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Sample records for sinusoidally amplitude modulated

  1. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....

  2. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Peñaloza-López

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD. Methods We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Results Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Conclusion Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD.

  3. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-López, Yolanda; Herrera-Rangel, Aline; Pérez-Ruiz, Santiago J; Poblano, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA) and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD). We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD.

  4. Computationally Efficient Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Audio Coding using Frequency-Domain Linear Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2006-01-01

    A method for amplitude modulated sinusoidal audio coding is presented that has low complexity and low delay. This is based on a subband processing system, where, in each subband, the signal is modeled as an amplitude modulated sum of sinusoids. The envelopes are estimated using frequency......-domain linear prediction and the prediction coefficients are quantized. As a proof of concept, we evaluate different configurations in a subjective listening test, and this shows that the proposed method offers significant improvements in sinusoidal coding. Furthermore, the properties of the frequency...

  5. Changes in auditory nerve responses across the duration of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated electric pulse-train stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Miller, Charles A; Abbas, Paul J; Robinson, Barbara K; Woo, Jihwan

    2010-12-01

    Response rates of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) to electric pulse trains change over time, reflecting substantial spike-rate adaptation that depends on stimulus parameters. We hypothesize that adaptation affects the representation of amplitude-modulated pulse trains used by cochlear prostheses to transmit speech information to the auditory system. We recorded cat ANF responses to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) trains with 5,000 pulse/s carriers. Stimuli delivered by a monopolar intracochlear electrode had fixed modulation frequency (100 Hz) and depth (10%). ANF responses were assessed by spike-rate measures, while representation of modulation was evaluated by vector strength (VS) and the fundamental component of the fast Fourier transform (F(0) amplitude). These measures were assessed across the 400 ms duration of pulse-train stimuli, a duration relevant to speech stimuli. Different stimulus levels were explored and responses were categorized into four spike-rate groups to assess level effects across ANFs. The temporal pattern of rate adaptation to modulated trains was similar to that of unmodulated trains, but with less rate adaptation. VS to the modulator increased over time and tended to saturate at lower spike rates, while F(0) amplitude typically decreased over time for low driven rates and increased for higher driven rates. VS at moderate and high spike rates and degree of F(0) amplitude temporal changes at low and moderate spike rates were positively correlated with the degree of rate adaptation. Thus, high-rate carriers will modify the ANF representation of the modulator over time. As the VS and F(0) measures were sensitive to adaptation-related changes over different spike-rate ranges, there is value in assessing both measures.

  6. Predictions of psychophysical measurements for sinusoidal amplitude modulated (SAM) pulse-train stimuli from a stochastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifang; Collins, Leslie M

    2007-08-01

    Two approaches have been proposed to reduce the synchrony of the neural response to electrical stimuli in cochlear implants. One approach involves adding noise to the pulse-train stimulus, and the other is based on using a high-rate pulse-train carrier. Hypotheses regarding the efficacy of the two approaches can be tested using computational models of neural responsiveness prior to time-intensive psychophysical studies. In our previous work, we have used such models to examine the effects of noise on several psychophysical measures important to speech recognition. However, to date there has been no parallel analytic solution investigating the neural response to the high-rate pulse-train stimuli and their effect on psychophysical measures. This work investigates the properties of the neural response to high-rate pulse-train stimuli with amplitude modulated envelopes using a stochastic auditory nerve model. The statistics governing the neural response to each pulse are derived using a recursive method. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and model simulations is demonstrated for sinusoidal amplitude modulated (SAM) high rate pulse-train stimuli. With our approach, predicting the neural response in modern implant devices becomes tractable. Psychophysical measurements are also predicted using the stochastic auditory nerve model for SAM high-rate pulse-train stimuli. Changes in dynamic range (DR) and intensity discrimination are compared with that observed for noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli. Modulation frequency discrimination is also studied as a function of stimulus level and pulse rate. Results suggest that high rate carriers may positively impact such psychophysical measures.

  7. Study of stability of a bandpass sigma delta modulator with sinusoidal input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iu, Herbert H.C. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley (Australia)]. E-mail: herbert@ee.uwa.edu.au

    2007-07-15

    Bandpass sigma delta modulators (SDMs) have applications in areas such as digital radio demodulation. Stability issues of bandpass SDMs have been widely studied. Usually, zero or step inputs are considered. In this paper, we study the stability and non-linear phenomena of a bandpass SDM with sinusoidal input. In particular, the effects of the amplitude and frequency of the sinusoidal input signal will be investigated.

  8. Electronically Tunable Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Equal Output Amplitudes during Frequency Tuning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Den Satipar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new configuration of voltage-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator is proposed. The proposed oscillator employs two voltage differencing current conveyors (VDCCs, two resistors, and two grounded capacitors. In this design, the use of multiple/dual output terminal active building block is not required. The tuning of frequency of oscillation (FO can be done electronically by adjusting the bias current of active device without affecting condition of oscillation (CO. The electronic tuning can be done by controlling the bias current using a digital circuit. The amplitude of two sinusoidal outputs is equal when the frequency of oscillation is tuned. This makes the sinusoidal output voltages meet good total harmonic distortions (THD. Moreover, the proposed circuit can provide the sinusoidal output current with high impedance which is connected to external load or to another circuit without the use of buffer device. To confirm that the oscillator can generate the quadrature sinusoidal output signal, the experimental results using VDCC constructed from commercially available ICs are also included. The experimental results agree well with theoretical anticipation.

  9. Amplitude modulation reflectometer for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Centioli, C.; Amadeo, P.

    1995-06-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a modification of the classical frequency sweep technique which allows to perform unambiguous phase delay measurements. An eight-channel AM reflectometer has been realized for the measurement of density profiles on the FTU tokamak in the range. The characteristics of the instrument have been determined in extensive laboratory tests; particular attention has been devoted to the effect of interference with parasitic reflections. The reflectometer is now operating on FTU. Some examples of the first experimental data are discussed

  10. Ageing monitoring in IGBT module under sinusoidal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Rannestad, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    until failure. The characterization at different stages of lifetime indicates that the rise in resistance originates from thermo-mechanical degradation of interconnects. Post-test investigations: four-point probing and micro-sectioning indicate thermo-mechanical induced degradation of the chip topside...... different ways: calibration of power modules after 24 h of operation, offline characterization every 5 min of operation, and continuous measurement during normal converter operation. Four power modules are tested, which are cycled to different degradation levels by number of cycles, where one is tested......This paper presents monitoring of ageing in high power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules subjected to sinusoidal loading at nominal power level. On-state voltage for IGBT, diode, and rise in interconnection resistance are used as ageing parameters. These are measured in three...

  11. Computational evaluation of amplitude modulation for enhanced magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Frederik; Dupré, Luc; Ivkov, Robert; Crevecoeur, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can interact with alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) to deposit localized energy for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. Hyperthermia is useful in the context of multimodality treatments with radiation or chemotherapy to enhance disease control without increased toxicity. The unique attributes of heat deposition and transfer with MNPs have generated considerable attention and have been the focus of extensive investigations to elucidate mechanisms and optimize performance. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations are often conducted with the finite element method (FEM) using the Pennes' bioheat equation. In the current study, the Pennes' equation was modified to include a thermal damage-dependent perfusion profile to improve model predictions with respect to known physiological responses to tissue heating. A normal distribution of MNPs in a model liver tumor was combined with empirical nanoparticle heating data to calculate tumor temperature distributions and resulting survival fraction of cancer cells. In addition, calculated spatiotemporal temperature changes were compared among magnetic field amplitude modulations of a base 150-kHz sinusoidal waveform, specifically, no modulation, sinusoidal, rectangular, and triangular modulation. Complex relationships were observed between nanoparticle heating and cancer tissue damage when amplitude modulation and damage-related perfusion profiles were varied. These results are tantalizing and motivate further exploration of amplitude modulation as a means to enhance efficiency of and overcome technical challenges associated with magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNH).

  12. Neuronal Oscillations with Non-sinusoidal Morphology Produce Spurious Phase-to-Amplitude Coupling and Directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; ter Huurne, Niels; Oostenveld, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (>40 Hz) occur non-uniformly within the phase of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC). However, the CFC patterns might be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave morphology. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer) in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM), we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8–12 Hz) phase was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20–45 Hz) amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh) values observed in the alpha-phase to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD). Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero phase-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs. Furthermore, we

  13. Neuronal oscillations with non-sinusoidal morphology produce spurious phase-to-amplitude coupling and directionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lozano-Soldevilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (> 40 Hz occur non-uniformly within the phase of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC. However, the CFC patterns be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave morphology. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 mg or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM, we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8 – 12 Hz phase was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20 – 45 Hz amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh values observed in the alpha-phase to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD. Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero phase-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs

  14. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. © 2011 IEEE

  15. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... to previous studies, talkers raised the level of their voice in steady-state noise. While talkers also increased the level of their voice in amplitude-modulated noise, the increase was not as large as that observed in steady-state noise. Importantly, for the 2 and 4 Hz amplitude-modulated noise conditions...

  16. Correlation of amplitude modulation to inflow characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) of noise from wind turbines and its more extreme version named “other amplitude modulation” OAM have been investigated intensively during the last few years due to the additional annoyance impact this type of noise has compared to broad band noise. In a recent published...

  17. Observations on auditory learning in amplitude- and frequency-modulation rate discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2010-01-01

    . One of the key issues when designing such training systems is in the assessment of transfer of learning. In this study we present data on the learning of an auditory task involving sinusoidal amplitude- and frequency-modulated tones. Modulation rate discrimination thresholds were measured during pre...... applications by addressing the transfer of learning across carrier frequency, modulation rate, and modulation type.......Because amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds can be the basis for the synthesis of many complex sounds, they can be good candidates in the design of training systems aiming at improving the acquisition of perceptual skills that can benefit from information provided via the auditory channel...

  18. A novel amplitude modulated triangular carrier gain linearization technique for SPWM inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar Subburam; Jeevananthan Seenithangam; Kamaraj Vijayarajan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to extend the linearity of the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to full range of the pulse dropping region. The proposed amplitude modulated triangular carrier PWM method (AMTCPWM) increases the dynamic range of the SPWM control and eliminates the need of nonlinear modulation in the pulse dropping region to reach the square wave boundary. The novel method combines the spectral quality of SPWM with the efficient single-mode linear control. A simple anal...

  19. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  20. Responses to amplitude modulated infrared stimuli in the guinea pig inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Young, Hunter

    2013-03-01

    Responses of units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig were recorded with tungsten electrodes. The set of data presented here is limited to high stimulus levels. The effect of changing the modulation frequency and the modulation depth was explored for acoustic and laser stimuli. The selected units responded to sinusoidal amplitude modulated (AM) tones, AM trains of clicks, and AM trains of laser pulses with a modulation of their spike discharge. At modulation frequencies of 20 Hz, some units tended to respond with 40 Hz to the acoustic stimuli, but only at 20 Hz for the trains of laser pulses. For all modes of stimulation the responses revealed a dominant response to the first cycle of the modulation, with decreasing number of action potential during successive cycles. While amplitude modulated tone bursts and amplitude modulated trains of acoustic clicks showed similar patterns, the response to trains of laser pulses was different.

  1. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  2. Research on a new magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; Liu, Jiaqi; Bai, Jingang; Song, Zhiyi; Liu, Yong

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM), composed of a stator, a modulating ring rotor, and a PM rotor, is a kind of power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In this paper, a new MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring named Sinusoidal-Permeance-Modulating-Ring Brushless Double-Rotor Machine (SPMR-BDRM) is proposed to solve the problem of poor mechanical strength and large iron loss. The structure and the operating principle of the MFM-BDRM are introduced. The design principle of the sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring is analyzed and derived. The main idea of that is to minimize the harmonic permeance of air gap, thereby the harmonic magnetic fields can be restrained. There are comparisons between a MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring and a same size MFM-BDRM with traditional modulating ring, including magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic performances. Most importantly, the iron losses are compared under six different conditions. The result indicates that the harmonic magnetic fields in the air gap are restrained; the electromagnetic torque and power factor are almost the same with same armature current; the torque ripples of the modulating ring rotor and the PM rotor are reduced; the stator loss is reduced by 13% at least and the PM loss is reduced by 20% at least compared with the same size traditional MFM-BDRM under the same operating conditions.

  3. Research on a new magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM, composed of a stator, a modulating ring rotor, and a PM rotor, is a kind of power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In this paper, a new MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring named Sinusoidal-Permeance-Modulating-Ring Brushless Double-Rotor Machine (SPMR-BDRM is proposed to solve the problem of poor mechanical strength and large iron loss. The structure and the operating principle of the MFM-BDRM are introduced. The design principle of the sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring is analyzed and derived. The main idea of that is to minimize the harmonic permeance of air gap, thereby the harmonic magnetic fields can be restrained. There are comparisons between a MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring and a same size MFM-BDRM with traditional modulating ring, including magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic performances. Most importantly, the iron losses are compared under six different conditions. The result indicates that the harmonic magnetic fields in the air gap are restrained; the electromagnetic torque and power factor are almost the same with same armature current; the torque ripples of the modulating ring rotor and the PM rotor are reduced; the stator loss is reduced by 13% at least and the PM loss is reduced by 20% at least compared with the same size traditional MFM-BDRM under the same operating conditions.

  4. Stability of sinusoidal responses of marginally stable bandpass sigma delta modulators

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen; Reiss, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the stability of the sinusoidal responses of second order interpolative marginally stable bandpass sigma delta modulators (SDMs) with the sum of the numerator and denominator polynomials equal to one and explore new results on the more general second order interpolative marginally stable bandpass SDMs. These results can be further extended to the high order interpolative marginally stable bandpass SDMs.

  5. Investigation of focusing and correcting aberrations with binary amplitude and polarization modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Peter; Li, Yunqi; Dorrer, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the focusing and correcting wavefront aberration of an optical wave using binary amplitude and polarization modulation. Focusing is performed by selectively modulating the field in different zones of the pupil to obtain on-axis constructive interference at a given distance. The conventional Soret zone plate (binary amplitude profile) is expanded to a polarization Soret zone plate with twice the focusing efficiency. Binary pixelated devices that approximate the sinusoidal transmission profile of a Gabor zone plate by spatial dithering are also investigated with amplitude and polarization modulation. Wavefront aberrations are corrected by modulation of the field in the pupil plane to prevent destructive interference in the focal plane of an ideal focusing element. Polarization modulation improves the efficiency obtained by amplitude-only modulation, with a gain that depends on the aberration. Experimental results obtained with Cr-on-glass devices for amplitude modulation and liquid crystal devices operating in the Mauguin condition for polarization modulation are in very good agreement with simulations.

  6. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Yeol Wan [Ammunition Engineering Team, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hoon [Aerodynamics Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji Young [Transportation Environmental Research Team, Green Transport and Logistics Institute, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation.

  7. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young; Seong, Yeol Wan; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation

  8. An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.

  9. Relationship Between Peripheral and Psychophysical Measures of Amplitude Modulation Detection in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejani, Viral D; Abbas, Paul J; Brown, Carolyn J

    This study investigates the relationship between electrophysiological and psychophysical measures of amplitude modulation (AM) detection. Prior studies have reported both measures of AM detection recorded separately from cochlear implant (CI) users and acutely deafened animals, but no study has made both measures in the same CI users. Animal studies suggest a progressive loss of high-frequency encoding as one ascends the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve to the cortex. Because the CI speech processor uses the envelope of an ongoing acoustic signal to modulate pulse trains that are subsequently delivered to the intracochlear electrodes, it is of interest to explore auditory nerve responses to modulated stimuli. In addition, psychophysical AM detection abilities have been correlated with speech perception outcomes. Thus, the goal was to explore how the auditory nerve responds to AM stimuli and to relate those physiologic measures to perception. Eight patients using Cochlear Ltd. Implants participated in this study. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) were recorded using a 4000 pps pulse train that was sinusoidally amplitude modulated at 125, 250, 500, and 1000 Hz rates. Responses were measured for each pulse over at least one modulation cycle for an apical, medial, and basal electrode. Psychophysical modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) were also measured via a three-alternative forced choice, two-down, one-up adaptive procedure using the same modulation frequencies and electrodes. ECAPs were recorded from individual pulses in the AM pulse train. ECAP amplitudes varied sinusoidally, reflecting the sinusoidal variation in the stimulus. A modulated response amplitude (MRA) metric was calculated as the difference in the maximal and minimum ECAP amplitudes over the modulation cycles. MRA increased as modulation frequency increased, with no apparent cutoff (up to 1000 Hz). In contrast, MDTs increased as the modulation frequency increased. This

  10. Modulator-free quadrature amplitude modulation signal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixin; Kakande, Joseph; Kelly, Brian; O'Carroll, John; Phelan, Richard; Richardson, David J.; Slavík, Radan

    2014-12-01

    The ability to generate high-speed on-off-keyed telecommunication signals by directly modulating a semiconductor laser’s drive current was one of the most exciting prospective applications of the nascent field of laser technology throughout the 1960s. Three decades of progress led to the commercialization of 2.5 Gbit s-1-per-channel submarine fibre optic systems that drove the growth of the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp associated with direct modulation forced industry to use external electro-optic modulators to deliver the next generation of on-off-keyed 10 Gbit s-1 systems and is absolutely prohibitive for today’s (>)100 Gbit s-1 coherent systems, which use complex modulation formats (for example, quadrature amplitude modulation). Here we use optical injection locking of directly modulated semiconductor lasers to generate complex modulation format signals showing distinct advantages over current and other currently researched solutions.

  11. Gearbox Vibration Signal Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Chaari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gearboxes usually run under fluctuating load conditions during service, however most of papers available in the literature describe models of gearboxes under stationary load conditions. Main task of published papers is fault modeling for their detection. Considering real situation from industry, the assumption of stationarity of load conditions cannot be longer kept. Vibration signals issued from monitoring in maintenance operations differ from mentioned models (due to load non-stationarity and may be difficult to analyze which lead to erroneous diagnosis of the system. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of time varying load conditions on a gearbox dynamic behavior. To investigate this, a simple spur gear system without defects is modeled. It is subjected to a time varying load. The speed-torque characteristic of the driving motor is considered. The load variation induces speed variation, which causes a variation in the gearmesh stiffness period. Computer simulation shows deep amplitude modulations with sidebands that don't differ from those obtained when there is a defective tooth. In order to put in evidence the time varying load effects, Short Time Fourier Transform and then Smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution are used. Results show that the last one is well suited for the studied case.

  12. Theory of sinusoidal modulation of the resonant neutron scattering in high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tao

    2001-01-01

    A model with interlayer pairing is proposed to explain the sinusoidal modulation of the resonant neutron scattering in high-temperature superconductors. It is found that the interlayer pairing has s-wave symmetry in the CuO 2 plane and has comparable magnitude with the d-wave intralayer pairing. It is also found that the interlayer pairing mainly affects momentum close to the hot spots on the Fermi surface while its effect on the gap nodes is negligible. It is pointed out that these characteristics of the interlayer pairing can be understood in a model in which the superconducting pairing originates from the exchange of the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation

  13. Aerosol absorption measurement with a sinusoidal phase modulating fiber optic photo thermal interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuwang; Shao, Shiyong; Mei, Haiping; Rao, Ruizhong

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol light absorption plays an important role in the earth's atmosphere direct and semi-direct radiate forcing, simultaneously, it also has a huge influence on the visibility impairment and laser engineering application. Although various methods have been developed for measuring aerosol light absorption, huge challenge still remains in precision, accuracy and temporal resolution. The main reason is that, as a part of aerosol light extinction, aerosol light absorption always generates synchronously with aerosol light scattering, and unfortunately aerosol light scattering is much stronger in most cases. Here, a novel photo-thermal interferometry is proposed only for aerosol absorption measurement without disturbance from aerosol scattering. The photo-thermal interferometry consists of a sinusoidal phase-modulating single mode fiber-optic interferometer. The thermal dissipation, caused by aerosol energy from photo-thermal conversion when irritated by pump laser through interferometer, is detected. This approach is completely insensitive to aerosol scattering, and the single mode fiber-optic interferometer is compact, low-cost and insensitive to the polarization shading. The theory of this technique is illustrated, followed by the basic structure of the sinusoidal phase-modulating fiber-optic interferometer and demodulation algorithms. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results show that the new photo-thermal interference is a potential approach for aerosol absorption detection and environmental pollution detection.

  14. A high-stability non-contact dilatometer for low-amplitude temperature-modulated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckabauer, Martin; Sprengel, Wolfgang; Würschum, Roland [Institute of Materials Physics, Graz University of Technology, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    Temperature modulated thermophysical measurements can deliver valuable insights into the phase transformation behavior of many different materials. While especially for non-metallic systems at low temperatures numerous powerful methods exist, no high-temperature device suitable for modulated measurements of bulk metallic alloy samples is available for routine use. In this work a dilatometer for temperature modulated isothermal and non-isothermal measurements in the temperature range from room temperature to 1300 K is presented. The length measuring system is based on a two-beam Michelson laser interferometer with an incremental resolution of 20 pm. The non-contact measurement principle allows for resolving sinusoidal length change signals with amplitudes in the sub-500 nm range and physically decouples the length measuring system from the temperature modulation and heating control. To demonstrate the low-amplitude capabilities, results for the thermal expansion of nickel for two different modulation frequencies are presented. These results prove that the novel method can be used to routinely resolve length-change signals of metallic samples with temperature amplitudes well below 1 K. This high resolution in combination with the non-contact measurement principle significantly extends the application range of modulated dilatometry towards high-stability phase transformation measurements on complex alloys.

  15. A novel amplitude modulated triangular carrier gain linearization technique for SPWM inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Subburam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to extend the linearity of the sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM to full range of the pulse dropping region. The proposed amplitude modulated triangular carrier PWM method (AMTCPWM increases the dynamic range of the SPWM control and eliminates the need of nonlinear modulation in the pulse dropping region to reach the square wave boundary. The novel method combines the spectral quality of SPWM with the efficient single-mode linear control. A simple analytical characterization of the exact method is presented and its effectiveness is demonstrated using simulation for the basic single-phase H-bridge inverter circuit. The hardware results of the designed prototype inverter are presented to validate the betterment of the novel scheme. .

  16. Examining the time dependence of DAMA's modulation amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Chris; Savage, Christopher; Sandick, Pearl; Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    If dark matter is composed of weakly interacting particles, Earth's orbital motion may induce a small annual variation in the rate at which these particles interact in a terrestrial detector. The DAMA collaboration has identified at a 9.3σ confidence level such an annual modulation in their event rate over two detector iterations, DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA, each with ˜ 7 years of observations. This data is well fit by a constant modulation amplitude for the two iterations of the experiment. We statistically examine the time dependence of the modulation amplitudes, which "by eye" appear to be decreasing with time in certain energy ranges. We perform a chi-squared goodness of fit test of the average modulation amplitudes measured by the two detector iterations which rejects the hypothesis of a consistent modulation amplitude at greater than 80, 96, and 99.6% for the 2-4, 2-5 and 2-6 keVee energy ranges, respectively. We also find that among the 14 annual cycles there are three ≳ 3σ departures from the average in our estimated data in the 5-6 keVee energy range. In addition, we examined several phenomenological models for the time dependence of the modulation amplitude. Using a maximum likelihood test, we find that descriptions of the modulation amplitude as decreasing with time are preferred over a constant modulation amplitude at anywhere between 1σ and 3σ , depending on the phenomenological model for the time dependence and the signal energy range considered. A time dependent modulation amplitude is not expected for a dark matter signal, at least for dark matter halo morphologies consistent with the DAMA signal. New data from DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 will certainly aid in determining whether any apparent time dependence is a real effect or a statistical fluctuation.

  17. Optimization of the sinusoidal phase modulation technique in resonant fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linglan; Li, Hanzhao; Zhang, Jianjie; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe

    2017-03-01

    The sinusoidal wave phase modulation and demodulation have been widely used in the signal processing system of the resonant fiber optic gyro (RFOG). An appropriate selection of the modulation frequency is of great importance, for the frequency value directly affects the slope of the demodulation curve at the resonance point which carries the gyro output information. A large demodulation slope is pursued in a high-performance RFOG. In this paper, an analytical expression of the demodulation slope is for the first time deduced in both transmission-type and reflection-type fiber ring resonators without any approximation. The relationship between the slope value and the modulation frequency at the resonance point is accurately calculated. The calculated best modulation frequency maximizing the demodulation slope at the resonance point is different from previous widely used optimal frequency given by the Lorentzian approximation method. More importantly, both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the achieved maximal demodulation slope from the proposed analytical expression method is double of that obtaining from the Lorentzian approximation method.

  18. Fringe image analysis based on the amplitude modulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Shaoyan; Da, Feipeng

    2010-05-10

    A novel phase-analysis method is proposed. To get the fringe order of a fringe image, the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern is carried out, which is combined with the phase-shift method. The primary phase value is obtained by a phase-shift algorithm, and the fringe-order information is encoded in the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern. Different from other methods, the amplitude-modulation fringe identifies the fringe order by the amplitude of the fringe pattern. In an amplitude-modulation fringe pattern, each fringe has its own amplitude; thus, the order information is integrated in one fringe pattern, and the absolute fringe phase can be calculated correctly and quickly with the amplitude-modulation fringe image. The detailed algorithm is given, and the error analysis of this method is also discussed. Experimental results are presented by a full-field shape measurement system where the data has been processed using the proposed algorithm. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  19. Amplitude Modulation in the δ Sct star KIC 7106205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman Dominic. M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The δ Sct star KIC 7106205 showed amplitude modulation in a single p mode, whilst all other p and g modes remained stable in amplitude and phase over 1470 d of the Kepler dataset. The data were divided into 30 time bins of equal length and a series of consecutive Fourier transforms was calculated. A fixed frequency, calculated from a least-squares fit of all data, allowed amplitude and phase for every mode in each time bin to be tracked. The missing p mode energy was not transferred to any other visible modes.

  20. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  1. Generation of sinusoidal fringes with a holographic phase grating and a phase-only spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberova, Natalia; Stoykova, Elena; Sainov, Ventseslav

    2012-01-01

    A variety of pattern projection methods for the three-dimensional capture of objects is based on the generation of purely sinusoidal fringes. This is not an easy task, especially when a portable non-interferometric system for outdoor usage is required. The use of phase gratings with coherent illumination as a possible solution has the advantage of providing good stability and a large measurement volume. In this work, we analyze the quality of fringes projected with two sinusoidal phase gratings. The first grating is recorded on a silver-halide holographic plate by means of a Michelson interferometer. The spatial resolution of the silver-halide material used is greater than 6000 lines per millimeter, and the recorded grating is practically analogous to a smooth variation of the phase profile. The second grating is formed as a sinusoidal phase variation on a liquid crystal-on-silicon phase-only reflective display with a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels, a pixel pitch of 8 μm and 256 phase levels. The frequency content of the fringes projected with both gratings is analyzed and compared on the basis of the calculated Fresnel diffraction pattern, taking into account that the sinusoidal phase distribution in the case of a spatial light modulator is both sampled and quantized. Experimental fringe patterns projected using both gratings are also provided.

  2. Cooperative effect of monoclinic distortion and sinusoidal modulation in the martensitic structure of Ni2FeGa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.B.; Yang, H.X.; Tian, H.F.; Zeng, L.J.; Ma, C.; Feng, L.; Wu, G.H.; Li, J.Q.; Jansen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The structural features of the '5M' martensitic phase in Ni 2 FeGa alloys have been determined by electron diffraction using the multi-slice least-squares (MSLS) method. The results demonstrate that the '5M' phase contains an evident cooperative effect of monoclinic distortion and sinusoidal modulation along the [110] c direction. Theoretical simulations based on our refined data suggest that the '5M' martensitic phase observed in Ni-Fe-Ga and Ni-Mn-Ga has visible common behaviors in both stacking sequence and local structural distortion. Considering the cooperative effect of monoclinic distortion and sinusoidal modulation, we demonstrate that the '7M' martensitic phase could adopt two equivalent structural phases corresponding with the stacking sequences of (43 - ) 2 and (52 - ) 2 , respectively. - Graphical abstract: The structural model of the '5M' Ni 2 FeGa martensite viewed along the [001] c (i.e. [010] m ) zone axis, demonstrating the cooperative effect of monoclinic distortion and sinusoidal modulation along the [110] c direction.

  3. Multi-hit time-to-amplitude CAMAC module (MTAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.

    1980-10-01

    A Multi-Hit Time-to-Amplitude Module (MTAC) for the SLAC Mark III drift chamber system has been designed to measure drift time by converting time-proportional chamber signals into analog levels, and converting the analog data by slow readout via a semi-autonomous controller in a CAMAC crate. The single width CAMAC module has 16 wire channels, each with a 4-hit capacity. An externally generated common start initiates an internal precision ramp voltage which is then sampled using a novel shift register gating scheme and CMOS sampling switches. The detailed design and performance specifications are described

  4. External and internal limitations in amplitude-modulation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, Stephan; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments are presented to explore the relative role of "external" signal variability and "internal" resolution limitations of the auditory system in the detection and discrimination of amplitude modulations (AM). In the first experiment, AM-depth discrimination performance was determined......-term average envelope power spectrum was held constant. The experiment examined the validity of a long-term average quantity as the decision variable, and the role of memory in experiments with frozen-noise maskers. The empirical results were compared to predictions obtained with two modulation...

  5. Numerical and Experimental Study of Amplitude Modulated Positive Corona Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martín GOMEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrical behavior of a modulated positive corona discharge loudspeaker was studied. A coaxial transducer in air was built using a central copper wire of 75 mm radius (inner electrode and a perforated tube of 11 mm (outer electrode. A high voltage DC supply provided the bias current and a sinusoidal signal was superimposed to measure the discharge admittance. The experimental results could not be matched to previously reported equivalent circuits with fixed components. Using the basic equations that describe the ion motion, a numerical model was proposed. The computed values matched well the experimental data and suggested an equivalent circuit composed of frequency dependent conductance and capacitance. This dependence is closely related to the ion travel time between electrodes (transit time. Simulations carried out at several inter-electrode distances could be synthesized in a single plot where the different results overlap and further emphasize the role of the transit time. This numerical model proved to be an efficient tool to simulate and design modulated corona transducers.

  6. The Analysis for Activations in the Brain during Hearing the Amplitude-Modulated Tone by fMRI Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Tadanori; Shimada, Takamasa; Akatsuka, Takao; Saito, Yoichi

    In audiometry, ABR (Auditory Brainstem Response) is widely used. However, it shows low accuracy in low frequency band. Meanwhile, AMFR (Amplitude-Modulation-Following Response), the response during hearing an amplitude-modulated tone, has high frequency specificity and is brought to attention. As the first step to clinical application of AMFR, we investigated the activated areas in a brain when the subjects hear SAM tone (Sinusoidally Amplitude-Modulated tone) with both ears. We measured following two signals. One is the difference of BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal between hearing SAM tone vs. silence, the other is the difference of BOLD signal between hearing SAM tone vs. unmodulated tone. As a result, in the case of SAM vs. silence, the bilaterally auditory cortex (Broadmann Area 41, 42), the biratelally BA 10, left superior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were activated (pgyrus (BA 6) and precuneus (BA 7), neighboring area including the bilaterally inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), the bilaterally medial frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus were activated (pgyrus and inferior parietal lobule was the part related to perception of amplitude-modulation.

  7. Amplitude Modulation of Pulsation Modes in Delta Scuti Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dominic M.

    2017-10-01

    The pulsations in δ Sct stars are excited by a heat engine driving mechanism caused by increased opacity in their surface layers, and have pulsation periods of order a few hours. Space based observations in the last decade have revealed a diverse range of pulsational behaviour in these stars, which is investigated using an ensemble of 983 δ Sct stars observed continuously for 4 yr by the Kepler Space Telescope. A statistical search for amplitude modulation of pulsation modes is carried out and it is shown that 61.3 per cent of the 983 δ Sct stars exhibit significant amplitude modulation in at least a single pulsation mode, and that this is uncorrelated with effective temperature and surface gravity. Hence, the majority of δ Sct stars exhibit amplitude modulation, with time-scales of years and longer demonstrated to be significant in these stars both observationally and theoretically. An archetypal example of amplitude modulation in a δ Sct star is KIC 7106205, which contains only a single pulsation mode that varies significantly in amplitude whilst all other pulsation modes stay constant in amplitude and phase throughout the 4-yr Kepler data set. Therefore, the visible pulsational energy budget in this star, and many others, is not conserved over 4 yr. Models of beating of close-frequency pulsation modes are used to identify δ Sct stars with frequencies that lie closer than 0.001 d^{-1}, which are barely resolved using 4 yr of Kepler observations, and maintain their independent identities over 4 yr. Mode coupling models are used to quantify the strength of coupling and distinguish between non-linearity in the form of combination frequencies and non-linearity in the form of resonant mode coupling for families of pulsation modes in several stars. The changes in stellar structure caused by stellar evolution are investigated for two high amplitude δ Sct (HADS) stars in the Kepler data set, revealing a positive quadratic change in phase for the fundamental and

  8. Monocular and binocular steady-state flicker VEPs: frequency-response functions to sinusoidal and square-wave luminance modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David S; Hamilton, Ruth; Shahani, Uma; McCulloch, Daphne L

    2011-02-01

    Steady-state VEPs to full-field flicker (FFF) using sinusoidally modulated light were compared with those elicited by square-wave modulated light across a wide range of stimulus frequencies with monocular and binocular FFF stimulation. Binocular and monocular VEPs were elicited in 12 adult volunteers to FFF with two modes of temporal modulation: sinusoidal or square-wave (abrupt onset and offset, 50% duty cycle) at ten temporal frequencies ranging from 2.83 to 58.8 Hz. All stimuli had a mean luminance of 100 cd/m(2) with an 80% modulation depth (20-180 cd/m(2)). Response magnitudes at the stimulus frequency (F1) and at the double and triple harmonics (F2 and F3) were compared. For both sinusoidal and square-wave flicker, the FFF-VEP magnitudes at F1 were maximal for 7.52 Hz flicker. F2 was maximal for 5.29 Hz flicker, and F3 magnitudes are largest for flicker stimulation from 3.75 to 7.52 Hz. Square-wave flicker produced significantly larger F1 and F2 magnitudes for slow flicker rates (up to 5.29 Hz for F1; at 2.83 and 3.75 Hz for F2). The F3 magnitudes were larger overall for square-wave flicker. Binocular FFF-VEP magnitudes are larger than those of monocular FFF-VEPs, and the amount of this binocular enhancement is not dependant on the mode of flicker stimulation (mean binocular: monocular ratio 1.41, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6). Binocular enhancement of F1 for 21.3 Hz flicker was increased to a factor of 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8-3.5). In the healthy adult visual system, FFF-VEP magnitudes can be characterized by the frequency-response functions of F1, F2 and F3. Low-frequency roll-off in the FFF-VEP magnitudes is greater for sinusoidal flicker than for square-wave flicker for rates ≤ 5.29 Hz; magnitudes for higher-frequency flicker are similar for the two types of flicker. Binocular FFF-VEPs are larger overall than those recorded monocularly, and this binocular summation is enhanced at 21.3 Hz in the mid-frequency range.

  9. An amplitude and phase hybrid modulation Fresnel diffractive optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Cheng, Jiangao; Wang, Mengyu; Jin, Xueying; Wang, Keyi

    2018-04-01

    An Amplitude and Phase Hybrid Modulation Fresnel Diffractive Optical Element (APHMFDOE) is proposed here. We have studied the theory of APHMFDOE and simulated the focusing properties of it along the optical axis, which show that the focus can be blazed to other positions with changing the quadratic phase factor. Moreover, we design a Composite Fresnel Diffraction Optical Element (CFDOE) based on the characteristics of APHMFDOE. It greatly increases the outermost zone width without changing the F-number, which brings a lot of benefits to the design and processing of diffraction device. More importantly, the diffraction efficiency of the CFDOE is almost unchanged compared with AFZP at the same focus.

  10. Noise upon the Sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    Sinusoids are used for making harmonic and other sounds. In order to having life in the sounds and adding a wide variety of noises, irregularities are inserted in the frequency and amplitudes. A simple and intuitive noise model is presented, consisting of a low-pass filtered noise, and having...... control for strength and bandwidth. The noise is added on the frequency and amplitudes of the sinusoids, and the resulting irregularity’s (jitter and shimmer) bandwidth is derived. This, together with an overview of investigation methods of the jitter and shimmer results in an analysis of the necessary...

  11. Research proposal on : amplitude modulated reflectometry system for JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, T.; Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la.

    1992-01-01

    Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been presented in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps' in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2 pi. The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad-band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for ionospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasma. the main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts (approx 2 pi). (author)

  12. Significance of power average of sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 1. Significance of power average of ... Additional sinusoidal and different non-sinusoidal periodic perturbations applied to the periodically forced nonlinear oscillators decide the maintainance or inhibitance of chaos. It is observed that the weak amplitude of ...

  13. Smooth Pursuit Saccade Amplitude Modulation During Exposure to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Sayenko, D. G.; Sayenko, I.; Somers, J. T.; Paloski, W. H.

    2002-01-01

    Russian investigators have reported changes in pursuit tracking of a vertically moving point stimulus during space flight. Early in microgravity, changes were manifested by decreased eye movement amplitude (undershooting) and the appearance of correction saccades. As the flight progressed, pursuit of the moving point stimulus deteriorated while associated saccadic movements were unchanged. Immediately postflight there was an improved execution of active head movements indicating that the deficiencies in pursuit function noted in microgravity may be of central origin. In contrast, tests of two cosmonauts showed that horizontal and vertical smooth pursuit were unchanged inflight. However, results of corresponding saccadic tasks showed a tendency toward the overshooting of a horizontal target early inflight with high accuracy developing later inflight, accompanied by an increased saccade velocity and a trend toward decreased saccade latency. Based on these equivocal results, we have further investigated the effects of space flight on the smooth pursuit mechanism during and after short duration flight, and postflight on returning MIR crewmembers. Sinusoidal target movement was presented horizontally at frequencies of 0.33 and 1.0 Hz. Subjects were asked to perform two trials for each stimulus combination: (1) moving eyes-only (EO) and (2) moving eyes and head (EH) with the target motion. Peak amplitude was 30 deg for 0.33 Hz trials and 15 deg for the 1.0 Hz trials. The relationship between saccade amplitude and peak velocity were plotted as a main sequence for each phase of flight, and linear regression analysis allowed us to determine the slope of each main sequence plot. The linear slopes were then combined for each flight phase for each individual subject. The main sequence for both EO and EH trials at both the 0.33 and 1.0 Hz frequencies during flight for the short duration flyers showed a reduction in saccade velocity and amplitude when compared to the preflight

  14. Controlling the evolution of nondiffracting speckle by complex amplitude modulation on a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available amplitude modulation on a phase-only spatial light modulator to implement controlled ring-slit experiments for the generation of nondiffracting speckle fields. The structure of the nondiffracting speckle due to binary and continuous phase modulations...

  15. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  16. Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Saroj; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-06-27

    The ever increasing demand for bandwidth in wireless communication systems will inevitably lead to the extension of operating frequencies toward the terahertz (THz) band known as the 'THz gap'. Towards closing this gap, we present a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using terahertz spatial light modulators (SLM) instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. The fundamental principle behind this higher efficiency is the conversion of a noisy voltage domain signal to a noise-free binary spatial pattern for effective amplitude modulation of a free-space THz carrier wave. Spatial modulation is achieved using an an active metamaterial array embedded with pseudomorphic high-electron mobility (pHEMT) designed in a consumer-grade galium-arsenide (GaAs) integrated circuit process which enables electronic control of its THz transmissivity. Each array is assembled as individually controllable tiles for transmissive terahertz spatial modulation. Using the experimental data from our metamaterial based modulator, we show that a four-level ASK digital communication system has two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using spatial light modulation compared to voltage controlled modulation.

  17. Theoretical Study of Amplitude Modulation Application during Radio Frequency Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Karpuhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the investigation results of influence of the amplitude-modulated acting signal parameters on the thermoelectric characteristics of biological tissues for a specified geometry of the working electrode section during RF mono-polar electrocoagulation. The geometric model ‘electrode - a biological tissue’ was suggested to study the distribution of power and temperature fields in biological tissue during mono-polar coagulation. The model of biological tissue is represented as a cylinder and the needle electrode is an ellipsoid immersed in the biological tissue. The heat and quasi-electrostatics equations are used as a mathematical model. These equations are solved in Comsol Multiphysics environment.As a result, we have got the following findings: the technique of calculating parameters of the PAM acting signal which has a fixed carrier frequency for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and the immersion depth in biological tissues is suggested. Parameters of PAM signal are determined for this electrode geometry. These parameters provide a 60 ... 80°C heating range of biological tissues near the working part of the tool for different amplitudes of acting signal during RF coagulation. It has been found out that both the temperature and the relaxation frequency of biological tissue depend on exposure time for the needle electrode of a specified geometry and immersion depth of the working part of tool into biological tissue.It is shown that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue, subjected to the radiofrequency pulses, linearly depends on its heating temperature and can be used as a numerical criterion for maintaining the specified temperature conditions. It is found that the relaxation frequency of the biological tissue depends on the contact area of the tool working part and biological tissues. To reduce this dependence it is necessary to provide automatic current control of the output action.

  18. Study on modulation amplitude stabilization method for PEM based on FPGA in atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Quan, Wei; Duan, Lihong

    2017-10-01

    Atomic magnetometer which uses atoms as sensitive elements have ultra-high precision and has wide applications in scientific researches. The photoelastic modulation method based on photoelastic modulator (PEM) is used in the atomic magnetometer to detect the small optical rotation angle of a linearly polarized light. However, the modulation amplitude of the PEM will drift due to the environmental factors, which reduces the precision and long-term stability of the atomic magnetometer. Consequently, stabilizing the PEM's modulation amplitude is essential to precision measurement. In this paper, a modulation amplitude stabilization method for PEM based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is proposed. The designed control system contains an optical setup and an electrical part. The optical setup is used to measure the PEM's modulation amplitude. The FPGA chip, with the PID control algorithm implemented in it, is used as the electrical part's micro controller. The closed loop control method based on the photoelastic modulation detection system can directly measure the PEM's modulation amplitude in real time, without increasing the additional optical devices. In addition, the operating speed of the modulation amplitude stabilization control system can be greatly improved because of the FPGA's parallel computing feature, and the PID control algorithm ensures flexibility to meet different needs of the PEM's modulation amplitude set values. The Modelsim simulation results show the correctness of the PID control algorithm, and the long-term stability of the PEM's modulation amplitude reaches 0.35% in a 3-hour continuous measurement.

  19. [The influence of sinusoidal modulated currents on the fatty acid composition of plasma and blood erythrocytes in the patients presenting with chronic cholecystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyshova, V V; Denisenko, Yu K; Novgorodtseva, T P; Yurenko, A V; Gvozdenko, T A; Zhukova, N V

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment with sinusoidal modulated currents on lipid metabolism in the patients presenting with chronic cholecystitis in the state of remission. The study included 25 patients with chronic non-calculosis cholecystitis in phase of remission and 20 healthy subjects (controls). We studied the serum lipid spectrum as well as the fatty acid composition of plasma and blood erythrocytes before and after therapy with sinusoidal modulated currents applied to the right-sided hypochondrium region. The treatment of the patients with chronic cholecystitis in remission with the use of sinusoidal modulated currents produced moderate lipid-modulatory and membranotropic effects mediated through the activation of the processes of lipid metabolism that may result in the depletion of the pool of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results of this study give evidence that it is advisable to treat the patients presenting with chronic cholecystitis by sinusoidal modulated currents in the combination with the oral intake of exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Automatic Frequency Identification under Sample Loss in Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation Signals Using an Iterative Autocorrelation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Said

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a simple algorithm to calculate automatically the Fourier spectrum of a Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation Signal (SPWM. Modulated voltage signals of this kind are used in industry by speed drives to vary the speed of alternating current motors while maintaining a smooth torque. Nevertheless, the SPWM technique produces undesired harmonics, which yield stator heating and power losses. By monitoring these signals without human interaction, it is possible to identify the harmonic content of SPWM signals in a fast and continuous manner. The algorithm is based in the autocorrelation function, commonly used in radar and voice signal processing. Taking advantage of the symmetry properties of the autocorrelation, the algorithm is capable of estimating half of the period of the fundamental frequency; thus, allowing one to estimate the necessary number of samples to produce an accurate Fourier spectrum. To deal with the loss of samples, i.e., the scan backlog, the algorithm iteratively acquires and trims the discrete sequence of samples until the required number of samples reaches a stable value. The simulation shows that the algorithm is not affected by either the magnitude of the switching pulses or the acquisition noise.

  1. Amplitude Modulation Detection and Speech Recognition in Late-Implanted Prelingually and Postlingually Deafened Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ruiter, Anke M; Debruyne, Joke A; Chenault, Michelene N; Francart, Tom; Brokx, Jan P L

    2015-01-01

    Many late-implanted prelingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) patients struggle to obtain open-set speech understanding. Because it is known that low-frequency temporal-envelope information contains important cues for speech understanding, the goal of this study was to compare the temporal-envelope processing abilities of late-implanted prelingually and postlingually deafened CI users. Furthermore, the possible relation between temporal processing abilities and speech recognition performances was investigated. Amplitude modulation detection thresholds were obtained in eight prelingually and 18 postlingually deafened CI users, by means of a sinusoidally modulated broadband noise carrier, presented through a loudspeaker to the CI user's clinical device. Thresholds were determined with a two-down-one-up three-interval oddity adaptive procedure, at seven modulation frequencies. Phoneme recognition (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC]) scores (percentage correct at 65 dB SPL) were gathered for all CI users. For the prelingually deafened group, scores on two additional speech tests were obtained: (1) a closed-set monosyllable-trochee-spondee test (percentage correct scores at 65 dB SPL on word recognition and categorization of the suprasegmental word patterns), and (2) a speech tracking test (number of correctly repeated words per minute) with texts specifically designed for this population. The prelingually deafened CI users had a significantly lower sensitivity to amplitude modulations than the postlingually deafened CI users, and the attenuation rate of their temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) was greater. None of the prelingually deafened CI users were able to detect modulations at 150 and 200 Hz. High and significant correlations were found between the results on the amplitude modulation detection test and CNC phoneme scores, for the entire group of CI users. In the prelingually deafened group, CNC phoneme scores, word scores on the monosyllable

  2. Two-harmonic complex spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using achromatic sinusoidal phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sheng-Hua; Huang, Siang-Ru; Chou, Che-Chung

    2018-03-01

    We resolve the complex conjugate ambiguity in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) by using achromatic two-harmonic method. Unlike previous researches, the optical phase of the fiber interferometer is modulated by an achromatic phase shifter based on an optical delay line. The achromatic phase modulation leads to a wavelength-independent scaling coefficient for the two harmonics. Dividing the mean absolute value of the first harmonic by that of the second harmonic in a B-scan interferogram directly gives the scaling coefficient. It greatly simplifies the determination of the magnitude ratio between the two harmonics without the need of third harmonic and cumbersome iterative calculations. The inverse fast Fourier transform of the complex-valued interferogram constructed with the scaling coefficient, first and second harmonics yields a full-range OCT image. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed achromatic two-harmonic technique for suppressing the mirror artifacts in SD-OCT images.

