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Sample records for sinusoidal pressure waves

  1. Generation of Modified Sinusoidal Waves Using Operational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of modified sinusoidal waves is currently a field of active research even in already developed countries as it combines the ease of production associated with square waves and avoids the low energy efficiency associated with true sinusoidal waves. This paper discusses the production of Modified Sinusoidal ...

  2. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  3. Surface wave propagation over sinusoidally varying topography: Theory and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A. G.; Heathershaw, A. D.

    Linear perturbation theory is used to show that the reflection coefficient of a patch of sinusoidal ripples on an otherwise flat bed is oscillatory in the quotient of the length of the patch and the surface wave length, and strongly dependent upon the quotient of the surface and bed wave numbers. Resonant interaction between the surface waves and the ripples if the surface wavenumber is half the ripple wavenumber is demonstrated. Few ripples, of relatively small steepness, are required to produce a substantial reflected wave. In resonant cases, the partially standing wave on the up-wave side of the ripple patch gives way, in an almost linear manner over the the ripple patch itself, to a progressive (transmitted) wave on the down-wave side. Wave tank data agree well with predictions, and suggest coupling between wave reflection and ripple growth on an erodible bed.

  4. Hydraulic testing in granite using the sinusoidal variation of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.; Holmes, D.C.; Noy, D.J.

    1982-09-01

    Access to two boreholes at the Carwynnen test site in Cornwall enabled the trial of a number of innovative approaches to the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline rock. These methods ranged from the use of seisviewer data to measure the orientation of fractures to the use of the sinusoidal pressure technique to measure directional hydraulic diffusivity. The testing began with a short programme of site investigation consisting of borehole caliper and seisviewer logging followed by some single borehole hydraulic tests. The single borehole hydraulic testing was designed to assess whether the available boreholes and adjacent rock were suitable for testing using the sinusoidal method. The main testing methods were slug and pulse tests and were analysed using the fissured porous medium analysis proposed in Barker and Black (1983). Derived hydraulic conductivity (K) ranged from 2 x 10 -12 m/sec to 5 x 10 -7 m/sec with one near-surface zone of high K being perceived in both boreholes. The results were of the form which is typical of fractured rock and indicated a combination of high fracture frequency and permeable granite matrix. The results are described and discussed. (author)

  5. Identification of moving sinusoidal wave loads for sensor structural configuration by finite element inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Yu, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a beam structure of composite materials with elastic foundation supports is established as the sensor model, which propagates moving sinusoidal wave loads. The inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is applied for reconstructing moving wave loads which are compared with true wave loads. The conclusion shows that iFEM is accurate and robust in the determination of wave propagation. This helps to seek a suitable new wave sensor method.

  6. Conversion of Radio-Frequency Pulses to Continuous-Wave Sinusoids by Fast Switching and Narrowband Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0783 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Conversion of Radio -Frequency Pulses to Continuous- Wave Sinusoids by Fast...ARL-TN-0783 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Conversion of Radio -Frequency Pulses to Continuous- Wave Sinusoids by Fast...08/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conversion of Radio -Frequency Pulses to Continuous- Wave Sinusoids by Fast Switching and Narrowband Filtering 5a

  7. Stress singularities in a model of a wood disk under sinusoidal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Johnson; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer; Charles Amundson

    2005-01-01

    A thin, solid, circular wood disk, cut from the transverse plane of a tree stem, can be modeled as a cylindrically orthotropic elastic material. It is known that a stress singularity can occur at the center of a cylindrically orthotropic disk subjected to uniform pressure. If a solid cylindrically orthotropic disk is subjected to sinusoidal pressure distributions, then...

  8. Mathieu function solutions for photoacoustic waves in sinusoidal one-dimensional structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binbin; Diebold, Gerald J

    2012-07-01

    The photoacoustic effect for a one-dimensional structure, the sound speed of which varies sinusoidally in space, is shown to be governed by an inhomogeneous Mathieu equation with the forcing term dependent on the spatial and temporal properties of the exciting optical radiation. New orthogonality relations, traveling wave Mathieu functions, and solutions to the inhomogeneous Mathieu equation are found, which are used to determine the character of photoacoustic waves in infinite and finite length phononic structures. Floquet solutions to the Mathieu equation give the positions of the band gaps, the damping of the acoustic waves within the band gaps, and the dispersion relation for photoacoustic waves. The solutions to the Mathieu equation give the photoacoustic response of the structure, show the space equivalent of subharmonic generation and acoustic confinement when waves are excited within band gaps.

  9. Exact solution of unsteady flow generated by sinusoidal pressure gradient in a capillary tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulhameed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of unsteady second grade fluid in a capillary tube with sinusoidal pressure gradient is developed with non-homogenous boundary conditions. Exact analytical solutions for the velocity profiles have been obtained in explicit forms. These solutions are written as the sum of the steady and transient solutions for small and large times. For growing times, the starting solution reduces to the well-known periodic solution that coincides with the corresponding solution of a Newtonian fluid. Graphs representing the solutions are discussed.

  10. Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.

  11. Monocular and binocular steady-state flicker VEPs: frequency-response functions to sinusoidal and square-wave luminance modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David S; Hamilton, Ruth; Shahani, Uma; McCulloch, Daphne L

    2011-02-01

    Steady-state VEPs to full-field flicker (FFF) using sinusoidally modulated light were compared with those elicited by square-wave modulated light across a wide range of stimulus frequencies with monocular and binocular FFF stimulation. Binocular and monocular VEPs were elicited in 12 adult volunteers to FFF with two modes of temporal modulation: sinusoidal or square-wave (abrupt onset and offset, 50% duty cycle) at ten temporal frequencies ranging from 2.83 to 58.8 Hz. All stimuli had a mean luminance of 100 cd/m(2) with an 80% modulation depth (20-180 cd/m(2)). Response magnitudes at the stimulus frequency (F1) and at the double and triple harmonics (F2 and F3) were compared. For both sinusoidal and square-wave flicker, the FFF-VEP magnitudes at F1 were maximal for 7.52 Hz flicker. F2 was maximal for 5.29 Hz flicker, and F3 magnitudes are largest for flicker stimulation from 3.75 to 7.52 Hz. Square-wave flicker produced significantly larger F1 and F2 magnitudes for slow flicker rates (up to 5.29 Hz for F1; at 2.83 and 3.75 Hz for F2). The F3 magnitudes were larger overall for square-wave flicker. Binocular FFF-VEP magnitudes are larger than those of monocular FFF-VEPs, and the amount of this binocular enhancement is not dependant on the mode of flicker stimulation (mean binocular: monocular ratio 1.41, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6). Binocular enhancement of F1 for 21.3 Hz flicker was increased to a factor of 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8-3.5). In the healthy adult visual system, FFF-VEP magnitudes can be characterized by the frequency-response functions of F1, F2 and F3. Low-frequency roll-off in the FFF-VEP magnitudes is greater for sinusoidal flicker than for square-wave flicker for rates ≤ 5.29 Hz; magnitudes for higher-frequency flicker are similar for the two types of flicker. Binocular FFF-VEPs are larger overall than those recorded monocularly, and this binocular summation is enhanced at 21.3 Hz in the mid-frequency range.

  12. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a progressive sinusoidal fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Akinari

    1984-01-01

    Study was made on the rigorous solutions for electromagnetic waves transmitted and reflected by a medium of finite length with time-space periodic fluctuation, loaded in a rectangular waveguide. When an electromagnetic wave is incident upon the medium modulated in a travelling wave fashion by a pump wave, the reflected and transmitted waves are shifted in frequency by +nω 1 (where n is an integer, ω 1 is the angular frequency of fluctuation). The harmonic level of the reflected waves is much increased as the frequency of the incident wave approaches the cutoff-frequency of TE 10 mode of the rectangular waveguide. Measurement of the spectrum of the reflected waves can be utilized as a diagnosis of even a very slightly fluctuating medium. The theoretical results have been verified on examining experimentally the harmonic level of the microwave reflected by a plasma, weakly modulated (about 10 -4 ) by RF signal and loaded in the WRJ-10 waveguide. (author)

  13. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  14. Adaptive filtering techniques for gravitational wave interferometric data: Removing long-term sinusoidal disturbances and oscillatory transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassande-Mottin, E.; Dhurandhar, S. V.

    2001-02-01

    It is known by the experience gained from the gravitational wave detector prototypes that the interferometric output signal will be corrupted by a significant amount of non-Gaussian noise, a large part of it being essentially composed of long-term sinusoids with a slowly varying envelope (such as violin resonances in the suspensions, or main power harmonics) and short-term ringdown noise (which may emanate from servo control systems, electronics in a nonlinear state, etc.). Since non-Gaussian noise components make the detection and estimation of the gravitational wave signature more difficult, a denoising algorithm based on adaptive filtering techniques (LMS methods) is proposed to separate and extract them from the stationary and Gaussian background noise. The strength of the method is that it does not require any precise model on the observed data: the signals are distinguished on the basis of their autocorrelation time. We believe that the robustness and simplicity of this method make it useful for data preparation and for the understanding of the first interferometric data. We present the detailed structure of the algorithm and its application to both simulated data and real data from the LIGO 40 m prototype.

  15. Sinusoids theory and technological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Prem K

    2014-01-01

    A Complete Treatment of Current Research Topics in Fourier Transforms and Sinusoids Sinusoids: Theory and Technological Applications explains how sinusoids and Fourier transforms are used in a variety of application areas, including signal processing, GPS, optics, x-ray crystallography, radioastronomy, poetry and music as sound waves, and the medical sciences. With more than 200 illustrations, the book discusses electromagnetic force and sychrotron radiation comprising all kinds of waves, including gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light rays, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves. It also covers topics of common interest, such as quasars, pulsars, the Big Bang theory, Olbers' paradox, black holes, Mars mission, and SETI.The book begins by describing sinusoids-which are periodic sine or cosine functions-using well-known examples from wave theory, including traveling and standing waves, continuous musical rhythms, and the human liver. It next discusses the Fourier series and transform in both continuous and...

  16. Wave effects on a pressure sensor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; De; Desa, E; McKeown, J.; Peshwe, V.B.

    Wave flume experiments indicated that for waves propagating on quiescent waters the sensor's performance improved (i.e. the difference Delta P between the average hydrostatic and measured pressures was small and positive) when the inlet...

  17. Pathology of the liver sinusoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Hubscher, Stefan G.; Tiniakos, Dina G.; Bedossa, Pierre; Burt, Alastair D.; Callea, Francesco; Clouston, Andrew D.; Dienes, Hans P.; Goodman, Zachary D.; Roberts, Eve A.; Roskams, Tania; Terracciano, Luigi; Torbenson, Michael S.; Wanless, Ian R.

    The hepatic sinusoids comprise a complex of vascular conduits to transport blood from the porta hepatis to the inferior vena cava through the liver. Under normal conditions, portal venous and hepatic artery pressures are equalized within the sinusoids, oxygen and nutrients from the systemic

  18. Group velocity dispersion measurement method using sinusoidally phase-modulated continuous wave light based on cyclic nature of optical waveform change by group velocity dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Mori, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Kurokawa, Kenji; Tomita, Shigeru; Tsubokawa, Makoto

    2010-09-20

    We show that any optical pulse train recovers its original waveform after passing through a group velocity dispersion (GVD) device when the total GVD value of the device is equal to an integral multiple of 1/(2πf(rep)(2)), where f(rep) is the repetition rate of the optical pulse train. In addition, we detail our proposed GVD measurement method, or optical phase-modulation (PM) method, which utilizes a sinusoidally PM continuous wave (CW) light as a probe light. The total GVD B(2) of a device under test (DUT) is derived by using a very simple equation, |B(2)|=1/(2πf(null)(2)), where f(null) is the smallest modulation frequency at which the sinusoidally PM light becomes CW light again after passing through the DUT.

  19. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  20. Pressure wave propagation in sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was done on the pressure wave propagation within the pipes and mixture vessel of a termohydraulic loop for thermal shock with sodium. It was used the characteristic method to solve the one-dimensional continuity and momentum equations. The numerical model includes the pipes and the effects of valves and other accidents on pressure losses. The study was based on designer informations and engineering tables. It was evaluated the pressure wave sizes, parametrically as a function of the draining valve closure times. (author) [pt

  1. Waves of pressure in viscous incompressible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosviryakov, E. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    A three-dimensional non-stationary flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in the infinite space is examined. The description of possible shapes of pressure is based on the equation for the axial component of velocity, which is an exact consequence of the basic equations. New analytical exact solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations for periodic and localized traveling waves have been found.

  2. A new pressure wave generator for extracorporeal lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlinghaus, E H; Wess, O J; Katona, J

    1990-01-01

    A new pressure wave generator has been designed for the Storz Modulith extracorporeal lithotripter. It consists of an electromagnetic cylindrical pressure wave source and a focusing parabolic reflector. Focus size has been designed using electro-acoustic puls forming network (EA-PFN) techniques. Schlieren photographs of the pressure wave are shown. Pressure in the focus is given as a function of PFN charging voltage.

  3. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  4. On the pressure field of nonlinear standing water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, L. W.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure field produced by two dimensional nonlinear time and space periodic standing waves was calculated as a series expansion in the wave height. The high order series was summed by the use of Pade approximants. Calculations included the pressure variation at great depth, which was considered to be a likely cause of microseismic activity, and the pressure distribution on a vertical barrier or breakwater.

