS powder. The as-grown products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Studies reveal that a typical hierarchical Cd4SiS6/SiO2 heterostructure nanowire is composed of a single crystalline Cd4SiS6 nanowire core sheathed with amorphous SiO2 sheath. Furthermore, secondar...

  9. Facile synthesis of microporous SiO2/triangular Ag composite nanostructures for photocatalysis (United States)

    Sirohi, Sidhharth; Singh, Anandpreet; Dagar, Chakit; Saini, Gajender; Pani, Balaram; Nain, Ratyakshi


    In this article, we present a novel fabrication of microporous SiO2/triangular Ag nanoparticles for dye (methylene blue) adsorption and plasmon-mediated degradation. Microporous SiO2 nanoparticles with pore size green 26 and curcumin crystalline. Amine-functionalized microporous SiO2/triangular Ag nanostructures were used for plasmon-mediated photocatalysis of methylene blue. The experimental results revealed that the large surface area of microporous silica facilitated adsorption of dye. Triangular Ag nanoparticles, due to their better charge carrier generation and enhanced surface plasmon resonance, further enhanced the photocatalysis performance.

  10. Formation of radiative centers in SiO2 by tin high-dose implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, F.F.; Parkhomenko, I.N.; Vlasukova, L.A.; Mil'chanin, O.V.; Mokhovikov, M.A.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.


    The structural transformations in SiO 2 layers implanted with high fluence of Sn ions have been investigated. It has been found that post-implantation annealing results in the β-Sn precipitation as well as the formation of SnO 2 -enriched regions in SiO 2 :Sn matrix. The intensive emission in the range of photon energies 1.5 – 3.5 eV is registered for the implanted and annealed samples. We attribute it to the oxygen deficiency centers created in the SiO 2 :Sn matrix and at the 'nanocluster/SiO 2 ' interfaces. (authors)

  11. Chemical durability and Structural approach of the glass series (40-y) Na2O-yFe2O3-5Al2O3-55P2O5-by IR, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqdim, S; Sayouty, El H; Elouad, B; Greneche, J M


    The relationship between the composition and structure for the glasses of general composition (40-y)Na 2 O-yFe 2 O 3 -5Al 2 O 3 -55P 2 O 5 (5≤y≤20), has been studied. The chemical durability and density of these glasses increase with increasing Fe 2 O 3 content. The dissolution rate (D R ), calculated from the weight loss in distilled water at 90°C for up to 20 days was ≈ 3.10 −9 g/cm 2 /mn which is 30 times lower than that of window glass. The structure and valence states of the iron ions in the glasses were investigated using, X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, potentiometric analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Both Mössbauer spectrometry and potentiometric analysis allow to estimate both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ contents in all these glasses. X-ray diffraction indicates that the local structure of iron phosphate glasses is related to the short range structures of NaFeP 2 O 7 . Infrared spectra indicate the formation of P–O–Fe bonds in the pyrophosphate glasses that replace P–O–Na bonds. The presence of a small content of Al 2 O 3 in the glass seems to play a role as a network modifier. The addition of Fe 2 O 3 to Al 2 O 3 in phosphate glasses favours the enhancement of the formation of pyrophosphate units because iron ions have stronger effect on the depolymerization of metaphosphate chains than the aluminium ions. Finally, the I.R spectra indicate that the presence of P-O-Fe bands of these glasses containing more than 15 mol%Fe 2 O 3 is consistent with their good chemical durability.

  12. Effect of calcium fluoride on sintering behaviour of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-MgO glass-ceramic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Mirhadi


    Full Text Available The crystallization characteristics of glasses based on the SiO2-CaO-Na2O-MgO (SCNM system containing calcium fluoride (CaF2 have been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The partial replacement of CaO by CaF2 in the studied glass-ceramics led to the development of different crystalline phase assemblages, including wollastonite and diopside using various heat-treatment processes. With the increase of CaF2 content, the crystallization temperature of the glass and the strength of the crystallization peak temperature decreases. Addition of CaF2 up to 6.0 mol%, as expected, improved the sinterability. This sample reached to maximum density by sintering at 950 °C.

  13. Radiation-induced redistribution of gold in SiO2-Si structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, V.V.; Emeksuzyan, V.M.; Spiridonov, V.N.


    Gold distribution in SiO 2 -Si structures after diffusion and its redistribution under irradiation by high-energy electrons are studied by DLTS and SIMS methods. It is shown that the concentration of substitutional gold increases at radiation doses of 10 13 to 10 14 cm -2 , which is due to the presence of a previously inactive interstitial component Au I and its dissolution in vacancies. A radiation dose increase results in radiation-induced gettering of gold by the SiO 2 -Si interface with subsequent penetration of gold into SiO 2 . The state of the SiO 2 -Si interface affects the behaviour of gold at irradiation. (author)

  14. Experimental determination of nanofluid specific heat with SiO2 nanoparticles in different base fluids (United States)

    Akilu, S.; Baheta, A. T.; Sharma, K. V.; Said, M. A.


    Nanostructured ceramic materials have recently attracted attention as promising heat transfer fluid additives owing to their outstanding heat storage capacities. In this paper, experimental measurements of the specific heats of SiO2-Glycerol, SiO2-Ethylene Glycol, and SiO2-Glycerol/Ethylene Glycol mixture 60:40 ratio (by mass) nanofluids with different volume concentrations of 1.0-4.0% have been carried out using differential scanning calorimeter at temperatures of 25 °C and 50 °C. Experimental results indicate lower specific heat capacities are found with SiO2 nanofluids compared to their respective base fluids. The specific heat was decreasing with the increase of concentration, and this decrement depends on upon the type of the base fluid. It is observed that temperature has a positive impact on the specific heat capacity. Furthermore, the experimental values were compared with the theoretical model predictions, and a satisfactory agreement was established.

  15. Synthesis of unidirectional structures of SiO2-Ag using Au nanoparticles as nucleation centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa S, G.; Mendoza A, D.; Gutierrez W, C.; Perez H, R.


    This paper reports a method to synthesize Ag unidirectional structures covered with SiO 2 by sol-gel technique using Au nanoparticles as nucleation centers of the unidirectional structures. In the first phase unidirectional structures of SiO 2 -Ag CI are obtained by sol-gel, using TEOS as a precursor of metallic structures (Ag) and the incorporation of Au nanoparticles as nucleation centers for growth of unidirectional structures. In the second stage, one-way systems are subjected to thermal treatment in H 2 atmosphere for obtain AG 0 particles through mechanisms that diffusion and coalescence of silver to form structures that have a thin cover of SiO 2 . Analysis by scanning electron microscopy, transmission and atomic force microscopy allowed to determine the chemical composition and microstructural properties of unidirectional systems SiO 2 -Ag. (Author)

  16. Interface properties of SiO2/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structures


    Yoshitaka, Nakano; Takashi, Jimbo


    Electrical characterization of SiO2/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structures fabricated on sapphire substrates was performed by using high-frequency pulsed capacitance-voltage and capacitance-transient techniques. Fast and slow capacitance transients are clearly seen after applying reverse voltages, reflecting thermal emissions of carriers from the SiO2/GaN interface. The temperature dependence of the capacitance-voltage characteristics shows capacitance saturation in deep depletion (>1...

  17. Tetrazoles in the Presence of Nano-TiCl 4 .SiO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 was found to be an extremely efficient catalyst for the preparation of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazole derivatives. Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 is a solid Lewis-acid was synthesized by the reaction of nano-SiO2 and TiCl4. The structure characterization of this acid was achieved with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric ...

  18. Core-exsolved SiO2 Dispersal in the Earth's Mantle (United States)

    Helffrich, G. R.; Ballmer, M.; Hirose, K.


    SiO2 may have been expelled from the core following its formation in the early stages of Earth's accretion and onwards through the present day. On account of SiO2's low density with respect to both the core and the lowermost mantle, we examine the process of SiO2 accumulation at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and its incorporation into the mantle by buoyant rise. Today, the if SiO2 is 100-10000 times more viscous than lower mantle material, the dimensions of SiO2 diapirs formed by the viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the CMB would cause them to be swept into the mantle as inclusions of 100 m - 10 km diameter. Under early Earth conditions of rapid heat loss after core formation, SiO2 diapirs of 5-80 km diameter could have risen independently of mantle flow to their level of neutral buoyancy in the mantle, trapping them there due to a combination of high viscosity and neutral buoyancy. We examine the SiO2 yield by assuming Si+O saturation at the conditions found at the base of a magma ocean and find that for a range of conditions, dispersed bodies could reach as high as 2 volume percent in shallow parts of the lower mantle, with their abundance decreasing with depth. At such low concentrations, their effect on aggregate seismic wavespeeds would be within the uncertainty of the radial Earth model PREM. However, their presence would be revealed by small-scale scattering in the lower mantle due to the bodies' large velocity contrast. We conclude that the shallow lower mantle (700-1500 km depth) could harbor SiO2 released in early Earth times.

  19. Nano-Ticl 4 .SiO 2 : a Versatile and Efficient Catalyst for Synthesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 has been found to be an extremely efficient catalyst for the preparation of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones/thiones via three-component reactions of an aldehyde, β-ketoester or β-diketone and urea or thiourea under mild conditions. Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as a solid Lewis acid has been synthesized by reaction of ...

  20. Growth Stress in SiO2 during Oxidation of SiC Fibers (Preprint) (United States)


    calculating the average self-pressure ( pav ) in the SiO2 scale throughout its thickness, as a function of total scale thickness (w), temperature, and fiber...2 ∑ p(bj2 − bj−12 )ij=1 [54] The average pressure ( pav ) was calculated for 6 and 3 µm...for public release; distribution unlimited. Fig. 13. Average SiO2 scale self-pressure ( pav ) for 6 and 3 µm radius fibers as a function of scale

  1. Screen-Printed Photochromic Textiles through New Inks Based on SiO2@naphthopyran Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Pinto, Tânia V; Costa, Paula; Sousa, Céu M; Sousa, Carlos A D; Pereira, Clara; Silva, Carla J S M; Pereira, Manuel Fernando R; Coelho, Paulo J; Freire, Cristina


    Photochromic silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 @NPT), fabricated through the covalent immobilization of silylated naphthopyrans (NPTs) based on 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran (S1, S2) and 3H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran (S3, S4) or through the direct adsorption of the parent naphthopyrans (1, 3) onto silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 NPs), were successfully incorporated onto cotton fabrics by a screen-printing process. Two aqueous acrylic- (AC-) and polyurethane- (PU-) based inks were used as dispersing media. All textiles exhibited reversible photochromism under UV and solar irradiation, developing fast responses and intense coloration. The fabrics coated with SiO 2 @S1 and SiO 2 @S2 showed rapid color changes and high contrasts (ΔE* ab = 39-52), despite presenting slower bleaching kinetics (2-3 h to fade to the original color), whereas the textiles coated with SiO 2 @S3 and SiO 2 @S4 exhibited excellent engagement between coloration and decoloration rates (coloration and fading times of 1 and 2 min, respectively; ΔE* ab = 27-53). The PU-based fabrics showed excellent results during the washing fastness tests, whereas the AC-based textiles evidenced good results only when a protective transfer film was applied over the printed design.

  2. Sol-gel preparation of self-cleaning SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer antireflective coating for solar glass (United States)

    Lin, Wensheng; Zheng, Jiaxian; Yan, Lianghong; Zhang, Xinxiang


    Self-cleaning SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer antireflective (AR) coating is prepared by sol-gel process. SiO2 sol is prepared by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and ammonia as catalyst, while TiO2 sol was prepared by using tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT) as precursor and hydrochloric acid as catalyst. The effect of TiO2 content on refractive index, abrasion-resistance and photo-catalytic activity of SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films or powders is systematically investigated. It is found that the refractive index of SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin films increases gradually from 1.18 to 1.53 as the weight ratio of TiO2 to SiO2 increased from 0 to 1.0. The SiO2-TiO2 hybrid thin film and powder possesses good abrasion-resistance and photo-catalytic activity, respectively, as the weight ratio of TiO2 to SiO2 is 0.4. The degradation degree of Rhodamine B by SiO2-TiO2 hybrid powder is 88.3%. Finally, SiO2-TiO2/SiO2-TiO2 double-layer AR coating with high transmittance, abrasion-resistance and self-cleaning property is realized.

  3. A facile approach to fabricate Au nanoparticles loaded SiO2 microspheres for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Mingyi; Huang, Guanbo; Li, Xianxian; Pang, Xiaobo; Qiu, Haixia


    Hydrophilic and biocompatible macromolecules were used to improve and simplify the process for the fabrication of core/shell SiO 2 @Au composite particles. The influence of polymers on the morphology of SiO 2 @Au particles with different size of SiO 2 cores was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical property of the SiO 2 @Au particles was studied with UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results indicate that the structure and composition of macromolecules affect the morphology of Au layers on SiO 2 microspheres. The SiO 2 @Au particles prepared in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have thin and complete Au nanoshells owing to their inducing act in preferential growth of Au nanoparticles along the surface of SiO 2 microspheres. SiO 2 @Au particles can be also prepared from SiO 2 microspheres modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane in the presence of PVA or PVP. This offers a simple way to fabricate a Au layer on SiO 2 or other microspheres. The SiO 2 @Au particles demonstrated high catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. - Highlights: • Facile direct deposition method for Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres. • Influence of different types of macromolecule on the formation of Au shell. • High catalytic performance of Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres

  4. Dry etched SiO2 Mask for HgCdTe Etching Process (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.; Sun, C. H.; Deng, L. G.; Zhang, S.; Xing, W.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; He, L.


    A highly anisotropic etching process with low etch-induced damage is indispensable for advanced HgCdTe (MCT) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) enhanced reactive ion etching technique has been widely adopted in manufacturing HgCdTe IRFPA devices. An accurately patterned mask with sharp edges is decisive to accomplish pattern duplication. It has been reported by our group that the SiO2 mask functions well in etching HgCdTe with high selectivity. However, the wet process in defining the SiO2 mask is limited by ambiguous edges and nonuniform patterns. In this report, we patterned SiO2 with a mature ICP etching technique, prior to which a thin ZnS film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The SiO2 film etching can be terminated at the auto-stopping point of the ZnS layer thanks to the high selectivity of SiO2/ZnS in SF6 based etchant. Consequently, MCT etching was directly performed without any other treatment. This mask showed acceptable profile due to the maturity of the SiO2 etching process. The well-defined SiO2 pattern and the etched smooth surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. This new mask process could transfer the patterns exactly with very small etch-bias. A cavity with aspect-ratio (AR) of 1.2 and root mean square roughness of 1.77 nm was achieved first, slightly higher AR of 1.67 was also get with better mask profile. This masking process ensures good uniformity and surely benefits the delineation of shrinking pixels with its high resolution.

  5. Tunable graphene doping by modulating the nanopore geometry on a SiO2/Si substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Namsoo


    A tunable graphene doping method utilizing a SiO2/Si substrate with nanopores (NP) was introduced. Laser interference lithography (LIL) using a He–Cd laser (λ = 325 nm) was used to prepare pore size- and pitch-controllable NP SiO2/Si substrates. Then, bottom-contact graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) were fabricated on the NP SiO2/Si substrate to measure the transfer curves. The graphene transferred onto the NP SiO2/Si substrate showed relatively n-doped behavior compared to the graphene transferred onto a flat SiO2/Si substrate, as evidenced by the blue-shift of the 2D peak position (∼2700 cm−1) in the Raman spectra due to contact doping. As the porosity increased within the substrate, the Dirac voltage shifted to a more positive or negative value, depending on the initial doping type (p- or n-type, respectively) of the contact doping. The Dirac voltage shifts with porosity were ascribed mainly to the compensation for the reduced capacitance owing to the SiO2–air hetero-structured dielectric layer within the periodically aligned nanopores capped by the suspended graphene (electrostatic doping). The hysteresis (Dirac voltage difference during the forward and backward scans) was reduced when utilizing an NP SiO2/Si substrate with smaller pores and/or a low porosity because fewer H2O or O2 molecules could be trapped inside the smaller pores.

  6. Thermodynamics of Bi2O3-SiO2 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onderka B.


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic properties of the liquid Bi2O3-SiO2 solutions were determined from the results of the electrochemical measurements by use of the solid oxide galvanic cells with YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia electrolyte. Activities of Bi2O3 in the solutions were determined for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 SiO2 mole fractions in the temperature range 1073-1293 K from measured electromotive force (e.m.f of the solid electrolyte galvanic cell: Bi, Bi2O3-SiO2 | YSZ | air (pO2 = 0.213 bar Additionally, heat capacity data obtained for two solid phases 6Bi2O3•SiO2 and 2Bi2O3•3SiO2 were included into optimization of thermodynamic properties of the system. Optimization procedure was supported by differential thermal analysis (DTA data obtained in this work as well as those accepted from the literature. Using the data obtained in this work, and the information about phase equilibria found in the literature, binary system Bi2O3-SiO2 was assessed with the ThermoCalc software.

  7. Integrated nanophotonic hubs based on ZnO-Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract Optical integration is essential for practical application, but it remains unexplored for nanoscale devices. A newly designed nanocomposite based on ZnO semiconductor nanowires and Tb(OH3/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres has been synthesized and studied. The unique sea urchin-type morphology, bright and sharply visible emission bands of lanthanide, and large aspect ratio of ZnO crystalline nanotips make this novel composite an excellent signal receiver, waveguide, and emitter. The multifunctional composite of ZnO nanotips and Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanoparticles therefore can serve as an integrated nanophotonics hub. Moreover, the composite of ZnO nanotips deposited on a Tb(OH3/SiO2 photonic crystal can act as a directional light fountain, in which the confined radiation from Tb ions inside the photonic crystal can be well guided and escape through the ZnO nanotips. Therefore, the output emission arising from Tb ions is truly directional, and its intensity can be greatly enhanced. With highly enhanced lasing emissions in ZnO-Tb(OH3/SiO2 as well as SnO2-Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanocomposites, we demonstrate that our approach is extremely beneficial for the creation of low threshold and high-power nanolaser.

  8. Integrated nanophotonic hubs based on ZnO-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanocomposites (United States)

    Lin, Hsia Yu; Cheng, Chung Liang; Lin, Yu Shen; Hung, Yann; Mou, Chung Yuan; Chen, Yang Fang


    Optical integration is essential for practical application, but it remains unexplored for nanoscale devices. A newly designed nanocomposite based on ZnO semiconductor nanowires and Tb(OH)3/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres has been synthesized and studied. The unique sea urchin-type morphology, bright and sharply visible emission bands of lanthanide, and large aspect ratio of ZnO crystalline nanotips make this novel composite an excellent signal receiver, waveguide, and emitter. The multifunctional composite of ZnO nanotips and Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanoparticles therefore can serve as an integrated nanophotonics hub. Moreover, the composite of ZnO nanotips deposited on a Tb(OH)3/SiO2 photonic crystal can act as a directional light fountain, in which the confined radiation from Tb ions inside the photonic crystal can be well guided and escape through the ZnO nanotips. Therefore, the output emission arising from Tb ions is truly directional, and its intensity can be greatly enhanced. With highly enhanced lasing emissions in ZnO-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 as well as SnO2-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanocomposites, we demonstrate that our approach is extremely beneficial for the creation of low threshold and high-power nanolaser.

  9. An efficient and convenient synthesis of N-substituted amides under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    silica-coated nanoparticles,9 sulfonic-acid functionalized silica,10 P2O5/SiO2,11 NaHSO4/SiO2,12,13 liquid HF,14 TMS– ...... expand the scope of the Ritter reaction for organic nitriles with secondary and primary aliphatic .... Jiang F, Lin Y J, Duan H F, Li Z H, Cao J G and Liang. D P 2010 Chem. Res. Chin. Univ. 26 384. 27.

  10. Petrogenesis of coexisting SiO 2-undersaturated to SiO 2-oversaturated felsic igneous rocks: The alkaline complex of Itatiaia, southeastern Brazil (United States)

    Brotzu, P.; Gomes, C. B.; Melluso, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Morra, V.; Ruberti, E.


    The Itatiaia alkaline complex is a Late Cretaceous intrusion (72 Myr) made up of felsic differentiates, with syenitic rocks dominant throughout and with presence of both nepheline- and quartz-rich varieties. Dykes with phonolitic or trachytic composition cross-cut the coarse-grained facies. The rocks are arranged concentrically, with the core of the complex being formed by SiO 2-oversaturated syenites (with a small outcrop of granites), and are radially displaced by faults related to regional tectonic lineaments. The minerals show gradual but significant changes in composition (salitic and augitic to aegirine-rich pyroxenes, hastingsite and actinolite to richterite and arfvedsonite amphiboles, sodic plagioclase to orthoclase feldspars and so on) and the whole-rock trends are broadly consistent with fractional crystallization processes dominated by alkali feldspar removal. Sr-isotopic data indicate more radiogenic ratios for the SiO 2-oversaturated rocks (0.7062-0.7067 against 0.7048-0.7054 for the SiO 2-undersaturated syenites), consistent with small amounts of crustal input. The favored hypothesis for the petrogenesis of the different syenitic groups is the prolonged differentiation starting from differently SiO 2-undersaturated mafic parental magmas (potassic alkali basalts to ankaratrites, present in the Late Cretaceous dyke swarms of the area), accompanied by variable crustal contamination prior to the final emplacement. The lack of carbonatite as a significant lithotype, the potassic affinity of the Itatiaia complex, and the relatively high Sr-isotopic ratios match the characteristics of the other complexes of the Rio de Janeiro-Sa˜o Paulo states coastline and confirm the ultimate derivation of these differentiated rocks from an enriched lithospheric mantle source.

  11. SiO2 coating of silver nanoparticles by photoinduced chemical vapor deposition. (United States)

    Boies, Adam M; Roberts, Jeffrey T; Girshick, Steven L; Zhang, Bin; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Mochizuki, Amane


    Gas-phase silver nanoparticles were coated with silicon dioxide (SiO2) by photoinduced chemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD). Silver nanoparticles, produced by inert gas condensation, and a SiO2 precursor, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were exposed to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at atmospheric pressure and varying temperatures. The VUV photons dissociate the TEOS precursor, initiating a chemical reaction that forms SiO2 coatings on the particle surfaces. Coating thicknesses were measured for a variety of operation parameters using tandem differential mobility analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the particle coatings was analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest purity films were produced at 300-400 degrees C with low flow rates of additional oxygen. The photo-CVD coating technique was shown to effectively coat nanoparticles and limit core particle agglomeration at concentrations up to 10(7) particles cm(-3).

  12. Ion assisted deposition of SiO2 film from silicon (United States)

    Pham, Tuan. H.; Dang, Cu. X.


    Silicon dioxide, SiO2, is one of the preferred low index materials for optical thin film technology. It is often deposited by electron beam evaporation source with less porosity and scattering, relatively durable and can have a good laser damage threshold. Beside these advantages the deposition of critical optical thin film stacks with silicon dioxide from an E-gun was severely limited by the stability of the evaporation pattern or angular distribution of the material. The even surface of SiO2 granules in crucible will tend to develop into groove and become deeper with the evaporation process. As the results, angular distribution of the evaporation vapor changes in non-predicted manner. This report presents our experiments to apply Ion Assisted Deposition process to evaporate silicon in a molten liquid form. By choosing appropriate process parameters we can get SiO2 film with good and stable property.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles Supported on Amorphous SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen


    Full Text Available In order to reduce the primary particle size of zinc oxide (ZnO and eliminate the agglomeration phenomenon to form a monodisperse state, Zn2+ was loaded on the surface of amorphous silica (SiO2 by the hydrogen bond association between hydroxyl groups in the hydrothermal process. After calcining the precursors, dehydration condensation among hydroxyl groups occurred and ZnO nanoparticles supported on amorphous SiO2 (ZnO–SiO2 were prepared. Furthermore, the SEM and TEM observations showed that ZnO nanoparticles with a particle size of 3–8 nm were uniformly and dispersedly loaded on the surface of amorphous SiO2. Compared with pure ZnO, ZnO–SiO2 showed a much better antibacterial performance in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test and the antibacterial properties of the paint adding ZnO–SiO2 composite.

  14. Semiconductor nanocrystals formed in SiO2 by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.G.; White, C.W.; Budai, J.D.; Withrow, S.P.; Chen, Y.


    Nanocrystals of group IV (Si, Ge and SiGe), III-V (GaAs), and II-VI (CdSe) semiconductor materials have been fabricated inside SiO 2 by ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing. The microstructure of these nanocrystalline semiconductor materials has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocrystals form in near-spherical shape with random crystal orientations in amorphous SiO 2 . Extensive studies on the nanocrystal size distributions have been carried out for the Ge nanocrystals by changing the implantation doses and the annealing temperatures. Remarkable roughening of the nanocrystals occurs when the annealing temperature is raised over the melting temperature of the implanted semiconductor material. Strong red photoluminescence peaked around 1.67 eV has been achieved in samples with Si nanocrystals in SiO 2

  15. SiO2 coating of silver nanoparticles by photoinduced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boies, Adam M; Girshick, Steven L; Roberts, Jeffrey T; Zhang Bin; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Mochizuki, Amane


    Gas-phase silver nanoparticles were coated with silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) by photoinduced chemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD). Silver nanoparticles, produced by inert gas condensation, and a SiO 2 precursor, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), were exposed to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at atmospheric pressure and varying temperatures. The VUV photons dissociate the TEOS precursor, initiating a chemical reaction that forms SiO 2 coatings on the particle surfaces. Coating thicknesses were measured for a variety of operation parameters using tandem differential mobility analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the particle coatings was analyzed using energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest purity films were produced at 300-400 0 C with low flow rates of additional oxygen. The photo-CVD coating technique was shown to effectively coat nanoparticles and limit core particle agglomeration at concentrations up to 10 7 particles cm -3 .

  16. The hydrophobic and omnidirectional antireflection coating of SiO2 nanospheres with C18-TEOS (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Lan, Wen-Lin; Chen, Nien-Po; Wu, Chyan-Chyi


    This paper demonstrates the antireflection coating of SiO2 nanospheres applied to cover glass by using the optimal spin-coating method. Because of the hydrolysis and condensation reactions between the SiO2 nanosphere antireflection (AR) coating and n-octadecyltriethoxysilane solution (C18-TEOS), the contact angle of the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment is improved approximately 38%, and the moisture-resistance remains unchanged, which preserved similar transmittance for six weeks. Furthermore, the AR coating with hydrophobic treatment exhibits approximately 3% and 7% improvement in the transmittance at normal and oblique incidence, respectively. The hydrophobic and omnidirectional AR coating with nanoscale SiO2 particles can be fabricated using the proposed simple and economical method.

  17. Temporal and Petrogenetic Constraints on Volcanic Accretionary Processes at 9-10 Degrees North East Pacific Rise (United States)


    have higher Mg#, wt% MgO, CaO , and Al2O3; lower wt% SiO2 , FeO, TiO2, and P2O5 ; slightly lower wt% K2O (and K2O/TiO2 x 100; herein referred to as K/, basaltic lavas from the eastern limb at 9º03’N EPR are quite homogeneous, but have higher wt% SiO2 , Na2O, K2O, FeO, TiO2, and P2O5 , and lower...basalts with intermediate Mg#, wt% CaO , FeO, and P2O5 . Lastly, pillow ridge basalt 265-12 is distinct from all other pillow ridge basalts with

  18. Preparation and luminescence properties of SiO2@LaBO3:Eu3+ nanoparticles (United States)

    Qin, Chuanxiang; Qin, Lin; Chen, Guoqiang; Xu, Haitao; Lin, Tong


    Spherical SiO2 particles having a LaBO3:Eu3+ shell have been prepared by coating of silica nanoparticles (size around 130-150 nm) with a LaBO3:Eu3+ sol-gel precursor and subsequent calcination. The SiO2@LaBO3:Eu3+ nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD and FTIR results revealed that the LaBO3:Eu3+ layer on SiO2 nanoparticles formed an H-LaBO3 crystal phase when calcination at a temperature up to 700 °C. Both excitation and emission properties were characterized. The strong excitation lines at 393 and 465 nm of SiO2@LaBO3:Eu3+ indicated that the core-shell phosphor matched well with the output wavelength of near-UV (350-400 nm) or blue LED (450 nm) chips in phosphor-converted W-LEDs. The emission spectra of the 5D0 → 7F J ( J = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) transitions at blue/near-UV light showed strong emission lines around 615 nm which were attributed to the induced electric dipole transition of 5D0 → 7F2. The coating cycles affected the luminescence of SiO2@LaBO3:Eu3+ nanoparticles and their CIE chromaticity coordinate shifted from orange-red to the deep red zone with the increase in the coating cycles (up to 3). The luminescence lifetime of the Eu3+ ions in SiO2@LaBO3:Eu3+ was 2.32 ms. Such a luminescent material may be useful for display and light applications.

  19. Bond length contraction in Au nanocrystals formed by ion implantation into thin SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giraud, V.; Cheung, A.; Glover, C.J.; Azevedo, G. de M; Foran, G.J.; Ridgway, M.C.


    Au nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated by ion implantation into thin SiO 2 and annealing were investigated by means of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A bond length contraction was observed and can be explained by surface tension effects in a simple liquid-drop model. Such results are consistent with previous reports on nonembedded NCs implying a negligible influence of the SiO 2 matrix. Cumulant analysis of the EXAFS data suggests surface reconstruction or relaxation involving a further shortened bond length. A deviation from the octahedral closed shell structure is apparent for NCs of size 25 A

  20. Multifunctional Materials Held in Boston, Massachusetts on November 29- December 1 1989. Materials Research Proceedings. Volume 175 (United States)


    type HAP composite. There were CaO - SiO2 - P2O5 -MgO system intermediate layers between HAP and whiskers. Matrix grain size was 2 -- 4um. the length of...initially on a serendipitous observation, in making a controllable zero expansion ceramic with the NZP or Nasicon or Cao .5T12P3012 structurally relied on...these investigations, diopside whisker of aspect ratio l01 5 was formed. Moreover the intermediate layer of CaO - SiO2 -P205-MgO system was generated at

  1. Characterization in vitro studies and antibacterial properties on a sol-gel derived silver incorporated bioglass (United States)

    Bouhazma, S.; Chajri, S.; Khaldi, M.; Sadiki, M.; Barkai, H.; Elabed, S.; Ibnsouda Koraichi, S.; El Bali, B.; Lachkar, M.


    The SiO2-CaO, SiO2-CaO-P2O5 and SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Ag2O glass systems were synthesized by the sol-gel technique and characterized with different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In vitro bioactivity tests were performed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The antibacterial action of 65S5Ag (65%SiO2 + 24%CaO + 6%P2O5 + 5% Ag2O) is attributed exclusively to the leaching of Ag+ ions from the glass matrix. The activity of SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Ag2O was compared with that of its binary and ternary counterpart glass system. The concentrations of Ag-bioglass, in the range of 0.05 mg/mL of culture medium, were found to inhibit the growth of these bacteria.

  2. Structural colors of the SiO2/polyethyleneimine thin films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yanrong; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Qiubao; Fan, Qinguo; Shao, Jianzhong


    The SiO 2 /polyethyleneimine (PEI) films with structural colors on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates were fabricated by an electrostatic self-assembly method. The morphology of the films was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that there was no distinguishable multilayered structure found of SiO 2 /PEI films. The optical behaviors of the films were investigated through the color photos captured by a digital camera and the color measurement by a multi-angle spectrophotometer. Different hue and brightness were observed at various viewing angles. The structural colors were dependent on the SiO 2 particle size and the number of assembly cycles. The mechanism of the structural colors generated from the assembled films was elucidated. The morphological structures and the optical properties proved that the SiO 2 /PEI film fabricated on PET substrate formed a homogeneous inorganic/organic SiO 2 /PEI composite layer, and the structural colors were originated from single thin film interference. - Highlights: • SiO 2 /PEI thin films were electrostatic self-assembled on PET substrates. • The surface morphology and optical behavior of the film were investigated. • The structural colors varied with various SiO 2 particle sizes and assembly cycles. • Different hue and lightness of SiO 2 /PEI film were observed at various viewing angles. • Structural color of the SiO 2 /PEI film originated from single thin film interference

  3. Fabrication of an ordered mesoporous nanoparticle SiO2/Mc and their CMP of fused silica application (United States)

    Xu, L.; Zou, C. L.; Zhang, X.; Kang, C. X.; Luo, G. H.; Pan, G. S.


    Here we developed an inorganic SiO2 core/mesoporous carbon shell structured (SiO2/Mc) nano-composite particle with an average size ∼50 nm as abrasives with improved dispersibility and distribution via a hydro-thermal route to obtain reserved fused silica surface and subsurface. The obtained SiO2/Mc were characterized by scanning electronic microscope. Atomic force microscopy was used to assess the surface before and after planarization. The results indicated the as-prepared SiO2/Mc composite abrasives gave a much lower surface roughness as well as lower topographical variations than that of traditional colloidal silica abrasives.

  4. Synthesis of crystalline Ge nanoclusters in PE-CVD-deposited SiO2 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leervad Pedersen, T.P.; Skov Jensen, J.; Chevallier, J.


    The synthesis of evenly distributed Ge nanoclusters in plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour-deposited (PE-CVD) SiO2 thin films containing 8 at. % Ge is reported. This is of importance for the application of nanoclusters in semiconductor technology. The average diameter of the Ge nanoclusters can...

  5. Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2: Optical studies in the vacuum ultraviolet range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, V.; Osinniy, Viktor; Kotlov, A.


    Photoluminescence excitation and transmission spectra of Si nanocrystals of different diameters embedded in a SiO2 matrix have been investigated in the broad visible-vacuum ultraviolet spectral range using synchrotron radiation. The dependence of the photoluminescence excitation spectra...