  3. Auditory stream segregation using amplitude modulated bandpass noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjiu eNie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of spectral overlap and amplitude modulation (AM rate for stream segregation for noise signals, as well as to test the build-up effect based on these two cues. Segregation ability was evaluated using an objective paradigm with listeners’ attention focused on stream segregation. Stimulus sequences consisted of two interleaved sets of bandpass noise bursts (A and B bursts. The A and B bursts differed in spectrum, AM-rate, or both. The amount of the difference between the two sets of noise bursts was varied. Long and short sequences were studied to investigate the build-up effect for segregation based on spectral and AM-rate differences. Results showed the following: 1. Stream segregation ability increased with greater spectral separation. 2. Larger AM-rate separations were associated with stronger segregation abilities. 3. Spectral separation was found to elicit the build-up effect for the range of spectral differences assessed in the current study. 4. AM-rate separation interacted with spectral separation suggesting an additive effect of spectral separation and AM-rate separation on segregation build-up. The findings suggest that, when normal-hearing listeners direct their attention toward segregation, they are able to segregate auditory streams based on reduced spectral contrast cues that vary by the amount of spectral overlap. Further, regardless of the spectral separation they were able to use AM-rate difference as a secondary/weaker cue. Based on the spectral differences, listeners can segregate auditory streams better as the listening duration is prolonged—i.e. sparse spectral cues elicit build-up segregation; however, AM-rate differences only appear to elicit build-up when in combination with spectral difference cues.

  4. Harmonic Analysis of DC-Link Capacitor Current in Sinusoidally Modulated Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, KS; Narayanan, G

    2013-01-01

    The voltage ripple and power loss in the DC-capacitor of a voltage source inverter depend on the harmonic currents flowing through the capacitor. This paper presents double Fourier series based harmonic analysis of DC capacitor current in a three-level neutral point clamped inverter, modulated with sine-triangle PWM. The analytical results are validated experimentally on a 5-kVA three-level inverter prototype. The results of the analysis are used for predicting the power loss in the DC cap...

  5. Conversion of phase-modulated signals to amplitude-modulated signals in SOAs due to mirror reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present theoretical results that show conversion of phase modulated signals to amplitude modulated signals in an SOA. Large-signal and small-signal calculations show significant conversion responses caused by even minute reflections at the end mirrors.......We present theoretical results that show conversion of phase modulated signals to amplitude modulated signals in an SOA. Large-signal and small-signal calculations show significant conversion responses caused by even minute reflections at the end mirrors....

  6. Vibrotactile sensory substitution for object manipulation: amplitude versus pulse train frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating sensory feedback with prosthetic devices is now possible, but the optimal methods of providing such feedback are still unknown. The relative utility of amplitude and pulse train frequency modulated stimulation paradigms for providing vibrotactile feedback for object manipulation was assessed in 10 participants. The two approaches were studied during virtual object manipulation using a robotic interface as a function of presentation order and a simultaneous cognitive load. Despite the potential pragmatic benefits associated with pulse train frequency modulated vibrotactile stimulation, comparison of the approach with amplitude modulation indicates that amplitude modulation vibrotactile stimulation provides superior feedback for object manipulation.

  7. Group velocity dispersion measurement method using sinusoidally phase-modulated continuous wave light based on cyclic nature of optical waveform change by group velocity dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Mori, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Kurokawa, Kenji; Tomita, Shigeru; Tsubokawa, Makoto

    2010-09-20

    We show that any optical pulse train recovers its original waveform after passing through a group velocity dispersion (GVD) device when the total GVD value of the device is equal to an integral multiple of 1/(2πf(rep)(2)), where f(rep) is the repetition rate of the optical pulse train. In addition, we detail our proposed GVD measurement method, or optical phase-modulation (PM) method, which utilizes a sinusoidally PM continuous wave (CW) light as a probe light. The total GVD B(2) of a device under test (DUT) is derived by using a very simple equation, |B(2)|=1/(2πf(null)(2)), where f(null) is the smallest modulation frequency at which the sinusoidally PM light becomes CW light again after passing through the DUT.

  8. Optical spectral reshaping for directly modulated 4-pulse amplitude modulation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozolins, Oskars; Da Ros, Francesco; Cristofori, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    (PAM) [3] signals. However, moving to 4-PAM,many of the impressive demonstrations reported so far rely heavily on off-line digital signal processing (DSP), which increases latency, power consumption and cost. In this talk, we report on (i) a detailed numerical analysis on the complex transfer function...... to their low dispersion tolerance and limited achievable extinction ratio (ER). A promising solution to this problem is optical spectral reshaping (OSR) since it is possible to increase the dispersion tolerance as well as to enhance the achievable ER for both on-of-keying [2] and 4-pulse amplitude modulation...

  9. Multisensory interaction in vibrotactile detection and discrimination of amplitude modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Kinneret; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    Perception of vibration during drilling demands integration of haptic and auditory information with force information. In this study we explored the ability to detect and discriminate changes in vibrotactile stimuli amplitude based either on purely haptic feedback or together with congruent synth...

  10. High speed cross-amplitude modulation in concatenated SOA-EAM-SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Ciaran S; Manning, Robert J

    2012-06-18

    We observe a near-ideal high speed amplitude impulse response in an SOA-EAM-SOA configuration under optimum conditions. Full amplitude recovery times as low as 10 ps with modulation depths of 70% were observed in pump-probe measurements. System behavior could be controlled by the choice of signal wavelength, SOA current biases and EAM reverse bias voltages. Experimental data and impulse response modelling indicated that the slow tail in the gain response of first SOA was negated by a combination of cross-absorption modulation between pump and modulated CW probe, and self-gain modulation of the modulated CW probe in both the EAM and second SOA.

  11. Measurement of the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator using a heterodyne technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal; Birkedal, Dan; Mørk, Jesper

    2001-01-01

    We present a new technique that measures the full amplitude and phase transfer curves of the modulator as a function of the applied bias, from which the small signal α-parameter can be calculated. The technique measures the amplitude and phase transfer functions simultaneously and directly...

  12. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17, Annex A.1, Pulse Amplitude Modulation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Standard 106-17 Annex A.1, July 2017 A.1-iii Acronyms dB decibel FM frequency modulation IF intermediate frequency PAM pulse amplitude...standard defines the recommended pulse train structure and design characteristics for the implementation of pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) telemetry...between transitions in the PAM pulse train shall be limited by whichever is the narrower of the following: a. One-half of the 3-dB frequency of the

  13. Heterodyne technique for measuring the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal; Birkedal, Dan; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a technique based on heterodyne detection for accurately and simultaneously measuring the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator. The technique is used to characterize an InGaAsp multiple quantum-well electroabsorption modulator. From...

  14. A New Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse- Width and Amplitude Modulation (SHEPWAM) for Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishy, Hoda; Varjani, Ali Yazdian; Mohamadian, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the conventional selective harmonic elimination-pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM), the selective harmonic elimination-pulse width and amplitude modulation (SHE-PWAM) control strategy results in significant improvements in the performance of CHB inverters. This fact is due to considerin...

  15. Observations on auditory learning in amplitude- and frequency-modulation rate discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2010-01-01

    Because amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds can be the basis for the synthesis of many complex sounds, they can be good candidates in the design of training systems aiming at improving the acquisition of perceptual skills that can benefit from information provided via the auditory channel......-training, training, a post-training stages. During training, listeners were divided into two groups; one group trained on amplitude-modulation rate discrimination and the other group trained on frequency-modulation rate discrimination. Results will be discussed in terms of their implications for training...

  16. Amplitude modulator of radio frequency system for 1.3 GeV Electron Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, T.

    1977-01-01

    The amplitude modulator for the 8F68 VHF high power tetrode tube has been designed and constructed. The modulator was constructed with solid components such as transistors and integrated circuits. In case of changing circuit elements of the modulator to solid components from tubes, many attentions are paid for preventing the noise and the over load, due to connection between the low power circuits (modulator) and high power circuits (VHF amplifier). The new modulator is constructed with taking careful consideration into selection of the method of the power control and the protection system. (auth.)

  17. Basic causes of amplitude modulation in climatic/weather parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1987-11-01

    The continuous interaction between the Earth's spinning motion and energy from the Sun gives rise to some (heat) energy oscillations in the Earth-atmosphere system (Njau, 1985a; 1985b; 1986a; 1986b). Recent results of large scale analysis of East African climatic records have proved that these oscillations significantly link the Sun to climatic/weather variations by systematically modulating key climatic/weather parameters like rainfall and air temperature (Njau, 1987a; 1987b; 1987c; 1987e; 1987f). In this paper, we re-develop the latter proof using a very different approach based upon theoretical analysis. The analysis has confirmed a general law suggested earlier (Njau, 1987d), that, with an exception of the diurnal cycle, any permanent cycle in the net solar energy incident upon a given part of the Earth-Atmosphere system gives rise to a quasi-permanent cycle whose period is approximately twice that of the former. Quasi-biennial as well as double sunspot cycles are shown to be a possible result of this general law. (author). 35 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Timbral Sharpness and Modulations in Frequency and Amplitude: Implications for the Fusion of Musical Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, Pamela Joy

    The fusion of musical voices is an important aspect of musical blend, or the mixing of individual sounds. Yet, little research has been done to explicitly determine the factors involved in fusion. In this study, the similarity of timbre and modulation were examined for their contribution to the fusion of sounds. It is hypothesized that similar timbres will fuse better than dissimilar timbres, and, voices with the same kind of modulation will fuse better than voices of different modulations. A perceptually-based measure, known as sharpness was investigated as a measure of timbre. The advantages of using sharpness are that it is based on hearing sensitivities and masking phenomena of inner ear processing. Five musical instrument families were digitally recorded in performances across a typical playing range at two extreme dynamic levels. Analyses reveal that sharpness is capable of uncovering subtle changes in timbre including those found in musical dynamics, instrument design, and performer-specific variations. While these analyses alone are insufficient to address fusion, preliminary calculations of timbral combinations indicate that sharpness has the potential to predict the fusion of sounds used in musical composition. Three experiments investigated the effects of modulation on the fusion of a harmonic major sixth interval. In the first experiment using frequency modulation, stimuli varied in deviation about a mean fundamental frequency and relative modulation phase between the two tones. Results showed smaller frequency deviations promoted fusion and relative phase differences had a minimal effect. In a second experiment using amplitude modulation, stimuli varied in deviation about a mean amplitude level and relative phase of modulation. Results showed smaller amplitude deviations promoted better fusion, but unlike frequency modulation, relative phase differences were also important. In a third experiment, frequency modulation, amplitude modulation and mixed

  19. Amplitude modulation in δ Sct stars: statistics from an ensemble of Kepler targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dominic M.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Breger, Michel; Murphy, Simon J.; Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2017-10-01

    The results of a search for amplitude modulation of pulsation modes in 983 δ Sct stars, which have effective temperatures between 6400 ⩽ Teff ⩽ 10 000 K in the Kepler Input Catalogue and were continuously observed by the Kepler Space Telescope for 4 yr, are presented. A total of 603 δ Sct stars (61.3 per cent) are found to exhibit at least one pulsation mode that varies significantly in amplitude over 4 yr. Furthermore, it is found that amplitude modulation is not restricted to a specific region within the classical instability strip in the HR diagram, therefore its cause is not necessarily dependent on stellar parameters such as Teff or log g. On the other hand, many δ Sct stars show constant pulsation amplitudes demonstrating that the cause of pulsational non-linearity in these stars is not well understood.

  20. Extending single molecule fluorescence observation time by amplitude-modulated excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisley, Lydia; Chang, Wei-Shun; Cooper, David; Mansur, Andrea P.; Landes, Christy F.

    2013-09-01

    We present a hardware-based method that can improve single molecule fluorophore observation time by up to 1500% and super-localization by 47% for the experimental conditions used. The excitation was modulated using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) synchronized to the data acquisition and inherent data conversion time of the detector. The observation time and precision in super-localization of four commonly used fluorophores were compared under modulated and traditional continuous excitation, including direct total internal reflectance excitation of Alexa 555 and Cy3, non-radiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) excited Cy5, and direct epi-fluorescence wide field excitation of Rhodamine 6G. The proposed amplitude-modulated excitation does not perturb the chemical makeup of the system or sacrifice signal and is compatible with multiple types of fluorophores. Amplitude-modulated excitation has practical applications for any fluorescent study utilizing an instrumental setup with time-delayed detectors.

  1. Extending single molecule fluorescence observation time by amplitude-modulated excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisley, Lydia; Chang, Wei-Shun; Cooper, David; Mansur, Andrea P; Landes, Christy F

    2013-01-01

    We present a hardware-based method that can improve single molecule fluorophore observation time by up to 1500% and super-localization by 47% for the experimental conditions used. The excitation was modulated using an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) synchronized to the data acquisition and inherent data conversion time of the detector. The observation time and precision in super-localization of four commonly used fluorophores were compared under modulated and traditional continuous excitation, including direct total internal reflectance excitation of Alexa 555 and Cy3, non-radiative Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) excited Cy5, and direct epi-fluorescence wide field excitation of Rhodamine 6G. The proposed amplitude-modulated excitation does not perturb the chemical makeup of the system or sacrifice signal and is compatible with multiple types of fluorophores. Amplitude-modulated excitation has practical applications for any fluorescent study utilizing an instrumental setup with time-delayed detectors. (technical note)

  2. Amplitude modulation of sound from wind turbines under various meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Conny; Öhlund, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine (WT) sound annoys some people even though the sound levels are relatively low. This could be because of the amplitude modulated "swishing" characteristic of the turbine sound, which is not taken into account by standard procedures for measuring average sound levels. Studies of sound immission from WTs were conducted continually between 19 August 2011 and 19 August 2012 at two sites in Sweden. A method for quantifying the degree and strength of amplitude modulation (AM) is introduced here. The method reveals that AM at the immission points occur under specific meteorological conditions. For WT sound immission, the wind direction and sound speed gradient are crucial for the occurrence of AM. Interference between two or more WTs could probably enhance AM. The mechanisms by which WT sound is amplitude modulated are not fully understood.

  3. Human neuromagnetic steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated tones, speech, and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminmäki, Satu; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Auditory steady-state responses that can be elicited by various periodic sounds inform about subcortical and early cortical auditory processing. Steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated pure tones have been used to scrutinize binaural interaction by frequency-tagging the two ears' inputs at different frequencies. Unlike pure tones, speech and music are physically very complex, as they include many frequency components, pauses, and large temporal variations. To examine the utility of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) steady-state fields (SSFs) in the study of early cortical processing of complex natural sounds, the authors tested the extent to which amplitude-modulated speech and music can elicit reliable SSFs. MEG responses were recorded to 90-s-long binaural tones, speech, and music, amplitude-modulated at 41.1 Hz at four different depths (25, 50, 75, and 100%). The subjects were 11 healthy, normal-hearing adults. MEG signals were averaged in phase with the modulation frequency, and the sources of the resulting SSFs were modeled by current dipoles. After the MEG recording, intelligibility of the speech, musical quality of the music stimuli, naturalness of music and speech stimuli, and the perceived deterioration caused by the modulation were evaluated on visual analog scales. The perceived quality of the stimuli decreased as a function of increasing modulation depth, more strongly for music than speech; yet, all subjects considered the speech intelligible even at the 100% modulation. SSFs were the strongest to tones and the weakest to speech stimuli; the amplitudes increased with increasing modulation depth for all stimuli. SSFs to tones were reliably detectable at all modulation depths (in all subjects in the right hemisphere, in 9 subjects in the left hemisphere) and to music stimuli at 50 to 100% depths, whereas speech usually elicited clear SSFs only at 100% depth.The hemispheric balance of SSFs was toward the right hemisphere for tones and speech, whereas

  4. Evoked responses of the superior olive to amplitude-modulated signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, N G; Lang, T T

    1977-01-01

    Evoked potentials of some auditory centers of Rhinolophidae bats to amplitude-modulated signals were studied. A synchronization response was found in the cochlear nuclei (with respect to the fast component of the response) and in the superior olivary complex (with respect to both fast and slow components of the response) within the range of frequency modulation from 50 to 2000 Hz. In the inferior colliculus a synchronized response was recorded at modulation frequencies below 150 Hz, but in the medial geniculate bodies no such response was found. Evoked responses of the superior olivary complex were investigated in detail. The lowest frequencies of synchronization were recorded within the carrier frequency range of 15-30 and 80-86 kHz. The amplitude of the synchronized response is a function of the frequency and coefficient of modulation and also of the angle of stimulus presentation.

  5. Frequency and amplitude modulation have different effects on the percepts elicited by retinal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Devyani; Fine, Ione; Horsager, Alan; Boynton, Geoffrey M; Humayun, Mark S; Greenberg, Robert J; Weiland, James D

    2012-01-20

    In an effort to restore functional form vision, epiretinal prostheses that elicit percepts by directly stimulating remaining retinal circuitry were implanted in human subjects with advanced retinitis pigmentosa RP). In this study, manipulating pulse train frequency and amplitude had different effects on the size and brightness of phosphene appearance. Experiments were performed on a single subject with severe RP (implanted with a 16-channel epiretinal prosthesis in 2004) on nine individual electrodes. Psychophysical techniques were used to measure both the brightness and size of phosphenes when the biphasic pulse train was varied by either modulating the current amplitude (with constant frequency) or the stimulating frequency (with constant current amplitude). Increasing stimulation frequency always increased brightness, while having a smaller effect on the size of elicited phosphenes. In contrast, increasing stimulation amplitude generally increased both the size and brightness of phosphenes. These experimental findings can be explained by using a simple computational model based on previous psychophysical work and the expected spatial spread of current from a disc electrode. Given that amplitude and frequency have separable effects on percept size, these findings suggest that frequency modulation improves the encoding of a wide range of brightness levels without a loss of spatial resolution. Future retinal prosthesis designs could benefit from having the flexibility to manipulate pulse train amplitude and frequency independently (clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT00279500).

  6. Instrument Reflections and Scene Amplitude Modulation in a Polychromatic Microwave Quadrature Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Chavers, Greg

    2003-01-01

    A polychromatic microwave quadrature interferometer has been characterized using several laboratory plasmas. Reflections between the transmitter and the receiver have been observed, and the effects of including reflection terms in the data reduction equation have been examined. An error analysis which includes the reflections, modulation of the scene beam amplitude by the plasma, and simultaneous measurements at two frequencies has been applied to the empirical database, and the results are summarized. For reflection amplitudes around 1096, the reflection terms were found to reduce the calculated error bars for electron density measurements by about a factor of 2. The impact of amplitude modulation is also quantified. In the complete analysis, the mean error bar for high- density measurements is 7.596, and the mean phase shift error for low-density measurements is 1.2". .

  7. Source of low frequency modulation of ENSO amplitude in a CGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung-Kwon [Chonbuk National University, Division of Science Education/Institute of Science Education, Jeonju (Korea); Yeh, Sang-Wook [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan (Korea); Dewitte, Boris [Laboratoire d' Etude en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale, Toulouse (France); Jhun, Jong-Ghap [Seoul National University, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul (Korea); Kang, In-Sik [Seoul National University, Climate Environment System Research Center (CES), Seoul (Korea)

    2007-07-15

    We study the relationship between changes in equatorial stratification and low frequency El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude modulation in a coupled general circulation model (CGCM) that uses an anomaly coupling strategy to prevent climate drifts in the mean state. The stratification is intensified at upper levels in the western and central equatorial Pacific during periods of high ENSO amplitude. Furthermore, changes in equatorial stratification are connected with subsurface temperature anomalies originating from the central south tropical Pacific. The correlation analysis of ocean temperature anomalies against an index for the ENSO modulation supports the hypothesis of the existence of an oceanic ''tunnel'' that connects the south tropical Pacific to the equatorial wave guide. Further analysis of the wind stress projection coefficient onto the oceanic baroclinic modes suggests that the low frequency modulation of ENSO amplitude is associated with a significant contribution of higher-order modes in the western and central equatorial Pacific. In the light of these results, we suggest that, in the CGCM, change in the baroclinic mode energy distribution associated with low frequency ENSO amplitude modulation have its source in the central south tropical Pacific. (orig.)

  8. Multiband carrierless amplitude/phase modulation for ultra-wideband high data rate wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Altabas, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of carrierless amplitude/phase modulation in a flexible multiband approach for ultrawideband high-data-rate wireless communications. An effective bitrate of 2 GB/s is achieved while complying with the restrictions on the effective radiated power e...

  9. Influence of stimulus intensity on the soleus H-reflex amplitude and modulation during locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Diverging results have been reported regarding the modulation and amplitude of the soleus H-reflex measured during human walking and running. A possible explanation to this could be the use of too high stimulus strength in some studies while not in others. During activities like walking and runni...

  10. Radar transponder operation with compensation for distortion due to amplitude modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormesher, Richard C [Albuquerque, NM; Tise, Bertice L [Albuquerque, NM; Axline, Jr., Robert M.

    2011-01-04

    In radar transponder operation, a variably delayed gating signal is used to gate a received radar pulse and thereby produce a corresponding gated radar pulse for transmission back to the source of the received radar pulse. This compensates for signal distortion due to amplitude modulation on the retransmitted pulse.

  11. Cyclic pitch for the control of wind turbine noise amplitude modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    that can model the different aerodynamic and aeroacoustic aspects of the study is presented. Parameters controlling the cyclic pitch are optimized in order to reduce amplitude modulation and/or fatigue load to a minimum. It is shown that such a minimum can be found and that benefit may be achieved...

  12. Amplitude variations of modulated RV Tauri stars support the dust obscuration model of the RVb phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, L. L.; Bódi, A.

    2017-12-01

    Context. RV Tauri-type variables are pulsating post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that evolve rapidly through the instability strip after leaving the AGB. Their light variability is dominated by radial pulsations. Members of the RVb subclass show an additional variability in the form of a long-term modulation of the mean brightness, for which the most popular theories all assume binarity and some kind of circumstellar dust. Here we assess whether or not the amplitude modulations are consistent with the dust obscuration model. Aims: We measure and interpret the overall changes of the mean amplitude of the pulsations along the RVb variability. Methods: We compiled long-term photometric data for RVb-type stars, including visual observations of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, ground-based CCD photometry from the OGLE and ASAS projects, and ultra-precise space photometry of one star, DF Cygni, from theKepler space telescope. After converting all the observations to flux units, we measure the cycle-to-cycle variations of the pulsation amplitude and correlate them to the actual mean fluxes. Results: We find a surprisingly uniform correlation between the pulsation amplitude and the mean flux; they scale linearly with each other for a wide range of fluxes and amplitudes. This means that the pulsation amplitude actually remains constant when measured relative to the system flux level. The apparent amplitude decrease in the faint states has long been noted in the literature but it was always claimed to be difficult to explain with the actual models of the RVb phenomenon. Here we show that when fluxes are used instead of magnitudes, the amplitude attenuation is naturally explained by periodic obscuration from a large opaque screen, one most likely corresponding to a circumbinary dusty disk that surrounds the whole system.

  13. Amplitude modulation in infrared metamaterial absorbers based on electro-optically tunable conducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografopoulos, D. C.; Sinatkas, G.; Lotfi, E.; Shahada, L. A.; Swillam, M. A.; Kriezis, E. E.; Beccherelli, R.

    2018-02-01

    A class of electro-optically tunable metamaterial absorbers is designed and theoretically investigated in the infrared regime towards realizing free-space amplitude modulators. The spacer between a subwavelength metallic stripe grating and a back metal reflector is occupied by a bilayer of indium tin oxide (ITO) and hafnium oxide (HfO_2). The application of a bias voltage across the bilayer induces free-carrier accumulation at the HfO_2/ITO interface that locally modulates the ITO permittivity and drastically modifies the optical response of the absorber owing to the induced epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect. The carrier distribution and dynamics are solved via the drift-diffusion model, which is coupled with optical wave propagation studies in a common finite-element method platform. Optimized structures are derived that enable the amplitude modulation of the reflected wave with moderate insertion losses, theoretically infinite extinction ratio, sub-picosecond switching times and low operating voltages.

  14. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  15. Electrically-driven pure amplitude and frequency modulation in a quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Atif; Brochard, Pierre; Matthey, Renaud; Blaser, Stéphane; Gresch, Tobias; Maulini, Richard; Muller, Antoine; Südmeyer, Thomas; Schilt, Stéphane

    2018-04-30

    We present pure amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) achieved electrically in a quantum cascade laser (QCL) equipped with an integrated resistive heater (IH). The QCL output power scales linearly with the current applied to the active region (AR), but decreases with the IH current, while the emission frequency decreases with both currents. Hence, a simultaneous modulation applied to the current of the AR and IH sections with a proper relative amplitude and phase can suppress the AM, resulting in a pure FM, or vice-versa. The adequate modulation parameters depend on the applied modulation frequency. Therefore, they were first determined from the individual measurements of the AM and FM transfer functions obtained for a modulation applied to the current of the AR or IH section, respectively. By optimizing the parameters of the two modulations, we demonstrate a reduction of the spurious AM or FM by almost two orders of magnitude at characteristic frequencies of 1 and 10 kHz compared to the use of the AR current only.

  16. NOTE ON TRAVEL TIME SHIFTS DUE TO AMPLITUDE MODULATION IN TIME-DISTANCE HELIOSEISMOLOGY MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, R.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Correct interpretation of acoustic travel times measured by time-distance helioseismology is essential to get an accurate understanding of the solar properties that are inferred from them. It has long been observed that sunspots suppress p-mode amplitude, but its implications on travel times have not been fully investigated so far. It has been found in test measurements using a 'masking' procedure, in which the solar Doppler signal in a localized quiet region of the Sun is artificially suppressed by a spatial function, and using numerical simulations that the amplitude modulations in combination with the phase-speed filtering may cause systematic shifts of acoustic travel times. To understand the properties of this procedure, we derive an analytical expression for the cross-covariance of a signal that has been modulated locally by a spatial function that has azimuthal symmetry and then filtered by a phase-speed filter typically used in time-distance helioseismology. Comparing this expression to the Gabor wavelet fitting formula without this effect, we find that there is a shift in the travel times that is introduced by the amplitude modulation. The analytical model presented in this paper can be useful also for interpretation of travel time measurements for the non-uniform distribution of oscillation amplitude due to observational effects.

  17. Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, D. S., E-mail: dsj23@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: rd448@cam.ac.uk; Kindness, S. J.; Ren, Y.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.; Degl' Innocenti, R., E-mail: dsj23@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: rd448@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Xiao, L.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Hofmann, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Lin, H.; Zeitler, J. A. [Department of Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Ren, C. X. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-25

    The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum holds great potential in many fields of study, from spectroscopy to biomedical imaging, remote gas sensing, and high speed communication. To fully exploit this potential, fast optoelectronic devices such as amplitude and phase modulators must be developed. In this work, we present a room temperature external THz amplitude modulator based on plasmonic bow-tie antenna arrays with graphene. By applying a modulating bias to a back gate electrode, the conductivity of graphene is changed, which modifies the reflection characteristics of the incoming THz radiation. The broadband response of the device was characterized by using THz time-domain spectroscopy, and the modulation characteristics such as the modulation depth and cut-off frequency were investigated with a 2.0 THz single frequency emission quantum cascade laser. An optical modulation cut-off frequency of 105 ± 15 MHz is reported. The results agree well with a lumped element circuit model developed to describe the device.

  18. A Compact QPSK Modulator with Low Amplitude and Phase Imbalance for Remote Sensing Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul

    2012-09-30

    A new, compact and wide-band Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulator is presented for remote sensing applications. The microstrip-based modulator employs quadrature hybrid coupler, Wilkinson divider, rat race coupler and GaAs MESFET switches. It is designed to be part of an X band remote sensing transmitter with a center frequency of 8.25GHz. The fabricated module demonstrates the lowest reported amplitude and phase imbalances (0.1dB and 0.4° respectively) around its center frequency. The modulation, tested up to 160 Mbps data rate, displays carrier suppression greater than 30 dB. With negligible DC power consumption and low insertion loss, it operates for a wide bandwidth of 3 GHz (7-10 GHz). The effect of amplitude and phase imbalance is investigated on the performance of the modulator. Finally, a transmitter employing this modulator exhibits an excellent overall Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) of around 8 % that is considerably low as compared to the typically obtained values for such transmitters.

  19. The Effect of Amplitude Modulation on the Axial Resolution of Doppler-Based Ultrasonic Topography Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Das, Sayantan; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic Doppler-based systems for surface topography measurements are attractive alternatives to the transit-time-based methods. Sensors used in Doppler systems are less dependent on the speed of the sound in air, although contemporary Doppler measurement systems are sensitive to the amplitude...... variation of the received signal. Amplitude variation significantly affects the measurement accuracy when the surface axial displacement range is comparable with the ultrasonic wavelength. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the effect of amplitude modulation on the performance...... of the Doppler measurement techniques. A modified Doppler measurement system that significantly improves the measurement accuracy is also presented. The fabricated sensor has 72-μm measurement accuracy using 40-kHz transducers. This technique can also be employed in cost-effective displacement measurement...

  20. Effects of Hearing Loss and Fast-Acting Compression on Amplitude Modulation Perception and Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, Alan; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Epp, Bastian

    2018-01-01

    of the modulation detection thresholds, compression does not seem to provide a benefit for speech intelligibility. Furthermore, fast-acting compression may not be able to restore MDD thresholds to the values observed for listeners with NH, suggesting that the two measures of amplitude modulation sensitivity......Objective: The purpose was to investigate the effects of hearing-loss and fast-acting compression on speech intelligibility and two measures of temporal modulation sensitivity. Design: Twelve adults with normal hearing (NH) and 16 adults with mild to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss......, the MDD thresholds were higher for the group with hearing loss than for the group with NH. Fast-acting compression increased the modulation detection thresholds, while no effect of compression on the MDD thresholds was observed. The speech reception thresholds obtained in stationary noise were slightly...

  1. Annoyance of wind-turbine noise as a function of amplitude-modulation parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannidou, Christina; Santurette, Sébastien; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    Amplitude modulation (AM) has been suggested as an important factor for the perceived annoyance of wind-turbine noise (WTN). Two AM types, typically referred to as “normal AM” and “other AM,” depending on the AM extent and frequency region, have been proposed to characterize WTN AM. The extent...... the spectrotemporal characteristics of the original far-field stimuli were included in the model and the temporal AM variations were taken into account by varying the modulation index over time, neither AM frequency nor AM type were found to significantly affect annoyance. These findings suggest that the effect of AM...

  2. Sensorineural hearing loss enhances auditory sensitivity and temporal integration for amplitude modulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallaert, Nicolas; Moore, Brian Cecil; Ewert, Stephan D; Lorenzi, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Amplitude-modulation detection thresholds (AMDTs) were measured at 40 dB sensation level for listeners with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (age: 50-64 yr) for a carrier frequency of 500 Hz and rates of 2 and 20 Hz. The number of modulation cycles, N, varied between two and nine. The data were compared with AMDTs measured for young and older normal-hearing listeners [Wallaert, Moore, and Lorenzi (2016). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 139, 3088-3096]. As for normal-hearing listeners, AMDTs we...

  3. Vibrotactile Sensory Substitution for Object Manipulation: Amplitude versus Pulse Train Frequency Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stepp, Cara E.; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating sensory feedback with prosthetic devices is now possible, but the optimal methods of providing such feedback are still unknown. The relative utility of amplitude and pulse train frequency modulated stimulation paradigms for providing vibrotactile feedback for object manipulation was assessed in 10 participants. The two approaches were studied during virtual object manipulation using a robotic interface as a function of presentation order and a simultaneous cognitive load. Despit...

  4. Phase and Amplitude Modulation Methods for Nonlinear Ultrasound Imaging with CMUTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Sarp; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2016-01-01

    Conventional amplitude and phase modulated pulse sequences for selective imaging of nonlinear tissue and ultrasound contrast agents are designed for piezoelectric transducers that behave linearly. Inherent nonlinearity of CMUTs, especially during large signal operation, renders these methods inapplicable. In this work we present different pulse sequences for nonlinear imaging that are valid for small- and large-signal CMUT operation. For small-signal operation, two-pulse amplitude and phase modulation methods for microbubble and tissue harmonic imaging are presented, where CMUT nonlinearity is compensated via subharmonic excitation. In the large-signal regime, using a nonlinear model we first show that there is a simple linear relationship between the phases of each harmonic distortion component generated and the input drive signal. Based on this observation, we demonstrate a pulse sequence using N+1 consecutive phase modulated transmit events to extract N harmonics of the nonlinear contrast agent echo content uncorrupted by CMUT nonlinearity. Proposed methods assume no a priori information about the transducer, therefore are applicable to any CMUT. The phase modulation method is also valid for piezoelectric transducers and systems with nonlinearities described by Taylor series where same phase relationship between the input signal and the harmonic content is valid. Proof of principle experiments using a commercial contrast agent validate the phase modulated pulse sequences for CMUTs operating in highly nonlinear collapse snapback mode and for piezoelectric transducers. PMID:27116737

  5. Analog Amplitude Modulation of a High Voltage, Solid State Inductive Adder, Pulse Generator Using MOSFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, E J; Sullivan, J S

    2002-01-01

    High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack

  6. Affects of spanwise heterogeneity and topographic height on Amplitude and Frequency modulation in channel flow turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Ankit; Anderson, William

    2017-11-01

    We study the affects of spanwise heterogeneity on amplitude and frequency modulation of small-scale roughness-sublayer structures due to the passage of large-scale structures in the logarithmic region. Recent studies on amplitude and frequency modulation have prompted the development of a predictive model for near-wall dynamics. Such a model is of great interest to large-eddy simulation (LES), since near-wall processes are, by definition, never resolved. Here, we have used LES to model flows over a series of spanwise-heterogeneous topographies, where a domain with very long streamwise extent is used to ensure that very-large-scale motions are (or, can be) resolved. We report that the secondary flows globally disrupt the turbulence from channel physics, wherein the ``outer peak'' is either shifted to different wavelengths or nonexistent. This spectral density redistribution is assured to alter amplitude and frequency modulation rates within the roughness sublayer, and we present correlations of the small and large scales to demonstrate precisely that (following the wavelet decomposition, as outlined by). Thus, spanwise heterogeneity should be regarded as a model parameter in any rough-wall-generalized prognostic wall models. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant # FA9550-14-1-0101.

  7. Differential pulse amplitude modulation for multiple-input single-output OWVLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. H.; Kwon, D. H.; Kim, S. J.; Son, Y. H.; Han, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used for lighting due to their energy efficiency, eco-friendly, and small size than previously light sources such as incandescent, fluorescent bulbs and so on. Optical wireless visible light communication (OWVLC) based on LED merges lighting and communications in applications such as indoor lighting, traffic signals, vehicles, and underwater communications because LED can be easily modulated. However, physical bandwidth of LED is limited about several MHz by slow time constant of the phosphor and characteristics of device. Therefore, using the simplest modulation format which is non-return-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK), the data rate reaches only to dozens Mbit/s. Thus, to improve the transmission capacity, optical filtering and pre-, post-equalizer are adapted. Also, high-speed wireless connectivity is implemented using spectrally efficient modulation methods: orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT). However, these modulation methods need additional digital signal processing such as FFT and IFFT, thus complexity of transmitter and receiver is increasing. To reduce the complexity of transmitter and receiver, we proposed a novel modulation scheme which is named differential pulse amplitude modulation. The proposed modulation scheme transmits different NRZ-OOK signals with same amplitude and unit time delay using each LED chip, respectively. The `N' parallel signals from LEDs are overlapped and directly detected at optical receiver. Received signal is demodulated by power difference between unit time slots. The proposed scheme can overcome the bandwidth limitation of LEDs and data rate can be improved according to number of LEDs without complex digital signal processing.

  8. Fuzzy control with amplitude/pulse-width modulation of nerve electrical stimulation for muscle force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.-C. K.; Liu, W.-C.; Chan, C.-C.; Ju, M.-S.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to study the performance of fuzzy logic controllers combined with simplified hybrid amplitude/pulse-width (AM/PW) modulation to regulate muscle force via nerve electrical stimulation. The recruitment curves with AM/PW and AM modulations were constructed for the calf muscles of rabbits. Integrated with the modulation methods, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and three fuzzy logic controllers were designed and applied for the electrical stimulation of tibial nerves to control the ankle torque under isometric conditions. The performance of the two modulation methods combined with the four controllers was compared when the ankle was fixed at three positions for both in vivo experiments and model simulations using a nonlinear muscle model. For the animal experiments, AM/PW modulation performed better than AM modulation alone. The fuzzy PI controller performed marginally better and was resistant to external noises, though it tended to have a larger overshoot. The performance of the controllers had a similar trend in the three different joint positions, and the simulation results with the nonlinear model matched the experimental results well. In conclusion, AM/PW modulation improved controller performance, while the contribution of fuzzy logic was only marginal.

  9. Optical spectral reshaping for directly modulated 4-pulse amplitude modulation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozolins, Oskars; Da Ros, Francesco; Cristofori, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous traffic growth in intra/inter-datacenters requires low-cost high-speed integrated solutions [1]. To enable a significantly reduced footprint directly modulated lasers (DMLs) have been proposed instead of large external modulators. However, it is challenging to use DMLs due to their......The tremendous traffic growth in intra/inter-datacenters requires low-cost high-speed integrated solutions [1]. To enable a significantly reduced footprint directly modulated lasers (DMLs) have been proposed instead of large external modulators. However, it is challenging to use DMLs due...... (PAM) [3] signals. However, moving to 4-PAM,many of the impressive demonstrations reported so far rely heavily on off-line digital signal processing (DSP), which increases latency, power consumption and cost. In this talk, we report on (i) a detailed numerical analysis on the complex transfer function...

  10. Modulation masking produced by complex-tone modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, Stephan; Verhey, J.L.; Dau, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    Thresholds were measured for detecting sinusoidal amplitude modulation in the presence of a complex-tone masker modulation. Both modulations were applied to the same sinusoidal carrier. Two different masker modulations were used: (i) a pair of components beating at the difference frequency and (ii......) a three-tone complex producing a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the modulation depth at the difference frequency between adjacent components. Both maskers show a periodicity in the waveform that is not contained in the envelope spectrum itself but can be observed when the envelope of the envelope......, referred to as the "venelope" [Ewert et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112. 2921-2931 (2002)], is calculated. For a signal frequency equal to the masker-venelope periodicity, modulation depth at threshold was measured as a function of the signal phase relative to the phase of the masker-venelope component...

  11. Bayesian interpolation in a dynamic sinusoidal model with application to packet-loss concealment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Cemgil, Ali Taylan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Bayesian interpolation and parameter estimation in a dynamic sinusoidal model. This model is more flexible than the static sinusoidal model since it enables the amplitudes and phases of the sinusoids to be time-varying. For the dynamic sinusoidal model, we derive...

  12. Application and analysis of performance of dqpsk advanced modulation format in spectral amplitude coding ocdma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.

    2015-01-01

    SAC (Spectral Amplitude Coding) is a technique of OCDMA (Optical Code Division Multiple Access) to encode and decode data bits by utilizing spectral components of the broadband source. Usually OOK (ON-Off-Keying) modulation format is used in this encoding scheme. To make SAC OCDMA network spectrally efficient, advanced modulation format of DQPSK (Differential Quaternary Phase Shift Keying) is applied, simulated and analyzed, m-sequence code is encoded in the simulated setup. Performance regarding various lengths of m-sequence code is also analyzed and displayed in the pictorial form. The results of the simulation are evaluated with the help of electrical constellation diagram, eye diagram and bit error rate graph. All the graphs indicate better transmission quality in case of advanced modulation format of DQPSK used in SAC OCDMA network as compared with OOK. (author)

  13. Application and Analysis of Performance of DQPSK Advanced Modulation Format in Spectral Amplitude Coding OCDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Memon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SAC (Spectral Amplitude Coding is a technique of OCDMA (Optical Code Division Multiple Access to encode and decode data bits by utilizing spectral components of the broadband source. Usually OOK (ON-Off-Keying modulation format is used in this encoding scheme. To make SAC OCDMA network spectrally efficient, advanced modulation format of DQPSK (Differential Quaternary Phase Shift Keying is applied, simulated and analyzed. m-sequence code is encoded in the simulated setup. Performance regarding various lengths of m-sequence code is also analyzed and displayed in the pictorial form. The results of the simulation are evaluated with the help of electrical constellation diagram, eye diagram and bit error rate graph. All the graphs indicate better transmission quality in case of advanced modulation format of DQPSK used in SAC OCDMA network as compared with OOK

  14. Amplitude modulation of hydromagnetic waves and associated rogue waves in magnetoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R.; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2012-09-01

    It is shown that the dynamics of amplitude-modulated compressional dispersive Alfvénic (CDA) waves in a collisional megnetoplasma is governed by a complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation. The nonlinear dispersion relation for the modulational instability of the CDA waves is derived and investigated numerically. It is found that the growth rate of the modulational instability decreases (increases) with the increase of the normalized electron-ion collision frequency α (the plasma β). The modulational instability criterion for the CGL equation is defined precisely and investigated numerically. The region of the modulational instability becomes narrower with the increase of α and β, indicating that the system dissipates the wave energy by collisions, and a stable CDA wave envelope packet in the form of a hole will be a dominant localized pulse. For a collisionless plasma, i.e., α=0, the CGL equation reduces to the standard nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. The latter is used to investigate the modulational (in)stability region for the CDA waves in a collisionless magnetoplasma. It is shown that, within unstable regions, a random set of nonlinearly interacting CDA perturbations leads to the formation of CDA rogue waves. In order to demonstrate that the characteristics of the CDA rogue waves are influenced by the plasma β, the relevant numerical analysis of the appropriate nonlinear solution of the NLS equation is presented. The application of our investigation to space and laboratory magnetoplasmas is discussed.

  15. An integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator bias controller based on eye-amplitude monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Hyeong; Jung, Hyun-Yong; Zimmermann, Lars; Choi, Woo-Young

    2016-03-01

    A novel integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) bias controller based on eye-amplitude monitoring is demonstrated in IHP's 0.25-μm BiCMOS technology. The bias controller monitors the MZM output light, automatically moves the MZM bias voltage to the optimal value that produces the largest eye amplitude, and maintains it there even if the MZM transfer characteristics change due to thermal drift. The controller is based on the feedback loop consisting of Si photodetector, trans-impedance amplifier, rectifier, square amplifier, track-and-hold circuit, comparator, polarity changer, and charge-pump, all of which are monolithically integrated. The area of the controller is 0.083-mm2 and it consumes 92.5-mW. Our bias controller shows successful operation for a commercially-available 850-nm LiNbO3 MZM modulated with 3-Gbps PRBS data by maintaining a very clean eye for at least 30 minutes. Without the controller, the eye for the same MZM modulation becomes completely closed due to thermal drift. The data rate is limited by the Si PD integrated in the controller not by the controller architecture. Since our controller is based on the Si BiCMOS technology which can also provide integrated Si photonics devices on the same Si, it has a great potential for realizing a Si MZM with an integrated bias controller, which should fully demonstrate the advantage of electronic-photonic integrated circuit technology.

  16. A novel oscillation control for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Lin, Yiyu; Liu, Siqi; Zheng, Xudong; Jin, Zhonghe

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a novel oscillation control algorithm for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes using a modified electromechanical amplitude modulation (MEAM) technique, which enhances the robustness against the frequency variation of the driving mode, compared to the conventional EAM (CEAM) scheme. In this approach, the carrier voltage exerted on the proof mass is frequency-modulated by the drive resonant frequency. Accordingly, the pick-up signal from the interface circuit involves a constant-frequency component that contains the amplitude and phase information of the vibration displacement. In other words, this informational detection signal is independent of the mechanical resonant frequency, which varies due to different batches, imprecise micro-fabrication and changing environmental temperature. In this paper, the automatic gain control loop together with the phase-locked loop are simultaneously analyzed using the averaging method and Routh-Hurwitz criterion, deriving the stability condition and the parameter optimization rules of the transient response. Then, a simulation model based on the real system is set up to evaluate the control algorithm. Further, the proposed MEAM method is tested using a field-programmable-gate-array based digital platform on a capacitive vibratory gyroscope. By optimizing the control parameters, the transient response of the drive amplitude reveals a settling time of 45.2 ms without overshoot, according well with the theoretical prediction and simulation results. The first measurement results show that the amplitude variance of the drive displacement is 12 ppm in an hour while the phase standard deviation is as low as 0.0004°. The mode-split gyroscope operating under atmospheric pressure demonstrates an outstanding performance. By virtue of the proposed MEAM method, the bias instability and angle random walk are measured to be 0.9° h-1 (improved by 2.4 times compared to the CEAM method) and 0.068° (√h)-1 (improved by 1.4 times

  17. Evidence of functional connectivity between auditory cortical areas revealed by amplitude modulation sound processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguin, Marie; Le Bouquin-Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Chauvel, Patrick; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    The human auditory cortex includes several interconnected areas. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in auditory cortical functions requires a detailed knowledge of neuronal connectivity between functional cortical regions. In human, it is difficult to track in vivo neuronal connectivity. We investigated the interarea connection in vivo in the auditory cortex using a method of directed coherence (DCOH) applied to depth auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). This paper presents simultaneous AEPs recordings from insular gyrus (IG), primary and secondary cortices (Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale), and associative areas (Brodmann area [BA] 22) with multilead intracerebral electrodes in response to sinusoidal modulated white noises in 4 epileptic patients who underwent invasive monitoring with depth electrodes for epilepsy surgery. DCOH allowed estimation of the causality between 2 signals recorded from different cortical sites. The results showed 1) a predominant auditory stream within the primary auditory cortex from the most medial region to the most lateral one whatever the modulation frequency, 2) unidirectional functional connection from the primary to secondary auditory cortex, 3) a major auditory propagation from the posterior areas to the anterior ones, particularly at 8, 16, and 32 Hz, and 4) a particular role of Heschl's sulcus dispatching information to the different auditory areas. These findings suggest that cortical processing of auditory information is performed in serial and parallel streams. Our data showed that the auditory propagation could not be associated to a unidirectional traveling wave but to a constant interaction between these areas that could reflect the large adaptive and plastic capacities of auditory cortex. The role of the IG is discussed.