  5. Noise upon the Sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    Sinusoids are used for making harmonic and other sounds. In order to having life in the sounds and adding a wide variety of noises, irregularities are inserted in the frequency and amplitudes. A simple and intuitive noise model is presented, consisting of a low-pass filtered noise, and having...... control for strength and bandwidth. The noise is added on the frequency and amplitudes of the sinusoids, and the resulting irregularity’s (jitter and shimmer) bandwidth is derived. This, together with an overview of investigation methods of the jitter and shimmer results in an analysis of the necessary...

  6. Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pencheva, M; Benova, E; Zhelyazkov, I

    2007-01-01

    In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency (ν/ω) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption ν/ω = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary ν/ω. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance

  7. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Multimodal Brain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Celeste; Maia, Isabel; Cerejo, Antonio; Smielewski, Peter; Paiva, José-Artur; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe multimodal brain monitoring characteristics during plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with head injury, using ICM+ software for continuous recording. Plateau waves consist of an abrupt elevation of ICP above 40 mmHg for 5-20 min. This is a prospective observational study of patients with head injury who were admitted to a neurocritical care unit and who developed plateau waves. We analyzed 59 plateau waves that occurred in 8 of 18 patients (44 %). At the top of plateau waves arterial blood pressure remained almost constant, but cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and cerebral oximetry decreased. After plateau waves, patients with a previously better autoregulation status developed hyperemia, demonstrated by an increase in cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation. Pressure and oxygen cerebrovascular reactivity indexes (pressure reactivity index and ORxshort) increased significantly during the plateau wave as a sign of disruption of autoregulation. Bedside multimodal brain monitoring is important to characterize increases in ICP and give differential diagnoses of plateau waves, as management of this phenomenon differs from that of regular ICP.

  8. Change of guinea pig inner ear pressure by square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, RA; Segenhout, JM; Albers, FWJ; Wit, HP

    The inner ear fluid pressure of guinea pigs was measured during square wave middle ear cavity pressure variation. Time constants were derived for the slopes of the inner ear pressure recovery curves after middle ear pressure change. A "single exponential" function did not fit well and therefore more

  9. Interaction of EM Waves with Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laroussi, Mounir

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus of the main activities is the generation of large volume, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasmas, their diagnostics, and their interactions with EM waves and with the cells of microorganism...

  10. Novel wave power analysis linking pressure-flow waves, wave potential, and the forward and backward components of hydraulic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J

    2016-04-15

    Wave intensity analysis provides detailed insights into factors influencing hemodynamics. However, wave intensity is not a conserved quantity, so it is sensitive to diameter variations and is not distributed among branches of a junction. Moreover, the fundamental relation between waves and hydraulic power is unclear. We, therefore, propose an alternative to wave intensity called "wave power," calculated via incremental changes in pressure and flow (dPdQ) and a novel time-domain separation of hydraulic pressure power and kinetic power into forward and backward wave-related components (ΠP±and ΠQ±). Wave power has several useful properties:1) it is obtained directly from flow measurements, without requiring further calculation of velocity;2) it is a quasi-conserved quantity that may be used to study the relative distribution of waves at junctions; and3) it has the units of power (Watts). We also uncover a simple relationship between wave power and changes in ΠP±and show that wave reflection reduces transmitted power. Absolute values of ΠP±represent wave potential, a recently introduced concept that unifies steady and pulsatile aspects of hemodynamics. We show that wave potential represents the hydraulic energy potential stored in a compliant pressurized vessel, with spatial gradients producing waves that transfer this energy. These techniques and principles are verified numerically and also experimentally with pressure/flow measurements in all branches of a central bifurcation in sheep, under a wide range of hemodynamic conditions. The proposed "wave power analysis," encompassing wave power, wave potential, and wave separation of hydraulic power provides a potent time-domain approach for analyzing hemodynamics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Corotating pressure waves without streams in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager 1 and 2 magnetic field and plasma data are presented which demonstrate the existence of large scale, corotating, non-linear pressure waves between 2 AU and 4 AU that are not accompanied by fast streams. The pressure waves are presumed to be generated by corotating streams near the Sun. For two of the three pressure waves that are discussed, the absence of a stream is probably a real, physical effect, viz., a consequence of deceleration of the stream by the associated compression wave. For the third pressure wave, the apparent absence of a stream may be a geometrical effect it is likely that the stream was at latitudes just above those of the spacecraft, while the associated shocks and compression wave extended over a broader range of latitudes so that they could be observed by the spacecraft. It is suggested that the development of large-scale non-linear pressure waves at the expense of the kinetic energy of streams produces a qualitative change in the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. Within a few AU the quasi-stationary solar wind structure is determined by corotating streams whose structure is determined by the boundary conditions near the Sun

  12. Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jack W.

    1987-10-01

    Infrasonic recordings of the pressure wave from the Mount St. Helens (MSH) eruption on May 18, 1980, together with the weather station barograph records were used to estimate an equivalent explosion airblast yield for this eruption. Pressure wave amplitudes versus distance patterns were found to be comparable with patterns found for a small-scale nuclear explosion, the Krakatoa eruption, and the Tunguska comet impact, indicating that the MSH wave came from an explosion equivalent of about 5 megatons of TNT. The peculiar audibility pattern reported, with the blast being heard only at ranges beyond about 100 km, is explained by consideration of finite-amplitude shock propagation developments.

  13. Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.W.

    1987-10-20

    Weather station barograph records as well as infrasonic recordings of the pressure wave from the Mount St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, have been used to estimate an equivalent explosion airblast yield for this event. Pressure amplitude versus distance patterns in various directions compared with patterns from other large explosions, such as atmospheric nuclear tests, the Krakatoa eruption, and the Tunguska comet impact, indicate that the wave came from an explosion equivalent of a few megatons of TNT. The extent of tree blowdown is considerably greater than could be expected from such an explosion, and the observed forest damage is attributed to outflow of volcanic material. The pressure-time signature obtained at Toledo, Washington, showed a long, 13-min duration negative phase as well as a second, hour-long compression phase, both probably caused by ejacta dynamics rather than standard explosion wave phenomenology. The peculiar audibility pattern, with the blast being heard only at ranges beyond about 100 km, is explicable by finite amplitude propagation effects. Near the source, compression was slow, taking more than a second but probably less than 5 s, so that it went unnoticed by human ears and susceptible buildings were not damaged. There was no damage as Toledo (54 km), where the recorded amplitude would have broken windows with a fast compression. An explanation is that wave emissions at high elevation angles traveled to the upper stratosphere, where low ambient air pressures caused this energetic pressure oscillation to form a shock wave with rapid, nearly instantaneous compression. Atmospheric refraction then returned part of this wave to ground level at long ranges, where the fast compressions were clearly audible. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  14. Significance of power average of sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 1. Significance of power average of ... Additional sinusoidal and different non-sinusoidal periodic perturbations applied to the periodically forced nonlinear oscillators decide the maintainance or inhibitance of chaos. It is observed that the weak amplitude of ...

  15. Influence of ambient air pressure on impact pressure caused by breaking waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moutzouris, C.

    1979-01-01

    Engineers are interested in the dynamics of the interface waterstructure. In case of breaking of water waves on a structure high positive and sometimes negative pressures of very short duration occur. Not only the maxima and minima of the pressures on the structure are important to a designing

  16. Pressure induced Superconductivity in the Charge Density Wave Compound Tritelluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlin, J.J.; Zocco, D.A.; Sayles, T.A.; Maple, M.B.; /UC, Davis; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    A series of high-pressure electrical resistivity measurements on single crystals of TbTe{sub 3} reveal a complex phase diagram involving the interplay of superconducting, antiferromagnetic and charge density wave order. The onset of superconductivity reaches a maximum of almost 4 K (onset) near {approx} 12.4 GPa.

  17. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Partial Pressure of Cerebral Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Erhard W; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates 55 intracranial pressure (ICP) plateau waves recorded in 20 patients after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with a focus on a moving correlation coefficient between mean arterial pressure (ABP) and ICP, called PRx, which serves as a marker of cerebrovascular reactivity, and a moving correlation coefficient between ABP and cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (pbtO2), called ORx, which serves as a marker for cerebral oxygen reactivity. ICP and ICPamplitude increased significantly during the plateau waves, whereas CPP and pbtO2 decreased significantly. ABP, ABP amplitude, and heart rate remained unchanged. In 73 % of plateau waves PRx increased during the wave. ORx showed an increase during and a decrease after the plateau waves, which was not statistically significant. Our data show profound cerebral vasoparalysis on top of the wave and, to a lesser extent, impairment of cerebral oxygen reactivity. The different behavior of the indices may be due to the different latencies of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen level control mechanisms. While cerebrovascular reactivity is a rapidly reacting mechanism, cerebral oxygen reactivity is slower.

  18. Investigating the risk of lightning's pressure blast wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Blumenthal�

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the pathology of human trauma associated with lightning's pressure blast wave. Within what range is a human at risk and what are the risks? Two theories for the trauma currently exist: the flash moisture vaporisation theory and the sixth mechanism theory. We performed a simple proof-of-concept experiment in a high-voltage laboratory to determine which theory makes for better predictions. The experiment confirmed the existence of a non-discriminant pressure blast wave around a spark in air. The lightning data were compared with the known medical data. Findings may now help explain some of the more curious lightning injury patterns seen on lightning-strike victims.

  19. Evaluation and performance enhancement of a pressure transducer under flows, waves, and a combination of flows and waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, J.A.E.; Foden, P.; Taylor, K.; McKeown, J.; Desa, E.

    The performance of a pressure transducer, with its inlet attached to differing hydromechanical front ends, has been evaluated in flow flume and wave flume experiments in which laminar and turbulent flows, and regular progressive gravity waves...

  20. Inverting Coseismic TEC Disturbances for Neutral Atmosphere Pressure Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. F.; Mikesell, D.; Rolland, L.

    2017-12-01

    Research from the past 20 years has shown that we can detect coseismic disturbances in the total electron content (TEC) using global navigation space systems (GNSS). In the near field, TEC disturbances are created by the direct wave from rupture on the surface. This pressure wave travels through the neutral atmosphere to the ionosphere within about 10 minutes. This provides the opportunity to almost immediately characterize the source of the acoustic disturbance on the surface using methods from seismology. In populated areas, this could provide valuable information to first responders. To retrieve the surface motion amplitude information we must account for changes in the waveform caused by the geomagnetic field, motion of the satellites and the geometry of the satellites and receivers. One method is to use a transfer function to invert for the neutral atmosphere pressure wave. Gómez et al (2015) first employed an analytical model to invert for acoustic waves produced by Rayleigh waves propagating along the Earth's surface. Here, we examine the same model in the near field using the TEC disturbances from the direct wave produced by rupture at the surface. We compare results from the forward model against a numerical model that has been shown to be in good agreement with observations from the 2011 Van (Turkey) earthquake. We show the forward model predictions using both methods for the Van earthquake. We then analyze results for hypothetical events at different latitudes and discuss the reliability of the analytical model in each scenario. Gómez, D., R. Jr. Smalley, C. A. Langston, T. J. Wilson, M. Bevis, I. W. D. Dalziel, E. C. Kendrick, S. A. Konfal, M. J. Willis, D. A. Piñón, et al. (2015), Virtual array beamforming of GPS TEC observations of coseismic ionospheric disturbances near the Geomagnetic South Pole triggered by teleseismic megathrusts, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9087-9101, doi:10.1002/2015JA021725.

  1. Analysis of pressure wave dynamics in fuel rail system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Alzahabi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A model of an amplified common rail fuel system is simulated in Matlab toanalyze the wave mechanics in the rail. The injectors are modeled as asystem of linear and non-linear ODE’s consisting of masses, a helical spring,compressibility effects from fluid volumes, and hydraulic flow throughorifices. The injector simulation then predicts the rate of oil consumption,which is then input into the rail model.The rail is modeled in three sections which are coupled together. The pointswhere the coupling occurs are the locations where the current firinginjector and the pump supply are connected to the rail. This allows themodel to control the pressure and velocity (as boundary conditions atthese points. The rail model is based on the 1D, undamped wave equation,in a non-dimensional form [1] (in the position variable, x. The Reduction ofOrder method was used to solve the wave equation with the Matlabfunction PDEPE.The model was run with two different sets of initial conditions - nominal(constant pressure and zero velocity, and worst case using a simplifiedrepresentation of the pressure and velocity distribution at start of injection.This was done to determine the effect of rail waves at the start of injection,on the output of the model. The variation in fuel delivery, due to the variationin rail pressure, was then evaluated at three operating conditions - Idle,Peak Torque (PT and High Speed Light Load (HSLL. The simulation outputis then compared to analytical solutions of two forms of simplifiedgeometry, using the product method to solve the system [1.

  2. Shock wave velocity and shock pressure for low density powders : A novel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, D.K.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1994-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new

  3. SHOCK-WAVE VELOCITY AND SHOCK PRESSURE FOR LOW-DENSITY POWDERS - A NOVEL-APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKEN, DK; DEHOSSON, JTM

    1994-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to predict the shock wave velocity as well as the shock wave pressure in powder materials. It is shown that the influence of the specific volume behind the shock wave on shock wave velocity and shock pressure decreases with decreasing initial powder density. The new

  4. Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Zhang, Lue; Wang, Xiangda; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-10-28

    For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated.

  5. Reciprocal Influence of Slow Waves Extracted in Intracranial Pressure, Arterial Pressure and Cerebral Blood Velocity Signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervenansky, F

    2001-01-01

    ...), and arterial blood pressure (ABP). To clarify the links, we compared two frequency methods based on coherence function to estimate the influence of ICP, ABP, and CBV on couples, respectively CBV-ABP, ICP-CBV and ICP-ABP, of slow waves...