  6. Growth stress evolution in HfO2/SiO2 multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingping; Fang, Ming; He, Hongbo; Shao, Jianda; Fan, Zhengxiu; Li, Zhaoyang


    Growth stress in hafnium oxide/silicon dioxide (HfO 2 /SiO 2 ) multilayers was measured in situ to understand the role of the sublayers and the influence of the underlayers' structural features. Experiments using three- and six-layer films were performed by electron-beam evaporation. During deposition, the developing trend of the force per unit width was controlled by changing the thickness ratio of the HfO 2 and SiO 2 layers. The substrate material affected the initial stress evolution of HfO 2 film. The structural feature of the HfO 2 layer onto which SiO 2 was deposited and the whole film thickness have a combined effect on the stress evolution of the SiO 2 layer. - Highlights: ► Film radius stress relates to thickness ratio of sublayers. ► The initial stress evolutions of HfO 2 depended on the substrate material. ► The structural feature of H layer affects the stress evolution of L layer.

  7. FeCl3.nano SiO2: An Efficient Heterogeneous Nano Catalyst for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 28, 2012 ... Solid acids have attracted much attention in organic synthesis owing to their easy work-up procedures, ... including the reaction of aryloxy magnesium halides and triethylorthoformate,13 cyclodehydration ... trichloroacetic acid,27 bismuth(III) chlo- ride,28 sulfonic acid functionalized silica (SiO2-Pr-SO3H),29.

  8. Preparation of TiO2-SiO2 composite photocatalysts for environmental applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paušová, Š.; Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Prevot, V.; Mailhot, G.


    Roč. 89, č. 8 (2014), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0268-2575 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : photocatalysis * TiO2/SiO2 * composite Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.349, year: 2014

  9. Nanoimprint lithography using TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable materials (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi


    Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography has great potential for commercial device applications that are closest to production such as optical gratings, planar waveguides, photonic crystals, semiconductor, displays, solar cell panel, sensors, highbrightness LEDs, OLEDs, and optical data storage. I report and demonstrate the newly TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable materials with 20-25 wt% ratio of high titanium for CF4/O2 etch selectivity using nanoimprint lithography process. The multiple structured three-dimensional micro- and nanolines patterns were observed to be successfully patterned over the large areas. The effect of titanium concentration on CF4/O2 etch selectivity with pattern transferring carbon layer imprinting time was investigated. CF4/O2 etching rate of the TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable material was approximately 3.8 times lower than that of the referenced SiO2 sol-gel ultraviolet curable material. The TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable material with high titanium concentration has been proved to be versatile in advanced nanofabrication.

  10. Theory of Al2O3 incorporation in SiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper


    Different possible forms of Al2O3 units in a SiO2 network are studied theoretically within the framework of density-functional theory. Total-energy differences between the various configurations are obtained, and simple thermodynamical arguments are used to provide an estimate of their relative...

  11. Electrical impedance spectroscopic investigations of monodispersed SiO2 nanospheres (United States)

    Sakthisabarimoorthi, A.; Martin Britto Dhas, S. A.; Jose, M.


    Dielectric analysis of uniform and monodispersed SiO2 nanospheres at various temperatures in the frequency range 1 Hz-1 MHz is reported. The high optical transmittance and the presence of silica network in the synthesized product are evident from UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopic techniques respectively. The amorphous structure of SiO2 nanospheres is investigated by powder XRD pattern and uniform spherical morphology is visualized by FESEM analysis. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy elucidated the exact valence states of the SiO2 nanospheres. The temperature dependent dielectric parameters such as, dielectric constant (εr) and loss factor (tan δ) are decreased with increasing applied frequency and became static at higher frequencies. SiO2 nanospheres exhibited high dielectric constant (εr = 68) and low loss factor (tan δ = 0.0079) at 40 °C at 1 MHz. The activation energy (Ea) and relaxation time constant (τ) are calculated and the equivalent circuit model is developed to describe the electrical behaviour of the material.

  12. CoFe2O4-SiO2 Composites: Preparation and Magnetodielectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh


    Full Text Available Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 and silica (SiO2 nanopowders have been prepared by the microwave hydrothermal (M-H method using metal nitrates as precursors of CoFe2O4 and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a precursor of SiO2. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD and FESEM. The (100-x (CoFe2O4 + xSiO2 (where x = 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% composites with different weight percentages have been prepared using ball mill method. The composite samples were sintered at 800°C/60 min using the microwave sintering method and then their structural and morphological studies were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR spectra, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The effect of SiO2 content on the magnetic and electrical properties of CoFe2O4/SiO2 nanocomposites has been studied via the magnetic hysteresis loops, complex permeability, permittivity spectra, and DC resistivity measurements. The synthesized nanocomposites with adjustable grain sizes and controllable magnetic properties make the applicability of cobalt ferrite even more versatile.

  13. Catalytic combustion of trichloroethylene over TiO2-SiO2 supported catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulazynski, M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Trawczynski, J.; Walendziewski, J.


    Combustion of trichloroethylene (TCE) on Cr2O3, V2O5, Pt or Pd catalysts supported on TiO2-SiO2 as a carrier has been investigated. It was found that oxide catalysts are very active but their activity quickly diminishes due to loss of the active component, especially at higher reaction temperatures

  14. Selective SiO2 etching in three dimensional structures using parylene-C as mask

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, Henk-Willem; Zhao, Yiyuan; de Boer, Meint J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad


    This abstract describes an application of an easy and straightforward method for selective SiO2 etching in three dimensional structures, which is developed by our group. The application in this abstract is the protection of the buried-oxide (BOX) layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer against

  15. SiO2 Glass Density to Lower-Mantle Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petitgirard, Sylvain; Malfait, Wim J.; Journaux, Baptiste


    and present Earth. SiO2 is the main constituent of Earth's mantle and is the reference model system for the behavior of silicate melts at high pressure. Here, we apply our recently developed x-ray absorption technique to the density of SiO2 glass up to 110 GPa, doubling the pressure range...... for such measurements. Our density data validate recent molecular dynamics simulations and are in good agreement with previous experimental studies conducted at lower pressure. Silica glass rapidly densifies up to 40 GPa, but the density trend then flattens to become asymptotic to the density of SiO2 minerals above 60...... GPa. The density data present two discontinuities at similar to 17 and similar to 60 GPa that can be related to a silicon coordination increase from 4 to a mixed 5/6 coordination and from 5/6 to sixfold, respectively. SiO2 glass becomes denser than MgSiO3 glass at similar to 40 GPa, and its density...

  16. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of ZrO2-SiO2 Nanoparticles by Platinum Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi


    Full Text Available ZrO2-SiO2 mixed oxides were prepared via the sol-gel method. Photo-assisted deposition was utilized for doping the prepared mixed oxide with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 wt% of Pt. XRD spectra showed that doping did not result in the incorporation of Pt within the crystal structure of the material. UV-reflectance spectrometry showed that the band gap of ZrO2-SiO2 decreased from 3.04 eV to 2.48 eV with 0.4 wt% Pt doping. The results show a specific surface area increase of 20%. Enhanced photocatalysis of Pt/ZrO2-SiO2 was successfully tested on photo degradation of cyanide under illumination of visible light. 100% conversion was achieved within 20 min with 0.3 wt% of Pt doped ZrO2-SiO2.

  17. Friction and wear studies on nylon-6/SiO2 nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Luz Garcia-Curiel, M.M.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; van Zyl, W.E.; Verweij, H.


    Composites of nanometer-sized silica (SiO2) filler incorporated in nylon-6 polymer were prepared by compression molding. Their friction and wear properties were investigated on a pin on disk tribometer by running a flat pin of steel against a composite disc. The morphologies of the composites as

  18. Enhanced field emission properties of carbon nanotube bundles confined in SiO2 pits (United States)

    Lim, Yu Dian; Grapov, Dmitry; Hu, Liangxing; Kong, Qinyu; Tay, Beng Kang; Labunov, Vladimir; Miao, Jianmin; Coquet, Philippe; Aditya, Sheel


    It has been widely reported that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit superior field emission (FE) properties due to their high aspect ratios and unique structural properties. Among the various types of CNTs, random growth CNTs exhibit promising FE properties due to their reduced inter-tube screening effect. However, growing random growth CNTs on individual catalyst islands often results in spread out CNT bundles, which reduces overall field enhancement. In this study, significant improvement in FE properties in CNT bundles is demonstrated by confining them in microfabricated SiO2 pits. Growing CNT bundles in narrow (0.5 μm diameter and 2 μm height) SiO2 pits achieves FE current density of 1–1.4 A cm‑2, which is much higher than for freestanding CNT bundles (76.9 mA cm‑2). From the Fowler Nordheim plots, confined CNT bundles show a higher field enhancement factor. This improvement can be attributed to the reduced bundle diameter by SiO2 pit confinement, which yields bundles with higher aspect ratios. Combining the obtained outcomes, it can be conclusively summarized that confining CNTs in SiO2 pits yields higher FE current density due to the higher field enhancement of confined CNTs.

  19. Nano-TiCl4/SiO2: An efficient heterogeneous solid acid catalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nano-TiCl4/SiO2 was found to be an inexpensive and efficient heterogeneous solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of one-pot cascade synthesis of highly functionalized asymmetric tetrahydropyridines from the five-component condensation reaction of the para-substituted anilines and aromatic aldehydes with ethyl.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of silica–gold core-shell (SiO2@Au ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and characterization of silica–gold core-shell (SiO2@Au) nanoparticles. DEEPIKA KANDPAL. 1,∗. , SUCHITA KALELE. 2 and S K KULKARNI. 2. 1. Department of Physics, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology,. Pantnagar 263 145, India. 2. Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, ...

  1. A microbiological evaluation of SiO2-coated textiles in hospital interiors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul-Erik; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed


    contact plates through a three-week period. By determining the level of contamination on these surfaces, the study illustrates that the SiO2-coated textile is possible to clean to an acceptable level below the critical limit value of 2,5 Colony Forming Units (CFU) per cm2. In comparison, the traditional...

  2. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    And special attention has been focused on the relationship between the local structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to provide vital information for the design and application of such highly efficient photocatalytic systems in the degradation of ...

  3. Hazards of TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.


    TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nylo de Aguiar


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the kinetics and thermodynamics of marble residue mixtures utilisation on desulfurization of pig iron. The desulfurization was carried out using lime, marble residue, fluorite and pig iron. Different mixtures of these materials were added into a bath of pig iron at 1,450°C. Metal samples were collected via vacuum samplers at times of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes, in order to check the variation of sulfur content. Based on the results of chemical analysis of the metal and the desulfurizer mixture, the sulfide capacity of mixtures, the sulfur partition coefficient and the sulfur mass transport coefficient values were calculated.The results show the technical feasibility of using marble waste as desulfurizer agent.

  5. Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) Imager (United States)

    Riza, N. A.; Amin, M. J.; La Torre, J. P.


    High spatial resolution, low inter-pixel crosstalk, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), adequate application dependent speed, economical and energy efficient design are common goals sought after for optical image sensors. In optical microscopy, overcoming the diffraction limit in spatial resolution has been achieved using materials chemistry, optimal wavelengths, precision optics and nanomotion-mechanics for pixel-by-pixel scanning. Imagers based on pixelated imaging devices such as CCD/CMOS sensors avoid pixel-by-pixel scanning as all sensor pixels operate in parallel, but these imagers are fundamentally limited by inter-pixel crosstalk, in particular with interspersed bright and dim light zones. In this paper, we propose an agile pixel imager sensor design platform called Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) that can greatly alleviate the mentioned fundamental limitations, empowering smart optical imaging for particular environments. Specifically, this novel CAOS imager engages an application dependent electronically programmable agile pixel platform using hybrid space-time-frequency coded multiple-access of the sampled optical irradiance map. We demonstrate the foundational working principles of the first experimental electronically programmable CAOS imager using hybrid time-frequency multiple access sampling of a known high contrast laser beam irradiance test map, with the CAOS instrument based on a Texas Instruments (TI) Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). This CAOS instrument provides imaging data that exhibits 77 dB electrical SNR and the measured laser beam image irradiance specifications closely match (i.e., within 0.75% error) the laser manufacturer provided beam image irradiance radius numbers. The proposed CAOS imager can be deployed in many scientific and non-scientific applications where pixel agility via electronic programmability can pull out desired features in an irradiance map subject to the CAOS imaging operation.

  6. Efficient photocatalytic activity with carbon-doped SiO2 nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongen


    Photocatalysis provides a \\'green\\' approach to completely eliminate various kinds of contaminants that are fatal for current environmental and energy issues. Semiconductors are one of the most frequently used photocatalysts as they can absorb light over a wide spectral range. However, it is also well known that naked SiO2 is not an efficient photocatalyst due to its relatively large band gap, which could only absorb shortwave ultraviolet light. In this report, nanoscale particles of carbon-doped silicon dioxide (C-doped SiO2) for use in photocatalysis were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot thermal process using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the source of both silicon and carbon. These particles were subsequently characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, standard and high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The C-doped SiO2 displayed outstanding photocatalytic properties, as evidenced by its catalysis of Rhodamine B degradation under near-UV irradiation. We propose that carbon doping of the SiO2 lattice creates new energy states between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band, which narrows the band gap of the material. As a result, the C-doped SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in a neutral environment. The novel synthesis reported herein for this material is both energy efficient and environmentally friendly and as such shows promise as a technique for low-cost, readily scalable industrial production. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Ultrathin Microporous SiO2 Membranes Photodeposited on Hydrogen Evolving Catalysts Enabling Overall Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Bau, Jeremy A.


    Semiconductor systems for photocatalytic overall water splitting into H2 and O2 gases typically require metal cocatalyst particles, such as Pt, to efficiently catalyze H2 evolution. However, such metal catalyst surfaces also serve as recombination sites for H2 and O2, forming H2O. We herein report the photon-induced fabrication of microporous SiO2 membranes that can selectively restrict passage of O2 and larger hydrated ions while allowing penetration of protons, water, and H2. The SiO2 layers were selectively photodeposited on Pt nanoparticles on SrTiO3 photocatalyst by using tetramethylammonium (TMA) as a structure-directing agent (SDA), resulting in the formation of core–shell Pt@SiO2 cocatalysts. The resulting photocatalyst exhibited both improved overall water splitting performance under irradiation and with no H2/O2 recombination in the dark. The function of the SiO2 layers was investigated electrochemically by fabricating the SiO2 layers on a Pt electrode via an analogous cathodic deposition protocol. The uniform, dense, yet amorphous layers possess microporosity originating from ring structures formed during the hydrolysis of the silicate precursor in the presence of TMA, suggesting a double-role for TMA in coordinating silicate to cathodic surfaces and in creating a microporous material. The resulting layers were able to function as a molecular sieve, allowing for exclusive H2 generation while excluding unwanted side reactions by O2 or ferricyanide. The SiO2 layer is stable for extended periods of time in photocatalytic conditions, demonstrating promise as a nontoxic material for selective H2 evolution.

  8. Effects of Mev Si Ions and Thermal Annealing on Thermoelectric and Optical Properties of SiO2/SiO2+Ge Multi-nanolayer thin Films (United States)

    Budak, S.; Alim, M. A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Muntele, C.

    Thermoelectric generator devices have been prepared from 200 alternating layers of SiO2/SiO2+Ge superlattice films using DC/RF magnetron sputtering. The 5 MeV Si ionsbombardmenthasbeen performed using the AAMU Pelletron ion beam accelerator to formquantum dots and / or quantum clusters in the multi-layer superlattice thin films to decrease the cross-plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient and increase the cross-plane electrical conductivity to increase the figure of merit, ZT. The fabricated devices have been annealed at the different temperatures to tailor the thermoelectric and optical properties of the superlattice thin film systems. While the temperature increased, the Seebeck coefficient continued to increase and reached the maximum value of -25 μV/K at the fluenceof 5x1013 ions/cm2. The decrease in resistivity has been seen between the fluence of 1x1013 ions/cm2 and 5x1013 ions/cm2. Transport properties like Hall coefficient, density and mobility did not change at all fluences. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the multi-junction thermoelectric devices. The loci obtained in the C*-plane for these data indicate non-Debye type relaxation displaying the presence of the depression parameter.

  9. Ethanol-to-Butadiene Conversion over SiO2-MgO Catalysts: Synthesis-Structure-Performance Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, C.


    The work presented in this PhD Thesis provides new insights into the underlying reasons that make SiO2-MgO materials excellent catalysts for the ethanol-to-butadiene Lebedev process. In particular, the preparation technique of choice affects the structural properties of the resulting SiO2-MgO

  10. The electrorheological properties of nano-sized SiO2 particle materials doped with rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Liao Fuhui; Li Junran; Zhang Shaohua; Chen Shumei; Wei Chenguan; Gao Song


    Electrorheological (ER) materials of pure SiO 2 and SiO 2 doped with rare earths (RE = Ce, Gd, Y) (non-metallic glasses (silicates)) were prepared using Na 2 SiO 3 and RECl 3 as starting materials. The electrorheological properties are not enhanced by all rare earth additions. The material doped with Ce exhibits the best ER performance

  11. Sensitizing effects of ZnO quantum dots on red-emitting Pr3+-doped SiO2 phosphor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbule, PS


    Full Text Available In this study, red cathodoluminescence (CL) ( emission=614 nm) was observed from Pr3+ ions in a glassy (amorphous) SiO2 host. This emission was enhanced considerably when ZnO quantum dots (QDs) were incorporated in the SiO2:Pr3+ suggesting...

  12. Preparation of Raspberry-like Superhydrophobic SiO2 Particles by Sol-gel Method and Its Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gui-Long


    Full Text Available Raspberry‐like SiO2 particles with a nano‐micro‐binary structure were prepared by a simple sol‐gel method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES as precursors. The chemical components and morphology of the SiO2 particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR and a Transmission electron microscope (TEM. The surface topography and wetting behaviour of the raspberry‐like SiO2 surface were observed with a Scanning electron microscope (SEM and studied by the water/oil contact angle (CA, respectively. The thermal stability of the prepared SiO2 particles was characterized by TGA analysis. The results show that the highly dispersed SiO2 particles initially prepared by the sol‐gel method turn into raspberry‐like particles with during the aging process. The raspberry‐like SiO2 particles show superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity across a wide range of pH values. The SiO2 particles were thermally stable up to 475°C, while above this temperature the hydrophobicity decreases and finally becomes superhydrophobic when the temperature reaches 600°C. The raspberry‐like SiO2 particles which were prepared have potential applications in the fields of superhydrophobic surfaces, water‐oil separation, anti‐corrosion and fluid transportation.

  13. SiO2/polyacrylonitrile membranes via centrifugal spinning as a separator for Li-ion batteries (United States)

    Yanilmaz, Meltem; Lu, Yao; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xiangwu


    Centrifugal spinning is a fast, cost-effective and safe alternative to the electrospinning technique, which is commonly used for making fiber-based separator membranes. In this work, SiO2/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes were produced by using centrifugal spinning and they were characterized by using different electrochemical techniques for use as separators in Li-ion batteries. SiO2/PAN membranes exhibited good wettability and high ionic conductivity due to their highly porous fibrous structure. Compared with commercial microporous polyolefin membranes, SiO2/PAN membranes had larger liquid electrolyte uptake, higher electrochemical oxidation limit, and lower interfacial resistance with lithium. SiO2/PAN membrane separators were assembled into lithium/lithium iron phosphate cells and these cells delivered high capacities and exhibited good cycling performance at room temperature. In addition, cells using SiO2/PAN membranes showed superior C-rate performance compared to those using microporous PP membrane.

  14. Kinetics of dissolution of sapphire in melts in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system (United States)

    Shaw, Cliff S. J.; Klausen, Kim B.; Mao, Huahai


    The dissolution rate of sapphire in melts in the CAS system of varying silica activity, viscosity and degree of alumina saturation has been determined at 1600 °C and 1.5 GPa. After an initiation period of up to 1800 s, dissolution is controlled by diffusion of cations through the boundary layer adjacent to the dissolving sapphire. The dissolution rate decreases with increasing silica activity, viscosity and molar Al2O3/CaO. The calculated diffusion matrix for each solvent melt shows that CAS 1 and 9 which have molar Al2O3/CaO of 0.33 and 0.6 and dissolution rate constants of 0.65 × 10-6 and 0.59 × 10-6 m/s0.5 have similar directions and magnitudes of diffusive coupling: DCaO-Al2O3 and DAl2O3-CaO are both negative are approximately equal. The solvent with the fastest dissolution rate: CAS 4, which has a rate constant of 1.5 × 10-6 m/s0.5 and Al2O3/CaO of 0.31 has positive DCaO-Al2O3 and negative DAl2O3-CaO and the absolute values vary by a factor of 4. Although many studies show that aluminium is added to the melts via the reaction: Si4+ =Al3+ + 0.5Ca2+ the compositional profiles show that this reaction is not the only one involved in accommodating the aluminium added during sapphire dissolution. Rather, aluminium is incorporated as both tetrahedrally coordinated Al charge balanced by Ca and as aluminium not charge balanced by Ca (termed Alxs). This reaction: AlIV -Ca =Alxs +CaNBO where CaNBO is a non-bridging oxygen associated with calcium, may involve the formation of aluminium triclusters. The shape of the compositional profiles and oxide-oxide composition paths is controlled by the aluminium addition reaction. When Alxs exceeds 2%, CaO diffusion becomes increasingly anomalous and since the bond strength of Alxs correlates with CaO/CaO + Al2O3, the presence of more than 2% Alxs leads to significantly slower dissolution than when Alxs is absent or at low concentration. Thus, dissolution is controlled by diffusion of cations through the boundary layer, but this

  15. Thermally tunable VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite thin-film capacitors (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Narayanachari, K. V. L. V.; Wan, Chenghao; Sun, Xing; Wang, Haiyan; Cooley, Kayla A.; Mohney, Suzanne E.; White, Doug; Duwel, Amy; Kats, Mikhail A.; Ramanathan, Shriram


    We present a study of co-sputtered VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite dielectric thin-film media possessing continuous temperature tunability of the dielectric constant. The smooth thermal tunability is a result of the insulator-metal transition in the VO2 inclusions dispersed within an insulating matrix. We present a detailed comparison of the dielectric characteristics of this nanocomposite with those of a VO2 control layer and of VO2/SiO2 laminate multilayers of comparable overall thickness. We demonstrated a nanocomposite capacitor that has a thermal capacitance tunability of ˜60% between 25 °C and 100 °C at 1 MHz, with low leakage current. Such thermally tunable capacitors could find potential use in applications such as sensing, thermal cloaks, and phase-change energy storage devices.

  16. Versatile superamphiphobic cotton fabrics fabricated by coating with SiO2/FOTS (United States)

    Li, Deke; Guo, Zhiguang


    A multifunctional superamphiphobic cotton fabric was fabricated by coating silica nanoparticles on the cotton fabric surface and further modification by 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (FOTS). The fluctuant woven fabric and the fluffy spherical SiO2 nanoparticles constructed a dual micro/nano-structures. The surface free energy of the fabric composite was reduced by FOTS modifier. The interplay of the structured and perfluorinated SiO2 nanoparticles could not only endow the fabric highly liquid repellent ability, but could also to enhance the coating stability. The prepared cotton fabrics exhibited high liquid repellency to water, colza oil and n-hexadecane with lower surface tension, showing a contact angle of 158°, 152°, and 153°, respectively. The results demonstrated that superamphiphobic cotton fabric possessed desirable chemical and mechanical durability, self-cleaning and self-healing property, the robust and multifunctional fabric would find innovative opportunities for practical applications.

  17. Enhanced formation of Ge nanocrystals in Ge : SiO2 layers by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I V; Volodin, V A; Marin, D M; Skuratov, V A; Smagulova, S A; Janse van Vuuren, A; Neethling, J; Jedrzejewski, J; Balberg, I


    In this paper we report the ability of swift heavy Xe ions with an energy of 480 MeV and a fluence of 10 12 cm -2 to enhance the formation of Ge nanocrystals within SiO 2 layers with variable Ge contents. These Ge-SiO 2 films were fabricated by the co-sputtering of Ge and quartz sources which followed various annealing procedures. In particular, we found that the irradiation of the Ge : SiO 2 films with subsequent annealing at 500 °C leads to the formation of a high concentration of nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 2-5 nm, whereas without irradiation only amorphous inclusions were observed. This effect, as evidenced by Raman spectra, is enhanced by pre-irradiation at 550 °C and post-irradiation annealing at 600 °C, which also leads to the observation of room temperature visible photoluminescence. (paper)

  18. Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO 2 optical fibres (United States)

    Yaakob, N. H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Ramli, A. T.; Bradley, D. A.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.


    This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO 2 optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO 2 optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.

  19. Microwave absorption properties and mechanism of cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites (United States)

    Cao, Mao-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Ling; Fang, Xiao-Yong; Jin, Hai-Bo; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Yu-Jin


    In this paper, cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared and their microwave absorption properties were investigated in detail. Dielectric constants and losses of the pure cagelike ZnO nanostructures were measured in a frequency range of 8.2-12.4GHz. The measured results indicate that the cagelike ZnO nanostructures are low-loss material for microwave absorption in X band. However, the cagelike ZnO /SiO2 nanocomposites exhibit a relatively strong attenuation to microwave in X band. Such strong absorption is related to the unique geometrical morphology of the cagelike ZnO nanostructures in the composites. The microcurrent network can be produced in the cagelike ZnO nanostructures, which contributes to the conductive loss.

  20. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of SiO2 Films for Adhesion Promoting Layers on Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Kotte


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the deposition of silica layers at atmospheric pressure as a pretreatment for the structural bonding of titanium (Ti6Al4V, Ti15V3Cr3Sn3Al in comparison to an anodizing process (NaTESi process. The SiO2 film was deposited using the LARGE plasma source, a linearly extended DC arc plasma source and applying hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO as a precursor. The morphology of the surface was analyzed by means of SEM, while the characterization of the chemical composition of deposited plasma layers was done by XPS and FTIR. The long-term durability of bonded samples was evaluated by means of a wedge test in hot/wet condition. The almost stoichiometric SiO2 film features a good long-term stability and a high bonding strength compared to the films produced with the wet-chemical NaTESi process.

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated SiO2 nanoparticles (United States)

    Huseynov, Elchin; Garibov, Adil; Mehdiyeva, Ravan; Huseynova, Efsane


    In the present work, nano SiO2 particles are investigated before and after gamma irradiation (25, 50, 75, 100 and 200 kGy) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method for the wavenumber between 400-4000 cm-1. It is found that as a result of spectroscopic analysis, five new peaks have appeared after gamma radiation. Two of new obtained peaks (which are located at 687 cm-1 and 2357 cm-1 of wavenumber) were formed as a result of gamma radiation interaction with Si-O bonds. Another three new peaks (peaks appropriate to 941, 2052 and 2357 cm-1 values of wavenumber) appear as a result of interaction of water with nano SiO2 particles after gamma irradiation. It has been defined as asymmetrical bending vibration, symmetrical bending vibration, symmetrical stretching vibration and asymmetrical stretching vibration of Si-O bonds appropriate to peaks.

  2. Preparation of Mesoporous SiO2-Pillared Lamellar Titanoniobate Catalysts for Bioethanol Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivalter Pergentino


    Full Text Available The lamellar perovskite K0,8Ti0,8Nb1,2O5 was prepared by solid state reaction, and its protonic form was used in a sequence of intercalation steps with n-butylamine, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS. After calcination, a high surface area, mesoporous SiO2-pillared titanoniobate, was obtained. The samples were characterized by XRD, EDX, TG-DTG, N2 adsorption isotherms, and NH3-TPD. The pillarization procedure affected the textural properties, the amount, and strength distribution of acid sites. The influence of the pillarization procedure on the catalytic properties of the lamellar titanoniobates was investigated on ethanol dehydration. High ethanol conversions and ethylene yields (>90% were obtained in the presence of the SiO2-pillared titanoniobate catalyst, at 350–450°C.

  3. Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO2 optical fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakob, N.H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Ramli, A.T.; Bradley, D.A; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.


    This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO 2 optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO 2 optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.

  4. Formation of nucleoplasmic protein aggregates impairs nuclear function in response to SiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Min; Mikecz, Anna von


    Despite of their exponentially growing use, little is known about cell biological effects of nanoparticles. Here, we report uptake of silica (SiO 2 ) nanoparticles to the cell nucleus where they induce aberrant clusters of topoisomerase I (topo I) in the nucleoplasm that additionally contain signature proteins of nuclear domains, and protein aggregation such as ubiquitin, proteasomes, cellular glutamine repeat (polyQ) proteins, and huntingtin. Formation of intranuclear protein aggregates (1) inhibits replication, transcription, and cell proliferation; (2) does not significantly alter proteasomal activity or cell viability; and (3) is reversible by Congo red and trehalose. Since SiO 2 nanoparticles trigger a subnuclear pathology resembling the one occurring in expanded polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders, we suggest that integrity of the functional architecture of the cell nucleus should be used as a read out for cytotoxicity and considered in the development of safe nanotechnology

  5. Experimental observations of the chemistry of the SiO2/Si interface (United States)

    Grunthaner, F. J.; Maserjian, J.


    Changes in silicon surface preparation prior to thermal oxidation are shown to leave a signature by altering the final SiO2/Si interface structure. Surface analytical techniques, including XPS, static SIMS, ion milling, and newly developed wet-chemical profiling procedures are used to obtain detailed information on the chemical structure of the interface. The oxides are shown to be essentially SiO2 down to a narrow transitional interface layer (3-7 A). A number of discrete chemical species are observed in this interface layer, including different silicon bonds (e.g., C-, OH-, H-) and a range of oxidation states of silicon (0 to +4). The effect of surface preparation and the observed chemical species are correlated with oxide growth rate, surface-state density, and flatband shifts after irradiation.

  6. Uniform fabrication of Ge nanocrystals embedded into SiO2 film via neutron transmutation doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu


    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline 74Ge embedded SiO2 films were prepared by employing ion implantation and neutron transmutation doping methods. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence of the obtained samples were measured. The existence of As dopants transmuted from 74Ge is significant to guarantee the uniformity and higher volume density of Ge nanocrystals by tuning the system׳s crystallinity and activating mass transfer process. It was observed that the photoluminescence intensity of Ge nanocrystals increased first then decreased with the increase of arsenic concentration. The optimized fluence of neutron transmutation doping was found to be 5.5×1017 cm−2 to achieve maximum photoluminescence emission in Ge embedded SiO2 film. This work opens a route in the three-dimensional nanofabrication of uniform Ge nanocrystals.

  7. Vaporization of SiO2 and MgSiO3 (United States)

    Stixrude, L. P.; Xiao, B.


    Vaporization of SiO2 and MgSiO3B Xiaoa and L Stixrude*a, a Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, WC1E 6BT London, UK *presenting author, email: Vaporization is an important process in Earth's earliest evolution during which giant impacts are thought to have produced a transient silicate atmosphere. As experimental data are very limited, little is known of the near-critical vaporization of Earth's major oxide components: MgO and SiO2. We have performed novel ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of vapor-liquid coexistence in the SiO2 and MgSiO3 systems. The simulations, based on density functional theory using the VASP code, begin with a suitably prepared liquid slab embedded in a vacuum. During the dynamical trajectory in the canonical ensemble, we see spontaneous vaporization, leading eventually to a steady-state chemical equilibrium between the two coexisting phases. We locate the liquid-vapor critical point at 6600 K and 0.40 g/cm3 for MgSiO3 and 5300 K and 0.43 g/cm3 for SiO2. By carefully examining the trajectories, we determine the composition and speciation of the vapor. For MgSiO3, We find that the vapor is significantly richer in Mg, O, and atomic (non-molecular) species than extrapolation of low-temperature experimental data has suggested. These results will have important implications for our understanding of the initial chemistry of the Earth and Moon and the initial thermal state of Earth.

  8. A novel growth mode of alkane films on a SiO2 surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, H.; Taub, H.; Volkmann, U.G.


    Synchrotron X-ray specular scattering measurements confirm microscopically a structural model recently inferred by very-high-resolution ellipsometry of a solid dotriacontane (n-C32H66 or C32) film formed by adsorption from solution onto a SiO2 surface. Sequentially, one or two layers adsorb on th...... previously for shorter alkanes deposited from the vapor phase onto solid surfaces....

  9. Generation of interface states by injection of electrons into SiO2 (United States)

    Lyon, S. A.


    Several techniques have been used to inject electrons into SiO2 with various energies. Interface states are found to be generated whenever electrons flow through the oxide. However, the efficiency of interface state generation depends upon the method of electron injection. At high enough fields, positive charge is produced in the oxide which enhances the production of interface states. All of the states are amphoteric and are probably dangling Si bonds at the interface (Pb-centers).

  10. Effect of SiO2 Overlayer on WO3 Sensitivity to Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Srivastava


    Full Text Available Ammonia gas sensing properties of tungsten trioxide thick film sensor was investigated. The doping of noble catalysts such as Pt, Pd, Au enhanced the gas sensitivity. Platinum doping was found to result in highest sensitivity. Remarkable sensitivity enhancement was realized by coating WO3 thick film sensors with SiO2 overlayer. Sol gel process derived silica overlayer increased ammonia gas sensitivity for doped as well as undoped sensor.

  11. Structural verification and optical characterization of SiO2–Au–Cu2O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, SiO2–Au–Cu2O core/shell/shell nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing gold chloride on 3-amino-propyl-triethoxysilane molecules attached silica nanoparticle cores for several stages. Cu2O nanoparticles were synthesized readily with the size of 4–5 nm using a simple route of sol–gel method. Then, they ...