  18. Temporal response properties of retinal ganglion cells in rd1 mice evoked by amplitude-modulated electrical pulse trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sang Baek; Ye, Jang Hee; Goo, Yong Sook; Kim, Chi Hyun; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2010-12-01

    The electrophysiological properties of degenerated retinas responding to amplitude-modulated electrical pulse trains were investigated to provide a guideline for the development of a stimulation strategy for retinal prostheses. The activities of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in response to amplitude-modulated pulse trains were recorded from an in vitro model of retinal prosthesis, which consisted of an rd1 mouse retinal patch attached to a planar multielectrode array. The ability of the population activities of RGCs to effectively represent, or encode, the information on the visual intensity time series, when the intensity of visual input is transformed to pulse amplitudes, was investigated. An optimal pulse amplitude range was selected so that RGC firing rates increased monotonically and linearly. An approximately 10-Hz rhythm was observed in the field potentials from degenerated retinas, which resulted in a rhythmic burst of spontaneous spikes. Multiple peaks were present in poststimulus time histograms, with interpeak intervals corresponding to the oscillation frequency of the field potentials. Phase resetting of the field potential oscillation by stimulation was consistently observed. Despite a prominent alteration of the properties of electrically evoked firing with respect to normal retinas, RGC response strengths could be modulated by pulse amplitude. Accordingly, the temporal information of stimulation could be faithfully represented in the RGC firing patterns by an amplitude-modulated pulse train. The results suggest that pulse amplitude modulation is a feasible means of implementing a stimulation strategy for retinal prostheses, despite the marked change in the physiological properties of RGCs in degenerated retinas.

  19. Reflection-type spatial amplitude modulation of visible light based on a sub-wavelength plasmonic absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chi-Young; Yi, Yoonsik; Choi, Choon-Gi

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for reflection-type spatial amplitude modulation using a sub-wavelength plasmonic absorber structure that can operate in the visible region. We utilize a pixelated array of absorbing elements based on a two-dimensional sub-wavelength metal grating, and the reflectance of each pixel is controlled by simple structural modification. For the purpose of validation, numerical simulations were performed on an amplitude modulation hologram fabricated using our method.

  20. Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Talli, G; Ellis, A D; Townsend, P D

    2008-02-04

    We demonstrate a novel Rayleigh interferometric noise mitigation scheme for applications in carrier-distributed dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) passive optical networks at 10 Gbit/s using carrier suppressed subcarrier-amplitude modulated phase shift keying modulation. The required optical signal to Rayleigh noise ratio is reduced by 12 dB, while achieving excellent tolerance to dispersion, subcarrier frequency and drive amplitude variations.

  1. Research proposal on: amplitude modulated reflectometry system for the JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, B.; Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la

    1992-01-01

    Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been present in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2π The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad- band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for onospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasmas. The main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts ( ∼ 2π ). (Author) 2 refs

  2. A microscopic approach to amplitude modulation with small signal of current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaretti, G.; Brambilla, M.; Milani, M.

    1988-01-01

    A microscopic approach to semiconductor injection laser dynamics is discussed to investigate the amplitude modulation with a small current signal in semiconductor lasers. An expression for the resonance frequency ν r is obtained as a function of microscopic parameters which characterize the laser system. This expression can be compared with the one derived from a standard rate equations approach, showing the existence of an additional factor. This factor leads to the prediction of a larger resonance frequency and consequently to a better agreement with the experimental data. The authors investigate the problem of amplitude modulation with small current signal in semiconductor lasers deriving an expression for the resonance frequency as a function of microscopic parameters which characterize the laser system and as a function of the injected current. This approach is based on the analysis of the competition among the fundamental microscopic processes typical of light-matter interaction and of the loss and pumping mechanisms that are at work in a laser system

  3. Research proposal on: amplitude modulated reflectometry system for the JET divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.; Branas, B.; Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la

    1992-07-01

    Amplitude Modulated reflectometry is presented here as a tool for density profile measurements in the JET divertor plasmas. One of the main problems which has been present in most reflectometers during the last years is the need for a coherent tracking of the phase delay: fast density fluctuations and strong modulation on the amplitude of the reflected signal usually bring to fringe jumps in the phase signal, which are a big problem when the phase values are much larger than 2{pi} The conditions in the JET divertor plasmas: plasma geometry, access and long oversized broad- band waveguide paths makes very difficult the phase measurements at the millimeter wave range. AM reflectometry is to some extension an intermediate solution between the classical phase delay reflectometry, so far applied to small distances, and the time domain reflectometry, used for onospheric studies and recently also proposed for fusion plasmas. The main advantage is to allow the use of millimeter wave reflectometry with moderate phase shifts ( {approx} 2{pi} ). (Author) 2 refs.

  4. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eLaing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we use amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only or auditory-visual (AV trials in the scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent or different modulation rates (AV incongruent. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for auditory-visual integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.

  5. Amplitude-modulated stimuli reveal auditory-visual interactions in brain activity and brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Mark; Rees, Adrian; Vuong, Quoc C

    2015-01-01

    The temporal congruence between auditory and visual signals coming from the same source can be a powerful means by which the brain integrates information from different senses. To investigate how the brain uses temporal information to integrate auditory and visual information from continuous yet unfamiliar stimuli, we used amplitude-modulated tones and size-modulated shapes with which we could manipulate the temporal congruence between the sensory signals. These signals were independently modulated at a slow or a fast rate. Participants were presented with auditory-only, visual-only, or auditory-visual (AV) trials in the fMRI scanner. On AV trials, the auditory and visual signal could have the same (AV congruent) or different modulation rates (AV incongruent). Using psychophysiological interaction analyses, we found that auditory regions showed increased functional connectivity predominantly with frontal regions for AV incongruent relative to AV congruent stimuli. We further found that superior temporal regions, shown previously to integrate auditory and visual signals, showed increased connectivity with frontal and parietal regions for the same contrast. Our findings provide evidence that both activity in a network of brain regions and their connectivity are important for AV integration, and help to bridge the gap between transient and familiar AV stimuli used in previous studies.

  6. Decadal amplitude modulation of two types of ENSO and its relationship with the mean state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung; An, Soon-Il [Yonsei University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Global Environmental Laboratory, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, Sang-Wook [Hanyang University, Department of Environmental Marine Science, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we classified two types of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events within the decadal ENSO amplitude modulation cycle using a long-term coupled general circulation model simulation. We defined two climate states - strong and weak ENSO amplitude periods - and separated the characteristics of ENSO that occurred in both periods. There are two major features in the characteristics of ENSO: the first is the asymmetric spatial structure between El Nino and La Nina events; the second is that the El Nino-La Nina asymmetry is reversed during strong and weak ENSO amplitude periods. El Nino events during strong (weak) ENSO amplitude periods resemble the Eastern Pacific (Central Pacific) El Nino in terms of the spatial distribution of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and physical characteristics based on heat budget analysis. The spatial pattern of the thermocline depth anomaly for strong (weak) El Nino is identical to that for weak (strong) La Nina, but for an opposite sign and slightly different amplitude. The accumulated residuals of these asymmetric anomalies dominated by an east-west contrast structure could feed into the tropical Pacific mean state. Moreover, the residual pattern associated with El Nino-La Nina asymmetry resembles the first principal component analysis (PCA) mode of tropical Pacific decadal variability, indicating that the accumulated residuals could generate the change in climate state. Thus, the intensified ENSO amplitude yields the warm residuals due to strong El Nino and weak La Nina over the eastern tropical Pacific. This linear relationship between ENSO and the mean state is strong during the mature phases of decadal oscillation, but it is weak during the transition phases. Furthermore, the second PCA mode of tropical Pacific decadal variability plays an important role in changing the phase of the first mode. Consequently, the feedback between ENSO and the mean state is positive feedback to amplify the first PCA mode

  7. Parametric resonances in the amplitude-modulated probe-field absorption spectrum of a two-level atom driven by a resonance amplitude- and phase-modulated pumping field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushilov, N.V.; Kholodkevich, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the polarization induced by a weak probe field with periodically modulated amplitude in a two-level medium saturated by a strong amplitude-and phase-modulated resonance field. It is shown that the absorption spectrum of the probe field includes parametric resonances, the maxima corresponding to the condition δ= 2nΓ-Ω w and the minima to that of δ= (2n + 1)Γ- w , where δ is the probe-field detuning front the resonance frequency, Ω w is the modulation frequency of the probe-field amplitude, and Γ is the transition line width, n = 1, 2, 3, hor-ellipsis. At the specific modulation parameters, a substantial region of negative values (i.e., the region of amplification without the population inversion) exists in the absorption spectrum of the probe field

  8. Perceptual interaction between carrier periodicity and amplitude modulation in broadband stimuli: A comparison of the autocorrelation and modulation-filterbank model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, A.; Ewert, Stephan; Wiegrebe, L.

    2005-01-01

    , autocorrelation is applied. Considering the large overlap in pitch and modulation perception, this is not parsimonious. Two experiments are presented to investigate the interaction between carrier periodicity, which produces strong pitch sensations, and envelope periodicity using broadband stimuli. Results show......Recent temporal models of pitch and amplitude modulation perception converge on a relatively realistic implementation of cochlear processing followed by a temporal analysis of periodicity. However, for modulation perception, a modulation filterbank is applied whereas for pitch perception...

  9. Electroencephalography Amplitude Modulation Analysis for Automated Affective Tagging of Music Video Clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerico, Andrea; Tiwari, Abhishek; Gupta, Rishabh; Jayaraman, Srinivasan; Falk, Tiago H.

    2018-01-01

    The quantity of music content is rapidly increasing and automated affective tagging of music video clips can enable the development of intelligent retrieval, music recommendation, automatic playlist generators, and music browsing interfaces tuned to the users' current desires, preferences, or affective states. To achieve this goal, the field of affective computing has emerged, in particular the development of so-called affective brain-computer interfaces, which measure the user's affective state directly from measured brain waves using non-invasive tools, such as electroencephalography (EEG). Typically, conventional features extracted from the EEG signal have been used, such as frequency subband powers and/or inter-hemispheric power asymmetry indices. More recently, the coupling between EEG and peripheral physiological signals, such as the galvanic skin response (GSR), have also been proposed. Here, we show the importance of EEG amplitude modulations and propose several new features that measure the amplitude-amplitude cross-frequency coupling per EEG electrode, as well as linear and non-linear connections between multiple electrode pairs. When tested on a publicly available dataset of music video clips tagged with subjective affective ratings, support vector classifiers trained on the proposed features were shown to outperform those trained on conventional benchmark EEG features by as much as 6, 20, 8, and 7% for arousal, valence, dominance and liking, respectively. Moreover, fusion of the proposed features with EEG-GSR coupling features showed to be particularly useful for arousal (feature-level fusion) and liking (decision-level fusion) prediction. Together, these findings show the importance of the proposed features to characterize human affective states during music clip watching. PMID:29367844

  10. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.

  11. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated

  12. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C., E-mail: claire.baraduc@cea.fr; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ducruet, C. [Crocus-Technology, 5, Place Robert Schuman, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Vila, L. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-09-07

    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.

  13. Minimising the effect of nanoparticle deformation in intermittent contact amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, Bakir; Lawn, Malcolm A.; Coleman, Victoria A.; Jämting, Åsa K.; Herrmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The results of systematic height measurements of polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles using intermittent contact amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (IC-AM-AFM) are presented. The experimental findings demonstrate that PS nanoparticles deform during AFM imaging, as indicated by a reduction in the measured particle height. This deformation depends on the IC-AM-AFM imaging parameters, material composition, and dimensional properties of the nanoparticles. A model for nanoparticle deformation occurring during IC-AM-AFM imaging is developed as a function of the peak force which can be calculated for a particular set of experimental conditions. The undeformed nanoparticle height can be estimated from the model by extrapolation to zero peak force. A procedure is proposed to quantify and minimise nanoparticle deformation during IC-AM-AFM imaging, based on appropriate adjustments of the experimental control parameters.

  14. Differential Amplitude Pulse-Position Modulation for Indoor Wireless Optical Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethakaset Ubolthip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel differential amplitude pulse-position modulation (DAPPM for indoor optical wireless communications. DAPPM yields advantages over PPM, DPPM, and DH-PIM in terms of bandwidth requirements, capacity, and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR. The performance of a DAPPM system with an unequalized receiver is examined over nondispersive and dispersive channels. DAPPM can provide better bandwidth and/or power efficiency than PAM, PPM, DPPM, and DH-PIM depending on the number of amplitude levels and the maximum length of a symbol. We also show that, given the same maximum length, DAPPM has better bandwidth efficiency but requires about and more power than PPM and DPPM, respectively, at high bit rates over a dispersive channel. Conversely, DAPPM requires less power than DH-PIM . When the number of bits per symbol is the same, PAM requires more power, and DH-PIM less power, than DAPPM. Finally, it is shown that the performance of DAPPM can be improved with MLSD, chip-rate DFE, and multichip-rate DFE.

  15. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ren, Yu-Xuan, E-mail: yxren@ustc.edu.cn [National Center for Protein Sciences Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Vaveliuk, Pablo [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC), Cno. Centenario y 506, P.O. Box 3, 1897 Gonnet, La Plata, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De, E-mail: lrd@ustc.edu.cn [Physics Experiment Teaching Center, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-11-28

    Needle-like electromagnetic field has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device. Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We further produced an elongated focal line by concentrating the SAB via lenses with different NAs and achieved an ultralong longitudinal needle focus. The produced long needle focus will be applied in optical, chemical, and biological sciences.

  16. Sustained selective attention to competing amplitude-modulations in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Lars; Scharke, Wolfgang; Valente, Giancarlo; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Auditory selective attention plays an essential role for identifying sounds of interest in a scene, but the neural underpinnings are still incompletely understood. Recent findings demonstrate that neural activity that is time-locked to a particular amplitude-modulation (AM) is enhanced in the auditory cortex when the modulated stream of sounds is selectively attended to under sensory competition with other streams. However, the target sounds used in the previous studies differed not only in their AM, but also in other sound features, such as carrier frequency or location. Thus, it remains uncertain whether the observed enhancements reflect AM-selective attention. The present study aims at dissociating the effect of AM frequency on response enhancement in auditory cortex by using an ongoing auditory stimulus that contains two competing targets differing exclusively in their AM frequency. Electroencephalography results showed a sustained response enhancement for auditory attention compared to visual attention, but not for AM-selective attention (attended AM frequency vs. ignored AM frequency). In contrast, the response to the ignored AM frequency was enhanced, although a brief trend toward response enhancement occurred during the initial 15 s. Together with the previous findings, these observations indicate that selective enhancement of attended AMs in auditory cortex is adaptive under sustained AM-selective attention. This finding has implications for our understanding of cortical mechanisms for feature-based attentional gain control.

  17. EEG amplitude modulation analysis for semi-automated diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Tiago H.; Fraga, Francisco J.; Trambaiolli, Lucas; Anghinah, Renato

    2012-12-01

    Recent experimental evidence has suggested a neuromodulatory deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this paper, we present a new electroencephalogram (EEG) based metric to quantitatively characterize neuromodulatory activity. More specifically, the short-term EEG amplitude modulation rate-of-change (i.e., modulation frequency) is computed for five EEG subband signals. To test the performance of the proposed metric, a classification task was performed on a database of 32 participants partitioned into three groups of approximately equal size: healthy controls, patients diagnosed with mild AD, and those with moderate-to-severe AD. To gauge the benefits of the proposed metric, performance results were compared with those obtained using EEG spectral peak parameters which were recently shown to outperform other conventional EEG measures. Using a simple feature selection algorithm based on area-under-the-curve maximization and a support vector machine classifier, the proposed parameters resulted in accuracy gains, relative to spectral peak parameters, of 21.3% when discriminating between the three groups and by 50% when mild and moderate-to-severe groups were merged into one. The preliminary findings reported herein provide promising insights that automated tools may be developed to assist physicians in very early diagnosis of AD as well as provide researchers with a tool to automatically characterize cross-frequency interactions and their changes with disease.

  18. A novel injection-locked amplitude-modulated magnetron at 1497 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) uses low efficiency klystrons in the CEBAF machine. In the older portion they operate at 30% efficiency with a tube mean time between failure (MTBF) of five to six years. A highly efficient source (>55-60%) must provide a high degree of backwards compatibility, both in size and voltage requirements, to replace the klystron presently used at JLab, while providing energy savings. Muons, Inc. is developing a highly reliable, highly efficient RF source based upon a novel injection-locked amplitude modulated (AM) magnetron with a lower total cost of ownership, >80% efficiency, and MTBF of six to seven years. The design of the RF source is based upon a single injection-locked magnetron system at 8 kW capable of operating up to 13 kW, using the magnetron magnetic field to achieve the AM required for backwards compatibility to compensate for microphonics and beam loads. A novel injection-locked 1497 MHz 8 kW AM magnetron with a trim magnetic coil was designed and its operation numerically simulated during the Phase I project. The low-level RF system to control the trim field and magnetron anode voltage was designed and modeled for operation at the modulation frequencies of the microphonics. A plan for constructing a prototype magnetron and control system was developed.

  19. Quasi-periodic Pulse Amplitude Modulation in the Accreting Millisecond Pulsar IGR J00291+5934

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bult, Peter [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Doesburgh, Marieke van; Klis, Michiel van der [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-08-20

    We introduce a new method for analyzing the aperiodic variability of coherent pulsations in accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars (AMXPs). Our method involves applying a complex frequency correction to the time-domain light curve, allowing for the aperiodic modulation of the pulse amplitude to be robustly extracted in the frequency domain. We discuss the statistical properties of the resulting modulation spectrum and show how it can be correlated with the non-pulsed emission to determine if the periodic and aperiodic variability are coupled processes. Using this method, we study the 598.88 Hz coherent pulsations of the AMXP IGR J00291+5934 as observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and XMM-Newton . We demonstrate that our method easily confirms the known coupling between the pulsations and a strong 8 mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in XMM-Newton observations. Applying our method to the RXTE observations, we further show, for the first time, that the much weaker 20 mHz QPO and its harmonic are also coupled with the pulsations. We discuss the implications of this coupling and indicate how it may be used to extract new information on the underlying accretion process.

  20. Cavitation on hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation characteristics of hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge were examined experimentally at a Reynolds number of 7.2 × 105. The hydrofoils had an underlying NACA 634-021 profile and an aspect ratio of 4.3. The sinusoidal leading edge geometries included three amplitudes of 2.5%, 5%, and 12% and two wavelengths of 25% and 50% of the mean chord length. Results revealed that cavitation on the leading edge-modified hydrofoils existed in pockets behind the troughs whereas the baseline hydrofoil produced cavitation along its entire span. Moreover, cavitation on the modified hydrofoils appeared at consistently lower angles of attack than on the baseline hydrofoil.

  1. Orbital component extraction by time-variant sinusoidal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Zivanovic, Miroslav; De Vleeschouwer, David; Claeys, Philippe; Schoukens, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Accurately deciphering periodic variations in paleoclimate proxy signals is essential for cyclostratigraphy. Classical spectral analysis often relies on methods based on the (Fast) Fourier Transformation. This technique has no unique solution separating variations in amplitude and frequency. This characteristic makes it difficult to correctly interpret a proxy's power spectrum or to accurately evaluate simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency in evolutionary analyses. Here, we circumvent this drawback by using a polynomial approach to estimate instantaneous amplitude and frequency in orbital components. This approach has been proven useful to characterize audio signals (music and speech), which are non-stationary in nature (Zivanovic and Schoukens, 2010, 2012). Paleoclimate proxy signals and audio signals have in nature similar dynamics; the only difference is the frequency relationship between the different components. A harmonic frequency relationship exists in audio signals, whereas this relation is non-harmonic in paleoclimate signals. However, the latter difference is irrelevant for the problem at hand. Using a sliding window approach, the model captures time variations of an orbital component by modulating a stationary sinusoid centered at its mean frequency, with a single polynomial. Hence, the parameters that determine the model are the mean frequency of the orbital component and the polynomial coefficients. The first parameter depends on geologic interpretation, whereas the latter are estimated by means of linear least-squares. As an output, the model provides the orbital component waveform, either in the depth or time domain. Furthermore, it allows for a unique decomposition of the signal into its instantaneous amplitude and frequency. Frequency modulation patterns can be used to reconstruct changes in accumulation rate, whereas amplitude modulation can be used to reconstruct e.g. eccentricity-modulated precession. The time-variant sinusoidal model

  2. Heteronuclear refocusing by nonlinear phase and amplitude modulation on a single transmitter channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay; Colón, Raul D; Tadanki, Sasidhar; Waddell, Kevin W

    2014-08-01

    The application of low magnetic fields to heteronuclear NMR has expanded recently alongside the emergence of methods for achieving near unity polarization of spin ensembles, independent of magnetic field strength. The parahydrogen induced hyperpolarization methods in particular, often use a hybrid arrangement where a high field spectrometer is used to detect or image polarized molecules that have been conjured on a separate, dedicated polarizer instrument operating at fields in the mT regime where yields are higher. For controlling polarizer chemistry, spare TTL channels of portable NMR spectrometers can be used to pulse program reaction timings in synchrony with heteronuclear RF transformations. The use of a spectrometer as a portable polarizer control module has the advantage of allowing detection in situ, simplifying the process of optimizing polarization yields prior to in vivo experimental trials. Suitable heteronuclear spectrometers compatible with this application are becoming more common, but are still sparsely available in comparison to a large existing infrastructure of single channel NMR consoles. With the goal of expanding the range of these systems to multinuclear applications, the feasibility of rotating a pair of heteronuclear spins ((13)C and (1)H) at 12mT was investigated in this study. Nonlinear phase and amplitude modulated waveforms designed to simultaneously refocus magnetization at 128kHz ((13)C) and 510kHz ((1)H) were generated numerically with optimal control. Although precise quantitative comparisons were not attempted due to limitations of the experimental setup, signals refocused at heteronuclear frequencies with this PANORAMIC approach (Precession And Nutation for Observing Rotation At Multiple Intervals about the Carrier) yielded amplitudes comparable to signals which were refocused using traditional block pulses on heteronuclear channels. Using this PANORAMIC approach to heteronuclear NMR at low field would reduce expense as well as

  3. Heteronuclear refocusing by nonlinear phase and amplitude modulation on a single transmitter channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay; Colón, Raul D.; Tadanki, Sasidhar; Waddell, Kevin W.

    2014-08-01

    The application of low magnetic fields to heteronuclear NMR has expanded recently alongside the emergence of methods for achieving near unity polarization of spin ensembles, independent of magnetic field strength. The parahydrogen induced hyperpolarization methods in particular, often use a hybrid arrangement where a high field spectrometer is used to detect or image polarized molecules that have been conjured on a separate, dedicated polarizer instrument operating at fields in the mT regime where yields are higher. For controlling polarizer chemistry, spare TTL channels of portable NMR spectrometers can be used to pulse program reaction timings in synchrony with heteronuclear RF transformations. The use of a spectrometer as a portable polarizer control module has the advantage of allowing detection in situ, simplifying the process of optimizing polarization yields prior to in vivo experimental trials. Suitable heteronuclear spectrometers compatible with this application are becoming more common, but are still sparsely available in comparison to a large existing infrastructure of single channel NMR consoles. With the goal of expanding the range of these systems to multinuclear applications, the feasibility of rotating a pair of heteronuclear spins (13C and 1H) at 12 mT was investigated in this study. Nonlinear phase and amplitude modulated waveforms designed to simultaneously refocus magnetization at 128 kHz (13C) and 510 kHz (1H) were generated numerically with optimal control. Although precise quantitative comparisons were not attempted due to limitations of the experimental setup, signals refocused at heteronuclear frequencies with this PANORAMIC approach (Precession And Nutation for Observing Rotation At Multiple Intervals about the Carrier) yielded amplitudes comparable to signals which were refocused using traditional block pulses on heteronuclear channels. Using this PANORAMIC approach to heteronuclear NMR at low field would reduce expense as well as

  4. Comparison of perceptual properties of auditory streaming between spectral and amplitude modulation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Shimpei; Otsuka, Sho; Furukawa, Shigeto; Kashino, Makio

    2017-07-01

    The two-tone sequence (ABA_), which comprises two different sounds (A and B) and a silent gap, has been used to investigate how the auditory system organizes sequential sounds depending on various stimulus conditions or brain states. Auditory streaming can be evoked by differences not only in the tone frequency ("spectral cue": ΔF TONE , TONE condition) but also in the amplitude modulation rate ("AM cue": ΔF AM , AM condition). The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the perceptual properties of auditory streaming for the TONE and AM conditions. A sequence with a long duration (400 repetitions of ABA_) was used to examine the property of the bistability of streaming. The ratio of feature differences that evoked an equivalent probability of the segregated percept was close to the ratio of the Q-values of the auditory and modulation filters, consistent with a "channeling theory" of auditory streaming. On the other hand, for values of ΔF AM and ΔF TONE evoking equal probabilities of the segregated percept, the number of perceptual switches was larger for the TONE condition than for the AM condition, indicating that the mechanism(s) that determine the bistability of auditory streaming are different between or sensitive to the two domains. Nevertheless, the number of switches for individual listeners was positively correlated between the spectral and AM domains. The results suggest a possibility that the neural substrates for spectral and AM processes share a common switching mechanism but differ in location and/or in the properties of neural activity or the strength of internal noise at each level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A new minimum fluorescence parameter, as generated using pulse frequency modulation, compared with pulse amplitude modulation: Falpha versus Fo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A Harrison; DeLong, John M; Franklin, Jeffrey L; Lada, Rajasekaran R; Prange, Robert K

    2008-09-01

    The minimum fluorescence parameter (Falpha), generated using the new pulse frequency modulation (PFM) technology, was compared with the minimum fluorescence parameter (Fo), generated by pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), in response to a reversible low-oxygen stress in 'Honeycrisp'trade mark (HC) apples (Malus domestica) and an irreversible osmotic stress induced by water loss in two grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars ('L'Acadie' (LAc) and 'Thompson Seedless' (TS)). The minimum fluorescence values produced by both fluorometer types in response to a reversible low-oxygen stress in apples were indistinguishable: both Fo and Falpha increased when O2 levels were lowered below the anaerobic compensation point (ACP); when gas levels returned to normoxia both parameters dipped below, then returned to, the original fluorescence baseline. The two parameters also responded similarly to the irreversible osmotic stress in grapes: in both cultivars, Falpha and Fo first decreased before reaching an inflection point at approximately 20% mass loss and then increased towards a second inflection point. However, the two parameters were not analogous under the irreversible osmotic stress; most notably, the relative Falpha values appeared to be lower than Fo during the later stages of dehydration. This was likely due to the influence of the Fm parameter and an overestimation of Falpha when measuring the fluorescence from healthy and responsive chloroplasts as found in grapes experiencing minimal water loss, but not in grapes undergoing moderate to severe dehydration. An examination of the data during a typical PFM scan reveals this fluorometer system may yield new fluorescence information with interesting biological applications.

  6. Wave-packet dynamics of noninteracting ultracold bosons in an amplitude-modulated parabolic optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Tomotake; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2015-06-01

    The recent Aarhus experiment [Phys. Rev. A 88, 023620 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023620] produced wave packets by applying amplitude modulation to a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 87Rb using an optical lattice. The present paper renders a theoretical account of this experimental production of wave packets and their subsequent time evolution, focusing on a one-dimensional noninteracting bosonic system as a fundamental starting point for accurate quantum analysis. Since experimental manipulation requires efficient wave-packet creation, we introduce the "single-Q Rabi model" to give a simple and reliable description of the interband transition. As a natural extension, we demonstrate enhancement of the wave-packet production by the "two-step Rabi oscillation method" using either one or two frequencies. The subsequent time evolution is affected by the intertwining of Bragg reflection and the Landau-Zener transition at each band gap, which is analyzed with the aid of a semiclassical theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 085302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.085302].

  7. Quantized motion of Rydberg atoms in an amplitude-modulated lattice potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovsky, Vladimir; Moore, Kaitlin; Ramos, Andira; Georg, Georg

    2017-04-01

    We present a model description of the spectroscopic line shape of Rydberg transitions in an amplitude-modulated Rydberg-atom lattice taking into account the quantization of the center-of-mass motion. In our model, the wave function of both ground and excited states are subject to the periodic potentials that arise from the optical-lattice fields. In contrast to other spectroscopic scheme, in our work the coupling (the effective Rabi frequency) is also periodic as function of the translational coordinate, and it is perfectly phase-locked to the lattice trapping potential. By solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in momentum representation we obtain the spectrum of the excited-state population. The numerical results for the momentum components of the ground and excited wave functions are averaged over the thermal momentum distribution of the Rydberg atoms. The effect of the lattice parameters and the interaction strength on the line shape of the Rydberg transitions is discussed.

  8. Enabling practical surface acoustic wave nebulizer drug delivery via amplitude modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa, Anushi; Qi, Aisha; Yeo, Leslie Y; Coppel, Ross; Friend, James R

    2014-06-07

    A practical, commercially viable microfluidic device relies upon the miniaturization and integration of all its components--including pumps, circuitry, and power supply--onto a chip-based platform. Surface acoustic waves (SAW) have become popular in microfluidic manipulation, in solving the problems of microfluidic manipulation, but practical applications employing SAW still require more power than available via a battery. Introducing amplitude modulation at 0.5-40 kHz in SAW nebulization, which requires the highest energy input levels of all known SAW microfluidic processes, halves the power required to 1.5 W even while including the power in the sidebands, suitable for small lithium ion batteries, and maintains the nebulization rate, size, and size distributions vital to drug inhalation therapeutics. This simple yet effective means to enable an integrated SAW microfluidics device for nebulization exploits the relatively slow hydrodynamics and is furthermore shown to deliver shear-sensitive biomolecules--plasmid DNA and antibodies as exemplars of future pulmonary gene and vaccination therapies--undamaged in the nebulized mist. Altogether, the approach demonstrates a means to offer truly micro-scale microfluidics devices in a handheld, battery powered SAW nebulization device.

  9. Wavelet analysis of pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence for differentiation of plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya; Zhou, Yesen; Tan, Jinglu

    2015-04-07

    Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) from photosystem II (PSII) of plants has been routinely measured for the analysis of photosynthesis and environmental changes. PAM ChlF from PSII is non-stationary and has time-varying frequency characteristics; however, existing analysis of PAM ChlF has been limited to selected characteristic values in the time domain. Wavelet transform is recognized as an efficient tool for analyzing non-stationary signals. In this research, an attempt was made to analyze PAM ChlF through wavelet transform. Features of PAM ChlF signals were computed from wavelet decomposition to classify two tree species and to detect chilling and detachment stresses. The wavelet-based features were compared with the commonly-used maximal PSII efficiency Fv/Fm. Both the wavelet-based features and Fv/Fm could effectively classify two tree species, but the former showed superiority than the latter in detecting the stresses. Wavelet transform revealed chilling stress earlier than Fv/Fm and detected detachment stress Fv/Fm failed to show. The results show that wavelet transform is a useful technique for analysis of PAM ChlF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Circular birefringence/dichroism measurement of optical scattering samples using amplitude-modulation polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Chun; Lo, Yu-Lung; Phan, Quoc-Hung

    2018-03-01

    A method is proposed for extracting the circular birefringence (CB), circular dichroism (CD) and depolarization (Dep) properties of optical scattering samples using an amplitude-modulation polarimetry technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by extracting the CB property of pure glucose aqueous samples, the CB/Dep properties of glucose solutions containing 0.02% lipofundin particles, and the CD/Dep properties of chlorophyllin solutions containing suspended polystyrene microspheres. The results show that the proposed technique has the ability to detect pure glucose with a resolution of 66 mg/dL over a concentration range of 0-500 mg/dL. Moreover, the glucose concentration of the CB/Dep samples can be detected over the same range with a resolution of 168 mg/dL. Finally, the chlorophyllin concentration of the CD/Dep sample can be detected over the range of 0-200 μg/dL with a resolution of 6.5 × 10-5. In general, the results show that the proposed technique provides a reliable and accurate means of measuring the CB/CD properties of optical samples with scattering effects, and thus has significant potential for biological sensing applications.

  11. VCSEL-Based DWDM PON With 4 BIT/S/HZ Spectral Efficiency Using Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Wieckowski, Marcin; Pham, Tien Thang

    2011-01-01

    We experimental demonstrate successful performance of VCSEL-based WDM link supporting advanced 16-level carrierless amplitude/phase modulation up to 1.25 Gbps, over 26 km SSMF with spectral efficiency of 4 bit/s/Hz for application in high capacity PONs....

  12. 10Gb/s Ultra-Wideband Wireless Transmission Based on Multi-Band Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a record UWB transmission of 10Gb/s is experimentally demonstrated employing a multi-band approach of carrierless amplitude phase modulation (MultiCAP). The proposed solution complies with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both the ...

  13. 10Gb/s Ultra-Wideband Wireless Transmission Based on Multi-Band Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a record UWB transmission of 10Gb/s is experimentally demonstrated employing a multi-band approach of carrierless amplitude phase modulation (MultiCAP). The proposed solution complies with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both...

  14. Digital quadrature amplitude modulation with optimized non-rectangular constellations for 100 Gb/s transmission by a directly-modulated laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, William A; Lyubomirsky, Ilya; Solgaard, Olav

    2014-05-05

    We study the performance of novel quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations for 100 Gb/s transmission by a directly-modulated laser. Due to the strong nonlinearity of a directly-modulated laser, rectangular constellations suffer a large penalty from their regular spacing between symbols. We present a method for synthesizing irregular constellations which position symbols more efficiently. We will demonstrate the improved performance of these novel constellations over the conventional rectangular constellation as well as the superior performance achievable with digital QAM compared to optimally bit-loaded discrete-multitone modulation.

  15. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2013-09-15

    Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F0/Fv. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency ( [Formula: see text] , EC50=303 ± 64 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC50=142 ± 98 μg UL(-1) after 5h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from fluorescence induction kinetics are valuable indicators for evaluating the impact of uranium on PSII in green algae. PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response to uranium in microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Resolving the contribution of the uncoupled phycobilisomes to cyanobacterial pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Alonso M; Snellenburg, Joris J; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H M

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry is extensively used to characterize photosynthetic organisms on the slow time-scale (1-1000 s). The saturation pulse method allows determination of the quantum yields of maximal (F(M)) and minimal fluorescence (F(0)), parameters related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, when the sample undergoes a certain light treatment during the measurement, the fluorescence quantum yields of the unquenched and the quenched states can be determined. In the case of cyanobacteria, however, the recorded fluorescence does not exclusively stem from the chlorophyll a in photosystem II (PSII). The phycobilins, the pigments of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes (PB), also contribute to the PAM signal, and therefore, F(0) and F(M) are no longer related to PSII only. We present a functional model that takes into account the presence of several fluorescent species whose concentrations can be resolved provided their fluorescence quantum yields are known. Data analysis of PAM measurements on in vivo cells of our model organism Synechocystis PCC6803 is discussed. Three different components are found necessary to fit the data: uncoupled PB (PB(free)), PB-PSII complexes, and free PSI. The free PSII contribution was negligible. The PB(free) contribution substantially increased in the mutants that lack the core terminal emitter subunits allophycocyanin D or allophycocyanin F. A positive correlation was found between the amount of PB(free) and the rate constants describing the binding of the activated orange carotenoid protein to PB, responsible for non-photochemical quenching.

  17. Determination of refractive index and absorbance modulation amplitudes from angular selectivity of holograms in polymer material with phenanthrenequinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Vladimir; Veniaminov, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    Amplitude and phase contributions to mixed volume holographic gratings were extracted from measured contours of angular selectivity. Holograms for the investigation were recorded in the glassy polymer material with phenan-threnequinone (PQ) using the DPSS CW laser (532 nm) and then self-developed due to molecular diffusion of PQ, reaching diffraction efficiency about 40%. Refractive index and absorbance modulation amplitudes of those holograms were obtained as adjustable parameters from theoretical equations by fitting angular dependencies of zeros and 1st orders diffraction efficiency measured at 450, 473, 532, and 633 nm at the different stages of hologram development. Mixed gratings manifest themselves in asymmetrical transmittance selectivity contours with one minimum and one maximum shifted with respect to the Bragg angle, while symmetrical contours with a minimum or a maximum at the Bragg angle are characteristic of pure phase and amplitude gratings, respectively. In the course of a hologram development, it converts from a predominantly amplitude-mixed to almost purely phase one in the case of readout using a light within the absorption band of PQ and maintains the phase nature besides it. The value of refractive index amplitude is ranging from 5×10-6 to 10-4 and the value of absorbance amplitude is up to 140 m-1.

  18. Glimpsing Speech in the Presence of Nonsimultaneous Amplitude Modulations from a Competing Talker: Effect of Modulation Rate, Age, and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Bologna, William J.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how listeners process acoustic cues preserved during sentences interrupted by nonsimultaneous noise that was amplitude modulated by a competing talker. Method: Younger adults with normal hearing and older adults with normal or impaired hearing listened to sentences with consonants or vowels replaced with noise…

  19. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlory, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.herlory@gmail.com [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bonzom, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bonzom@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire d’Ecotoxicologie des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Gilbin, Rodolphe, E-mail: rodolphe.gilbin@irsn.fr [IRSN-Laboratoire de Biogéochimie, Biodisponibilité et Transferts des Radionucléides, Centre de Cadarache, BP3, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F{sub 0}/F{sub v}. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F{sup ′}{sub q}/F{sup ′}{sub m}, EC{sub 50} = 303 ± 64 μg U L{sup −1} after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC{sub 50} = 142 ± 98 μg U L{sup −1} after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown

  20. Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Our study addressed the toxicity thresholds of uranium on microalgae using PAM fluorometry. •The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium. •Uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition. •Non-photochemical quenching was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter. •PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response. -- Abstract: Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5 h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F 0 /F v . Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency (F ′ q /F ′ m , EC 50 = 303 ± 64 μg U L −1 after 5 h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC 50 = 142 ± 98 μg U L −1 after 5 h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from

  1. Dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration in single pump fibre optic parametric amplifiers using DPSK modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain.......Input power dynamic range enhancement and amplitude regeneration of highly distorted signals are demonstrated experimentally for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK in a single-pump fibre parametric amplifier with 22 dB smallsignal gain....

  2. Nonlinear asteroseismology: insight from amplitude and frequency modulations of oscillation modes in compact pulsators from Kepler photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Weikai; Charpinet, Stéphane; Vauclair, Gérard; Giammichele, Noemi; Van Grootel, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    Nonlinear mode interactions are difficult to observe from ground-based telescopes as the typical periods of the modulations induced by those nonlinear phenomena are on timescales of weeks, months, even years. The launch of space telescopes, e.g., Kepler, has tremendously changed the situation and shredded new light on this research field. We present results from Kepler photometry showing evidence that nonlinear interactions between modes occur in the two compact pulsators KIC 8626021, a DB white dwarf, and KIC 10139564, a short period hot B subdwarf. KIC 8626021 and KIC 10139564 had been monitored by Kepler in short-cadence for nearly two years and more than three years without interruption, respectively. By analyzing these high-quality photometric data, we found that the modes within the triplets induced by rotation clearly reveal different behaviors: their frequencies and amplitudes may exhibit either periodic or irregular modulations, or remain constant. These various behaviors of the amplitude and of the frequency modulations of the oscillation modes observed in these two stars are in good agreement with those predicted within the amplitude equation formalism in the case of the nonlinear resonant mode coupling mechanism.

  3. Nonlinear asteroseismology: insight from amplitude and frequency modulations of oscillation modes in compact pulsators from Kepler photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Weikai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear mode interactions are difficult to observe from ground-based telescopes as the typical periods of the modulations induced by those nonlinear phenomena are on timescales of weeks, months, even years. The launch of space telescopes, e.g., Kepler, has tremendously changed the situation and shredded new light on this research field. We present results from Kepler photometry showing evidence that nonlinear interactions between modes occur in the two compact pulsators KIC 8626021, a DB white dwarf, and KIC 10139564, a short period hot B subdwarf. KIC 8626021 and KIC 10139564 had been monitored by Kepler in short-cadence for nearly two years and more than three years without interruption, respectively. By analyzing these high-quality photometric data, we found that the modes within the triplets induced by rotation clearly reveal different behaviors: their frequencies and amplitudes may exhibit either periodic or irregular modulations, or remain constant. These various behaviors of the amplitude and of the frequency modulations of the oscillation modes observed in these two stars are in good agreement with those predicted within the amplitude equation formalism in the case of the nonlinear resonant mode coupling mechanism.

  4. Interferential current therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: comparison of the effectiveness of different amplitude-modulated frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundog, Meltem; Atamaz, Funda; Kanyilmaz, Selcen; Kirazli, Yesim; Celepoglu, Gunay

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of different amplitude-modulated frequencies of interferential current (IFC) and sham IFC on knee osteoarthritis. A randomized and single-blind study was performed on 60 patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. The patients were allocated to three active IFC groups (40, 100, and 180 Hz), and one sham IFC group. Treatments were performed 5 times a week for 3 wks consecutively. Each patient was assessed at the end of the treatments and at the first month using the following measurements: visual analog scale (pain at rest, pain on movement and disability), physician and patient judgments regarding treatment effectiveness, 15-m walking time (in minutes), range of motion (ROM), the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and paracetamol intake (g/wk). Although there were significant improvements in all variables, except WOMAC stiffness and range of motion, measured in all groups at the end of the treatment and during the follow-up, this improvement was greater in active IFC groups than in the sham group. The improvement in WOMAC stiffness was observed only in active IFC treatment groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference between different amplitude-modulated frequencies of IFC treatments was observed. This study demonstrated the superiority of the IFC with some advantages on pain and disability outcomes when compared with sham IFC for the management of knee osteoarthritis. However, the effectiveness of different amplitude-modulated frequencies of IFC was not superior when compared with each other.

  5. A Comparison Study of Sinusoidal PWM and Space Vector PWM Techniques for Voltage Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Türksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methods used to control voltage source inverters which have been intensively investigated in recent years are compared. Although the most efficient result is obtained with the least number of switching elements in the inverter topologies, the method used in the switching is at least as effective as the topology. Besides, the selected switching method to control the inverter will play an effective role in suppressing harmonic components while producing the ideal output voltage. There are many derivatives of pulse width modulation techniques that are commonly used to control voltage source inverters. Some of widespread methods are sinusoidal pulse width modulation and space vector pulse width modulation techniques. These modulation techniques used for generating variable frequency and amplitude output voltage in voltage source inverters, have been simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. And, the total harmonic distortions of the output voltages are compared. As a result of simulation studies, sinusoidal pulse width modulation has been found to have more total harmonic distortion in output voltages of voltage source inverters in the simulation. Space vector pulse width modulation has been shown to produce a more efficient output voltage with less total harmonic distortion.

  6. Superpixel-based spatial amplitude and phase modulation using a digital micromirror device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorden, S.A.; Bertolotti, J.; Mosk, Allard

    2014-01-01

    We present a superpixel method for full spatial phase and amplitude control of a light beam using a digital micromirror device (DMD) combined with a spatial filter. We combine square regions of nearby micromirrors into superpixels by low pass filtering in a Fourier plane of the DMD. At each

  7. Acoustic analog computing based on a reflective metasurface with decoupled modulation of phase and amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shu-Yu; Tian, Ye; Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2018-03-01

    The use of metasurfaces has allowed the provision of a variety of functionalities by ultrathin structures, paving the way toward novel highly compact analog computing devices. Here, we conceptually realize analog computing using an acoustic reflective computational metasurface (RCM) that can independently manipulate the reflection phase and amplitude of an incident acoustic signal. This RCM is composed of coating unit cells and perforated panels, where the first can tune the transmission phase within the full range of 2π and the second can adjust the reflection amplitude in the range of 0-1. We show that this RCM can achieve arbitrary reflection phase and amplitude and can be used to realize a unique linear spatially invariant transfer function. Using the spatial Fourier transform (FT), an acoustic analog computing (AAC) system is proposed based on the RCM together with a focusing lens. Based on numerical simulations, we demonstrate that this AAC system can perform mathematical operations such as spatial differentiation, integration, and convolution on an incident acoustic signal. The proposed system has low complexity and reduced size because the RCM is able to individually adjust the reflection phase and amplitude and because only one block is involved in performing the spatial FT. Our work may offer a practical, efficient, and flexible approach to the design of compact devices for acoustic computing applications, signal processing, equation solving, and acoustic wave manipulations.