  6. Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of Pressure Wave inside CEUP Fuel Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Hayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions dependent large pressure variations are one of the working characteristics of combination electronic unit pump (CEUP fuel injection system for diesel engines. We propose a precise and accurate nonlinear numerical model of pressure inside HP fuel pipeline of CEUP using wave equation (WE including both viscous and frequency dependent frictions. We have proved that developed hyperbolic approximation gives more realistic description of pressure wave as compared to classical viscous damped wave equation. Frictional effects of various frequencies on pressure wave have been averaged out across valid frequencies to represent the combined effect of all frequencies on pressure wave. Dynamic variations of key fuel properties including density, acoustic wave speed, and bulk modulus with varying pressures have also been incorporated. Based on developed model we present analysis on effect of fuel pipeline length on pressure wave propagation and variation of key fuel properties with both conventional diesel and alternate fuel rapeseed methyl ester (RME for CEUP pipeline.

  7. Development of an analysis code for pressure wave propagation, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Sakano, Kosuke; Shindo, Yoshihisa

    1974-11-01

    We analyzed the propagation of the pressure-wave in the piping system of SWAT-1B rig by using SWAC-5 Code. We carried out analyses on the following parts. 1) A straight pipe 2) Branches 3) A piping system The results obtained in these analyses are as follows. 1) The present our model simulates well the straight pipe and the branch with the same diameters. 2) The present our model simulates approximately the branch with the different diameters and the piping system. (auth.)

  8. Wave-induced stresses and pore pressures near a mudline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sawicki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for the determination of water-wave induced stresses inseabeds composed of granular soils are based on Biot-type models, in which the soilskeleton is treated as an elastic medium. Such methods predict effective stressesin the soil that are unacceptable from the physical point of view, as they permittensile stresses to occur near the upper surface of the seabed. Therefore, in thispaper the granular soil is assumed to behave as an elastic-ideally plastic material,with the Coulomb-Mohr yield criterion adopted to bound admissible stress states inthe seabed. The governing equations are solved numerically by a~finite differencemethod. The results of simulations, carried out for the case of time-harmonicwater waves, illustrate the depth distributions of the excess pore pressures and theeffective stresses in the seabed, and show the shapes of zones of soil in the plastic state.~In particular, the effects on the seabed behaviour of suchparameters as the degree of pore water saturation, the soil permeability, and theearth pressure coefficient, are illustrated.

  9. SH Wave Scattering from a Sinusoidal Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    63156 Dr. Zoltan A. Der Prof. Bryan Isacks ENSCO, Inc. Cornell University 5400 Port Royal Road Department of Geological Sciences Springfield, VA...L-205 Attn: NVCG Livermore, CA 94550 P.O. Box 98539 Las Vegas, NV 89193 Dr. Carl Newton Dr. George Rothe Los Alamos National Laboratory HQ AFTAC/TGR

  10. The sinusoid and the phasor

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kushal; Ramachandran, Harishankar

    2010-01-01

    Mathieu equation is widely used to study several natural phenomenon. In this paper, we show that replacing the sinusoid in the Mathieu equation with a phasor can lead to solutions that behave in a totally different way. Solutions of Mathieu equation are either bounded or grow unboundedly at an exponential rate. Solutions of this new equation are always unbounded and grow linearly with time.

  11. Production and propagation of Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, A A; Casperson, L W

    1998-09-01

    Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian solutions to the wave equation have recently been obtained. In the limit of large Hermite-Gaussian beam size, the sinusoidal factors are dominant and reduce to the conventional modes of a rectangular waveguide. In the opposite limit the beams reduce to the familiar Hermite-Gaussian form. The propagation of these beams is examined in detail, and resonators are designed that will produce them. As an example, a special resonator is designed to produce hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian beams. This ring resonator contains a hyperbolic-cosine-Gaussian apodized aperture. The beam mode has finite energy and is perturbation stable.

  12. Investigation of density-wave oscillation in parallel boiling channels under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Xiao; Xuejun Chen; Mingyuan Zhang

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on density-wave instability in parallel boiling channels. Experiments have been done in a high pressure steam-water loop. Different types of two-phase flow instabilities have been observed, including density-wave oscillation, pressure-drop type oscillation, thermal oscillation and secondary density-wave oscillation. The secondary density-wave oscillation appears at very low exit steam quality (less than 0.1) and at the positive portion of Δ P-G curves with both channels' flow rate oscillating in phase. Density-wave oscillation can appear at pressure up to 192 bar and disappear over 207 bar. (6 figures) (Author)

  13. Dust acoustic waves in complex plasmas at elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.; Starostin, A.N.; Tkachenko, I.M.; Fortov, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    The bi-Yukawa effective interaction potential with different screening constants is employed to calculate dust static correlation functions in the hyper-netted chain approximation and to generalize the theory of dust acoustic waves within the non-perturbative moment approach complemented by hydrodynamic considerations. For the bi-Yukawa interaction potential the sound speed becomes significantly wavenumber-dependent, an additional soft diffusion-like mode is predicted, and the static dielectric function is shown to take negative values. The results can be applied to non-equilibrium dusty plasmas at elevated pressure. -- Highlights: ► Bi-Yukawa interaction potential of dust particles with different screening lengths. ► Dust static correlation functions in the hyper-netted chain approximation. ► The moment and hydrodynamic approaches are in a good agreement at weak non-ideality. ► The dust acoustic wave phase and group velocities depend on the wavenumber. ► The moment approach hints the appearance of the diffusion-like soft mode.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF AREA CONTRACTION ON SHOCK WAVE STRENGTH AND PEAK PRESSURE IN SHOCK TUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mohsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of area contraction on shock wave strength and peak pressure in a shock tube. The shock tube is an important component of the short duration, high speed fluid flow test facility, available at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN, Malaysia. The area contraction was facilitated by positioning a bush adjacent to the primary diaphragm section, which separates the driver and driven sections. Experimental measurements were performed with and without the presence of the bush, at various diaphragm pressure ratios, which is the ratio of air pressure between the driver (high pressure and driven (low pressure sections. The instantaneous static pressure variations were measured at two locations close to the driven tube end wall, using high sensitivity pressure sensors, which allow the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure to be analysed. The results reveal that the area contraction significantly reduces the shock wave strength, shock wave speed and peak pressure. At a diaphragm pressure ratio of 10, the shock wave strength decreases by 18%, the peak pressure decreases by 30% and the shock wave speed decreases by 8%.

  15. Characterization of small intestinal pressure waves in ambulant subjects recorded with a novel portable manometric system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Fraser, R.; Smout, A. J.; Verhagen, M. A.; Adachi, K.; Horowitz, M.; Dent, J.

    1999-01-01

    The organization of lumen-occlusive pressure waves is believed to be an important determinant of luminal flow. At present, little is known about the organization of small intestinal pressure waves in humans. The aim of the present study was to characterize the spatiotemporal organization of small

  16. Investigations of High Pressure Acoustic Waves in Resonators with Seal-Like Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Li, Xiao-Fan; Raman, Ganesh

    2004-01-01

    1) Standing waves with maximum pressures of 188 kPa have been produced in resonators containing ambient pressure air; 2) Addition of structures inside the resonator shifts the fundamental frequency and decreases the amplitude of the generated pressure waves; 3) Addition of holes to the resonator does reduce the magnitude of the acoustic waves produced, but their addition does not prohibit the generation of large magnitude non-linear standing waves; 4) The feasibility of reducing leakage using non-linear acoustics has been confirmed.

  17. Wave Shape and Impact Pressure Measurements at a Rock Coast Cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, S. J.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Vann Jones, E. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rock coast research focuses largely on wave behaviour across beaches and shore platforms but rarely considers direct wave interaction with cliffs. Hydraulic action is one of the most important drivers of erosion along rock coasts. The magnitude of wave impact pressure has been shown by numerical and laboratory studies to be related to the wave shape. In deep water, a structure is only subjected to the hydrostatic pressure due to the oscillating clapotis. Dynamic pressures, related to the wave celerity, are exerted in shallower water when the wave is breaking at the point of impact; very high magnitude, short duration shock pressures are theorised to occur when the approaching wavefront is vertical. As such, wave shape may directly influence the potential of the impact to weaken rock and cause erosion. Measurements of impact pressure at coastal cliffs are limited, and the occurrence and influence of this phenomenon is currently poorly constrained. To address this, we have undertaken a field monitoring study on the magnitude and vertical distribution of wave impact pressures at the rocky, macro-tidal coastline of Staithes, North Yorkshire, UK. A series of piezo-resistive pressure transducers and a camera were installed at the base of the cliff during low tide. Transducers were deployed vertically up the cliff face and aligned shore-normal to capture the variation in static and dynamic pressure with height during a full spring tidal cycle. Five minute bursts of 5 kHz pressure readings and 4 Hz wave imaging were sampled every 30 minutes for six hours during high tide. Pressure measurements were then compensated for temperature and combined with wave imaging to produce a pressure time series and qualitative wave shape category for each wave impact. Results indicate the presence of a non-linear relationship between pressure impact magnitude, the occurrence of shock pressures, wave shape and tidal stage, and suggest that breaker type on impact (and controls thereof) may

  18. Cosmology and the Sinusoidal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2006-06-01

    The nature of dark matter (and dark energy) remains a mystery. An alternative is being explored by several scientists: changing Newton's (and Einstein's) field equations. The sinusoidal potential is the latest attempt[1]. Here the gravitational law is alternately attractive and repulsive:φ = -GM cos(kor)/r, where λo=2π/ko = 1/20 of the distance from the sun to the center of the Milky Way. The proposal accommodates several structural features of the Milky Way including, paradoxically, its spiral shape and flat rotation curve. The sinusoidal potential's unique feature is strong galactic tidal forces (dg/dr). These may explain why the new planetoid Sedna is securely between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud and why distant comets are more influenced by galactic tides that are in the r, rather than the z-direction.At this meeting I discuss the consequences of the sinusoidal potential for cosmology. Here the alternation of attraction and repulsion gives (i) an open universe, and (ii) gravitational lensing which is usually weak, but occasionally very strong. An open universe is one that, asymptotically, has a size R which varies directly as time t. The open universe conflicts both with the old Einstein-deSitter model (R α t2/3} and the new accelerating one. The evidence for an accelerating universe decisively rejects the Einstein-deSitter model. The rejection of an open (or empty) universe is less secure. This rejection is influenced by the different ways the groups studying the brightness of supernovae use the HST. Surprising additional inputs include neutrino masses, the equivalence principle, LSB galaxies, and "over-luminous" Sn1a. I thank Mostafa Jon Dadras and Patrick Motl for early help and John Cumalat for continual support. [1] D.F. Bartlett, "Analogies between electricity and gravity", Metrologia 41, S115-S124 (2004).

  19. Inner ear pressure changes following square wave intracranial or ear canal pressure manipulation in the same guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, E; Wit, H; Segenhout, H; Albers, F

    Inner ear pressure was measured in scala tympani with a micropipette during square wave pressure manipulation of the intracranial compartment and, subsequently, of the external ear canal (EEC) in the same guinea pig. As expected, the combination of the cochlear aqueduct and the inner ear behaves as

  20. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. I. Sinusoidally driven shear and sinusoidally driven inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Dalton, Benjamin A; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.

  1. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. I. Sinusoidally driven shear and sinusoidally driven inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, Kirill S.; Dalton, Benjamin A.; Daivis, Peter J.; Todd, B. D.

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.

  2. Effect of pore pressure on the velocity of compressional waves in low-porosity rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T.; Simmons, G.

    1972-01-01

    The velocity V sub p of compressional waves has been measured in rock samples of low porosity to confining pressures P sub c of 2 kb for a number of different constant pore pressures P sub p. An effective pressure defined by P sub e = P sub c-nP sub p, n less than or equal to 1, is found to be the determining factor in the behavior of V sub p rather than an effective pressure defined simply by the differential pressure Delta P = P sub c-P sub p. As pore pressure increases at constant effective pressure, the value of n increases and approaches 1, but as effective pressure increases at constant pore pressure, the value of n decreases. These observations are consistent with Biot's theory of the propagation of elastic waves in a fluid-saturated porous solid.

  3. The Importance of Pressure Sampling Frequency in Models for Determination of Critical Wave Loadings on Monolithic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle

    2008-01-01

    Wave induced pressures on model scale monolithic structures like caissons and concrete superstructures on rubble mound breakwaters show very peaky variations, even in cases without impacts from slamming waves.......Wave induced pressures on model scale monolithic structures like caissons and concrete superstructures on rubble mound breakwaters show very peaky variations, even in cases without impacts from slamming waves....

  4. Study on storage and measurement system of shock-wave pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zehui; Tian Zhong; Tang Jian; Yang Jian; Wei Xiangwen; Wang Lihua

    1998-12-01

    The principle, systematic structure of the storage and measurement system of shock-wave pressure and the calibration and application measurement of the system are introduced. The measured results show that the measuring system can be used as a substitute of the traditional pressure measurement system and used for storage and measurement of pressure wave shape of the shock-wave resulted from explosion. It has the following advantages: free of lead-wire, resistant against bad conditions, anti-interference, high reliability, easy calibration and simple measurement procedure, easy to carry, direct communication with micro-computer

  5. Waves of change - the dynamics of institutional pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; Taminiau, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    This article coins additional explanations for organizations’ room for agency and institutional change by bringing all institutional and competitive pressures back into institutional theory, and by introducing theory on how the interaction between these pressures leads to novelty, contradictions,

  6. Quantitative calibration of sound pressure in ultrasonic standing waves using the Schlieren method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Chen, Hao; Yan, Xu; Qian, Menglu; Cheng, Qian

    2017-08-21

    We investigated the use of the Schlieren method to calibrate the sound pressure in an ultrasonic standing-wave field. Specifically, we derived an equation to calculate the light intensity of the diffraction fringe induced by the standing-wave field. The results indicated that the sound pressure in the standing-wave field relates to the light intensity of the diffraction fringe. Simulations and experiments were conducted to verify the theoretical calculation. We demonstrated that the ratio of the light intensity of different diffraction orders relates to the sound pressure amplitude, allowing the pressure amplitude to be calibrated with the Schlieren method. Therefore, this work presents a non-intrusive calibration method that is particularly suitable for calibrating high-frequency ultrasonic standing-wave fields.