  12. Effect of SiO2 protective layer on the femtosecond laser-induced damage of HfO2/SiO2 multilayer high-reflective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Lei; Zhao Yuanan; Wang Congjuan; He Hongbo; Fan Zhengxiu; Shao Jianda


    Two kinds of HfO 2 /SiO 2 800 nm high-reflective (HR) coatings, with and without SiO 2 protective layer were deposited by electron beam evaporation. Laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDT) were measured for all samples with femtosecond laser pulses. The surface morphologies and the depth information of all samples were observed by Leica optical microscopy and WYKO surface profiler, respectively. It is found that SiO 2 protective layer had no positive effect on improving the LIDT of HR coating. A simple model including the conduction band electron production via multiphoton ionization and impact ionization is used to explain this phenomenon. Theoretical calculations show that the damage occurs first in the SiO 2 protective layer for HfO 2 /SiO 2 HR coating with SiO 2 protective layer. The relation of LIDT for two kinds of HfO 2 /SiO 2 HR coatings in calculation agrees with the experiment result

  13. Direct fabrication of graphene on SiO2 enabled by thin film stress engineering (United States)

    McNerny, Daniel Q.; Viswanath, B.; Copic, Davor; Laye, Fabrice R.; Prohoda, Christophor; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna C.; Polsen, Erik S.; Dee, Nicholas T.; Veerasamy, Vijayen S.; Hart, A. John


    We demonstrate direct production of graphene on SiO2 by CVD growth of graphene at the interface between a Ni film and the SiO2 substrate, followed by dry mechanical delamination of the Ni using adhesive tape. This result is enabled by understanding of the competition between stress evolution and microstructure development upon annealing of the Ni prior to the graphene growth step. When the Ni film remains adherent after graphene growth, the balance between residual stress and adhesion governs the ability to mechanically remove the Ni after the CVD process. In this study the graphene on SiO2 comprises micron-scale domains, ranging from monolayer to multilayer. The graphene has >90% coverage across centimeter-scale dimensions, limited by the size of our CVD chamber. Further engineering of the Ni film microstructure and stress state could enable manufacturing of highly uniform interfacial graphene followed by clean mechanical delamination over practically indefinite dimensions. Moreover, our findings suggest that preferential adhesion can enable production of 2-D materials directly on application-relevant substrates. This is attractive compared to transfer methods, which can cause mechanical damage and leave residues behind. PMID:24854632

  14. Stabilization of SiO2 nanoparticle foam system and evaluation of its performance (United States)

    Sun, Chong; Fan, Zhenzhong; Liu, Qingwang; Wang, Jigang; Xu, Jianjun


    As tertiary recovery is applied in the oil field, foam flooding technology plays an important role in the oil field. Steam flooding is easy to generate a series of problems such as excessive pressure, gas channelling, heat loss ect. The foam flooding can be better used in the formation of plugging and profile control. However, the foam is not stabilizing in thermodynamics and breaks easily while it encounters oil. So the emphasis of the research is how to make the foam stable. The Warning Blender method is used to evaluate the foam In the course of experiment, which verifies that the modified Nano SiO2 solid not only works very well in coordination with SDS solution but also contributes to the generation of stable foam in solution. The optimum concentration of SDS is determined by 0.5%, and the best concentration is 1.4% of H20 type SiO2 particles that the concentration is 79.26°. Finally, the 0.5%SDS+1.4%H2O type SiO2 is chosen as the complete foam flooding system, and the performance of salt tolerance and oil displacement of composite foam system is evaluated. It is concluded that the stability of foam is the key to improve the oil recovery.

  15. Reduction of SiO2 to SiC Using Natural Gas (United States)

    Ksiazek, Michal; Tangstad, Merete; Dalaker, Halvor; Ringdalen, Eli


    This paper presents a preliminary study of SiC production by use of natural gas for reduction of silica. Direct reduction of SiO2 by gas mixtures containing CH4, H2, and Ar was studied at temperatures between 1273 K and 1773 K (1000 °C and 1500 °C). Silica in form of particles between 1 and 3 mm and pellets with mean grain size 50 µm were exposed to the gas mixture for 6 hours. Influence of temperature and CH4H2 ratio was investigated. Higher temperature and CH4 concentration resulted in greater SiC production. Two kinds of SiC were found: one was deposited between SiO2 particles, the other one was deposited inside the SiO2 particles. Although the exact reaction mechanisms have not been determined, it is clear that gas-phase reactions play an important role in both cases. The reaction products were analyzed by Electron Probe Micro Analyzer.

  16. Current Tunnelling in MOS Devices with Al2O3/SiO2 Gate Dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bouazra


    Full Text Available With the continued scaling of the SiO2 thickness below 2 nm in CMOS devices, a large direct-tunnelling current flow between the gate electrode and silicon substrate is greatly impacting device performance. Therefore, higher dielectric constant materials are desirable for reducing the gate leakage while maintaining transistor performance for very thin dielectric layers. Despite its not very high dielectric constant (∼10, Al2O3 has emerged as one of the most promising high-k candidates in terms of its chemical and thermal stability as its high-barrier offset. In this paper, a theoretical study of the physical and electrical properties of Al2O3 gate dielectric is reported including I(V and C(V characteristics. By using a stack of Al2O3/SiO2 with an appropriate equivalent oxide thickness of gate dielectric MOS, the gate leakage exhibits an important decrease. The effect of carrier trap parameters (depth and width at the Al2O3/SiO2 interface is also discussed.

  17. Strong piezoelectricity in single-layer graphene deposited on SiO2 grating substrates. (United States)

    da Cunha Rodrigues, Gonçalo; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Romanyuk, Konstantin; Luchkin, Sergey; Kopelevich, Yakov; Kholkin, Andrei


    Electromechanical response of materials is a key property for various applications ranging from actuators to sophisticated nanoelectromechanical systems. Here electromechanical properties of the single-layer graphene transferred onto SiO2 calibration grating substrates is studied via piezoresponse force microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The correlation of mechanical strains in graphene layer with the substrate morphology is established via Raman mapping. Apparent vertical piezoresponse from the single-layer graphene supported by underlying SiO2 structure is observed by piezoresponse force microscopy. The calculated vertical piezocoefficient is about 1.4 nm V(-1), that is, much higher than that of the conventional piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate and comparable to that of relaxor single crystals. The observed piezoresponse and achieved strain in graphene are associated with the chemical interaction of graphene's carbon atoms with the oxygen from underlying SiO2. The results provide a basis for future applications of graphene layers for sensing, actuating and energy harvesting.

  18. A highly efficient g-C3N4/SiO2heterojunction: the role of SiO2in the enhancement of visible light photocatalytic activity. (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Niu, Xiuxiu; Nie, Changshun; Hao, Simeng; Zou, Wei; Ge, Jiangman; Chen, Daimei; Yao, Wenqing


    SiO 2 , an insulator, hardly has any photocatalytic acitivity due to its intrinsic property, and it is generally used as a hard template to increase the surface area of catalysts. However, in this work, we found that the surface state of the insulator SiO 2 can promote the migration of photogenerated charge carriers, leading to the enhancement of the photooxidation ability of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ). A one-pot calcination method was employed to prepare g-C 3 N 4 /SiO 2 composites using melamine and SiO 2 as precursors. The composites present considerably high photocatalytic degradation activities for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation, which are about 1.53 and 4.18 times as high as those of bulk g-C 3 N 4 , respectively. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity is due to the fact that the introduction of the insulator SiO 2 in g-C 3 N 4 /SiO 2 composites can greatly improve the specific surface area of the composites; more importantly, the impurity energy level of SiO 2 can help accelerate the separation and transfer of electron-hole pairs of g-C 3 N 4 . Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and trapping experiments with different radical scavengers show that the main active species of g-C 3 N 4 are superoxide radicals, while holes also play a role in photodegradation. For g-C 3 N 4 /SiO 2 -5, besides superoxide radicals and holes, the effect of hydroxyl radicals was greatly improved. Finally, a possible mechanism for the photogenerated charge carrier migration of the g-C 3 N 4 /SiO 2 photocatalyst was proposed.

  19. Photocatalytic application of TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2) for reusing of textile wastewater


    Laleh Enayati Ahangar; Karim Movassaghi; Masoomeh Emadi; Fatemeh Yaghoobi


    In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2) under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions....



    Xue-Jin Yang; Yu-Di Zhang; Zhang Chang-Rui; Li Bin


    This paper reports the fabrication of a novel SiO2/zirconium phosphate (ZrP)-B2O3-SiO2 double-layer coating on Cf/SiC composites via brushing and sol-gel routes for achieving better anti-oxidation performance. The composition of raw materials and sintering temperature were studied to explore the possibility of development of ZrP coatings to meet the demand for oxidation resistance at high temperature. It was attempted to improve the self-healing ability of coatings via an additional SiO2 laye...

  1. Tailoring the nickel nanoparticles anchored on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 spheres for nanocatalysis (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yanwei; Yang, Jinbo; Zheng, Jing; Hayat, Tasawar; Alharbi, Njud S.; Xu, Jingli


    Herein, we report an efficient and universal strategy for synthesizing a unique triple-shell structured Fe3O4@SiO2@C-Ni hybrid composite. Firstly, the Fe3O4 cores were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction, and sequentially coated with SiO2 and a thin layer of nickel-ion-doped resin-formaldehyde (RF-Ni2+) using an extended Stöber method. This was followed by carbonization to produce the Fe3O4@SiO2@C-Ni nanocomposites with metallic nickel nanoparticles embedded in an RF-derived thin graphic carbon layer. Interestingly, the thin SiO2 spacer layer between RF-Ni2+ and Fe3O4 plays a critical role on adjusting the size and density of the nickel nanoparticles on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 nanospheres. The detailed tailoring mechanism is explicitly discussed, and it is shown that the iron oxide core can react with the nickel nanoparticles without the SiO2 spacer layer, and the size and density of the nickel nanoparticles can be effectively controlled when the SiO2 layer exits. The multifunctional composites exhibit a significantly enhanced catalytic performance in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP).

  2. The Role of SiO2 Gas in the Operation of Anti-Corrosion Coating Produced by PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Zarchi


    Full Text Available This study examined theSiO2 gas present in the coatings used in corrosion industry.These layers have been created by physical vapor deposition (PVD, with an appropriate performance. Sublimation of SiO2is used to protect PVD aluminum flakes from water corrosionand to generate highly porous SiO2 flakes with holes in the nanometer range. SiOx/Al/SiOx sandwiches were made as well as Ag loaded porous SiO2 as antimicrobial filler.

  3. Role of the interface region on the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldosso, N.; Dalba, G.; Fornasini, P.; Grisenti, R.; Pavesi, L.; Luppi, M.; Magri, R.; Ossicini, S.; Degoli, E.; Rocca, F.; Boninelli, S.; Priolo, F.; Spinella, C.; Iacona, F.


    Light-emitting silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 have been investigated by x-ray absorption measurements in total electron and photoluminescence yields, by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and by ab initio total energy calculations. Both experimental and theoretical results show that the interface between the silicon nanocrystals and the surrounding SiO 2 is not sharp: an intermediate region of amorphous nature and variable composition links the crystalline Si with the amorphous stoichiometric SiO 2 . This region plays an active role in the light-emission process

  4. Influence of SiO2/Al2O3 Molar Ratio on Phase Composition and Surfaces Quality of Aluminum Silicate Sanitary Glazes in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-Na2O System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśniak M.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on aluminum silicate sanitary glazes in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-Na2O system with different SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio. XRD, SEM-EDS and FITR measurement indicated that SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio has a significant impact on the phase composition of the obtained glazes. Glass-ceramic glazes were obtained that consisted of both the glass phase and pseudowollastonite (Ca3[SiO3]3 or anorthite (Ca[Al2Si2O8] crystals. Subsequently, the influence of phase composition on surface quality (roughness was examined for the obtained samples. On the basis of the conducted examination of glaze surface roughness was observed that glazes of extreme SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio are characterized with greatest surface roughness when compared to other glazes.

  5. Photocatalytic Removal of Phenol under Natural Sunlight over N-TiO2-SiO2 Catalyst: The Effect of Nitrogen Composition in TiO2-SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet-Cuong Nguyen


    Full Text Available In this present work, high specific surface area and strong visible light absorption nitrogen doped TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by using sol-gel coupled with hydrothermal treatment method. Nitrogen was found to improve the specific surface area while it also distorted the crystal phase of the resulting N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst. As the N/ (TiO2-SiO2 molar ratio was more than 10%, the derived catalyst presented the superior specific surface area up to 260 m2/g. Nevertheless, its photoactivity towards phenol removal was observed to significantly decrease, which could results from the too low crystallinity. The nitrogen content in N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst was therefore necessary to be optimized in terms of phenol removal efficiency and found at ca. 5%. Under UVA light and natural sunlight irradiation of 80 min, N(5%-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst presented the phenol decomposition efficiencies of 68 and 100%, respectively. It was also interestingly found in this study that the reaction rate was successfully expressed using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H model, indicating the L-H nature of photocatalytic phenol decomposition reaction on the N-TiO2-SiO2 catalyst.

  6. Intégration CAO/Calcul


    Benamara, Abdelmajid


    Ce mémoire d'HDR présente une synthèse de mes principales activités de recherche qui jalonnent mon parcours d'enseignant - chercheur. Les travaux qui y sont présentés s'inscrivent dans le cadre général de la tendance d'intégration des applications de CAO, FAO et Calcul et s'orientent plus particulièrement vers l'intégration CAO/Calcul. En effet, depuis plus de quinze ans, cette thématique a fait l'objet de mes principales activités de recherche. J'ai débuté dans ce domaine par un stage de DEA...

  7. Experimental research of stability of emulsion systems with SIO2 nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeigman Yury Veniaminovich


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 21st century scientific research devoted to properties of nanosized particles and their industrial application in the industry of oil and gas fields development has been rapidly evolving. The use of nanosized particles can significantly rise efficiency of technological solutions, and that fact determines this research area as the most promising today. In the area of oil and gas fields development one of the general application for nanoparticles is the development of high-performance technological fluids with new or improved physico-chemical properties. The ability of nanoparticles to modify wettability of the rock surface and to be fixed on the adsorption-solvation stratums of globules makes them a unique tool to regulate physicochemical properties of technological fluids and physical properties of rocks.The article reveals the results of a new stage in the research of physical properties of emulsion systems with silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2. The research carried out within the framework of international project «Development and implementation of water-blocking agents based on the SiO2 nanoparticles application». The results of comparative tests of stability of classical emulsions (O/W and W/O types and emulsion systems modified with SiO2 nanoparticles with different wettability characteristics (hydrophilic or hydrophobic are presented. According to the results of comparative tests, it has been determined that the stability of most samples of modified emulsion systems containing hydrophilic or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles exceeds the stability of classical emulsions by more than 100%. In the course of comparative studies, the following types of experiments were performed: measurement of aggregate stability, electrostability and thermal stability of samples. The paper is a continuation of the complex research which has been published in [1].

  8. Thermal conductivity and electrical properties of hybrid SiO2-graphene naphthenic mineral oil nanofluid as potential transformer oil (United States)

    Qing, Soo Hui; Rashmi, W.; Khalid, M.; Gupta, T. C. S. M.; Nabipoor, M.; Taghi Hajibeigy, Mohammad


    Hybrid SiO2-graphene nanoparticles were synthesised by sol gel centrifugation technique under four different pH levels ranging from 9 to 12. Stability, thermal conductivity, viscosity and electrical conductivity of hybrid SiO2-graphene and pure graphene dispersed in naphthenic oil were investigated. Nanofluids were synthesied at three different nanoparticle concentrations (0.01, 0.04 and 0.08 wt%) while the temperature was varied from 20 °C to 100 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer show successful coating of SiO2 on graphene surface. The growth units and size distribution of SiO2 nanoparticles increased with pH level. Moreover, the presence of SiO2 improved the dispersion behaviour of the nanofluid as confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis studies. Zeta potential measurements show the hybrid nanofluids at pH 11 are most stable due to its optimum amount and size of SiO2 coated on graphene surface while at pH 12 shows least stability due to precipitation. The presence of SiO2 on graphene further enhanced the thermal conductivity by 80% at pH 9. Also, the viscosity of hybrid nanofluids was higher than pure graphene based nanofluids due to increase in density and particle size. Moreover, the addition of hybrid SiO2-graphene nanoparticles significantly reduced the electrical conductivity enhancement of base fluid from 557% to 97%.

  9. CMOS Compatible Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on SiO2/Cu/SiO2 Multilayer Films (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Qi; Lu, Hang-Bing; Long, Shi-Bing; Zhang, Sen; Li, Ying-Tao; Lian, Wen-Tai; Yang, Jian-Hong; Liu, Ming


    We systematically investigate the resistive switching characteristics of SiO2 films with a Cu/SiO2/Cu/SiO2/Pt multilayer structure. The device exhibits good resistive switching performances, including a high ON/OFF resistance ratio (>103), good retention characteristic (>104s), satisfactory switching endurance (>200 cycles), a fast programming speed (<100 ns) and a high device yield (~100%). Considering these results, SiO2-based memories have highly promising applications for nonvolatile memory devices.

  10. The Obtaining of Nano Oxide Systems SiO2-REE with Alkoxide Technology (United States)

    Amelina, Anna; Grinberg, Evgenii

    A lot of oxides systems with REE as dopants are used in catalytic processes in organic synthesis. They are very perspectives as thermostable coating in aerospace technics. These systems are usually based on silicon or aluminium oxides and doped with rare-earth elements. This systems can be produced by different methods. One of the most perspective of them is “sol-gel”-method with silicium, aluminium and rare-earth alkoxides as a precursor of doped silica and alumina, or their derivatives. Thus the obtaining of composite SiO _{2} - REE oxide materials by the hydrolysis doped with rare-earth elements was suggested. Some of alcoholate derivatives such as El(OR)n were used in this processes. The SiO _{2}- REE oxides were precipitated during the sol-gel process, where tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as used as SiO _{2} sources. Also it is known that alkoxides of alkali metals, including lithium alkoxides, are widely used in industry and synthetic chemistry, as well as a source of lithium in various mixed oxide compositions, such as lithium niobate, lithium tantalate or lithium silicate. Therefore, we attempted to obtain the lithium silicate, which is also doped with rare-earth elements. Lithium silicate was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane with lithium alkoxide. Lithium alkoxide were synthesized by dissolving at metal in the corresponding alcohol are examined. The dependence of the rate of dissolving of the metal on the method of mixing of the reaction mixture and the degree of metal dispersion was investigated. The mathematical model of the process was composed and also optimization of process was carried out. Some oxide SiO _{2}, Al _{2}O _{3} and rare-earth nanostructured systems were obtained by sol-gel-method. The size of particle was determined by electron and X-ray spectroscopy and was in the range of 5 - 15 nm. Purity of this oxide examples for contaminating of heavy metals consists n.(1E-4...1E-5) wt%. Sols obtained by this method may be used for producing of thin coats on ceramics and metallic surfaces.

  11. Friction and wear properties of ZrO2/SiO2 composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Zheng Shaohua; Cao Bingqiang; Ma Shiyu


    In this article, the lubrication properties of ZrO 2 /SiO 2 composite nanoparticles modified with aluminum zirconium coupling agent as additives in lubricating oil under variable applied load and concentration fraction were reported. It was demonstrated that the modified nanoparticles as additives in lubrication can effectively improve the lubricating properties. Under an optimized concentration of 0.1 wt%, the average friction coefficient was reduced by 16.24%. This was because the nanoparticles go into the friction zone with the flow of lubricant, and then the sliding friction changed to rolling friction with a result of the reduction of the friction coefficient.

  12. Enhanced photoluminescence by resonant absorption in Er-doped SiO2/Si microcavities (United States)

    Schubert, E. F.; Hunt, N. E. J.; Vredenberg, A. M.; Harris, T. D.; Poate, J. M.; Jacobson, D. C.; Wong, Y. H.; Zydzik, G. J.


    Si/SiO2 Fabry-Perot microcavities with an Er-implanted SiO2 active region resonant at the Er excitation wavelength of 980 nm have been realized. Room-temperature photoluminescence measurements reveal that the Er luminescence intensity increases by a factor of 28 as compared to a structure without cavity enhancement. We show that the experimental enhancement of the luminescence intensity agrees with theory if optical absorption of the 980 nm light in the Si layers of the cavity and reduced mirror reflectivities are taken into account.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy study of protein immobilized on SIO2 Sol-gel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis O.B.G.


    Full Text Available Uniform attachment of enzymes to solid surfaces is essential in the development of bio and optical sensor devices. Immobilization by adsorption according to hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature is dependent on the charges and defects of the support surfaces. Sol-gel SiO2 densified glass surfaces, frequently used as supports for protein immobilization, are evaluated via scanning electron microscopy. The model protein is globular enzyme lysozyme, deposited by adsorption on functionalized surfaces. Formation of a protein layer is confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy, and the SEM images suggest discontinuous adsorption in areas where cracks predominate on the glass surface.

  14. Diffraction of slow neutrons by holographic SiO2 nanoparticle-polymer composite gratings (United States)

    Klepp, J.; Pruner, C.; Tomita, Y.; Plonka-Spehr, C.; Geltenbort, P.; Ivanov, S.; Manzin, G.; Andersen, K. H.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Ellabban, M. A.; Fally, M.


    Diffraction experiments with holographic gratings recorded in SiO2 nanoparticle-polymer composites have been carried out with slow neutrons. The influence of parameters such as nanoparticle concentration, grating thickness, and grating spacing on the neutron-optical properties of such materials has been tested. Decay of the grating structure along the sample depth due to disturbance of the recording process becomes an issue at grating thicknesses of about 100 microns and larger. This limits the achievable diffraction efficiency for neutrons. As a solution to this problem, the Pendellösung interference effect in holographic gratings has been exploited to reach a diffraction efficiency of 83% for very cold neutrons.

  15. Disordered electrical potential observed on the surface of SiO2 by electric field microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa, N; Yan Zang; Ballestar, A; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Bern, F; Esquinazi, P


    The electrical potential on the surface of ∼300 nm thick SiO 2 grown on single-crystalline Si substrates has been characterized at ambient conditions using electric field microscopy. Our results show an inhomogeneous potential distribution with fluctuations up to ∼0.4 V within regions of 1 μm. The potential fluctuations observed at the surface of these usual dielectric holders of graphene sheets should induce strong variations in the graphene charge densities and provide a simple explanation for some of the anomalous behaviors of the transport properties of graphene.

  16. Dielectric strength of SiO2 in a CMOS transistor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soden, J.M.


    The distribution of experimental dielectric strengths of SiO 2 gate dielectric in a CMOS transistor structure is shown to be composed of a primary, statistically-normal distribution of high dielectric strength and a secondary distribution spread through the lower dielectric strength region. The dielectric strength was not significantly affected by high level (1 x 10 6 RADS (Si)) gamma radiation or high temperature (200 0 C) stress. The primary distribution breakdowns occurred at topographical edges, mainly at the gate/field oxide interface, and the secondary distribution breakdowns occurred at random locations in the central region of the gate

  17. SiO2-supported Pt particles studied by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Penner, S.; Su, D.S.; Rupprechter, G.; Hayek, K.; Schloegl, R.


    Regularly grown Pt particles supported by amorphous SiO 2 were heated in hydrogen at 873 K after an oxidising treatment. The morphological and structural changes were studied by electron microscopy. Platinum silicides Pt 3 Si with L1 2 (Cu 3 Au) structure, monoclinic Pt 3 Si and tetragonal Pt 12 Si 5 were identified after the treatment. The mechanisms of coalescence of the particles and the formation of irregular large particles are suggested. A topotactic structural transformation accompanied with the migration of Si from the substrate to the particles are suggested to take place during Pt 3 Si formation

  18. Experimental study of viscosity properties of emulsion system with SiO2 nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEIGMAN Yury Veniaminovich,


    Full Text Available When oil production is increasing due to intensive oilfield development methods supporting seam pressure by water injection oil producers face the problem of displacement agent break in more permeable intervals of petroleum reservoir. That leads to dramatic increase of product inundation for well stock and decrease of economic efficiency for well performance. Nowadays the petroleum engineers have proposed more than 100 technologies designed to restrict water inflows and flooding agent to bottom-hole zone of the production wells. The water inflows restriction technologies are distinguished by the type of applied chemical compositions and the way how the chemical compositions are delivered to bottom-hole zone. The analysis of the currently applied chemical compositions has allowed authors to reveal the common feature. The common feature is that the currently applied chemical compositions are non-selective and they produce isolating or blocking effect onto water-saturated and oil-saturated zones of the petroleum reservoir. The application of the nonselective high-stability chemical compositions leads to uncontrolled colmatation of all treated intervals and makes it difficult to involve them into filtration process in future. This work presents the technology for the selective reservoir stimulation based on emulsion systems with SiO2 nanoparticles content and gelling acid composition. The technology was developed for complex impact on formation system, that achieved by blocking water-saturated intervals of reservoir and stimulation of less permeable oil-saturated intervals of reservoir. The paper shows the results of complex laboratory experiments to study viscosity parameters of emulsion systems with SiO2 nanoparticles content. The results of the experiments revealed the ability of the SiO2 nanoparticles to rise dynamic viscosity of the different type of emulsion systems: oil in water and water in oil. Test for thermostability of the modified emulsion systems showed stability of the systems under 80о C. In addition, the modified emulsion systems kept the ability to decrease significantly viscosity in the reaction with hydrocarbons, i.e. the emulsion systems with SiO2 nanoparticles are selective compositions for the water-inflows restriction.

  19. Ordering at Si(111)/o-Si and Si(111)/SiO2 Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, I. K.; Waskiewicz, W. K.; Tung, R. T.


    X-ray diffraction has been used to measure the intensity profile of the two-dimensional rods of scattering from a single interface buried inside a bulk material. In both Si(111)/a-Si and Si(111)/SiO2 examples there are features in the perpendicular-momentum-transfer dependence which are not expec...... are not expected from an ideal sharp interface. The diffraction profiles are explained by models with partially ordered layers extending into the amorphous region. In the Si(111)/a-Si case there is clear evidence of stacking faults which are attributed to residual 7×7 reconstruction....

  20. High ink absorption performance of inkjet printing based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell composites (United States)

    Chen, YiFan; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Li; Du, Yunzhe; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, LiWei; Huang, YuDong


    The increasing growth of the inkjet market makes the inkjet printing more necessary. A composite material based on core-shell structure has been developed and applied to prepare inkjet printing layer. In this contribution, the ink printing record layers based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell composite was elaborated. The prepared core-shell composite materials were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta potential, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved the presence of electrostatic adsorption between SiO2 molecules and Al13 molecules with the formation of the well-dispersed system. In addition, based on the adsorption and the liquid permeability analysis, SiO2@Al13 ink printing record layer achieved a relatively high ink uptake (2.5 gmm-1) and permeability (87%), respectively. The smoothness and glossiness of SiO2@Al13 record layers were higher than SiO2 record layers. The core-shell structure facilitated the dispersion of the silica, thereby improved its ink absorption performance and made the clear printed image. Thus, the proposed procedure based on SiO2@Al13 core-shell structure of dye particles could be applied as a promising strategy for inkjet printing.

  1. Synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles for light-trapping enhancement in organic bulk heterojunction (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Ding, Qiuyu; Li, Ben Q.; Jiang, Xinbing; Zhang, Manman


    Though noble metal nanoparticles have been explored to enhance the performance of the organic solar cell, effect of dielectric nanoparticles, and coupled effect of dielectric and metal nanoparticles, have rarely been reported, if at all, on organic solar cell. This work reports an experimental study on synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles in a bulk organic heterojunction for the broadband light absorption enhancement. The wavelength scale SiO2 particles were arranged as a monolayer on the surface of the solar cell to guide incident light into the active layer and prolong the effective optical length of the entered energy. This is achieved by the excitation of whispering gallery modes in SiO2 nanoparticles and by leaky mode radiation. When small size Ag particles were incorporated into the transport layer of the solar cell, synergetic scattering of SiO2 and Ag nanoparticles is formed by coupling of the whispering gallery mode of closely arranged SiO2 particles atop and collaborative localized surface plasma resonance scattering of Ag nanoparticles dispersed in the transport layer. As a result, the performance of the organic solar cell is greatly enhanced and the short-circuit current density has an improvement of 42.47%. Therefore, the organic solar cell incorporated with SiO2 and Ag particles presents a meaningful strategy to achieve high energy-harvesting performance. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Investigation of Leakage Current Mechanisms in La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC MOS Capacitors with Varied SiO2 Thickness (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Jia, Renxu; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Chengzhan; Zhang, Yuming


    In this study, the material and electrical properties of La2O3/SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are systematically characterized. Thermal oxidization SiO2 with varying thickness (0 nm, 3.36 nm, 5 nm, 8 nm, and 30 nm) were coated with La2O3 using atomic layer deposition on n-type 4H-SiC. The stacking oxides were measured using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the MOS capacitors were measured by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements. The results demonstrate that the main gate current leakage mechanisms are dependent on the thickness of the SiO2 oxide under the applied electric field. The primary mechanism for current leakage from the La2O3/4H-SiC MOS capacitor follows the Schottky emission mechanism due to its low conduction band offset. In contrast, the current leakage mechanism for the capacitor with a 3.36 nm SiO2 layer follows the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism on account of its high trap charge density in the gate dielectric and at the interface. When the thickness of the SiO2 layer increases to 8 nm, lower leakage current is observed by reason of the low trap charge density and high conduction band offset when E ≤ 5 MV/cm. As the electric field strength increases to 5 MV/cm and 5.88 MV/cm (30 nm SiO2: 4.8 MV/cm), the main current leakage mechanism changes to the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism, which indicates that the La2O3/SiO2 stacking structure can improve the properties of MOS capacitors.

  3. La cascarilla de arroz como fuente de SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Andrea Arcos


    Full Text Available La cascarilla de arroz calcinada presenta un alto contenido de sílice. Este trabajo estudió la naturaleza de la fracción orgánica donde se nuclean los complejos de sílice y las condiciones óptimas para la síntesis de SiO2. La cascarilla de arroz y la sílice se analizaron utilizando microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, difracción de rayos de X (DRX, infrarrojo con transformada de Fourier (FTIR y análisis térmico diferencial (ATD. La cascarilla fue tratada con HCl para eliminar impurezas como Fe, Na, K, entre otros. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que en la parte externa de la cascarilla, constituida de celulosa, se nuclea la sílice, y el SiO2 obtenido de la misma es amorfo, con un alto valor de superficie específica (~277 m2/g, morfología no definida y tamaño nanométrico (< 200 nm.

  4. Amorphous Ge quantum dots embedded in SiO2 formed by low energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J. P.; Huang, D. X.; Jacobson, A. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Makarenkov, B.; Chu, W. K.; Bahrim, B.; Rabalais, J. W.


    Under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, extremely small Ge nanodots embedded in SiO 2 , i.e., Ge-SiO 2 quantum dot composites, have been formed by ion implantation of 74 Ge + isotope into (0001) Z-cut quartz at a low kinetic energy of 9 keV using varying implantation temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and micro-Raman scattering show that amorphous Ge nanodots are formed at all temperatures. The formation of amorphous Ge nanodots is different from reported crystalline Ge nanodot formation by high energy ion implantation followed by a necessary high temperature annealing process. At room temperature, a confined spatial distribution of the amorphous Ge nanodots can be obtained. Ge inward diffusion was found to be significantly enhanced by a synergetic effect of high implantation temperature and preferential sputtering of surface oxygen, which induced a much wider and deeper Ge nanodot distribution at elevated implantation temperature. The bimodal size distribution that is often observed in high energy implantation was not observed in the present study. Cross-sectional TEM observation and the depth profile of Ge atoms in SiO 2 obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectra revealed a critical Ge concentration for observable amorphous nanodot formation. The mechanism of formation of amorphous Ge nanodots and the change in spatial distribution with implantation temperature are discussed

  5. Systematic investigation of the reactive ion beam sputter deposition process of SiO2 (United States)

    Mateev, Maria; Lautenschläger, Thomas; Spemann, Daniel; Finzel, Annemarie; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Frost, Frank; Bundesmann, Carsten


    Ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) is an established physical vapour deposition technique that offers the opportunity to tailor the properties of film-forming particles and, consequently, film properties. This is because of two reasons: (i) ion generation and acceleration (ion source), sputtering (target) and film deposition (substrate) are locally separated. (ii) The angular and energy distribution of sputtered target atoms and scattered primary particles depend on ion incidence angle, ion energy, and ion species. Ion beam sputtering of a Si target in a reactive oxygen atmosphere was used to grow SiO2 films on silicon substrates. The sputtering geometry, ion energy and ion species were varied systematically and their influence on film properties was investigated. The SiO2 films are amorphous. The growth rate increases with increasing ion energy and ion incidence angle. Thickness, index of refraction, stoichiometry, mass density and surface roughness show a strong correlation with the sputtering geometry. A considerable amount of primary inert gas particles is found in the deposited films. The primary ion species also has an impact on the film properties, whereas the influence of the ion energy is rather small.

  6. Photon Irradiation Response on Ge and Al-Doped SiO2 Optical Fibres (United States)

    Yaakob, Nor Haliza; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Ali, Hassan; Asni, Hazila


    Recently, research groups have reported a number of radiation effects on the applications of SiO2 optical fibres with possible use as dosimeter material because these optical fibre provide a good basis for medical radiation dosimetry. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence response and fading characteristic for germanium and aluminium doped SiO2 optical fibres with photon irradiation. These optical fibres are placed in solid phantom and irradiated to 6 and 10 MV photon beam at dose ranging from 0.06 Gy to 0.24 Gy using Primus MLC 3339 linear accelerator at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru. In fading studies, the TL measurements were continued up to 14 days period. The optical fibres will produce glow curves whereby the information is then analyzed. Al and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship that is proportionality between the TL signal and the doses. Comparison for TL response between different linear accelerator showed a good agreement because these optical fibres also have a linear dose-TL signal relationship even using different equipments.

  7. Effect of SiO2 coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, J.W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.


    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO 2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25–35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ∼630nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82 Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO 2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials

  8. Effect of SiO2 coating in bolometric Ge light detectors for rare event searches (United States)

    Beeman, J. W.; Gentils, A.; Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.


    In germanium-based light detectors for scintillating bolometers, a SiO2 anti-reflective coating is often applied on the side of the germanium wafer exposed to light with the aim to improve its light collection efficiency. In this paper, we report about a measurement, performed in the temperature range 25-35 mK, of the light-collection increase obtained thanks to this method, which resulted to be of the order of 20%. The procedure followed has been carefully selected in order to minimize systematic effects. The employed light sources have the same spectral features (peaking at ˜630 nm wavelength) that will characterize future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments on the isotope 82Se and based on ZnSe crystals, such as LUCIFER. The coupling between source and light detector reproduces the configuration used in scintillating bolometers. The present measurement clarifies the role of SiO2 coating and describes a method and a set-up that can be extended to the study of other types of coatings and luminescent materials.