  8. Amplitude modulation rate dependent topographic organization of the auditory steady-state response in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Nathan; Lithari, Chrysoula

    2017-10-01

    Periodic modulations of an acoustic feature, such as amplitude over a certain frequency range, leads to phase locking of neural responses to the envelope of the modulation. Using electrophysiological methods this neural activity pattern, also called the auditory steady-state response (aSSR), is visible following frequency transformation of the evoked response as a clear spectral peak at the modulation frequency. Despite several studies employing the aSSR that show, for example, strongest responses for ∼40 Hz and an overall right-hemispheric dominance, it has not been investigated so far to what extent within auditory cortex different modulation frequencies elicit aSSRs at a homogenous source or whether the localization of the aSSR is topographically organized in a systematic manner. The latter would be suggested by previous neuroimaging works in monkeys and humans showing a periodotopic organization within and across distinct auditory fields. However, the sluggishness of the signal from these neuroimaging works prohibit inferences with regards to the fine-temporal features of the neural response. In the present study, we employed amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds over a range between 4 and 85 Hz to elicit aSSRs while recording brain activity via magnetoencephalography (MEG). Using beamforming and a fine spatially resolved grid restricted to auditory cortical processing regions, our study revealed a topographic representation of the aSSR that depends on AM rate, in particular in the medial-lateral (bilateral) and posterior-anterior (right auditory cortex) direction. In summary, our findings confirm previous studies that showing different AM rates to elicit maximal response in distinct neural populations. They extend these findings however by also showing that these respective neural ensembles in auditory cortex actually phase lock their activity over a wide modulation frequency range. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-channel logical circuit module used for high-speed, low amplitude signals processing and QDC gate signals generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Hong; Li Xiaogang; Zhu Haidong; Ma Xiaoli; Yin Weiwei; Li Zhuyu; Jin Genming; Wu Heyu

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of logical circuit will be introduced in brief. There are 16 independent channels in the module. The module receives low amplitude signals(≥40 mV), and processes them to amplify, shape, delay, sum and etc. After the processing each channel produces 2 pairs of ECL logical signal to feed the gate of QDC as the gate signal of QDC. The module consists of high-speed preamplifier unit, high-speed discriminate unit, delaying and shaping unit, summing unit and trigger display unit. The module is developed for 64 CH. 12 BIT Multi-event QDC. The impedance of QDC is 110 Ω. Each gate signal of QDC requires a pair of differential ECL level, Min. Gate width 30 ns and Max. Gate width 1 μs. It has showed that the outputs of logical circuit module satisfy the QDC requirements in experiment. The module can be used on data acquisition system to acquire thousands of data at high-speed ,high-density and multi-parameter, in heavy particle nuclear physics experiment. It also can be used to discriminate multi-coincidence events

  10. The generation of flat-top beams by complex amplitude modulation with a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hendriks, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase-only spatial light modulators are now ubiquitous tools in modern optics laboratories, and are often used to generate so-called structured light. In this work we outline the use of a phase-only spatial light modulator to achieve full complex...

  11. A high-resolution two-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectrum using a spectral amplitude modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chenhui; Zhang, Shian; Wu, Meizhen; Jia, Tianqing; Sun, Zhenrong; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectra suffer from low spectral resolution because of the broadband laser spectrum. In this paper, we propose a feasible scheme to achieve a high-resolution two-pulse CARS spectrum by shaping both the pump and probe pulses using rectangular amplitude modulation. We show that a narrowband hole in the CARS spectrum can be created by the amplitude-shaped laser pulse, the position of which is correlated with the Raman resonant frequency of the molecule. Thus, by observing holes in the CARS spectrum, we are able to obtain a high-resolution CARS spectrum and the energy-level diagram of the molecule. (paper)

  12. Identification of Buried Objects in GPR Using Amplitude Modulated Signals Extracted from Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lihong; Qin, Yao; Ren, Xiaozhen; Wang, Qifu

    2015-12-04

    It is necessary to detect the target reflections in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images, so that surface metal targets can be identified successfully. In order to accurately locate buried metal objects, a novel method called the Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis (MMSA) system is applied in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images. This process includes four steps. First the image is decomposed by the MMSA to extract the amplitude component of the B-scan image. The amplitude component enhances the target reflection and suppresses the direct wave and reflective wave to a large extent. Then we use the region of interest extraction method to locate the genuine target reflections from spurious reflections by calculating the normalized variance of the amplitude component. To find the apexes of the targets, a Hough transform is used in the restricted area. Finally, we estimate the horizontal and vertical position of the target. In terms of buried object detection, the proposed system exhibits promising performance, as shown in the experimental results.

  13. Identification of Buried Objects in GPR Using Amplitude Modulated Signals Extracted from Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Qiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to detect the target reflections in ground penetrating radar (GPR images, so that surface metal targets can be identified successfully. In order to accurately locate buried metal objects, a novel method called the Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis (MMSA system is applied in ground penetrating radar (GPR images. This process includes four steps. First the image is decomposed by the MMSA to extract the amplitude component of the B-scan image. The amplitude component enhances the target reflection and suppresses the direct wave and reflective wave to a large extent. Then we use the region of interest extraction method to locate the genuine target reflections from spurious reflections by calculating the normalized variance of the amplitude component. To find the apexes of the targets, a Hough transform is used in the restricted area. Finally, we estimate the horizontal and vertical position of the target. In terms of buried object detection, the proposed system exhibits promising performance, as shown in the experimental results.

  14. Pathology of the liver sinusoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Hubscher, Stefan G.; Tiniakos, Dina G.; Bedossa, Pierre; Burt, Alastair D.; Callea, Francesco; Clouston, Andrew D.; Dienes, Hans P.; Goodman, Zachary D.; Roberts, Eve A.; Roskams, Tania; Terracciano, Luigi; Torbenson, Michael S.; Wanless, Ian R.

    The hepatic sinusoids comprise a complex of vascular conduits to transport blood from the porta hepatis to the inferior vena cava through the liver. Under normal conditions, portal venous and hepatic artery pressures are equalized within the sinusoids, oxygen and nutrients from the systemic

  15. Techniques for Effective Optical Noise Rejection in Amplitude-Modulated Laser Optical Radars for Underwater Three-Dimensional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francucci M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude-modulated (AM laser imaging is a promising technology for the production of accurate three-dimensional (3D images of submerged scenes. The main challenge is that radiation scattered off water gives rise to a disturbing signal (optical noise that degrades more and more the quality of 3D images for increasing turbidity. In this paper, we summarize a series of theoretical findings, that provide valuable hints for the development of experimental methods enabling a partial rejection of optical noise in underwater imaging systems. In order to assess the effectiveness of these methods, which range from modulation/demodulation to polarimetry, we carried out a series of experiments by using the laboratory prototype of an AM 3D imager ( = 405 nm for marine archaeology surveys, in course of realization at the ENEA Artificial Vision Laboratory (Frascati, Rome. The obtained results confirm the validity of the proposed methods for optical noise rejection.

  16. Techniques for Effective Optical Noise Rejection in Amplitude-Modulated Laser Optical Radars for Underwater Three-Dimensional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ricci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude-modulated (AM laser imaging is a promising technology for the production of accurate three-dimensional (3D images of submerged scenes. The main challenge is that radiation scattered off water gives rise to a disturbing signal (optical noise that degrades more and more the quality of 3D images for increasing turbidity. In this paper, we summarize a series of theoretical findings, that provide valuable hints for the development of experimental methods enabling a partial rejection of optical noise in underwater imaging systems. In order to assess the effectiveness of these methods, which range from modulation/demodulation to polarimetry, we carried out a series of experiments by using the laboratory prototype of an AM 3D imager (λ = 405 nm for marine archaeology surveys, in course of realization at the ENEA Artificial Vision Laboratory (Frascati, Rome. The obtained results confirm the validity of the proposed methods for optical noise rejection.

  17. Optimal sinusoidal modelling of gear mesh vibration signals for gear diagnosis and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Zhihong; Wang, Wenyi; Khoo, Suiyang; Yin, Juliang

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the synchronous signal average of gear mesh vibration signals is modelled with the multiple modulated sinusoidal representations. The signal model parameters are optimised against the measured signal averages by using the batch learning of the least squares technique. With the optimal signal model, all components of a gear mesh vibration signal, including the amplitude modulations, the phase modulations and the impulse vibration component induced by gear tooth cracking, are identified and analysed with insight of the gear tooth crack development and propagation. In particular, the energy distribution of the impulse vibration signal, extracted from the optimal signal model, provides sufficient information for monitoring and diagnosing the evolution of the tooth cracking process, leading to the prognosis of gear tooth cracking. The new methodologies for gear mesh signal modelling and the diagnosis of the gear tooth fault development and propagation are validated with a set of rig test data, which has shown excellent performance.

  18. Experience Drives Synchronization: The phase and Amplitude Dynamics of Neural Oscillations to Musical Chords Are Differentially Modulated by Musical Expertise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Johanne Pallesen

    Full Text Available Musical expertise is associated with structural and functional changes in the brain that underlie facilitated auditory perception. We investigated whether the phase locking (PL and amplitude modulations (AM of neuronal oscillations in response to musical chords are correlated with musical expertise and whether they reflect the prototypicality of chords in Western tonal music. To this aim, we recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG while musicians and non-musicians were presented with common prototypical major and minor chords, and with uncommon, non-prototypical dissonant and mistuned chords, while watching a silenced movie. We then analyzed the PL and AM of ongoing oscillations in the theta (4-8 Hz alpha (8-14 Hz, beta- (14-30 Hz and gamma- (30-80 Hz bands to these chords. We found that musical expertise was associated with strengthened PL of ongoing oscillations to chords over a wide frequency range during the first 300 ms from stimulus onset, as opposed to increased alpha-band AM to chords over temporal MEG channels. In musicians, the gamma-band PL was strongest to non-prototypical compared to other chords, while in non-musicians PL was strongest to minor chords. In both musicians and non-musicians the long-latency (> 200 ms gamma-band PL was also sensitive to chord identity, and particularly to the amplitude modulations (beats of the dissonant chord. These findings suggest that musical expertise modulates oscillation PL to musical chords and that the strength of these modulations is dependent on chord prototypicality.

  19. Large amplitude change in spot-induced rotational modulation of the Kepler Ap star KIC 2569073

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drury, Jason A.; Murphy, Simon J.; Derekas, Aliz

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of the 200 x 200 pixel 'superstamp' images of the centres of the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819 allows for the identification and study of many variable stars that were not included in the Kepler target list. KIC 2569073 (V= 14.22), is a particularly interesting variable Ap...... star that we discovered in the NGC 6791 superstamp. With a rotational period of 14.67 d and 0.034 mag variability, it has one of the largest peak-to-peak variations of any known Ap star. Colour photometry reveals an antiphase correlation between the B band, and the V, R and I bands. This Ap star...... is a rotational variable, also known as an alpha(2) CVn star, and is one of only a handful of Ap stars observed by Kepler. While no change in spot period or amplitude is observed within the 4 yr Kepler time series, the amplitude shows a large increase compared to ground-based photometry obtained two decades ago....

  20. Multisensory interaction in vibrotactile detection and discrimination of amplitude modulation: insights from expert MFS surgeons and naive participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korman Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception of vibration during drilling demands integration of haptic and auditory information with force information. In this study we explored the ability to detect and discriminate changes in vibrotactile stimuli amplitude based either on purely haptic feedback or together with congruent synthesized auditory cues in groups of naive subjects and expert surgeons. Our results point toward the complex influence of multimodal experience during vibration perception. First, in naive subjects, we showed that detection and discrimination of amplitude change in complex vibro-tactile stimulus is selectively sensitive to combination of modality and previous experience. In the domain of discrimination, our results suggest that bi-modal performance is always better than uni-modal performance regardless of order of experience. Second, experiments with expert surgeons revealed that expertise in complex skill of maxilla-facial surgery strongly relies on enhanced touch perception, as measured in reaction times and discrimination ability in bi-modal vibro-auditory conditions. These observations suggest that acquisition of mandibular surgery skill has brought to an enhanced representation of vibro-tactile modulations in relevant stimuli ranges. Altogether, our results provide basis to assume that during acquisition of mandibular drilling skill, trainees may benefit from training of relevant basic aspects of touch perception - sensitivity to vibration and accompanying modulations of sound.

  1. Forward Behavioral Modeling of a Three-Way Amplitude Modulator-Based Transmitter Using an Augmented Memory Polynomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Chatrath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reconfigurable and multi-standard RF front-ends for wireless communication and sensor networks have gained importance as building blocks for the Internet of Things. Simpler and highly-efficient transmitter architectures, which can transmit better quality signals with reduced impairments, are an important step in this direction. In this regard, mixer-less transmitter architecture, namely, the three-way amplitude modulator-based transmitter, avoids the use of imperfect mixers and frequency up-converters, and their resulting distortions, leading to an improved signal quality. In this work, an augmented memory polynomial-based model for the behavioral modeling of such mixer-less transmitter architecture is proposed. Extensive simulations and measurements have been carried out in order to validate the accuracy of the proposed modeling strategy. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated using normalized mean square error (NMSE for long-term evolution (LTE signals. NMSE for a LTE signal of 1.4 MHz bandwidth with 100,000 samples for digital combining and analog combining are recorded as −36.41 dB and −36.9 dB, respectively. Similarly, for a 5 MHz signal the proposed models achieves −31.93 dB and −32.08 dB NMSE using digital and analog combining, respectively. For further validation of the proposed model, amplitude-to-amplitude (AM-AM, amplitude-to-phase (AM-PM, and the spectral response of the modeled and measured data are plotted, reasonably meeting the desired modeling criteria.

  2. Forward Behavioral Modeling of a Three-Way Amplitude Modulator-Based Transmitter Using an Augmented Memory Polynomial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrath, Jatin; Aziz, Mohsin; Helaoui, Mohamed

    2018-03-03

    Reconfigurable and multi-standard RF front-ends for wireless communication and sensor networks have gained importance as building blocks for the Internet of Things. Simpler and highly-efficient transmitter architectures, which can transmit better quality signals with reduced impairments, are an important step in this direction. In this regard, mixer-less transmitter architecture, namely, the three-way amplitude modulator-based transmitter, avoids the use of imperfect mixers and frequency up-converters, and their resulting distortions, leading to an improved signal quality. In this work, an augmented memory polynomial-based model for the behavioral modeling of such mixer-less transmitter architecture is proposed. Extensive simulations and measurements have been carried out in order to validate the accuracy of the proposed modeling strategy. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated using normalized mean square error (NMSE) for long-term evolution (LTE) signals. NMSE for a LTE signal of 1.4 MHz bandwidth with 100,000 samples for digital combining and analog combining are recorded as -36.41 dB and -36.9 dB, respectively. Similarly, for a 5 MHz signal the proposed models achieves -31.93 dB and -32.08 dB NMSE using digital and analog combining, respectively. For further validation of the proposed model, amplitude-to-amplitude (AM-AM), amplitude-to-phase (AM-PM), and the spectral response of the modeled and measured data are plotted, reasonably meeting the desired modeling criteria.

  3. Modulation masking produced by second-order modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C.J.; Demany, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that an auditory nonlinearity converts second-order sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) (i.e., modulation of SAM depth) into a first-order SAM component, which contributes to the perception of second-order SAM. However, conversion may also occur in other ways......-carrier modulation frequency, phase relationship between the probe and masker modulator, and probe modulation depth. In experiment 1, the carrier was a 5-kHz sinusoid presented either alone or within a notched-noise masker in order to restrict off-frequency listening. In experiment 2, the carrier was a white noise....... The data obtained in both carrier conditions are consistent with the existence of a modulation distortion component. However, the phase yielding poorest detection performance varied across experimental conditions between 0° and 180°, confirming that, in addition to nonlinear mechanisms, cochlear filtering...

  4. Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude at low-latitudes: possible role of field line oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sinha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not

  5. Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude at low-latitudes: possible role of field line oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sinha

    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not

  6. Multiband Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation for High Capacity Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2014-01-01

    Short range optical data links are experiencing bandwidth limitations making it very challenging to cope with the growing data transmission capacity demands. Parallel optics appears as a valid short-term solution. It is, however, not a viable solution in the long-term because of its complex optical...... and bandwidth limitations and reduces the complexity of the transceiver. We report on numerical simulations and experimental demonstrations with capacity beyond 100 Gb/s transmission using a single externally modulated laser (EML). In addition, an extensive comparison with conventional CAP is also provided....... The reported experiment uses MultiCAP to achieve 102.4 Gb/s transmission, corresponding to a data payload of 95.2 Gb/s error free transmission by using a 7% forward error correction (FEC) code. The signal is successfully recovered after 15 km of standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in a system limited by a 3 d...

  7. Sinusoids theory and technological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Prem K

    2014-01-01

    A Complete Treatment of Current Research Topics in Fourier Transforms and Sinusoids Sinusoids: Theory and Technological Applications explains how sinusoids and Fourier transforms are used in a variety of application areas, including signal processing, GPS, optics, x-ray crystallography, radioastronomy, poetry and music as sound waves, and the medical sciences. With more than 200 illustrations, the book discusses electromagnetic force and sychrotron radiation comprising all kinds of waves, including gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light rays, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves. It also covers topics of common interest, such as quasars, pulsars, the Big Bang theory, Olbers' paradox, black holes, Mars mission, and SETI.The book begins by describing sinusoids-which are periodic sine or cosine functions-using well-known examples from wave theory, including traveling and standing waves, continuous musical rhythms, and the human liver. It next discusses the Fourier series and transform in both continuous and...

  8. Installation for measurement of the Hall emf and magnetoresistance in low-resistance materials by the amplitude modulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolla, E.V.; Luk'yanova, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    An installation is described for measuring the Hall electromotive force and the magnetorsistance ΔR(B)/R of low-resistance materials by means of the amplitude modulation method with double synchronous detection. An active filter, synchronous detectors, a phase shifter, rejector filter, scale amplifier and squarelaw generator are the basic units of the installation. The installation permits to record ΔR(B)/R approximately 10 -5 and the minimum Hall electromotive force of 10 -9 . Measurement results of the resistivity temperature dependencies, of the Hall coefficient and of the magnetoresistance of a Bisub(2)Tesub(2,7)Sesub(0.3) sample in the temperature range of 77-300 K are given

  9. Astronomical component estimation (ACE v.1) by time-variant sinusoidal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Zivanovic, Miroslav; De Vleeschouwer, David; Claeys, Philippe; Schoukens, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Accurately deciphering periodic variations in paleoclimate proxy signals is essential for cyclostratigraphy. Classical spectral analysis often relies on methods based on (fast) Fourier transformation. This technique has no unique solution separating variations in amplitude and frequency. This characteristic can make it difficult to correctly interpret a proxy's power spectrum or to accurately evaluate simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency in evolutionary analyses. This drawback is circumvented by using a polynomial approach to estimate instantaneous amplitude and frequency in orbital components. This approach was proven useful to characterize audio signals (music and speech), which are non-stationary in nature. Paleoclimate proxy signals and audio signals share similar dynamics; the only difference is the frequency relationship between the different components. A harmonic-frequency relationship exists in audio signals, whereas this relation is non-harmonic in paleoclimate signals. However, this difference is irrelevant for the problem of separating simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency. Using an approach with overlapping analysis frames, the model (Astronomical Component Estimation, version 1: ACE v.1) captures time variations of an orbital component by modulating a stationary sinusoid centered at its mean frequency, with a single polynomial. Hence, the parameters that determine the model are the mean frequency of the orbital component and the polynomial coefficients. The first parameter depends on geologic interpretations, whereas the latter are estimated by means of linear least-squares. As output, the model provides the orbital component waveform, either in the depth or time domain. Uncertainty analyses of the model estimates are performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, it allows for a unique decomposition of the signal into its instantaneous amplitude and frequency. Frequency modulation patterns reconstruct changes in

  10. High resolution DAS via sinusoidal frequency scan OFDR (SFS-OFDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Eyal; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-12-28

    There are many advantages to using direct frequency modulation for OFDR based DAS. However, achieving sufficiently linear scan via direct frequency modulation is challenging and poses limits on the scan parameters. A novel method for analyzing sinusoidal frequency modulated light is presented and demonstrated for both static and dynamic sensing. SFS-OFDR projects the measured signal onto appropriate sinusoidal phase terms to obtain spatial information. Thus, by using SFS-OFDR on sinusoidal modulated light it is possible to make use of the many advantages offered by direct frequency modulation without the limitations posed by the linearity requirement.

  11. Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation modulates the amplitude of EEG synchrony patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J Kim

    Full Text Available Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation has been associated with numerous cognitive and behavioural effects, such as enhancement of visual memory in healthy individuals, improvement of visual deficits in stroke patients, as well as possibly improvement of motor function in Parkinson's disease; yet, the mechanism of action is unclear. Since Parkinson's and other neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive dynamics of brain rhythms, we investigated whether noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation was associated with measurable changes in EEG oscillatory rhythms within theta (4-7.5 Hz, low alpha (8-10 Hz, high alpha (10.5-12 Hz, beta (13-30 Hz and gamma (31-50 Hz bands. We recorded the EEG while simultaneously delivering noisy bilateral, bipolar stimulation at varying intensities of imperceptible currents - at 10, 26, 42, 58, 74 and 90% of sensory threshold - to ten neurologically healthy subjects. Using standard spectral analysis, we investigated the transient aftereffects of noisy stimulation on rhythms. Subsequently, using robust artifact rejection techniques and the Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression and cross-validation, we assessed the combinations of channels and power spectral features within each EEG frequency band that were linearly related with stimulus intensity. We show that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation predominantly leads to a mild suppression of gamma power in lateral regions immediately after stimulation, followed by delayed increase in beta and gamma power in frontal regions approximately 20-25 s after stimulation ceased. Ongoing changes in the power of each oscillatory band throughout frontal, central/parietal, occipital and bilateral electrodes predicted the intensity of galvanic vestibular stimulation in a stimulus-dependent manner, demonstrating linear effects of stimulation on brain rhythms. We propose that modulation of neural oscillations is a potential mechanism for the previously

  12. Rate modulation detection thresholds for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, Tim; McKay, Colette; McDermott, Hugh

    2018-02-01

    The perception of temporal amplitude modulations is critical for speech understanding by cochlear implant (CI) users. The present study compared the ability of CI users to detect sinusoidal modulations of the electrical stimulation rate and current level, at different presentation levels (80% and 40% of the dynamic range) and modulation frequencies (10 and 100 Hz). Rate modulation detection thresholds (RMDTs) and amplitude modulation detection thresholds (AMDTs) were measured and compared to assess whether there was a perceptual advantage to either modulation method. Both RMDTs and AMDTs improved with increasing presentation level and decreasing modulation frequency. RMDTs and AMDTs were correlated, indicating that a common processing mechanism may underlie the perception of rate modulation and amplitude modulation, or that some subject-dependent factors affect both types of modulation detection.

  13. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  14. The substructure of immunoglobulin G resolved to 25 kDa using amplitude modulation AFM in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Neil H.

    2005-01-01

    Amplitude modulation (or tapping-mode) atomic force microscopy (AM AFM or TM AFM) in air can reveal sub-molecular details of isolated multi-subunit proteins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, on atomically flat support surfaces such as mica [A. San Paulo, R. Garcia, Biophys. J. 78(3) (2000) 1599]. This is achieved by controlling the microscope imaging parameters (e.g. cantilever drive frequency and set-point amplitude) to keep the AFM tip predominantly in the attractive force regime. Under these conditions, the 50 kDa F c and F ab subunits can be resolved when the molecule has the appropriate orientation on the surface. The presence of a water layer on hydrophilic mica is an important factor affecting imaging contrast, a consequence of capillary neck formation between tip and surface [L. Zitzler, S. Herminghaus, F. Mugele, Phys. Rev. B 66(15) (2002) 155436]. Desiccation of samples to remove surface bound water layers can yield reproducible imaging of the IgG substructure [N.H. Thomson, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 217(3) (2004) 193]. This approach has also given higher resolution than previously achieved, down to about 25 kDa, and these data are detailed here. These subdomains are formed as two immunoglobulin folds from the light and heavy peptide chains of the IgG crossover. This result has been validated by comparing the AFM images with X-ray crystallography data from the protein data bank. These data show that the AFM can obtain 25 kDa resolution on isolated protein molecules with commercially available silicon tips, but, as expected for a local probe technique, resolution is highly dependent on the macromolecular orientation on the support surface

  15. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meghan; Sawan, Mohamad; Dancause, Numa

    2016-01-01

    Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP) recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  16. Stochastic analysis/synthesis using sinusoidal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    This work proposes a method for re-synthesizing music for use in perceptual experiments regarding structural changes and in music creation. Atoms are estimated from music audio, modelled in a stochastic model, and re-synthesized from the model pa- rameters. The atoms are found by splitting...... sinusoids into short segments, and modelled into amplitude and envelope shape, frequency, time and duration. A simple model for creating envelopes with percussive, sustained or crescendo shape is presented. Single variable and joint probability density functions are created from the atom parameters and used...... to re-create sounds with the same distribution of the atoms parameters. A novel method for visualization music, the musigram, permits a better understanding of the re- synthesized sounds....

  17. Despeckle Filtering for Multiscale Amplitude-Modulation Frequency-Modulation (AM-FM Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images of the Intima-Media Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Loizou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intima-media thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA is widely used as an early indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Typically, the IMT grows with age and this is used as a sign of increased risk of CVD. Beyond thickness, there is also clinical interest in identifying how the composition and texture of the intima-media complex (IMC changed and how these textural changes grow into atherosclerotic plaques that can cause stroke. Clearly though texture analysis of ultrasound images can be greatly affected by speckle noise, our goal here is to develop effective despeckle noise methods that can recover image texture associated with increased rates of atherosclerosis disease. In this study, we perform a comparative evaluation of several despeckle filtering methods, on 100 ultrasound images of the CCA, based on the extracted multiscale Amplitude-Modulation Frequency-Modulation (AM-FM texture features and visual image quality assessment by two clinical experts. Texture features were extracted from the automatically segmented IMC for three different age groups. The despeckle filters hybrid median and the homogeneous mask area filter showed the best performance by improving the class separation between the three age groups and also yielded significantly improved image quality.

  18. Eight-state trellis-coded optical modulation with signal constellations of four-dimensional M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimura, Shota; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2015-03-09

    We apply the eight-state trellis-coded modulation (TCM) using signal constellations of four-dimensional M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (4D-MQAM) to optical communication systems for the first time to our knowledge. In the TCM scheme, the free distance of the trellis diagram is equal to the minimum distance between constellation points in partitioned subsets, which enlarges the coding gain effectively. In fact, its asymptotic power efficiency is 3-dB larger than that of the set-partitioned 4D-MQAM (SP-4D-MQAM) format, while their spectral efficiencies are the same. Such theoretical predictions are confirmed through computer simulations on eight-state TCM with constellations of 4D-4QAM (i.e., 4D quadrature phase-shift keying: 4D-QPSK) and 4D-16QAM. In particular, eight-state TCM with 4D-QPSK constellations is practically important because of its simple encoder structure, relatively low computational cost, and high coding gain against dual-polarization QPSK (DP-QPSK) and SP-4D-QPSK. Through measurements of its bit-error rate (BER) performance, we confirm that the coding gain against DP-QPSK is about 3 dB at BER=10(-3).

  19. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika; Walters, Deron; Cleveland, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic—yet decisive—question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid–liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface. (paper)

  20. FPGA Implementation of an Amplitude-Modulated Continuous-Wave Ultrasonic Ranger Using Restructured Phase-Locking Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sumathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate ultrasonic range finder employing Sliding Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT based restructured phase-locked loop (RPLL, which is an improved version of the recently proposed integrated phase-locking scheme (IPLL, has been expounded. This range finder principally utilizes amplitude-modulated ultrasonic waves assisted by an infrared (IR pilot signal. The phase shift between the envelope of the reference IR pilot signal and that of the received ultrasonic signal is proportional to the range. The extracted envelopes are filtered by SDFT without introducing any additional phase shift. A new RPLL is described in which the phase error is driven to zero using the quadrature signal derived from the SDFT. Further, the quadrature signal is reinforced by another cosine signal derived from a lookup table (LUT. The pulse frequency of the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO is extremely accurate, enabling fine tuning of the SDFT and RPLL also improves the lock time for the 50 Hz input signal to 0.04 s. The percentage phase error for the range 0.6 m to 6 m is about 0.2%. The VHDL codes generated for the various signal processing steps were downloaded into a Cyclone FPGA chip around which the ultrasonic ranger had been built.

  1. Theoretical Design of a Depolarized Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG on SMF-28 Single-Mode Standard Optical Fiber Based on Closed-Loop Sinusoidal Phase Modulation with Serrodyne Feedback Phase Modulation Using Simulation Tools for Tactical and Industrial Grade Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón José Pérez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents, by means of computational simulation tools, a full analysis and design of an Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG prototype based on a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase- modulation. The complete design of the different blocks, optical and electronic, is presented, including some novelties as the sinusoidal bias phase-modulation and the use of an integrator to generate the serrodyne phase-modulation signal. The paper includes detailed calculation of most parameter values, and the plots of the resulting signals obtained from simulation tools. The design is focused in the use of a standard single-mode optical fiber, allowing a cost competitive implementation compared to commercial IFOG, at the expense of reduced sensitivity. The design contains an IFOG model that accomplishes tactical and industrial grade applications (sensitivity ≤ 0.055 °/h. This design presents two important properties: (1 an optical subsystem with advanced conception: depolarization of the optical wave by means of Lyot depolarizers, which allows to use a sensing coil made by standard optical fiber, instead by polarization maintaining fiber, which supposes consequent cost savings and (2 a novel and simple electronic design that incorporates a linear analog integrator with reset in feedback chain, this integrator generating a serrodyne voltage-wave to apply to Phase-Modulator (PM, so that it will be obtained the interferometric phase cancellation. This particular feedback design with sawtooth-wave generated signal for a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase modulation has not been reported till now in the scientific literature and supposes a considerable simplification with regard to previous designs based on similar configurations. The sensing coil consists of an 8 cm average diameter spool that contains 300 m of standard single-mode optical-fiber (SMF-28 type realized by quadrupolar winding. The working

  2. Theoretical Design of a Depolarized Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) on SMF-28 Single-Mode Standard Optical Fiber Based on Closed-Loop Sinusoidal Phase Modulation with Serrodyne Feedback Phase Modulation Using Simulation Tools for Tactical and Industrial Grade Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ramón José; Álvarez, Ignacio; Enguita, José María

    2016-04-27

    This article presents, by means of computational simulation tools, a full analysis and design of an Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) prototype based on a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase- modulation. The complete design of the different blocks, optical and electronic, is presented, including some novelties as the sinusoidal bias phase-modulation and the use of an integrator to generate the serrodyne phase-modulation signal. The paper includes detailed calculation of most parameter values, and the plots of the resulting signals obtained from simulation tools. The design is focused in the use of a standard single-mode optical fiber, allowing a cost competitive implementation compared to commercial IFOG, at the expense of reduced sensitivity. The design contains an IFOG model that accomplishes tactical and industrial grade applications (sensitivity ≤ 0.055 °/h). This design presents two important properties: (1) an optical subsystem with advanced conception: depolarization of the optical wave by means of Lyot depolarizers, which allows to use a sensing coil made by standard optical fiber, instead by polarization maintaining fiber, which supposes consequent cost savings and (2) a novel and simple electronic design that incorporates a linear analog integrator with reset in feedback chain, this integrator generating a serrodyne voltage-wave to apply to Phase-Modulator (PM), so that it will be obtained the interferometric phase cancellation. This particular feedback design with sawtooth-wave generated signal for a closed-loop configuration with sinusoidal bias phase modulation has not been reported till now in the scientific literature and supposes a considerable simplification with regard to previous designs based on similar configurations. The sensing coil consists of an 8 cm average diameter spool that contains 300 m of standard single-mode optical-fiber (SMF-28 type) realized by quadrupolar winding. The working wavelength will be

  3. The sinusoid and the phasor

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kushal; Ramachandran, Harishankar

    2010-01-01

    Mathieu equation is widely used to study several natural phenomenon. In this paper, we show that replacing the sinusoid in the Mathieu equation with a phasor can lead to solutions that behave in a totally different way. Solutions of Mathieu equation are either bounded or grow unboundedly at an exponential rate. Solutions of this new equation are always unbounded and grow linearly with time.

  4. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access and Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation for Flexible Multi-User Provisioning in 5G Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Altabas, Jose Antonio; Puerta Ramírez, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a combined non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and multiband carrierless amplitude phase modulation (multiCAP) scheme is proposed for capacity enhancement of and flexible resource provisioning in 5G mobile networks. The proposed scheme is experimentally evaluated over a W-band mi...

  5. Does amplitude-modulated frequency have a role in the hypoalgesic response of interferential current on pressure pain sensitivity in healthy subjects? A randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes C, Jorge; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Magee, David J; Gross, Douglas

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the hypoalgesic effect of amplitude-modulated frequency during interferential current therapy using an experimentally induced mechanical pain model in normal subjects. This study examined pain pressure sensitivities achieved when the amplitude-modulated frequency parameter was present (100Hz) and absent (0Hz). Randomised controlled crossover trial with repeated measures. University research laboratory. Forty-six healthy volunteers (23 males, 23 females). Two interferential therapy protocols (with and without amplitude-modulated frequencies) were applied to the lumbar area on two different days. Pressure pain thresholds over the lumbar area were measured before, during and after application of the interferential therapy protocols. A three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures failed to show any statistically significant difference between the two protocols in modifying pressure pain threshold values (mean difference 0.017kg/cm(2), 95% confidence interval -0.384 to 0.350, P=0.93). Statistically significant differences were identified (Pinterferential therapy did not influence mechanical pain sensitivity in healthy subjects. Amplitude-modulated frequency is therefore unlikely to have a physiological hypoalgesic effect.

  6. Phase-stepped television holographic technique for measuring phase and amplitude maps of small vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldner, Henrik O.

    1996-07-01

    Phase stepping between frames in TV holography is combined with sinusoidal phase modulation to determine phase and amplitude distributions of objects vibrating with small amplitudes ( less than lambda /20, where lambda is the wavelength of the laser light used). This technique has applications in, for example, optical modal analysis and the determination of harmonic sound fields in air and water. The noise reduction that is obtained with the phase-stepping technique reduces the number of interferograms needed by one-half, which can shorten experimental time. The technique is robust, easy to use, and illustrated by modes of vibration in a simple plate and in a more complicated structure (a violin).

  7. Harmonic analysis of DC capacitor current in sinusoidal and space ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    triple-throw switch with the load terminal being the pole. The pole voltage vRO equals +0.5VDC, ... The harmonic content of the line current in a sinusoidally modulated NPC inverter is quite low when the switching ..... and the switching pulses for the switches SR2 and SR4 is generated by comparison with the bottom carrier.

  8. Sensitivity of echo enabled harmonic generation to sinusoidal electron beam energy structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hemsing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analytically examine the bunching factor spectrum of a relativistic electron beam with sinusoidal energy structure that then undergoes an echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG transformation to produce high harmonics. The performance is found to be described primarily by a simple scaling parameter. The dependence of the bunching amplitude on fluctuations of critical parameters is derived analytically, and compared with simulations. Where applicable, EEHG is also compared with high gain harmonic generation (HGHG and we find that EEHG is generally less sensitive to several types of energy structure. In the presence of intermediate frequency modulations like those produced by the microbunching instability, EEHG has a substantially narrower intrinsic bunching pedestal.

  9. Amplitude modulation drive to rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors with vibrators dimensions 8 mm x 2.16 mm X 1 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yang; Hanson, Ben; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin G

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, to exploit the contribution from not only the stators but also from other parts of miniature ultrasonic motors, an amplitude modulation drive is proposed to drive a miniature linear ultrasonic motor consisting of two rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plates. Using finite-element software, the first longitudinal and second lateral-bending frequencies of the vibrator are shown to be very close when its dimensions are 8 mm x 2.16 mm x 1 mm. So one single frequency power should be able to drive the motor. However, in practice the motor is found to be hard to move with a single frequency power because of its small vibration amplitudes and big frequency difference between its longitudinal and bending resonance, which is induced by the boundary condition variation. To drive the motor effectively, an amplitude modulation drive is used by superimposing two signals with nearly the same frequencies, around the resonant frequency of the vibrators of the linear motor. When the amplitude modulation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the vibrator's surroundings, experimental results show that the linear motor can move back and forward with a maximum thrust force (over 0.016 N) and a maximum velocity (over 50 mm/s).

  10. Generation of Modified Sinusoidal Waves Using Operational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of modified sinusoidal waves is currently a field of active research even in already developed countries as it combines the ease of production associated with square waves and avoids the low energy efficiency associated with true sinusoidal waves. This paper discusses the production of Modified Sinusoidal ...

  11. Cross-modal attention influences auditory contrast sensitivity: Decreasing visual load improves auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramitaro, Vivian M; Chow, Hiu Mei; Eglington, Luke G

    2017-03-01

    We used a cross-modal dual task to examine how changing visual-task demands influenced auditory processing, namely auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds. Observers had to attend to two consecutive intervals of sounds and report which interval contained the auditory stimulus that was modulated in amplitude (Experiment 1) or frequency (Experiment 2). During auditory-stimulus presentation, observers simultaneously attended to a rapid sequential visual presentation-two consecutive intervals of streams of visual letters-and had to report which interval contained a particular color (low load, demanding less attentional resources) or, in separate blocks of trials, which interval contained more of a target letter (high load, demanding more attentional resources). We hypothesized that if attention is a shared resource across vision and audition, an easier visual task should free up more attentional resources for auditory processing on an unrelated task, hence improving auditory thresholds. Auditory detection thresholds were lower-that is, auditory sensitivity was improved-for both amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds when observers engaged in a less demanding (compared to a more demanding) visual task. In accord with previous work, our findings suggest that visual-task demands can influence the processing of auditory information on an unrelated concurrent task, providing support for shared attentional resources. More importantly, our results suggest that attending to information in a different modality, cross-modal attention, can influence basic auditory contrast sensitivity functions, highlighting potential similarities between basic mechanisms for visual and auditory attention.

  12. Cosmology and the Sinusoidal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2006-06-01

    The nature of dark matter (and dark energy) remains a mystery. An alternative is being explored by several scientists: changing Newton's (and Einstein's) field equations. The sinusoidal potential is the latest attempt[1]. Here the gravitational law is alternately attractive and repulsive:φ = -GM cos(kor)/r, where λo=2π/ko = 1/20 of the distance from the sun to the center of the Milky Way. The proposal accommodates several structural features of the Milky Way including, paradoxically, its spiral shape and flat rotation curve. The sinusoidal potential's unique feature is strong galactic tidal forces (dg/dr). These may explain why the new planetoid Sedna is securely between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud and why distant comets are more influenced by galactic tides that are in the r, rather than the z-direction.At this meeting I discuss the consequences of the sinusoidal potential for cosmology. Here the alternation of attraction and repulsion gives (i) an open universe, and (ii) gravitational lensing which is usually weak, but occasionally very strong. An open universe is one that, asymptotically, has a size R which varies directly as time t. The open universe conflicts both with the old Einstein-deSitter model (R α t2/3} and the new accelerating one. The evidence for an accelerating universe decisively rejects the Einstein-deSitter model. The rejection of an open (or empty) universe is less secure. This rejection is influenced by the different ways the groups studying the brightness of supernovae use the HST. Surprising additional inputs include neutrino masses, the equivalence principle, LSB galaxies, and "over-luminous" Sn1a. I thank Mostafa Jon Dadras and Patrick Motl for early help and John Cumalat for continual support. [1] D.F. Bartlett, "Analogies between electricity and gravity", Metrologia 41, S115-S124 (2004).

  13. Fast amplitude-modulated pulse trains with frequency sweep (SW-FAM) in static NMR of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuniger, Thomas; Hempel, Günter; Madhu, P K

    2006-07-01

    In solid-state NMR of quadrupolar nuclei with half-integer spin I, fast amplitude-modulated (FAM) pulse trains have been utilised to enhance the intensity of the central-transition signal, by transferring spin population from the satellite transitions. In this paper, the signal-enhancement performance of the recently introduced SW-FAM pulse train with swept modulation frequency [T. Bräuniger, K. Ramaswamy, P.K. Madhu, Enhancement of the central-transition signal in static and magic-angle-spinning NMR of quadrupolar nuclei by frequency-swept fast amplitude-modulated pulses, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383 (2004) 403-410] is explored in more detail for static spectra. It is shown that by sweeping the modulation frequencies linearly over the pulse pairs (SW1/tau-FAM), the shape of the frequency distribution is improved in comparison to the original pulse scheme (SWtau-FAM). For static spectra of 27Al (I=5/2), better signal-enhancement performance is found for the SW1/tau-FAM sequence, as demonstrated both by experiments and numerical simulations.

  14. Determination of chlorine concentration using single temperature modulated semiconductor gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ł.; Kalinowski, P.; Jasiński, G.; Jasiński, P.

    2016-11-01

    A periodic temperature modulation using sinusoidal heater voltage was applied to a commercial SnO2 semiconductor gas sensor. Resulting resistance response of the sensor was analyzed using a feature extraction method based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The amplitudes of the higher harmonics of the FFT from the dynamic nonlinear responses of measured gas were further utilized as an input for Artificial Neuron Network (ANN). Determination of the concentration of chlorine was performed. Moreover, this work evaluates the sensor performance upon sinusoidal temperature modulation.

  15. Effects of chopped sinusoidal voltages on the behavior and performance of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidali, G.; Silversides, F.G.; Boily, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Faculte de Sciences et Genie; Villeneuve, P.; Joncas, R. [Quebec Ministere de l`Agriculture, des Pecheries et de l`Aminentation, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Studies were conducted to measure the effects of sinusoidal voltages on hens. One hundred and twenty laying hens between 23 and 43 weeks of age were used in these experiments. Normal sinusoidal voltages with constant amplitudes of one to nine volts and pulses with random amplitudes of 3 to 18 volts were applied to the hens. The electrical resistance of hens was also measured to determine their path resistance to electrical currents. No effects on production performance or behavior of laying hens were found. Neither water and feed consumption, nor egg production and quality were affected by the treatments. No behavioral or health problems were observed. 15 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Evaluation of HSP70 expression and DNA damage in cells of a human trophoblast cell line exposed to 1.8 GHz amplitude-modulated radiofrequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbonesi, Paola; Franzellitti, Silvia; Piano, Annamaria; Contin, Andrea; Biondi, Carla; Fabbri, Elena

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) could induce cellular effects. The human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo was used as a model to evaluate the expression of proteins (HSP70 and HSC70) and genes (HSP70A, B, C and HSC70) of the HSP70 family and the primary DNA damage response after nonthermal exposure to pulse-modulated 1817 MHz sinusoidal waves (GSM-217 Hz; 1 h; SAR of 2 W/kg). HSP70 expression was significantly enhanced by heat, which was applied as the prototypical stimulus. The HSP70A, B and C transcripts were differentially expressed under basal conditions, and they were all significantly induced above basal levels by thermal stress. Conversely, HSC70 protein and gene expression was not influenced by heat. Exposing HTR-8/SVneo cells to high-frequency EMFs did not change either HSP70 or HSC70 protein or gene expression. A significant increase in DNA strand breaks was caused by exposure to H(2)O(2), which was used as a positive stimulus; however, no effect was observed after exposure of cells to high-frequency EMFs. Overall, no evidence was found that a 1-h exposure to GSM-217 Hz induced a HSP70-mediated stress response or primary DNA damage in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Nevertheless, further investigations on trophoblast cell responses after exposure to GSM signals of different types and durations are needed.

  17. Behavioral Correlates of 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats: Progressive Operant Discrimination Learning Reduces Frequency Modulation and Increases Overall Amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Yuki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in rats are thought to contain ecological signals reflecting emotional states. These USVs are centered on 50-kHz, and frequency modulation (FM is hypothesized to indicate positive emotion; however, results from recent studies are inconsistent with this hypothesis. We suspected that such inconsistencies might result from ambiguity in defining frequency modulation, and problems with acoustic analyses and behavioral protocols. We addressed these problems by applying quantitative methods for USV analyses and using a food reward operant paradigm. Our results revealed that frequency modulation varied according to the degree of positive outcomes, but the direction of change was opposite to what had been observed in previous studies. The FM in 50-kHz USVs decreased as animals learned the task and obtained more reinforcement, while USV amplitude increased as learning progressed. To reconcile these results with those from prior studies, we suggest that FM in 50-kHz USVs should be taken as an index of reward prediction errors, and USV amplitude should be considered as an index of positive emotion.