  7. Interaction of Acoustic Waves with a Cryogenic Nitrogen Jet at Sub- and Supercritical Pressures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chehroudi, B

    2001-01-01

    To better understand the nature of the interaction between acoustic waves and liquid fuel jets in rocket engines, cryogenic liquid nitrogen is injected into a room temperature high-pressure chamber...

  8. Estimated Pulse Wave Velocity Calculated from Age and Mean Arterial Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, S. V.; Laurent, Stéphane; Olsen, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    In a recently published paper, Greve et al [J Hypertens 2016;34:1279-1289] investigate whether the estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV), calculated using an equation derived from the relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), age, and blood pressure, predict...

  9. Observations of height-dependent pressure-perturbation structure of a strong mesoscale gravity wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David O'C.; Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Weng, Chi Y.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne observations using a downward-looking, dual-frequency, near-infrared, differential absorption lidar system provide the first measurements of the height-dependent pressure-perturbation field associated with a strong mesoscale gravity wave. A pressure-perturbation amplitude of 3.5 mb was measured within the lowest 1.6 km of the atmosphere over a 52-km flight line. Corresponding vertical displacements of 250-500 m were inferred from lidar-observed displacement of aerosol layers. Accounting for probable wave orientation, a horizontal wavelength of about 40 km was estimated. Satellite observations reveal wave structure of a comparable scale in concurrent cirrus cloud fields over an extended area. Smaller-scale waves were also observed. Local meteorological soundings are analyzed to confirm the existence of a suitable wave duct. Potential wave-generation mechanisms are examined and discussed. The large pressure-perturbation wave is attributed to rapid amplification or possible wave breaking of a gravity wave as it propagated offshore and interacted with a very stable marine boundary layer capped by a strong shear layer.

  10. [Research on the Method of Blood Pressure Monitoring Based on Multiple Parameters of Pulse Wave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Changyun; Mu, Dianwei; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Chunjiao; Li, Hongqiang

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of blood pressure measurement in wearable devices, this paper presents a method for detecting blood pressure based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. Based on regression analysis between blood pressure and the characteristic parameters of pulse wave, such as the pulse wave transit time (PWTT), cardiac output, coefficient of pulse wave, the average slope of the ascending branch, heart rate, etc. we established a model to calculate blood pressure. For overcoming the application deficiencies caused by measuring ECG in wearable device, such as replacing electrodes and ECG lead sets which are not convenient, we calculated the PWTT with heart sound as reference (PWTT(PCG)). We experimentally verified the detection of blood pressure based on PWTT(PCG) and based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. The experiment results showed that it was feasible to calculate the PWTT from PWTT(PCG). The mean measurement error of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure calculated by the model based on multiple parameters of pulse wave is 1.62 mm Hg and 1.12 mm Hg, increased by 57% and 53% compared to those of the model based on simple parameter. This method has more measurement accuracy.

  11. Wave Journal Bearing. Part 2: Experimental Pressure Measurements and Fractional Frequency Whirl Threshold for Wave and Plain Journal Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James F.; Dimofte, Florin; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A new hydrodynamic bearing concept, the wave journal bearing, is being developed because it has better stability characteristics than plain journal bearings while maintaining similar load capacity. An analysis code to predict the steady state and dynamic performance of the wave journal bearing is also part of the development. To verify numerical predictions and contrast the wave journal bearing's stability characteristics to a plain journal bearing, tests were conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center using an air bearing test rig. Bearing film pressures were measured at 16 ports located around the bearing circumference at the middle of the bearing length. The pressure measurements for both a plain journal bearing and a wave journal bearing compared favorably with numerical predictions. Both bearings were tested with no radial load to determine the speed threshold for self-excited fractional frequency whirl. The plain journal bearing started to whirl immediately upon shaft start-up. The wave journal did not incur self-excited whirl until 800 to 900 rpm as predicted by the analysis. Furthermore, the wave bearing's geometry limited the whirl orbit to less than the bearing's clearance. In contrast, the plain journal bearing did not limit the whirl orbit, causing it to rub.

  12. Geometric distortion correction for sinusoidally scanned images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Tian, Xiangrui; Li, Xiaolu; Shang, Guangyi; Yao, Junen

    2011-01-01

    A method for correcting the geometric distortion of sinusoidally scanned images was proposed. The generation mechanism of the geometric distortion in sinusoidally scanned images was analyzed. Based on the relationship between the coordinates of uniformly scanned points and those of sinusoidally scanned points, a transformation formula was obtained for correcting the geometric distortion when the sampling rate was a constant. By comparing the forward method with the inverse method, a hybrid method for correcting the geometric distortion of sinusoidally scanned images was proposed. This method takes advantage of both the forward and inverse methods and was proven to be better than either of them in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). The time consumed by the hybrid method was between the other two. When a higher PSNR is desired, the hybrid method is recommended if time permits. In addition, it is a universal approach to the correction of geometric distortion of the images scanned in the sinusoidal mode

  13. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show that the......In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  14. Quantification of abnormal intracranial pressure waves and isotope cisternography for diagnosis of occult communicating hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, E.R.; Piatek, D.; Del Bigio, M.R.; Stambrook, M.; Sutherland, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen consecutive patients with suspected occult communicating hydrocephalus were investigated by means of clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, isotope cisternography, computed tomography scanning, and continuous intracranial pressure monitoring. Semi-quantitative grading systems were used in the evaluation of the clinical, neuropsychological, and cisternographic assessments. Clinical examination, neuropsychological testing, and computed tomography scanning were repeated 3 months after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. All patients showed abnormal intracranial pressure waves and all improved after shunting. There was close correlation between number, peak, and pulse pressures of B waves and the mean intracranial pressure. However, quantification of B waves by means of number, frequency, and amplitude did not help in predicting the degree of clinical improvement postshunting. The most sensitive predictor of favorable response to shunting was enlargement of the temporal horns on computed tomography scan. Furthermore, the size of temporal horns correlated with mean intracranial pressure. There was no correlation between abnormalities on isotope cisternography and clinical improvement

  15. Analysis of pressure waves in the cone-type combustion chamber under SI engine knock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Anren; Xu, Han; Yao, Chunde

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D numerical model is conducted to investigate the shock waves in the engine knock. • Overpressure distribution on the top piston surface is caught while knocking. • Numerical simulation shows that shock waves converge in the combustion chamber. • The converged shock waves damage piston during severe knock. - Abstract: For the internal-combustion engine, super knock produced by the engine downsizing technology induces severe oscillations in a combustion chamber, which may damage the piston. In this work, 3D numerical simulation is used to study the propagation and reflection of pressure waves produced in the cone roof type combustion chamber. Overpressure distribution of top piston surface is caught. Numerical simulation shows that the pressure waves are amplified in a special zone because of the shape of the combustion chamber, which induces the overpressure much higher than that in other zones. The numerical results are validated by the damaged pistons. It is found that the converged pressure waves could be the reason which causes damage in the local region of the piston under super knock. The results obtained in the study provide assistance in the design of combustion chamber shape in order to avoid piston destroyed by the pressure waves

  16. Equation of state for potassium in shock waves at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishchenko, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    A simple caloric equation-of-state model, which relates the pressure with density and internal energy, is applied for potassium in the bcc-solid and liquid phases. Thermodynamic characteristics along the principal Hugoniot are calculated for the metal and compared with available data from shock-wave experiments at high pressures.

  17. Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis for the Effect of a Pressure Wave in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce L., Ernesto; Ponce S., Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Brain injuries in people of all ages is a serious, world-wide health problem, with consequences as varied as attention or memory deficits, difficulties in problem-solving, aggressive social behavior, and neuro degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Brain injuries can be the result of a direct impact, but also pressure waves and direct impulses. The aim of this work is to develop a predictive method to calculate the stress generated in the human brain by pressure waves such as high power sounds. The finite element method is used, combined with elastic wave theory. The predictions of the generated stress levels are compared with the resistance of the arterioles that pervade the brain. The problem was focused to the Chilean mining where there are some accidents happen by detonations and high sound level. There are not formal medical investigation, however these pressure waves could produce human brain damage.

  18. Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Lindegård

    weight of sediment. This revels that the upward directed vertical pressure gradient on average has a magnitude that yields in a contribution to the force needed to overcome the submerged weight of the water-sediment mixture. Secondly particle motion in the oscillatory boundary layer is investigated......The present study covers both a numerical and experimental investigation of the processes in the oscillatory boundary layer. In the first part a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to study the vertical pressure gradient, and its role in relation to laminar to turbulent transition...... and its role in the fully turbulent boundary layer. The pressure in the flow is obtained from the flow fields of the oscillatory boundary layer. What differs, the vertical pressure gradient, from other turbulent quantities, like e.g. velocity fluctuations is that it can detect newly generated turbulence...

  19. Experimental Study and Numerical Modeling of Wave Induced Pore Pressure Attenuation Inside a Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troch, Peter; Rouck, Julien De; Burcharth, Hans Falk

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the attenuation of the wave induced pore pressures inside the core of a rubble mound breakwater. The knowledge of the distribution and the attenuation of the pore pressures is important for the design of a stable and safe breakwater. The pore pressure...... and have been re-analysed in detail with respect to the attenuation characteristics. The analysis follows the method by Burcharth et al. (1999) and confirms the practical calculation method for the attenuation of the pore pressure in the core given in this reference. The attenuation of pore pressures...

  20. Allowable Pressure In Soils and Rocks by Seismic Wave Velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezcan, S.; Keceli, A.; Oezdemir, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Firstly, the historical background is presented for the determination of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The principles of plastic equilibrium used in the classical formulation of the ultimate bearing capacity are reviewed, followed by a discussion about the sources of approximations inherent in the classical theory. Secondly, based on a variety of case histories of site investigations, including extensive bore hole data, laboratory testing and geophysical prospecting, an empirical formulation is proposed for the determination of allowable bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The proposed expression corroborates consistently with the results of the classical theory and is proven to be reliable and safe, also from the view point of maximum allowable settlements. It consists of only two soil parameters, namely, the Institut measured shear wave velocity, and the unit weight. The unit weight may be also determined with sufficient accuracy, by means of another empirical expression, using the P-wave velocity. It is indicated that once the shear and P-wave velocities are measured Institut by an appropriate geophysical survey, the allowable bearing capacity is determined reliably through a single step operation. Such an approach, is considerably cost and time-saving, in practice

  1. Pressure induced by the interaction of water waves with nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pellet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present second-order expressions for the free-surface elevation, velocity potential and pressure resulting from the interaction of surface waves in water of arbitrary depth. When the surface waves have nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions, a second-order pressure can be felt all the way to the sea bottom. There are at least two areas of applications: reflective structures and microseisms. Microseisms generated by water waves in the ocean are small vibrations of the ground resulting from pressure oscillations associated with the coupling of ocean surface gravity waves and the sea floor. They are recorded on land-based seismic stations throughout the world and they are divided into primary and secondary types, as a function of spectral content. Secondary microseisms are generated by the interaction of surface waves with nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions. The efficiency of microseism generation thus depends in part on ocean wave frequency and direction. Based on the second-order expressions for the dynamic pressure, a simple theoretical analysis that quantifies the degree of nearness in amplitude, frequency, and incidence angle, which must be reached to observe the phenomenon, is presented.

  2. Directional spectrum of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Gouveia, A.D.; Nagarajan, R.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...

  3. Acoustic wave propagation in high-pressure system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Habán, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2006), s. 1457-1460 ISSN 0041-624X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS300860501; GA ČR GA105/03/0183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : pressure pulsation * pulsating jet Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.322, year: 2006

  4. Charge density wave in hydrogen at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdău, Ioan B.; Ackland, Graeme J.

    2017-10-01

    We present extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations investigating numerous candidate crystal structures for hydrogen in conditions around the present experimental frontier (400 GPa). Spontaneous phase transitions in the simulations reveal a new structure candidate comprising twofold coordinated chains of hydrogen atoms. We explain the electronic structure of this phase in terms of a charge density wave and calculate its experimental signature. In detailed tests of the accuracy of our calculation, we find that k-point sampling is far more important in MD than in static calculations, because of the freedom it give the atoms to rearrange themselves optimally for the given sampling.

  5. Hydraulic experiment on evaluation method of tsunami wave pressure using inundation depth and velocity in front of land structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimitsu, Tsuyoshi; Ooe, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic experiments were conducted to estimate tsunami wave pressure acting on several different types of land structures and examine the influence of a seawall in front of the structure on tsunami wave pressure. Wave pressures were measured at some points on the structure. The existing hydrostatic formula tended to underestimate tsunami wave pressure under the condition of inundation flow with large Froude number. Estimation method of tsunami wave pressure using inundation depth and horizontal velocity at the front of the structure was proposed based on the experimental results. It was confirmed from comparison with the experiments that the vertical distribution of the maximum tsunami wave pressure can be reproduced by employing the proposed method in this study. (author)

  6. Acoustic propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface in a homogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, Eric; van Borselen, Roald

    2018-03-01

    The Rayleigh integral solution of the acoustic Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous medium can only be applied when the integral surface is a planar surface, while in reality almost all surfaces where pressure waves are measured exhibit some curvature. In this paper we derive a theoretically rigorous way of building propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface. Our theory is still based upon the Rayleigh integral, but it resorts to matrix inversion to overcome the limitations faced by the Rayleigh integral. Three examples are used to demonstrate the correctness of our theory - propagation of pressure waves acquired on an arbitrarily curved surface to a planar surface, on an arbitrarily curved surface to another arbitrarily curved surface, and on a spherical cap to a planar surface, and results agree well with the analytical solutions. The generalization of our method for particle velocities and the calculation cost of our method are also discussed.