  9. Surface Property and Stability of Transparent Superhydrophobic Coating Based on SiO2-Polyelectrolyte Multilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Artificial superhydrophobic films were deposited onto a glass slide by performing layer-by-layer deposition of 3.5 bilayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride/ poly(acrylic acid polyelectrolyte, followed by a layer of SiO2 nanoparticles of various amounts to enhance the surface roughness and a fluorosilane to reduce the surface free energy. Higher SiO2 content incorporated into the films resulted in rougher surface and higher water contact angle. The total surface free energy determined by using the Owens-Wendt equation dramatically decreased from 31.46 mJ·m-2 for the film having the relatively flat surface to only 1.16 mJ·m-2 for the film having the highest surface roughness of 60.2 ± 1.1 nm. All the films were optically transparent and had excellent adhesion based on the peel test. Indoor and accelerated weathering tests revealed good weathering stability.DOI:

  10. Statistical Design of Ultra-Thin SiO2 for Nano devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, U.; Abdul-Fatah, M.F.A.; Ahmad, I.; Majlis, B.Y.


    A study was performed on a series of ultra thin SiO 2 films in order to determine the factors affecting the oxide growth and also the effect of temperature to the film surface roughness. The samples of ultra thin SiO 2 were prepared through a dry oxidation method using a high temperature furnace. There are three levels of temperature used, that is 900, 950 and 1000 degree Celsius and the samples were grown at 0.333 litre/ min, 0.667 liter/ min and 1 liter/ min oxygen flow rate and different oxidation times of 1, 2 and 3 minutes. The thickness was determined using an ellipsometers and the micro morphology of the oxide surface was obtained by using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The thickness of the oxide ranged from 1 to 5 nm. All the data has been interpreted using Taguchi's method to analyze the most affecting factors in producing an ultra thin silicon dioxide. The optimum parameters are 900 degree Celsius, 0.333 litre/ min and at 1 minute time. The most influential parameter is temperature. The temperature also affects the surface roughness. The AFM result of 950 degree Celsius with RMS value of 0.1088 nm is better than the 900 degree Celsius oxide with RMS value 0.4553 nm. This shows that oxides need to be grown at a higher temperature to provide better surface roughness which is also important in ultra thin gate oxide characteristics. (author)

  11. "Embedded Emitters": Direct bandgap Ge nanodots within SiO2 (United States)

    Kuo, M. H.; Chou, S. K.; Pan, Y. W.; Lin, S. D.; George, T.; Li, P. W.


    Microdisk-arrays of vertically stacked 30-70 nm Ge nanodots embedded within SiO2 were fabricated using thermal oxidation of Si0.75Ge0.25 abacus-shaped pillars and followed by post-annealing in oxygen-deficient conditions. The Ge nanodots are subjected to increasing quantum-confinement and tensile-strain by reducing dot size. We show that considerable quantum-confinement and tensile-strain can be generated within 30 nm Ge nanodots embedded in SiO2, as evidenced by large Raman red shifts for the Ge-Ge phonon lines in comparison to that for bulk Ge. These large quantum-confinement and tensile-strain facilitate direct-bandgap photoluminescence experimentally observed for the Ge nanodots, and are consistent with the strain-split photoluminescence transitions to the light-hole (LH) and heavy-hole (HH) valence bands at 0.83 eV and 0.88 eV, respectively. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements conducted from 10-100 K show temperature-insensitive carrier lifetimes of 2.7 ns and 5 ns for the HH and LH valence-band transitions, respectively, providing additional strong evidence of direct bandgap photoluminescence for tensile-strained Ge nanodots.

  12. Location of trapped charge in aluminum-implanted SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMaria, D.J.; Young, D.R.; Hunter, W.R.; Serrano, C.M.


    The position of the centroid of electrons trapped on sites resulting from aluminum implantation into SiO 2 is measured by using the photo I-V technique for energies from 15 to 40 keV, oxide thicknesses from 49 to 140 nm, and post-implant annealing temperature from 600 to 1050 0 C in N 2 for 30 min. The centroid of the trapped electrons is found to be identical to that of the implanted aluminum from SIMS measurements, regardless of annealing temperature from 600 to 1050 0 C, and located closer (by less than 9 nm) to the Al--SiO 2 interface than predicted from the Lindhard-Scharff-Schott (LSS) calculations of Gibbons, Johnson, and Mylroie. Comparison of centroids determined from photo I-V and SIMS measurements as a function of SiO 2 thickness also implies that the distributions of the ions and negative trapped charge are the same. The trapping behavior of these sites is discussed in the accompanying paper by Young et al

  13. Modification by SiO2 of Alumina Support for Light Alkane Dehydrogenation Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyjaz E. Bekmukhamedov


    Full Text Available Due to the continuously rising demand for C3–C5 olefins it is important to improve the performance of catalysts for dehydrogenation of light alkanes. In this work the effect of modification by SiO2 on the properties of the alumina support and the chromia-alumina catalyst was studied. SiO2 was introduced by impregnation of the support with a silica sol. To characterize the supports and the catalysts the following techniques were used: low-temperature nitrogen adsorption; IR-spectroscopy; magic angle spinning 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance; temperature programmed desorption and reduction; UV-Vis-, Raman- and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR-spectroscopy. It was shown that the modifier in amounts of 2.5–7.5 wt % distributed on the support surface in the form of SiOx-islands diminishes the interaction between the alumina support and the chromate ions (precursor of the active component. As a result, polychromates are the compounds predominantly stabilized on the surface of the modified support; under thermal activation of the catalyst and are reduced to the amorphous Cr2O3. This in turn leads to an increase in the activity of the catalyst in the dehydrogenation of isobutane.

  14. Formation Mechanism of SiO2-Type Inclusions in Si-Mn-Killed Steel Wires Containing Limited Aluminum Content (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Min; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Haoqian; Cao, Zhanmin


    The origin, formation mechanism, and evolution of SiO2-type inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steel wires were studied by pilot trials with systematical samplings at the refining ladle, casting tundish, as-cast bloom, reheated bloom, and hot-rolled rods. It was found that the inclusions in tundish were well controlled in the low melting point region. By contrast, MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions in the as-cast bloom were with compositions located in the primary region of SiO2, and most CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions lied in primary phase region of anorthite. Therefore, precipitation of SiO2 particles in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions can be easier than in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions to form dual-phase inclusions in the as-cast bloom. Thermodynamic calculation by the software FactSage 6.4 (CRCT-ThermFact Inc., Montréal, Canada) showed that mass transfer between liquid steel and inclusions resulted in the rise of SiO2 content in inclusions from tundish to as-cast bloom and accelerated the precipitation of pure SiO2 phase in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions. As a result, the inclusions characterized by dual-phase structure of pure SiO2 in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix were observed in both as-cast and reheated blooms. Moreover, the ratio of such dual-phase SiO2-type inclusions witnessed an obvious increase from 0 to 25.4 pct before and after casting, whereas it changed little during the reheating and rolling. Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that they were mainly formed during casting. Comparing the evolution of the inclusions composition and morphology in as-cast bloom and rolled products, a formation mechanism of the SiO2-type inclusions in wire rods was proposed, which included (1) precipitation of SiO2 in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusion during casting and (2) solid-phase separation of the undeformed SiO2 precipitation from its softer MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix during multipass rolling.

  15. Formation of thin DLC films on SiO2/Si substrate using FCVAD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootkul, D.; Intarasiri, S.; Aramwit, C.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L.D.


    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on SiO 2 /Si substrate are attractive for novel sensitive and selective chemical sensors. According to the almost never ending of size reduction, a nm-thickness layer of the film is greatly required. However, formation of such a very thin DLC film on SiO 2 /Si substrate is challenging. In this experiment, DLC films were formed using our in-house Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition (FCVAD) facility by varying the bias voltage of 0 V, −250 V and −450 V with the arc voltage of 350 V, 450 V, 550 V, 650 V and 750 V for 10 min. Raman spectroscopy was applied for characterization of the film qualities and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was applied for cross sectional analysis. Results showed that films of thickness ranging from 10–50 nm were easily acquired depending on deposition conditions. Deconvolution of Raman spectra of these samples revealed that, when fixing the substrate bias but increasing the arc voltage from 350 to 750 V, the ratio between D-peak and G-peak intensity, namely I D /I G ratio, tended to reduce up to the arc voltage of 450 V, then increased up to the arc voltage of 650 V and finally decreased again. On the other hand, when fixing the arc voltage, the I D /I G ratio tended to decrease continuously as the increasing of bias voltage. It can be concluded that the bonding structure would evolve from a graphitic-like structure to a diamond-like structure as the substrate bias increases. Additionally, the sp 3 site should be maximized at the arc voltage ∼450 V for fixed bias voltage. It is expected that, at −450 V bias and 450 V arc, sp 3 fractions could be higher than 60%. However, in some cases, e.g. at low arc voltages, voids formed between the film and the amorphous SiO 2 substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of the C edge across the DLC indicated that the thicker DLC film had uniform chemistry and structure, whereas the thin DLC film showed changes in the edge shape, indicating a gradual change in its properties between the edges and the core

  16. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity investigations of differently sized amorphous SiO2 nanomaterials. (United States)

    Maser, Elena; Schulz, Markus; Sauer, Ursula G; Wiemann, Martin; Ma-Hock, Lan; Wohlleben, Wendel; Hartwig, Andrea; Landsiedel, Robert


    In vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of differently sized amorphous SiO2 nanomaterials were investigated. In the alkaline Comet assay (with V79 cells), non-cytotoxic concentrations of 300 and 100-300μg/mL 15nm-SiO2 and 55nm-SiO2, respectively, relevant (at least 2-fold relative to the negative control) DNA damage. In the Alkaline unwinding assay (with V79 cells), only 15nm-SiO2 significantly increased DNA strand breaks (and only at 100μg/mL), whereas neither nanomaterial (up to 300μg/mL) increased Fpg (Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase)-sensitive sites reflecting oxidative DNA base modifications. In the Comet assay using rat precision-cut lung slices, 15nm-SiO2 and 55nm-SiO2 induced significant DNA damage at ≥100μg/mL. In the Alkaline unwinding assay (with A549 cells), 30nm-SiO2 and 55nm-SiO2 (with larger primary particle size (PPS)) induced significant increases in DNA strand breaks at ≥50μg/mL, whereas 9nm-SiO2 and 15nm-SiO2 (with smaller PPS) induced significant DNA damage at higher concentrations. These two amorphous SiO2 also increased Fpg-sensitive sites (significant at 100μg/mL). In vivo, within 3 days after single intratracheal instillation of 360μg, neither 15nm-SiO2 nor 55nm-SiO2 caused genotoxic effects in the rat lung or in the bone marrow. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in both test groups with findings being more pronounced upon treatment with 15nm-SiO2 than with 55nm-SiO2. Taken together, the study shows that colloidal amorphous SiO2 with different particle sizes may induce genotoxic effects in lung cells in vitro at comparatively high concentrations. However, the same materials elicited no genotoxic effects in the rat lung even though pronounced pulmonary inflammation evolved. This may be explained by the fact that a considerably lower dose reached the target cells in vivo than in vitro. Additionally, the different time points of investigation may provide more time for DNA damage repair after instillation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved Efficiency of Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by Insertion of Ultrathin SiO2 Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Jung Huang


    Full Text Available An ultrathin hole-injection buffer layer (HBL using silicon dioxide (SiO2 by electron beam evaporation in flexible organic light-emitting diode (FOLED has been fabricated. While the current of the device at constant driving voltage decreases as increasing SiO2 thickness. Compared to the different thicknesses of the buffer layer, the FOLED with the buffer layer of 4 nm showed the highest luminous efficiency. The atomic force microscopy (AFM investigation of indium tin oxide (ITO/SiO2 topography reveals changes at the interface between SiO2 and N,N′-bis-(1-naphthl-diphenyl-1,1′-bipheny-4,4′-diamine (NPB, resulting in ultrathin SiO2 layers being a clear advantage for a FOLED. However, the SiO2 can be expected to be a good buffer layer material and thus enhance the emission performance of the FOLED.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Sinol


    Full Text Available Physical and electrical properties of The SiO2-ZnO mixing at different compositions were investigated. The experiment used simple mixing method at the sintering temperature 600oC. It was used the composition mixing ratio of SiO2:ZnO ie. 0:10; 7:3; 5:5; 3:7; and 10:0 (%Wt. Based on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results, it obtained that a new phase in each sample was not formed even though having different diffraction peak. The mixing ratio of SiO2: ZnO nanocomposite (7:3 %wt had the biggest grain size (77,92 nm, the highest dielectric constant (3.00E+05 and the smallest conductivity (0,726549 (Ωm-1. On the other side, the mixing ratio of SiO2: ZnO nanocomposite (5:5 %wt had the smallest grain size (35.42nm, dielectric constant (3.00E+2 and the highest conductivity (25.36729  (Ωm-1. It can be concluded that the difference of composition ratio offered the change on both physical and electrical properties of SiO2-ZnO nanocomposite.

  19. Effect of SiO2, PVA and glycerol concentrations on chemical and mechanical properties of alginate-based films. (United States)

    Yang, Manli; Shi, Jinsheng; Xia, Yanzhi


    Sodium alginate (SA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/SiO 2 nanocomposite films were prepared by in situ polymerization through solution casting and solvent evaporation. The effect of different SA/PVA ratios, SiO 2 , and glycerol content on the mechanical properties, water content, water solubility, and water vapor permeability were studied. The nanocomposite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal stability (thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermogravimetry) analyses. The nanocomposites showed the highest values of mechanical properties, such as SA/PVA ratio, SiO 2 , and glycerol content was 7:3, 6wt.%, and 0.25g/g SA, respectively. The tensile strength and elongation at break (E%) of the nanocomposites increased by 525.7% and 90.7%, respectively, compared with those of the pure alginate film. The Fourier transform infrared spectra showed a new SiOC band formed in the SA/PVA/SiO 2 nanocomposite film. The scanning electron microscopy image revealed good adhesion between SiO 2 and SA/PVA matrix. After the incorporation of PVA and SiO 2 , the water resistance of the SA/PVA/SiO 2 nanocomposite film was markedly improved. Transparency decreased with increasing PVA content but was enhanced by adding SiO 2 . Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Genomic and functional analysis of Vibrio phage SIO-2 reveals novel insights into ecology and evolution of marine siphoviruses. (United States)

    Baudoux, A-C; Hendrix, R W; Lander, G C; Bailly, X; Podell, S; Paillard, C; Johnson, J E; Potter, C S; Carragher, B; Azam, F


    We report on a genomic and functional analysis of a novel marine siphovirus, the Vibrio phage SIO-2. This phage is lytic for related Vibrio species of great ecological interest including the broadly antagonistic bacterium Vibrio sp. SWAT3 as well as notable members of the Harveyi clade (V.harveyi ATTC BAA-1116 and V.campbellii ATCC 25920). Vibrio phage SIO-2 has a circularly permuted genome of 80598 bp, which displays unusual features. This genome is larger than that of most known siphoviruses and only 38 of the 116 predicted proteins had homologues in databases. Another divergence is manifest by the origin of core genes, most of which share robust similarities with unrelated viruses and bacteria spanning a wide range of phyla. These core genes are arranged in the same order as in most bacteriophages but they are unusually interspaced at two places with insertions of DNA comprising a high density of uncharacterized genes. The acquisition of these DNA inserts is associated with morphological variation of SIO-2 capsid, which assembles as a large (80 nm) shell with a novel T=12 symmetry. These atypical structural features confer on SIO-2 a remarkable stability to a variety of physical, chemical and environmental factors. Given this high level of functional and genomic novelty, SIO-2 emerges as a model of considerable interest in ecological and evolutionary studies. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Tunable Anisotropic Absorption of Ag-Embedded SiO2 Thin Films by Oblique Angle Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu-Di, Xiao; Guo-Ping, Dong; Jian-Da, Shao; Zheng-Xiu, Fan; Hong-Bo, He; Hong-Ji, Qi


    Ag-embedded SiO 2 thin films are prepared by oblique angle deposition. Through field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), an orientated slanted columnar structure is observed. Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis shows the Ag concentration is about 3% in the anisotropic SiO 2 matrix. Anisotropic surface plasma resonance (SPR) absorption is observed in the Ag-embedded SiO 2 thin films, which is dependent on polarization state and incidence angle of two orthogonal polarized lights and the deposition angle. This means that optical properties and anisotropic SPR absorption can be tunable in Ag-embedded SiO 2 thin films. Broadband polarization splitting is also observed and the transmission ratio T p /T s between p- and s-polarized lights is up to 2.7 for thin films deposited at α = 70°, which means that Ag-embedded SiO 2 thin films are a promising candidate for thin film polarizers. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  2. Magnesium Removal from an Aluminum A-332 Molten Alloy Using Enriched Zeolite with Nanoparticles of SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muñoz-Arroyo


    Full Text Available In order to improve the Mg removal from an A-380 molten alloy, mixtures of zeolite and SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2(NPs were tested. Zeolite was enriched with 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 12.5 wt-% of amorphous SiO2(NPs. The SiO2(NPs and zeolite were mixed for 30 min in ethanol for each experiment and then dried in a furnace at 80°C for 12 h. The enriched zeolites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 gas adsorption analysis. The Mg removal was carried out injecting each mixture into the molten aluminum alloy at 750°C using argon. The Mg content of the molten alloy was measured after different periods of the injection time. Zeolites enriched with 2.5 and 5 wt-% of SiO2(NPs were demonstrated to be the better mixtures, removing Mg from an initial content of 1.6 to a final content of 0.0002 and 0.0101 wt-%, respectively, in 45 min of injection.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Ti-Phenyl at SiO2 Core-Shell Nanoparticles Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamsi Aini; Jon Efendi; Syamsi Aini; Jon Efendi


    This study highlights the potential use of Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles as heterogeneous catalysis in oxidation reaction. The Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 was synthesized by reduction of TiCl 4 and diazonium salt with sodium borohydride to produce phenyl titanium nanoparticles (Ti-Phenyl), followed by the silica shell coating using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, diffuse reflectance (DR) UV-visible spectrometer, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometer, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The core-shell size of Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 was in the range of 40 to 100 nm with its core composed with an agglomeration of Ti-Phenyl. The Ti-Phenyl at SiO 2 was active as a catalyst in the liquid phase epoxidation of 1-octene with aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. (author)

  4. Hydroxyapatite-TiO2-SiO2-Coated 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical Application (United States)

    Sidane, Djahida; Khireddine, Hafit; Bir, Fatima; Yala, Sabeha; Montagne, Alex; Chicot, Didier


    This study investigated the effectiveness of titania (TiO2) as a reinforcing phase in the hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating and silica (SiO2) single layer as a bond coat between the TiO2-reinforced hydroxyapatite (TiO2/HAP) top layer and 316L stainless steel (316L SS) substrate on the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the underlying 316L SS metallic implant. Single layer of SiO2 film was first deposited on 316L SS substrate and studied separately. Water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer analysis were used to evaluate the hydroxyl group reactivity at the SiO2 outer surface. The microstructural and morphological results showed that the reinforcement of HAP coating with TiO2 and SiO2 reduced the crystallite size and the roughness surface. Indeed, the deposition of 50 vol pct TiO2-reinforced hydroxyapatite layer enhanced the hardness and the elastic modulus of the HAP coating, and the introduction of SiO2 inner layer on the surface of the 316L SS allowed the improvement of the bonding strength and the corrosion resistance as confirmed by scratch studies, nanoindentation, and cyclic voltammetry tests.

  5. VO x /SiO 2 Catalyst Prepared by Grafting VOCl 3 on Silica for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo


    The VOx/SiO2 catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were synthesized by a simple grafting method. The VOCl3 was first grafted at the surface of SiO2, which was dehydrated at different temperature (from 200 to 1000°C). The formed grafted complexes were then calcined in air, leading to the formation of VOx/SiO2 catalysts. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed reduction, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The SiO2 pretreatment temperature has an evident effect on the loading and dispersion of VOx on SiO2, which finally affects their catalytic performance. High SiO2 treatment temperature is beneficial to dispersing the vanadium oxide species at the SiO2 surface. These materials are efficient catalysts for the catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of propane to propylene. The best selectivity to propylene is achieved on the VOx/SiO2-(1000) catalyst. The high selectivity and activity are well maintained for three days catalytic reaction. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Short-Term Pulmonary Toxicity of Differently Sized Colloidal Amorphous SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiemann


    Full Text Available In vitro prediction of inflammatory lung effects of well-dispersed nanomaterials is challenging. Here, the in vitro effects of four colloidal amorphous SiO2 nanomaterials that differed only by their primary particle size (9, 15, 30, and 55 nm were analyzed using the rat NR8383 alveolar macrophage (AM assay. Data were compared to effects of single doses of 15 nm and 55 nm SiO2 intratracheally instilled in rat lungs. In vitro, all four elicited the release of concentration-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, β-glucuronidase, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and the two smaller materials also released H2O2. All effects were size-dependent. Since the colloidal SiO2 remained well-dispersed in serum-free in vitro conditions, effective particle concentrations reaching the cells were estimated using different models. Evaluating the effective concentration–based in vitro effects using the Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials, all four nanomaterials were assigned as “active.” This assignment and the size dependency of effects were consistent with the outcomes of intratracheal instillation studies and available short-term rat inhalation data for 15 nm SiO2. The study confirms the applicability of the NR8383 AM assay to assessing colloidal SiO2 but underlines the need to estimate and consider the effective concentration of such well-dispersed test materials.

  7. Effect of Si and SiO2 Substrates on the Geometries of As-Grown Carbon Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semi Park


    Full Text Available Carbon coils could be synthesized using C2H2/H2 as source gases and SF6 as an incorporated additive gas under thermal chemical vapor deposition system. Si substrate, SiO2 thin film deposited Si substrate (SiO2 substrate, and quartz substrate were employed to elucidate the effect of substrate on the formation of carbon coils. The characteristics (formation densities, morphologies, and geometries of the deposited carbon coils on the substrate were investigated. In case of Si substrate, the microsized carbon coils were dominant on the substrate surface. While, in case of SiO2 substrate, the nanosized carbon coils were prevailing on the substrate surface. The surface morphologies of samples were investigated step by step during the reaction process. The cause for the different geometry formation of carbon coils according to the different substrates was discussed in association with the different thermal expansion coefficient values of Si and SiO2 substrates and the different etched characteristics of Si and SiO2 substrates by SF6 + H2 flow.

  8. Cristalización de Cordierita en vidrios derivados del sistema cuaternario CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Influencia de la composición del vidrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón, J.


    Full Text Available It has been studied the calcium effect on the crystallization of cordierite for obtaining a glassceramic material into the CaOáMgOáAl2O3áSiO2 quaternary system. With this propose it has been selected six compositions into de cordierite primary field of crystallization and obtained the original glasses. The obtained samples have been analysed after a thermal treatment in three steps (glass transformation, nucleation and growth by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The composition of phases in microstructures have been analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The microstructures have been related with the crystalline phases by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX. The amount of CaO in glasses is directly related with the anorthite crystallization, suggesting that the great amount of crystallized anorthite in relation with the low amount of CaO in the original glasses is due to the formation of one anorthite-diopside solid solution, what was tested by EDX. At growth temperature almost every samples partly crystallized, as primary or secondary cordierite phase. The anorthite microstructure was very particulated in spherulites forms of radius near to 250 nm, while the cordierite phase showed different morphologies, from almost-spherulitic crystallization nucleus ("rosettes" of μ-cordierite for direct crystallization from glass, to dense dendrites coming from μ transformation. Finally it can be found homogeneous blocks of α-cordierite with dimension of 10 x 10 μm2.Se ha estudiado el efecto del calcio en la cristalización de cordierita para la obtención de un material vitrocerámico dentro del sistema cuaternario CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Con este objetivo se han seleccionado seis composiciones dentro del campo primario de cristalización de la cordierita y se han obtenido por fusión sus correspondientes vidrios. Se han analizado las muestras obtenidas tras un tratamiento térmico en tres etapas (transformación vítrea, nucleación y crecimiento

  9. Nanogranular SiO2 proton gated silicon layer transistor mimicking biological synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M. J.; Huang, G. S.; Guo, Q. L.; Tian, Z. A.; Li, G. J.; Mei, Y. F.; Feng, P.; Shao, F.; Wan, Q.


    Silicon on insulator (SOI)-based transistors gated by nanogranular SiO 2 proton conducting electrolytes were fabricated to mimic synapse behaviors. This SOI-based device has both top proton gate and bottom buried oxide gate. Electrical transfer properties of top proton gate show hysteresis curves different from those of bottom gate, and therefore, excitatory post-synaptic current and paired pulse facilitation (PPF) behavior of biological synapses are mimicked. Moreover, we noticed that PPF index can be effectively tuned by the spike interval applied on the top proton gate. Synaptic behaviors and functions, like short-term memory, and its properties are also experimentally demonstrated in our device. Such SOI-based electronic synapses are promising for building neuromorphic systems.

  10. Optical characterization of glutamate dehydrogenase monolayers chemisorbed on SiO2 (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Blasi, L.; Longo, L.; Cingolani, R.; Ciccarella, G.; Vasapollo, G.; Rinaldi, R.; Rizzello, A.; Storelli, C.; Maffia, M.


    This paper describes the formation of glutamate dehydrogenase monolayers on silicon dioxide, and their characterization by means of physical techniques, i.e., fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Detailed investigations of the intrinsic stability of native proteins in solution were carried out to elucidate the occurrence of conformational changes induced by the immobilization procedure. The enzyme monolayers were deposited on SiO2 after preexposing silicon surfaces to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and reacting the silylated surfaces with glutaric dialdehyde. The optical characterization demonstrates that the immobilization does not interfere with the fold pattern of the native enzyme. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal denaturation, and quenching studies performed on the enzyme in solution well describe the folding and unfolding properties of glutamate dehydrogenase. The photophysical studies reported here are relevant for nanobioelectronics applications requiring protein immobilization on a chip.

  11. Mechanical and ageing properties of SiO2 - doped Y-TZP ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, S.


    The effects of small additions of silica (SiO 2 ) up to 0.5 wt5 on the mechanical and ageing properties of commercial 2.5 mol% yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) ceramics have been investigated. Low temperature hydrothermal ageing at 120 o C was conducted in steam in an autoclave at 2 bar up to 400 hours. It was found that the presence of a glassy grain boundary acted as a sintering aid for Y-TZP. As the silica content increased, the sinterability of the ceramic significantly improved, but this was accompanied by an undesirable microstructural change such as abnormal grain growth. This abnormality was believed to be associated with the formation of cubic phase. In addition, it was also found that the ageing resistance of Y-TZP deteriorated with increasing silica content. (Author)

  12. Hole trapping in E-beam irradiated SiO2 films (United States)

    Aitken, J. M.; Dekeersmaecker, R. F.


    Low energy (25 kV) electron beam irradiation of MOS capacitors is shown to produce neutral hole traps in thin ‘radiation hardened’ SiO2 films. These traps are found in an uncharged state after irradiation and are populated by passing a small hole current, generated by avalanche breakdown of the n-type silicon substrate, through the oxide. From the time dependence of the observed trapping, a capture cross-section between 1 × 10˜-13 and 1 × 10-14 cm2 is deduced. The trap density is found to depend on the annealing conditions and incident electron beam dosage. The density of traps increases with incident electron beam exposure. Once introduced into the oxide by the radiation the traps can be removed by thermal anneals at temperatures above 500° C. Parallels between electron and hole trapping on these neutral centers are strong evidence for an amphoteric uncharged trap generated by ionizing radiation.

  13. Synthesis of optical waveguides in SiO2 by silver ion implantation (United States)

    Márquez, H.; Salazar, D.; Rangel-Rojo, R.; Angel-Valenzuela, J. L.; Vázquez, G. V.; Flores-Romero, E.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.; Oliver, A.


    Optical waveguides have been obtained by silver ion implantation on fused silica substrates. Silver ion implantation profiles were calculated in a SiO2 matrix with different energies of implantation from 125 keV to 10 MeV. Refractive index change (Δn) of the ion implanted waveguides was calculated as a function of their chemical composition. Optical absorption spectra of waveguides obtained by 9 MeV silver ion implantation, at a dose of 5 × 1016 ions/cm2, exhibit the typical absorption band associated to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. Effective refractive indices of the propagation modes and waveguide propagation losses of silver ion implanted waveguides are also presented.

  14. Stability and kinetics of point defects in SiO2 and in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma, G.


    This document is conceived as an overview of Guido Roma's research achievements on defects stability and kinetics in two materials of interest in nuclear science and for many other application domains: silicon dioxide and silicon carbide. An extended summary in french is followed by the main document, in english. Chapter 1 describes the context, introduces the approach and explains the choice of silicon dioxide and silicon carbide. Chapter 2 discusses several approximations and specific issues of the application of Density Functional Theory to point defects in non-metallic materials for the study of defects energetics and diffusion. Chapter 3 is devoted to native defects in silicon dioxide and the understanding of self-diffusion in crystalline and amorphous SiO 2 . Chapter 4 summarises the results on native defects and palladium impurities in silicon carbide. A conclusion, including suggestions for future developments, closes the main part of the document. (author) [fr

  15. Positive magnetoresistance in Co40Fe40B20/SiO2/Si heterostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Y.


    Current-perpendicular-to-plane electronic transport properties and magnetoresistance of amorphous Co40Fe40B20/SiO2/Si heterostructures are investigated systematically. A backward diode-like rectifying behavior was observed due to the formation of a Schottky barrier between Co40Fe40B20 and Si. The junction resistance shows a metal-insulator transition with decreasing temperature in both the forward and reverse ranges. A large positive magnetoresistance (MR) of ∼2300% appears at 200 K. The positive MR can be attributed to the magnetic-field-controlled impact ionization process of carriers. MR shows a temperature-peak-type character under a constant bias current, which is related to the spin-dependent barrier in the Si near the interface. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  16. Electrical properties of SiO2-based graphene under monochromatic visible light irradiation (United States)

    Li, Xiangdi; Liu, Xianming; Cao, Xueying; Zhang, Peng; Lei, Xiaohua; Chen, Weimin


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the electrical properties of graphene transparent conductive film under visible light irradiation. Sample in the study is chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth graphene on the surface of copper foils and then transferred to the SiO2 substrate. Three monochromatic visible lights with wavelength of 635nm, 520nm and 450nm representing red (R), green (G) and blue (B) lights are used as irradiation sources. Results show that the graphene resistances increase slowly under light irradiation with all the three different wavelengths, while decrease slowly after the light is switched off. Light irradiation with higher power density will induce larger relative resistance change. When graphene is irradiated at the same density, blue light irradiation may result in the largest resistance change.

  17. Emission Mechanisms of Si Nanocrystals and Defects in SiO2 Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Motivated by the necessity to have all silicon optoelectronic circuits, researchers around the world are working with light emitting silicon materials. Such materials are silicon dielectric compounds with silicon content altered, such as silicon oxide or nitride, enriched in different ways with Silicon. Silicon Rich Oxide or silicon dioxide enriched with silicon, and silicon rich nitride are without a doubt the most promising materials to reach this goal. Even though they are subjected to countless studies, the light emission phenomenon has not been completely clarified. So, a review of different proposals presented to understand the light emission phenomenon including emissions related to nanocrystals and to point defects in SiO2 is presented.

  18. Acidity and alkali metal adsorption on the SiO2-aqueous solution interface. (United States)

    Zuyi, Tao; Hongxia, Zhang


    The intrinsic deprotonation constant (pK(a(2))(int)) and the intrinsic ion exchange constants (pK(Me(+))(int)) of Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) on SiO(2) were uniquely determined at 30 degrees C by using the potentiometric titration data, the Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Grahame (GSCG) model for the structure of the electrical double-layer (edl) and the double-extrapolation method. The values of these constants were pK(a(2))(int) = 6.57, pK(Li(+))(int) = pK(Na(+))(int) = pK(K(+))(int) = 5.61. The chemical meaning of intrinsic equilibrium constants and the equality in the values of pK(Li(+))(int), pK(Na(+))(int) and pK(K(+))(int) were discussed.

  19. Defects in electron irradiated vitreous SiO2 probed by positron annihiliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Kawano, Takao; Itoh, Hisayoshi


    Defects in 3 MeV electron irradiated vitreous SiO 2 (v-SiO 2 ) were probed by the positron annihilation technique. For unirradiated v-SiO 2 specimens, almost all positrons were found to annihilate from positronium (Ps) states. This high formation probability of Ps was attributed to the trapping of positrons by open-space defects. The formation probability of Ps was decreased by the electron irradiation. The observed inhibition of the Ps formation was attributed to the trapping of positrons by point defects introduced and/or activated by the irradiation. From measurements of the lifetime distribution of Ps, it was found that, by the electron irradiation, the mean size of open-space defects was decreased and the size distribution of such defects was broadened. (Author)

  20. SiO2 sol-gel films after ammonia and heat two-step treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunlai; Wang Biyi; Tian Dongbin; Yin Wei; Jiang Xiaodong; Yuan Xiaodong; Yan Lianghong; Zhang Hongliang; Zhao Songnan; Lv Haibing


    SiO 2 thin films were deposited using tetraethoxylsilane as precursor, ammonia as catalyst on K9 glass by sol-gel method. These films were post-treated by ammonia and heat. The properties of the coatings were characterized by ellipsometer, UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR-spectroscopy, scanning probe microscope and contact angle measurement apparatus. The resuits indicate that the thickness of the films with ammonia and heat treatment tend to decrease. Both the refractive index and water contact angle increase after ammonia treatment. However, they both decrease after heat treatment. The former increases by 0.236 for the first step, then decreases by 0.202 for the second. The latter increases to 58.92 degree, then decreases to 38.07 degree. The transmittance of the coatings turn to be better and continuously shift to short wave by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The surface becomes smoother by AFM after the two-step treatment. (authors)

  1. Ultrasonic-Assisted Synthesis of Two t-Butoxycarbonylamino Cephalosporin Intermediates on SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xue


    Full Text Available Herein, we describe a facile and high efficient strategy for the synthesis of two forms of the 7β-t-butoxycarbonylamino-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylates using ultrasonic irradiation. By SiO2 as weak Lewis acid catalyst, 4-methoxybenzyl 7β-t-butoxycarbonylamino-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-carboxylate (Boc-ACLE and benzhydryl 7β-t-butoxycarbonylamino-3-chloromethyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylate (Boc-ACLH were successfully synthesized through the efficient protection of the N-t-butoxycarbonyl (N-Boc, and the reactions occurred at low temperature requiring short reaction times and exhibiting excellent isolated yields (96% and 96.2%, resp.. The advantages of this reaction route including the usage of economical reagents and mild reaction conditions and high isolated yield make the two significant t-butoxycarbonylamino cephalosporin intermediates possible in large-scale production.