  18. Encoding of the amplitude modulation of pulsatile electrical stimulation in the feline cochlear nucleus by neurons in the inferior colliculus; effects of stimulus pulse rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Douglas; Han, Martin; Pikov, Victor; Yadav, Kamal; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2013-10-01

    Objectives. Persons without a functional auditory nerve cannot benefit from cochlear implants, but some hearing can be restored by an auditory brainstem implant (ABI) with stimulating electrodes implanted on the surface of the cochlear nucleus (CN). Most users benefit from their ABI, but speech recognition tends to be poorer than for users of cochlear implants. Psychophysical studies suggest that poor modulation detection may contribute to the limited performance of ABI users. In a cat model, we determined how the pulse rate of the electrical stimulus applied within or on the CN affects temporal and rate encoding of amplitude modulation (AM) by neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Approach. Stimulating microelectrodes were implanted chronically in and on the cats' CN, and multi-site recording microelectrodes were implanted chronically into the ICC. Encoding of AM pulse trains by neurons in the ICC was characterized as vector strength (VS), the synchrony of neural activity with the AM, and as the mean rate of neuronal action potentials (neuronal spike rate (NSR)). Main results. For intranuclear microstimulation, encoding of AM as VS was up to 3 dB greater when stimulus pulse rate was increased from 250 to 500 pps, but only for neuronal units with low best acoustic frequencies, and when the electrical stimulation was modulated at low frequencies (10-20 Hz). For stimulation on the surface of the CN, VS was similar at 250 and 500 pps, and the dynamic range of the VS was reduced for pulse rates greater than 250 pps. Modulation depth was encoded strongly as VS when the maximum stimulus amplitude was held constant across a range of modulation depth. This ‘constant maximum’ protocol allows enhancement of modulation depth while preserving overall dynamic range. However, modulation depth was not encoded as strongly as NSR. Significance. The findings have implications for improved sound processors for present and future ABIs. The performance of

  19. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes Test for Assessment of Amplitude Modulation Discrimination Skills in Children: Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Chong-White, Nicky; Mealings, Kiri; Beechey, Tim; Dillon, Harvey; Young, Taegan

    2018-02-01

    Intensity peaks and valleys in the acoustic signal are salient cues to syllable structure, which is accepted to be a crucial early step in phonological processing. As such, the ability to detect low-rate (envelope) modulations in signal amplitude is essential to parse an incoming speech signal into smaller phonological units. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes (ParSE) test was developed to quantify the ability of children to recognize syllable boundaries using an amplitude modulation detection paradigm. The envelope of a 750-msec steady-state /a/ vowel is modulated into two or three pseudo-syllables using notches with modulation depths varying between 0% and 100% along an 11-step continuum. In an adaptive three-alternative forced-choice procedure, the participant identified whether one, two, or three pseudo-syllables were heard. Development of the ParSE stimuli and test protocols, and collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Eleven adults (aged 23 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 9 mo, mean 32 yr 10 mo) and 134 typically developing, primary-school children (aged 6 yr 0 mo to 12 yr 4 mo, mean 9 yr 3 mo). There were 73 males and 72 females. Data were collected using a touchscreen computer. Psychometric functions (PFs) were automatically fit to individual data by the ParSE software. Performance was related to the modulation depth at which syllables can be detected with 88% accuracy (referred to as the upper boundary of the uncertainty region [UBUR]). A shallower PF slope reflected a greater level of uncertainty. Age effects were determined based on raw scores. z Scores were calculated to account for the effect of age on performance. Outliers, and individual data for which the confidence interval of the UBUR exceeded a maximum allowable value, were removed. Nonparametric tests were used as the data were skewed toward negative performance. Across participants, the performance criterion (UBUR) was met with a median modulation depth of 42%. The effect of age on the UBUR was

  20. The Casimir force for 2d sinusoidal gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marachevsky Valery N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Casimir free energy for 2d gratings separated by a vacuum slit is expressed in terms of Rayleigh coefficients, a novel general approach valid for arbitrary 2d surface profiles of gratings is outlined. The normal Casimir force in the system of two identical Si gratings with 2d sinusoidal surface profiles separated by a vacuum slit is computed for several amplitudes of surface profiles, distance dependence of the force is studied. A comparison with results for flat boundaries is performed.

  1. Geometric distortion correction for sinusoidally scanned images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Tian, Xiangrui; Li, Xiaolu; Shang, Guangyi; Yao, Junen

    2011-01-01

    A method for correcting the geometric distortion of sinusoidally scanned images was proposed. The generation mechanism of the geometric distortion in sinusoidally scanned images was analyzed. Based on the relationship between the coordinates of uniformly scanned points and those of sinusoidally scanned points, a transformation formula was obtained for correcting the geometric distortion when the sampling rate was a constant. By comparing the forward method with the inverse method, a hybrid method for correcting the geometric distortion of sinusoidally scanned images was proposed. This method takes advantage of both the forward and inverse methods and was proven to be better than either of them in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). The time consumed by the hybrid method was between the other two. When a higher PSNR is desired, the hybrid method is recommended if time permits. In addition, it is a universal approach to the correction of geometric distortion of the images scanned in the sinusoidal mode

  2. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show that the......In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  3. The content of lexical stimuli and self-reported physiological state modulate error-related negativity amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benau, Erik M; Moelter, Stephen T

    2016-09-01

    The Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Correct-Response Negativity (CRN) are brief event-related potential (ERP) components-elicited after the commission of a response-associated with motivation, emotion, and affect. The Error Positivity (Pe) typically appears after the ERN, and corresponds to awareness of having committed an error. Although motivation has long been established as an important factor in the expression and morphology of the ERN, physiological state has rarely been explored as a variable in these investigations. In the present study, we investigated whether self-reported physiological state (SRPS; wakefulness, hunger, or thirst) corresponds with ERN amplitude and type of lexical stimuli. Participants completed a SRPS questionnaire and then completed a speeded Lexical Decision Task with words and pseudowords that were either food-related or neutral. Though similar in frequency and length, food-related stimuli elicited increased accuracy, faster errors, and generated a larger ERN and smaller CRN than neutral words. Self-reported thirst correlated with improved accuracy and smaller ERN and CRN amplitudes. The Pe and Pc (correct positivity) were not impacted by physiological state or by stimulus content. The results indicate that physiological state and manipulations of lexical content may serve as important avenues for future research. Future studies that apply more sensitive measures of physiological and motivational state (e.g., biomarkers for satiety) or direct manipulations of satiety may be a useful technique for future research into response monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. I. Sinusoidally driven shear and sinusoidally driven inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Dalton, Benjamin A; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.

  5. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. I. Sinusoidally driven shear and sinusoidally driven inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, Kirill S.; Dalton, Benjamin A.; Daivis, Peter J.; Todd, B. D.

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.

  6. An investigation into the analgesic effects of different frequencies of the amplitude-modulated wave of interferential current therapy on cold-induced pain in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Tabasam, Ghazala

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the analgesic effects of different amplitude-modulated frequencies of interferential current therapy (IFT) on cold-induced pain in healthy subjects. Single-blind parallel group methodology was used. Subjects completed 6 cycles of the cold-induced pain test (2 pretreatment, 2 during treatment, 2 posttreatment). During each cycle, subjects plunged their hand into iced water and the time taken to reach pain threshold was recorded. The hand remained immersed in the iced water for a further 30 seconds, after which the self-reports of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were recorded. Laboratory in the United Kingdom. Sixty unpaid, pain-free volunteers without a known pathology that could cause pain. IFT delivered on the nondominant arm at a "strong but comfortable" intensity without visible muscle twitches, using a quadripolar application technique at 1 of 6 possible amplitude modulated "beat" frequencies (20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220Hz). The percentage change in pain threshold, pain intensity, and pain unpleasantness from the pretreatment baseline. Two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance found no effects for groups for pain threshold (P=.11) or pain ratings (P>.05). There were no effects for cycle for any of the outcome measures. Effects for group by cycle interaction were noted for pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings (P<.05), although post hoc analysis failed to determine the nature of this interaction. Experimentally induced cold pain was not influenced by IFT frequencies.

  7. Remote identification of the vibration amplitude of ship hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pinchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to develop the methodological support to determine vibration amplitude of the ship hull remotely using a coherent radar centimeter range based on the variation of the Doppler signal spectrum reflected from a vibrating surface.The paper presents a synthesized mathematical model of the radio signal reflected from the vibrating surface. It is the signal of coherent radar of continuous radiation with a known carrier frequency and the amplitude of the radiated signal. In the synthesis it was believed that the displacement in the radial direction with respect to the vibrating surface radar was sinusoidal.The dependences of the vibration amplitude on the value of the normalized Doppler radio signal spectrum at the second harmonic frequency are obtained. Cycle results of field experiments to study the variability of the sea surface, determining the level of its roughness, allows us to establish that the energy of surface waves of gravitational-capillary range has a high correlation with the wind speed. It is proved that the ratio of the spectral density levels at vibration frequency and its multiple frequencies is specified by the index of phase modulation linearly related to the amplitude of vibration of the ship hull.The results are significant for radar (radar detection of water targets using the coherent radar of centimeter range, ensuring the correct records of noise generated by the scattering of radio waves from the water surface.

  8. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with a spatially modulated nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie-Fang; Li, Yi-Shen; Meng, Jianping; Wu, Lei; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices. By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite number of exact soliton solutions in terms of the Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite bandgap of the optical-lattice-induced spectrum. Starting from the exact solutions, we employ the relaxation met...

  9. Arsenic toxicity in the water weed Wolffia arrhiza measured using Pulse Amplitude Modulation Fluorometry (PAM) measurements of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Raymond J; Mekjinda, Nutsara

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of arsenic in plants is a serious South-east Asian environmental problem. Photosynthesis in the small aquatic angiosperm Wolffia arrhiza is very sensitive to arsenic toxicity, particularly in water below pH 7 where arsenite (As (OH)3) (AsIII) is the dominant form; at pH >7 AsO4(2-) (As(V) predominates). A blue-diode PAM (Pulse Amplitude Fluorometer) machine was used to monitor photosynthesis in Wolffia. Maximum gross photosynthesis (Pgmax) and not maximum yield (Ymax) is the most reliable indicator of arsenic toxicity. The toxicity of arsenite As(III) and arsenate (H2AsO4(2-)) As(V) vary with pH. As(V) was less toxic than As(III) at both pH 5 and pH 8 but both forms of arsenic were toxic (>90% inhibition) at below 0.1molm(-3) when incubated in arsenic for 24h. Arsenite toxicity was apparent after 1h based on Pgmax and gradually increased over 7h but there was no apparent effect on Ymax or photosynthetic efficiency (α0). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid transport of nano-particles having a fractional elementary charge on average in capacitively-coupled rf discharges by amplitude-modulating discharge voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori; Iwashita, Shinya; Nunomura, Syota

    2008-01-01

    We have observed transport of nano-particles having, on average, a fractional elementary charge in single pulse and double pulse capacitively-coupled rf discharges both without and with an Amplitude Modulation (AM) of the discharge voltage, using a two-dimensional laser-light scattering method. Rapid transport of nano-particles towards the grounded electrode is realized using rf discharges with AM. Two important parameters for the rapid transport of nano-particles are the discharge voltage and the period of AM. An important key of the rapid transport is fast redistribution of ion current over the whole discharge region; that is, fast change of spatial distribution of forces exerted on nano-particles. The longer period of the modulation is needed for rapid transport for the larger nano-particles. The higher discharge voltage of the modulation is needed for rapid transport of nano-particles having a smaller mean charge. Local perturbation of electric potential using a probe does not bring about global rapid transport of nano-particles, whereas it leads to their local transport near the probe.

  11. Effect of synthetic jet modulation schemes on the reduction of a laminar separation bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J. H.; Cadieux, F.; Mittal, R.; Deem, E.; Cattafesta, L.

    2018-03-01

    The response of a laminar separation bubble to synthetic jet forcing with various modulation schemes is investigated via direct numerical simulations. A simple sinusoidal waveform is considered as a reference case, and various amplitude modulation schemes, including the square-wave "burst" modulation, are employed in the simulations. The results indicate that burst modulation is less effective at reducing the length of the flow separation than the sinusoidal forcing primarily because burst modulation is associated with a broad spectrum of input frequencies that are higher than the target frequency for the flow control. It is found that such high-frequency forcing delays vortex roll-up and promotes vortex pairing and merging, which have an adverse effect on reducing the separation bubble length. A commonly used amplitude modulation scheme is also found to have reduced effectiveness due to its spectral content. A new amplitude modulation scheme which is tailored to impart more energy at the target frequency is proposed and shown to be more effective than the other modulation schemes. Experimental measurements confirm that modulation schemes can be preserved through the actuator and used to enhance the energy content at the target modulation frequency. The present study therefore suggests that the effectiveness of synthetic jet-based flow control could be improved by carefully designing the spectral content of the modulation scheme.

  12. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie-Fang; Li, Yi-Shen; Meng, Jianping; Wu, Lei; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-09-01

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices (OLs). By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite set of exact soliton solutions in terms of Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite gap of the OL-induced spectrum. Starting from the particular exact solutions, we employ the relaxation method to construct generic families of soliton solutions in a numerical form. The stability of the solitons is investigated through the computation of the eigenvalues for small perturbations, and also by direct simulations. Finally, we demonstrate a virtually exact (in the numerical sense) composition relation between nonlinear Bloch waves and solitons.

  13. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiefang; Meng Jianping; Wu Lei; Li Yishen; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices (OLs). By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite set of exact soliton solutions in terms of Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite gap of the OL-induced spectrum. Starting from the particular exact solutions, we employ the relaxation method to construct generic families of soliton solutions in a numerical form. The stability of the solitons is investigated through the computation of the eigenvalues for small perturbations, and also by direct simulations. Finally, we demonstrate a virtually exact (in the numerical sense) composition relation between nonlinear Bloch waves and solitons.

  14. Temperature effects on Microalgal Photosynthesis-Light responses measured by O2 production, Pulse-Amplitude-Modulated Fluorescence, and 14C assimilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Hancke, Torunn; Olsen, Lasse M.

    2008-01-01

    or decreased slightly with increasing temperature. Absolute rates of O2 production were calculated from pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry measurements in combination with biooptical determination of absorbed quanta in PSII. The relationship between PAM-based O2 production and measured O2 production...... and 14C assimilation showed a species-specific correlation, with 1.2–3.3 times higher absolute values of PCmax and alfaC when calculated from PAM data for Pry. parvum and Ph. tricornutum but equivalent for Pro. minimum. The offset seemed to be temperature insensitive and could be explained by a lower...... quantum yield for O2 production than the theoretical maximum (due to Mehler-type reactions). Conclusively, the PAM technique can be used to study temperature responses of photosynthesis in microalgae when paying attention to the absorption properties in PSII....

  15. Recognition of Frequency Modulated Whistle-Like Sounds by a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Humans with Transformations in Amplitude, Duration and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Brian K.; DeLong, Caroline M.; Dziedzic, Brandon; Black, Amy; Bakhtiari, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) use the frequency contour of whistles produced by conspecifics for individual recognition. Here we tested a bottlenose dolphin’s (Tursiops truncatus) ability to recognize frequency modulated whistle-like sounds using a three alternative matching-to-sample paradigm. The dolphin was first trained to select a specific object (object A) in response to a specific sound (sound A) for a total of three object-sound associations. The sounds were then transformed by amplitude, duration, or frequency transposition while still preserving the frequency contour of each sound. For comparison purposes, 30 human participants completed an identical task with the same sounds, objects, and training procedure. The dolphin’s ability to correctly match objects to sounds was robust to changes in amplitude with only a minor decrement in performance for short durations. The dolphin failed to recognize sounds that were frequency transposed by plus or minus ½ octaves. Human participants demonstrated robust recognition with all acoustic transformations. The results indicate that this dolphin’s acoustic recognition of whistle-like sounds was constrained by absolute pitch. Unlike human speech, which varies considerably in average frequency, signature whistles are relatively stable in frequency, which may have selected for a whistle recognition system invariant to frequency transposition. PMID:26863519

  16. Color image encryption by using Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm in gyrator transform domain and two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Liansheng; Liu, Benqing; Wang, Qiang; Li, Ye; Liang, Junli

    2015-12-01

    A color image encryption scheme is proposed based on Yang-Gu mixture amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm and two-coupled logistic map in gyrator transform domain. First, the color plaintext image is decomposed into red, green and blue components, which are scrambled individually by three random sequences generated by using the two-dimensional Sine logistic modulation map. Second, each scrambled component is encrypted into a real-valued function with stationary white noise distribution in the iterative amplitude-phase retrieval process in the gyrator transform domain, and then three obtained functions are considered as red, green and blue channels to form the color ciphertext image. Obviously, the ciphertext image is real-valued function and more convenient for storing and transmitting. In the encryption and decryption processes, the chaotic random phase mask generated based on logistic map is employed as the phase key, which means that only the initial values are used as private key and the cryptosystem has high convenience on key management. Meanwhile, the security of the cryptosystem is enhanced greatly because of high sensitivity of the private keys. Simulation results are presented to prove the security and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  17. Spatial attention related SEP amplitude modulations covary with BOLD signal in S1--a simultaneous EEG--fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Ruth; Ritter, Petra; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Preuschhof, Claudia; Curio, Gabriel; Sommer, Werner; Villringer, Arno

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies investigating the influence of spatial-selective attention on primary somatosensory processing have produced inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of tactile spatial-selective attention on spatiotemporal aspects of evoked neuronal activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). We employed simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 right-handed subjects during bilateral index finger Braille stimulation to investigate the relationship between attentional effects on somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) components and the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal. The 1st reliable EEG response following left tactile stimulation (P50) was significantly enhanced by spatial-selective attention, which has not been reported before. FMRI analysis revealed increased activity in contralateral S1. Remarkably, the effect of attention on the P50 component as well as long-latency SEP components starting at 190 ms for left stimuli correlated with attentional effects on the BOLD signal in contralateral S1. The implications are 2-fold: First, the correlation between early and long-latency SEP components and the BOLD effect suggest that spatial-selective attention enhances processing in S1 at 2 time points: During an early passage of the signal and during a later passage, probably via re-entrant feedback from higher cortical areas. Second, attentional modulations of the fast electrophysiological signals and the slow hemodynamic response are linearly related in S1.

  18. Encryption in Chaotic Systems with Sinusoidal Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Obregón-Pulido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution an encryption method using a chaotic oscillator, excited by “n” sinusoidal signals, is presented. The chaotic oscillator is excited by a sum of “n” sinusoidal signals and a message. The objective is to encrypt such a message using the chaotic behavior and transmit it, and, as the chaotic system is perturbed by the sinusoidal signal, the transmission security could be increased due to the effect of such a perturbation. The procedure is based on the regulation theory and consider that the receiver knows the frequencies of the perturbing signal, with this considerations the algorithm estimates the excitation in such a way that the receiver can cancel out the perturbation and all the undesirable dynamics in order to produce only the message. In this way we consider that the security level is increased.

  19. Four-fold increase in users of time-wavelength division multiplexing (TWDM) passive optical network (PON) by delayed optical amplitude modulation (AM) upstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhatiya, Vivek; Prince, Shanthi

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we have proposed and simulated optical time division multiplexed passive optical network (TDM-PON) using delayed optical amplitude modulation (AM). Eight upstream wavelengths are demonstrated to show optical time wavelength division multiplexed (TWDM) by combining optical network units (ONU) users data at the remote node (RN). Each ONU generates 2.5 Gb/s user data, and it is modulated using novel return to zero (RZ) delayed AM. Optical TDM aggregates 10 Gb/s data per wavelength from four 2.5 Gb/s upstream user data, which facilitates four different ONU data on the same wavelength as 10 Gb/s per upstream wavelength and, simplify the laser requirements (2.5 Gb/s) at each optical network unit (ONU) transmitter. Upstream optical TWDM-PON is investigated for eight wavelengths with wavelength spacing of 100 GHz. Novel optical TDM for upstream increased the number of the simultaneous user to fourfold from conventional TWDM-PON using delayed AM with a high-quality-factor of received signal. Despite performance degradation due to different fiber reach and dispersion compensation technique, Optical TWDM link shows significant improvement regarding receiver sensitivity when compared with common TWDM link. Hence, it offers optimistic thinking to show optical TDM at this phase as one of the future direction, where complex digital signal processing (DSP) and coherent optical communication are frequently demonstrated to serve the access network. Downstream side conventional TWDM eight wavelengths are multiplexed at the OLT and sent downstream to serve distributed tunable ONU receivers through an optical distribution network (ODN). Each downstream wavelengths are modulated at the peak rate of 10 Gb/s using non-return to zero external modulation (NRZ-EM). The proposed architecture is cost efficient and supports high data rates as well as ;pay as you grow; network for both service providers and the users perspectives. Users are classified into two categories viz home

  20. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  1. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path: Can it Cause Illusory Forward and Backward Motion? Anuj Bhatnagar. Classroom Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 387-392 ...

  2. Sinusoidal cycling swimming pattern of reservoir fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Kubečka, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2002), s. 456-471 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6017901; GA AV ČR IAA6017201; GA ČR GA206/02/0520 Keywords : sinusoidal swimming * echosounder * reservoir Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2002

  3. Analysis and design of RF power and data link using amplitude modulation of Class-E for a novel bone conduction implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Hamidreza; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents analysis and design of a radio frequency power and data link for a novel Bone Conduction Implant (BCI) system. Patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss and single-sided deafness can be rehabilitated by bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). Whereas the conventional hearing aids transmit sound to the tympanic membrane via air conduction, the BAHA transmits sound via vibrations through the skull directly to the cochlea. It uses a titanium screw that penetrates the skin and needs life-long daily care; it may cause skin infection and redness. The BCI is developed as an alternative to the percutaneous BAHA since it leaves the skin intact. The BCI comprises an external audio processor with a transmitter coil and an implanted unit called the bridging bone conductor with a receiver coil. Using amplitude modulation of the Class-E power amplifier that drives the inductive link, the sound signal is transmitted to the implant through the intact skin. It was found that the BCI can generate enough output force level for candidate patients. Maximum power output of the BCI was designed to occur at 5-mm skin thickness and the variability was within 1.5 dB for 1-8-mm skin thickness variations.

  4. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell

  5. Realization of Electronically Tunable Current- Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CFTAs

    OpenAIRE

    Prungsak Uttaphut

    2012-01-01

    An implementation of current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillators is presented. Using CFTA-based lossy integrators, odd and odd/even phase systems can be realized with following advantages. The condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation can be orthogonally tuned. The high output impedances facilitate easy driving an external load without additional current buffers. The proposed MSOs provide odd or even phase signals that are equally spaced in phase and equal amplitude. The circui...

  6. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  7. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Model selection and comparison for independents sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    In the signal processing literature, many methods have been proposed for estimating the number of sinusoidal basis functions from a noisy data set. The most popular method is the asymptotic MAP criterion, which is sometimes also referred to as the BIC. In this paper, we extend and improve this me....... Through simulations, we demonstrate that the lp-BIC outperforms the asymptotic MAP criterion and other state of the art methods in terms of model selection, de-noising and prediction performance. The simulation code is available online.......In the signal processing literature, many methods have been proposed for estimating the number of sinusoidal basis functions from a noisy data set. The most popular method is the asymptotic MAP criterion, which is sometimes also referred to as the BIC. In this paper, we extend and improve...... this method by considering the problem in a full Bayesian framework instead of the approximate formulation, on which the asymptotic MAP criterion is based. This leads to a new model selection and comparison method, the lp-BIC, whose computational complexity is of the same order as the asymptotic MAP criterion...

  9. New Approaches for Channel Prediction Based on Sinusoidal Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Torbjörn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range channel prediction is considered to be one of the most important enabling technologies to future wireless communication systems. The prediction of Rayleigh fading channels is studied in the frame of sinusoidal modeling in this paper. A stochastic sinusoidal model to represent a Rayleigh fading channel is proposed. Three different predictors based on the statistical sinusoidal model are proposed. These methods outperform the standard linear predictor (LP in Monte Carlo simulations, but underperform with real measurement data, probably due to nonstationary model parameters. To mitigate these modeling errors, a joint moving average and sinusoidal (JMAS prediction model and the associated joint least-squares (LS predictor are proposed. It combines the sinusoidal model with an LP to handle unmodeled dynamics in the signal. The joint LS predictor outperforms all the other sinusoidal LMMSE predictors in suburban environments, but still performs slightly worse than the standard LP in urban environments.

  10. Compressed Domain Packet Loss Concealment of Sinusoidally Coded Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødbro, Christoffer A.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Andersen, Søren Vang

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of packet loss concealment for voice over IP (VoIP). The speech signal is compressed at the transmitter using a sinusoidal coding scheme working at 8 kbit/s. At the receiver, packet loss concealment is carried out working directly on the quantized sinusoidal parameters......, based on time-scaling of the packets surrounding the missing ones. Subjective listening tests show promising results indicating the potential of sinusoidal speech coding for VoIP....

  11. Analysis of Peak-to-Peak Current Ripple Amplitude in Seven-Phase PWM Voltage Source Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Grandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase systems are nowadays considered for various industrial applications. Numerous pulse width modulation (PWM schemes for multiphase voltage source inverters with sinusoidal outputs have been developed, but no detailed analysis of the impact of these modulation schemes on the output peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude has been reported. Determination of current ripple in multiphase PWM voltage source inverters is important for both design and control purposes. This paper gives the complete analysis of the peak-to-peak current ripple distribution over a fundamental period for multiphase inverters, with particular reference to seven-phase VSIs. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically determined as a function of the modulation index, and a simplified expression to get its maximum value is carried out. Although reference is made to the centered symmetrical PWM, being the most simple and effective solution to maximize the DC bus utilization, leading to a nearly-optimal modulation to minimize the RMS of the current ripple, the analysis can be readily extended to either discontinuous or asymmetrical modulations, both carrier-based and space vector PWM. A similar approach can be usefully applied to any phase number. The analytical developments for all different sub-cases are verified by numerical simulations.

  12. Sinusoidal Order Estimation Using Angles between Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Holdt Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the order of a parametric model from a noisy signal based on the geometry of the space. More specifically, we do this using the nontrivial angles between the candidate signal subspace model and the noise subspace. The proposed principle is closely related to the subspace orthogonality property known from the MUSIC algorithm, and we study its properties and compare it to other related measures. For the problem of estimating the number of complex sinusoids in white noise, a computationally efficient implementation exists, and this problem is therefore considered in detail. In computer simulations, we compare the proposed method to various well-known methods for order estimation. These show that the proposed method outperforms the other previously published subspace methods and that it is more robust to the noise being colored than the previously published methods.

  13. Neuronal Oscillations with Non-sinusoidal Morphology Produce Spurious Phase-to-Amplitude Coupling and Directionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano Soldevilla, D.; Huurne, N.P. ter; Oostenveld, R.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in

  14. Quadrature amplitude modulation from basics to adaptive trellis-coded turbo-equalised and space-time coded OFDM CDMA and MC-CDMA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hanzo, Lajos

    2004-01-01

    "Now fully revised and updated, with more than 300 pages of new material, this new edition presents the wide range of recent developments in the field and places particular emphasis on the family of coded modulation aided OFDM and CDMA schemes. In addition, it also includes a fully revised chapter on adaptive modulation and a new chapter characterizing the design trade-offs of adaptive modulation and space-time coding." "In summary, this volume amalgamates a comprehensive textbook with a deep research monograph on the topic of QAM, ensuring it has a wide-ranging appeal for both senior undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as practicing engineers and researchers."--Jacket.

  15. Perception of the dynamic visual vertical during sinusoidal linear motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomante, A; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system provides information for spatial orientation. However, this information is ambiguous: because the otoliths sense the gravitoinertial force, they cannot distinguish gravitational and inertial components. As a consequence, prolonged linear acceleration of the head can be interpreted as tilt, referred to as the somatogravic effect. Previous modeling work suggests that the brain disambiguates the otolith signal according to the rules of Bayesian inference, combining noisy canal cues with the a priori assumption that prolonged linear accelerations are unlikely. Within this modeling framework the noise of the vestibular signals affects the dynamic characteristics of the tilt percept during linear whole-body motion. To test this prediction, we devised a novel paradigm to psychometrically characterize the dynamic visual vertical-as a proxy for the tilt percept-during passive sinusoidal linear motion along the interaural axis (0.33 Hz motion frequency, 1.75 m/s 2 peak acceleration, 80 cm displacement). While subjects ( n =10) kept fixation on a central body-fixed light, a line was briefly flashed (5 ms) at different phases of the motion, the orientation of which had to be judged relative to gravity. Consistent with the model's prediction, subjects showed a phase-dependent modulation of the dynamic visual vertical, with a subject-specific phase shift with respect to the imposed acceleration signal. The magnitude of this modulation was smaller than predicted, suggesting a contribution of nonvestibular signals to the dynamic visual vertical. Despite their dampening effect, our findings may point to a link between the noise components in the vestibular system and the characteristics of dynamic visual vertical. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A fundamental question in neuroscience is how the brain processes vestibular signals to infer the orientation of the body and objects in space. We show that, under sinusoidal linear motion, systematic error patterns appear in the

  16. Power Analysis of Traction Transformer under Non-Sinusoidal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Kijonka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with power analysis of traction transformer 100/27 kV, Sn= 10MVA under non-sinusoidal conditions. The power analysis is evaluated by means of IEEE Trial Use Standard Definitions of the Electric Power Quantities under Non-Sinusoidal Conditions, Document Number: IEEE 1459-2000.

  17. Parametric modeling for damped sinusoids from multiple channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Zhenhua; So, Hing Cheung; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    The problem of parametric modeling for noisy damped sinusoidal signals from multiple channels is addressed. Utilizing the shift invariance property of the signal subspace, the number of distinct sinusoidal poles in the multiple channels is first determined. With the estimated number, the distinct...

  18. Variable Dimension Trellis-Coded Quantization of Sinusoidal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Holm; Christensen, Mads G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we propose joint quantization of the parameters of a set of sinusoids based on the theory of trellis-coded quantization. A particular advantage of this approach is that it allows for joint quantization of a variable number of sinusoids, which is particularly relevant in variable...

  19. Telemetre Laser a Onde Entretenue a 10.6 micrometers avec Postdetection non Lineaire: Etude d’un Systeme a un Laser (A 10.6 micrometer Amplitude Modulated Telemeter Laser with Nonlinear Postdetection: Study of a Single Laser System),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    mouvement gyratoire. Le faisceau laser est modul6 en amplitude 1 15 kHz par un cristal 6lectro-optique et ce signal est mesur6, apras l’lment non...pour X =10 Prn (absorption du cristal et application de couches anti- reflets sur la fenetre d’entr6e). Pour une photodiode, le SNR P mesurg...s6para- trice (ZnSe avec R =0.05) a Ilentr6e du modulateur 6lectro-optique. p 3 Ce dernier est un cristal de CdTe mesurant 3 x 3 x 40 mm , de coupe AM

  20. Analysis of Passive Mixing in a Serpentine Microchannel with Sinusoidal Side Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Javaid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample mixing is difficult in microfluidic devices because of laminar flow. Micromixers are designed to ensure the optimal use of miniaturized devices. The present study aims to design a chaotic-advection-based passive micromixer with enhanced mixing efficiency. A serpentine-shaped microchannel with sinusoidal side walls was designed, and three cases, with amplitude to wavelength (A/λ ratios of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 were investigated. Numerical simulations were conducted using the Navier–Stokes equations, to determine the flow field. The flow was then coupled with the convection–diffusion equation to obtain the species concentration distribution. The mixing performance of sinusoidal walled channels was compared with that of a simple serpentine channel for Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.1 to 50. Secondary flows were observed at high Reynolds numbers that mixed the fluid streams. These flows were dominant in the proposed sinusoidal walled channels, thereby showing better mixing performance than the simple serpentine channel at similar or less mixing cost. Higher mixing efficiency was obtained by increasing the A/λ ratio.

  1. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    plitude waves and finite amplitude waves. This article provides a brief introduction to finite amplitude wave theories. Some of the general characteristics of waves as well as the importance of finite amplitude wave theories are touched upon. 2. Small Amplitude Waves. The topmost and the lowest levels of the waves are re-.

  2. Quadratic sinusoidal analysis of voltage clamped neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Christophe; Moore, Lee E

    2011-11-01

    Nonlinear biophysical properties of individual neurons are known to play a major role in the nervous system, especially those active at subthreshold membrane potentials that integrate synaptic inputs during action potential initiation. Previous electrophysiological studies have made use of a piecewise linear characterization of voltage clamped neurons, which consists of a sequence of linear admittances computed at different voltage levels. In this paper, a fundamentally new theory is developed in two stages. First, analytical equations are derived for a multi-sinusoidal voltage clamp of a Hodgkin-Huxley type model to reveal the quadratic response at the ionic channel level. Second, the resulting behavior is generalized to a novel Hermitian neural operator, which uses an algebraic formulation capturing the entire quadratic behavior of a voltage clamped neuron. In addition, this operator can also be used for a nonlinear identification analysis directly applicable to experimental measurements. In this case, a Hermitian matrix of interactions is built with paired frequency probing measurements performed at specific harmonic and interactive output frequencies. More importantly, eigenanalysis of the neural operator provides a concise signature of the voltage dependent conductances determined by their particular distribution on the dendritic and somatic membrane regions of neurons. Finally, the theory is concretely illustrated by an analysis of an experimentally measured vestibular neuron, providing a remarkably compact description of the quadratic responses involved in the nonlinear processing underlying the control of eye position during head rotation, namely the neural integrator.

  3. Asymptotic Theory of the Least Squares Estimators of Sinusoidal Signal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kundu, Debasis

    1997-01-01

    ... normality are derived for the sinusoidal signal under the assumption of normal error (Kundu; 1993) and under the assumptions of independent and identically distributed random variables in Kundu and Mitra...

  4. Touching lips and hearing fingers: effector-specific congruency between tactile and auditory stimulation modulates N1 amplitude and alpha desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guannan; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Marshall, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between audition and sensorimotor processes is of theoretical importance, particularly in relation to speech processing. Although one current focus in this area is on interactions between auditory perception and the motor system, there has been less research on connections between the auditory and somatosensory modalities. The current study takes a novel approach to this omission by examining specific auditory-tactile interactions in the context of speech and non-speech sound production. Electroencephalography was used to examine brain responses when participants were presented with speech syllables (a bilabial sound /pa/ and a non-labial sound /ka/) or finger-snapping sounds that were simultaneously paired with tactile stimulation of either the lower lip or the right middle finger. Analyses focused on the sensory-evoked N1 in the event-related potential and the extent of alpha band desynchronization elicited by the stimuli. N1 amplitude over fronto-central sites was significantly enhanced when the bilabial /pa/ sound was paired with tactile lip stimulation and when the finger-snapping sound was paired with tactile stimulation of the finger. Post-stimulus alpha desynchronization at central sites was also enhanced when the /pa/ sound was accompanied by tactile stimulation of the lip. These novel findings indicate that neural aspects of somatosensory-auditory interactions are influenced by the congruency between the location of the bodily touch and the bodily origin of a perceived sound.

  5. Converter for Measurement of non-sinusoidal current peak value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butvin, P.; Nielsen, Otto V; Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current.......A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current....

  6. MASMA: a versatile multifunctional unit (gated window amplifier, analog memory, and height-to-time converter); Element multifonctionnel M.A.S.M.A. (module amplificateur a seuil, memoire analogique et convertisseur amplitude-temps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goursky, V.; Thenes, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This multipurpose unit is designed to accomplish one of the following functions: - gated window amplifier, - Analog memory and - Amplitude-to-time converter. The first function is mainly devoted to improve the poor resolution of pulse-height analyzers with a small number of channels. The analog memory, a new function in the standard range of plug-in modules, is capable of performing a number of operations: 1) fixed delay, or variable delay dependent on an external parameter (application to the analog processing of non-coincident pulses), 2) de-randomiser to increase the efficiency of the pulse height analysis in a spectrometry experiment, 3) linear multiplexer to allow an analyser to serve as many spectrometry devices as memory elements that it possesses. Associated with a coding scaler, this unit, if used as a amplitude-to-time converter, constitutes a Wilkinson A.D.C with a capability of 10 bits (or more) and with a 100 MHz clock frequency. (authors) [French] Le present element est concu pour etre utilise dans l'un des modes de fonctionnement suivants: - amplificateur a seuil avec porte, - memoire analogique, - convertisseur amplitude-temps. La fonction amplificateur a seuil est destinee principalement a remedier a la resolution insuffisante de certains analyseurs d'amplitude possedant un faible nombre de canaux. La fonction memoire analogique est une fonction qui n'existe pas encore dans la gamme d'elements standardises. Elle peut trouver de nombreuses applications; a titre d'exemple, citons: 1) element de retard fixe ou dependant d'un parametre externe (application au calcul analogique portant sur les impulsions), 2) memoire-tampon: placee devant un analyseur, elle augmente l'efficacite d'analyse d'une chaine de spectrometrie, 3) multiplexeur analogique, permettant a un seul analyseur de desservir autant de voies de spectrometrie qu'il possede de memoires. En fonction convertisseur amplitude-temps, ce tiroir

  7. Notionally steady background noise acts primarily as a modulation masker of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael A; Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C J

    2012-07-01

    Stone et al. [J. Acoust. Soc Am. 130, 2874-2881 (2011)], using vocoder processing, showed that the envelope modulations of a notionally steady noise were more effective than the envelope energy as a masker of speech. Here the same effect is demonstrated using non-vocoded signals. Speech was filtered into 28 channels. A masker centered on each channel was added to the channel signal at a target-to-background ratio of -5 or -10 dB. Maskers were sinusoids or noise bands with bandwidth 1/3 or 1 ERB(N) (ERB(N) being the bandwidth of "normal" auditory filters), synthesized with Gaussian (GN) or low-noise (LNN) statistics. To minimize peripheral interactions between maskers, odd-numbered channels were presented to one ear and even to the other. Speech intelligibility was assessed in the presence of each "steady" masker and that masker 100% sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) at 8 Hz. Intelligibility decreased with increasing envelope fluctuation of the maskers. Masking release, the difference in intelligibility between the SAM and its "steady" counterpart, increased with bandwidth from near-zero to around 50 percentage points for the 1-ERB(N) GN. It is concluded that the sinusoidal and GN maskers behaved primarily as energetic and modulation maskers, respectively.

  8. Stroboscopic hearing as a mechanism for prey discrimination in frequency-modulated bats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, A S; Condon, C J; White, K R

    1994-05-01

    A hypothesis was proposed that bats employing frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation pulses could utilize dynamic information of a flying insect to discriminate prey on the basis of "stroboscopic hearing." To test this hypothesis, single unit recordings were made from the inferior colliculus (IC) of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. Response characteristics of IC units to trains of modulated and unmodulated sound pulses were analyzed at various pulse repetition rates that corresponded to a bat's pulse emission rates during the different stages of its target directed flight. The results show that amplitude modulation (AM) across a train of sound pulses was faithfully encoded in the units' discharge pattern when the pulse repetition rate was different from the AM frequency. When the AM frequency was integer multiples of the pulse repetition rate, the stimulus amplitude was reduced drastically under these conditions. Consequently, the discharge of an IC unit diminished precipitously, or if there was a phase delay between the pulse onset and the modulating sinusoidal waveform the unit fired to each modulation cycle with more or less the same vigor as if the modulation was absent. These data indicate that the across-pulse amplitude modulation becomes undetectable when the AM frequency is integer multiples of the pulse repetition rate. It is interpreted that FM bats can potentially employ a "stroboscopic hearing" strategy for discriminating insects on the basis of the wing-beat frequency of the prey.

  9. Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.

  10. Modulation-Frequency-Specific Adaptation in Awake Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitel, Ralph E.; Vollmer, Maike; Heiser, Marc A.; Schreiner, Christoph E.

    2015-01-01

    Amplitude modulations are fundamental features of natural signals, including human speech and nonhuman primate vocalizations. Because natural signals frequently occur in the context of other competing signals, we used a forward-masking paradigm to investigate how the modulation context of a prior signal affects cortical responses to subsequent modulated sounds. Psychophysical “modulation masking,” in which the presentation of a modulated “masker” signal elevates the threshold for detecting the modulation of a subsequent stimulus, has been interpreted as evidence of a central modulation filterbank and modeled accordingly. Whether cortical modulation tuning is compatible with such models remains unknown. By recording responses to pairs of sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones in the auditory cortex of awake squirrel monkeys, we show that the prior presentation of the SAM masker elicited persistent and tuned suppression of the firing rate to subsequent SAM signals. Population averages of these effects are compatible with adaptation in broadly tuned modulation channels. In contrast, modulation context had little effect on the synchrony of the cortical representation of the second SAM stimuli and the tuning of such effects did not match that observed for firing rate. Our results suggest that, although the temporal representation of modulated signals is more robust to changes in stimulus context than representations based on average firing rate, this representation is not fully exploited and psychophysical modulation masking more closely mirrors physiological rate suppression and that rate tuning for a given stimulus feature in a given neuron's signal pathway appears sufficient to engender context-sensitive cortical adaptation. PMID:25878263

  11. Simultaneous angular alignment of segmented mirrors using sinusoidal pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejoo; Trumper, Isaac; Dubin, Matthew; Zhao, Wenchuan; Kim, Dae Wook

    2017-08-01

    A segmented mirror is one of the most promising solutions to build an extremely large aperture telescope to reveal the secrets of the universe. In this manuscript, we present a simultaneous angle alignment method for segmented mirrors. By taking the displayed sinusoidal pattern reflecting off the mirrors, the tip-tilt angles are measured with 0.8 μrad resolution for a flat mirror. Due to the efficient calculation using Fourier analysis, the total measurement time for seven flat mirrors is 0.07 s. In addition, a multiplexed sinusoidal pattern is adapted to resolve the intrinsic 2π ambiguity problem in a sinusoidal signal. The presented method can measure any number of segmented mirrors provided that the camera's field of view can cover them all simultaneously.

  12. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  13. CFD study on NACA 4415 airfoil implementing spherical and sinusoidal Tubercle Leading Edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M A Aftab

    Full Text Available The Humpback whale tubercles have been studied for more than a decade. Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE effectively reduces the separation bubble size and helps in delaying stall. They are very effective in case of low Reynolds number flows. The current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD study is on NACA 4415 airfoil, at a Reynolds number 120,000. Two TLE shapes are tested on NACA 4415 airfoil. The tubercle designs implemented on the airfoil are sinusoidal and spherical. A parametric study is also carried out considering three amplitudes (0.025c, 0.05c and 0.075c, the wavelength (0.25c is fixed. Structured mesh is utilized to generate grid and Transition SST turbulence model is used to capture the flow physics. Results clearly show spherical tubercles outperform sinusoidal tubercles. Furthermore experimental study considering spherical TLE is carried out at Reynolds number 200,000. The experimental results show that spherical TLE improve performance compared to clean airfoil.

  14. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Production and propagation of Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, A A; Casperson, L W

    1998-09-01

    Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian solutions to the wave equation have recently been obtained. In the limit of large Hermite-Gaussian beam size, the sinusoidal factors are dominant and reduce to the conventional modes of a rectangular waveguide. In the opposite limit the beams reduce to the familiar Hermite-Gaussian form. The propagation of these beams is examined in detail, and resonators are designed that will produce them. As an example, a special resonator is designed to produce hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian beams. This ring resonator contains a hyperbolic-cosine-Gaussian apodized aperture. The beam mode has finite energy and is perturbation stable.

  16. CNNs for sinusoidal signal recognition in hearing rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnimeo, Leonarda; Giaquinto, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, a contribution is given to provide a tool to the recognition of sinusoidal signals with a particular reference to the field of pediatric hearing rehabilitation. To this purpose, a synthesis technique previously developed by the authors' is used to design a Cellular Neural Network for an Associative Memory able to compare submitted discrete-time sinusoidal signals with memorized ones. A robustness analysis of the synthesized associative memory is also developed both for noisy inputs and for parameter variations. Simulation results are then reported to illustrate the performances of the designed network.

  17. Three-dimensional shape profiling by out-of-focus projection of colored pulse width modulation fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana; Flores, Jorge L; Muñoz, Antonio; Ayubi, Gastón A; Ferrari, José A

    2017-06-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape profiling by sinusoidal phase-shifting methods is affected by the non-linearity of the projector. To overcome this problem, the defocusing technique has become an important alternative to generate sinusoidal fringe patterns. The precision of this method depends on the binary pattern used and on the defocusing applied. To improve the defocusing technique, we propose the implementation of a color-based binary fringe patterns. The proposed technique involves the generation of colored pulse width modulation (PWM) fringe patterns, which are generated with different frequencies at the carrier signal. From an adequate selection of these frequencies, the colored PWM fringe patterns will lead to amplitude harmonics lower than the conventional PWM fringe patterns. Hence, the defocusing can decrease, and the 3D shape profiling can be more accurate. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented as validation.

  18. Compressed Sensing Of Complex Sinusoids Off The Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Cheng; Liu, Shi; Jiaqun, Zhao

    2015-07-01

    To solve off-grid problem in compressed sensing, a new reconstruction algorithm for complex sinusoids is proposed. The compressed sensing reconstruction problem is transformed into a joint optimized problem. Based on coordinate descent approach and linear estimator, a new iteration algorithm is proposed. The results of experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... filometry [7–9] and monitoring of surface self-diffusion of solids under ultrahigh vacuum conditions [10]. In the present work, recording parameters, i.e. exposure time and deve- lopment time for fabrication of such holographic gratings have been optimized to obtain nearly perfect sinusoidal profiles in the ...

  20. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... Astable sinusoidal pattern generated using a two-beam laser interferometric technique was recorded in thin films of positive photoresist deposited on glass substrates. Several gratings were generated by varying the exposure time of interference pattern and time of chemical development of exposed media.

  1. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  2. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  3. Using Antenna Arrays to Motivate the Study of Sinusoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Educational activities involving antenna arrays to motivate the study of sinusoids are described. Specifically, using fundamental concepts related to phase and simple geometric arguments, students are asked to predict the location of interference nulls in the radiation pattern of two-element phased array antennas. The location of the radiation…

  4. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations...

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Quasi-sinusoidal Corrugated Composite sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyan Ghabezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An aircraft wing needs to display different mechanical behavior in different directions. 1- stiffness in the spanwise (transverse to the corrugation direction which enables the aerodynamic and inertial loads to be carried. 2- compliance in the chordwise (corrugation direction which would allow shape changes and increases in surface area; whereas a corrugated sheet due to their special geometry has potential to use in morphing applications. Therefore, in this paper the mechanical behaviour of quasi-sinusoidal corrugated composites is studied by commercial FEM software ABAQUS and a simple analytical model which is used for the initial stiffness of the quasi-sinusoidal corrugated composites (Yokozeki model. The elongation and effective stiffness in longitudinal and transverse directions of quasi-sinusoidal  corrugated  skins  and fat  composites  are  calculated  and  compared together.  Using  frst  and  second  Castigliano’s  theorem  and  Bernoulli-Euler  beam theorem can be used to calculate the defection and rotational angle of a beam (sheet. In this research, different dimensions of quasi-sinusoidal element for unidirectional and woven composites of E-glass/epoxy are investigated. FEM results and analytical model are compared together. Then, the analytical model is validated by experimental results of plain woven E-glass/epoxy composites. The results of FEM, experimental and analytical simulations show that how a corrugated composite can afford with certainty larger deformation than the fat composite in using this analytical model to predict the mechanical behavior of quasi-sinusoidal corrugated composites. It was found that the corrugated composites display extremely high anisotropic behavior and have high  tensile and fexural stiffness  in  transverse direction while exhibiting  low stiffness in longitudinal direction of corrugation.