  7. Calculation models of pressure wave propagation within the WWER-440 primary circulating loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamik, V.; Tkach, A.

    1982-01-01

    Computer codes SHOCK, LOVE, BAREL are described that can be used for the study of pressure wave propagation within the reactor and pipeline system during a LOCA as well as for mechanical loads identification in various parts of the system. SHOCK code is applicable to one-dimensional pressure wave propagation analysis in any hydraulic network containing a compressible nonviscous liquid with a constant (within the considered transient process period) density. LOVE code allows to calculate non-symmetrical mechanical loads on the WWER shaft in case of the main circulation pipeline cold branch rupture. BAREL code is an advanced modification of SHOCK code. It is fitted for two-dimensional pressure wave propagation analysing in the downstream section of a pressurised water reactor in case of the main circulation pipeline cold branch rupture. The calculation results for B-213 type WWER-440 reactor are presented that have been obtained under the assumption of perfect structure rigidity [ru

  8. Universal morphologies of fluid interfaces deformed by the radiation pressure of acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, N; Chraïbi, H; Wunenburger, R; Delville, J-P; Brasselet, E

    2012-12-14

    We unveil the generation of universal morphologies of fluid interfaces by radiation pressure regardless of the nature of the wave, whether acoustic or optical. Experimental observations reveal interface deformations endowed with steplike features that are shown to result from the interplay between the wave propagation and the shape of the interface. The results are supported by numerical simulations and a quantitative interpretation based on the waveguiding properties of the field is provided.

  9. Characteristics of surface sound pressure and absorption of a finite impedance strip for a grazing incident plane wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, K S; Pan, J

    2007-07-01

    Distributions of sound pressure and intensity on the surface of a flat impedance strip flush-mounted on a rigid baffle are studied for a grazing incident plane wave. The distributions are obtained by superimposing the unperturbed wave (the specularly reflected wave as if the strip is rigid plus the incident wave) with the radiated wave from the surface vibration of the strip excited by the unperturbed pressure. The radiated pressure interferes with the unperturbed pressure and distorts the propagating plane wave. When the plane wave propagates in the baffle-strip-baffle direction, it encounters discontinuities in acoustical impedance at the baffle-strip and strip-baffle interfaces. The radiated pressure is highest around the baffle-strip interface, but decreases toward the strip-baffle interface where the plane wave distortion reduces accordingly. As the unperturbed and radiated waves have different magnitudes and superimpose out of phase, the surface pressure and intensity increase across the strip in the plane wave propagation direction. Therefore, the surface absorption of the strip is nonzero and nonuniform. This paper provides an understanding of the surface pressure and intensity behaviors of a finite impedance strip for a grazing incident plane wave, and of how the distributed intensity determines the sound absorption coefficient of the strip.

  10. Qualitative Resting Coronary Pressure Wave Form Analysis to Predict Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Mitsuaki; Maehara, Akiko; Johnson, Nils P; Fearon, William F; De Bruyne, Bernard; Oldroyd, Keith G; Pijls, Nico H J; Jenkins, Paul; Ali, Ziad A; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W; Jeremias, Allen

    2018-03-27

    To evaluate the predictability of resting distal coronary pressure wave forms for fractional flow reserve (FFR). Resting coronary wave forms were qualitatively evaluated for the presence of (i) dicrotic notch; (ii) diastolic dipping; and (iii) ventricularization. In a development cohort (n=88) a scoring system was developed that was then applied to a validation cohort (n=428) using a multivariable linear regression model to predict FFR and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to predict FFR ≤0.8. In the development cohort, all 3 qualitative parameters were independent predictors of FFR. However, in a multivariable linear regression model in the validation cohort, qualitative wave form analysis did not further improve the ability of resting distal coronary to aortic pressure ratio (Pd/Pa) (p=0.80) or instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) (p=0.26) to predict FFR. Using ROC, the area under the curve of resting Pd/Pa (0.86 versus 0.86, P=0.08) and iFR (0.86 versus 0.86, P=0.26) did not improve by adding qualitative analysis. Qualitative coronary wave form analysis showed moderate classification agreement in predicting FFR but did not add substantially to the resting pressure gradients Pd/Pa and iFR; however, when discrepancies between quantitative and qualitative analyses are observed, artifact or pressure drift should be considered.

  11. Experimental Study on Peak Pressure of Shock Waves in Quasi-Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxiong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the similarity laws of the explosion, this research develops similarity requirements of the small-scale experiments of underwater explosions and establishes a regression model for peak pressure of underwater shock waves under experimental condition. Small-scale experiments are carried out with two types of media at the bottom of the water and for different water depths. The peak pressure of underwater shock waves at different measuring points is acquired. A formula consistent with the similarity law of explosions is obtained and an analysis of the regression precision of the formula confirms its accuracy. Significance experiment indicates that the influence of distance between measuring points and charge on peak pressure of underwater shock wave is the greatest and that of water depth is the least within the range of geometric parameters. An analysis of data from experiments with different media at the bottom of the water reveals an influence on the peak pressure, as the peak pressure of a shock wave in a body of water with a bottom soft mud and rocks is about 1.33 times that of the case where the bottom material is only soft mud.

  12. Acoustic Pressure Waves in Vibrating 3-D Laminated Beam-Plate Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osheku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of structural vibration on the propagation of acoustic pressure waves through a cantilevered 3-D laminated beam-plate enclosure is investigated analytically. For this problem, a set of well-posed partial differential equations governing the vibroacoustic wave interaction phenomenon are formulated and matched for the various vibrating boundary surfaces. By employing integral transforms, a closed form analytical expression is computed suitable for vibroacoustic modeling, design analysis, and general aerospace defensive applications. The closed-form expression takes the form of a kernel of polynomials for acoustic pressure waves showing the influence of linear interface pressure variation across the axes of vibrating boundary surfaces. Simulated results demonstrate how the mode shapes and the associated natural frequencies can be easily computed. It is shown in this paper that acoustic pressure waves propagation are dynamically stable through laminated enclosures with progressive decrement in interfacial pressure distribution under the influence of high excitation frequencies irrespective of whether the induced flow is subsonic, sonic , supersonic, or hypersonic. Hence, in practice, dynamic stability of hypersonic aircrafts or jet airplanes can be further enhanced by replacing their noise transmission systems with laminated enclosures.

  13. A fast estimation of shock wave pressure based on trend identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhenjian; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Chenchen; Lv, Jing

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a fast method based on trend identification is proposed to accurately estimate the shock wave pressure in a dynamic measurement. Firstly, the collected output signal of the pressure sensor is reconstructed by discrete cosine transform (DCT) to reduce the computational complexity for the subsequent steps. Secondly, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is applied to decompose the reconstructed signal into several components with different frequency-bands, and the last few low-frequency components are chosen to recover the trend of the reconstructed signal. In the meantime, the optimal component number is determined based on the correlation coefficient and the normalized Euclidean distance between the trend and the reconstructed signal. Thirdly, with the areas under the gradient curve of the trend signal, the stable interval that produces the minimum can be easily identified. As a result, the stable value of the output signal is achieved in this interval. Finally, the shock wave pressure can be estimated according to the stable value of the output signal and the sensitivity of the sensor in the dynamic measurement. A series of shock wave pressure measurements are carried out with a shock tube system to validate the performance of this method. The experimental results show that the proposed method works well in shock wave pressure estimation. Furthermore, comparative experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the existing approaches in both estimation accuracy and computational efficiency.

  14. Reflection and dampening of pressure waves in marine terminal pressure surge analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ladeia, Renata C. da Cunha [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT)

    2005-07-01

    In the analysis of potential surge pressure hazards in marine terminals, the piping system connecting the terminal's tank farm to the oil tanker is commonly composed of a main pipeline ending in reduced diameter devices of relatively short length such as loading arms or cargo hoses, and pressure surges may be generated due sudden closure of the oil tanker's emergency shut down valves, or from closure of valves in quick breakaway couplings. Since velocities in these smaller diameter sections are much higher than in the main pipeline, local pressure peaks may occur which are greater than the surge pressure generated due to flow stoppage in the larger diameter pipe. These local pressure pulses are rapidly damped out due to reflection at the connection with the larger diameter pipeline and are simultaneously transmitted and superposed on the pressure surge generated in the main pipeline. Cargo hoses are more elastic with much lower acoustic speed than in steel pipe, and local pressure surges are therefore smaller than in an equivalent section of steel pipeline. Nevertheless local surge pressures are still capable of being greater than in the main steel pipeline due to higher initial flow velocities. This work analyses these effects and points out the care to be taken in pressure surge simulation in order to obtain reliable results. (author)

  15. Pulmonary artery pulse pressure and wave reflection in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and primary pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, V; Hervé, P; Lecarpentier, Y; Duroux, P; Simonneau, G; Chemla, D

    2001-03-15

    The purpose of this time-domain study was to compare pulmonary artery (PA) pulse pressure and wave reflection in chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE) and primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). Pulmonary artery pressure waveform analysis provides a simple and accurate estimation of right ventricular afterload in the time-domain. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and PPH are both responsible for severe pulmonary hypertension. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and PPH predominantly involve proximal and distal arteries, respectively, and may lead to differences in PA pressure waveform. High-fidelity PA pressure was recorded in 14 patients (7 men/7 women, 46 +/- 14 years) with CPTE (n = 7) and PPH (n = 7). We measured thermodilution cardiac output, mean PA pressure (MPAP), PA pulse pressure (PAPP = systolic - diastolic PAP) and normalized PAPP (nPAPP = PPAP/MPAP). Wave reflection was quantified by measuring Ti, that is, the time between pressure upstroke and the systolic inflection point (Pi), deltaP, that is, the systolic PAP minus Pi difference, and the augmentation index (deltaP/PPAP). At baseline, CPTE and PPH had similar cardiac index (2.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.5 l/min/m2), mean PAP (59 +/- 9 vs. 59 +/- 10 mm Hg), PPAP (57 +/- 13 vs. 53 +/- 13 mm Hg) and nPPAP (0.97 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.13). Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism had shorter Ti (90 +/- 17 vs. 126 +/- 16 ms, p PPAP (0.26 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.09 +/- 0.07, p < 0.01). Our study indicated that: 1) CPTE and PPH with severe pulmonary hypertension had similar PA pulse pressure, and 2) wave reflection is elevated in both groups, and CPTE had increased and anticipated wave reflection as compared with PPH, thus suggesting differences in the pulsatile component of right ventricular afterload.

  16. The influence of different auto-ignition modes on the behavior of pressure waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Han; Yao, Anren; Yao, Chunde

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modes of pressure oscillations in knocking, HCCI and super knock are recognized. • Three representative auto-ignition modes in engines are proposed. • A new method of “Energy Injected” is brought into understanding pressure wave. • Simulation results revealed the decisive factors for these three auto-ignition modes. • Different modes lead to different pressure wave behaviors damaging engines. - Abstract: For internal combustion engines, the knock of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engines, the conventional knock of gasoline engines and the super knock are all caused by the auto-ignition of unburned mixture which leads to the oscillation burning, but their Maximal Pressure Oscillation Amplitude (MPOA) and Maximum Pressure Rising Rate (MPRR) are totally different. In order to explore the reason, we propose three typical auto-ignition modes and then bring up the method of “Energy Injected” (EI) which is based on the experiment measured heat release rate. Through changing the heat source term in the energy equation for different auto-ignition modes, we conducted a series of numerical simulations for these three modes. After that, the following pressure oscillations can be compared and analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that different combustion pressure waves with different oscillation characteristics come from different auto-ignition modes, thus the macroscopic MPRR and MPOA are totally different. Furthermore, the method of “EI” based on the experiment measured heat release rate can accurately and rapidly help to research the formation and propagation of pressure waves in the engine combustion chamber.