  2. Roughening instability and ion-induced viscous relaxation of SiO2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, T.M.; Chason, E.; Howard, A.J.


    We characterize the development of nanometer scale topography (roughness) on SiO 2 surfaces as a result of low energy, off-normal ion bombardment, using in situ energy dispersive x-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy. Surfaces roughen during sputtering by heavy ions (Xe), with roughness increasing approximately linearly with ion fluence up to 10 17 cm -2 . A highly coherent ripple structure with wavelength of 30 nm and oriented with the wave vector parallel to the direction of incidence is observed after Xe sputtering at 1 keV. Lower frequency, random texture is also observed. Subsequent light ion (H, He) bombardment smoothens preroughened surfaces. The smoothing kinetics are first order with ion fluence and strongly dependent on ion energy in the range 0.2--1 eV. We present a linear model to account for the experimental observations which includes roughening both by random stochastic processes and by development of a periodic surface instability due to sputter yield variations with surface curvature which leads to ripple development. Smoothing occurs via ion bombardment induced viscous flow and surface diffusion. From the smoothing kinetics with H and He irradiation we measure the radiation enhanced viscosity of SiO 2 and find values on the order of 1--20x10 12 N s m -2 . The viscous relaxation per ion scales as the square root of the ion induced displacements in the film over the range of the ion penetration, suggesting short-lived defects with a bimolecular annihilation mechanism. The surface instability mechanism accounts for the ripple formation, while inclusion of stochastic roughening produces the random texture and reproduces the observed linear roughening kinetics and the magnitude of the overall roughness

  3. Photoluminescent characteristics of ion beam synthesized Ge nanoparticles in thermally grown SiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.F.; Chao, D.S.; Chen, Y.-F.; Liang, J.H.


    Prospects of developing into numerous silicon-based optoelectronic applications have prompted many studies on the optical properties of Ge nanoparticles within a silicon oxide (SiO 2 ) matrix. Even with such abundant studies, the fundamental mechanism underlying the Ge nanoparticle-induced photoluminescence (PL) is still an open question. In order to elucidate the mechanism, we dedicate this study to investigating the correlation between the PL properties and microstructure of the Ge nanoparticles synthesized in thermally grown SiO 2 films. Our spectral data show that the peak position, at ∼3.1 eV or 400 nm, of the PL band arising from the Ge nanoparticles was essentially unchanged under different Ge implantation fluences and the temperatures of the following annealing process, whereas the sample preparation parameters modified or even fluctuated (in the case of the annealing temperature) the peak intensity considerably. Given the microscopically observed correlation between the nanoparticle structure and the sample preparation parameters, this phenomenon is consistent with the mechanism in which the oxygen-deficiency-related defects in the Ge/SiO 2 interface act as the major luminescence centers; this mechanism also successfully explains the peak intensity fluctuation with the annealing temperature. Moreover, our FTIR data indicate the formation of GeO x upon ion implantation. Since decreasing of the oxygen-related defects by the GeO x formation is expected to be correlated with the annealing temperature, presence of the GeO x renders further experimental support to the oxygen defect mechanism. This understanding may assist the designing of the manufacturing process to optimize the Ge nanoparticle-based PL materials for different technological applications

  4. In-situ grown CNTs modified SiO2/C composites as anode with improved cycling stability and rate capability for lithium storage (United States)

    Wang, Siqi; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; He, Fang; Ma, Liying


    Silica (SiO2) is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries owing to its high theoretical specific capacity, relatively low operation potentials, abundance, environmental benignity and low cost. However, the low intrinsic electrical conductivity and large volume change of SiO2 during the discharge/charge cycles usually results in poor electrochemical performance. In this work, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified SiO2/C composites have been fabricated through an in-situ chemical vapor deposition method. The results show that the electrical conductivity of the SiO2/C/CNTs is visibly enhanced through a robust connection between the CNTs and SiO2/C particles. Compared with the pristine SiO2 and SiO2/C composites, the SiO2/C/CNTs composites display a high initial capacity of 1267.2 mA h g-1. Besides, an excellent cycling stability with the capacity of 315.7 mA h g-1 is achieved after 1000th cycles at a rate of 1 A g-1. The significantly improved electrochemical properties of the SiO2/C/CNTs composites are mainly attributed to the formation of three dimensional CNT networks in the SiO2/C substrate, which can not only shorten the Li-ion diffusion path but also relieve the volume change during the lithium-ion insertion/extraction processes.

  5. Acoustic study of nano-crystal embedded PbO–P2O5 glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    properties of nano-crystal embedded glass matrix have attracted attention of technologists as well as scientists for fabrication of glass ceramic through controlled crysta- llization. ... To ensure the complete forma- tion of crystal phases one of the glass samples was heat- treated for a period of 2 h at 673 K which is above the.

  6. A pentacene thin film transistor with good performance using sol-gel derived SiO2 gate dielectric layer (United States)

    Cavas, M.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Al-Hartomy, O. A.; El-Tantawy, F.; Yakuphanoglu, F.


    A low-voltage pentacene field-effect transistor with sol-gel derived SiO2 gate dielectric was fabricated. The mobility of the transistor was achieved as high as 1.526 cm2/V on the bared SiO2/Si substrate by a higher dielectric constant. The interface state density for the transistor was found to vary from 3.8 × 1010 to 7.5 × 1010 eV-1 cm-2 at frequency range of 100 kHz-1 MHz. It is evaluated that the SiO2 derived by low cost sol-gel is quite a promising candidate as a gate dielectric layer for low-voltage pentacene field-effect transistor.

  7. Fiber-optic thermometry using thermal radiation from Tm end doped SiO2 fiber sensor. (United States)

    Morita, Kentaro; Katsumata, Toru; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki


    Fiber-optic thermometry based on temperature dependence of thermal radiation from Tm(3+) ions was studied using Tm end doped SiO2 fiber sensor. Visible light radiation peaks due to f-f transition of Tm(3+) ion were clearly observed at λ = 690 and 790 nm from Tm end doped SiO2 fibers sensor at the temperature above 600 °C. Thermal radiation peaks are assigned with f-f transition of Tm(3+) ion, (1)D2-(3)H6, and (1)G4-(3)H6. Peak intensity of thermal radiation from Tm(3+) ion increases with temperature. Intensity ratio of thermal radiation peaks at λ = 690 nm against that at λ = 790 nm, I790/690, is suitable for the temperature measurement above 750 °C. Two-dimensional temperature distribution in a flame is successfully evaluated by Tm end doped SiO2 fiber sensor.

  8. Immobilization of simulated reducing agent at the surface of SiO2 fillers in dental composite resins. (United States)

    Shibata, Satoki; Hirata, Isao; Nomura, Yuji; Shirai, Kenichi; Fujitani, Morioki; Shintani, Hideaki; Okazaki, Masayuki


    To reduce the leachability of reducing agents from composite resins, immobilization of a simulated reducing agent at the surface of SiO2 fillers was examined. SiO2 plates were immersed in 2% 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane/ethanol solution, and then immersed in dimethyl sulfoxide with 0.25 wt% 4-dimethyl amino benzoic acid (DMABA), 2.0 wt% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, and 0.5 wt% N-hydroxysuccinimide. Wide-scan spectrum of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy did not detect carbon contamination. However, narrow scan detected an O=C-N peak at 399.8 eV, suggesting that DMABA could be immobilized on silane-coupled SiO2 plates. Further, surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated the adsorption of MMA at the surface of reducing agent-immobilized plate.

  9. Site-specific Pt deposition and etching on electrically and thermally isolated SiO2 micro-disk surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V


    Electrically and thermally isolated surfaces are crucial for improving the detection sensitivity of microelectronic sensors. The site-specific in situ growth of Pt nano-rods on thermally and electrically isolated SiO 2 micro-disks using wet chemical etching and a focused ion/electron dual beam (FIB-SEM) is demonstrated. Fabrication of an array of micro-cavities on top of a micro-disk is also demonstrated. The FIB source is utilized to fabricate through-holes in the micro-disks. Due to the amorphous nature of SiO 2 micro-disks, the Ga implantation possibly modifies through-hole sidewall surface chemistry rather than affecting its transport properties. Some sensor design concepts based on micro-fabrication of SiO 2 micro-disks utilizing thermally and electrically isolated surfaces are discussed from the viewpoint of applications in photonics and bio-sensing.

  10. Silver nanoparticle deposition on inverse opal SiO2 films embedded in protective polypropylene micropits for SERS applications (United States)

    Ammosova, Lena; Ankudze, Bright; Philip, Anish; Jiang, Yu; Pakkanen, Tuula T.; Pakkanen, Tapani A.


    Common methods to fabricate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with controlled micro-nanohierarchy are often complex and expensive. In this study, we demonstrate a simple and cost effective method to fabricate SERS substrates with complex geometries. Microworking robot structuration is used to pattern a polypropylene (PP) substrate with micropits, facilitating protective microenvironment for brittle SiO2 inverse opal (IO) structure. Hierarchical SiO2 IO patterns were obtained using polystyrene (PS) spheres as a sacrificial template, and were selectively embedded into the hydrophilized PP micropits. The same microworking robot technique was subsequently used to deposit silver nanoparticle ink into the SiO2 IO cavities. The fabricated multi-level micro-nanohierarchy surface was studied to enhance Raman scattering of the 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) analyte molecule. The results show that the SERS performance of the micro-nanohierarchical substrate increases significantly the Raman scattering intensity compared to substrates with structured 2D surface geometries.

  11. Synthesis of suitable SiO2 nano particles as the core in core-shell nanostructured materials. (United States)

    Ghahari, Mehdi; Aghababazadeh, Roya; Ebadzadeh, Touradj; Mirhabibi, Alireza; Brydson, Rik; Fabbri, Paola; Najafi, Farhod


    The effect of surfactant on the luminescent intensity of SiO2 @Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with a core shell structure is described. Core-shell particles are used in phosphor materials and employing spherical particles with a narrow size distribution is vital for the enhancement of luminescent properties. Three kinds of different surfactants were used to synthesis SiO2 nano particles via a sol gel process. The results demonstrated that comb polycarboxylic acid surfactant had a significant influence on the morphology and particle size distribution. Somehow, particles with 100 nm size and narrow size distribution were produced. These particles had relatively uniform packing, unlike particles produced with other surfactants or without surfactant which had irregular assembly. The photoluminescence intensity of SiO2 @Y2O3:Eu3+ particles that was synthesized by comb polycarboxylic acid surfactant was higher than those which were produced without surfactant.

  12. Monodisperse and core-shell-structured SiO2@YBO3:Eu3+ spherical particles: synthesis and characterization. (United States)

    Lin, Cuikun; Kong, Deyan; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Huan; Yu, Min; Lin, Jun


    Y0.9Eu0.1BO3 phosphor layers were deposited on monodisperse SiO2 particles of different sizes (300, 570, 900, and 1200 nm) via a sol-gel process, resulting in the formation of core-shell-structured SiO2@Y0.9Eu0.1BO3 particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra as well as lifetimes were employed to characterize the resulting composite particles. The results of XRD, FE-SEM, and TEM indicate that the 800 degrees C annealed sample consists of crystalline YBO3 shells and amorphous SiO2 cores, in spherical shape with a narrow size distribution. Under UV (240 nm) and VUV (172 nm) light or electron beam (1-6 kV) excitation, these particles show the characteristic 5D0-7F1-4 orange-red emission lines of Eu3+ with a quantum yield ranging from 36% (one-layer Y0.9Eu0.1BO3 on SiO2) to 54% (four-layer Y0.9Eu0.1BO3 on SiO2). The luminescence properties (emission intensity and color coordinates) of Eu3+ ions in the core-shell particles can be tuned by the coating number of Y0.9Eu0.1BO3 layers and SiO2 core particle size to some extent, pointing out the great potential for these particles applied in displaying and lightening fields.

  13. Biotemplated Mesoporous TiO2/SiO2 Composite Derived from Aquatic Plant Leaves for Efficient Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Yan


    Full Text Available The biotemplating technique is an environmental-protective high-efficiency new technology by which the resulting TiO2 may simultaneously attain the duplication of structure and self-doping elements from biotemplate materials, which is highly desirable for photocatalytic applications. In this paper, aquatic plant leaves—including reed, water hyacinth, and duckweed—were used as both templates and silicon precursors to successfully synthesize biomorphic TiO2/SiO2 composite with mesoporous structures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption, and UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to characterize the microstructures of the samples. The results show that all TiO2/SiO2 composites are mainly composed of an anatase phase with mesoporous structure and possess high specific surface area. Compared with commercial Degussa P25 TiO2, all TiO2/SiO2 samples display intensive light-harvesting efficiency, particularly in the visible light range. The activities were evaluated by using gentian violet as a target for photocatalytic degradation experiments under simulated solar irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 samples templated by reed and water hyacinth leaves exhibit high activity, while the TiO2/SiO2 samples obtained from duckweed are inferior to P25 in the degradation of gentian violet. A synergistic effect of SiO2 incorporation and structural construction through biotemplating is proposed to be beneficial to photocatalytic activity.

  14. Effect of SiO2 concentration in silica sol on interface reaction during titanium alloy investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-meng Wei


    Full Text Available Using silica sol as a binder for titanium investment casting is very attractive due to its good stability and reasonable cost as compared with yttrium sol and zirconium sol. However, the mechanism of interface reaction in the related system remains unclear. In this investigation, the interface reaction between Y2O3-SiO2 (Y-Si shell mold and titanium alloys was studied. A group of shell molds were prepared by using Y2O3 sand and silica sol with different contents of SiO2. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was cast under vacuum by gravity casting through cold crucible induction melting (CCIM method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS were employed to characterize the micromorphology and composition of the reaction area, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was used to confirm the valence state of relevant elements. White light interferometer (WLI was used to obtain the surface topography of Y-Si shells. The results show that the thickness of reaction layers is below 3 μm when the SiO2 content of silica sol is below 20wt.%. Whereas, when the SiO2 content increases to 25wt.%, the thickness of the reaction layer increases sharply to about 15 μm. There is a good balance between chemical inertness and mechanical performance when the SiO2 content is between 15 and 20wt.%. Moreover, it was found that the distribution of SiO2 and the roughness at the surface of the shell are the key factors that determine the level of reaction.

  15. Photo-induced tunneling currents in MOS structures with various HfO2/SiO2 stacking dielectrics


    Chin-Sheng Pang; Jenn-Gwo Hwu


    In this study, the current conduction mechanisms of structures with tandem high-k dielectric in illumination are discussed. Samples of Al/SiO2/Si (S), Al/HfO2/SiO2/Si (H), and Al/3HfO2/SiO2/Si (3H) were examined. The significant observation of electron traps of sample H compares to sample S is found under the double bias capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements in illumination. Moreover, the photo absorption sensitivity of sample H is higher than S due to the formation of HfO2 dielectric layer,...

  16. Facile Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of SiO2 Nanotubes with ZnS Nanowires as Intermediates. (United States)

    Chuo, Hui Xin; Wu, Li Li


    SiO2 nanotubes with good chemical purity and well defined morphology were synthesized successfully in a one-step gas phase condensation process using gold catalyst. The as-synthesized products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and nanoprobe X-ray energy dispersive. In the observations, a growth mechanism of the nanotubes is suggested. The new synthetic route to prepare SiO2 nanotubes is favorable to satisfy the special needs in commercial and industrial application and can be easily applied to other semiconductor materials.

  17. Liquidus Temperature of SrO-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass-Forming Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Brett M.; Morgan, James M.; Mauro, John C.


    Despite the important role of strontium aluminosilicate glasses in various technologies, there is no available phase diagram for this ternary system in the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database. Establishing the liquidus surface (liquidus temperature Tliq and primary devitrification phase...... with the phase diagrams for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 systems, we have found that for the highest [RO]/[Al2O3] ratios, Tliq exhibits a minimum value for R = Ca. Based on the phase diagram established here, the composition of glass materials, for example, for liquid crystal display substrates, belonging...

  18. SiO2/TiO2 multi-layered thin films with self-cleaning and enhanced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using a TEOS:EtOH:HCl:H2O in 1:8:3:0.5 volume ratio. The as-prepared SiO2 gel was then calcinated at 600 ... 0.25 g SiO2 powder in 50 ml ethanol:water (1:1 v/v), respec- tively, 0.05 g TiO2 powder in 50 ml ethanol. ... cleaned by ultra-sonication in alcohol and then dried using compressed air. The multi-layered thin films ...

  19. Direct etching of SiO2 and Al2O3 by 900-keV gold ions


    Glass, Gary A.; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Dymnikov, Alexander D.; Houston, Louis M.; Rout, Bibhudutta


    We report the direct etching of Al2O3 and SiO2 using 900-keV Au+ ions. 2000-mesh Cu grids were employed as masks using two different configurations: 1 the Cu mesh was placed on top of each insulator separately and independent irradiations were performed, and 2 the Al2O3 and SiO2 substrates were positioned in an edge-to-edge configuration with a single Cu grid providing a common mask to both insulators. Scanning electron microscopy SEM analysis revealed quite different patterns resulting from ...

  20. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) island growth under SiO(2) nanodisks patterned on GaAs substrates. (United States)

    Tjahjana, Liliana; Wang, Benzhong; Tanoto, Hendrix; Chua, Soo-Jin; Yoon, Soon Fatt


    We report a growth phenomenon where uniform gallium arsenide (GaAs) islands were found to grow underneath an ordered array of SiO(2) nanodisks on a GaAs(100) substrate. Each island eventually grows into a pyramidal shape resulting in the toppling of the supported SiO(2) nanodisk. This phenomenon occurred consistently for each nanodisk across a large patterned area of approximately 50 x 50 microm(2) (with nanodisks of 210 nm diameter and 280 nm spacing). The growth mechanism is attributed to a combination of 'catalytic' growth and facet formation.

  1. Facile preparation of polyethylenimine-tannins coated SiO2 hybrid materials for Cu2+ removal (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Zhao, Jiao; Chen, Junyu; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Hongye; Tian, Jianwen; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen


    Polyethylenimine-tannins coated SiO2 (SiO2@PEI-TA) hybrid materials have been prepared via a single-step multifunctional coating with polyethylenimine (PEI) and tannins (TA), and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-prepared SiO2@PEI-TA composites were examined as adsorbents to remove the Cu2+ from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial Cu2+ concentration, solution pH and temperature, on Cu2+ adsorption have been investigated. The results show that the adsorption of Cu2+ onto SiO2@PEI-TA is dependent on the contact time, Cu2+ concentration, pH and temperature. The SiO2@PEI-TA composites show a 2.4-fold increase in adsorption capacity, implying that the introduction of PEI-TA coating is in favor of the Cu2+ adsorption. Based on the analysis of kinetic data, the kinetics of Cu2+ adsorption is more accurately described by the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium data are analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Results of isotherms show that the better agreement is Freundlich isotherm model with correlation coefficient of 0.9914, which suggests that the adsorption of Cu2+ onto SiO2@PEI-TA is mainly a heterogeneous adsorption process. Thermodynamic analyses show that the adsorption interaction is actually a spontaneous and endothermic chemical process, which might involve the chemical chelation between Cu2+ and functional groups (amine and carboxyl groups) on the surface of SiO2@PEI-TA. In addition, the Cu2+ ions could desorb from SiO2@PEI-TA by using acid solution and the adsorption efficiency remains at high level after five adsorption-desorption recycles. These results provide potential applications of these novel adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal Cu2+ from aqueous solution and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed in the study.

  2. investigation of shear strength parameters and effect of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The plot of dry density against moisture content for the different percentages of the admixture used are presented in Figures 3 and 4, using BSH and BSL compaction methods respectively. Table 2: Chemical Composition of the CHA. Oxides. SiO2. Al2O3. P2O5. SO3. Na2O K2O. CaO MgO TiO MnO Fe2O3. L.O.I. Chemical.

  3. Environmental effect of water absorption and flexural strength of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Rowell, 1997). Another problem associated with ... Table 1. Components of red mud. Constituents. % (wt). Constituents. % (wt). Al2O3. 15.0. Fe2O3. 54.8. TiO2. 3.7. SiO2. 8.44. Na2O. 4.8. CaO. 2.5. P2O5. 0.67. V2O5. 0.38. Ga2O3. 0.096. Mn. 1.1.

  4. Relationship between chemical composition and magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SI values are negatively correlated with SiO2, Na2O, but positively correlated with Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, P2O5 and MgO contents, suggesting inverse variation of SI with fractionation of potassic magma. That is to say that less evolved vol- canic rocks have relatively higher magnetic susceptibility values in the volcanic suite.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ... and carbon in the material after calcination at 800 °C indicates that calcium phosphate contained in rock is a carbonated fluoroapatite. Table 2. Chemical composition (in weight percentage) of raw and washed materials. Parameters. Raw material. Washed material. %CaO. 35.80. 55.6. %P2O5. 28.20. 38.30. % SiO2. 12.5.

  6. 2653-IJBCS-Article-Oumarou F Nkouandou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Decrease of major element (MgO, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO) with increasing SiO2 contents results from fractionation of olivine, clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti-oxides in the parental basaltic magma. Similarly, for felsic magma, decrease in Al2O3, Na2O and K2O contents depends upon feldspar fractionation and decrease in P2O5 from.

  7. The beneficiation of mumbwa phosphate deposit by various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the ore averages 22.7 % P2O5 with the other constituents being 22.8% SiO2, 19.0% CaO, 7.0% Fe2O3, 4.0 % Al2O3 and 0.2% MgO. Beneficiation studies were performed to investigate methods of concentrating the phosphate values. Preliminary investigations involved detailed identification of ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    silicate reaction bands have higher contents of CaO and Sr and lower concentrations of K2O, Rb, Ni, and Ba relative to the calc-silicate schists; and relatively higher SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5 and lower ...

  9. Silica–calcium zirconate nanocomposite, studying its thermal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The pattern of CZS nanocomposite shifted to the left direction in 30.13 (2θ). XRD pattern of silica–5 wt% calcium zirconate (CZS 5%) indicated that CZS 5% nanocomposite did not obtain and only silica peaks are. Table 1. XRF analysis of silica nanopowder. Element SiO2 Al2O3 MgO Fe2O3 SO3 P2O5 Na2O K2O CaO wt%.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu


    Nov 5, 2011 ... 82. Table 1. Average chemical composition of Kuta kyanite – quartzite compare with British and American standard. Oxides. Raw Kuta. Samples %. Beneficiated. Sample %. British Standard. Institution (BSI). %. American standard. (ASTM) %. SiO2. Al2O3. Fe2O3. TiO2. CaO. MgO. Na2O. K2O. P2O5. LO I.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Судавцова


    Full Text Available Methodology of prognostication of thermodynamics properties of melts is presented from the coordinatesof liquidus of diagram of the state in area of equilibria a hard component is solution, on which energies ofmixing of Gibbs are expected in the double border systems of MgO – Al2O3, MgO – SiO2, MgO – CaF2,Al2O3 – SiO2, Al2O3 - CaF2, SiO2 - CaF2. For the areas of equilibrium there is quasibinary connection(MgAl2O4, Mg2SiO4, Al6Si2O13 – a grout at calculations was used equalization of Hauffe-Wagner. Theobtained data comport with literary

  12. Luminescent properties and characterization of Gd2O3:Eu3+@SiO2 and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+@SiO2 core shell phosphors prepared by a sol gel process (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Min; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Li, Yuan-Yao


    Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+ films 10 nm in thickness were individually coated onto silica spheres (particle size of 150-170 nm) using the sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were addressed as Gd2O3:Eu3+@SiO2 and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+@SiO2 phosphors. An x-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), and photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL) were employed to characterize the core-shell phosphors. Uniform core-shell phosphor particles were observed using FE-SEM. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicated that the coated-shell layer was well crystallized after sintering at 1000 °C. The Gd2O3:Eu3+@SiO2 PL measurement showed a red emission at the main 615 nm wavelength. The Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+@SiO2 phosphor showed an orange-red emission at the 588 and 615 nm wavelengths. In comparison with the Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu3+ bulk material results, the core-shell phosphors maintained the same emission ability as the bulk materials and the novel core-shell phosphors possessed great potential in quantum phosphor applications.

  13. Luminescent properties and characterization of Gd2O3:Eu(3+)@SiO2 and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+)@SiO2 core-shell phosphors prepared by a sol-gel process. (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Min; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Li, Yuan-Yao


    Gd2O3:Eu(3+) and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+) films 10 nm in thickness were individually coated onto silica spheres (particle size of 150-170 nm) using the sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were addressed as Gd2O3:Eu(3+)@SiO2 and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+)@SiO2 phosphors. An x-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), and photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL) were employed to characterize the core-shell phosphors. Uniform core-shell phosphor particles were observed using FE-SEM. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicated that the coated-shell layer was well crystallized after sintering at 1000 °C. The Gd2O3:Eu(3+)@SiO2 PL measurement showed a red emission at the main 615 nm wavelength. The Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+)@SiO2 phosphor showed an orange-red emission at the 588 and 615 nm wavelengths. In comparison with the Gd2O3:Eu(3+) and Gd2Ti2O7:Eu(3+) bulk material results, the core-shell phosphors maintained the same emission ability as the bulk materials and the novel core-shell phosphors possessed great potential in quantum phosphor applications.

  14. PENGUJIAN AKTIVITAS KOMPOSIT Fe2O3-SiO2 SEBAGAI FOTOKATALIS PADA FOTODEGRADASI 4-KLOROFENOL (The Activity Test of Fe2O3-SiO2 Composite As Photocatalyst on 4-Chlorophenol Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Sri Kunarti


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan pengujian aktivitas komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 sebagai fotokatalis pada fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol. Penelitian diawali dengan preparasi dan karakterisasi fotokatalis Fe2O3-SiO2. Preparasi dilakukan dengan metode sol-gel pada temperatur kamar menggunakan tetraetil ortosilikat (TEOS dan besi (III nitrat sebagai prekursor diikuti dengan perlakuan termal pada temperature 500 oC. Karakterisasi dilakukan dengan metode spektrometri inframerah, difraksi sinar-X dan spektrometri fluoresensi sinar-X. Uji aktivitas komposit untuk fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol dilakukan dalam reaktor tertutup yang dilengkapi dengan lampu UV. Pada uji ini telah dipelajari pengaruh waktu penyinaran dan pH larutan terhadap efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 dapat dipreparasi dengan metode sol-gel pada temperatur kamar diikuti perlakuan termal. Komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 dapat meningkatkan efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol dari 11,86 % menjadi 55,38 %. Efektivitas fotodegradasi 4- klorofenol dipengaruhi waktu penyinaran dan pH larutan yang semakin lama waktu penyinaran efektifitas fotodegradasi semakin tinggi, namun waktu penyinaran yang lebih lama dari 4 jam dapat menurunkan efektivitasnya. pH larutan memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda pada efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol.   ABSTRACT The activity test of Fe2O3-SiO2 composite as photocatalyst on 4-chlorophenol photodegradation has been studied. The research was initiated by preparation of Fe2O3-SiO2 photocatalyst and followed by characterization. The preparation was conducted by sol-gel method at room temperature using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS and iron (III nitrate as precursors followed by thermal treatment at a temperature of 500oC. The characterizations were performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Infrared and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometry. The photocatalytic activity test of composites for 4 chlorophenol degradation was carried out in a closed reactor equipped with UV light. In this test, the influences of irradiation time and 4-chlorophenol pH were studied.  Results showed that the composite could be prepared through sol-gel method. The Fe2O3-SiO2 composite could increase activity of 4-chlorophenol photodegradation from 11.86 % to 55.38 %. The photodegradation effectiveness was influenced by irradiating time and pH of solution. The pH of solution gave different 4-chlorophenol photodegradation effectiveness.

  15. Nanocristales de silicio en matriz de SiO2 para aplicaciones fotónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morante, J. R.


    Full Text Available We describe in this work the development of both materials and technology approaches that have allowed us to successfully produce efficient and reliable LEDs by using only CMOS processes. Si nanocrystals (Si-nc were synthesised in SiO2 by ion implantation plus annealing and display average diameters from 2.5 to 6 nm. Wide photoluminescence around 700-800 (red nm is present in all the samples. The most efficient structures have Si-ncs with average size of 3 nm and densities of 1019 cm-3. We have estimated band-gap energies, lifetimes (20-200 μs and absorption cross-sections (10-15-10-16 cm2 as a function of size and surface passivation. From highly luminescent Si-nc, LEDs consisting of MOS capacitors were fabricated. Stable red electroluminescence has been obtained at room temperature and the I-V characteristics prove that the current is related to a pure tunnelling process.En este trabajo describimos la tecnología y los materiales empleados en la fabricación de nanocristales de silicio (Si-nc para obtener dispositivos luminiscentes usando procesos compatibles con la tecnología CMOS. Los nanocristales de Silicio se sintetizaron a partir de una implantación iónica sobre SiO2 y un posterior recocido, consiguiendo una distribución de tamaños que varia desde 2.5 a 6 nm dependiendo de la dosis de implantación. Todas las muestras presentan una fotoluminiscencia ancha alrededor de 700-800 nm (rojo, que se desplaza fuertemente con el tamaño medio de los nanocristales. Las estructuras más eficientes presentan una tamaño promedio de 3 nm, con una densidad de 1019 cm-3. En cuanto a fotoluminiscencia, se ha hecho una estimación de las energías del gap, de las vidas medias (20-200 μs y las secciones eficaces de absorción (10-15-10-16 cm2 en función del tamaño y de la pasivación de la superficie de los nanocristales. En estructuras tipo MOS con Si-nc se obtuvo electroluminiscencia muy fuerte y estable a temperatura ambiente. Las curvas I-V muestran que la corriente es debida puramente a un mecanismo de efecto túnel.

  16. Physical properties of emulsion systems with SiO2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev Vitaly Vyacheslavovich


    Full Text Available One of the most relevant directions for research and development (R&D in the area of oil and gas fields development is to study physicochemical impact onto petroleum reservoir to enhance development rate and increase oil recovery factor. Wide range of fields where nanoscale particles can be applied within this direction shifted the level of physicochemical processes studies from microscale to nanoscale, that caused significant advancement of the oil and gas industry as a whole. As for physicochemical methods for petroleum reservoir stimulation, the rapid development of nanotechnologies considerably improves understanding of the processes that run at the boundaries of phases liquid-liquid, liquid-gas, liquid-rock phases, etc. The most studied processes are the processes of influence of nanoscale particles on the interface between liquid-gas and liquid-liquid phases [1–18]. At the moment it is known that nanoparticles of various minerals and metals can increase lifetime of gas bubbles in hydrocarbon media and the stability of globules in hydrocarbon or aqueous phase in various types of emulsions [1–7, 12]. But in the industry there is no single understanding and explanation of physicochemical processes occurring at the boundaries of phases in the presence of nanoparticles under reservoir conditions or even in bench tests on rock cores. In this connection, the direction of nanoscale particles application in the oil and gas fields development is promising for carrying out complex R&D in order to reveal new scientific information and introduce high-performance inventions into the industry. The article presents the results of the next stage in complex research of silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 impact onto rheological and stability properties of emulsion systems. The complex research is performed within the framework of international project «Development and implementation of water-blocking agents based on application of SiO2 nanoparticles». The results of comparative research of new emulsion systems showed the dependences between shear stress and shear rate gradient (flow curve, dynamic viscosity and the shear rate (viscosity curve, and dynamic viscosity and volume of aqueous calcium chloride addition.

  17. Preparation of Heterogeneous CaO Catalysts for Biodiesel Production (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Darmawan, T.; Hadiyanto, H.; Rosyid, R. Ar


    The objective of this research was to develop heterogeneous catalysts from three CaO sources for biodiesel synthesis. The CaO catalyst were prepared from limestone, calcium hydroxide and calciun carbonate with thermal processing in a muffle furnace at 900°C.. The results showed that CaO catalyst from limestone has better characteristic than catalyst from Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. From morphology testing, the CaO catalyst derived from limestone formed a crystal, while The X-ray difraction analysis showed that the amount of CaO contained in limestone was the highest among the others. The yield of biodiesel obtained from the experiment was 89.98% for the catalyst from limestone; 85.15% for the catalyst Ca (OH)2; and 78.71% for CaCO3 catalyst.

  18. Enhanced Visible Transmittance of Thermochromic VO2 Thin Films by SiO2 Passivation Layer and Their Optical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hoon Yu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the preparation of high-quality vanadium dioxide (VO2 thermochromic thin films with enhanced visible transmittance (Tvis via radio frequency (RF sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. VO2 thin films with high Tvis and excellent optical switching efficiency (Eos were successfully prepared by employing SiO2 as a passivation layer. After SiO2 deposition, the roughness of the films was decreased 2-fold and a denser structure was formed. These morphological changes corresponded to the results of optical characterization including the haze, reflectance and absorption spectra. In spite of SiO2 coating, the phase transition temperature (Tc of the prepared films was not affected. Compared with pristine VO2, the total layer thickness after SiO2 coating was 160 nm, which is an increase of 80 nm. Despite the thickness change, the VO2 thin films showed a higher Tvis value (λ 650 nm, 58% compared with the pristine samples (λ 650 nm, 43%. This enhancement of Tvis while maintaining high Eos is meaningful for VO2-based smart window applications.

  19. Effect of size and position of gold nanocrystals embedded in gate oxide of SiO2/Si MOS structures (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chaitali; Bose, Chayanika


    The influence of single and double layered gold (Au) nanocrystals (NC), embedded in SiO2 matrix, on the electrical characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures is reported in this communication. The size and position of the NCs are varied and study is made using Sentaurus TCAD simulation tools. In a single NC-layered MOS structure, the role of NCs is more prominent when they are placed closer to SiO2/Si-substrate interface than to SiO2/Al-gate interface. In MOS structures with larger NC dots and double layered NCs, the charge storage capacity is increased due to charging of the dielectric in the presence of NCs. Higher breakdown voltage and smaller leakage current are also obtained in the case of dual NC-layered MOS device. A new phenomenon of smearing out of the capacitance-voltage curve is observed in the presence of dual NC layer indicating generation of interface traps. An internal electric field developed between these two charged NC layers is expected to generate such interface traps at the SiO2/Si interface.