  6. Production of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated UV radiation of GARPUN-MTW Ti : sapphire—KrF laser. Part 2. Accumulation of plasma electrons and electric discharge control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mesyats, Gennadii A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Smetanin, Igor V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the production of extended (~1 m) plasma channels is studied in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated laser pulses of UV radiation, which are a superposition of a subpicosecond USP train amplified in a regenerative KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator and a quasi-stationary lasing pulse. The USPs possess a high (0.2-0.3 TW) peak power and efficiently ionise oxygen molecules due to multiphoton ionisation, and the quasi-stationary lasing pulse, which has a relatively long duration (~100 ns), maintains the electron density at a level ne = (3-5) × 1014 cm—3 by suppressing electron attachment to oxygen. Experiments in laser triggering of high-voltage electric discharges suggest that the use of combined pulses results in a significant lowering of the breakdown threshold and enables controlling the discharge trajectory with a higher efficiency in comparison with smooth pulses. It was shown that controlled breakdowns may develop with a delay of tens of microseconds relative to the laser pulse, which is many orders of magnitude greater than the lifetime of free electrons in the laser-induced plasma. We propose a mechanism for this breakdown, which involves speeding-up of the avalanche ionisation of the air by negative molecular oxygen ions with a low electron binding energy (~0.5 eV) and a long lifetime (~1 ms), which are produced upon cessation of the laser pulse.

  7. The sinusoidal lining cells in "normal" human liver. A scanning electron microscopic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, T; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christoffersen, P

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscopic was used to study the fenestrations of human liver sinusoids. Thirteen biopsies, where light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed normal sinusoidal architecture, were investigated. The number of fenestrae was calculated in acinar zone 3...

  8. Effect of rotational speed modulation on heat transport in a fluid layer with temperature dependent viscosity and internal heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bhadauria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the combined effect of rotation speed modulation and internal heating on thermal instability in a temperature dependent viscous horizontal fluid layer. Rayleigh–Bénard momentum equation with Coriolis term has been considered to describe the convective flow. The system is rotating about it is own axis with non-uniform rotational speed. In particular, a time-periodic and sinusoidally varying rotational speed has been considered. A weak nonlinear stability analysis is performed to find the effect of modulation on heat transport. Nusselt number is obtained in terms of amplitude of convection and internal Rayleigh number, and depicted graphically for showing the effects of various parameters of the system. The effect of modulated rotation speed is found to have a stabilizing effect for different values of modulation frequency. Further, internal heating and thermo-rheological parameters are found to destabilize the system.

  9. Controlled generation of nonlinear resonances through sinusoidal lattice modes in Bose–Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Priyam; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2015-01-01

    We study Bose–Einstein condensate in the combined presence of time modulated optical lattice and harmonic trap in the mean-field approach. Through the self-similar method, we show the existence of sinusoidal lattice modes in this inhomogeneous system, commensurate with the lattice potential. A significant advantage of this system is wide tunability of the parameters through chirp management. The combined effect of the interaction, harmonic trap and lattice potential leads to the generation of nonlinear resonances, exactly where the matter wave changes its direction. When the harmonic trap is switched off, the BEC undergoes a nonlinear compression for the static optical lattice potential. For better understanding of chirp management and the nature of the sinusoidal excitation, we investigate the energy spectrum of the condensate, which clearly reveals the generation of nonlinear resonances in the appropriate regime. We have also identified a classical dynamical phase transition occurring in the system, where loss of superfluidity takes the superfluid phase to an insulating state. (paper)

  10. Electric stimulation with sinusoids and white noise for neural prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Freeman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We are investigating the use of novel stimulus waveforms in neural prostheses to determine whether they can provide more precise control over the temporal and spatial pattern of elicited activity as compared to conventional pulsatile stimulation. To study this, we measured the response of retinal ganglion cells to both sinusoidal and white noise waveforms. The use of cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp recordings allowed the responses to be observed without significant obstruction from the stimulus artifact. Electric stimulation with sinusoids elicited robust responses. White noise analysis was used to derive the linear kernel for the ganglion cell’s spiking response as well as for the underlying excitatory currents. These results suggest that in response to electric stimulation, presynaptic retinal neurons exhibit bandpass filtering characteristics with peak response that occur 25ms after onset. The experimental approach demonstrated here may be useful for studying the temporal response properties of other neurons in the CNS.

  11. Total harmonic distortion of an asymmetric quasi-sinusoidal current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebennikov Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the correlation of factors that determine the quality of asymmetric quasi-sinusoidal output current and dynamic losses in the switches of the current generator circuit. The operating mode of the generator was obtained, especially of its power circuit elements, where combination of acceptable output current quality with relatively small dynamic losses in switches and mass-dimensional parameters of the inductor are provided. Achieved results can be used in designing this type of generators.

  12. Modulation of vergence by off-vertical yaw axis rotation in the monkey: normal characteristics and effects of space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1996-01-01

    Horizontal movements of both eyes were recorded simultaneously using scleral search coils in 2 rhesus monkeys before and after the COSMOS 2229 space-flight of 1992-1993. Another 9 monkeys were tested at comparable time intervals and served as controls. Ocular vergence, defined as the difference in horizontal position between the left and right eyes, was measured during off-vertical yaw axis rotation (OVAR) in darkness. Vergence was modulated sinusoidally as a function of head position with regard to gravity during OVAR. The amplitude of peak-to-peak modulation increased with increments in tilt of the angle of the rotational axis (OVAR tilt angle) that ranged from 15 degrees to 90 degrees. Of the 11 monkeys tested, 1 had no measurable modulation in vergence. In the other 10, the mean amplitude of the peak to peak modulation was 5.5 degrees +/- 1.3 degrees at 90 degrees tilt. Each of these monkeys had maximal vergence when its nose was pointed close to upward (gravity back; mean phase: -0.9 degree +/- 26 degrees). After space flight, the modulation in vergence was reduced by over 50% for the two flight monkeys, but the phase of vergence modulation was not altered. The reduction in vergence modulation was sustained for the 11-day postflight testing period. We conclude that changes in vergence are induced in monkeys by the sinusoidal component of gravity acting along the naso-occipital axis during yaw axis OVAR, and that the modulation of the vergence reflex is significantly less sensitive to linear acceleration after space flight.

  13. Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams with Sinusoidal Periodically Varying Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Botong; Liu, Chein-Shan; Zhu, Liangliang

    2017-12-01

    As an increasing variety of composite materials with complex interfaces are emerging, we develop a theory to investigate composite beams and shed some light on new physical insights into composite beams with sinusoidal periodically varying interfaces. For the natural vibration of composite beams with continuous or periodically varying interfaces, the governing equation has been derived according to the generalised Hamiltonian principle. For composite beams having different boundary conditions, we transform the governing equations into integral equations and solve them by using the sinusoidal functions as test functions as well as the basis of the vibration modes. Due to the orthogonality of the sinusoidal functions, expansion coefficients in closed form can be found. Therefore, the proposed iterative schemes, with the help of the Rayleigh quotient and boundary functions, can quickly find the eigenvalues and free vibration modes. The obtained natural frequencies agree well with those obtained using the finite element method. In addition, the proposed method can be extended easily to laminated composite beams in more general cases or complex components and geometries in vibration engineering. The effects of different material properties of the upper and lower components and varying interface geometry function on the frequency of the composite beams are examined. According to our investigation, the natural frequency of a laminated beam with a continuous or periodically varying interface can be changed by altering the density or elastic modulus. We also show the responses of the frequencies of the components to the varying periodic interface.

  14. Designing and Implementation of Stable Sinusoidal Rough-Neural Identifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ghasem; Teshnehlab, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    A rough neuron is defined as a pair of conventional neurons that are called the upper and lower bound neurons. In this paper, the sinusoidal rough-neural networks (SR-NNs) are used to identify the discrete dynamic nonlinear systems (DDNSs) with or without noise in series-parallel configuration. In the identification of periodic nonlinear systems, sinusoidal activation functions provide more efficient neural networks than the sigmoidal activation functions. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an online learning algorithm is developed to train the SR-NNs. The asymptotically convergence of the identification error to zero and the boundedness of parameters as well as predictions are proved. SR-NNs are used to identify some DDNSs and the cement rotary kiln (CRK). CRK is a complex nonlinear system in the cement factory, which produces the cement clinker. The experiments show that the SR-NNs in the identification of nonlinear systems have better performances than multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), sinusoidal neural networks, and rough MLPs, particularly in the presence of noise.

  15. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  16. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  17. Error compensation of IQ modulator using two-dimensional DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Takashi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Otake, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    It is important to precisely set and keep the phase and amplitude of an rf signal in the accelerating cavity of modern accelerators, such as an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) linac. In these accelerators an acceleration rf signal is generated or detected by an In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator, or a demodulator. If there are any deviations of the phase and the amplitude from the ideal values, crosstalk between the phase and the amplitude of the output signal of the IQ modulator or the demodulator arises. This causes instability of the feedback controls that simultaneously stabilize both the rf phase and the amplitude. To compensate for such deviations, we developed a novel compensation method using a two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Because the observed deviations of the phase and amplitude of an IQ modulator involve sinusoidal and polynomial behaviors on the phase angle and the amplitude of the rf vector, respectively, the DFT calculation with these basis functions makes a good approximation with a small number of compensation coefficients. Also, we can suppress high-frequency noise components arising when we measure the deviation data. These characteristics have advantages compared to a Look Up Table (LUT) compensation method. The LUT method usually demands many compensation elements, such as about 300, that are not easy to treat. We applied the DFT compensation method to the output rf signal of a C-band IQ modulator at SACLA, which is an XFEL facility in Japan. The amplitude deviation of the IQ modulator after the DFT compensation was reduced from 15.0% at the peak to less than 0.2% at the peak for an amplitude control range of from 0.1 V to 0.9 V (1.0 V full scale) and for a phase control range from 0 degree to 360 degrees. The number of compensation coefficients is 60, which is smaller than that of the LUT method, and is easy to treat and maintain.

  18. Continuously varying skin potentials elicited by sinusoidally varying electric shock potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senders, J. W.; Senders, V. L.; Tursky, B.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine whether a form of quasi-linear systems analysis can be applied to electrodormal responses to yield new insights into the nature of the response mechanisms and their interrelationships. The response investigated was the electrodermal response (galvanic skin potential, GSP) as elicited by an electric shock stimulus applied to the skin. The response subsequent to this stimulation was examined and its characteristics measured. A series of experimental runs on three Ss was accomplished, using sinusoidal modulation envelopes of frequencies. Results showed that it was possible to drive the GSP and to achieve relatively high coherence between the driving frequency and the response itself. The analysis was limited to Fourier analysis of the response in order to determine the relative energies at the driving frequency and at successive harmonics of that driving frequency, and correlational analysis in order to determine the degree of linear relationship between the driving frequency and the driven response.

  19. CRAFT (complete reduction to amplitude frequency table)--robust and time-efficient Bayesian approach for quantitative mixture analysis by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Krish

    2013-12-01

    The intrinsic quantitative nature of NMR is increasingly exploited in areas ranging from complex mixture analysis (as in metabolomics and reaction monitoring) to quality assurance/control. Complex NMR spectra are more common than not, and therefore, extraction of quantitative information generally involves significant prior knowledge and/or operator interaction to characterize resonances of interest. Moreover, in most NMR-based metabolomic experiments, the signals from metabolites are normally present as a mixture of overlapping resonances, making quantification difficult. Time-domain Bayesian approaches have been reported to be better than conventional frequency-domain analysis at identifying subtle changes in signal amplitude. We discuss an approach that exploits Bayesian analysis to achieve a complete reduction to amplitude frequency table (CRAFT) in an automated and time-efficient fashion - thus converting the time-domain FID to a frequency-amplitude table. CRAFT uses a two-step approach to FID analysis. First, the FID is digitally filtered and downsampled to several sub FIDs, and secondly, these sub FIDs are then modeled as sums of decaying sinusoids using the Bayesian approach. CRAFT tables can be used for further data mining of quantitative information using fingerprint chemical shifts of compounds of interest and/or statistical analysis of modulation of chemical quantity in a biological study (metabolomics) or process study (reaction monitoring) or quality assurance/control. The basic principles behind this approach as well as results to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in mixture analysis are presented. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, R.; Brommel, D.; Donnellan, M.A.; Flynn, J.M.; Juttner, A.; de Lima, H.Pedroso; Rae, T.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Samways, B.

    2010-01-01

    We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.

  1. Calcium homeostasis is required for contact-dependent helical and sinusoidal tip growth in Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Alexandra; Lee, Keunsook; Veses, Veronica; Gow, Neil A R

    2009-03-01

    Hyphae of the dimorphic fungus, Candida albicans, exhibit directional tip responses when grown in contact with surfaces. On hard surfaces or in liquid media, the trajectory of hyphal growth is typically linear, with tip re-orientation events limited to encounters with topographical features (thigmotropism). In contrast, when grown on semisolid surfaces, the tips of C. albicans hyphae grow in an oscillatory manner to form regular two-dimensional sinusoidal curves and three-dimensional helices. We show that, like thigmotropism, initiation of directional tip oscillation in C. albicans hyphae is severely attenuated when Ca2+ homeostasis is perturbed. Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ or deletion of the Ca2+ transporters that modulate cytosolic [Ca2+] (Mid1, Cch1 or Pmr1) did not affect hyphal length but curve formation was severely reduced in mid1Delta and cch1Delta and abolished in pmr1Delta. Sinusoidal hypha morphology was altered in the mid1Delta, chs3Delta and heterozygous pmr1Delta/PMR1 strains. Treatments that affect cell wall integrity, changes in surface mannosylation or the provision of additional carbon sources had significant but less pronounced effects on oscillatory growth. The induction of two- and three-dimensional sinusoidal growth in wild-type C. albicans hyphae is therefore the consequence of mechanisms that involve Ca2+ influx and signalling rather than gross changes in the cell wall architecture.

  2. Numerical analysis of beam with sinusoidally corrugated webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Pieńko, Michał; Łagoda, GraŻyna

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents numerical tests results of the steel beam with sinusoidally corrugated web, which were performed in the Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2010. The analysis was preceded by laboratory tests including the beam's work under the influence of the four point bending as well as the study of material characteristics. Significant web's thickness and use of tools available in the software allowed to analyze the behavior of the plate girder as beam, and also to observe the occurrence of stresses in the characteristic element - the corrugated web. The stress distribution observed on the both web's surfaces was analyzed.

  3. Chaotic Dynamics of Red Blood Cells in a Sinusoidal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupire, Jules; Abkarian, Manouk; Viallat, Annie

    2010-04-01

    We show that the motion of individual red blood cells in an oscillating moderate shear flow is described by a nonlinear system of three coupled oscillators. Our experiments reveal that the cell tank treads and tumbles either in a stable way with synchronized cell inclination, membrane rotation and hydrodynamic oscillations, or in an irregular way, very sensitively to initial conditions. By adapting our model described previously, we determine the theoretical diagram for the red cell motion in a sinusoidal flow close to physiological shear stresses and flow variation frequencies and reveal large domains of chaotic motions. Finally, fitting our observations allows a characterization of cell viscosity and membrane elasticity.

  4. Monitoring sinusoidal vibration environments with a television system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.W.; Anderson, F.O.; Lookabill, H.J.; Taylor, R.D.

    1975-02-01

    The development and prove-in work of this experiment established a technology for using television equipment to monitor hybrid microcircuits and other miniature assemblies in sinusoidal vibration environments. Production assemblies were run through sine vibration test sequences with television systems used to monitor the sequences. During the experiment different television lens systems were tried to obtain clean, sharp, highly magnified pictures of the assemblies being monitored. Successful monitoring of production assemblies during the experiment was accomplished, resulting in design changes to the assemblies and establishment of a television monitoring system.

  5. Hydraulic testing in granite using the sinusoidal variation of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.; Holmes, D.C.; Noy, D.J.

    1982-09-01

    Access to two boreholes at the Carwynnen test site in Cornwall enabled the trial of a number of innovative approaches to the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline rock. These methods ranged from the use of seisviewer data to measure the orientation of fractures to the use of the sinusoidal pressure technique to measure directional hydraulic diffusivity. The testing began with a short programme of site investigation consisting of borehole caliper and seisviewer logging followed by some single borehole hydraulic tests. The single borehole hydraulic testing was designed to assess whether the available boreholes and adjacent rock were suitable for testing using the sinusoidal method. The main testing methods were slug and pulse tests and were analysed using the fissured porous medium analysis proposed in Barker and Black (1983). Derived hydraulic conductivity (K) ranged from 2 x 10 -12 m/sec to 5 x 10 -7 m/sec with one near-surface zone of high K being perceived in both boreholes. The results were of the form which is typical of fractured rock and indicated a combination of high fracture frequency and permeable granite matrix. The results are described and discussed. (author)

  6. Propiedades de transporte de una superred de grafeno tipo sinusoidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Briones-Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo usamos el método de la matriz de transferencia para estudiar el tunelamiento de los electrones de Dirac a través de superredes en grafeno. Consideramos una superred con potencial sinusoidal o polaridad invertida, para ello consideramos dos maneras de crearla, una por medio de sustratos mixtos junto con la aplicación de un campo perpendicular sobre el sustrato de Óxido de Silicio (SiO2, la otra por medio de potenciales alternados aplicados perpendicularmente sobre la sábana de grafeno. Calculamos las propiedades de transmisión, transporte y estructura electrónica, variando diferentes parámetros como ángulo de incidencia, anchos de pozos y barreras y diferente número de barreras. Se encontró (1 el importante papel que juega el efecto Klein en tales estructuras, (2 las propiedades de transmisión y transporte presentan cierta simetría respecto del origen de la energía, y (3 el carácter sinusoidal del sistema trae consigo una baja en el nivel de energía de las subbandas en el espectro de estados acotados, además las degenera y origina que la apertura-cierre de las minibandas sea en el mismo nivel de energía.

  7. Design and Optimization of Sinusoidal Formed Femur Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Zafer ŞENALP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in hip replacement surgery is the hip replacement loosening. Hip replacement loosening occurs over time after the surgery and it is related to the discretization between the bone cement and prosthesis. The underlying factors of this situation are the stress occurring in the bone cement and the shape of the prosthesis. In this study, cortical and trabecular layers of the femur, bone cement and prosthesis were modeled. The models of bone cement and prosthesis were constructed parametrically and two different sinusoidal formed prostheses were developed unlike the former prostheses shapes. Analyses were conducted for these two different sinusoidal forms by using finite element method and optimization was conducted to obtain the appropriate prosthesis stem shape and bone cement thickness by using parametric modeling in finite element analyses. For finite element analyses and optimization, Ansys Workbench software was used and analyses were conducted for 316LS stainless steel material. Finally, the optimum prosthesis stem shape and bone cement thickness was determined by using the results of the analyses in the first stage

  8. Removal of Stationary Sinusoidal Noise from Random Vibration Signals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian; Cap, Jerome S.

    2018-02-01

    In random vibration environments, sinusoidal line noise may appear in the vibration signal and can affect analysis of the resulting data. We studied two methods which remove stationary sine tones from random noise: a matrix inversion algorithm and a chirp-z transform algorithm. In addition, we developed new methods to determine the frequency of the tonal noise. The results show that both of the removal methods can eliminate sine tones in prefabricated random vibration data when the sine-to-random ratio is at least 0.25. For smaller ratios down to 0.02 only the matrix inversion technique can remove the tones, but the metrics to evaluate its effectiveness also degrade. We also found that using fast Fourier transforms best identified the tonal noise, and determined that band-pass-filtering the signals prior to the process improved sine removal. When applied to actual vibration test data, the methods were not as effective at removing harmonic tones, which we believe to be a result of mixed-phase sinusoidal noise.

  9. Fine tuning of optical signals in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals by apodized sinusoidal pulse anodisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Chin Lei, Dominique Wong; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-11-03

    In this study, we present an advanced nanofabrication approach to produce gradient-index photonic crystal structures based on nanoporous anodic alumina. An apodization strategy is for the first time applied to a sinusoidal pulse anodisation process in order to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in depth. Four apodization functions are explored, including linear positive, linear negative, logarithmic positive and logarithmic negative, with the aim of finely tuning the characteristic photonic stop band of these photonic crystal structures. We systematically analyse the effect of the amplitude difference (from 0.105 to 0.840 mA cm -2 ), the pore widening time (from 0 to 6 min), the anodisation period (from 650 to 950 s) and the anodisation time (from 15 to 30 h) on the quality and the position of the characteristic photonic stop band and the interferometric colour of these photonic crystal structures using the aforementioned apodization functions. Our results reveal that a logarithmic negative apodisation function is the most optimal approach to obtain unprecedented well-resolved and narrow photonic stop bands across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum of NAA-based gradient-index photonic crystals. Our study establishes a fully comprehensive rationale towards the development of unique NAA-based photonic crystal structures with finely engineered optical properties for advanced photonic devices such as ultra-sensitive optical sensors, selective optical filters and all-optical platforms for quantum computing.

  10. Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation Using Quadratic Interpolation around Power-Scaled Magnitude Spectrum Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt James Werner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on a rescaled magnitude spectrum using a logarithmic scale has been shown to improve those estimates. In this article, we show how to heuristically tune a power scaling parameter to outperform linear and logarithmic scaling at an equivalent computational cost. Although this power scaling factor is computed heuristically rather than analytically, it is shown to depend in a structured way on window parameters. Invariance properties of this family of estimators are studied and the existence of a bias due to noise is shown. Comparing to two state-of-the-art estimators, we show that an optimized power scaling has a lower systematic bias and lower mean-squared-error in noisy conditions for ten out of twelve common windowing functions.

  11. Removing damped sinusoidal vibrations in adaptive optics systems using a DFT-based estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    The problem of a vibrations rejection in adaptive optics systems is still present in publications. These undesirable signals emerge because of shaking the system structure, the tracking process, etc., and they usually are damped sinusoidal signals. There are some mechanical solutions to reduce the signals but they are not very effective. One of software solutions are very popular adaptive methods. An AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) method has been presented and developed in recent years. The method is based on the estimation of three vibrations parameters and values of frequency, amplitude and phase are essential to produce and adjust a proper signal to reduce or eliminate vibrations signals. This paper presents a fast (below 10 ms) and accurate estimation method of frequency, amplitude and phase of a multifrequency signal that can be used in the AVC method to increase the AO system performance. The method accuracy depends on several parameters: CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, THD, b - number of A/D converter bits in a real time system, γ - the damping ratio of the tested signal, φ - the phase of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value of systematic error for γ = 0.1%, CiR = 1.1 and N = 32 is approximately 10^-4 Hz/Hz. This paper focuses on systematic errors of and effect of the signal phase and values of γ on the results.

  12. Numerical investigation of magnetic field effect on mixed convection heat transfer of nanofluid in a channel with sinusoidal walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, M.M.; Nasiri, Mohammad; Khezerloo, Marzieh; Laraqi, Najib

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mixed convection heat transfer of nano-fluid flow in vertical channel with sinusoidal walls under magnetic field effect is investigated numerically. The heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics have been examined. This study has performed for 500≤Re≤1000, 5×104≤Gr≤1×106 , three amplitude sine wave (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and three values of Hartman numbers (0, 5 and 10). Water was utilized as the base fluid and Al2O3 is the considered nano-particle. Flow is assumed two dimensional, laminar, steady and incompressible. As well the thermo-physical properties of nano-fluid are considered constant. The Boussinesq approximation used for calculated the density variations. The average Nusslet number increases by increasing the Grashof number for nano-fluids with different volume fraction. The average Nusselt and Poiseuille number increase as Reynolds number increases. Also, the average Nusselt number and Poiseuille number increases by increasing the Hartman number. - Highlights: • Mixed convection of nanofluid flow in a sinusoidal vertical channel is studied. • MHD effects on heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics are investigated. • The Nusselt number increases by adding the nanoparticles to the base fluid. • With applying a magnetic field, the velocity profile will be more uniform. • The Nusselt number increases by increasing the Hartman number.

  13. Numerical investigation of magnetic field effect on mixed convection heat transfer of nanofluid in a channel with sinusoidal walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, M.M., E-mail: mm_rashidi@sawtc.com [Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management Systems, Shanghai (China); ENN-Tongji Clean Energy Institute of Advanced Studies, Shanghai (China); Nasiri, Mohammad, E-mail: m.nasiri1989@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khezerloo, Marzieh, E-mail: m.khezerloo91@ms.tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laraqi, Najib, E-mail: najib.laraqi@u-paris10.fr [Universite Paris 10, LTIE, EA 4415, GTE, 50 Rue de Sevres, F92410 Ville d' Avray (France)

    2016-03-01

    In this study, mixed convection heat transfer of nano-fluid flow in vertical channel with sinusoidal walls under magnetic field effect is investigated numerically. The heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics have been examined. This study has performed for 500≤Re≤1000, 5×104≤Gr≤1×106 , three amplitude sine wave (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and three values of Hartman numbers (0, 5 and 10). Water was utilized as the base fluid and Al2O3 is the considered nano-particle. Flow is assumed two dimensional, laminar, steady and incompressible. As well the thermo-physical properties of nano-fluid are considered constant. The Boussinesq approximation used for calculated the density variations. The average Nusslet number increases by increasing the Grashof number for nano-fluids with different volume fraction. The average Nusselt and Poiseuille number increase as Reynolds number increases. Also, the average Nusselt number and Poiseuille number increases by increasing the Hartman number. - Highlights: • Mixed convection of nanofluid flow in a sinusoidal vertical channel is studied. • MHD effects on heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics are investigated. • The Nusselt number increases by adding the nanoparticles to the base fluid. • With applying a magnetic field, the velocity profile will be more uniform. • The Nusselt number increases by increasing the Hartman number.

  14. Time-frequency analyses of fluid–solid interaction under sinusoidal translational shear deformation of the viscoelastic rat cerebrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Lauren N.; Haslach, Henry W.

    2018-02-01

    During normal extracellular fluid (ECF) flow in the brain glymphatic system or during pathological flow induced by trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, ECF-solid matter interactions result from sinusoidal shear waves in the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both heterogeneous biological tissues with high fluid content. The flow in the glymphatic system is known to be forced by pulsations of the cranial arteries at about 1 Hz. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat cerebrum and bovine aortic tissue. Time-frequency analyses aim to correlate the shear stress signal frequency components over time with the behavior of brain tissue constituents to identify the physical source of the shear nonlinear viscoelastic response. Discrete fast Fourier transformation analysis and the novel application to the shear stress signal of harmonic wavelet decomposition both show significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component in brain tissue, whose magnitude is much larger than in aortic tissue, may result from interstitial fluid induced drag forces. The harmonic wavelet decomposition locates 3 Hz harmonics whose magnitudes decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of bond breaking that results in easier fluid movement. Both tissues exhibit transient shear stress softening similar to the Mullins effect in rubber. The form of a new mathematical model for the drag force produced by ECF-solid matter interactions captures the third harmonic seen experimentally.

  15. Amplitude Effects on Thrust Production for Undulatory Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Brittany; Bayandor, Javid

    2017-11-01

    Biological systems offer novel and efficient solutions to many engineering applications, including marine propulsion. It is of interest to determine how fish interact with the water around them, and how best to utilize the potential their methods offer. A stingray-like fin was chosen for analysis due to the maneuverability and versatility of stingrays. The stingray fin was modeled in 2D as a sinusoidal wave with an amplitude increasing from zero at the leading edge to a maximum at the trailing edge. Using this model, a parametric study was performed to examine the effects of the fin on surrounding water in CFD simulations. The results were analyzed both qualitatively, in terms of the pressure contours on the fin and vorticity in the trailing wake, and quantitatively, in terms of the resultant forces on the fin. The amplitude was found to have no effect on the average thrust during steady swimming, when the wave speed on the fin was approximately equal to the swimming speed. However, amplitude was shown to have a significant effect on thrust production when the fin was accelerating. This finding suggests that for undulatory swimmers, amplitude is less useful for controlling swimming speed, but can be used to great effect for augmenting thrust during acceleration.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of fluid flow in channels with wavy sinusoidal walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaidarah Haitham M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entropy generation in channels with non-uniform cross-section that can be found in many fluid flow systems is an important concern from the thermodynamic design point of view. In this regard, the entropy generation in channels with periodic wavy sinusoidal walls has been considered in present study. The flow is assumed to be two-dimensional steady laminar and the main parameters considered are the Re number, height ratio Hmin/Hmax and module length ratio L/a. The fluid enters the channel with uniform axial velocity and temperature. The wall of the channel is assumed to be at uniform temperature which is different that of the fluid at the inlet of the channel. The distribution of the entropy generation as well as the total entropy generation has been studied numerically. It is found that the Re number and the geometric parameters, height ratio and module length ratio have significant effect on both the local concentrations of entropy generation as well as the total entropy generation in the channel. Flow separation and re-circulation size, strength and location of flow are found to be major concern in determining the local entropy generation.

  17. Current and Voltage Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CBTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sagbas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current-mode (CM and voltage-mode (VM multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO structures using current backward transconductance amplifier (CBTA are proposed. The proposed oscillators can generate n current or voltage signals (n being even or odd equally spaced in phase. n+1 CBTAs, n grounded capacitors and a grounded resistor are used for nth-state oscillator. The oscillation frequency can be independently controlled through transconductance (gm of the CBTAs which are adjustable via their bias currents. The effects caused by the non-ideality of the CBTA on the oscillation frequency and condition have been analyzed. The performance of the proposed circuits is demonstrated on third-stage and fifth-stage MSOs by using PSPICE simulations based on the 0.25 µm TSMC level-7 CMOS technology parameters.

  18. New Realizations of Single OTRA-Based Sinusoidal Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chun Chien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes three new sinusoidal oscillators based on an operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA. Each of the proposed oscillator circuits consists of one OTRA combined with a few passive components. The first circuit is an OTRA-based minimum RC oscillator. The second circuit is capable of providing independent control on the condition of oscillation without affecting the oscillation frequency. The third circuit exhibits independent control of oscillation frequency through a capacitor. This study first introduces the OTRA and the related formulations of the proposed oscillator circuits, and then discusses the nonideal effects, sensitivity analyses, and frequency stability of the presented circuits. The proposed oscillators exhibit low sensitivities and good frequency stability. Because the presented circuits feature low impedance output, they can be connected directly to the next stage without cascading additional voltage buffers. HSPICE simulations and experimental results confirm the feasibility of the new oscillator circuits.

  19. Surface wave propagation over sinusoidally varying topography: Theory and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Heathershaw, A. D.

    Linear perturbation theory is used to show that the reflection coefficient of a patch of sinusoidal ripples on an otherwise flat bed is oscillatory in the quotient of the length of the patch and the surface wave length, and strongly dependent upon the quotient of the surface and bed wave numbers. Resonant interaction between the surface waves and the ripples if the surface wavenumber is half the ripple wavenumber is demonstrated. Few ripples, of relatively small steepness, are required to produce a substantial reflected wave. In resonant cases, the partially standing wave on the up-wave side of the ripple patch gives way, in an almost linear manner over the the ripple patch itself, to a progressive (transmitted) wave on the down-wave side. Wave tank data agree well with predictions, and suggest coupling between wave reflection and ripple growth on an erodible bed.

  20. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Schwen

    Full Text Available The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale.

  1. Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao

    2018-02-01

    We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.

  2. Sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators using modern electronic circuit building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, V K; Sharma, R K

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a single-source reference to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as a variety of modern electronic circuit building blocks. It provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators and includes a catalogue of over 600 configurations of oscillators and waveform generators, describing their relevant design details and salient performance features/limitations. The authors discuss a number of interesting, open research problems and include a comprehensive collection of over 1500 references on oscillators and non-sinusoidal waveform generators/relaxation oscillators. Offers readers a single-source reference to everything connected to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as modern electronic circuit building blocks; Provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators; Includes a catalog of over 600 configurations of oscillato...

  3. Four-Wire Delta Service Sinusoidal Operation and Compensation Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente León-Martínez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An off-line simulator based on Excel used to evaluate the operation of four-wire delta (4WD services as well as the effects of reactive and imbalance compensators in sinusoidal steady-state conditions is described in this paper. Voltages, currents and powers in the primary and secondary windings of the transformer as well as in the high voltage (HV and low voltage (LV lines and in the loads are calculated through that simulator. The apparent powers in the mains, transformer and loads are determined applying Buchholz’s and unified power measurement (UPM formulations in both scalar and vector notations. The effects of the neutral current are especially examined, in order to minimize them, and the optimal wye load distribution is determined by the simulator. The simulator provides the necessary elements of passive reactive and unbalanced compensators that optimize the 4WD transformer operation too. Those compensators are determined for each load, and they can be separately selected and included in the simulation process or not. An application example is finally used to step by step explain how the simulator runs.

  4. Magnetic field components in a sinusoidally varying helical wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspi, S.

    1994-07-27

    One may be interested in a pure multipole magnetic field (i.e., proportional to sin(n{theta}) or cos(n{theta}) whose strength varies purely as a Fourier sinusoidal series of the longitudinal coordinate z (say proportional to cos{sub L}/{sup (2m-1){pi}z}), where L denotes the half-period of the wiggler and m=1,2,3{hor_ellipsis}). Associated with such a z variation, there necessarily will be presented a z component of magnetic field which in the source-free region, in fact, will give rise to both normal and skew transverse fields associated with the functions A{sub n}(z) and {Angstrom}{sub n}(z) as expressed in Reference{sup bc}. In this note the field components and expression for the scalar potential both inside and outside a thin pure winding surface are included with additional contributions from a possible high permeable shield. It is also shown that for a pure dipole case of n=1 and pure axial variation of m=1 the transverse field can be derived from a simple two dimensional field.

  5. Response of rat skin flaps to sinusoidal electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, E.

    1987-01-01

    Electrical stimulation to heal bone fractures has been used clinically since the early 1970s. As a result of treatment with either direct current or electromagnetic fields, there was an indication that the electrical signals enhanced the ingrowth of blood vessels into the treated area. This possibility was one of the reasons for the initial studies on the influence of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on healing of skin flaps. These investigations reported a decrease in the amount of necrosis of a skin flap after PEMF treatment. The skin flap model was chosen in these studies, as it is generally accepted for the investigation of the influence of different treatments on wound healing. The skin flap is a partially detached portion of the skin which retains part of its blood supply. However, if the flap is too long for its width, part of it will die after the transfer. Flap necrosis, therefore, represents a difficult clinical problem, especially in classes where a large area has to be covered. In the present study the authors address whether enhanced skin flap survival after treatment with PEMF is signal specific, that is , whether one could obtain similar results using various sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs). Specifically, they investigated the influence on skin flap survival of SEMFs with different frequencies but the same maximum of dB/dt

  6. Sinusoidal magnetic fields and chawki (silkworm) rearing in sericulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, S M H; Dhahira Beevi, N; Mani, A; Leelapriya, T; Dhilip, K S; Sanker Narayan, P V

    2006-01-01

    Effects of sinusoidal magnetic fields on chawki silkworm rearing have been studied. The experiment was conducted using a multi X Bi silkworm hybrid, PM x CSR 2. Disease-free layings were reared from hatching to cocooning and by subjecting first and second instar to three magnetic field frequencies: 0.1, 1.0, and 10 Hz at 1500 nT, pp, for six days at six hours per day. Controls were maintained simultaneously. Larval durations for both young-stage chawki (I and II) and late stage (III, IV, V) were calculated in days and hours, including the feeding and moulting periods for I to IV instars, and the feeding period for V instar up to the time of spinning. The study revealed that the magnetic exposures reduced both feeding and moulting times with no adverse effects on larval growth. The substantial reductions in time, 33 hours in instars I and II, and 64 hours in total larval duration, could be commercially important in chawki rearing, saving time, leaf consumption, and labor expenses.

  7. SLC positron source flux concentrator modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lamare, J.; Kulikov, A.; Cassel, R.; Nesterov, V.

    1991-06-01

    The modulator for the SLC e+ source flux concentrator provides 16 kA in a 5 μs sinusoidal half wave current for a pure inductive load, at 120 Hz. The modulator incorporates 10 EEV CX1622 thyratrons in a switching network. It provides reliable operation with acceptable thyratron lifetime. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Harmonic analysis of DC capacitor current in sinusoidal and space ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    modulation; diode-clamped inverter; double Fourier series; harmonic analysis; neutral- point-clamped inverter; sine-triangle pulse width modulation; three-level inverter. 1. Introduction. Inverters used in high power applications with medium to high DC-bus voltages require either switching devices of high voltage rating or ...

  9. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell differentiation in mice. Using in vitro co-culture systems and subsequent cytokine analysis, we showed that LSECs induced high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in developing Th1 cells. These LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells had no pro-inflammatory capacity in vivo but instead actively suppressed an inflammatory Th1-cell-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Blockage of IL-10 signaling in vivo inhibited immunosuppressive activity of LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells. We identified the Notch pathway as a mechanism how LSECs trigger IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. LSECs expressed high levels of the Delta-like and Jagged family of Notch ligands and induced expression of the Notch target genes hes-1 and deltex-1 in Th1 cells. Blockade of Notch signaling selectively inhibited IL-10 induction in Th1 cells by LSECs. Our findings suggest that LSEC-induced IL-10 expression in Th1 cells via the Notch pathway may contribute to the control of hepatic inflammatory immune responses by induction of a self-regulatory mechanism in pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Morphology and force probing of primary murine liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczny, B; Owczarczyk, K; Szafranska, K; Kus, E; Chlopicki, S; Szymonski, M

    2017-07-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) represent unique type of endothelial cells featured by their characteristic morphology, ie, lack of a basement membrane and presence of fenestrations-transmembrane pores acting as a dynamic filter between the vascular space and the liver parenchyma. Delicate structure of LSECs membrane combined with a submicron size of fenestrations hinders their visualization in live cells. In this work, we apply atomic force microscopy contact mode to characterize fenestrations in LSECs. We reveal the structure of fenestrations in live LSECs. Moreover, we show that the high-resolution imaging of fenestrations is possible for the glutaraldehyde-fixed LSECs. Finally, thorough information about the morphology of LSECs including great contrast in visualization of sieve plates and fenestrations is provided using Force Modulation mode. We show also the ability to precisely localize the cell nuclei in fixed LSECs. It can be helpful for more precise description of nanomechanical properties of cell nuclei using atomic force microscopy. Presented methodology combining high-quality imaging of fixed cells with an additional nanomechanical information of both live and fixed LSECs provides a unique approach to study LSECs morphology and nanomechanics that could foster understanding of the role of LSECs in maintaining liver homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktham Asfour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.

  12. Comparative Study of Modulation Techniques for Two-Level Voltage Source Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry W. Williams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed comparative study of modulation techniques for single and three phase dc-ac inverters is presented.  Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation, Triplen Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation, Space Vector Modulation, Selective Harmonic Elimination and Wavelet Modulation are assessed and compared in terms of maximum fundamental output, harmonic performance, switching losses and operational mode.  The presented modulation techniques are applied to single and three phase voltage source inverters and are simulated using SIMULINK.  The simulation results clarify the inverter performance achieved using the different modulations techniques.

  13. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  14. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1987-02-01

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  15. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  16. Phase analysis of amplitude binary mask structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthankovilakam, Krishnaparvathy; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2016-03-01

    Shaping of light behind masks using different techniques is the milestone of the printing industry. The aerial image distribution or the intensity distribution at the printing distances defines the resolution of the structure after printing. Contrast and phase are the two parameters that play a major role in shaping of light to get the desired intensity pattern. Here, in contrast to many other contributions that focus on intensity, we discuss the phase evolution for different structures. The amplitude or intensity characteristics of the structures in a binary mask at different proximity gaps have been analyzed extensively for many industrial applications. But the phase evolution from the binary mask having OPC structures is not considered so far. The mask we consider here is the normal amplitude binary mask but having high resolution Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) structures for corners. The corner structures represent a two dimensional problem which is difficult to handle with simple rules of phase masks design and therefore of particular interest. The evolution of light from small amplitude structures might lead to high contrast by creating sharp phase changes or phase singularities which are points of zero intensity. We show the phase modulation at different proximity gaps and can visualize the shaping of light according to the phase changes. The analysis is done with an instrument called High Resolution Interference Microscopy (HRIM), a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that gives access to three-dimensional phase and amplitude images. The current paper emphasizes on the phase measurement of different optical proximity correction structures, and especially on corners of a binary mask.

  17. AC losses in HTS coils for high-frequency and non-sinusoidal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, B. J. H.; Jansen, J. W.; Lomonova, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    AC losses in racetrack coils that are wound of YBCO tapes are measured for sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal transport currents with fundamental frequencies up to 1 kHz. An electrical method to measure losses for non-sinusoidal currents is developed for this purpose. The measured losses are compared to the losses calculated by 2D finite element models with power-law material models. The frequency and waveform-dependency of the measured losses are shown and compared to the results of the models over a wide range of frequencies and waveforms. Finally, it is shown that the finite element models can accurately predict AC losses resulting from non-sinusoidal transport currents as are present in highly dynamic motors with AC armature coils.

  18. Manipulating counter-rotating interactions in the quantum Rabi model via modulation of the transition frequency of the two-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Feng; Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin; Kuang, Le-Man

    2017-10-01

    We propose a theoretical approach to manipulate the counter-rotating (CR) interactions in the quantum Rabi model by introducing a sinusoidal modulation to the transition frequency of the quantum two-level system. By choosing appropriate modulation frequency and amplitude, enhancement and suppression of the CR interactions can be achieved in the Jaynes-Cummings regime (including both weak- and strong-coupling cases) as well as the ultrastrong-coupling regime. In particular, we calculate the output excitation emission of the bosonic vacuum state under enhanced CR terms. Our results show that continuous and steady bosonic excitation emission from the bosonic vacuum can be observed in the Jaynes-Cummings regime as a consequence of the enhancement. Our approach is general and system independent, and hence it works for various physical systems described by the quantum Rabi model. As an example, we discuss the implementation of this scheme with superconducting quantum circuits.

  19. An optimized method for mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cell isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Jeremy, E-mail: jeremy.meyer@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Lacotte, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.lacotte@unige.ch [Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Morel, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.morel@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.gonelle@unige.ch [Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Bühler, Léo, E-mail: leo.buhler@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland)

    2016-12-10

    The objective of the present study was to develop an accurate and reproducible method for liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) isolation in mice. Non-parenchymal cells were isolated using a modified two-step collagenase digestion combined with Optiprep density gradient centrifugation. LSEC were further purified using two prevalent methods, short-term selective adherence and CD146+ magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), and compared in terms of cell yield, viability and purity to our purification technique using CD11b cell depletion combined with long-term selective adherence. LSEC purification using our technique allowed to obtain 7.07±3.80 million LSEC per liver, while CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence yielded 2.94±1.28 and 0.99±0.66 million LSEC, respectively. Purity of the final cell preparation reached 95.10±2.58% when using our method. In contrast, CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence gave purities of 86.75±3.26% and 47.95±9.82%, respectively. Similarly, contamination by non-LSEC was the lowest when purification was performed using our technique, with a proportion of contaminating macrophages of only 1.87±0.77%. Further, isolated cells analysed by scanning electron microscopy presented typical LSEC fenestrations organized in sieve plates, demonstrating that the technique allowed to isolate bona fide LSEC. In conclusion, we described a reliable and reproducible technique for the isolation of high yields of pure LSEC in mice. This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare LSEC for studying their biological functions. - Highlights: • This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare primary mouse LSEC for studying their biological functions. • The liver cell dispersion step was improved by performing a retrograde cannulation of the liver. • The cell yield and the purity obtained were higher than comparative techniques in mice. • Contaminating macrophages were removed by introducing a CD11b- magnetic

  20. Crashworthiness Analysis and Evaluation of Fuselage Section with Sub-floor Composite Sinusoidal Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Mou

    Full Text Available Abstract Crashworthiness is one of the main concerns in civil aviation safety particularly with regard to the increasing ratio of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP in aircraft primary structures. In order to generate dates for model validations, the mechanical properties of T700/3234 were obtained by material performance tests, and energy-absorbing results were gained by quasi-static crushing tests of composite sinusoidal specimens. The correctness of composite material model and single-layer finite element model of composite sinusoidal specimens were verified based on the simulation results and test results that were in good agreement. A typical civil aircraft fuselage section with composite sinusoidal specimens under cargo floor was suggested. The crashworthiness of finite element model of fuselage section was assessed by simulating the vertical drop test subjected to 7 m/s impact velocity, and the influences of different thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens on crashworthiness of fuselage section were also analyzed. The simulation results show that the established finite element model can accurately simulate the crushing process of composite sinusoidal specimens; the failure process of fuselage section is more stable, and the safety of occupants can be effectively improved because of the smaller peak accelerations that was limited to human tolerance, a critical thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens can restrict the magnitude of acceleration peaks, which has certain reference values for enhancing crashworthiness capabilities of fuselage section and improving the survivability of passengers.

  1. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in ...

  2. influence of electromagnetic waves produced by an amplitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    This article presents a one dimensional modeling of the influence of electromagnetic waves on the electric power delivered by a silicon solar cell under monochromatic illumination in steady state. The electromagnetic waves are produced by an amplitude modulation radio antenna of 2MW power of radiation and located at a ...

  3. Influence of electromagnetic waves produced by an amplitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a one dimensional modeling of the influence of electromagnetic waves on the electric power delivered by a silicon solar cell under monochromatic illumination in steady state. The electromagnetic waves are produced by an amplitude modulation radio antenna of 2MW power of radiation and located at a ...

  4. A Kepler study of starspot lifetimes with respect to light-curve amplitude and spectral type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Helen A. C.; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.

    2017-12-01

    Wide-field high-precision photometric surveys such as Kepler have produced reams of data suitable for investigating stellar magnetic activity of cooler stars. Starspot activity produces quasi-sinusoidal light curves whose phase and amplitude vary as active regions grow and decay over time. Here we investigate, first, whether there is a correlation between the size of starspots - assumed to be related to the amplitude of the sinusoid - and their decay time-scale and, secondly, whether any such correlation depends on the stellar effective temperature. To determine this, we computed the auto-correlation functions of the light curves of samples of stars from Kepler and fitted them with apodised periodic functions. The light-curve amplitudes, representing spot size, were measured from the root-mean-squared scatter of the normalized light curves. We used a Monte Carlo Markov Chain to measure the periods and decay time-scales of the light curves. The results show a correlation between the decay time of starspots and their inferred size. The decay time also depends strongly on the temperature of the star. Cooler stars have spots that last much longer, in particular for stars with longer rotational periods. This is consistent with current theories of diffusive mechanisms causing starspot decay. We also find that the Sun is not unusually quiet for its spectral type - stars with solar-type rotation periods and temperatures tend to have (comparatively) smaller starspots than stars with mid-G or later spectral types.