  17. Magnetosheath waves under very low solar wind dynamic pressure: Wind/Geotail observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The expanded bow shock on and around "the day the solar wind almost disappeared" (11 May 1999 allowed the Geotail spacecraft to make a practically uninterrupted 54-h-long magnetosheath pass near dusk (16:30-21:11 magnetic local time at a radial distance of 24 to 30 RE (Earth radii. During most of this period, interplanetary parameters varied gradually and in such a way as to give rise to two extreme magnetosheath structures, one dominated by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD effects and the other by gas dynamic effects. We focus attention on unusual features of electromagnetic ion wave activity in the former magnetosheath state, and compare these features with those in the latter. Magnetic fluctuations in the gas dynamic magnetosheath were dominated by compressional mirror mode waves, and left- and right-hand polarized electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EIC waves transverse to the background field. In contrast, the MHD magnetosheath, lasting for over one day, was devoid of mirror oscillations and permeated instead by EIC waves of weak intensity. The weak wave intensity is related to the prevailing low solar wind dynamic pressures. Left-hand polarized EIC waves were replaced by bursts of right-hand polarized waves, which remained for many hours the only ion wave activity present. This activity occurred when the magnetosheath proton temperature anisotropy (= $T_{p, perp}/T_{p, parallel}{-}1$ became negative. This was because the weakened bow shock exposed the magnetosheath directly to the (negative temperature anisotropy of the solar wind. Unlike the normal case studied in the literature, these right-hand waves were not by-products of left-hand polarized waves but derived their energy source directly from the magnetosheath temperature anisotropy. Brief entries into the

  18. Magnetosheath waves under very low solar wind dynamic pressure: Wind/Geotail observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The expanded bow shock on and around "the day the solar wind almost disappeared" (11 May 1999 allowed the Geotail spacecraft to make a practically uninterrupted 54-h-long magnetosheath pass near dusk (16:30-21:11 magnetic local time at a radial distance of 24 to 30 RE (Earth radii. During most of this period, interplanetary parameters varied gradually and in such a way as to give rise to two extreme magnetosheath structures, one dominated by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD effects and the other by gas dynamic effects. We focus attention on unusual features of electromagnetic ion wave activity in the former magnetosheath state, and compare these features with those in the latter. Magnetic fluctuations in the gas dynamic magnetosheath were dominated by compressional mirror mode waves, and left- and right-hand polarized electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EIC waves transverse to the background field. In contrast, the MHD magnetosheath, lasting for over one day, was devoid of mirror oscillations and permeated instead by EIC waves of weak intensity. The weak wave intensity is related to the prevailing low solar wind dynamic pressures. Left-hand polarized EIC waves were replaced by bursts of right-hand polarized waves, which remained for many hours the only ion wave activity present. This activity occurred when the magnetosheath proton temperature anisotropy (= became negative. This was because the weakened bow shock exposed the magnetosheath directly to the (negative temperature anisotropy of the solar wind. Unlike the normal case studied in the literature, these right-hand waves were not by-products of left-hand polarized waves but derived their energy source directly from the magnetosheath temperature anisotropy. Brief entries into the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL and duskside magnetosphere occurred under such inflated conditions that the magnetospheric magnetic pressure was insufficient to maintain pressure balance. In these crossings, the inner edge of

  19. Effect of the Blood Vessel Viscoelasticity on Periodic Blood Pressure Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitawaki, Tomoki; Shimizu, Masashi

    Clinical arterial stiffness indexes such as PWV (pulse wave velocity) or PP (pulse pressure), which are obtained by analyzing blood pressure pulse waveforms in vivo, are used in the prognosis of cardiovascular diseases and thus analyses of pulse waveform are clinically important. The pulse wave in vivo, however, is complicated because of the complex viscoelastic property of the blood vessel wall. In addition, numerical flow simulations are useful for understanding pulse wave propagation in circulatory systems. Our proposed nonlinear one-dimensional numerical simulation model can accurately simulate the measurements of pressure waves in a silicone rubber tube and indicate that the viscoelasticity of the tube wall was significantly influenced by a single pulse waveform; however, the influence of viscoelasticity change on periodic pulsatile wave propagation has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of viscoelasticity change on the periodic pulsatile wave. For this purpose, we examined the effect of the viscoelasticity of a single silicone tube on periodic pulse wave propagation by comparing the calculated results using a one-dimensional model. As a result, the one-dimensional model could accurately express the experimental results with periodic pulsatile waves. In addition, both PWV and PP increase when the viscoelastic value of the dynamic modulus elasticity ratio increases, because increasing the elastic modulus is more effective than the energy dissipation effect by viscoelasticity change. Consequently, it is necessary to measure the viscoelastic property of the vessel wall accurately in order to estimate the arterial stiffness index (PWV and PP) accurately.

  20. Simulation of acoustic-gravity waves from atmospheric pressure variations and their influence on the high atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdyaeva, Yuliya; Kshevetskii, Sergey; Gavrilov, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    The processes of heating/cooling gas during phase transitions of water are one of the most important energy sources of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere. Meteorological wave sources are very diverse and have complex, evolving spatial structure. The available experimental data are usually not enough for a detailed description of these wave sources. Therefore, modeling of acoustic-gravity waves from meteorological sources is challenging. The waves propagated from meteorological sources affect the atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressure variations with frequencies of acoustic-gravity wave spectrum are well recorded with microbarographs. It is interesting to use these experimental data, atmospheric pressure variations, for simulation of acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere. The hydrodynamic problem of propagation of acoustic-gravity waves from atmospheric pressure variations given on the Earth's surface is set and studied. It is shown that the solution of this boundary problem is completely determined by the pressure field. The numerical method for solving the problem is suggested. The program is tested by comparison of numerical simulations with known analytical solutions. The simulation of acoustic-gravity waves propagated from atmospheric pressure variation experimentally observed with microbarographs is performed. The effects of waves generated by atmospheric pressure variations in the atmosphere are investigated.

  1. The effects of pressure, temperature, and pore water on velocities in Westerly granite. [for seismic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J. W., Jr.; Nur, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of an experimental assembly which has been developed to conduct concurrent measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities in rocks at high temperatures and confining pressures and with independent control of the pore pressure. The apparatus was used in studies of the joint effects of temperature, external confining pressure, and internal pore water on sonic velocities in Westerly granite. It was found that at a given temperature, confining pressure has a larger accelerating effect on compressional waves in dry rock, whereas at a given confining pressure, temperature has a larger retarding effect on shear waves.

  2. Improved Blood Pressure Prediction Using Systolic Flow Correction of Pulse Wave Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Jeffrey S; Liberson, Alexander S; Borkholder, David A

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension is a significant worldwide health issue. Continuous blood pressure monitoring is important for early detection of hypertension, and for improving treatment efficacy and compliance. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) has the potential to allow for a continuous blood pressure monitoring device; however published studies demonstrate significant variability in this correlation. In a recently presented physics-based mathematical model of PWV, flow velocity is additive to the classic pressure wave as estimated by arterial material properties, suggesting flow velocity correction may be important for cuff-less non-invasive blood pressure measures. The present study examined the impact of systolic flow correction of a measured PWV on blood pressure prediction accuracy using data from two published in vivo studies. Both studies examined the relationship between PWV and blood pressure under pharmacological manipulation, one in mongrel dogs and the other in healthy adult males. Systolic flow correction of the measured PWV improves the R 2 correlation to blood pressure from 0.51 to 0.75 for the mongrel dog study, and 0.05 to 0.70 for the human subjects study. The results support the hypothesis that systolic flow correction is an essential element of non-invasive, cuff-less blood pressure estimation based on PWV measures.

  3. Experimental study on pressure wave propagation through the open end of pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Kumagai, H.

    1994-01-01

    The steam generators of a double pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) are used in a large sodium pool which is formed between the primary vessel and the secondary vessel and accommodates the entire secondary heat transport system. Therefore, if there is a sodium-water reaction event in the steam generator, it becomes important to evaluate the pressure rises at the walls of the primary and secondary vessels as well as those at the other secondary components. An experimental study was performed, focusing on the propagation of the initial pressure spike of the-sodium-water reaction from the bottom end of the steam generator to the sodium pool. Pressure wave propagation from inside of a pipe to an open space through the pipe end was measured. Two kinds of pressure propagation media, water and air, ensured a wide range of experimental conditions. The experimental results revealed that the pressure attenuation at the open end of a pipe can be put in order using the concept of inertial length, and that the dimensionless inertial length, i.e., the inertial length divided by the half wave length of the pressure pulse, is proportional to the square of the dimensionless diameter. These results provide a prediction method for a pressure rise by the initial pressure spike in the secondary sodium pool of the Double Pool LMFBR

  4. Pressure and intracorporal acceleration measurements in pigs exposed to strong shock waves in a free field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassout, P.; Franke, R.; Parmentier, G.; Evrard, G.; Dancer, A.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study on the propagation of a pressure wave in a diphasic medium, when compared to the onset mechanism of pulmonary lesions in subjects exposed to strong shock waves, shows an increase in the incident overpressure at the interface level. Using hydrophones, intracorporal pressure was measured in pigs. The authors recorded the costal wall acceleration on the side directly exposed to the shock wave and calculated the displacement of the costal wall after a shock wave passed by. These experiments were conducted for shock waves in a free field, at an overpressure peak level ranging from 26 kFPa to 380 kPa and for a first positive phase lasting 2 ms. Sensors placed in an intracorporal position detected no increase of the overpressure level for any value of the incident pressure. A comparison of the costal wall displacement, measured experimentally, relative to the theoretical displacement of the entire animal mass indicates that the largest relative displacement of the costal wall could be the origin of the pulmonary lesions found. 5 refs., 13 figs

  5. Reliable intraocular pressure measurement using automated radio-wave telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalis EI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleftherios I Paschalis,* Fabiano Cade,* Samir Melki, Louis R Pasquale, Claes H Dohlman, Joseph B CiolinoMassachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT and a motion sensor.Methods: The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline IOP.Results: On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg (P=0.45, suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001, and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001. Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001. Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute, during which the IOP is not expected to change.Conclusion: IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results.Keywords: IOP, pressure transducer, wireless, MEMS, implant, intraocular

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma and wave characteristics of coaxial discharges at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neichev, Z; Benova, E; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses a new configuration of the surface-wave sustained plasma - 'the coaxial structure'. The coaxial structure is investigated on the base of one-dimensional axial fluid model. That model is adequate enough for low pressure plasma, when the main process for charged particles production is the direct ionization from the ground state and the loss of electrons is due to diffusion to the wall. The role of the geometric factors is evaluated and discussed, varying the discharge conditions in the theoretical model. The main equations of the model - the local dispersion relation and the wave energy balance equation are obtained from Maxwell's equations with appropriate boundary conditions. The phase diagrams, the radial profiles of the electric field and the axial profiles of dimensionless electron number density, wave number, wave power are obtained at various plasma radii and dielectric tube thickness. The results are compared with those for the typical cylindrical plasma column at similar conditions. For the purpose of modelling at low pressure of a coaxial discharge sustained by a travelling electromagnetic wave, some important characteristics of the propagation of surface waves have been investigated experimentally. The axial profiles of the propagation coefficient and radial profiles of the electric field at different experimental conditions have been obtained and discussed

  7. Encryption in Chaotic Systems with Sinusoidal Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Obregón-Pulido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution an encryption method using a chaotic oscillator, excited by “n” sinusoidal signals, is presented. The chaotic oscillator is excited by a sum of “n” sinusoidal signals and a message. The objective is to encrypt such a message using the chaotic behavior and transmit it, and, as the chaotic system is perturbed by the sinusoidal signal, the transmission security could be increased due to the effect of such a perturbation. The procedure is based on the regulation theory and consider that the receiver knows the frequencies of the perturbing signal, with this considerations the algorithm estimates the excitation in such a way that the receiver can cancel out the perturbation and all the undesirable dynamics in order to produce only the message. In this way we consider that the security level is increased.

  8. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis—their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark; Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. (topical review)

  9. Cavitation on hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation characteristics of hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge were examined experimentally at a Reynolds number of 7.2 × 105. The hydrofoils had an underlying NACA 634-021 profile and an aspect ratio of 4.3. The sinusoidal leading edge geometries included three amplitudes of 2.5%, 5%, and 12% and two wavelengths of 25% and 50% of the mean chord length. Results revealed that cavitation on the leading edge-modified hydrofoils existed in pockets behind the troughs whereas the baseline hydrofoil produced cavitation along its entire span. Moreover, cavitation on the modified hydrofoils appeared at consistently lower angles of attack than on the baseline hydrofoil.

  10. Time-resolved wave profile measurements in copper to Megabar pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabildas, L C; Asay, J R

    1981-01-01

    Many time-resolved techniques have been developed which have greatly aided in the understanding of dynamic material behavior such as the high pressure-dynamic strength of materials. In the paper, time-resolved measurements of copper (at shock-induced high pressures and temperatures) are used to illustrate the capability of using such techniques to investigate high pressure strength. Continuous shock loading and release wave profiles have been made in copper to 93 GPa using velocity interferometric techniques. Fine structure in the release wave profiles from the shocked state indicates an increase in shear strength of copper to 1.5 GPa at 93 GPa from its ambient value of 0.08 GPa.

  11. Pressure transducer used for measuring close-in shock waves of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.; Zhou, Z.

    1985-01-01

    This paper introduces a variable reluctance pressure transducer. It has been successfully used for the measurement of close-in shock waves of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. This transducer's highest pressure range is 100kg/cm 2 and its response rise time for all ranges is lms. It uses a specially made oil-filled pressure which allows the transducer to be able to realize underground installation. In this way, it can endure the intense nuclear radiation of nuclear explosions without losing its fast speed response characteristics. This transducer has undergone a series of environmental tests and dynamic standardizations. Therefore, it was used to measure the complete waveform of shock wave overpressure in areas near the fire ball of nuclear explosions. This paper lists the test data of a group of nuclear explosion tests

  12. Proposal of evaluation method of tsunami wave pressure using 2D depth-integrated flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimitsu, Tsuyoshi; Ooe, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To design and construct land structures resistive to tsunami force, it is most essential to evaluate tsunami pressure quantitatively. The existing hydrostatic formula, in general, tended to underestimate tsunami wave pressure under the condition of inundation flow with large Froude number. Estimation method of tsunami pressure acting on a land structure was proposed using inundation depth and horizontal velocity at the front of the structure, which were calculated employing a 2D depth-integrated flow model based on the unstructured grid system. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results revealed that the proposed method could reasonably reproduce the vertical distribution of the maximum tsunami pressure as well as the time variation of the tsunami pressure exerting on the structure. (author)

  13. Thermal-hydraulic behaviors of vapor-liquid interface due to arrival of a pressure wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akira; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    In the vapor explosion, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role for triggering, propagation and enhancement of the explosion. Energy of the explosion is related to the magnitude of heat transfer rate from hot liquid to cold volatile one. This is related to an increasing rate of interface area and to an amount of transient heat flux between the liquids. In this study, the characteristics of transient heat transfer and behaviors of vapor film both on the platinum tube and on the hot melt tin drop, under same boundary conditions have been investigated. It is considered that there exists a fundamental mechanism of the explosion in the initial expansion process of the hot liquid drop immediately after arrival of pressure wave. The growth rate of the vapor film is much faster on the hot liquid than that on the solid surface. Two kinds of roughness were observed, one due to the Taylor instability, by rapid growth of the explosion bubble, and another, nucleation sites were observed at the vapor-liquid interface. Based on detailed observation of early stage interface behaviors after arrival of a pressure wave, the thermal fragmentation mechanism is proposed.