  20. Research of high-hardness and wear-resistant SiO2 film coating on acrylic substrates (United States)

    Yao, Yu-ting; Cheng, Yan; Deng, Xiu-mei; Jiang, Jin-hu; Zhu, Xiao-bo; Gu, Wen-hua


    Acrylic (PMMA) possesses excellent optical transparency, good chemical stability as well as many other merits such as the feasibilities in dyeing and manufacturing. But its poor hardness and wear resistance restrict its industrialized applications. In order to improve the hardness and wear resistance, SiO2 films were coated on PMMA substrates by both dip coating method and aerosol spraying method in this work. Heating curing method was carried out after the coating of SiO2 film, and consequently, the mechanical properties, optical properties and surface morphology were characterized and compared. The experimental results showed that the SiO2 films prepared by aerosol spraying method has a better performance in both hardness and wear resistance, compared with the films prepared by dip coating method. In the optimized conditions, the hardness of the PMMA was improved from 3H to 8H, and the non-abrasion rubbing times increased from less than 100 times to 5000 times with a loading of 500g weight after the coating of SiO2 film, indicating the improvement of the wear resistance.

  1. Effects of SiO2 and TiO2 fillers on thermal and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    . In consideration of the desired properties of ... dielectric properties for its construction such as white back (rear glass dielectric layer), barrier rib ..... bution of residual SiO2 and TiO2 fillers in the glass matrix. The sintering of glass frits at such a ...

  2. In situ coating of flame-made TiO2 particles with nanothin SiO2 films. (United States)

    Teleki, Alexandra; Heine, Martin C; Krumeich, Frank; Akhtar, M Kamal; Pratsinis, Sotiris E


    Rutile TiO2 particles made by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) were coated in a single step with SiO2 layers in an enclosed flame reactor. This in situ particle coating was accomplished by a hollow ring delivering hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapor (precursor to SiO2) through multiple jets in swirl cross-flow to Al-doped nanostructured rutile TiO2 aerosol freshly made by FSP of a solution of titanium tetraisopropoxide and aluminum sec-butoxide in xylene. The as-prepared powders were characterized by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (STEM and TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, electrophoretic mobility, DC plasma optical emission (DCP-OES), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The coating quality was assessed further by the photocatalytic oxidation of isopropyl alcohol to acetone. The effect of HMDSO injection point and vapor concentration on product particle morphology was investigated. The titania particles were uniformly SiO2-coated with controlled and uniform thickness at a production rate of about 30 g h(-1) and exhibited limited, if any, photoactivity. In contrast, spraying and combusting equivalent mixtures of the above Si/Al/Ti precursors in the above reactor (without delivering HMDSO through the hollow ring) resulted in particles segregated in amorphous (SiO2) and crystalline (TiO2) domains which exhibited high photocatalytic activity.

  3. SiO $ _2 $/TiO $ _2 $ multi-layered thin films with self-cleaning and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self-cleaning, high transmittance glazing was obtained by cold spray deposition for glazings. The thin films contain TiO 2 , SiO 2 and Au nanoparticles in different structures which allow for tailoring the optical, hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties. The crystallinity, morphology and surface energy were correlated with the ...

  4. Deposition of conductive TiN shells on SiO2 nanoparticles with a fluidized bed ALD reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, A.; Hillebrand, P.; Wollgarten, M.; Dam, B.; Van de Krol, R.


    Conductive TiN shells have been deposited on SiO2 nanoparticles (10–20 nm primary particle size) with fluidized bed atomic layer deposition using TDMAT and NH3 as precursors. Analysis of the powders confirms that shell growth saturates at approximately 0.4 nm/cycle at TDMAT doses of >1.2 mmol/g of

  5. High thermal stability of abrupt SiO2/GaN interface with low interface state density (United States)

    Truyen, Nguyen Xuan; Taoka, Noriyuki; Ohta, Akio; Makihara, Katsunori; Yamada, Hisashi; Takahashi, Tokio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Miyazaki, Seiichi


    The effects of postdeposition annealing (PDA) on the interface properties of a SiO2/GaN structure formed by remote oxygen plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RP-CVD) were systematically investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clarified that PDA in the temperature range from 600 to 800 °C has almost no effects on the chemical bonding features at the SiO2/GaN interface, and that positive charges exist at the interface, the density of which can be reduced by PDA at 800 °C. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current density-SiO2 electric field characteristics of the GaN MOS capacitors also confirmed the reduction in interface state density (D it) and the improvement in the breakdown property of the SiO2 film after PDA at 800 °C. Consequently, a high thermal stability of the SiO2/GaN structure with a low fixed charge density and a low D it formed by RP-CVD was demonstrated. This is quite informative for realizing highly robust GaN power devices.

  6. Flexible SiO2 cantilevers for torsional self-aligning micro scale four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Bøggild, Peter


    In order to successfully measure the conductivity of a sample with a four- point probe, good alignment of the electrodes to the sample is important to establish even contact pressure and contact areas of the electrodes. By incorporating a hinge in a microfabricated SiO2 mono- cantilever the ability...

  7. Modification of Nafion membrane with biofunctional SiO2 nanofiber for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Li, Xiaojie; Zhuang, Xupin; Cheng, Bowen; Wang, Wei; Kang, Weimin; Shi, Lei; Li, Hongjun


    Proton currents are an integral part of the most important energy-converting structures in biology. We prepared a new type of bioinspired Nafion (Bio-Nafion) membrane composited of biofunctional SiO2 (Bio-SiO2) nanofiber and Nafion matrix. SiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning silica sol prepared from tetraethyl orthosilicate. Meanwhile, Bio-SiO2 nanofibers were synthesized by immobilizing amino acids (cysteine, serine, lysine, and glycine) on SiO2 nanofibers, which acted as efficient proton-conducting pathways that involved numerous H+ transport sites. In our study, the SiO2 nanofibers biofunctionalized with cysteine were further oxidized, and the composite membranes were designated as Nafion-Cys, Nafion-Lys, Nafion-Ser, and Nafion-Gly, respectively. We then investigated the different polar groups (sbnd SO3H, sbnd OH, and sbnd NH2) of the amino acids that contributed to membrane properties of thermal stability, water uptake (WU), dimensional stability, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability. Nafion-Cys exhibited the highest proton conductivity of 0.2424 S/cm (80 °C). Nafion-Gly showed the lowest proton conductivity and WU because glycine contains the least number of hydrophilic groups among the amino acids. Overall, the introduction of Bio-SiO2 nanofiber to composite membranes significantly improved proton conductivity, dimensional stability, and methanol permeability.

  8. Wear and friction performance of PTFE filled epoxy composites with a high concentration of SiO2 particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J.T.; Top, M.; Pei, Y.T.; de Hosson, Jeff


    In this work, the tribological performance of PTFE filled SiO2 particles–epoxy composites is investigated. Under a load of 60 N (~140 MPa contact pressure), the optimum content of PTFE lies between 10 and 15 wt%, which yields an ultralow coefficient of friction (CoF) in conjunction with a low wear

  9. Influence of SiO2 Addition on Properties of PTFE/TiO2 Microwave Composites (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Wang, Jie; Yao, Minghao; Tang, Bin; Li, Enzhu; Zhang, Shuren


    Composite substrates for microwave circuit applications have been fabricated by filling polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer matrix with ceramic powder consisting of rutile TiO2 ( D 50 ≈ 5 μm) partially substituted with fused amorphous SiO2 ( D 50 ≈ 8 μm) with composition x vol.% SiO2 + (50 - x) vol.% TiO2 ( x = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12), and the effects of SiO2 addition on characteristics such as the density, moisture absorption, microwave dielectric properties, and thermal properties systematically investigated. The results show that the filler was well distributed throughout the matrix. High dielectric constant ( ɛ r > 7.19) and extremely low moisture absorption (PTFE polymer, retarding its decomposition. The temperature coefficient of dielectric constant ( τ ɛ ) of the composites shifted toward the positive direction (from - 309 ppm/°C to - 179 ppm/°C) as the SiO2 content was increased, while the coefficient of thermal expansion remained almost unchanged (˜ 35 ppm/°C).

  10. Electromagnetic property of SiO2-coated carbonyl iron/polyimide composites as heat resistant microwave absorbing materials (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa


    Heat resistant microwave absorbing materials were prepared by compression molding method, using polyimide resin as matrix and SiO2 coated carbonyl iron (CI) as filler. The SiO2 coated CI particles were prepared by Stober process. The microwave absorbing properties and the effect of heat treatment on the electromagnetic properties of SiO2 coated CI/polyimide composites were investigated. When the content of SiO2 coated CI is 60 wt%, the value of minimum reflection loss decreases from -25 dB to -33 dB with the thickness increases from 1.5 mm to 2.1 mm. According to the thermal-gravimetric analyses (TGA) curves, the polyimide matrix can be used at 300 °C for long time. The complex permittivity of the composites slightly increases while the complex permeability almost keeps constant after heat treatment at 300 °C for 10 h, which indicating that the composites can be used at elevated temperature as microwave absorbing materials at the same time have good heat resistance and microwave absorption.

  11. Effect of size and position of gold nanocrystals embedded in gate oxide of SiO2/Si MOS structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Chakraborty


    Full Text Available The influence of single and double layered gold (Au nanocrystals (NC, embedded in SiO2 matrix, on the electrical characteristics of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS structures is reported in this communication. The size and position of the NCs are varied and study is made using Sentaurus TCAD simulation tools. In a single NC-layered MOS structure, the role of NCs is more prominent when they are placed closer to SiO2/Si−substrate interface than to SiO2/Al–gate interface. In MOS structures with larger NC dots and double layered NCs, the charge storage capacity is increased due to charging of the dielectric in the presence of NCs. Higher breakdown voltage and smaller leakage current are also obtained in the case of dual NC-layered MOS device. A new phenomenon of smearing out of the capacitance–voltage curve is observed in the presence of dual NC layer indicating generation of interface traps. An internal electric field developed between these two charged NC layers is expected to generate such interface traps at the SiO2/Si interface.

  12. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanoparticles in SiO2, ZnO and NiO matrices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G


    Full Text Available Coatings of carbon nanoparticles dispersed in SiO2, ZnO and NiO matrices on aluminium substrates have been fabricated by a sol–gel technique. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the solar absorptance and the thermal emittance of the composite...

  13. Matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of organophosphorus pesticide using SiO2-poly(N-vinylimidazole)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Solís, M C; Muñoz-Rodríguez, D; Carrera-Figueiras, C; Ávila-Ortega, A; Medina-Peralta, S


    A sorbent material based on silica particles modified with poly(N-vinylimidazole) (SiO 2 -PVI) has been evaluated for the treatment of samples by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The extraction of four organophosphorus pesticides was done from a spiked tomato and the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Six elution solvents were evaluated and acetone was selected due to better recovery of the four pesticides and low background signal in the chromatograms. A factorial design 2 4 was used for selection of extraction conditions. The factors were contact time, acetone volume, treatment (with or without freeze-drying) and adsorbent (SiO 2 or SiO 2 -PVI). The best recoveries were obtained using 15 minutes of contact, 2 mL of solvent and sorbent without freeze-drying. The recoveries were between 60 and 83% for SiO 2 -PVI in spiked tomato with 0.2 and 0.8μg/g.

  14. Nanoindentation Hardness Measurement in Piling up SiO2 Coating (United States)

    Cabibbo, M.; Ciccarelli, D.; Spigarelli, S.

    In the last decades much attention has been focused on understanding the factors controlling the shape of the unloading curves obtained by the Oliver and Pharr nanoindentation analysis in order to estimate true contact area, and material parameters such as Young's modulus and hardness. In fact, it is well known that the Oliver and Pharr analysis can overestimate the hardness of materials that plastically deform due to piling up around the indentation. In recent years, different visual and analytical methods have been proposed. The visual methods are based on direct measurements of the produced indentation by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) or by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In the present work, indentation hardness of a SiO2 coating was measured and analyzed by both visual and analytical methods. The SPM-based direct method showed a quite good qualitative and quantitative literature data agreement. This method was thus developed and improved to make it dependent on curve parameters, such as applied load and penetration depth, rather than on SPM measurements of the actual contact area. A correlation of the pile up phenomenon to the m exponent of the P = B(h-hf)m relationship was also discussed.

  15. Optical transitions of self-trapped holes in amorphous SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Y.; Tanimura, K.


    Optical and electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy studies of low-temperature electron-irradiated amorphous SiO 2 were carried out to identify optical transitions of self-trapped holes (STHs). Spectroscopic analysis by means of polarized optical bleaching and thermal annealing has revealed two components comprising an absorption band around 2.2 eV: the low-energy component peaking at 2.16 eV and the high energy component at 2.60 eV. These bands are formed with similar yields in three different samples that include different chemical impurities and native defect concentrations. Based on quantitative correlations between ESR signals and optical absorption strengths, the 2.16-eV band is attributed to the two-center type STH, while the 2.60-eV band is attributed to the one-center STH. The origin of STH optical transitions is discussed based on the results of this work and recent theoretical data

  16. Non-iridescent structural colors from uniform-sized SiO2 colloids (United States)

    Topçu, Gökhan; Güner, Tuğrul; Demir, Mustafa M.


    Structural colors have recently attracted interest from diverse fields of research due to their ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. These types of colors are, in principle, achieved by periodically arranged submicron-diameter colloidal particles. The interaction of light with a structure containing long-range ordered colloidal particles leads to coloration; this usually varies depending on the angle of observation (iridescence). However, the majority of the applications demand constant color that is independent of the viewing angle (non-iridescence). In this work, silica colloids were obtained using the Stöber method at different sizes from 150 to 300 nm in an alcoholic dispersion. The casting of the dispersion on a substrate leaves behind a photonic crystal showing a colorful iridescent film. However, centrifugation and redispersion of the SiO2 particles into fresh solvent may cause the formation of small, aggregated silica domains in the new dispersion. The casting of this dispersion allows for the development of photonic glass, presumably due to the accumulation of aggregates showing stable colloidal film independent of viewing angle. Moreover, depending on the size of the silica colloids, non-iridescent photonic glasses with various colors (violet, blue, green, and orange) are obtained.

  17. Engineering of SiO2 Nanoparticles for Optimal Performance in Nano Cement-Based Materials (United States)

    Sobolev, K.; Flores, I.; Torres-Martinez, L. M.; Valdez, P. L.; Zarazua, E.; Cuellar, E. L.

    The reported research examined the effect of 5-70 nm SiO2 nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of nano-cement materials. The strength development of portland cement with nano-SiO2 and superplasticizing admixture was investigated. Experimental results demonstrate an increase in the compressive and flexural strength of mortars with developed nanoparticles. The distribution of nano-SiO2 particles within the cement paste plays an essential role and governs the overall performance of these products. Therefore, the addition of a superplasticizer was proposed to facilitate the distribution of nano-SiO2 particles. Superplasticized mortars with 0.25% of selected nano-SiO2 demonstrated a 16% increase of 1-day compressive strength, reaching 63.9 MPa; the 28-day strength of these mortars was 95.9 MPa (vs. strength of reference superplasticized mortars of 92.1 MPa). Increase of 28-day flexural strength of superplasticized mortars with selected nano-SiO2 was 18%, reaching 27.1 MPa. It is concluded that the effective dispersion of nanoparticles is essential to obtain composite materials with improved performance.

  18. Crystallization of a Li2O2SiO2 Glass under High Hydrostatic Pressures (United States)

    Fuss, T.; Day, D. E.; Lesher, C. E.; Ray, C. S.


    The crystallization behavior of a Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) glass subjected to a uniform hydrostatic pressure of 4.5 or 6 GPa was investigated between 550 and 800 C using XRD, IR, Raman, TEM, NMR, and DTA. The density of the glass subjected to 6 GPa was between 2.52 plus or minus 0.01 and 2.57 plus or minus 0.01 grams per cubic centimeters, depending upon the processing temperatures, and was higher than that of the stoichiometric LS2 crystals, 2.46 plus or minus 0.01 grams per cubic centimeter. Thus, crystallization in 6 GPa glass occurred in a condition of negative volume dilatation, deltaV = V(sub glass) - V(sub crystal), while that for the 4.5 GPa glass occurred in the condition deltaV greater than 0. For deltaV greater than 0, which also includes the control glass at ambient (one atmosphere) pressure, the glasses always crystallize Li2Si2O5 (orthorhombic, Ccc2) crystals, but for deltaV less than 0 (6 GPa), the glasses crystallize Li2SiO3 crystals with a slightly deformed structure. The crystal growth rate vs. temperature curve moved to higher temperature with increasing pressure, and was independent of the sign of deltaV. These results for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the crystallization of LS2 glass were discussed from thermodynamic considerations.

  19. Ordered Ag nanocluster structures by vapor deposition on pre-patterned SiO2. (United States)

    Numazawa, Satoshi; Ranjan, Mukesh; Heinig, Karl-Heinz; Facsko, Stefan; Smith, Roger


    Highly ordered Ag nanocluster structures have been grown on pre-patterned amorphous SiO(2) surfaces by oblique angle physical vapor deposition at room temperature. Despite the small undulation of the rippled surface, the stripe-like Ag nanoclusters are very pronounced, reproducible and well separated. Computer modeling of the growth has been performed with a lattice-based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method using a combination of a simplified inter-atomic potential and experimental transition barriers taken from the literature. An effective transition event classification method is introduced which allows a boost factor of several thousand compared to a traditional KMC approach, thus allowing experimental time scales to be modeled. The simulation predicts a low sticking probability for the arriving atoms, millisecond order lifetimes for single Ag adatoms and ≈1 nm square surface migration ranges of Ag adatoms. It is also shown that metal nucleations can trigger even on defect free surfaces. The simulations give excellent reproduction of the experimentally observed nanocluster growth patterns.

  20. Coulombic and neutral electron trapping centers in SiO 2 (United States)

    Buchanan, D. A.; Fischetti, M. V.; Dimaria, D. J.


    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures incorporating thermally grown silicon dioxide (SiO 2) films were implanted with arsenic ions (As +) and then annealed at high temperatures. Coulombic-attractive traps (for electrons) were produced with the avalanche injection of holes from the silicon substrate and their subsequent capture on some of these arsenic-related sites. During internal photo-emission of electrons from a thin aluminum gate, the voltage shifts due to hole annihilation by electrons were recorded and the macroscopic capture cross-section, σ, was determined. We found that σ varies from ˜10 -12 to 3 × 10 -15 cm 2 for average electric fields ranging from 2 × 10 5 to 3 × 10 6 V/cm. Below an average field threshold of Fth ≈ 1.2 × 10 6 V/cm, the capture cross-section versus average field (σ versus Fave) dependence follows a power law with the exponent n ≈ -1.5. Above the average field threshold, the power law exponent was found to be n ≈ -3.0. Also when the amphoteric arsenic-related sites are empty, they form neutral trapping sites for electrons. For average fields ranging from 5 × 10 5 to 6 × 10 6 V/cm, the neutral cross-section is found to be approximately constant at σ ≈ (1-2) × 10 -15 cm 2.

  1. Atomic characterization of Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 by atom probe tomography (United States)


    Silicon nanoclusters are of prime interest for new generation of optoelectronic and microelectronics components. Physical properties (light emission, carrier storage...) of systems using such nanoclusters are strongly dependent on nanostructural characteristics. These characteristics (size, composition, distribution, and interface nature) are until now obtained using conventional high-resolution analytic methods, such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, EFTEM, or EELS. In this article, a complementary technique, the atom probe tomography, was used for studying a multilayer (ML) system containing silicon clusters. Such a technique and its analysis give information on the structure at the atomic level and allow obtaining complementary information with respect to other techniques. A description of the different steps for such analysis: sample preparation, atom probe analysis, and data treatment are detailed. An atomic scale description of the Si nanoclusters/SiO2 ML will be fully described. This system is composed of 3.8-nm-thick SiO layers and 4-nm-thick SiO2 layers annealed 1 h at 900°C. PMID:21711666

  2. Atomic characterization of Si nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 by atom probe tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourbilleau Fabrice


    Full Text Available Abstract Silicon nanoclusters are of prime interest for new generation of optoelectronic and microelectronics components. Physical properties (light emission, carrier storage... of systems using such nanoclusters are strongly dependent on nanostructural characteristics. These characteristics (size, composition, distribution, and interface nature are until now obtained using conventional high-resolution analytic methods, such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, EFTEM, or EELS. In this article, a complementary technique, the atom probe tomography, was used for studying a multilayer (ML system containing silicon clusters. Such a technique and its analysis give information on the structure at the atomic level and allow obtaining complementary information with respect to other techniques. A description of the different steps for such analysis: sample preparation, atom probe analysis, and data treatment are detailed. An atomic scale description of the Si nanoclusters/SiO2 ML will be fully described. This system is composed of 3.8-nm-thick SiO layers and 4-nm-thick SiO2 layers annealed 1 h at 900°C.

  3. Potassium ions in SiO2: electrets for silicon surface passivation (United States)

    Bonilla, Ruy S.; Wilshaw, Peter R.


    This manuscript reports an experimental and theoretical study of the transport of potassium ions in thin silicon dioxide films. While alkali contamination was largely researched in the context of MOSFET instability, recent reports indicate that potassium ions can be embedded into oxide films to produce dielectric materials with permanent electric charge, also known as electrets. These electrets are integral to a number of applications, including the passivation of silicon surfaces for optoelectronic devices. In this work, electric field assisted migration of ions is used to rapidly drive K+ into SiO2 and produce effective passivation of silicon surfaces. Charge concentrations of up to ~5  ×  1012 e cm‑2 have been achieved. This charge was seen to be stable for over 1500 d, with decay time constants as high as 17 000 d, producing an effectively passivated oxide–silicon interface with SRV  <  7 cm s‑1, in 1 Ω cm n-type material. This level of charge stability and passivation effectiveness has not been previously reported. Overall, this is a new and promising methodology to enhance surface passivation for the industrial manufacture of silicon optoelectronic devices.

  4. Hydrogen-related radiation defects in SiO2-based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuja, Linards; Kajihara, Koichi; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo


    Spectroscopic properties of hydrogen atom trapped in an oxygen vacancy in SiO 2 glass were studied. Samples were loaded with D 2 and H 2 gases to convert O vacancies to pairs of Si-D and Si-H groups, and subsequently irradiated by F 2 laser in order to destroy some of these groups. Electron paramagnetic resonance, infrared absorption and visible/UV absorption spectra were measured. Proton hyperfine doublet with splitting of 1.05 mT was found in all H 2 -treated/irradiated samples. UV-bleaching treatment showed that this signal is independent of the other, well-known hydrogen-related signals in silica. The size of the hyperfine splitting corresponds to twice the 1 H nuclear Zeeman splitting in applied magnetic field. The observed 1.05 mT doublet is tentatively attributed to the forbidden nuclear spin-flip transitions of proton trapped in an oxygen vacancy in silica. The allowed EPR transitions of this center are not resolved, possibly reflecting a variation in Si...H distance in oxygen vacancy with a trapped H atom

  5. Neutron irradiation effects in amorphous SiO2: optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, M.; Martini, M.; Paleari, A.; Pio, F.; Vedda, A.; Azzoni, C.B.


    Optical absorption spectra of as-grown and neutron-irradiated amorphous SiO 2 , both fused natural quartz and synthetic silica, have been analysed in the ultraviolet region below the fundamental edge. The description of the optical spectrum has been further clarified by a detailed study of the spectral components as a function of the neutron irradiation in different types of silica; we have verified known correlations between optical bands and between bands and paramagnetic centres. In 'as-grown' fused quartz samples, a previously unreported band at 6.2 eV has been detected. 'As-grown' synthetic silicas do not show any band, up to the intrinsic absorption edge. In the irradiated samples, the experimental results suggest a correlation between two bands at 5.8 and 7.1 eV, while previous attribution of the bands at 5.0 eV (B 2 band) and 7.6 eV (E band) to the same defect is discussed. The role of impurities in the optical absorption and in the radiation hardness is also considered. (author)

  6. Dewetting induced Au-Ge composite nanodot evolution in SiO2 (United States)

    Datta, D. P.; Chettah, A.; Siva, V.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, P. K.


    A composite nanostructure comprising of Au and Ge gradually evolves on SiO2 surface when a bilayer of Au and Ge is irradiated by medium keV Xe-ion beam. The morphology progresses through different stages from nucleating patches to extended islands and finally a Au-Ge composite nanodot array develops on the insulator surface. While ion energy and fluence are found to determine dimensions of the nanostructures, existence of a characteristic lateral length scale is also detected at every stage of evolution. Through morphological and compositional analysis, the observed evolution is understood as an effect of ion beam induced dewetting of Au top layer. Numerical estimation based on the unified thermal spike model using the present experimental condition demonstrates formation of molten zones around the ion track due to nuclear and electronic energy deposition in the target. Dewetting results from mass flow onto the surface driven by local melting along the ion track and combines with sputter erosion of the bilayer film to lead to composite nanodot evolution. The generality of the ion induced processes provides possible route towards metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructure synthesis on insulator surface.

  7. Distribution of electron traps in SiO2/HfO2 nMOSFET (United States)

    Xiao-Hui, Hou; Xue-Feng, Zheng; Ao-Chen, Wang; Ying-Zhe, Wang; Hao-Yu, Wen; Zhi-Jing, Liu; Xiao-Wei, Li; Yin-He, Wu


    In this paper, the principle of discharge-based pulsed I-V technique is introduced. By using it, the energy and spatial distributions of electron traps within the 4-nm HfO2 layer have been extracted. Two peaks are observed, which are located at ΔE ˜ -1.0 eV and -1.43 eV, respectively. It is found that the former one is close to the SiO2/HfO2 interface and the latter one is close to the gate electrode. It is also observed that the maximum discharge time has little effect on the energy distribution. Finally, the impact of electrical stress on the HfO2 layer is also studied. During stress, no new electron traps and interface states are generated. Meanwhile, the electrical stress also has no impact on the energy and spatial distribution of as-grown traps. The results provide valuable information for theoretical modeling establishment, material assessment, and reliability improvement for advanced semiconductor devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61334002, 61106106, and 61474091), the New Experiment Development Funds for Xidian University, China (Grant No. SY1434), and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, China (Grant No. JY0600132501).

  8. Porous asymmetric SiO2-g-PMMA nanoparticles produced by phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Munirasu, Selvaraj


    A new kind of asymmetric organic-inorganic porous structure has been proposed. Asymmetric lattices of polymer grafted silica nanoparticles were manufactured by casting and phase inversion in water. Silica nanoparticles were first functionalized with 3-(dimethylethoxysilyl)propyl-2-bromoisobutyrate, followed by grafting of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) segments, performed by atom-transfer radical polymerization. Mechanically stable self-standing films were prepared by casting a dispersion of functionalized nanoparticles in different solvents and immersion in water. The resulting asymmetrically porous morphology and nanoparticle assembly was characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The PMMA functionalized SiO2 hybrid material in acetone or acetone/dioxane led to the best-assembled structures. Porous asymmetric membranes were prepared by adding free PMMA and PMMA terminated with hydrophilic hydroxyl group. Nitrogen flow of 2800 L m-2 h -1 was measured at 1.3 bar demonstrating the porosity and potential application for membrane technology. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  9. Fabrication of Nb2O5/SiO2 mixed oxides by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juškevičius, Kęstutis; Audronis, Martynas; Subačius, Andrius; Kičas, Simonas; Tolenis, Tomas; Buzelis, Rytis; Drazdys, Ramutis; Gaspariūnas, Mindaugas; Kovalevskij, Vitalij; Matthews, Allan; Leyland, Adrian


    This paper investigates niobia/silica mixed oxide thin films deposited by reactive pulse-DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering of Nb and Si metal targets at room temperature. The reactive gas flow during the sputtering processes was either controlled by direct mass flow rate (i.e. constant reactive gas flow) or by an active feedback process control system. 61% and 137% higher deposition rates of Nb 2 O 5 and SiO 2 layers, respectively, were obtained using the latter technique as compared to constant reactive gas flow. Films exhibited bulk or near-bulk density. All mixture films produced in this study had an amorphous structure. A volume law of mixtures was used to determine the coating composition. It is shown that the fraction of SiO 2 or/and Nb 2 O 5 has a linear dependency on sputter target power density. On this basis, rugate filter coating designs can be easily deposited, where refractive index gradually varies between that of pure Nb 2 O 5 and pure SiO 2 . Substantially less inhomogeneity of coating mixtures was found in films produced using a reactive sputtering process with feedback-control. - Highlights: • 61% and 137% increase in deposition rates of Nb 2 O 5 and SiO 2 • Rugate coating designs can be readily deposited. • Nb 2 O 5 /SiO 2 mixture films exhibited bulk or near-bulk density. • Optimized process leads to stoichiometric and homogenous mixtures. • Films are amorphous and suitable for low loss optical coatings

  10. Regulating effect of SiO2 interlayer on optical properties of ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Zheng, Gaige; Miao, Juhong; Su, Jing; Zhang, Chengyi; Shen, Hua; Zhao, Lilong


    ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films with periodic structure were prepared by electron beam evaporation technique. Regulating effect of SiO 2 interlayer with various thicknesses on the optical properties of ZnO/SiO 2 thin films was investigated deeply. The analyses of X-ray diffraction show that the ZnO layers in ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films have a wurtzite structure and are preferentially oriented along the c-axis while the SiO 2 layers are amorphous. The scanning electron microscope images display that the ZnO layers are composed of columnar grains and the thicknesses of ZnO and SiO 2 layers are all very uniform. The SiO 2 interlayer presents a significant modulation effect on the optical properties of ZnO thin films, which is reflected in the following two aspects: (1) the transmittance of ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films is increased; (2) the photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films is largely enhanced compared with that of pure ZnO thin films. The ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films have potential applications in light-emitting devices and flat panel displays. -- Highlights: ► ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films with periodic structure were prepared by electron beam evaporation technique. ► The SiO 2 interlayer presents a significant modulation effect on the optical properties of ZnO thin films. ► The photoluminescence of ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films is largely enhanced compared with that of pure ZnO thin films. ► The ZnO/SiO 2 nanocomposite films have potential applications in light-emitting devices and flat panel displays

  11. Improving thermal insulation of TC4 using YSZ-based coating and SiO2 aerogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jin


    Full Text Available In this paper, air plasmas spray (APS was used to prepare YSZ and Sc2O3–YSZ (ScYSZ coating in order to improve the thermal insulation ability of TC4 alloy. SiO2 aerogel was also synthesized and affixed on TC4 titanium alloy to inhabit thermal flow. The microstructures, phase compositions and thermal insulation performance of three coatings were analyzed in detail. The results of thermal diffusivity test by a laser flash method showed that the thermal diffusivities of YSZ, Sc2O3–YSZ and SiO2 aerogel are 0.553, 0.539 and 0.2097×10−6 m2/s, respectively. Then, the thermal insulation performances of three kinds of coating were investigated from 20 °C to 400 °C using high infrared radiation heat flux technology. The experimental results indicated that the corresponding temperature difference between the top TC4 alloy (400 °C and the bottom surface of YSZ is 41.5 °C for 0.6 mm thickness coating. For 1 mm thickness coating, the corresponding temperature difference between the top TC4 alloys (400 °C and the bottom surface of YSZ, ScYSZ, SiO2 aerogel three specimens is 54, 54.6 and 208 °C, respectively. The coating thickness and species were found to influence the heat insulation ability. In these materials, YSZ and ScYSZ exhibited a little difference for heat insulation behavior. However, SiO2 aerogel was the best one among them and it can be taken as protection material on TC4 alloys. In outer space, SiO2 aerogel can meet the need of thermal insulation of TC4 of high-speed aircraft.

  12. Effect of ring-shaped SiO2 current blocking layer thickness on the external quantum efficiency of high power light-emitting diodes (United States)

    Zhou, Shengjun; Liu, Mengling; Hu, Hongpo; Gao, Yilin; Liu, Xingtong


    A ring-shaped SiO2 CBL underneath the p-electrode was employed to enhance current spreading of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Effects of ring-shaped SiO2 current blocking layer (CBL) thickness on optical and electrical characteristics of high power LEDs were investigated. A 190-nm-thick ring-shaped SiO2 CBL with inclined sidewalls was obtained using a combination of a thermally reflowed photoresist technique and an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process, allowing for the deposition of conformal indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conductive layer on sidewalls of ring-shaped SiO2 CBL. It was indicated that the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of high power LEDs increased with increasing thickness of ring-shaped SiO2 CBL. The EQE of high power LED with 190-nm-thick ring-shaped SiO2 CBL was 12.7% higher than that of high power LED without SiO2 CBL. Simulations performed with commercial SimuLED software package showed that the ring-shaped SiO2 CBL could significantly alleviate current crowding around p-electrode, resulting in enhanced current spreading over the entire high power LED structure.

  13. Growth Mode Study of MgCl2 on Ti (0001 and SiO2 under Ultra High Vacuum by XPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karakalos


    Full Text Available The growth mode of MgCl2 on Ti (0001 and on SiO2 grown on Si (100 was investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS under UHV conditions. Magnesium chloride grows on both Ti (0001 single crystal and SiO2 following the Frank-van der Merve, (FM growth mode.

  14. Energy transfer between doubly doped Er3+, Tm3+and Ho3+ rare earth ions in SiO2 nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dhlamini, MS


    Full Text Available Preparation of Er3+, Ho3+ and Tm3+ ions co-doped SiO2 nanoparticle phosphor powders by sol gelmethod is reported. The morphology and the particle size of the SiO2 hostmatrix were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM...