  5. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  6. Shape of Pion Distribution Amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly

    2009-11-01

    A scenario is investigated in which the leading-twist pion distribution amplitude $\\varphi_\\pi (x)$ is approximated by the pion decay constant $f_\\pi$ for all essential values of the light-cone fraction $x$. A model for the light-front wave function $\\Psi (x, k_\\perp)$ is proposed that produces such a distribution amplitude and has a rapidly decreasing (exponential for definiteness) dependence on the light-front energy combination $ k_\\perp^2/x(1-x)$. It is shown that this model easily reproduces the fit of recent large-$Q^2$ BaBar data on the photon-pion transition form factor. Some aspects of scenario with flat pion distribution amplitude are discussed.

  7. Modulation of energetic coherent motions by large-scale topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wing; Hamed, Ali M.; Troolin, Dan; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    The distinctive characteristics and dynamics of the large-scale coherent motions induced over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls were explored experimentally with time-resolved volumetric PIV, and selected wall-normal high-resolution stereo PIV in a refractive-index-matching channel. The 2D wall consists of a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/ λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave in the spanwise direction with a/ λy = 0.1. The ?ow was characterized at Re 8000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls are such that the amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio is a/ δ99 0.1, which resemble geophysical-like topography. Insight on the dynamics of the coherent motions, Reynolds stress and spatial interaction of sweep and ejection events will be discussed in terms of the wall topography modulation.

  8. Single-carrier sinusoidal PWM-equivalent selective harmonic elimination for a five-level voltage source converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahidah, Mohamed S.A. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Agelidis, Vassilios G. [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2008-11-15

    The paper presents a new variation of selective harmonic elimination pulse-width modulation (SHE-PWM) technique suitable for a high-power five-level converter used in constant frequency utility applications. The governing system of equations associated with the elimination of specific harmonics is defined based on an equal number of switching transitions when compared against the single-carrier sinusoidal PWM (SC-SPWM) technique. For this paper, it is assumed that the modulating signal (triangular carrier) of the equivalent SC-SPWM method has twenty per unit frequency. The switching transitions for every quarter period are therefore distributed between the converter levels according to the modulation index of SC-SPWM. It is confirmed that the proposed technique offers significantly higher converter bandwidth and higher dc bus utilization for the same switching transitions. Furthermore, the proposed SHE-PWM offers better harmonic performance compared to its SC-SPWM counterpart. Selected solutions for the switching transitions are presented and verified experimentally in order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique. (author)

  9. On the Frequency Correction in Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Glass Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, J.C.; Allan, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is based on conventional DSC but with a sinusoidally modulated temperature path. Simulations of TMDSC signals were performed for Corning EAGLE XG® glass over a wide range of modulation frequencies. Our results reveal that the frequen...... correction. The resulting glass transition temperature from the frequency corrected reversing heat flow is thereby shown to be independent of frequency.......Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is based on conventional DSC but with a sinusoidally modulated temperature path. Simulations of TMDSC signals were performed for Corning EAGLE XG® glass over a wide range of modulation frequencies. Our results reveal that the frequency...

  10. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia

    2008-01-01

    A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t...... with a molecular weight of 145 kg/ mol was subjected to the oscillative flow. The onset of the steady periodic regime is reached at the same Hencky strain as the onset of the steady elongational viscosity ( Lambda = 0). The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept...

  11. Effect of realistic astrophysical inputs on the phase and shape of the weakly interacting massive particles annual modulation signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    The orbit of the Earth about the Sun produces an annual modulation in the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) direct detection rate. If the local WIMP velocity distribution is isotropic then the modulation is roughly sinusoidal with maximum in June; however, if the velocity distribution is anisotropic the phase and shape of the signal can change. Motivated by conflicting claims about the effect of uncertainties in the local velocity distribution on the interpretation of the DAMA annual modulation signal (and the possibility that the form of the modulation could be used to probe the structure of the Milky Way halo), we study the dependence of the annual modulation on various astrophysical inputs. We first examine the approximations used for the Earth's motion about the Sun and the Sun's velocity with respect to the Galactic rest frame. We find that overly simplistic assumptions lead to errors of up to ten days in the phase and up to tens of percent in the shape of the signal, even if the velocity distribution is isotropic. Crucially, if the components of the Earth's velocity perpendicular to the motion of the Sun are neglected, then the change in the phase which occurs for anisotropic velocity distributions is missed. We then examine how the annual modulation signal varies for physically and observationally well-motivated velocity distributions. We find that the phase of the signal changes by up to 20 days and the mean value and amplitude change by up to tens of percent

  12. Mobility of solid vortex matter in 'shaking' ac magnetic fields of variable amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.J.; Valenzuela, S.O.; Pasquini, G.; Bekeris, V.

    2004-01-01

    The vortex solid in high temperature superconductors exhibits several regimes and dynamical behaviors. A temporarily symmetric magnetic ac field (e.g. sinusoidal, square, triangular) can increase the vortex lattice mobility and a temporarily asymmetric one (e.g. sawtooth) can decrease it. In this work, we study the effect on the mobility of the vortex solid as a function of the amplitude of an ac symmetric 'shaking' field when it is applied to previously prepared high and low mobility configurations. This study was carried out in high quality twinned YBCO single crystals and vortex mobility was studied through ac susceptibility measurements

  13. Scattering Amplitudes from Intersection Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, Sebastian

    2018-04-06

    We use Picard-Lefschetz theory to prove a new formula for intersection numbers of twisted cocycles associated with a given arrangement of hyperplanes. In a special case when this arrangement produces the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, intersection numbers become tree-level scattering amplitudes of quantum field theories in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulation.

  14. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are

  15. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2015-08-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  16. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  17. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model

  18. Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1976-03-01

    It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations

  19. Modulations in the light of the firefly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The amplitude of the continuous train of triangular pulses is apparently altered in accordance with the instantaneous values of a hypothetical signal, which exhibits pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). In addition to sampling in amplitude, this scheme apparently provides sampling in time, representing pulse width modulation ...

  20. Phase Modulation for postcompensation of dispersion in 160-Gb/s systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahlo, Andrei; Clausen, A. T.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end.......Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end....

  1. Seismic amplitude processing and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Ashwani

    2008-10-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration requires reliable seismic amplitudes to identify oil and gas reservoirs. Erroneous seismic amplitude processing can potentially generate large economic losses. Correct seismic amplitude processing is pre-requisite for any amplitude dependent analysis. The accuracy of the subsurface image and estimation of the elastic properties of subsurface sediments depends upon the reliability of the amplitudes. Geophone groups are wavenumber filters that change the seismic amplitudes because of a wavenumber dependent information loss. Numerically defined filters deconvolve the recording group response from horizontal and the vertical component seismic data recorded with groups of uniform and non-uniform geophone sensitivity, different group lengths and spacing, and noise. The filtering effect of an array increases as the group length increases, and only the wavenumber range defined by the group interval can be correctly compensated for the group effect. A rigorous, explicit spatial antialias filter is designed and applied by removing the energy above the first Nyquist wavenumber in the horizontal slowness-frequency domain. The filter removes the spatially aliased frequencies selectively at each slowness. The aliased energy is dispersive and present at both small and large horizontal slownesses. The filter can be explicitly applied to regularly spaced or irregularly spaced traces and is independent of any event linearity assumption. An integrative interpretation approach defines the effect of the structural setting on gas hydrate and free-gas accumulation at a site at the East Casey fault zone in the Gulf of Mexico. At a well location, hydrates are interpreted as fracture fillings with maximum saturation ˜30% of the available pore space. Two low acoustic impedance (Ip) free-gas features terminating at the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) are interpreted from the 3D seismic data and the derived Ip volumes. The 2D Ip profile shows a contrast in BSR

  2. Conversion of Radio-Frequency Pulses to Continuous-Wave Sinusoids by Fast Switching and Narrowband Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0783 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Conversion of Radio -Frequency Pulses to Continuous- Wave Sinusoids by Fast...ARL-TN-0783 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Conversion of Radio -Frequency Pulses to Continuous- Wave Sinusoids by Fast...08/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conversion of Radio -Frequency Pulses to Continuous- Wave Sinusoids by Fast Switching and Narrowband Filtering 5a

  3. Light scattering by sinusoidal surfaces: illumination windows and harmonics in standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, E; Lettieri, T R; Vorburger, T V

    1995-03-01

    Sinusoidal surfaces can be used as material standards to help calibrate instruments that measure the angular distribution of the intensity of light scattered by arbitrary surfaces, because the power in the diffraction peaks varies over several orders of magnitude. The calculated power in the higher-order diffraction peaks from sinusoidal surfaces expressed in terms of Bessel functions is much smaller than the values determined from angular distributions that are measured or computed from measured profiles, both of which are determined mainly by the harmonic contents of the profile. The finite size of the illuminated area, represented by an illumination window, gives rise to a background that is much larger than the calculated power in the higher-order peaks. For a rectangular window of a size equal to an even number of periods of the sinusoid, a computation of the power distribution produces minima at or near the location of the diffraction angles for higher-order diffraction angles.

  4. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  5. Rebreathing in the Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems with sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L B

    1997-12-01

    The degree of rebreathing in Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems for sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms is analysed mathematically. The effects of altering the I:E ratio and of introducing an expiratory pause are investigated. The results for sinusoidal waveforms closely resemble those for a square wave. Exponential flow waveforms produce results similar to triangular flow waveforms. The Mapleson A system is always the most efficient. The Mapleson C system is efficient when the I:E ratio is 1:1, becoming less efficient with longer expiration and very inefficient with an expiratory pause. The Mapleson D system becomes efficient when the expiratory pause is long.

  6. High-frequency combustion instability control through acoustic modulation at the inlet boundary for liquid rocket engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennewitz, John William

    This research investigation encompasses experimental tests demonstrating the control of a high-frequency combustion instability by acoustically modulating the propellant flow. A model rocket combustor burned gaseous oxygen and methane using a single-element, pentad-style injector. Flow conditions were established that spontaneously excited a 2430 Hz first longitudinal combustion oscillation at an amplitude up to p'/pc ≈ 6%. An acoustic speaker was placed at the base of the oxidizer supply to modulate the flow and alter the oscillatory behavior of the combustor. Two speaker modulation approaches were investigated: (1) Bands of white noise and (2) Pure sinusoidal tones. The first approach adjusted 500 Hz bands of white noise ranging from 0-500 Hz to 2000-2500 Hz, while the second implemented single-frequency signals with arbitrary phase swept from 500-2500 Hz. The results showed that above a modulation signal amplitude threshold, both approaches suppressed 95+% of the spontaneous combustion oscillation. By increasing the applied signal amplitude, a wider frequency range of instability suppression became present for these two acoustic modulation approaches. Complimentary to these experiments, a linear modal analysis was undertaken to investigate the effects of acoustic modulation at the inlet boundary on the longitudinal instability modes of a dump combustor. The modal analysis employed acoustically consistent matching conditions with a specific impedance boundary condition at the inlet to represent the acoustic modulation. From the modal analysis, a naturally unstable first longitudinal mode was predicted in the absence of acoustic modulation, consistent with the spontaneously excited 2430 Hz instability observed experimentally. Subsequently, a detailed investigation involving variation of the modulation signal from 0-2500 Hz and mean combustor temperature from 1248-1685 K demonstrated the unstable to stable transition of a 2300-2500 Hz first longitudinal mode. The

  7. Amplitude Noise Suppression and Orthogonal Multiplexing Using Injection-Locked Single-Mode VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel....

  8. Amplitude regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals in single-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Seoane, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    to demonstrate amplitude regeneration of a distorted RZ-DPSK signal in a gain-saturated FOPA. An optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty of 3.5 dB after amplitude distortion is shown to be reduced to 0.2 dB after the FOPA, thus clearly demonstrating the regenerative nature of saturated FOPAs for RZ-DPSK modulation....

  9. Forward amplitude in pion deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.; Munguia, G.A.P.; Rosa, L.P.; Thome, Z.D.

    1979-06-01

    The data on total cross section for πd scattering is analysed in terms of a single scattering calculation with Fermi motion dependence, in order to obtain a criterion to fix the value of the energy entering the two body meson nucleon amplitude. It is found that the prescription derived from the non-relativistic three body kinematics gives reasonable results. The introduction of a shift in the energy value, possibly representing nuclear binding effects, leads to a very good fitting of the data. The results are compared with those obtained in direct calculations of Faddeev equations and with the Brueckner model of fixed scatterers. (Author) [pt

  10. Superstring amplitudes and contact interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.

    1987-08-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes computed from light-cone superstring field theory are divergent at tree level. The divergences can be eliminated, and supersymmetry restored, by the addition of certain counter terms to the light-cone Hamiltonian. These counter terms have the form of local contact interactions, whose existence we had previously deduced on grounds of vacuum stability, and closure of the super-Poincare algebra. The quartic contact interactions required in Type I and Type IIB superstring theories are constructed in detail. (orig.)

  11. Comparison between the water activation effects by pulsed and sinusoidal helium plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Liu, Dingxin; Xia, Wenjie; Chen, Chen; Wang, Weitao; Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Xiaohua; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Comparisons between pulsed and sinusoidal plasma jets have been extensively reported for the discharge characteristics and gaseous reactive species, but rarely for the aqueous reactive species in water solutions treated by the two types of plasma jets. This motivates us to compare the concentrations of aqueous reactive species induced by a pulsed and a sinusoidal plasma jet, since it is widely reported that these aqueous reactive species play a crucial role in various plasma biomedical applications. Experimental results show that the aqueous H2O2, OH/O2-, and O2-/ONOO- induced by the pulsed plasma jet have higher concentrations, and the proportional difference increases with the discharge power. However, the emission intensities of OH(A) and O(3p5P) are higher for the sinusoidal plasma jet, which may be attributed to its higher gas temperature since more water vapor could participate in the plasma. In addition, the efficiency of bacterial inactivation induced by the pulsed plasma jet is higher than that for the sinusoidal plasma jet, in accordance with the concentration relation of aqueous reactive species for the two types of plasma jets.

  12. The hepatic sinusoid in aging and cirrhosis: effects on hepatic substrate disposition and drug clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Couteur, David G; Fraser, Robin; Hilmer, Sarah; Rivory, Laurent P; McLean, Allan J

    2005-01-01

    The fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium ('liver sieve') and space of Disse in the healthy liver do not impede the transfer of most substrates, including drugs and oxygen, from the sinusoidal lumen to the hepatocyte. Plasma components transfer freely in both directions through the endothelial fenestrations and into the space of Disse. The endothelium is attenuated, there is no basement membrane and there is minimum collagen in the space of Disse, thus minimising any barriers to substrate diffusion. Both cirrhosis and aging are associated with marked structural changes in the sinusoidal endothelium and space of Disse that are likely to influence bulk plasma transfer into the space of Disse, and diffusion through the endothelium and space of Disse. These changes, termed capillarisation and pseudocapillarisation in cirrhosis and aging, respectively, impede the transfer of various substrates. Capillarisation is associated with exclusion of albumin, protein-bound drugs and macromolecules from the space of Disse, and the progressive transformation of flow-limited to barrier-limited distribution of some substrates. There is evidence that the sinusoidal changes in cirrhosis and aging contribute to hepatocyte hypoxia, thus providing a mechanism for the apparent differential reduction of oxygen-dependent phase I metabolic pathways in these conditions. Structural change and subsequent dysfunction of the liver sieve warrant consideration as a significant factor in the impairment of overall substrate handling and hepatic drug metabolism in cirrhosis and aging.

  13. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Par, S.; Kohlrausch, A.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Holdt Jensen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of

  14. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Søren Holdt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of audio signals. In this paper, we present a new perceptual model that predicts masked thresholds for sinusoidal distortions. The model relies on signal detection theory and incorporates more recent insights about spectral and temporal integration in auditory masking. As a consequence, the model is able to predict the distortion detectability. In fact, the distortion detectability defines a (perceptually relevant norm on the underlying signal space which is beneficial for optimisation algorithms such as rate-distortion optimisation or linear predictive coding. We evaluate the merits of the model by combining it with a sinusoidal extraction method and compare the results with those obtained with the ISO MPEG-1 Layer I-II recommended model. Listening tests show a clear preference for the new model. More specifically, the model presented here leads to a reduction of more than 20% in terms of number of sinusoids needed to represent signals at a given quality level.

  15. A perceptual model for sinusoidal audio coding based on spectral integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Par, S.; Kohlrauch, A.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of

  16. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  17. Stress singularities in a model of a wood disk under sinusoidal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Johnson; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer; Charles Amundson

    2005-01-01

    A thin, solid, circular wood disk, cut from the transverse plane of a tree stem, can be modeled as a cylindrically orthotropic elastic material. It is known that a stress singularity can occur at the center of a cylindrically orthotropic disk subjected to uniform pressure. If a solid cylindrically orthotropic disk is subjected to sinusoidal pressure distributions, then...

  18. Oscillator, neutron modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaisse, R.; Leguen, R.; Ombredane, D.

    1960-01-01

    The authors present a mechanical device and an electronic control circuit which have been designed to sinusoidally modulate the reactivity of the Proserpine atomic pile. The mechanical device comprises an oscillator and a mechanism assembly. The oscillator is made of cadmium blades which generate the reactivity oscillation. The mechanism assembly comprises a pulse generator for cycle splitting, a gearbox and an engine. The electronic device comprises or performs pulse detection, an on-off device, cycle pulse shaping, phase separation, a dephasing amplifier, electronic switches, counting scales, and control devices. All these elements are briefly presented

  19. Expansion of Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yi-Jian; Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study from various perspectives the expansion of tree level single trace Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes into linear combination of color-ordered Yang-Mills amplitudes. By applying the gauge invariance principle, a programable recursive construction is devised to expand EYM amplitude with arbitrary number of gravitons into EYM amplitudes with fewer gravitons. Based on this recursive technique we write down the complete expansion of any single trace EYM amplitude in the basis of color-order Yang-Mills amplitude. As a byproduct, an algorithm for constructing a polynomial form of the BCJ numerator for Yang-Mills amplitudes is also outlined in this paper. In addition, by applying BCFW recursion relation we show how to arrive at the same EYM amplitude expansion from the on-shell perspective. And we examine the EYM expansion using KLT relations and show how to evaluate the expansion coefficients efficiently.

  20. Constructing Amplitudes from Their Soft Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an (n-1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which 'soft' particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.

  1. 47 CFR 78.115 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 78.115 Section 78.115... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.115 Modulation limits. (a) If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall not exceed 100 percent modulation. [37 FR 3292, Feb. 12, 1972, as amended...

  2. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  3. Nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic fields as a noninvasive strategy in bone repair: the effect on human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Mario; D'Emilia, Enrico; Giuliani, Livio; Marchese, Rodolfo; Foletti, Alberto; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella

    2015-02-01

    In vivo control of osteoblast differentiation is an important process needed to maintain the continuous supply of mature osteoblast cells for growth, repair, and remodeling of bones. The regulation of this process has also an important and significant impact on the clinical strategies and future applications of cell therapy. In this article, we studied the effect of nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic field radiation tuned at calcium-ion cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz exposure treatment for bone differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) alone or in synergy with dexamethasone, their canonical chemical differentiation agent. Five days of continuous exposure to calcium-ion cyclotron resonance affect hMSC proliferation, morphology, and cytoskeletal actin reorganization. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also observed an increase of osteoblast differentiation marker expression such as Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and osteopontin (OPN) together with the osteoprotegerin mRNA modulation. Moreover, in these cells, the increase of the protein expression of OPN and ALP was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate bone commitment of hMSCs through a noninvasive and biocompatible differentiating physical agent treatment and highlight possible applications in new regenerative medicine protocols.

  4. Injection-locked single-mode VCSEL for orthogonal multiplexing and amplitude noise suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipouline, Arkadi; Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Malekizandi, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    an injection-locked 1550 nm VCSEL as a slave laser providing separation of amplitude and phase modulations, carrying independent information flows. To validate the possibility of phase modulation extraction by an injection-locked VCSEL, an experimental setup shown in Fig. 1 has been built....

  5. Quantitative measurement of the vibrational amplitude and phase in photorefractive time-average interferometry: A comparison with electronic speckle pattern interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohleder, Henrik; Petersen, Paul Michael; Marrakchi, A.

    1994-01-01

    and amplitude of the vibrating structure are demonstrated in photorefractive time average interferometry. The photorefractive interferometer is compared with the performance of a commercial electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI). It is shown that the dynamic photorefractive holographic interferometer......Time-average interferometry is dealt with using four-wave mixing in photorefractive Bi12SiO20. By introducing a proper sinusoidal phase shift in the forward pump beam it is possible to measure the amplitude and phase everywhere on a vibrating object. Quantitative measurements of the phase...

  6. The two dynamical states in sinusoidal potentials: An analog simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawkmie, Ivan Skhem; Mahato, Mangal C.

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) is usually found to occur theoretically as well as experimentally in bi-stable systems [1]. Recently, it was numerically shown that SR is found to occur in underdamped (friction coefficient γ) sinusoidal potentials also. The occurrence of SR is explained in terms of two competing dynamical states of trajectories as a response to the external periodic drive. We setup an analog simulation experiment similar to the analog simulation work done earlier to study stochastic nonlinear dynamics [2], to verify the existence of the two dynamical states and to investigate the occurrence of SR in sinusoidal potentials obtained earlier [3]. We discuss our experimental setup and the results obtained in detail.

  7. Human thermal sensation: frequency response to sinusoidal stimuli at the surface of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, J.W.; de Dear, Richard; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    1993-01-01

    . A psychosensory intensity (PSI) model has been developed to relate experimentally derived sensation data to simulated cutaneous thermoreceptor responses to the temperature ramp-plateaux and step stimuli applied to the skin surface by thermodes. From the point of view of signal processing, a natural extension...... of this approach is to ask what the response would be to sinusoidally varying stimuli of differing frequencies, or, in other words, what would be the frequency response of this skin system? The purpose of this paper is to extend the PSI model and apply these sinusoids to it and hence find the frequency response...... function. This function is then compared with the functional form found in two experiments where the stimuli were pulsating airflows of differing frequency. The PSI model seems to simulate well the form of the response of the human skin system to varying temperature changes of a whole range of frequencies...

  8. Credibility Test for Frequency Estimation of Sinusoid Using Chebyshev’s Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guobing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of sinusoid frequency is a key research problem related to radar, sonar, and communication systems. The results of numerous investigations on frequency estimation have been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, none of them have dealt with credibility evaluation, which is used to decide whether an individual frequency estimate of the sinusoid is accurate or not. In this study, the credibility problem is modeled as a hypothesis test based on Chebyshev’s inequality (CI. The correlation calculated from the received signal and the reference signal generated according to the frequency estimate is used as a test statistic. A threshold is determined based on CI, and the analytical expression for the frequency estimation credibility detection performance is derived. Simulations show that the proposed method performs well even at low signal-to-noise ratios.

  9. Rapid and efficient clearance of blood-borne virus by liver sinusoidal endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha P Ganesan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The liver removes quickly the great bulk of virus circulating in blood, leaving only a small fraction to infect the host, in a manner characteristic of each virus. The scavenger cells of the liver sinusoids are implicated, but the mechanism is entirely unknown. Here we show, borrowing a mouse model of adenovirus clearance, that nearly all infused adenovirus is cleared by the liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC. Using refined immunofluorescence microscopy techniques for distinguishing macrophages and endothelial cells in fixed liver, and identifying virus by two distinct physicochemical methods, we localized adenovirus 1 minute after infusion mainly to the LSEC (∼90%, finding ∼10% with Kupffer cells (KC and none with hepatocytes. Electron microscopy confirmed our results. In contrast with much prior work claiming the main scavenger to be the KC, our results locate the clearance mechanism to the LSEC and identify this cell as a key site of antiviral activity.

  10. Multilevel-Dc-Bus Inverter For Providing Sinusoidal And Pwm Electrical Machine Voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2005-11-29

    A circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected to supply current for a corresponding voltage phase to the stator windings, a plurality of diodes, each in parallel connection to a respective one of the commutation switches, a plurality of dc source connections providing a multi-level dc bus for the full bridge network of commutation switches to produce sinusoidal voltages or PWM signals, and a controller connected for control of said dc source connections and said full bridge network of commutation switches to output substantially sinusoidal voltages to the stator windings. With the invention, the number of semiconductor switches is reduced to m+3 for a multi-level dc bus having m levels. A method of machine control is also disclosed.

  11. Electrical dynamic modulation of THz radiation based on superconducting metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Wu, Jingbo; Jiang, Shoulu; Su, Runfeng; Zhang, Caihong; Jiang, Chengtao; Zhou, Gaochao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate an electrically tunable superconducting metamaterial capable of modulating terahertz waves dynamically. The device is based on electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterials, and the maximum modulation depth reaches 79.8% in the transmission window. Controlled by an electrical sinusoidal signal, such a device could achieve a modulation speed of approximately 1 MHz. The superior property and simplicity of design make this device promising for the development of high performance THz systems.

  12. Analysis and Implementation of Multiple Bionic Motion Patterns for Caterpillar Robot Driven by Sinusoidal Oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhe Zhu; Xiaolu Wang; Jizhuang Fan; Sajid Iqbal; Dongyang Bie; Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Articulated caterpillar robot has various locomotion patterns—which make it adaptable to different tasks. Generally, the researchers have realized undulatory (transverse wave) and simple rolling locomotion. But many motion patterns are still unexplored. In this paper, peristaltic locomotion and various additional rolling patterns are achieved by employing sinusoidal oscillator with fixed phase difference as the joint controller. The usefulness of the proposed method is verified using simulati...

  13. Identification of moving sinusoidal wave loads for sensor structural configuration by finite element inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Yu, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a beam structure of composite materials with elastic foundation supports is established as the sensor model, which propagates moving sinusoidal wave loads. The inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is applied for reconstructing moving wave loads which are compared with true wave loads. The conclusion shows that iFEM is accurate and robust in the determination of wave propagation. This helps to seek a suitable new wave sensor method.

  14. A Novel Modular Bioreactor to In Vitro Study the Hepatic Sinusoid

    OpenAIRE

    Illa, Xavi; Vila, Sergi; Yeste, Jose; Peralta, Carmen; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Villa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    We describe a unique, versatile bioreactor consisting of two plates and a modified commercial porous membrane suitable for in vitro analysis of the liver sinusoid. The modular bioreactor allows i) excellent control of the cell seeding process; ii) cell culture under controlled shear stress stimulus, and; iii) individual analysis of each cell type upon completion of the experiment. The advantages of the bioreactor detailed here are derived from the modification of a commercial porous membrane ...

  15. Synthesis of Voltages of Multiple Uniform PWM, Generated by Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ctryzhniou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of synthesis and qualitative estimation of the harmonic composition of voltages of multiple uniform PWM pulses generated by trapezoidal and sinusoidal functions is considered. Analytical expressions for PWM pulses parameters ai  and ti have been received and they can be used for program-based generation of multiple uniform PWM, determination of n-harmonic magnitude in pulse-width regulation and AC motor operation simulation.

  16. Frequency domain optoacoustic tomography using amplitude and phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajerani, Pouyan; Kellnberger, Stephan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-01-01

    We introduce optoacoustic tomographic imaging using intensity modulated light sources and collecting amplitude and phase information in the frequency domain. Imaging is performed at multiple modulation frequencies. The forward modeling uses the Green's function solution to the pressure wave equation in frequency domain and the resulting inverse problem is solved using regularized least squares minimization. We study the effect of the number of frequencies and of the bandwidth employed on the image quality achieved. The possibility of employing an all-frequency domain optoacoustic imaging for experimental measurements is studied as a function of noise. We conclude that frequency domain optoacoustic tomography may evolve to a practical experimental method using light intensity modulated sources, with advantages over time-domain optoacoustics. PMID:25431755

  17. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Hosseinpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates.

  18. Frequency response evaluation of radial artery catheter-manometer systems: sinusoidal frequency analysis versus flush method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwid, H A

    1988-07-01

    It is well recognized that catheter-manometer systems significantly distort direct radial artery pressure measurements. Sinusoidal frequency analysis and the flush method of assessing the degree of distortion caused by the monitoring system were compared to determine whether these two methods agree in the estimation of natural frequency and damping coefficient. The frequency response of 30 radial artery catheter-manometer systems used for intensive-care unit patients was measured by the flush method and sinusoidal frequency analysis. The monitoring system consisted of a 20-gauge cannula, 150-cm pressure tubing, two plastic stopcocks, a continuous infusion device with fast flush valve, an American Edwards dome, a Hewlett-Packard quartz transducer, and a Hewlett-Packard blood pressure amplifier. Sinusoidal frequency analysis demonstrated second-order underdamped response for all 30 catheter-manometer systems. No secondary resonance peaks were observed up to a frequency of 200 Hz. The measured frequency response demonstrated that the average catheter-manometer system in use in our intensive care unit would cause significant distortion of the radial artery pressure, with the mean natural frequency (fn) of 14.7 +/- 3.7 Hz and the mean damping coefficient (zeta) of 0.24 +/- 0.07. Although the 30 monitoring systems had identical configurations and visible bubbles were carefully removed, a wide range of frequency responses was found (fn = 10.2 to 25.3; zeta = 0.15 to 0.44).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Intravascular Immune Surveillance by CXCR6+ NKT Cells Patrolling Liver Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geissmann Frederic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the in vivo behavior of liver natural killer T cells (NKT cells by intravital fluorescence microscopic imaging of mice in which a green fluorescent protein cDNA was used to replace the gene encoding the chemokine receptor CXCR6. NKT cells, which account for most CXCR6+ cells in liver, were found to crawl within hepatic sinusoids at 10-20 µm/min and to stop upon T cell antigen receptor activation. CXCR6-deficient mice exhibited a selective and severe reduction of CD1d-reactive NKT cells in the liver and decreased susceptibility to T-cell-dependent hepatitis. CXCL16, the cell surface ligand for CXCR6, is expressed on sinusoidal endothelial cells, and CXCR6 deficiency resulted in reduced survival, but not in altered speed or pattern of patrolling of NKT cells. Thus, NKT cells patrol liver sinusoids to provide intravascular immune surveillance, and CXCR6 contributes to liver-based immune responses by regulating their abundance.

  20. Direct modulation of 56 Gbps duobinary-4-PAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, Bangning

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the direct modulation of externally modulated laser and transmission through single mode fiber of a 56 Gbps duobinary-4-pulse amplitude modulation signal through 10 GHz class optics....

  1. Amplitude-dependency of response of SI cortex to flutter stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitsel Barry L

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is established that increasing the amplitude of a flutter stimulus increases its perceived intensity. Although many studies have examined this phenomenon with regard to the responding afferent population, the way in which the intensity of a stimulus is coded in primary somatosensory cortex (SI remains unclear. Results Optical intrinsic signal (OIS imaging was used to study the evoked responses in SI of anesthetized squirrel monkeys by 25 Hz sinusoidal vertical skin displacement stimulation. Stimuli were 10 sec duration with a 50 sec inter-stimulus interval. Stimulus amplitude ranged from 50 to 400 microns and different amplitudes were interleaved. Control levels of activity were measured in the absence of stimulation, and used to compare with activation levels evoked by the different stimulus amplitudes. Stimulation of a discrete skin site on the forelimb evoked a prominent increase in absorbance within the forelimb representational region in cytoarchitectonic areas 3b and 1 of the contralateral hemisphere. An increase in stimulus amplitude led to a proportional increase in the magnitude of the absorbance increase in this region of areas 3b and 1 while surrounding cortex underwent a decrease in absorbance. Correlation maps revealed that as stimulus amplitude is increased, the spatial extent of the activated region in SI remains relatively constant, and the activity within this region increases progressively. Additionally, as stimulus amplitude is increased to suprathreshold levels, activity in the surround of the activated SI territory decreases, suggesting an increase in inhibition of neuronal activity within these regions. Conclusion Increasing the amplitude of a flutter stimulus leads to a proportional increase in absorbance within the forelimb representational region of SI. This most likely reflects an increase in the firing rate of neurons in this region of SI. The relatively constant spatial extent of this stimulus

  2. Composite superstring model for hadron amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, V.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, P.O. Box 188300, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    Hadron dynamics is formulated in terms of interacting composite strings. These composite string amplitudes give other possible solution of duality equations for crossing channels in addition to classical string amplitudes. The composite strings carry quark flavour and spin degrees of freedom on edging two-dimensional surfaces. Consistent composite string models with extended N=3 Virasoro superconformal symmetry are found. Simple amplitudes for interaction of pi and K-mesons in this model are represented.

  3. New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I report on recent progress in finding compact expressions for scattering amplitudes involving gravitons and gluons as well as massive scalar and fermionic matter particles. At tree level the single graviton emission amplitudes may be expressed as linear combination of purely non-gravitational ones. At the one-loop level recent results on all four point Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with at most one opposite helicity state using unitarity methods are reported. 

  4. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. (orig.)

  5. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-06-04

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.

  6. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term

  7. 47 CFR 74.663 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 74.663 Section 74.663 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.663 Modulation limits. If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall...

  8. Response of cytosolic calcium, cyclic AMP, and cyclic GMP in dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells to modulated low frequency electric currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, W; Dertinger, H

    1998-01-01

    The action of interferential current (IFC), an amplitude-modulated 4000 kHz current used in therapeutic applications, upon intracellular calcium, adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) was investigated. Human promyelocytes (HL-60) were differentiated to granulocytes by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) treatment and exposed for 5 min at 25, 250, and 2500 microA/cm2 current density. No significant changes in cytosolic free calcium were detected as a function of modulation frequency of the IFC. However, intracellular cAMP reacted in a complex way to modulation frequency, resulting in stimulations and depressions within the range of frequencies studied (0-125 Hz). The "windows" of modulation frequency, where statistically significant increases or decreases in cAMP were noted, coincided with those published earlier for mouse fibroblasts. Cellular cGMP content was always lowered by IFC treatment. Furthermore, no significant influence of IFC current density upon the three second messengers was noted. These results, which also include data relating to treatment with sinusoidal 50 Hz current, contribute to a more detailed understanding of the primary biophysical mechanisms of signal transduction by time-varying electric fields.

  9. Robust seismic images amplitude recovery using curvelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, Peyman P.; Herrmann, Felix J.; Stolk, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we recover the amplitude of a seismic image by approximating the normal (demigration-migration) operator. In this approximation, we make use of the property that curvelets remain invariant under the action of the normal operator. We propose a seismic amplitude recovery method that

  10. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are

  11. Amplitude image processing by diffractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J; Canales, V F

    2016-02-22

    In contrast to the standard digital image processing, which operates over the detected image intensity, we propose to perform amplitude image processing. Amplitude processing, like low pass or high pass filtering, is carried out using diffractive optics elements (DOE) since it allows to operate over the field complex amplitude before it has been detected. We show the procedure for designing the DOE that corresponds to each operation. Furthermore, we accomplish an analysis of amplitude image processing performances. In particular, a DOE Laplacian filter is applied to simulated astronomical images for detecting two stars one Airy ring apart. We also check by numerical simulations that the use of a Laplacian amplitude filter produces less noisy images than the standard digital image processing.

  12. Temporal Control of Metabolic Amplitude by Nocturnin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J. Stubblefield

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The timing of food intake and nutrient utilization is critical to health and regulated partly by the circadian clock. Increased amplitude of circadian oscillations and metabolic output has been found to improve health in diabetic and obesity mouse models. Here, we report a function for the circadian deadenylase Nocturnin as a regulator of metabolic amplitude across the day/night cycle and in response to nutrient challenge. We show that mice lacking Nocturnin (Noct−/− display significantly increased amplitudes of mRNA expression of hepatic genes encoding key metabolic enzymes regulating lipid and cholesterol synthesis, both over the daily circadian cycle and in response to fasting and refeeding. Noct−/− mice have increased plasma triglyceride throughout the night and increased amplitude of hepatic cholesterol levels. Therefore, posttranscriptional control by Nocturnin regulates the amplitude of these critical metabolic pathways, and loss of this activity results in increased metabolic flux and reduced obesity.

  13. 3D hepatic cultures simultaneously maintain primary hepatocyte and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Kim

    Full Text Available Developing in vitro engineered hepatic tissues that exhibit stable phenotype is a major challenge in the field of hepatic tissue engineering. However, the rapid dedifferentiation of hepatic parenchymal (hepatocytes and non-parenchymal (liver sinusoidal endothelial, LSEC cell types when removed from their natural environment in vivo remains a major obstacle. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate that hepatic cells cultured in layered architectures could preserve or potentially enhance liver-specific behavior of both cell types. Primary rat hepatocytes and rat LSECs (rLSECs were cultured in a layered three-dimensional (3D configuration. The cell layers were separated by a chitosan-hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM, which served to mimic the Space of Disse. Hepatocytes and rLSECs exhibited several key phenotypic characteristics over a twelve day culture period. Immunostaining for the sinusoidal endothelial 1 antibody (SE-1 demonstrated that rLSECs cultured in the 3D hepatic model maintained this unique feature over twelve days. In contrast, rLSECs cultured in monolayers lost their phenotype within three days. The unique stratified structure of the 3D culture resulted in enhanced heterotypic cell-cell interactions, which led to improvements in hepatocyte functions. Albumin production increased three to six fold in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Only rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures exhibited increasing CYP1A1/2 and CYP3A activity. Well-defined bile canaliculi were observed only in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Together, these data suggest that rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures are highly suitable models to monitor the transformation of toxins in the liver and their transport out of this organ. In summary, these results indicate that the layered rLSEC-PEM-hepatocyte model, which recapitulates key features of hepatic sinusoids, is a potentially powerful medium for obtaining comprehensive knowledge on liver metabolism

  14. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Sinusoid Foam Sandwich Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L; Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich energy absorber was developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research project. The energy absorber, designated the "sinusoid," consisted of hybrid carbon- Kevlar® plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical or crush direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM(TradeMark) P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/ft3) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorber was to achieve an average floor-level acceleration of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in the design were assessed through quasi-static and dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the design was finalized, a 5-ft-long subfloor beam was fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorber prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LSDYNA ®, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test analysis results are presented for the sinusoid foam sandwich energy absorber as comparisons of load-displacement and acceleration-time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage for each evaluation level (component testing through barrel section drop testing).

  15. Unique cell type-specific junctional complexes in vascular endothelium of human and rat liver sinusoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrill Géraud

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelium is strategically positioned to control access of fluids, macromolecules and cells to the liver parenchyma and to serve clearance functions upstream of the hepatocytes. While clearance of macromolecular debris from the peripheral blood is performed by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs using a delicate endocytic receptor system featuring stabilin-1 and -2, the mannose receptor and CD32b, vascular permeability and cell trafficking are controlled by transcellular pores, i.e. the fenestrae, and by intercellular junctional complexes. In contrast to blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in other organs, the junctional complexes of LSECs have not yet been consistently characterized in molecular terms. In a comprehensive analysis, we here show that LSECs express the typical proteins found in endothelial adherens junctions (AJ, i.e. VE-cadherin as well as α-, β-, p120-catenin and plakoglobin. Tight junction (TJ transmembrane proteins typical of endothelial cells, i.e. claudin-5 and occludin, were not expressed by rat LSECs while heterogenous immunreactivity for claudin-5 was detected in human LSECs. In contrast, junctional molecules preferentially associating with TJ such as JAM-A, B and C and zonula occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 were readily detected in LSECs. Remarkably, among the JAMs JAM-C was considerably over-expressed in LSECs as compared to lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we show here that LSECs form a special kind of mixed-type intercellular junctions characterized by co-occurrence of endothelial AJ proteins, and of ZO-1 and -2, and JAMs. The distinct molecular architecture of the intercellular junctional complexes of LSECs corroborates previous ultrastructural findings and provides the molecular basis for further analyses of the endothelial barrier function of liver sinusoids under pathologic conditions ranging from hepatic inflammation to formation of liver metastasis.

  16. Insights into glass transition and relaxation behavior using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, J.C.; Allan, D.C.

    Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is based on conventional DSC but with a sinusoidally modulated temperature path. Our simulations of TMDSC signals prove that the frequency correction of non-reversing heat flow can give a master curve within a certain range of freque...... insights about the glass structural response to thermal treatments....

  17. Enhanced T cell transmigration across the murine liver sinusoidal endothelium is mediated by transcytosis and surface presentation of chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrage, Arnhild; Wechsung, Katja; Neumann, Katrin; Schumann, Michael; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Engelhardt, Britta; Zeitz, Martin; Hamann, Alf; Klugewitz, Katja

    2008-10-01

    Transmigration through the liver endothelium is a prerequisite for the homeostatic balance of intrahepatic T cells and a key regulator of inflammatory processes within the liver. Extravasation into the liver parenchyma is regulated by the distinct expression patterns of adhesion molecules and chemokines and their receptors on the lymphocyte and endothelial cell surface. In the present study, we investigated whether liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) inhibit or support the chemokine-driven transmigration and differentially influence the transmigration of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory CD4(+) T cells, indicating a mechanism of hepatic immunoregulation. Finally, the results shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which LSEC modulate chemokine-dependent transmigration. LSEC significantly enhanced the chemotactic effect of CXC-motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and CXCL9, but not of CXCL16 or CCL20, on naive and memory CD4(+) T cells of a T helper 1, T helper 2, or interleukin-10-producing phenotype. In contrast, brain and lymphatic endothelioma cells and ex vivo isolated lung endothelia inhibited chemokine-driven transmigration. As for the molecular mechanisms, chemokine-induced activation of LSEC was excluded by blockage of G(i)-protein-coupled signaling and the use of knockout mice. After preincubation of CXCL12 to the basal side, LSEC took up CXCL12 and enhanced transmigration as efficiently as in the presence of the soluble chemokine. Blockage of transcytosis in LSEC significantly inhibited this effect, and this suggested that chemokines taken up from the basolateral side and presented on the luminal side of endothelial cells trigger T cell transmigration. Our findings demonstrate a unique capacity of LSEC to present chemokines to circulating lymphocytes and highlight the importance of endothelial cells for the in vivo effects of chemokines. Chemokine presentation by LSEC could provide a future therapeutic target for inhibiting lymphocyte

  18. Generation of hyperchaos from the Chen-Lee system via sinusoidal perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, L.M. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Av. Padre Thomas Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macau (China)], E-mail: fstlmt@umac.mo; Chen, J.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wai Meng Si Tou [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Av. Padre Thomas Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macau (China)

    2008-11-15

    A system with more than one positive Lyapunov exponent can be classified as a hyperchaotic system. In this study, a sinusoidal perturbation was designed for generating hyperchaos from the Chen-Lee chaotic system. The hyperchaos was identified by the existence of two positive Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams. The system is hyperchaotic in several different regions of the parameters c, {epsilon}, and {omega}. It was found that this method not only can enhance or suppress chaotic behavior, but also induces chaos in non-chaotic parameter ranges. In addition, two interesting dynamical behaviors, Hopf bifurcation and intermittency, were also found in this study.

  19. Analysis and Implementation of Multiple Bionic Motion Patterns for Caterpillar Robot Driven by Sinusoidal Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Articulated caterpillar robot has various locomotion patterns—which make it adaptable to different tasks. Generally, the researchers have realized undulatory (transverse wave and simple rolling locomotion. But many motion patterns are still unexplored. In this paper, peristaltic locomotion and various additional rolling patterns are achieved by employing sinusoidal oscillator with fixed phase difference as the joint controller. The usefulness of the proposed method is verified using simulation and experiment. The design parameters for different locomotion patterns have been calculated that they can be replicated in similar robots immediately.

  20. New Results on Single-Channel Speech Separation Using Sinusoidal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2011-01-01

    We present new results on single-channel speech separation and suggest a new separation approach to improve the speech quality of separated signals from an observed mix- ture. The key idea is to derive a mixture estimator based on sinusoidal parameters. The proposed estimator is aimed at finding...... the proposed method over other methods are confirmed by employing perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) as an objective measure and a MUSHRA listening test as a subjective evaluation for both speaker-dependent and gender-dependent scenarios....

  1. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Desainte-Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  2. Voltage-Mode Four-Phase Sinusoidal Generator and Its Useful Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new voltage-mode second-order sinusoidal generator circuit with four active elements and six passive elements, including grounded capacitors. The frequency and condition of oscillation can be independently controlled. The effect of active element’s nonidealities and parasitic effects is also studied; the proposed topology is good in absorbing several parasitic elements involved with the active elements. The circuit is advantageous for generating high frequency signals which is demonstrated for 25 MHz outputs. Several circuit extensions are also given which makes the new proposal useful for real circuit adoption. The proposed theory is validated through simulation results.

  3. Exact solution of unsteady flow generated by sinusoidal pressure gradient in a capillary tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulhameed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of unsteady second grade fluid in a capillary tube with sinusoidal pressure gradient is developed with non-homogenous boundary conditions. Exact analytical solutions for the velocity profiles have been obtained in explicit forms. These solutions are written as the sum of the steady and transient solutions for small and large times. For growing times, the starting solution reduces to the well-known periodic solution that coincides with the corresponding solution of a Newtonian fluid. Graphs representing the solutions are discussed.

  4. Investigation of phase error correction for digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.; Quan, C.; Zhu, R.; Tay, C. J.

    2012-08-01

    Digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (DSPFPP) is a powerful tool to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) surface of diffuse objects. However, a highly accurate profile is often hindered by nonlinear response, color crosstalk and imbalance of a pair of digital projector and CCD/CMOS camera. In this paper, several phase error correction methods, such as Look-Up-Table (LUT) compensation, intensity correction, gamma correction, LUT-based hybrid method and blind phase error suppression for gray and color-encoded DSPFPP are described. Experimental results are also demonstrated to evaluate the effectiveness of each method.