  14. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path: Can it Cause Illusory Forward and Backward Motion? Anuj Bhatnagar. Classroom Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 387-392 ...

  15. Sinusoidal cycling swimming pattern of reservoir fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Kubečka, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2002), s. 456-471 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6017901; GA AV ČR IAA6017201; GA ČR GA206/02/0520 Keywords : sinusoidal swimming * echosounder * reservoir Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2002

  16. Laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state studies at megabar pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, H C; Senecha, V K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Rai, V N; Khare, P; Bhat, R K; Gupta, N K; Godwal, B K

    2002-01-01

    We present the results from laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state (EOS) studies of gold metal. An Nd:YAG laser chain (2 J, 1.06 mu m wavelength, 200 ps pulse FWHM) is used to generate shocks in planar Al foils and Al + Au layered targets. The EOS of gold in the pressure range of 9-13 Mbar is obtained using the impedance matching technique. The numerical simulations performed using the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code support the experimental results. The present experimental data show remarkable agreement with the existing standard EOS models and with other experimental data obtained independently using laser driven shock wave experiments.

  17. Angular instability due to radiation pressure in the LIGO gravitational-wave detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Eiichi; Kawabe, Keita; Sigg, Daniel; Adhikari, Rana; Saulson, Peter R

    2010-06-20

    We observed the effect of radiation pressure on the angular sensing and control system of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) interferometer's core optics at LIGO Hanford Observatory. This is the first measurement of this effect in a complete gravitational-wave interferometer. Only one of the two angular modes survives with feedback control, because the other mode is suppressed when the control gain is sufficiently large. We developed a mathematical model to understand the physics of the system. This model matches well with the dynamics that we observe.

  18. Rebreathing in the Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems with sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L B

    1997-12-01

    The degree of rebreathing in Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems for sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms is analysed mathematically. The effects of altering the I:E ratio and of introducing an expiratory pause are investigated. The results for sinusoidal waveforms closely resemble those for a square wave. Exponential flow waveforms produce results similar to triangular flow waveforms. The Mapleson A system is always the most efficient. The Mapleson C system is efficient when the I:E ratio is 1:1, becoming less efficient with longer expiration and very inefficient with an expiratory pause. The Mapleson D system becomes efficient when the expiratory pause is long.

  19. Dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with anisotropic ion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheong Rim; Ryu, Chang-Mo; Lee, D.-Y.; Lee, Nam C.; Kim, Y.-H.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of anisotropic ion pressure on the dust ion acoustic solitary wave (DIASW) and the double layer (DL) obliquely propagating to a magnetic field are investigated by using the Sagdeev potential. The anisotropic ion pressure is defined by applying the Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) theory, p-perpendicular=p-perpendicular 0 n and p-parallel=p-parallel 0 n 3 , where n is the normalized ion density. The solutions of DIASWs and DLs obliquely propagating to an external magnetic field are obtained in the small amplitude limit. It is found that the perpendicular component of anisotropic ion pressure works differently from that of the parallel component on the DIASWs in a magnetized dusty plasma, deviating from a straight extension of the isotropic pressure effect

  20. Numerical and experimental study on atmospheric pressure ionization waves propagating through a U-shape channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Song, Ying; Wang, Dezhen; Sosnin, Eduard A.; Skakun, Victor S.; Liu, Dongping

    2017-08-01

    A 2D computational study of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels at atmospheric pressure was performed, with emphasis on the effect of voltage polarity and the curvature of the bend. The discharge was ignited by a HV needle electrode inside the channel, and power was applied in the form of a trapezoidal pulse lasting 2 µs. We have shown that behavior of ionization waves propagating in U-shape channels was quite different with that in straight tubes. For positive polarity of applied voltage, the ionization waves tended to propagate along one side of walls rather than filling the channel. The propagation velocity of ionization waves predicted by the simulation was in good agreement with the experiment results; the velocity was first increasing rapidly in the vicinity of the needle tip and then decreasing with the increment of propagation distance. Then we have studied the influence of voltage polarity on discharge characteristics. For negative polarity, the ionization waves tended to propagate along the opposite side of the wall, while the discharge was more diffusive and volume-filling compared with the positive case. It was found that the propagation velocity for the negative ionization wave was higher than that for the positive one. Meanwhile, the propagation of the negative ionization wave depended less on the pre-ionization level than the positive ionization wave. Finally, the effect of the radius of curvature was studied. Simulations have shown that the propagation speeds were sensitive to the radii of the curvature of the channels for both polarities. Higher radii of curvature tended to have higher speed and longer length of plasma. The simulation results were supported by experimental observations under similar discharge conditions.

  1. Pressure broadening measurement of submillimeter-wave lines of O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.M.; Amano, T.

    2005-01-01

    The pressure broadening coefficients and their temperature dependences for two submillimeter-wave transitions of ozone, one being monitored with Odin and the other to be monitored with JEM/SMILES and EOS-MLS, have been determined by using a BWO based submillimeter-wave spectrometer. The measurements have also been extended to one of the symmetric isotopic species, 16 O 18 O 16 O. The isotopic species is observed in natural abundance and as a consequence the temperature dependence is not determined due to weak signal intensity. The pressure broadening parameters are determined with better than 1% accuracy, while the temperature dependence exponents are obtained within 1.5-3% accuracy for the normal species transitions

  2. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Not all sea waves look alike in form. Scientists, in fact, classify all waves into definite groups, which can be simulated on a computer using specific models. Thus there are many types of wave forms on the sea surface like regular sinusoidal waves...

  3. Dominance of the forward compression wave in determining pulsatile components of blood pressure: similarities between inotropic stimulation and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Henry; Guilcher, Antoine; Brett, Sally; Jiang, Benyu; Li, Ye; Epstein, Sally; Alastruey, Jordi; Clapp, Brian; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2014-11-01

    Pulsatile components of blood pressure may arise from forward (ventricular generated) or backward wave travel in the arterial tree. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of forward and backward waves to pulsatility. We used wave intensity and wave separation analysis to determine pulsatile components of blood pressure during inotropic and vasopressor stimulation by dobutamine and norepinephrine in normotensive subjects and compared pulse pressure components in hypertensive (mean±SD, 48.8±11.3 years; 165±26.6/99±14.2 mm Hg) and normotensive subjects (52.2±12.6 years; 120±14.2/71±8.2 mm Hg). Dobutamine (7.5 μg/kg per minute) increased the forward compression wave generated by the ventricle and increased pulse pressure from 36.8±3.7 to 59.0±3.4 mm Hg (mean±SE) but had no significant effect on mean arterial pressure or the midsystolic backward compression wave. By contrast, norepinephrine (50 ng/kg per minute) had no significant effect on the forward compression wave but increased the midsystolic backward compression wave. Despite this increase in the backward compression wave, and an increase in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine increased central pulse pressure less than dobutamine (increases of 22.1±3.8 and 7.2±2.8 mm Hg for dobutamine and norepinephrine, respectively; Phypertensive and normotensive subjects, respectively; Phypertensive and normotensive subjects. Increased central pulse pressure during inotropic stimulation and in essential hypertension results primarily from the forward compression wave. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Interactions of Delta Shock Waves for Zero-Pressure Gas Dynamics with Energy Conservation Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interactions of delta shock waves and vacuum states for the system of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in zero-pressure gas dynamics. The Riemann problems with initial data of three piecewise constant states are solved case by case, and four different configurations of Riemann solutions are constructed. Furthermore, the numerical simulations completely coinciding with theoretical analysis are shown.

  5. Preliminary investigation of ultrasonic shear wave holography with a view to the inspection of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, E.E.; Clare, A.B.; Shepherd, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The manner in which holography would fit into the general scheme of pressure vessel inspection is discussed. Compared to conventional A, B and C presentations holography requires a different processing of the ultrasonic signal and a mechanical scan which may be more demanding than that normally provided for a C display. Preliminary results are presented of the examination of artificial defects in steel plate using shear wave holography. (author)

  6. Degenerate pressure driven modified nucleus-acoustic waves in degenerate plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The existence of degenerate pressure driven modified nucleus-acoustic (DPDMNA) waves propagating in a cold degenerate quantum plasma (DQP) system [containing cold inertialess degenerate electron species (DES), cold inertial non-degenerate light nucleus species (LNS), and stationary heavy nucleus species (HNS)] is predicted for the first time. The DPDMNA waves (in which the mass density of the cold LNS provides the inertia and the cold inertialess DES gives rise to the restoring force) are new since they completely disappear if the degenerate pressure of the cold DES is neglected. It is found that the phase speed (Vp) of the DPDMNA waves decreases with the rise of the charge number density of the stationary HNS for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic DES, and that the ultra-relativistic DES does not have any effect on Vp when β = 1, where β = Λc/Λe with Λ e = ne 0 - 1 / 3 being the average inter-electron distance in the DQP system and Λc being the constant (˜10-10 cm) for the DES. However, the ultra-relativistic DES does have quite a significant effect on Vp for β ≫ 1 and β ≪ 1, and the ultra-relativistic effect significantly enhances (reduces) Vp for β ≫ 1 (β ≪ 1). The DPDMNA waves and their dispersion properties are expected to be useful in understanding the basic features of the electrostatic perturbation mode in space and laboratory DQP systems.

  7. Shear-wave anisotropy reveals pore fluid pressure-induced seismicity in the U.S. midcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Keith A; Tsoflias, George P; Bidgoli, Tandis S; Watney, W Lynn

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity in the U.S. midcontinent has increased by orders of magnitude over the past decade. Spatiotemporal correlations of seismicity to wastewater injection operations have suggested that injection-related pore fluid pressure increases are inducing the earthquakes. We present direct evidence linking earthquake occurrence to pore pressure increase in the U.S. midcontinent through time-lapse shear-wave ( S -wave) anisotropy analysis. Since the onset of the observation period in 2010, the orientation of the fast S -wave polarization has flipped from inline with the maximum horizontal stress to inline with the minimum horizontal stress, a change known to be associated with critical pore pressure buildup. The time delay between fast and slow S -wave arrivals exhibits increased variance through time, which is common in critical pore fluid settings. Near-basement borehole fluid pressure measurements indicate pore pressure increase in the region over the earthquake monitoring period.

  8. Study of discharges produced by surface waves under medium and high pressure: application to chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laye epouse Granier, Agnes

    1986-01-01

    This report deals with the study of microwave discharges produced in argon gas by surface waves in the 20-760 Torr pressure range. Application to chemical analysis by emission optical spectroscopy is also investigated. First of all we study the propagation of a surface wave in a bounded plasma in which the effective collision frequency for momentum transfer ν is higher than the excitation one. The axial electron density profile is determined from two diagnostic techniques, i.e., phase variations of the wave field and Stark broadening of H β line. Then we deduce the discharge characteristics ν, θ (maintaining power of an electron-ion pair) and E eff (effective electric field for discharge sustaining) from the electron density profile. Then an energy balance of the discharge is developed. It explains the change of operating conditions in the 20-50 Torr range. At low pressure the discharge is governed by ambipolar diffusion whereas at high pressure, the electrons are mainly lost by volume recombination of Ar 2 + . Finally, we report on chemical analysis experiment of gases (optimum sensibility in found near 100 Torr) and of metallic solutions sprayed by a graphite oven. Performances of such a design and ICP plasma torches are compared. (author) [fr

  9. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  10. Piezoelectric parametric effects on wave vibration and contact mechanics of traveling wave ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Wang, Shiyu; Xiu, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Elastic wave quality determines the operating performance of traveling wave ultrasonic motor (TWUM). The time-variant circumferential force from the shrink of piezoelectric ceramic is one of the factors that distort the elastic wave. The distorted waveshape deviates from the ideal standard sinusoidal fashion and affects the contact mechanics and driving performance. An analytical dynamic model of ring ultrasonic motor is developed. Based on this model, the piezoelectric parametric effects on the wave distortion and contact mechanics are examined. Multi-scale method is employed to obtain unstable regions and distorted wave response. The unstable region is verified by Floquét theory. Since the waveshape affects the contact mechanism, a contact model involving the distorted waveshape and normal stiffness of the contact layer is established. The contact model is solved by numerical calculation. The results verify that the deformation of the contact layer deviates from sinusoidal waveshape and the pressure distribution is changed, which influences the output characteristics directly. The surface speed within the contact region is averaged such that the rotor speed decreases for lower torque and increases for larger torque. The effects from different parametric strengths, excitation frequencies and pre-pressures on pressure distribution and torque-speed relation are compared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of intracranial pressure (ICP) waves and ICP in children with treatment-responsive hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæhle, Terje; Eide, Per Kristian