  15. SiC/C composites prepared from wood-based carbons by pulse current sintering with SiO2 : Electrical and thermal properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Furuno, T; Imamura, Y


    A powder mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 was sintered into a SiC/C composite. The heat treatment temperatures were 1400-1800 degreesC, the SiO2 concentration 0, 10, 30 and 50 wt.% with respect to the dry weight of wood charcoal. The microstructure, electrical resistance and thermal conductivity were

  16. Luminescence dependence of Pr3+ activated SiO2 nanophosphor on Pr3+ concentration, temperature, and ZnO incorporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH


    Full Text Available Green-emitting ZnO nanoparticles were successfully embedded in Pr3+-doped SiO2 by a sol–gel method resulting in a red-emitting ZnO·SiO2:Pr3+ nanocomposite phosphor. The particle morphology and luminescent properties of SiO2:Pr3+ phosphor powders...

  17. Dehydration of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by a core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2-SO3H magnetic nanoparticle catalyst (United States)

    This paper discusses the potential use of (Fe3O4@SiO2-SO3H) nanoparticle catalyst for the dehydration of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A magnetically recoverable (Fe3O4@SiO2-SO3H) nanoparticle catalyst was successfully prepared by supporting sulfonic acid groups (SO3H) on the surface o...

  18. The Experimental Degradation of Microorganisms Exposed to Mn(II) and SiO2 Over Time (United States)

    Schelble, R. T.; Hall, J. A.; Fogel, M. L.; Jahnke, L. L.; Nealson, K. H.; Steele, A.


    The sedimentary origin of early Proterozoic massive manganese deposits in the geological record is often attributed in part to the impact of biological processes. Although it seems possible that widespread algal blooms in near-shore oceanic environments caused the oxidation of reduced manganese from ocean waters, direct evidence of microorganisms (i.e. microfossils or chemical biosignatures) have not been identified in early Proterozoic manganiferous deposits. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential for biosignature preservation in remnant ancient manganese deposits by monitoring the degradation of modern microorganisms exposed to varying concentrations of Mn(II). Given that most early Proterozoic microfossils have been found in siliceous rocks, similar experiments were carried out using silica-rich solutions for comparison. Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (gram-negative) were exposed to various Mn(II)- and silica-rich solutions over a period of 180 days. The degradation of a short-duration biomarker (DNA), and longer-duration biomarkers (phospholipid fatty acids and their derivative n-alkanes) were investigated. The degradation of DNA was quantified using real time PCR (RT-PCR) and microorganism specific and general bacteria primers. DNA longevity decreased with higher concentrations of manganese (up to 1000 ppm Mn(II)) when compared with control microorganisms suspended in solutions without manganese. This effect was more dramatic in the E. coli incubations. Relatively steady decreases in the longevity of B. subtilis DNA were observed when cells were exposed to Mn(II). This may be due to the ability of the organism to sporulate, which may protect the DNA from rapid degradation. B. subtilis DNA persisted longer when cells were exposed to undersaturated SiO2 solution (100 ppm SiO2), than those exposed to supersaturated SiO2 solutions (1000 ppm and 3000 ppm). The preservation potential of E. coli DNA showed no differences between undersaturated SiO2, supersaturated SiO2, and controls without silica. Lipid degradation experiments are currently in progress. With an understanding of the longevity of biomarkers in Mn(II)- and SiO2-rich environments we can gain insight into the possibility of discovering the presence and distribution of life during deposition of the sedimentary rock record.

  19. Formation of SiO2 film by chemical vapor deposition enhanced by atomic species extracted from a surface-wave generated plasma (United States)

    Okada, H.; Baba, M.; Furukawa, M.; Yamane, K.; Sekiguchi, H.; Wakahara, A.


    In this study, we have investigated SiO2 deposition by chemical vapor deposition enhanced by neutral oxygen at the ground state extracted from a surface-wave generated plasma proposed by our group at 350°C using hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) as a precursor. Good properties of deposited SiO2 having refractive index of n = 1.45-1.46 have been confirmed by ellipsometry. Stoichiometric SiO2 was also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with single peak of Si 2p and O 1s. High quality SiO2 film deposition was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis indicating formation of chemical bonding in SiO2 with no unwanted bonds due to -OH or -CH3 groups.

  20. Photocatalytic application of TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 for reusing of textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Enayati Ahangar


    Full Text Available In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions. A large range of cationic, anionic and neutral dyes including: methyl orange, methylene blue, neutral red, bromocresol green and methyl red are used for treatment investigations. Neutral red and bromocresol green have good results in reusing treatment. The high surface area of nanocomposites improve the kinetic of wastewater treatment. In this method, by using the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, TiO2-based photocatalyst could be separated and reused for 3 times. The efficiency of this method is respectively 100% and 65% for low concentration (10 ppm and high concentration (50 ppm of neutral red and bromocrosol green after 3 h treatment. The efficiency of treatment using the second used nanocomposite was 90% for 10 ppm of the same dyes.

  1. Characterisation of NdFeB thin films prepared on (100)Si substrates with SiO2 barrier layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.K.; Muralidhar, G.K.


    This work presents a systematic study of the deposition and characterization of NdFeB films on substrates of Si(100) and of SiO2 layer thermally grown on Si(100) held at RT, 360 deg C or 440 deg C. The post-deposition annealing is performed at 600 or 800 deg C in vacuum. The films are characterised using the analytical techniques of RBS, SIMS, XRD, OM and SEM. Results indicate that SiO2 is, in deed, an excellent diffusion barrier layer till 600 deg C but becomes relatively less effective at 800 deg C. Without this barrier layer, interdiffusion at the Si-NdFeB film interface leads to formation of iron silicides, α-Fe and B exclusion from the diffusion zone, in competition with the formation of the magnetic NdFeB phase. (authors)

  2. Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in modification of graphene supported on SiO2 (United States)

    Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Wang, Yuyu; Xue, Jianming


    The damage production induced by MeV highly charged ions (HCI) irradiations in graphene supported on a SiO2 substrate is investigated using molecular dynamics method. We get results in agreement with our recent experiments. We find that the electronic energy loss and potential energy deposition have similar effects on the defects creation in SiO2 substrate-supported graphene and both mechanisms of energy deposition seem to contribute in an additive way. The influences of the energy deposition depth and radius are studied. Only the energy deposited below the surface within 2.5 nm will induce the damage in graphene. Hence, the HCI can be a powerful tool to induce defects in graphene without causing deep damage of the substrate. When charge of incident Xeq+ is above 30, a nanopore is formed and the size of nanopore in graphene can be controlled by changing the incident charge state.

  3. Determination of phosphorus distribution in the region of a SiO2-Si interface by substoichiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Yonezawa, H.


    A simplified method for the substoichiometric analysis of phosphorus has been developed and applied to determine the concentration distribution of phosphorus in the region of a SiO 2 -Si interface in order to explain why phosphorus is lost from the ion-implanted silicon surface throughout the oxidation and oxide removal processes. It is revealed that phosphorus piles up on the SiO 2 side at the interface by the thermal oxidation of silicon surface and is removed with the oxide by wet etching and with the resulting silicon by RCA cleaning. This results in a total loss of ion-implanted phosphorus of 3.5%. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Highly sensitive and thermal stable CO gas sensor based on SnO2 modified by SiO2. (United States)

    Zhan, Zili; Chen, Juling; Guan, Shaokang; Si, Lifen; Zhang, Pengshuai


    Effects of surface chemical modification with SiO2 on the thermal stability and CO gas-sensing properties of SnO2 were investigated. The SiO2 on the SnO2 surface effectively inhibits the nanocrystal growth of SnO2. The average size of modified SnO2 sintered at 600 degrees C is 5.8 nm. The gas sensitivity to CO was found to be markedly enhanced by the surface chemical modification. The CO gas as low as 5 ppm can be effectively detected by the modified SnO2-based sensors. At the same time, the modified SnO2-based sensor has excellent selectivity to CO, fast response and recovery properties.

  5. Biocomposite of Cassava Starch Reinforced with Cellulose Pulp Fibers Modified with Deposition of Silica (SiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joabel Raabe


    Full Text Available Eucalyptus pulp cellulose fibers were modified by the sol-gel process for SiO2 superficial deposition and used as reinforcement of thermoplastic starch (TPS. Cassava starch, glycerol, and water were added at the proportion of 60/26/14, respectively. For composites, 5% and 10% (by weight of modified and unmodified pulp fibers were added before extrusion. The matrix and composites were submitted to thermal stability, tensile strength, moisture adsorption, and SEM analysis. Micrographs of the modified fibers revealed the presence of SiO2 nanoparticles on fiber surface. The addition of modified fibers improved tensile strength in 183% in relation to matrix, while moisture adsorption decreased 8.3%. Such improvements were even more effective with unmodified fibers addition. This result was mainly attributed to poor interaction between modified fibers and TPS matrix detected by SEM analysis.

  6. Soft nanoimprint lithography on SiO2 sol-gel to elaborate sensitive substrates for SERS detection (United States)

    Hamouda, Frédéric; Bryche, Jean-François; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Maillart, Emmanuel; Gâté, Valentin; Zanettini, Silvia; Ruscica, Jérémy; Turover, Daniel; Bartenlian, Bernard


    This paper presents a new alternative fabrication of biochemical sensor based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by soft nanoimprint lithography (S-NIL) on SiO2 sol-gel. Stabilization of the sol-gel film is obtained by annealing which simplifies the manufacturing of these biosensors and is compatible with mass production at low cost. This detector relies on a specific pattern of gold nanodisks on a thin gold film to obtain a better sensitivity of molecules' detection. Characterizations of SERS devices were performed on a confocal Raman microspectrophotometer after a chemical functionalization. We report a lateral collapse effect on poly(diméthylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp for specific nanostructure dimensions. This unintentional effect is used to evaluate S-NIL resolution in SiO2 sol-gel.

  7. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on photoluminescence spectra from structures with Si nanocrystals fabricated in SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, K.S.; Tyschenko, I.E.; Vandyshev, E.N.; Bulytova, N.V.; Misiuk, A.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.


    The effect of hydrostatic pressure applied at high temperature on photoluminescence of Si-implanted SiO 2 films was studied. A 'blue'-shift of PL spectrum from the SiO 2 films implanted with Si + ions to total dose of 1.2x10 17 cm -2 with increase in hydrostatic pressure was observed. For the films implanted with Si + ions to a total dose of 4.8x10 16 cm -2 high temperature annealing under high hydrostatic pressure (12 kbar) causes a 'red'-shift of photoluminescence spectrum. The 'red' photoluminescence bands are attributed to Si nanocrystals while the 'blue' ones are related to Si nanocrystals of reduced size or chains of silicon atoms or Si-Si defects. A decrease in size of Si nanocluster occurs in result of the pressure-induced decrease in the diffusion of silicon atoms. (author)

  8. Dielectric properties of bismuth titanate ceramics containing SiO2 and Nd2O3 as additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Slavov


    Full Text Available Bismuth-titanate ceramics containing SiO2 and Nd2O3 as additives are synthesized by melt quenching method in the system Bi2O3-TiO2-Nd2O3-SiO2 in the temperature range of 1250–1500 °C. The phase composition of the obtained materials is determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Using scanning electron microscopy different microstructures are observed in the samples depending on the composition. Different values of conductivity, dielectric losses and relative permittivity are obtained depending on the composition. It is established that all investigated samples are dielectric materials with conductivity between 10^-9 and 10^-13 (Ω·cm^-1 at room temperature, dielectric permittivity from 1000 to 3000 and dielectric losses tgδ between 0.0002 and 0.1.

  9. Silicon electrodeposition from chloride-fluoride melts containing K2SiF6 and SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuk Sergey I.


    Full Text Available Silicon electrodeposition on glassy carbon from the KF-KCl-K2SiF6, KF-KCl-K2SiF6-KOH and KF-KCl-K2SiF6-SiO2 melts was studied by the cyclic voltammetry. Тhe electroreduction of Si(IV to metallic Si was observed as a single 4-electron wave under all considered conditions. The reactions of cathode reduction of silicon from fluoride and oxyfluoride complexes were suggested. It was shown that the process can be controlled by the preliminary transformation of SiO44- to SiF62- and SiOxFyz-. The influence of the current density on structure and morphology of silicon deposits obtained during galvanostatic electrolysis of the KF-KCl-K2SiF6-SiO2 melt was studied.

  10. Preparation and optical properties of SiO2 stablized SnO2 quantum dot films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qiangxiang; Li Zhijie; Zu Xiaotao


    SiO 2 stabilized SnO 2 quantum dot were prepared by sol-gel-hydrothermal process. Then SnO 2 quantum dot thin films were obtained by spin-coating with preprocess of well dispersing SnO 2 quantum dots in SiO 2 sol. The as-prepared SnO 2 quantum dots showed tetragonal rutile crystal structure and quantum dot radius of about 4.0 nm. The optical bad gap of the thin films was derived from UV-vis transmission spectra, with value of about 3.96 eV. The SnO 2 quantum dot thin films showed multi-peak photoluminescence properties at room temperature, mainly excitation emission at 356 nm and defect emission at 388 nm. (authors)

  11. High Temperature Stable Separator for Lithium Batteries Based on SiO2 and Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Vieira Carvalho


    Full Text Available A novel membrane based on silicon dioxide (SiO2 and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG as binder is presented and tested as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The separator is made with renewable and low cost materials and an environmentally friendly manufacturing processing using only water as solvent. The separator offers superior wettability and high electrolyte uptake due to the optimized porosity and the good affinity of SiO2 and guar gum microstructure towards organic liquid electrolytes. Additionally, the separator shows high thermal stability and no dimensional-shrinkage at high temperatures due to the use of the ceramic filler and the thermally stable natural polymer. The electrochemical tests show the good electrochemical stability of the separator in a wide range of potential, as well as its outstanding cycle performance.

  12. High resolution photolithography using arrays of polystyrene and SiO2 micro- and nano-sized spherical lenses (United States)

    Dvoretckaia, L. N.; Mozharov, A. M.; Mukhin, I. S.


    Photolithography mask made of close-packed array of micro- and nano-sized spherical lenses allows to obtain the ordered structures and provides highest “optical resolution/cost” ratio between all existing photolithography and laser direct writing methods. In this letter, we present results of modeling the propagation of a plane wave falling on the array of quartz (SiO2) microspherical lenses and focusing in the image reverse photoresist layer. We present here experimental results on fabrication of ordered arrays of submicron wells and columns and substrate preparation for growth of monocrystalline nanowires on metal surface using photolithography with mask of SiO2 microspheres. Such ordered nano-sized arrays of wells and columns can be used in fabrication of further growth of monocrystalline nanowires, quantum dots and production of plasmon structures.

  13. Study on Ultrafast Photodynamics of Novel Multilayered Thin Films for Device Applications (United States)


    preparation The glass batch with the composition of P2O5 : Al2O3 : CaO : SrO: BaO = 58.14 : 8.37 : 8.37 : 8.37 : 16.74 mol% + AgO or Au2O...Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearity of Au/ SiO2 composite thin films prepared by sputtering method”, J.Appl.Phys...ultrafast nonlinear optical response in Si/ SiO2 Nanocomposite” Proc.10th Intern.Conf.Composite/Nano Engineering, David Hui, New Orleans, LA

  14. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2/SiO2 based Bragg reflectors for light trapping applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Dubey

    Full Text Available Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs have received an intensive attention due to their increasing demand in optoelectronic and photonic devices. Such reflectors are capable to prohibit the light propagation within the specified wavelength range of interest. In this paper, we present the fabrication of TiO2/SiO2 stacks based Bragg reflectors by using a simple and in-expensive sol-gel spin coating technique. The prepared single-layer thin films of TiO2 and SiO2 onto glass substrates were characterized for their optical constants. By tuning the process parameters, one-seven DBR stacks of TiO2/SiO2 were prepared. The corresponding shift of the Bragg reflection peak was observed with the increased number of DBR stacks and as much as about 90% reflectance is observed from the 7DBR stacks. The experimentally measured reflectance was compared with the simulated one, which showed good in agreement. FESEM measurement has confirmed the formation of bright and dark strips of TiO2 and SiO2 films with their thicknesses 80 and 115 nm respectively. The simulation study was explored to a design of thin film silicon solar cell using 7DBR stacks. An enhancement in light absorption in the visible wavelength range is observed which coincides with the experimental result of the reflectance. The use of DBR at the bottom of the solar cell could felicitate the better light harvesting with the occurrence of Fabry-Perot resonances in the absorbing layer. Keywords: Bragg reflector, Photonic bandgap, Sol-gel coating, Reflection, Absorption

  15. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2/SiO2 based Bragg reflectors for light trapping applications (United States)

    Dubey, R. S.; Ganesan, V.

    Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) have received an intensive attention due to their increasing demand in optoelectronic and photonic devices. Such reflectors are capable to prohibit the light propagation within the specified wavelength range of interest. In this paper, we present the fabrication of TiO2/SiO2 stacks based Bragg reflectors by using a simple and in-expensive sol-gel spin coating technique. The prepared single-layer thin films of TiO2 and SiO2 onto glass substrates were characterized for their optical constants. By tuning the process parameters, one-seven DBR stacks of TiO2/SiO2 were prepared. The corresponding shift of the Bragg reflection peak was observed with the increased number of DBR stacks and as much as about 90% reflectance is observed from the 7DBR stacks. The experimentally measured reflectance was compared with the simulated one, which showed good in agreement. FESEM measurement has confirmed the formation of bright and dark strips of TiO2 and SiO2 films with their thicknesses 80 and 115 nm respectively. The simulation study was explored to a design of thin film silicon solar cell using 7DBR stacks. An enhancement in light absorption in the visible wavelength range is observed which coincides with the experimental result of the reflectance. The use of DBR at the bottom of the solar cell could felicitate the better light harvesting with the occurrence of Fabry-Perot resonances in the absorbing layer.

  16. BF3.SiO2: an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of azo dyes at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Bi Fatemeh Mirjalili


    Full Text Available A rapid one-pot method has been developed for the synthesis of azo dyes via ‎sequential diazotization–diazo coupling of aromatic amines with coupling agents at room ‎temperature in the presence of BF3.SiO2 as acidic catalyst. The obtained aryl diazonium salts bearing silica supported boron tri-flouride counter ion‎ was sufficiently stable to be kept at room ‎temperature in the dry state.‎

  17. Processing and properties of AA7075/ porous SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 composite


    M.H. Robert; A.F. Jorge


    Purpose: the work presents a new composite based in Al matrix reinforced with porous, lightweight and low cost SiO2/MgO/Al2O3 ceramic particles. The new material can present a unique combination of properties: those related to metal/ceramic composites and still associating some characteristics of cellular materials, as the low density and high plastic deformation under compression stresses.Design/methodology/approach: processing technique involves the infiltration of AA7075 alloy in the semis...

  18. Magnetic properties of the SiO2(Co)/GaAs interface: Polarized neutron reflectometry and SQUID magnetometry (United States)

    Ukleev, V. A.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Dyadkina, E. A.; Vorobiev, A. A.; Lott, D.; Lutsev, L. V.; Stognij, A. I.; Novitskiy, N. N.; Mistonov, A. A.; Menzel, D.; Grigoriev, S. V.


    The effect of giant injection magnetoresistance (GIMR) was recently observed in a granular SiO2/(54-75 at. % Co) film on a semiconductor GaAs substrate in a temperature range near T=300 K. The magnetoresistance coefficient reaches a value of 105% in a magnetic field of 1.9 T and at a voltage of 90 V. A structural model of the film was proposed based on the results of the grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) and x-ray reflectivity, which showed a specific interface layer 70-75 Å thick separating bulk SiO2(Co) granular film from the semiconductor substrate. This layer is formed by a monolayer of flattened Co particles which are laterally spaced apart much further than the particles in the bulk film. In the present work, using polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR), we study both the structural and magnetic properties of SiO2(Co) film separately in the bulk and in the interface layer, which is possible due to the depth resolution of the method. Temperature-dependent PNR and magnetization measurements performed by Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) revealed the occurrence of two types of magnetic nanoparticles with different blocking temperatures and magnetization. The magnetization hysteresis curve demonstrated specific two-loop structure in fields 0.5-2 T. Thus our self-consistent results of PNR, GISAXS, and SQUID measurements emphasize the role of the interface features in the SiO2(Co)/GaAs heterostructures and show a direction for further development of the GIMR theory.

  19. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in nanofibers mats of SiO2-TiO2-Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hafid Roque-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS is a powerful tool with high potential for detection of dilute analytes. Nanofibers functionalized by metal nanostructures and particles are exploited as effective flexible substrates for SERS analysis. SERS-active substrates of silice-titania-silver (SiO2-TiO2-Ag nanofibers were prepared using a simple approach involving electrospinning. We report a simple method for quantitative SERS analysis using SiO2-TiO2-Ag nanofibers as the SERS substrate. Precursors SiO2 and TiO2 were synthetized through the sol-gel method and then incorporated into a polymeric PVP matrix; later they were processed by coaxial electrospinning to obtain fibers with an average diameter of 250 nm. The SiO2-TiO2-Ag structure was demonstrated by Raman, XRD, IR, SEM and EDX. Through infrared spectroscopy it was possible to evaluate the thermal evolution of the sol-gel process. The Titania phase transformation was observed around 800 °C and the hydroxyl group loss was detected between 500 and 800 °C. The presence of two Titania phases, anatase and rutile were analized with DRX. Using Pyridine (1 nM as probe molecule the SERS effect of the scaffold was evaluated and it was determined that the vibration modes 8a, 8b, and 15 were the most amplified signals with a 3 orders of magnitude factor. With this it was concluded that the Silica-Titania-Silver Scaffold is a feasible as a SERS enhancer. Keywords: Electrospinning, Sol-gel, SERS

  20. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in nanofibers mats of SiO2-TiO2-Ag (United States)

    Roque-Ruiz, José Hafid; Martínez-Máynez, Héctor; Zalapa-Garibay, Manuela Alejandra; Arizmendi-Moraquecho, Ana; Farias, Rurik; Reyes-López, Simón Yobanny

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful tool with high potential for detection of dilute analytes. Nanofibers functionalized by metal nanostructures and particles are exploited as effective flexible substrates for SERS analysis. SERS-active substrates of silice-titania-silver (SiO2-TiO2-Ag) nanofibers were prepared using a simple approach involving electrospinning. We report a simple method for quantitative SERS analysis using SiO2-TiO2-Ag nanofibers as the SERS substrate. Precursors SiO2 and TiO2 were synthetized through the sol-gel method and then incorporated into a polymeric PVP matrix; later they were processed by coaxial electrospinning to obtain fibers with an average diameter of 250 nm. The SiO2-TiO2-Ag structure was demonstrated by Raman, XRD, IR, SEM and EDX. Through infrared spectroscopy it was possible to evaluate the thermal evolution of the sol-gel process. The Titania phase transformation was observed around 800 °C and the hydroxyl group loss was detected between 500 and 800 °C. The presence of two Titania phases, anatase and rutile were analized with DRX. Using Pyridine (1 nM) as probe molecule the SERS effect of the scaffold was evaluated and it was determined that the vibration modes 8a, 8b, and 15 were the most amplified signals with a 3 orders of magnitude factor. With this it was concluded that the Silica-Titania-Silver Scaffold is a feasible as a SERS enhancer.

  1. H2O and O2 molecules in amorphous SiO2: Defect formation and annihilation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, T.; Rashkeev, S.N.; Pantelides, S.T.


    Interstitial water and oxygen molecules are ubiquitous impurities and participate in various defect formation processes in thermally grown SiO 2 films and synthetic silica glass. Using results of first-principles calculations we report the types of defects (including different possible charge states) that H 2 O and O 2 molecules may form in bulk amorphous SiO 2 . We calculate their formation energies and, in the most interesting cases, the energy barriers in order to map out the most likely defect formation scenarios. In particular, we show that water molecules may form double silanol groups (Si-OH) as well as H 3 O + and OH - ions at a low energy cost with a barrier of about 1.5 eV. The formation energies of other defects emanating from H 2 O interstitials are, however, too high to be thermally activated. We found that O 2 molecules may form ozonyl (Si-O-O-O-Si) linkages with an energy barrier of ∼2.4 eV. An explanation for the oxygen isotope exchange observed in thin SiO 2 films near the Si-SiO 2 and SiO 2 -vacuum interfaces is suggested based on the energy barrier for ozonyl formation being commensurate with the O 2 diffusion barrier close to the Si/SiO 2 interface and the O 2 incorporation energy from vacuum. We also explain the different creation rates of E ' centers in wet and dry oxides by studying the annihilation mechanism of neutral and charged oxygen vacancies

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Metallodielectric SiO2@Pt@SiO2 Core-Shell-Shell Particles. (United States)

    Petrov, Alexey; Lehmann, Hauke; Finsel, Maik; Klinke, Christian; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias


    Metallodielectric nanostructured core-shell-shell particles are particularly desirable for enabling novel types of optical components, including narrow-band absorbers, narrow-band photodetectors, and thermal emitters, as well as new types of sensors and catalysts. Here, we present a facile approach for the preparation of submicron SiO2@Pt@SiO2 core-shell-shell particles. As shown by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the first steps of this approach allow for the deposition of closed and almost perfectly smooth platinum shells onto silica cores via a seeded growth mechanism. By choosing appropriate conditions, the shell thickness could be adjusted precisely, ranging from ∼3 to ∼32 nm. As determined by X-ray diffraction, the crystalline domain sizes of the polycrystalline metal shells were ∼4 nm, regardless of the shell thickness. The platinum content of the particles was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for thin shells consistent with a dense metal layer of the TEM-measured thickness. In addition, we show that the roughness of the platinum shell strongly depends on the storage time of the gold seeds used to initiate reductive platinum deposition. Further, using polyvinylpyrrolidone as adhesion layer, it was possible to coat the metallic shells with very homogeneous and smooth insulating silica shells of well-controlled thicknesses between ∼2 and ∼43 nm. After depositing the particles onto silicon substrates equipped with interdigitated electrode structures, the metallic character of the SiO2@Pt particles and the insulating character of the SiO2 shells of the SiO2@Pt@SiO2 particles were successfully demonstrated by charge transport measurements at variable temperatures.

  3. Study of sputtered ZnO thin films on SiO2 and GaP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brath, T.; Buc, D.; Kovac, J.; Hrnciar, V.; Caplovic, L.


    We have investigated n-ZnO polycrystalline thin films prepared on SiO 2 and p-GaP substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. The structural and electrical properties of these structures were studied. The measured parameters give promising results with a possibility to utilize n-ZnO/p-GaP heterostructure for application in the solar cells development especially in the field of nanostructures. The prepared structures will be a subject of further research. (authors)

  4. Volume labeling with Alexa Fluor dyes and surface functionalization of highly sensitive fluorescent silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Nallathamby, Prakash D; Foster, Carmen M; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Mortensen, Ninell P; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Gu, Baohua; Retterer, Scott T


    A new synthesis approach is described that allows the direct incorporation of fluorescent labels into the volume or body of SiO2 nanoparticles. In this process, fluorescent Alexa Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of <15%. In comparison with conventional surface tagged particles created by post-synthesis modification, this process maintains the physical and surface chemical properties that have the most pronounced effect on colloidal stability and interactions with their surroundings. These volume-labeled nanoparticles have proven to be extremely robust, showing excellent signal strength, negligible photobleaching, and minimal loss of functional organic components. The native or "free" surface of the volume-labeled particles can be altered to achieve a specific surface functionality without altering fluorescence. Their utility was demonstrated for visualizing the association of surface-modified fluorescent particles with cultured macrophages. Differences in particle agglomeration and cell association were clearly associated with differences in observed nanoparticle toxicity. The capacity to maintain particle fluorescence while making significant changes to surface chemistry makes these particles extremely versatile and useful for studies of particle agglomeration, uptake, and transport in environmental and biological systems.

  5. Defect induced phonon scattering for tuning the lattice thermal conductivity of SiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Cao


    Full Text Available In this work, the thermal properties of nanoscale SiO2 thin films have been systematically investigated with respect to the thickness, crystal orientations and the void defects using non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics (NEMD simulation. Size effect for the lattice thermal conductivity of nanoscale SiO2 thin films was observed. Additionally, SiO2 thin films with [001] oriented exhibited greater thermal conductivity compared with other crystal orientations which was discussed in terms of phonon density of states (PDOS. Furthermore, the porosity of void defects was introduced to quantify the influence of defects for thermal conductivity. Results exhibited that the thermal conductivity degraded with the increase of porosity. Two thermal conductivity suppression mechanisms, namely, void defects induced material loss interdicting heat conduction and phonon scattering enhanced by the boundary of defects, were proposed. Then, a further simulation was deployed to find that the effect of boundary scattering of defects was dominant in thermal conductivity degradation compared with material loss mechanism. The conclusion suggests that the thermal conductivity could be configured via regulating the distribution of PDOS directly associated with void defects.

  6. Suppressing Structural Colors of Photocatalytic Optical Coatings on Glass: The Critical Role of SiO2. (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Boudot, Mickael; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David; Faustini, Marco


    The appearance of structural colors on coated-glass is a critical esthetical drawback toward industrialization of photocatalytic coatings on windows for architecture or automobile. Herein we describe a rational approach to suppress the structural color of mesoporous TiO 2 -based coatings preserving photoactivity and mechanical stiffness. Addition of SiO 2 as third component is discussed. Ti x Si (1-x) O 2 mesoporous coatings were fabricated by one-step liquid deposition process through the evaporation induced self-assembling and characterized by GI-SAXS, GI-WAXS, electron microscopies, and in situ Environmental Ellipsometry Porosimetry. Guided by optical simulation, we investigated the critical role of SiO 2 on the optical responses of the films but also on the structural, mechanical, and photocatalytic properties, important requirements to go toward real applications. We demonstrate that adding SiO 2 to porous TiO 2 allows tuning and suppression of structural colors through refractive index matching and up to 160% increase in mechanical stiffening of the films. This study leads us to demonstrate an example of "invisible" coating, in which the light reflection is angle- and thickness-independent, and exhibiting high porosity, mechanical stiffness, and photoactivity.

  7. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Mesoporous SiO2@Eu(OH3 Core-Shell Nanospheres in MCF-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Atif


    Full Text Available Initially, the sample was synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. Morphological analysis of growth SiO2@Eu(OH3 was confirmed by applying field emission transmission electron microscopy (high and low resolution FETEM. The images confirmed the average diameter of mesoporous SiO2@Eu(OH3 core-shell nanospheres (~392–400 nm with a silica core of ~230 nm in diameter and a shell composed of europium hydroxide ~162 nm (thickness. Moreover, an absorption band at 280 nm was confirmed which initiates from the europium hydroxide. The photoluminescence spectrum of the nanosphere was also recorded at ambient temperature under the excitation of 3.82 eV. Cytotoxic studies in vitro were performed by applying MTT, NR assays, and morphological analysis. Morphological changes and % loss in cellular viability was assessed in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 labeled with mesoporous SiO2@Eu(OH3 core-shell nanospheres at different concentrations ranging from 10 µg/mL to 200 µg/mL. Current study demonstrates the quite rational strategy which might be useful in future clinical approach/applications.

  8. Preparation, and Luminescence Properties of SiO2@Sm(MABA-Siphen Core-Shell Structure Nanometer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li-Na


    Full Text Available A novel ternary samarium complex was prepared using HOOCC6H4N(CONH(CH23Si- (OCH2CH332 (MABA-Si as first ligand, and phen as second ligand. The corresponding SiO2@Sm(MABA-Siphen core-shell structure nanometer composite was synthesized as well, and the silica spheres was the core, and the ternary samarium complex was the shell layer. The ternary samarium complex has been characterized by element analysis, molar conductivity and IR spectra. The results show that the chemical formula of the complex is Sm(MABA-Si(phen2(ClO43·2H2O. The fluorescent spectra illustrat that the luminescence properties of the samarium complex are superior. The core-shell structure of SiO2@Sm(MABA-Siphen nanometer composite is characterized by SEM, TEM and IR spectra. The SiO2@Sm(MABA-Siphen core-shell structure composites exhibit stronger emission intensity than the ternary samarium complex. The fluorescence lifetime of the complex and core-shell structure composite is measured as well.

  9. Binary and Ternary Catalytic Systems for Olefin Metathesis Based on MoCl5/SiO2 (United States)

    Bykov, Victor I.; Belyaev, Boris A.; Butenko, Tamara A.; Finkelshtein, Eugene Sh.

    Kinetics of α-olefin metathesis in the presence of binary (MoCl5/ SiO2-Me4Sn) and ternary catalytic systems (MoCl5/SiO2-Me4Sn-ECl4, E = Si or Ge) was studied. Specifically, kinetics and reactivity of 1-decene, 1-octene, and 1-hexene in the metathesis reaction at 27°C and 50°C in the presence of MoCl5/ SiO2-SnMe4 were examined and evaluated in detail. It was shown that experimental data comply well with the simple kinetic equation for the rate of formation of symmetrical olefins with allowance for the reverse reaction and catalyst deactivation: r = left( {k_1 \\cdot c_α - k_{ - 1} \\cdot c_s } right) \\cdot e^{ - k_d \\cdot tilde n_{tot} } . The coefficients for this equation were determined, and it was shown that these α-olefins had practically the same reactivity. It was found that reactivation in the course of metathesis took place due to the addition of a third component (silicon tetrachloride or germanium tetrachloride in combination with tetramethyltin) to a partially deactivated catalyst. The number of active centers was determined (5-6% of the amount of Mo) and the mechanisms of formation, deactivation, and reactivation were proposed for the binary and ternary catalytic systems. The role of individual components of the catalytic systems was revealed.

  10. Toluene and chlorobenzene dinitration over solid H3PO4/MoO3/SiO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiak, Joanna; Kalinowska-Alichnewicz, Dorota; Szadkowski, Michal; Skupinski, Wincenty


    Highlights: → A novel catalyst H 3 PO 4 /MoO 3 /SiO 2 was characterized and used in nitration. → On the surface domains of phosphomolybdic acid (HPM) are obtained. → Dinitrotoluene is obtained with very high yield i.e. 96 wt.% in mild conditions. → Dinitrochlorobenzene is obtained with only twelve-fold excess of nitric acid. → It is sulfuric acid free and solvent free nitration of aromatic compounds. - Abstract: A new catalyst, H 3 PO 4 /MoO 3 /SiO 2 , was prepared by modification of MoO 3 /SiO 2 using phosphoric acid. The characterization of the catalyst was performed using Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption-desorption methods. Molybdenum oxides were identified along with phosphomolybdic acid and polymolybdates on the modified surface. The suitability of the catalysts for toluene and chlorobenzene nitration in continuous process was examined. Toluene is effectively nitrated to dinitrotoluene (DNT) in one-stage process (96 wt.% of DNT in the product) and in mild conditions i.e. at room temperature and only with ten-fold excess of nitric acid. In chlorobenzene nitration only twelve-fold excess of nitric acid is needed to obtain as high yield as 95 wt.%. Most importantly, the novel catalysts we have developed, provide the opportunity for sulfuric acid- free nitration of aromatic compounds.