  5. OTRA based second and third order sinusoidal oscillators and their phase noise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanapalli, Gurumurthy; Pandey, Neeta; Pandey, Rajeshwari

    2017-07-01

    In this paper operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA) based second and third order sinusoidal oscillators are proposed. The proposed second order oscillator is designed using single OTRA based Sallen Key low pass filter structure and third order oscillator is obtained by cascading three low pass filters and placing in a loop. The non-ideality and phase noise analyses of the circuits are also presented with necessary mathematical formulations. Workability of the proposed oscillators are verified through PSPICE simulations using 0.18µm AGILENT CMOS process parameters. The total harmonic distortion (THD) for proposed second order and third order oscillators are found as 3.27% and 0.631% respectively.

  6. Application of Lattice-Boltzmann method and analysis of fluid flow between two sinusoidal plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena Đ.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with numerical study of fluid flow through a pair of corrugated platest. The aim was to observe and understand the behavior of the flow and vortex formation through channels where the fluid is subjected to a periodic increase and decrease in cross-section area. The plates modeled for the study had sinusoidal profiles. A pair of plates with 180° phase shift was simulated in two-dimensional spaces. The Reynolds number was a function of the average plate spacing (Havg and the laminar flow velocity and it was in the range between 200 and 1000.

  7. Is the effect of tinnitus on auditory steady-state response amplitude mediated by attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen eDiesch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The amplitude of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is enhanced in tinnitus. As ASSR ampli¬tude is also enhanced by attention, the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude could be interpreted as an effect of attention mediated by tinnitus. As attention effects on the N1 are signi¬fi¬cantly larger than those on the ASSR, if the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude were due to attention, there should be similar amplitude enhancement effects in tinnitus for the N1 component of the auditory evoked response. Methods: MEG recordings of auditory evoked responses which were previously examined for the ASSR (Diesch et al. 2010 were analysed with respect to the N1m component. Like the ASSR previously, the N1m was analysed in the source domain (source space projection. Stimuli were amplitude-modulated tones with one of three carrier fre¬quen¬cies matching the tinnitus frequency or a surrogate frequency 1½ octaves above the audio¬metric edge frequency in con¬trols, the audiometric edge frequency, and a frequency below the audio¬metric edgeResults: In the earlier ASSR study (Diesch et al., 2010, the ASSR amplitude in tinnitus patients, but not in controls, was significantly larger in the (surrogate tinnitus condition than in the edge condition. In the present study, both tinnitus patients and healthy controls show an N1m-amplitude profile identical to the one of ASSR amplitudes in healthy controls. N1m amplitudes elicited by tonal frequencies located at the audiometric edge and at the (surrogate tinnitus frequency are smaller than N1m amplitudes elicited by sub-edge tones and do not differ among each other.Conclusions: There is no N1-amplitude enhancement effect in tinnitus. The enhancement effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude cannot be accounted for in terms of attention induced by tinnitus.

  8. The Relationship between Fenestrations, Sieve Plates and Rafts in Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Gregory P.; Owen, Dylan M.; Zencak, Dusan; Zykova, Svetlana N.; Crane, Harry; Huser, Thomas; Quinn, Ronald J.; Smedsrød, Bård; Le Couteur, David G.; Cogger, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Fenestrations are transcellular pores in endothelial cells that facilitate transfer of substrates between blood and the extravascular compartment. In order to understand the regulation and formation of fenestrations, the relationship between membrane rafts and fenestrations was investigated in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells where fenestrations are grouped into sieve plates. Three dimensional structured illumination microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy were used to study liver sinusoidal endothelial cells isolated from mice. There was an inverse distribution between sieve plates and membrane rafts visualized by structured illumination microscopy and the fluorescent raft stain, Bodipy FL C5 ganglioside GM1. 7-ketocholesterol and/or cytochalasin D increased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane, while Triton X-100 decreased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane. The effects of cytochalasin D on fenestrations were abrogated by co-administration of Triton X-100, suggesting that actin disruption increases fenestrations by its effects on membrane rafts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) depleted lipid-ordered membrane and increased fenestrations. The results are consistent with a sieve-raft interaction, where fenestrations form in non-raft lipid-disordered regions of endothelial cells once the membrane-stabilizing effects of actin cytoskeleton and membrane rafts are diminished. PMID:23029409

  9. The 3-D alignment of objects in dynamic PET scans using filtered sinusoidal trajectories of sinogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostopoulos, Aristotelis E.; Happonen, Antti P.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    In this study, our goal is to employ a novel 3-D alignment method for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Because the acquired data (i.e. sinograms) often contain noise considerably, filtering of the data prior to the alignment presumably improves the final results. In this study, we utilized a novel 3-D stackgram domain approach. In the stackgram domain, the signals along the sinusoidal trajectory signals of the sinogram can be processed separately. In this work, we performed angular stackgram domain filtering by employing well known 1-D filters: the Gaussian low-pass filter and the median filter. In addition, we employed two wavelet de-noising techniques. After filtering we performed alignment of objects in the stackgram domain. The local alignment technique we used is based on similarity comparisons between locus vectors (i.e. the signals along the sinusoidal trajectories of the sinogram) in a 3-D neighborhood of sequences of the stackgrams. Aligned stackgrams can be transformed back to sinograms (Method 1), or alternatively directly to filtered back-projected images (Method 2). In order to evaluate the alignment process, simulated data with different kinds of additive noises were used. The results indicated that the filtering prior to the alignment can be important concerning the accuracy

  10. Biliary obstruction dissipates bioelectric sinusoidal-canalicular barrier without altering taurocholate uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotting, J.; Zysset, T.; Reichen, J.

    1989-01-01

    To study immediate events during extrahepatic cholestasis, we investigated the effect of short-term biliary obstruction on the bioelectrical sinusoidal-canalicular barrier in the rat using molecular weight-matched uncharged and negatively charged inert solute pairs. The bioelectrical barrier averaged -22 +/- 5 and -18 +/- 4 mV (NS) using the pair carboxy-/methoxyinulin and ferrocyanide/sucrose, respectively. After a 20-min biliary obstruction both decreased by 61 and 11%, respectively, but only the large molecular weight pair (the inulins) returned to base line after release of the obstruction. Inert solute clearances were increased after short biliary obstruction depending on molecular size and negative charge (ferrocyanide greater than sucrose greater than carboxyinulin greater than inulin), suggesting that both permeability and bioelectrical barriers were affected by obstruction. The hepatic extraction in vivo of a passively transported drug not excreted into bile (D-propranolol) was not affected by obstruction, whereas that of an actively transported drug (glycocholate) decreased from 66 +/- 8 to 41 +/- 20% during biliary obstruction (P less than 0.01). Unidirectional transfer of glycocholate was not affected by short-term biliary obstruction in the situ perfused rat liver; however, 2 min after [14C]glycocholate administration, increased return was observed in hepatic venous effluent in obstructed animals. Our findings demonstrate a loss of the bioelectrical barrier immediately after short-term biliary obstruction. Decreased hepatic extraction in the view of unaltered sinusoidal uptake demonstrates regurgitation of bile into blood during short-term biliary obstruction

  11. Automatic fringe enhancement with novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxing; Kemao, Qian; Da, Feipeng

    2017-10-02

    Fringe-based optical measurement techniques require reliable fringe analysis methods, where empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an outstanding one due to its ability of analyzing complex signals and the merit of being data-driven. However, two challenging issues hinder the application of EMD in practical measurement. One is the tricky mode mixing problem (MMP), making the decomposed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) have equivocal physical meaning; the other is the automatic and accurate extraction of the sinusoidal fringe from the IMFs when unpredictable and unavoidable background and noise exist in real measurements. Accordingly, in this paper, a novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted EMD (BSEMD) is proposed to decompose a fringe pattern into mono-component bidimensional IMFs (BIMFs), with the MMP solved; properties of the resulted BIMFs are then analyzed to recognize and enhance the useful fringe component. The decomposition and the fringe recognition are integrated and the latter provides a feedback to the former, helping to automatically stop the decomposition to make the algorithm simpler and more reliable. A series of experiments show that the proposed method is accurate, efficient and robust to various fringe patterns even with poor quality, rendering it a potential tool for practical use.

  12. A novel modular bioreactor to in vitro study the hepatic sinusoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavi Illa

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, versatile bioreactor consisting of two plates and a modified commercial porous membrane suitable for in vitro analysis of the liver sinusoid. The modular bioreactor allows i excellent control of the cell seeding process; ii cell culture under controlled shear stress stimulus, and; iii individual analysis of each cell type upon completion of the experiment. The advantages of the bioreactor detailed here are derived from the modification of a commercial porous membrane with an elastomeric wall specifically moulded in order to define the cell culture area, to act as a gasket that will fit into the bioreactor, and to provide improved mechanical robustness. The device presented herein has been designed to simulate the in vivo organization of a liver sinusoid and tested by co-culturing endothelial cells (EC and hepatic stellate cells (HSC. The results show both an optimal morphology of the endothelial cells as well as an improvement in the phenotype of stellate cells, most probably due to paracrine factors released from endothelial cells. This device is proposed as a versatile, easy-to-use co-culture system that can be applied to biomedical research of vascular systems, including the liver.

  13. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis

  14. Amplitude characteristics of a solid-state ring laser with active mode locking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, E.M.; Klochan, E.L.; Lariontsev, E.G.

    1986-09-01

    A system of equations is obtained for the parameters of ultrashort light pulses (USLP) in a solid-state ring laser (SSRL) with periodic loss modulation. Allowance is made for the coupling between counterpropagating USLP due to backscattering in the modulator. The regime of counter-propagating wave frequency capture (CPWFC) is studied. It is shown that the coupling of counterpropagating waves due to backscattering at the modulator ends leads to the suppression of one of the counterpropagating waves during an increase in the detuning of the modulation frequency relative to its optimal value. The influence of rotation on the amplitude characteristics of an SSRL in the CPWFC regime is studied. 9 references.

  15. Analytic continuation of dual Feynman amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A notion of dual Feynman amplitude is introduced and a theorem on the existence of analytic continuation of this amplitude from the convergence domain to the whole complex is proved. The case under consideration corresponds to massless power propagators and the analytic continuation is constructed on the propagators powers. Analytic continuation poles and singular set of external impulses are found explicitly. The proof of the theorem on the existence of analytic continuation is based on the introduction of α-representation for dual Feynman amplitudes. In proving, the so-called ''trees formula'' and ''trees-with-cycles formula'' are established that are dual by formulation to the trees and 2-trees formulae for usual Feynman amplitudes. (Auth.)

  16. Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.

  17. Transition amplitudes within the stochastic quantization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Quantum mechanical transition amplitudes are calculated within the stochastic quantization scheme for the free nonrelativistic particle, the harmonic oscillator and the nonrelativistic particle in a constant magnetic field; we close with free Grassmann quantum mechanics. (authors)

  18. An analysis of heavy ion scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.

    1979-01-01

    A heurisht method is derived for the analysis of light heavy ion systems. It consists in splitting an oscillatory amplitude into subamplitudes each of them being smooth, at least in modulus. Applications are given

  19. Cross-Modulation Interference with Lateralization of Mixed-Modulated Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Petrosyan, Agavni; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Hickok, Gregory; Saberi, Kourosh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the ability to use spatial information in mixed-modulated (MM) sounds containing concurrent frequency-modulated (FM) and amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds by exploring patterns of interference when different modulation types originated from different loci as may occur in a multisource acoustic field. Method:…

  20. A new type time-amplitude converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Haiwei; Han Jian; Li Zhongwei

    2004-01-01

    The time-amplitude converter is used mostly in nuclear physics experiments where require fast time measurement, such as the identify of particles, the measurement of excitated life-span and flying time of nucleon, and so on. According to the requirement of experiment, a new type time-amplitude converter composing of IC has been developed. It is precision is 100 ns. It has the merits of stable performance, higher precision and so on. (authors)

  1. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation in SCET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Nikhef, Amsterdam

    2016-05-01

    Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries.

  2. Scattering amplitudes of regularized bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We compute scattering amplitudes of the regularized bosonic Nambu-Goto string in the mean-field approximation, disregarding fluctuations of the Lagrange multiplier and an independent metric about their mean values. We use the previously introduced Lilliputian scaling limit to recover the Regge behavior of the amplitudes with the usual linear Regge trajectory in space-time dimensions d >2 . We demonstrate a stability of this minimum of the effective action under fluctuations for d <26 .

  3. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-15

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  4. The Cepheid bump progression and amplitude equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.; Buchler, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the characteristic and systematic behavior of the low-order Fourier amplitudes and phases of hydrodynamically generated radial velocity and light curves of Cepheid model sequences is very well captured not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by the amplitude equation formalism. The 2:1 resonance between the fundamental and the second overtone plays an essential role in the behavior of the models 8 refs

  5. Development and performance of pulse-width-modulated static inverter and converter modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, P. F.; Gourash, F.; Birchenough, A. G.; Pittman, P. F.; Ravas, R. J.; Hall, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    Pulse-width-modulated inverter and converter modules are being developed for modular aerospace electrical power systems. The modules, rate 2.5 kilowatts per module and 10-minute - 150-percent overload, operate from 56 volts dc. The converter module provides two output voltages: a nominal link voltage of 200 volts dc when used with the inverter, and 150 volts dc to a load bus when used separately. The inverter module output is 400-hertz, sinusoidal, three-phase, 120/208 volts. Tests of breadboard models with standard parts and integrated circuits show rated power efficiencies of 71.4 and 85.1 percent and voltage regulation of 5 and 3.1 percent for inverter and converter modules, respectively. Sine-wave output distortion is 0.74 percent.

  6. Characterization of neurons in the primate medial intraparietal area reveals a joint representation of intended reach direction and amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Musallam, Sam

    2017-01-01

    To support accurate memory-guided reaching, the brain must represent both the direction and amplitude of reaches in a movement plan. Several cortical areas have been shown to represent the direction of a planned reaching movement, but the neuronal representation of reach amplitude is still unclear, especially in sensory-motor integration areas. To investigate this, we recorded from neurons in the medial intraparietal area (MIP) of monkeys performing a variable amplitude memory reach task. In one monkey, we additionally recorded from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) for direct cross-area comparisons. In both areas, we found modest but significant proportions of neurons with movement-planning activity sensitive to reach amplitude. However, reach amplitude was under-represented relative to direction in the neuronal population, with approximately one third as many selective neurons. We observed an interaction between neuronal selectivity for amplitude and direction; neurons in both areas exhibited significant modulation of neuronal activity by reach amplitude in some but not all directions. Consistent with an encoding of reach goals as a position in visual space, the response patterns of MIP/PMd neurons were best predicted by 2D Gaussian position encoding model, in contrast to a number of alternative direction and amplitude tuning models. Taken together, these results suggest that amplitude and direction jointly modulate activity in MIP, as in PMd, to form representations of intended reach position.

  7. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-07-15

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  8. Mathieu function solutions for photoacoustic waves in sinusoidal one-dimensional structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binbin; Diebold, Gerald J

    2012-07-01

    The photoacoustic effect for a one-dimensional structure, the sound speed of which varies sinusoidally in space, is shown to be governed by an inhomogeneous Mathieu equation with the forcing term dependent on the spatial and temporal properties of the exciting optical radiation. New orthogonality relations, traveling wave Mathieu functions, and solutions to the inhomogeneous Mathieu equation are found, which are used to determine the character of photoacoustic waves in infinite and finite length phononic structures. Floquet solutions to the Mathieu equation give the positions of the band gaps, the damping of the acoustic waves within the band gaps, and the dispersion relation for photoacoustic waves. The solutions to the Mathieu equation give the photoacoustic response of the structure, show the space equivalent of subharmonic generation and acoustic confinement when waves are excited within band gaps.

  9. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  10. Influence of muscle cooling on the viscoelastic response of the human ankle to sinusoidal displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R; Lehmann, J F

    1990-09-01

    The changes in passive mechanical muscle properties due to cooling of the calf in healthy human volunteers were investigated. The technique, using sinusoidal driving of the foot, permitted the separation of muscle stiffness response into its elastic and viscous components. Cooling the calf with ice for 30 minutes increases the rate of change of elastic stiffness with frequency, and it increases the frictional stiffness over a frequency range of 3 to 12Hz. Such cooling would produce an estimated 3% to 10% increase in total stiffness, on average, in a spastic person. This increase in stiffness would counteract reductions in total stiffness achieved during the application of cryotherapy to relieve spasticity. However, one could expect that for a clinically significant reduction of spasticity, the increase in passive stiffness of the muscle generated by cooling would be largely overshadowed by the decrease in reflex reactivity.

  11. Exponential sinusoidal model for predicting temperature inside underground wine cellars from a Spanish region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This article develops a mathematical model for determining the annual cycle of air temperature inside traditional underground wine cellars in the Spanish region of ''Ribera del Duero'', known because of the quality of its wines. It modifies the sinusoidal analytical model for soil temperature calculation. Results obtained when contrasting the proposed model with experimental data of three subterranean wine cellars for 2 years are satisfactory. The RMSE is below 1 C and the index of agreement is above 0.96 for the three cellars. When using the average of experimental data corresponding to the 2 years' time, results improve noticeably: the RMSE decreases by more than 30% and the mean d reaches 0.99. This model should be a useful tool for designing underground wine cellars making the most of soil energy advantages. (author)

  12. Accurate estimation of the illumination pattern's orientation and wavelength in sinusoidal structured illumination microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrberg, Marcel; Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh

    2018-02-10

    Structured illumination microscopy is able to improve the spatial resolution of wide-field fluorescence imaging by applying sinusoidal stripe pattern illumination to the sample. The corresponding computational image reconstruction requires precise knowledge of the pattern's parameters, which are its phase (ϕ) and wave vector (p). Here, a computationally inexpensive method for estimation of p from the raw data is proposed and illustrated with simulations. The method estimates p through a selective discrete Fourier transform at tunable subpixel precision. This results in an accurate p estimation for all the illumination patterns and subsequently improves the superresolution image recovery by a factor of 10 around sharp edges as compared to an integer pixel approach. The technique as presented here is of major interest to the large variety of custom-build systems that are used. The feasibility of the presented method is proven in comparison with published data.

  13. Engraftment and reconstitution of hematopoiesis is dependent on VEGFR2-mediated regeneration of sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Andrea T; Butler, Jason M; Nolan, Daniel J; Kranz, Andrea; Iida, Kaoruko; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Shido, Koji; Petit, Isabelle; Yanger, Kilangsungla; James, Daylon; Witte, Larry; Zhu, Zhenping; Wu, Yan; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Rosenwaks, Zev; Mittal, Vivek; Sato, Thomas N; Rafii, Shahin

    2009-03-06

    Myelosuppression damages the bone marrow (BM) vascular niche, but it is unclear how regeneration of bone marrow vessels contributes to engraftment of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restoration of hematopoiesis. We found that chemotherapy and sublethal irradiation induced minor regression of BM sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), while lethal irradiation induced severe regression of SECs and required BM transplantation (BMT) for regeneration. Within the BM, VEGFR2 expression specifically demarcated a continuous network of arterioles and SECs, with arterioles uniquely expressing Sca1 and SECs uniquely expressing VEGFR3. Conditional deletion of VEGFR2 in adult mice blocked regeneration of SECs in sublethally irradiated animals and prevented hematopoietic reconstitution. Similarly, inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in lethally irradiated wild-type mice rescued with BMT severely impaired SEC reconstruction and prevented engraftment and reconstitution of HSPCs. Therefore, regeneration of SECs via VEGFR2 signaling is essential for engraftment of HSPCs and restoration of hematopoiesis.

  14. Compact ASD Topologies for Single-Phase Integrated Motor Drives with Sinusoidal Input Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A standard configuration of an Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) consists of two separate units: an AC motor, which runs with fixed speed when it is supplied from a constant frequency grid voltage and a frequency converter, which is used to provide the motor with variable voltage-variable frequency......-density integration of the converter caused by the large size of the passive components (electrolytic capacitors and iron chokes) and vibration of the converter enclosure. This paper analyzes the implementation aspects for obtaining a compact and cost effective single-phase ASD with sinusoidal input current...... for high frequency operation, higher core losses will occur, but outside the converter enclosure. The advantages are: the reduction of the number of active semiconductor devices, the reduction of the ASD size and the better integration potential....

  15. Performance of pyrolyzed photoresist carbon films in a microchip capillary electrophoresis device with sinusoidal voltammetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Nicole E; Snyder, Brian; McCreery, Richard L; Kuhr, Werner G; Brazill, Sara A

    2003-08-15

    Pyrolyzed photoresist films (PPF) are introduced as planar carbon electrodes in a PDMS-quartz hybrid microchip device. The utility of PPF in electroanalytical applications is demonstrated by the separation and detection of various neurotransmitters. PPF is found to form a stable, low-capacitance, durable layer on quartz, which can then be used in conjunction with a microchip capillary electrophoretic device. Sinusoidal voltammetric detection at PPF electrodes is shown to be very sensitive, with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 100 nM for dopamine, corresponding to a mass detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2 amol. The selectivity of analysis in the frequency domain is demonstrated by isolating each individual signal in a pair of analytes that are chromatographically unresolved. Effectively decoupling the electrophoresis and electrochemical systems allows the electrodes to be placed just inside the separation channel, which results in efficient separations (80 000-100 000 plates/m).

  16. A "Brick Mass Spectrometer" Driven by a Sinusoidal Frequency Scanning Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Zhang, Hongjia; Tang, Yang; Zhai, Yanbing; Xu, Wei; Xu, Hualei; Zhao, Xinying; Li, Dayu; Xu, Wei

    2017-05-16

    In this work, a "brick" size miniature mass spectrometer (28 cm × 21 cm × 16 cm) was developed and characterized, which was enabled by the development of a new frequency scanning technique. Different from the conventional voltage scanning method or the digital waveforms used on a digital ion trap, a sinusoidal frequency scanning technique was developed to drive the linear ion trap of the brick mass spectrometer (BMS). Both an in-vacuum plasma ionization source and an electrospray ionization source were coupled with this BMS for the analyses of volatile and nonvolatile samples. Stability diagram, sensitivity, mass resolution, and mass range of the BMS were explored. This new frequency scanning technique could not only reduce the size and power consumption of a miniature mass spectrometer but also improve its analytical performances, especially in terms of mass range and resolution. Analogous to the development of cell phones, this BMS would be an important step from "brick" mass spectrometer to "cell" mass spectrometer.

  17. Real-time detection of musical onsets with linear prediction and sinusoidal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John; Lazzarini, Victor; Timoney, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Real-time musical note onset detection plays a vital role in many audio analysis processes, such as score following, beat detection and various sound synthesis by analysis methods. This article provides a review of some of the most commonly used techniques for real-time onset detection. We suggest ways to improve these techniques by incorporating linear prediction as well as presenting a novel algorithm for real-time onset detection using sinusoidal modelling. We provide comprehensive results for both the detection accuracy and the computational performance of all of the described techniques, evaluated using Modal, our new open source library for musical onset detection, which comes with a free database of samples with hand-labelled note onsets.

  18. Dynamic Buckling of Embedded Laminated Nanocomposite Plates Based on Sinusoidal Shear Deformation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammd Sharif Zarei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic buckling of the embedded laminated nanocomposite plates is investigated. The plates are reinforced with the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, and the Mori-Tanaka model is applied to obtain the equivalent material properties of them. Based on the sinusoidal shear deformation theory (SSDT, the motion equations are derived using the energy method and Hamilton's principle. The Navier’s method is used in conjunction with the Bolotin's method for obtaining the dynamic instability region (DIR of the structure. The effects of different parameters such as the volume percentage of SWCNTs, the number and orientation angle of the layers, the elastic medium, and the geometrical parameters of the plates are shown on DIR of the structure. Results indicate that by increasing the volume percentage of SWCNTs the resonance frequency increases, and DIR shifts to right. Moreover, it is found that the present results are in good agreement with the previous researches.

  19. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  20. Modulation of hepatic biotransformation and biliary excretion of bile acid by age and sinusoidal bile acid load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, U.; Miyai, K.; Hardison, W.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Pericentral hepatocytes excrete bile acids more slowly and biotransform them more than periportal cells. This may reflect adaptation to low pericentral bile acid concentration or may be intrinsic. The authors studied two models in which pericentral bile acid concentrations are high: the 72-h choledocho-caval shunt (CCS) rat and the 3- to 4-wk-old rat. Livers were perfused forward or backward to assess periportal or pericentral hepatocyte function. Taurodeoxycholate (TDC) was infused at 32 nmol x min -1 x g liver -1 , and a bolus of [ 3 H]TDC was given to assess metabolism and excretion of bile acids. In CCS livers perfused backward, pericentral cells resembled periportal cells of controls in that time to excrete 50% of administered [ 3 H]-TDC (t 50 ) was reduced by two-thirds and [ 3 H]TDC biotransformation was reduced by about half. In young livers t 50 was half that of adult livers when perfused backward. Biotransformation, however, was not reduced. Young livers biotransformed more than adult controls for any given residence time of bile acid in the liver. They conclude that the difference between pericentral and perioportal cells as regards bile acid processing is adaptive. Livers from young rats biotransform more bile acid than those from controls under similar conditions

  1. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...... or a combination of the two have been studied. The use of polarization multiplexing (PolMux) to double the bit rate has also been investigated. The impact of transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion, self phase modulation and cross phase modulation has been investigated. The feasibility of multilevel...... modulation for network oriented scenarios has been demonstrated....

  2. Single SOA based simultaneous amplitude regeneration for WDM-PDM RZ-PSK signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenhan; Yu, Yu; Zou, Bingrong; Yang, Weili; Zhang, Xinliang

    2013-03-25

    We propose and demonstrate all-optical amplitude regeneration for the wavelength division multiplexing and polarization division multiplexing (WDM-PDM) return-to-zero phase shift keying (RZ-PSK) signals using a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and subsequent filtering. The regeneration is based on the cross phase modulation (XPM) effect in the saturated SOA and the subsequent narrow filtering. The spectrum of the distorted signal can be broadened due to the phase modulation induced by the synchronous optical clock signal. A narrow band pass filter is utilized to extract part of the broadened spectrum and remove the amplitude noise, while preserving the phase information. The working principle for multi-channel and polarization orthogonality preserving is analyzed. 4-channel dual polarization signals can be simultaneously amplitude regenerated without introducing wavelength and polarization demultiplexing. An average power penalty improvement of 1.75dB can be achieved for the WDM-PDM signals.

  3. Study of design parameters for squeeze film air journal bearing – excitation frequency and amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a design of squeeze film air journal bearing based on the design rules derived from CFX and FEA simulation study of an air film in between two flat plates, one of which was driven in a sinusoidal manner. The rules are that the oscillation frequency should be at least 15 kHz and that the oscillation amplitude be as large as possible to ensure a greater film thickness and to allow the bearing to reach its stable equilibrium quickly. The proposed journal bearing is made from AL2024-T3, of 20.02 mm outer diameter, 600 mm length and 2 mm thickness. Three 20-mm long fins are on the outer surface of the bearing tube and are spaced 120° apart; three longitudinal flats are milled equi-spaced between the fins and two piezoelectric actuators are mounted lengthwise on each flat. Such a design produces a modal shape on the bearing tube which resembles a triangle. When excited in this mode at the frequency of 16.37 kHz, and a voltage of 75 V AC with 75 V DC offset acting on the piezoelectric actuators, the air gap underneath of the bearing tube behaves as a squeeze air film with a response amplitude of 3.22 μm. The three design rules were validated by experiments.

  4. Adjusting pulse amplitude during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application produces greater hypoalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleão, Manuela A; Laurino, Marjorie F; Gallego, Natalie L G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Rakel, Barbara; Vance, Carol; Sluka, Kathleen A; Walsh, Deirdre M; Liebano, Richard E

    2011-05-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive technique used for pain modulation. During application of TENS there is a fading of current sensation. Textbooks of electrophysical agents recommend that pulse amplitude should be constantly adjusted. This seems to be accepted clinically despite the fact that there is no direct experimental evidence. The aim of the current study was to investigate the hypoalgesic effect of adjusting TENS pulse amplitude on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in healthy humans. Fifty-six healthy TENS naïve participants were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (n = 14 per group): control, placebo TENS, fixed pulse amplitude TENS, and adjusted pulse amplitude TENS. Both active and placebo TENS were applied to the dominant forearm. PPTs were recorded from 2 points on the dominant forearm and hand before, during, and after 40 minutes of TENS. TENS increased the PPTs on the forearm (P = .003) and hand (P = .003) in the group that received the adjusted pulse amplitude when compared to all other groups. The mean final pulse amplitude for the adjusted pulse amplitude TENS group was 35.51 mA when compared to the fixed pulse amplitude TENS group, which averaged 31.37 mA (P = .0318). These results suggest that it is important to adjust the pulse amplitude during TENS application to get the maximal analgesic effect. We propose that the fading of current sensation allows the use of higher pulse amplitudes, which would activate a greater number of and deeper tissue afferents to produce greater analgesia. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The amplitude of the Achilles tendon reflex in infants is related to body position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Bos, Arend F.; vd Hoeven, Johannes H.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the Achilles tendon reflex (ATR) in healthy infants is modulated by changes in body position (prone vs. supine). The amplitude of the ATR was compared at postnatal day 1, months 2, 3 and 6, while infants were placed in prone and supine position. The ATR was

  6. Spinfoam cosmology with the proper vertex amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilensky, Ilya

    2017-11-01

    The proper vertex amplitude is derived from the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex by restricting to a single gravitational sector in order to achieve the correct semi-classical behaviour. We apply the proper vertex to calculate a cosmological transition amplitude that can be viewed as the Hartle-Hawking wavefunction. To perform this calculation we deduce the integral form of the proper vertex and use extended stationary phase methods to estimate the large-volume limit. We show that the resulting amplitude satisfies an operator constraint whose classical analogue is the Hamiltonian constraint of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We find that the constraint dynamically selects the relevant family of coherent states and demonstrate a similar dynamic selection in standard quantum mechanics. We investigate the effects of dynamical selection on long-range correlations.

  7. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique bea...... for cold atoms and for optical manipulation of microscopic particles.......Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique beam...... where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...

  8. Cut-constructible part of QCD amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2006-01-01

    Unitarity cuts are widely used in analytic computation of loop amplitudes in gauge theories such as QCD. We expand upon the technique introduced in hep-ph/0503132 to carry out any finite unitarity cut integral. This technique naturally separates the contributions of bubble, triangle and box integrals in one-loop amplitudes and is not constrained to any particular helicity configurations. Loop momentum integration is reduced to a sequence of algebraic operations. We discuss the extraction of the residues at higher-order poles. Additionally, we offer concise algebraic formulas for expressing coefficients of three-mass triangle integrals. As an application, we compute all remaining coefficients of bubble and triangle integrals for nonsupersymmetric six-gluon amplitudes

  9. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-03-07

    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.

  10. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  11. Relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the invariant diagram technique which arises at the formulation of the fueld theory on the light front the question about conditions at which the relativistic amplitudes may be expressed through the wave functions is investigated. The amplitudes obtained depend on four-vector ω, determining the light front surface. The way is shown to find such values of the four-vector ω, at which the contribution of diagrams not expressed through wave functions is minimal. The investigation carried out is equivalent to the study of the dependence of amplitudes of the old-fashioned perturbation theory in the in the infinite momentum frame on direction of the infinite momentum

  12. Scattering Amplitudes and Worldsheet Models of QFTs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    I will describe recent progress on the study of scattering amplitudes via ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations. Ambitwistor strings are worldsheet models of quantum field theories, inspired by string theory. They naturally lead to a representation of amplitudes based on the scattering equations. While worldsheet models and related ideas have had a wide-ranging impact on the modern study of amplitudes, their direct application at loop level is a very recent success. I will show how a major difficulty in the loop-level story, the technicalities of higher-genus Riemann surfaces, can be avoided by turning the higher-genus surface into a nodal Riemann sphere, with the nodes representing the loop momenta. I will present new formulas for the one-loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity, with or without supersymmetry, and also some two-loop results.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of GPR Signals: Transmitted Wavelet, Amplitude Decay, and Sampling-Related Amplitude Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, M.; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, M.

    2017-12-01

    We study the importance of accurately recording signal amplitudes for the quantitative analysis of GPR data sets. Specifically, we measure the peak amplitudes of signals emitted by GPR antennas with different central frequencies and study their amplitude decay with distance, in order to extrapolate the peak amplitude of the wavelet initially transmitted by each antenna. The purpose is to compare the reference and reflected amplitudes in order to accurately estimate the subsurface EM impedance contrasts. Moreover, we study how sampling-related amplitude distortions can affect the quantitative analysis, and subsequently the resulting subsurface models, even in the absence of aliasing effects. The well-known Nyquist-Shannon theorem gives practical lower limits for the sampling rate in order to preserve the spectral content of a digitized signal; however, we show that it does not prevent possible amplitude distortions. In particular, we demonstrate that significant and unrecoverable loss of amplitude information occurs even at sampling rates well above the Nyquist-Shannon threshold. Interpolation may theoretically reduce such amplitude distortions; however, its accuracy would depend on the implemented algorithm and it is not verifiable in real data sets, since the actual amplitude information is limited to the sampled values. Moreover, re-sampling the interpolated signal simply reintroduces the initial problem, when a new sampling rate is selected. Our analysis suggests that, in order to limit the maximum peak amplitude error within 5%, the sampling rate selected during data acquisition must be at least 12 times the signal central frequency, which is higher than the commonly adopted standards.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of GPR Signals: Transmitted Wavelet, Amplitude Decay, and Sampling-Related Amplitude Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, M.; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, M.

    2018-03-01

    We study the importance of accurately recording signal amplitudes for the quantitative analysis of GPR data sets. Specifically, we measure the peak amplitudes of signals emitted by GPR antennas with different central frequencies and study their amplitude decay with distance, in order to extrapolate the peak amplitude of the wavelet initially transmitted by each antenna. The purpose is to compare the reference and reflected amplitudes in order to accurately estimate the subsurface EM impedance contrasts. Moreover, we study how sampling-related amplitude distortions can affect the quantitative analysis, and subsequently the resulting subsurface models, even in the absence of aliasing effects. The well-known Nyquist-Shannon theorem gives practical lower limits for the sampling rate in order to preserve the spectral content of a digitized signal; however, we show that it does not prevent possible amplitude distortions. In particular, we demonstrate that significant and unrecoverable loss of amplitude information occurs even at sampling rates well above the Nyquist-Shannon threshold. Interpolation may theoretically reduce such amplitude distortions; however, its accuracy would depend on the implemented algorithm and it is not verifiable in real data sets, since the actual amplitude information is limited to the sampled values. Moreover, re-sampling the interpolated signal simply reintroduces the initial problem, when a new sampling rate is selected. Our analysis suggests that, in order to limit the maximum peak amplitude error within 5%, the sampling rate selected during data acquisition must be at least 12 times the signal central frequency, which is higher than the commonly adopted standards.

  15. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.

  16. High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-11-01

    We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)

  17. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  18. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  19. Chiral symmetry constraints on resonant amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Peter C.; Mai, Maxim

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the impact of chiral symmetry constraints on the quark-mass dependence of meson resonance pole positions, which are encoded in non-perturbative parametrizations of meson scattering amplitudes. Model-independent conditions on such parametrizations are derived, which are shown to guarantee the correct functional form of the leading quark-mass corrections to the resonance pole positions. Some model amplitudes for ππ scattering, widely used for the determination of ρ and σ resonance properties from results of lattice simulations, are tested explicitly with respect to these conditions.

  20. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mads

    This thesis describes recent progress in the understanding of the mathematical structure of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The primary purpose is to develop an enhanced analytic framework for computing multiloop scattering amplitudes in generic gauge theories including QCD without...... unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed...

  1. Microwave Imaging using Amplitude-only Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2010-01-01

    This paper discuss how the performance of an imaging system is affected when the phase information of the measurements are removed from the data, leaving only amplitude information as input for the imaging algorithm. Simulated data are used for this purpose, and the images resulting from using...... amplitude-only data are compared with images obtained using the same data sets in which the phase information has been retained. In addition to this, some modifications for the imaging algorithm is presented which to some extent counters the effects of excluding the phase information in the reconstruction....

  2. Using composite sinusoidal patterns in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presented a first exploration of using composite sinusoidal patterns that integrated two and three spatial frequencies of interest, in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food (e.g., bruises in apples). Three methods based on Fourier tra...

  3. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  4. Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartles, J.; Vacca, G.P.

    2012-05-01

    Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.

  5. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  6. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-03-17

    Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  7. Scattering amplitudes in super-renormalizable gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donà, Pietro; Giaccari, Stefano; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwał, Lesław; Zhu, Yiwei

    2015-01-01

    We explicitly compute the tree-level on-shell four-graviton amplitudes in four, five and six dimensions for local and weakly nonlocal gravitational theories that are quadratic in both, the Ricci and scalar curvature with form factors of the d’Alembertian operator inserted between. More specifically we are interested in renormalizable, super-renormalizable or finite theories. The scattering amplitudes for these theories turn out to be the same as the ones of Einstein gravity regardless of the explicit form of the form factors. As a special case the four-graviton scattering amplitudes in Weyl conformal gravity are identically zero. Using a field redefinition, we prove that the outcome is correct for any number of external gravitons (on-shell n−point functions) and in any dimension for a large class of theories. However, when an operator quadratic in the Riemann tensor is added in any dimension (with the exception of the Gauss-Bonnet term in four dimensions) the result is completely altered, and the scattering amplitudes depend on all the form factors introduced in the action.

  8. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    A method to determine the fatigue of structures subjected to multiple-amplitude loads is presented. Unlike the more common cumulative damage methods, which are usually based on fatigue life data, the proposed method is based on tensile strength data. Assuming the Weibull distribution for the init...

  9. Kaon decay amplitudes using staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    A status report is given of an attempt, using staggered fermions to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes for K → ππ,. Semi-quantitative results are found for the imaginary parts, and these suggest that ε' might be smaller than previously expected in the standard model

  10. Five-level inverter with dual reference modulation technique for grid-connected PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, N.A.; Selvaraj, J.; Krismadinata, C. [Centre for Power Electronics, Drives, Automation and Control, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, Jalan Pantai Bahru, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    This paper presents a single-phase five-level grid-connected PV inverter with a novel dual reference modulation technique. Two reference signals identical to each other with an offset equivalent to the amplitude of the triangular carrier signal were used to generate PWM signals. The inverter consists of a full-bridge inverter and an auxiliary circuit comprising four diodes and a switch. The inverter produces output voltage in five levels: zero, +1/2V{sub dc}, V{sub dc}, -1/2V{sub dc} and -V{sub dc}. A digital PI current control algorithm is implemented in DSP TMS320F2812 to keep the current injected into the grid sinusoidal and to have high dynamic performance with low THD. The validity of the proposed inverter is verified through simulation and implemented in a prototype. The experimental results are compared with conventional single-phase three-level grid-connected PWM inverter in terms of THD. (author)

  11. THE SINUSOIDAL EFFLUX OF DIBROMOSULFOPHTHALEIN FROM RAT-LIVER IS STIMULATED BY ALBUMIN, LIGANDIN AND FATTY-ACID-BINDING PROTEIN BUT NOT BY OTHER DIBROMOSULFOPHTHALEIN BINDING-PROTEINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIJSSEN, HMJ; PIJNING, T; PROOST, JH; MEIJER, DKF; GROOTHUIS, GMM

    Organic anions can be excreted from the liver into the bile or back into the general circulation (sinusoidal efflux). It has previously been shown that the net sinusoidal efflux rate of dibromosulfophthalein from the perfused liver into the perfusate is the result of actual efflux from and reuptake

  12. GPR182 is a novel marker for sinusoidal endothelial differentiation with distinct GPCR signaling activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christian David; Schledzewski, Kai; Mogler, Carolin; Waldburger, Nina; Kalna, Viktoria; Marx, Alexander; Randi, Anna Maria; Géraud, Cyrill; Goerdt, Sergij; Koch, Philipp-Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) along the vascular tree exhibit organ-specific angiodiversity. Compared to most other ECs, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) that constitute the organ-specific microvasculature of the liver are morphologically and functionally unique. Previously, we showed that transcription factor Gata4 acts as a master regulator controlling LSEC differentiation. Upon analysis of the molecular signature of LSEC, we identified GPR182 as a potential LSEC-specific orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). Here, we demonstrate that GPR182 is expressed by LSEC and by EC with sinusoidal differentiation in spleen, lymph node and bone marrow in healthy human tissues. In a tissue microarray analysis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples, endothelial GPR182 expression was significantly reduced in tumor samples compared to peritumoral liver tissue samples (p = 0.0105). Loss of endothelial GPR182 expression was also seen in fibrotic and cirrhotic liver tissues. In vitro, GPR182 differentially regulated canonical GPCR signaling pathways as shown using reporter luciferase assays in HEK293T cells. Whereas ERK and RhoA signaling were inhibited, CREB and Calcium signaling were activated by ectopic GPR182 overexpression. Our data demonstrate that GPR182 is an endothelial subtype-specific marker for human sinusoidal EC of the liver, spleen, lymph node and bone marrow. In addition, we provide evidence for GPR182-dependent downstream signaling via ERK and SRF pathways that may be involved in regulating endothelial subtype-specific sinusoidal differentiation and sinusoidal functions such as permeability. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. II. Sinusoidally driven shear and multisinusoidal inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Benjamin A; Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-07-01

    We use molecular-dynamics computer simulations to investigate the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure responses of a simple model atomic fluid to transverse and longitudinal external forces. We have previously introduced a response function formalism for describing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in an atomic fluid when it is perturbed by a combination of longitudinal and transverse external forces that are independent of time and have a simple sinusoidal spatial variation. In this paper, we extend the application of the previously introduced formalism to consider the case of a longitudinal force composed of multiple sinusoidal components in combination with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We find that additional harmonics are excited in the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles due to couplings between the force components. By analyzing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in Fourier space, we are able to evaluate the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, which now have additional components describing the coupling relationships. Having evaluated the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, we are then able to accurately predict the density, velocity, and shear-pressure profiles for fluids that are under the influence of a longitudinal force composed of two or three sinusoidal components combined with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We also find that in the case of a multisinusoidal longitudinal force, it is sufficient to include only pairwise couplings between different longitudinal force components. This means that it is unnecessary to include couplings between three or more force components in the case of a longitudinal force composed of many Fourier components, and this paves the way for a highly accurate but tractable treatment of nonlocal transport phenomena in fluids with density and strain-rate inhomogeneities on the molecular length scale.

  14. Filamentation instability of large-amplitude Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.; Whang, M.H.; Lee, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    An instability that leads to the filamentation of large-amplitude Alfven waves and gives rise to purely growing density and magnetic field fluctuations is studied. The dispersion relation of the instability is derived, from which the threshold conditions and the growth rates of the instability are analyzed quantitatively for applications to the solar wind plasma. We have examined their dependence on the filamentation spectrum, the plasma β, and the pump frequency and intensity for both right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized Alfven waves. The excitation of filamentation instability for certain cases of interest is discussed and compared with that of the parametric decay and modulation instability. The relevance of the proposed instability with some observations is discussed. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  15. Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC)-OCDMA Network with 8DPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaibani, A. O.; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Anuar, M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) technique is required to meet the increased demand for high speed, large capacity communications in optical networks. In this paper, the transmission performance of a spectral amplitude coding (SAC)-OCDMA network is investigated when a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF) is used as the transmission link using 8DPSK modulation. The DW has a fixed weight of two. Simulation results reveal that the transmission distance is limited mainly by the fiber dispersion when high coding chip rate is used. For a two-user SAC-OCDMA network operating with 2 Gbit/s data rate and two wavelengths for each user, the maximum allowable transmission distance is about 15 km.

  16. Practical design approach for trapezoidal modulation of a radio-frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastun, A. S.; Ostroumov, P. N.

    2018-03-01

    Trapezoidal modulation of quadrupole electrodes offers additional benefits to the concept of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ). Because of the significant increase of the effective shunt impedance, RFQs with trapezoidal modulation have a reduced interelectrode voltage or resonator length as compared to conventional RFQs with sinusoidal modulation. This feature is especially valuable for RFQs operating in cw mode, since it reduces the required rf power. We develop a detailed procedure for the design of RFQ electrodes with trapezoidal modulation. With our design procedure and by properly choosing the trapezoidal cell parameters, we can easily control the peak surface fields in the RFQ to the same level as for sinusoidal cell modulation. The procedure is applied to the design of the electrodes for the ReA3 RFQ at Michigan State University.

  17. Practical design approach for trapezoidal modulation of a radio-frequency quadrupole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Plastun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trapezoidal modulation of quadrupole electrodes offers additional benefits to the concept of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ. Because of the significant increase of the effective shunt impedance, RFQs with trapezoidal modulation have a reduced interelectrode voltage or resonator length as compared to conventional RFQs with sinusoidal modulation. This feature is especially valuable for RFQs operating in cw mode, since it reduces the required rf power. We develop a detailed procedure for the design of RFQ electrodes with trapezoidal modulation. With our design procedure and by properly choosing the trapezoidal cell parameters, we can easily control the peak surface fields in the RFQ to the same level as for sinusoidal cell modulation. The procedure is applied to the design of the electrodes for the ReA3 RFQ at Michigan State University.

  18. Study of the influence of a sinusoidal protuberance on the transfers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The governing elliptic equations are discretized in a two-dimensional domain using the finite-volume method with non-staggered variable arrangement and the PISO algorithm for the velocity-pressure coupling is employed. We analyze the influence of the amplitude of the protuberance and the heat flux applied to its base ...

  19. Circuit of automatic modulating field control for nuclear magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashkevich, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    A circuit is suggested for automatic adjustment of the modulation amplitude of the magnetic field to be measured for nuclear magnetometers, and necessary range of this adjustment is determined. Depending on the measured field inhomogeneity, the circuit can smoothly vary the modulating field amplitude approximately by a factor of 30 stabilizing it at an optimal level. 5 refs., 1 fig

  20. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Puhlfürst

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ϵ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ϵ-orders of a power series solution in ϵ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ϵ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ϵ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system. Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α′-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α′.