  11. Accessing the application of in situ cosmogenic 14C to surface exposure dating of amorphous SiO2 (United States)

    Cesta, J. M.; Goehring, B. M.; Ward, D. J.


    We assess the feasibility and utility of in situ cosmogenic 14C as a geochronometer for landforms composed of amorphous SiO2 through the comparison of 14C surface exposure ages to independently determined eruption ages on Obsidian Dome, California. Landforms composed of amorphous SiO2 phases are difficult to date by conventional cosmogenic nuclide methods due to several complications that may arise (e.g., inability to remove meteoric contamination). The onset of an increased understanding of production rates and analytical measurement of in situ 14C in SiO2 provides an opportunity to address this limitation. Obsidian Dome is a 600-year-old phreatomagmatic dome of the Mono-Inyo Craters located in Inyo County, California, and consists of vesicular pumice, obsidian, and rhyolite. Exposure ages from eight obsidian and banded pumice and obsidian surface samples range from 3947 ± 678 to 914 ± 134 years, all significantly older than the accepted radiocarbon age of 650-550 years. δ13C values for the samples range between +2.65‰ and +1.34‰ and show a negative correlation with CO2 yield. The `too old' exposure ages coupled with this negative correlation between δ13C and CO2 yield suggests the incorporation of an atmospheric component of 14C. Measurement of 14C concentrations in shielded, subsurface samples will assist in isolating the atmospheric 14C component and aid in correcting the surface exposure ages.

  12. Influence of radiation-damages on parameters of lattice oscillations in crystalline and vitreous SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukadyrova, I.Kh.


    Using IR reflection spectroscopy, the influence of radiation-induced disturbances on a number of parameters of lattice oscillations in two SiO 2 modifications was investigated. Radiation kinetics of changes in spectral characteristics of fundamental oscillations in SiO 2 crystalline and glassy states was determined. Dose dependences of both reflectivity and degenerate mode vibrational frequency were found to show minima whose locations were governed by a type of a sample. Under higher doses of neutron radiation (10 21 cm -2 ), certain characteristics of bands were observed to be of the same values for the both materials modified. The features of radiation kinetics were found for dynamic parameters of the samples. It was deduced that specific character of radiation-induced changes observed in spectral and dynamic parameters of oscillations in the region of degenerate modes was due to both the accumulation of radiation damages and a change in the force field surrounding bridge-type bonds which was related with the change in the SiO 2 structure. (authors)

  13. A sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination of gallic acid based on SiO2 nanoparticle modified carbon paste electrode. (United States)

    Tashkhourian, J; Nami-Ana, S F


    Gallic acid (GA), one of the main phenolic components, has been a subject of increasing interest due to their biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and antitumor activities, scavenging of free radicals, and protecting against cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, developing sensitive and selective sensor for GA is very important and interesting. Herein, SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized and then used to prepare a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) for determination of GA. For better comparison, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite were also employed to prepare an electrochemical sensor for determination of GA. The electrochemical behaviors of GA at different electrochemical sensors were investigated. Compared with other sensors, the SiO2 nanoparticle sensor greatly enhances the response signal of GA due to the large active surface area and high accumulation efficiency. Voltammetric studies show that the SiO2 nanoparticle modified carbon paste electrode is sensitive to GA in the concentration range of 8.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1), and the limit of detection and sensitivity were calculated as 2.5 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) and 1790.7 (μA/mM), respectively. Finally, the proposed electrochemical sensor was successfully employed to determine GA in tea and orange juice samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Fixed-bed adsorption separation of xylene isomers over sio2/silicallite-1 core-shell adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.


    SiO2/Silicalite-1 core-shell material has been demonstrated as potential shape selective adsorbent in gas phase separation of p-xylene from a mixture of p/o-xylene isomers. The core-shell composite comprised of large silica core and thin polycrystalline silicalite-1 shell which was synthesized via a self-assembly of silicalite-1 nanocrystals on core silica surface followed by a secondary seeded growth method. The core materials, SiO2 used in this study has mesoporosity with an average pore diameter of 60Å and hence offers no shape selectivity for xylene isomers. However, the shell, silicalite-1 contains rigid pore structures and preferentially adsorbs p-xylene from their isomers mixtures. A series of adsorption fixed bed breakthrough adsorption/desorption experiment was performed to obtain the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption isotherm parameters of xylene isomers. The equilibrium isotherms of xylene isomers follow the Langmuir\\'s model. A chromatographic adsorption model has been used to describe the fixed-bed breakthrough profiles of xylene isomers. The model has successfully predicted the responses of the binary mixtures of p/o-xylene isomers. The SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell adsorbents have shown para-selectivity as high as 15. © Bangladesh Uni. of Engg. & Tech.

  15. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Yellow-emitting SiO2/Zn2SiO4: Mn Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim OMRI


    Full Text Available Yellow light emitting Mn2+-doped b-Zn2SiO4 phosphor nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 host matrix, were prepared by a simple solid-phase reaction under natural atmosphere at 1500 °C for 2 hours after the incorporation of manganese doped zinc oxide nanoparticles in silica using sol-gel method. The SiO2/Zn2SiO4:Mn nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and photoluminescence (PL. The nanopowder was crystallized in triclinic b-Zn2SiO4 phase with a particles size varies between 70 nm and 84 nm. The SiO2/b-Zn2SiO4:Mn nanocomposite exhibited a broad yellow emission band at 575 nm under UV excitation light. The dependence of the intensity and energy position of the obtained PL band on measurement temperature and power excitation will be discussed.

  16. HfO2/SiO2 multilayer based reflective and transmissive optics from the IR to the UV (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Hart, Gary A.; Oudard, Jean Francois; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.


    HfO2/SiO2 multilayer based reflective optics enable threat detection in the short-wave/middle-wave infrared and high power laser targeting capability in the near infrared. On the other hand, HfO2/SiO2 multilayer based transmissive optics empower early missile warning by taking advantage of the extremely low noise light detection in the deep-ultraviolet region where solar irradiation is strongly absorbed by the ozone layer of the earth's atmosphere. The former requires high laser damage resistance, whereas the latter needs a solar-blind property, i.e., high transmission of the radiation below 290 nm and strong suppression of the solar background from 300 nm above. The technical challenges in both cases are revealed. The spectral limits associated with the HfO2 and SiO2 films are discussed and design concepts are schematically illustrated. Spectral performances are realized for potential A and D and commercial applications.

  17. Functionalized magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles for sensitive detection and removal of Hg2+ (United States)

    Xu, Yaohui; Zhou, Yang; Ma, Wenhui; Wang, Shixing; Li, Shaoyuan


    The Fe3O4 nanoparticles [NPs] coated with silica nanoparticles were designed and prepared, the obtained Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs have uniform spherical morphology with a mean diameter of about 22 nm. The inert silica coating on the surface of Fe3O4 NPs not only significantly prevented their aggregation in solution but also improved their chemical stability and provided wider sites for surface modification with organic chemosensors. Subsequently an attempt had been made that the as-synthesized Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs were modified by N-(rhodamine-6G) lactam-ethylenediamine, the functionalized magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs (Fe3O4@SiO2-Rho) served as a "naked eye" fluorescent sensor to detect Hg2+. The Fe3O4@SiO2-Rho NPs exhibited selective "turn-on" type fluorescent change from colorless to orange when adding to Hg2+. In addition, the adsorption experiments revealed that the Fe3O4@SiO2-Rho NPs had effective removal toward Hg2+. Moreover, the functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres displayed superparamagnetic properties, which made it easier to separate the nanocomposites from the liquid phase by adding an external magnetic field. Our efforts provided a potential magnetic nanomaterial for sensitive detection and removal toward Hg2+ simultaneously.

  18. Preparation of SiO2-Capped Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu,Dy Nanoparticles with Laser Ablation in Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ishizaki


    Full Text Available The effect of SiO2 capping on the optical properties of nanoparticles was investigated. The photoluminescence (PL intensity was successfully improved by SiO2-capping. Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu,Dy nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in liquid. The SiO2 capping was performed using the Stöber method with ultrasonication. The TEM images indicated that the Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu,Dy nanocrystal was capped with amorphous SiO2, and the shape of the completely capped nanoparticle was an elliptical nanorod, which aggregated after a long SiO2 capping reaction time. The peak wavelength and the shape of the PL spectra were not changed by the pelletization and the laser ablation in liquid. The PL intensity of SiO2 capped nanoparticles was significantly increased. Nonradiative relaxation via surface defects and energy transfer to water molecules decrease the PL intensity. These phenomena accelerate in the case of nanoparticles. SiO2 capping would prevent these phenomena and improve the optical properties of nanoparticles. The combination of laser ablation in liquid and the chemical reaction is important to expand the applications of this method in various research fields.

  19. Vancomycin-modified Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers as effective antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang C


    Full Text Available Chongwen Wang,1,2,* Kehan Zhang,2,* Zhe Zhou,2,* Qingjun Li,2 Liting Shao,2 Rong Zhang Hao,3 Rui Xiao,2 Shengqi Wang1,2 1College of Life Sciences & Bio-Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of New Molecular Diagnosis Technologies for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 3Institute for Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nanomaterials combined with antibiotics exhibit synergistic effects and have gained increasing interest as promising antimicrobial agents. In this study, vancomycin-modified magnetic-based silver microflowers (Van/Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers were rationally designed and prepared to achieve strong bactericidal ability, a wide antimicrobial spectrum, and good recyclability. High-performance Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers served as a multifunction-supporting matrix and exhibited sufficient magnetic response property due to their 200 nm Fe3O4 core. The microflowers also possessed a highly branched flower-like Ag shell that provided a large surface area for effective Ag ion release and bacterial contact. The modified-vancomycin layer was effectively bound to the cell wall of bacteria to increase the permeability of the cell membrane and facilitate the entry of the Ag ions into the bacterium, resulting in cell death. As such, the fabricated Van/Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers were predicted to be an effective and environment-friendly antibacterial agent. This hypothesis was verified through sterilization of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 10 and 20 µg mL-1, respectively. The microflowers also showed enhanced effect compared with bare Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers and free-form vancomycin, confirming the synergistic effects of the combination of the two components. Moreover, the antimicrobial effect was maintained at more than 90% after five cycling assays, indicating the high stability of the product. These findings reveal that Van/Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag microflowers exhibit promising applications in the antibacterial fields. Keywords: antibiotic-resistant bacteria, surface area, biological properties, magnetic composites, Ag shell

  20. Improving antiproliferative effect of the anticancer drug cytarabine on human promyelocytic leukemia cells by coating on Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles. (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh; Mansouri, Kamran


    In this study, Fe3O4@SiO2-cytarabine magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared via chemical coprecipitation reaction and coating silica on the surface of Fe3O4 MNPs by Stöber method via sol-gel process. The surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 MNPs was modified by an anticancer drug, cytarabine. The structural properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Zetasizer analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the crystalline phase of iron oxide NPs was magnetite (Fe3O4) and the average sizes of Fe3O4@SiO2-cytarabine MNPs were about 23 nm. Also, the surface characterization of Fe3O4@SiO2-cytarabine MNPs by FT-IR showed that successful coating of Fe3O4 NPs with SiO2 and binding of cytarabine drug onto the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 MNPs were through the hydroxyl groups of the drug. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of Fe3O4@SiO2-cytarabine MNPs was investigated against cancer cell line (HL60) in comparison with cytarabine using MTT colorimetric assay. The obtained results showed that the effect of Fe3O4@SiO2-cytarabine magnetic nanoparticles on the cell lines were about two orders of magnitude higher than that of cytarabine. Furthermore, in vitro DNA binding studies were investigated by UV-vis, circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results for DNA binding illustrated that DNA aggregated on Fe3O4@SiO2-cytarabine MNPs via groove binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Water Sorption in Electron-Beam Evaporated SiO2 on QCM Crystals and Its Influence on Polymer Thin Film Hydration Measurements. (United States)

    Kushner, Douglas I; Hickner, Michael A


    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements are two critical characterization techniques routinely employed for hydration studies of polymer thin films. Water uptake by thin polymer films is an important area of study to investigate antifouling surfaces, to probe the swelling of thin water-containing ionomer films, and to conduct fundamental studies of polymer brush hydration and swelling. SiO 2 -coated QCM crystals, employed as substrates in many of these hydration studies, show porosity in the thin electron-beam (e-beam) evaporated SiO 2 layer. The water sorption into this porous SiO 2 layer requires correction of the optical and mass characterization of the hydrated polymer due to changes in the SiO 2 layer as it sorbs water. This correction is especially important when experiments on SiO 2 -coated QCM crystals are compared to measurements on Si wafers with dense native SiO 2 layers. Water adsorption filling void space during hydration in ∼200-260 nm thick SiO 2 layers deposited on a QCM crystal resulted in increased refractive index of the layer during water uptake experiments. The increased refractive index led to artificially higher polymer swelling in the optical modeling of the hydration experiments. The SiO 2 -coated QCM crystals showed between 6 and 8% void as measured by QCM and SE, accounting for 60%-85% of the measured polymer swelling in the low humidity regime (70% RH) from optical modeling for 105 and 47 nm thick sulfonated polymer films. Correcting the refractive index of the SiO 2 layer for its water content resulted in polymer swelling that successfully resembled swelling measured on a silicon wafer with nonporous native oxide.

  2. Effects of Bias Pulsing on Etching of SiO2 Pattern in Capacitively-Coupled Plasmas for Nano-Scale Patterning of Multi-Level Hard Masks. (United States)

    Kim, Sechan; Choi, Gyuhyun; Chae, Heeyeop; Lee, Nae-Eung


    In order to study the effects of bias pulsing on the etching characteristics of a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer using multi-level hard mask (MLHM) structures of ArF photoresist/bottom anti-reflected coating/SiO2/amorphous carbon layer (ACL)/SiO2, the effects of bias pulsing conditions on the etch characteristics of a SiO2 layer with an ACL mask pattern in C4F8/CH2F2/O2/Ar etch chemistries were investigated in a dual-frequency capacitively-coupled plasma (CCP) etcher. The effects of the pulse frequency, duty ratio, and pulse-bias power in the 2 MHz low-frequency (LF) power source were investigated in plasmas generated by a 27.12 MHz high-frequency (HF) power source. The etch rates of ACL and SiO2 decreased, but the etch selectivity of SiO2/ACL increased with decreasing duty ratio. When the ACL and SiO2 layers were etched with increasing pulse frequency, no significant change was observed in the etch rates and etch selectivity. With increasing LF pulse-bias power, the etch rate of ACL and SiO2 slightly increased, but the etch selectivity of SiO2/ACL decreased. Also, the precise control of the critical dimension (CD) values with decreasing duty ratio can be explained by the protection of sidewall etching of SiO2 by increased passivation. Pulse-biased etching was successfully applied to the patterning of the nano-scale line and space of SiO2 using an ACL pattern.

  3. Design of flexible PANI-coated CuO-TiO2-SiO2 heterostructure nanofibers with high ammonia sensing response values (United States)

    Pang, Zengyuan; Nie, Qingxin; Lv, Pengfei; Yu, Jian; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu


    We report a room-temperature ammonia sensor with extra high response values and ideal flexibility, including polyaniline (PANI)-coated titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (TiO2-SiO2) or copper oxide-titanium dioxide-silicon dioxide (CuO-TiO2-SiO2) composite nanofibers. Such flexible inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, followed by calcination. Then, in situ polymerization of aniline monomers was carried out with inorganic TiO2-SiO2 and CuO-TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers as templates. Gas sensing tests at room temperature indicated that the obtained CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers had much higher response values to ammonia gas (ca. 45.67-100 ppm) than most of those reported before as well as the prepared TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofibers here. These excellent sensing properties may be due to the P-N, P-P heterojunctions and a structure similar to field-effect transistors formed on the interfaces between PANI, TiO2, and CuO, which is p-type, n-type, and p-type semiconductor, respectively. In addition, the prepared free-standing CuO-TiO2-SiO2/PANI composite nanofiber membrane was easy to handle and possessed ideal flexibility, which is promising for potential applications in wearable sensors in the future.

  4. [MG49-LiClO4]:[TiO2-SiO2] Polymer Electrolytes: In Situ Preparation and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oon Lee Kang


    Full Text Available In the present research, [MG49-LiClO4]:[HNO3-THF/TiO2-SiO2] and [MG49-LiClO4]:[ClHNO2-THF/TiO2-SiO2] polymer electrolytes were first prepared through simple stepwise in situ techniques: sol-gel technique and solution-cast technique. [MG49-LiClO4]:[HNO3-THF/TiO2-SiO2] and [MG49-LiClO4]:[ClHNO2-THF/TiO2-SiO2] polymer electrolytes were then characterized through different experimental techniques. [MG49-LiClO4]:[HNO3-THF/TiO2-SiO2] and [MG49-LiClO4]:[ClHNO2-THF/TiO2-SiO2] polymer electrolytes had exhibited significant structural changes upon different salt concentrations. In the present investigation, [MG49-LiClO4]:[HNO3-THF/TiO2-SiO2] and [MG49-LiClO4]:[ClHNO2-THF/TiO2-SiO2] polymer electrolytes had attained maximum ionic conductivities (σ~10-7 S/cm at ambient temperature; 10−4 S/cm at 100°C upon 25 wt.% salt insertion. [MG49-LiClO4]:[HNO3-THF/TiO2-SiO2] and [MG49-LiClO4]:[ClHNO2-THF/TiO2-SiO2] polymer electrolytes had exhibited distinct conduction mechanisms in similar experimental configuration. [MG49-LiClO4]:[HNO3-THF/TiO2-SiO2] and [MG49-LiClO4]:[ClHNO2-THF/TiO2-SiO2] polymer electrolytes had exhibited different stability characteristics over certain operational condition.

  5. Optical Properties of Malachite Green Dye Doped SiO2 Glasses: Effect of Transition Metal (Fe-I Used as a Codopant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulen Bora


    Full Text Available Enhanced luminescence properties of Malachite Green (MG (oxalate in Fe-MG codoped SiO2 glasses compared to its values in MG doped SiO2 glasses are reported here. The enhancement is chiefly attributed to a resonance nonradiative energy transfer between Fe and MG. The quantum yield of Malachite Green (MG, in presence of Iron, trapped in sol-gel derived SiO2 glass increases by an order of ~103 compared to that in low viscous solvent while a lifetime of 3.29 ns is reported.

  6. Formyl-peptide Receptor Agonists and Amorphous SiO2-NPs Synergistically and Selectively Increase the Inflammatory Responses of Human Monocytes and PMNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tavano


    ligands, but not toward FPR2-specific ones. Conversely, the chemotaxis of monocytes toward FPR2-specific peptides was inhibited by SiO2-NPs. NADPH-oxidase activation triggered by FPR1- and FPR2-specific ligands in both cell types was not altered by SiO2-NPs. Microbial and tissue danger signals sensed by FPRs selectively amplified the functional responses of monocytes and PMNS to SiO2-NPs, and should be carefully considered in the assessment of the risk associated with nanoparticle exposure.

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect of SiO2 content in gate dielectrics on work function shift induced by nanoscale capping layers

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.


    The impact of SiO2 content in ultrathin gate dielectrics on the magnitude of the effective work function (EWF) shift induced by nanoscale capping layers has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The magnitude of the effective work function shift for four different capping layers (AlN, Al2O3, La2O3, and Gd2O3) is measured as a function of SiO2 content in the gate dielectric. A nearly linear increase of this shift with SiO2 content is observed for all capping layers. The origin of this dependence is explained using density functional theory simulations.

  8. Demonstration of the CDMA-mode CAOS smart camera. (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Mazhar, Mohsin A


    Demonstrated is the code division multiple access (CDMA)-mode coded access optical sensor (CAOS) smart camera suited for bright target scenarios. Deploying a silicon CMOS sensor and a silicon point detector within a digital micro-mirror device (DMD)-based spatially isolating hybrid camera design, this smart imager first engages the DMD starring mode with a controlled factor of 200 high optical attenuation of the scene irradiance to provide a classic unsaturated CMOS sensor-based image for target intelligence gathering. Next, this CMOS sensor provided image data is used to acquire a focused zone more robust un-attenuated true target image using the time-modulated CDMA-mode of the CAOS camera. Using four different bright light test target scenes, successfully demonstrated is a proof-of-concept visible band CAOS smart camera operating in the CDMA-mode using up-to 4096 bits length Walsh design CAOS pixel codes with a maximum 10 KHz code bit rate giving a 0.4096 seconds CAOS frame acquisition time. A 16-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with time domain correlation digital signal processing (DSP) generates the CDMA-mode images with a 3600 CAOS pixel count and a best spatial resolution of one micro-mirror square pixel size of 13.68 μm side. The CDMA-mode of the CAOS smart camera is suited for applications where robust high dynamic range (DR) imaging is needed for un-attenuated un-spoiled bright light spectrally diverse targets.

  9. Síntese e caracterização de nanocompósitos Ni: SiO2 processados na forma de filmes finos Synthesis and characterization of Ni: SiO2 nanocomposites processed as thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Gouveia


    Full Text Available We have produced nanocomposite films of Ni:SiO2 by an alternative polymeric precursor route. Films, with thickness of ~ 1000 nm, were characterized by several techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, flame absorption atomic spectrometry, and dc magnetization. Results from the microstructural characterizations indicated that metallic Ni-nanoparticles with average diameter of ~ 3 nm are homogeneously distributed in an amorphous SiO2 matrix. Magnetization measurements revealed a blocking temperature T B ~ 7 K for the most diluted sample and the absence of an exchange bias suggesting that Ni nanoparticles are free from an oxide layer.

  10. Graffiti mochicas en la huaca Cao Viejo, Complejo El Brujo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available GRAFFITI MOCHICA DE LA HUACA CAO VIEJO, COMPLEXE ARCHÉOLOGIQUE DU BRUJO. Sur des murs et colonnes de quatre des sept édifices superposés (E, D, B, A qui forment la huaca Cao Viejo, nous avons identifié des graffitis qui représentent une grande variété de dessins. Nous analysons actuellement leur élaboration, les techniques employées, leur mise en relation, leur chronologie relative, et leur présence dans d’autres sites monumentaux de la côte péruvienne. En las superficies de muros y columnas de cuatro de los siete edificios superpuestos (E, D, B, A que forman la Huaca Cao Viejo, se han identificado graffiti en una amplia variedad de diseños. Se discute el propósito de su elaboración, la técnica, asociaciones, cronología relativa, y su recurrencia en otros sitios monumentales de la costa peruana. MOCHICA GRAFFITI IN HUACA CAO VIEJO, EL BRUJO COMPLEX. On the surfaces and columns of four among seven superimposed phases (E,D,B,A that form the Huaca Cao Viejo, graffiti representing a great variety of designs were discovered. We discuss their relevance, their significance, the techniques used in creating them, their relative chronology, and their use in other monumental buildings on the northern Peruvian coast.

  11. The CaO orange system in meteor spectra (United States)

    Berezhnoy, A. A.; Borovička, J.; Santos, J.; Rivas-Silva, J. F.; Sandoval, L.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Palma, A.


    The CaO orange band system was simulated in the region 5900-6300 Å and compared with the experimentally observed spectra of Benešov bolide wake. The required vibronic Einstein emission coefficients were estimated by means of the experimental radiative lifetimes under the simplest Franck-Condon approximation. A moderate agreement was achieved, and the largest uncertainties come from modeling shape of FeO orange bands. Using a simple model the CaO column density in the wake of the Benešov bolide at the height of 29 km was estimated as (5 ± 2) × 1014 cm-2 by a comparison of the present CaO spectra with the AlO bands nicely observed at 4600-5200 Å in the same spectrum. The obtained CaO content is in a good agreement with the quenching model developed for the impact-produced cloud, although future theoretical and experimental studies of both CaO and FeO orange systems contribution would be needed to confirm these results.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO2 nanoparticles fabricated by using reverse micelle and sol-gel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoyyul; Bae, Dongsik


    Erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a reverse micelle technique combined with metal-alkoxide hydrolysis and condensation. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles could be changed by varying the molar ratio of water to surfactant. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles were examined by using a transmission electron microscope. The average size of synthesized erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles was approximately 20 - 25 nm and that of the erbium particles was 3 - 5 nm. The effects of the synthesis parameters, such as the molar ratio of water to surfactant, are discussed.

  13. Enhancement of carrier mobility in pentacene thin-film transistor on SiO 2 by controlling the initial film growth modes (United States)

    Qi, Qiong; Yu, Aifang; Jiang, Peng; Jiang, Chao


    Pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated on thermally grown SiO 2 gate insulator under the conditions of various pre-cleaning treatments. Initial nucleation and growth of the material films on treated substrates were observed by atomic force microscope. The performance of fabricated TFT devices with different surface cleaning approaches was found to be highly related to the initial film morphologies. In contrast to the three-dimensional island-like growth mode on SiO 2 under an organic cleaning process, a layer-by-layer initial growth occurred on the SiO 2 insulator cleaned with ammonia solution, which was believed to be the origination of the excellent electrical properties of the TFT device. Field effect mobility of the TFT device could achieve as high as 1.0 cm 2/Vs on the bared SiO 2/Si substrate and the on/off ratio was over 10 6.

  14. Synthesis of polystyrene core/SiO2 shell composite particles and fabrication of SiO2 capsules out of them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terekhin, V


    Systemic studies on the dependence of the morphology of polystyrene core/SiO 2 shell composite particles on the conditions of their fabrication have been performed. Spherical polystyrene particles synthesized in the presence of a cationic initiator of polymerization were used as cores. SiO 2 shells were formed by modified Stober’s method. Exposure of the synthesized composite particles to high temperatures has been shown to cause destruction of their polystyrene core, thereby allowing the formation of mesoporous SiO 2 capsules with a mean pore diameter of ∼3 nm and specific surface area of ∼270 m 2 /g. Model experiments on loading the SiO 2 capsules with amoxicillin have been carried out. Spectrophotometry in the UV and visible spectral regions has been used to estimate the kinetics of amoxicillin release from the SiO 2 capsules. (paper)

  15. Ag-Decorated Fe3O4@SiO2 Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Degradation of Organic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li


    Full Text Available Well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs are successfully decorated on Fe3O4@SiO2 nanorods (NRs via a facile step-by-step strategy. This method involves coating α-Fe2O3 NRs with uniform silica layer, reduction in 10% H2/Ar atmosphere at 450°C to obtain Fe3O4@SiO2 NRs, and then depositing Ag NPs on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 NRs through a sonochemical step. It was found that the as-prepared Ag-decorated magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 NRs (Ag-MNRs exhibited a higher catalytic efficiency than bare Ag NPs in the degradation of organic dye and could be easily recovered by convenient magnetic separation, which show great application potential for environmental protection applications.

  16. Marrying the mussel inspired chemistry and Kabachnik-Fields reaction for preparation of SiO2 polymer composites and enhancement removal of methylene blue (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Chen, Junyu; Wan, Qing; Tian, Jianwen; Huang, Long; Jiang, Ruming; Deng, Fengjie; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen


    The removal of organic dyes using functionalization SiO2 composites (denoted as SiO2-PDA-CSH) were prepared via a facile method that combined with mussel inspired chemistry and Kabachnik-Fields (KF) reaction. The size and surface morphology, chemical structure, thermal stability, surface charging property, and elemental composition were evaluated by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), zeta potential, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The results demonstrated that the organic functional groups can be successfully introduced onto the surface of SiO2 microspheres through the combination of mussel inspired chemistry and KF reaction. The removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) by the raw SiO2 and SiO2-PDA-CSH composites was examined and compared using a series of batch adsorption experiments. The results suggested that SiO2-PDA-CSH composites had a 3-fold increase in the adsorption capacity towards MB than that of pure SiO2 microspheres and the adsorption process was dependent on the solution pH. According to the adsorption kinetics, the adsorption of MB onto SiO2-PDA-CSH composites was well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models with R2 = 0.9981 and R2 = 0.9982, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 688.85 mg/g. The adsorption thermodynamics was also investigated in detailed. The parameters revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The adsorption mechanism might be the synergistic action of physical adsorption of SiO2-PDA-CSH particles and electrostatic interaction between the MB and functional groups on the surface of SiO2-PDA-CSH composites, including sulfydryl, amino, aromatic moieties, and phosphate groups. Taken together, we developed a novel and facile strategy for the surface modification of SiO2 to achieve high adsorption towards MB based on the mussel inspired chemistry and multicomponent KF reaction. More importantly, this strategy could be easily extended for fabrication of many other high efficient adsorbents due to the universality of mussel inspired chemistry and various multicomponent reactions based on amino groups. Therefore, this work will open a new avenue and direction for the environmental applications of mussel inspired chemistry.

  17. Activation of stress-related signalling pathway in human cells upon SiO2 nanoparticles exposure as an early indicator of cytotoxicity

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Bashir M


    Abstract Background Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP) are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial in order to assess their complete safe applicability limits. Results In this study, human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to a range of amorphous SiO2NP of various sizes and concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg\\/ml). Key biological indicators of cellular functions including cell population density, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, lysosomal mass\\/pH and activation of transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) were evaluated utilizing quantitative high content screening (HCS) approach and biochemical techniques. Despite the use of extremely high nanoparticle concentrations, our findings showed a low degree of cytotoxicity within the panel of SiO2NP investigated. However, at these concentrations, we observed the onset of stress-related cellular response induced by SiO2NP. Interestingly, cells exposed to alumina-coated SiO2NP showed low level, and in some cases complete absence, of stress response and this was consistent up to the highest dose of 0.5 mg\\/ml. Conclusions The present study demonstrates and highlights the importance of subtle biological changes downstream of primary membrane and endocytosis-associated phenomena resulting from high dose SiO2NP exposure. Increased activation of transcription factors, such as ATF-2, was quantitatively assessed as a function of i) human cell line specific stress-response, ii) SiO2NP size and iii) concentration. Despite the low level of cytotoxicity detected for the amorphous SiO2NP investigated, these findings prompt an in-depth focus for future SiO2NP-cell\\/tissue investigations based on the combined analysis of more subtle signalling pathways associated with accumulation mechanisms, which is essential for establishing the bio-safety of existing and new nanomaterials.

  18. Activation of stress-related signalling pathway in human cells upon SiO2 nanoparticles exposure as an early indicator of cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bashir


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanomaterials such as SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2NP are finding increasing applications in the biomedical and biotechnological fields such as disease diagnostics, imaging, drug delivery, food, cosmetics and biosensors development. Thus, a mechanistic and systematic evaluation of the potential biological and toxic effects of SiO2NP becomes crucial in order to assess their complete safe applicability limits. Results In this study, human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were exposed to a range of amorphous SiO2NP of various sizes and concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml. Key biological indicators of cellular functions including cell population density, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, lysosomal mass/pH and activation of transcription factor-2 (ATF-2 were evaluated utilizing quantitative high content screening (HCS approach and biochemical techniques. Despite the use of extremely high nanoparticle concentrations, our findings showed a low degree of cytotoxicity within the panel of SiO2NP investigated. However, at these concentrations, we observed the onset of stress-related cellular response induced by SiO2NP. Interestingly, cells exposed to alumina-coated SiO2NP showed low level, and in some cases complete absence, of stress response and this was consistent up to the highest dose of 0.5 mg/ml. Conclusions The present study demonstrates and highlights the importance of subtle biological changes downstream of primary membrane and endocytosis-associated phenomena resulting from high dose SiO2NP exposure. Increased activation of transcription factors, such as ATF-2, was quantitatively assessed as a function of i human cell line specific stress-response, ii SiO2NP size and iii concentration. Despite the low level of cytotoxicity detected for the amorphous SiO2NP investigated, these findings prompt an in-depth focus for future SiO2NP-cell/tissue investigations based on the combined analysis of more subtle signalling pathways associated with accumulation mechanisms, which is essential for establishing the bio-safety of existing and new nanomaterials.

  19. Deposition and characterization of binary Al2O3/SiO2 coating layers on the surfaces of rutile TiO2 and the pigmentary properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunsheng; Yin Hengbo; Wang Aili; Ren Min; Gu Zhuomin; Liu Yumin; Shen Yutang; Yu Longbao; Jiang Tingshun


    Binary Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 -coated rutile TiO 2 composites were prepared by a liquid-phase deposition method starting from Na 2 SiO 3 .9H 2 O and NaAlO 2 . The chemical structure and morphology of binary Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 coating layers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, TG-DSC, Zeta potential, powder X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Binary Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 coating layers both in amorphous phase were formed at TiO 2 surfaces. The silica coating layers were anchored at TiO 2 surfaces via Si-O-Ti bonds and the alumina coating layers were probably anchored at the SiO 2 -coated TiO 2 surfaces via Al-O-Si bonds. The formation of continuous and dense binary Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 coating layers depended on the pH value of reaction solution and the alumina loading. The binary Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 -coated TiO 2 composites had a high dispersibility in water. The whiteness and brightness of the binary Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 -coated TiO 2 composites were higher than those of the naked rutile TiO 2 and the SiO 2 -coated TiO 2 samples. The relative light scattering index was found to depend on the composition of coating layers.

  20. The influence of Pr3+ co-doping on the photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of SiO2:Eu3+/Tb3+

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH


    Full Text Available Tb3+-Pr3+, and Eu3+-Pr3+ ion pairs co-doped in a SiO2 matrix were prepared by a sol-gel method. Co-doping of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions with Pr3+ in SiO2 resulted in the quenching of Eu3+ and Tb3+ emissions with increasing Pr3+ concentrations. The quenching...