    2015-06-01

    One important goal of modern treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus is to normalize the intracranial pressure (ICP) and ICP volume reserve capacity to optimize normal brain development. Better knowledge of the characteristics of ICP waves/ICP in pediatric hydrocephalus may provide new insight into the mechanisms behind modern hydrocephalus treatment. The aim of the present work was to characterize the ICP waves/ICP in children with either communicating or non-communicating hydrocephalus who improved clinically after surgery. The hydrocephalic children not treated surgically following ICP monitoring served as reference patients. The patient material includes all children with hydrocephalus and no previous surgical treatment who underwent diagnostic ICP wave/ICP monitoring during the period 2002-2011. We retrieved the information about the patients from the patient records and the digitally stored ICP waveforms. The ICP wave characteristics amplitude, rise time and rise time coefficient and the mean ICP were determined in the patients treated surgically for their hydrocephalus. The findings were compared with findings in children not treated surgically after ICP monitoring who served as reference patients. The patient material includes 58 patients. Thirty-one (53%) were treated surgically after ICP monitoring, of whom all improved clinically. As compared to the reference patients, patients treated surgically presented with increased ICP wave amplitudes (MWA) and mean ICP. Alterations were comparable in communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus. We found no apparent association between the ICP wave/ICP scores and presence of symptoms, indices of ventricular size or age. Children with either communicating or non-communicating hydrocephalus improving clinically after surgery presented with elevated MWA and mean ICP. In particular, the levels of MWA were raised to a magnitude seen when intracranial compliance is impaired. Hence, the present observations may support

  12. Portable indices for sarcopenia are associated with pressure wave reflection and central pulse pressure: the J-SHIPP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Maya; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Igase, Michiya; Miki, Tetsuro

    2015-02-01

    We recently reported that thigh muscle sarcopenia measured by computed tomography is related to arterial stiffness, pressure wave reflection, and central pulse pressure (PP). However, it remains to be determined whether more straightforward and simple techniques such as hand grip strength and the bio-impedance method are also useful for the clinical evaluation of sarcopenia. A total of 1593 middle-aged to older patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Brachial-to-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured as an index of arterial stiffness. Second PP (PP2) at the second peak of radial SBP was used to estimate central PP. Radial augmentation index was calculated as PP2/PP. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area and abdominal visceral fat area were quantified by computed tomography. Patients were classified as sarcopenic if their hand grip strength or skeletal muscle mass (measured by bioelectrical impedance) was more than 1 SD lower than the mean of those in a reference group aged below 50 years, or in the lowest 20% of the studied population. Visceral obesity was defined as visceral fat area greater than 100 cm. Antidyslipidemia drug and antidiabetic drug were significantly associated with lower hand grip strength. Both sarcopenic indices were significantly and independently associated with baPWV, radial augmentation index, and PP2. Sarcopenia defined by either criterion was significantly associated with higher baPWV, radial augmentation index, and PP2. Visceral obesity was significantly associated only with baPWV. These findings indicate the clinical usefulness of noninvasive methods for assessment of sarcopenia, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  13. Sensorless Sinusoidal Drives for Fan and Pump Motors by V/f Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Mitsuyuki; Ohnishi, Tokuo

    This paper proposes sensorless sinusoidal driving methods of permanent magnet synchronous motors for fans and pumps by V/f control. The proposed methods are simple methods that control the motor peak current constant by voltage or frequency control, and are characterized by DC link current detection using a single shunt resistor at carrier wave signal bottom timing. As a result of the dumping factor from square torque load characteristics of fan and pump motors, it is possible to control stable starting and stable steady state by V/f control. In general, pressure losses as a result of the fluid pass of fan and pump systems are nearly constant; therefore, the flow rate and motor torque are determined by revolutions. Accordingly, high efficiency driving is possible by setting corresponding currents to q-axis currents (torque currents) at target revolutions. Because of the simple current detection and motor control methods, the proposed methods are optimum for fan and pump motor driving systems of home appliances.

  14. Analytical analysis of slow and fast pressure waves in a two-dimensional cellular solid with fluid-filled cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir; Van Damme, Bart

    2016-06-01

    Wave propagation in cellular and porous media is widely studied due to its abundance in nature and industrial applications. Biot's theory for open-cell media predicts the existence of two simultaneous pressure waves, distinguished by its velocity. A fast wave travels through the solid matrix, whereas a much slower wave is carried by fluid channels. In closed-cell materials, the slow wave disappears due to a lack of a continuous fluid path. However, recent finite element (FE) simulations done by the authors of this paper also predict the presence of slow pressure waves in saturated closed-cell materials. The nature of the slow wave is not clear. In this paper, an equivalent unit cell of a medium with square cells is proposed to permit an analytical description of the dynamics of such a material. A simplified FE model suggests that the fluid-structure interaction can be fully captured using a wavenumber-dependent spring support of the vibrating cell walls. Using this approach, the pressure wave behavior can be calculated with high accuracy, but with less numerical effort. Finally, Rayleigh's energy method is used to investigate the coexistence of two waves with different velocities.

  15. Attenuation of wave-induced groundwater pressure in shallow water. Part 2. Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław R. Massel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this Part 2 of the paper (Part 1 was published by Massel et al. 2004 an exact close-form solution for the pore-water pressure component and velocity circulation pattern induced by surface waves is developed. This comprehensive theoretical model, based on Biot's theory, takes into account soil deformations, volume change and pore-water flow. The calculations indicate that for the stiffness ratio G/E'w ≥ 100, the vertical distribution of the pore pressure becomes very close to the Moshagen & Tørum (1975 approach, when the soil is rigid and the fluid is incompressible.     The theoretical results of the paper have been compared with the experimental data collected during the laboratory experiment in the Large Wave Channel in Hannover (see Massel et al. 2004 and showed very good agreement. The apparent bulk modulus of pore water was not determined in the experiment but was estimated from the best fit of the experimental pore-water pressure with the theoretical one. In the paper only a horizontal bottom is considered and the case of an undulating bottom will be dealt with in another paper.

  16. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: takahira@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki, E-mail: oga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Naoto, E-mail: su101064@edu.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Moe [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-10-28

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t{sub 0} to a characteristic time of wave propagation t{sub S}, η = t{sub 0}/t{sub s}, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  17. Laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state studies at megabar pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H C; Shukla, M; Senecha, V K; Bandyopadhyay, S; Rai, V N; Khare, P; Bhat, R K; Gupta, N K; Godwal, B K

    2002-01-01

    We present the results from laser driven shock wave experiments for equation of state (EOS) studies of gold metal. An Nd:YAG laser chain (2 J, 1.06 μm wavelength, 200 ps pulse FWHM) is used to generate shocks in planar Al foils and Al + Au layered targets. The EOS of gold in the pressure range of 9-13 Mbar is obtained using the impedance matching technique. The numerical simulations performed using the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code support the experimental results. The present experimental data show remarkable agreement with the existing standard EOS models and with other experimental data obtained independently using laser driven shock wave experiments

  18. A Study of Standing Pressure Waves Within Open and Closed Acoustic Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C.; Steinetz, B.; Finkbeiner, J.; Raman, G.; Li, X.

    2002-01-01

    The first section of the results presented herein was conducted on an axisymmetric resonator configured with open ventilation ports on either end of the resonator, but otherwise closed and free from obstruction. The remaining section presents the results of a similar resonator shape that was closed, but contained an axisymmetric blockage centrally located through the axis of the resonator. Ambient air was used as the working fluid. In each of the studies, the resonator was oscillated at the resonant frequency of the fluid contained within the cavity while the dynamic pressure, static pressure, and temperature of the fluid were recorded at both ends of the resonator. The baseline results showed a marked reduction in the amplitude of the dynamic pressure waveforms over previous studies due to the use of air instead of refrigerant as the working fluid. A sharp reduction in the amplitude of the acoustic pressure waves was expected and recorded when the configuration of the resonators was modified from closed to open. A change in the resonant frequency was recorded when blockages of differing geometries were used in the closed resonator, while acoustic pressure amplitudes varied little from baseline measurements.

  19. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on the reforming of alcohols in a surface wave discharge (SWD) at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, M; Yubero, C; Calzada, M D

    2008-01-01

    Surface wave plasma at atmospheric pressure has been used to produce the decomposition of the alcohol molecules introduced into it, in order to obtain hydrogen. Four alcohols, methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol, have been used for this purpose. Optical emission spectroscopy was the tool used to analyse the radiation emitted by the plasma. Hydrogen atoms and other species such as C 2 and CH in alcohols have been detected but no CO molecular bands. Also, a mass spectrometer has been used in order to detect molecular hydrogen production in methanol decomposition

  1. Analysis of pressure wave transients and seismic response in LMFBR piping systems using the SHAPS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeuch, W.R.; Wang, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents some of the current capabilities of the three-dimensional piping code SHAPS and demonstrates their usefulness in handling analyses encountered in typical LMFBR studies. Several examples demonstrate the utility of the SHAPS code for problems involving fluid-structure interactions and seismic-related events occurring in three-dimensional piping networks. Results of two studies of pressure wave propagation demonstrate the dynamic coupling of pipes and elbows producing global motion and rigorous treatment of physical quantities such as changes in density, pressure, and strain energy. Results of the seismic analysis demonstrate the capability of SHAPS to handle dynamic structural response within a piping network over an extended transient period of several seconds. Variation in dominant stress frequencies and global translational frequencies were easily handled with the code. 4 refs., 10 figs

  2. High Definition Oscillometry: Non-invasive Blood Pressure Measurement and Pulse Wave Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of blood pressure has become increasingly important in research. High-Definition Oscillometry (HDO) delivers not only accurate, reproducible and thus reliable blood pressure but also visualises the pulse waves on screen. This allows for on-screen feedback in real time on data validity but even more on additional parameters like systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke volume (SV), stroke volume variances (SVV), rhythm and dysrhythmia. Since complex information on drug effects are delivered within a short period of time, almost stress-free and visible in real time, it makes HDO a valuable technology in safety pharmacology and toxicology within a variety of fields like but not limited to cardiovascular, renal or metabolic research.

  3. Analysis and Implementation of Multiple Bionic Motion Patterns for Caterpillar Robot Driven by Sinusoidal Oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhe Zhu; Xiaolu Wang; Jizhuang Fan; Sajid Iqbal; Dongyang Bie; Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Articulated caterpillar robot has various locomotion patterns—which make it adaptable to different tasks. Generally, the researchers have realized undulatory (transverse wave) and simple rolling locomotion. But many motion patterns are still unexplored. In this paper, peristaltic locomotion and various additional rolling patterns are achieved by employing sinusoidal oscillator with fixed phase difference as the joint controller. The usefulness of the proposed method is verified using simulati...

  4. Model selection and comparison for independents sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    In the signal processing literature, many methods have been proposed for estimating the number of sinusoidal basis functions from a noisy data set. The most popular method is the asymptotic MAP criterion, which is sometimes also referred to as the BIC. In this paper, we extend and improve this me....... Through simulations, we demonstrate that the lp-BIC outperforms the asymptotic MAP criterion and other state of the art methods in terms of model selection, de-noising and prediction performance. The simulation code is available online.......In the signal processing literature, many methods have been proposed for estimating the number of sinusoidal basis functions from a noisy data set. The most popular method is the asymptotic MAP criterion, which is sometimes also referred to as the BIC. In this paper, we extend and improve...... this method by considering the problem in a full Bayesian framework instead of the approximate formulation, on which the asymptotic MAP criterion is based. This leads to a new model selection and comparison method, the lp-BIC, whose computational complexity is of the same order as the asymptotic MAP criterion...

  5. Antisecretory factor (AF) exerts no effects on intracranial pressure (ICP) waves and ICP in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Eidsvaag, Vigdis Andersen; Hansson, Hans-Arne

    2014-08-15

    Antisecretory factor (AF) and derivates thereof counteract brain edema and inflammation, and normalize ICP dynamics. The aim of the present study was to assess whether AF normalized the abnormal ICP waves, indicative of impaired intracranial compliance, seen in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The hypothesis was that brain swelling contributes to the abnormal ICP waves. The study enrolled patients undergoing diagnostic ICP wave monitoring for either iNPH or IIH. The ICP waves and ICP were recorded continuously before and after oral administration of Salovum® (0.5 g/kg body weight/day divided by three doses), a freeze-dried egg yolk enriched in AF activity. Mean ICP wave amplitude (MWA), mean ICP wave rise time coefficient (MWRTC), and mean ICP were compared before and after Salovum® administration. A total of 10 iNPH patients and 8 IIH patients were included. No significant changes in the ICP wave indices or ICP were seen after Salovum® administration. Neither any significant time-dependent effect was observed. The lack of effect of Salovum® on ICP wave indices and ICP in iNPH and IIH may provide indirect evidence that brain swelling does not play a crucial role in the ICP wave indices or ICP of these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Causes of plasma column contraction in surface-wave-driven discharges in argon at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenti, Marco Antonio; de Amorim, Jayr; Dal Pino, Arnaldo; Guerra, Vasco; Petrov, George

    2018-01-01

    In this work we compute the main features of a surface-wave-driven plasma in argon at atmospheric pressure in view of a better understanding of the contraction phenomenon. We include the detailed chemical kinetics dynamics of Ar and solve the mass conservation equations of the relevant neutral excited and charged species. The gas temperature radial profile is calculated by means of the thermal diffusion equation. The electric field radial profile is calculated directly from the numerical solution of the Maxwell equations assuming the surface wave to be propagating in the TM00 mode. The problem is considered to be radially symmetrical, the axial variations are neglected, and the equations are solved in a self-consistent fashion. We probe the model results considering three scenarios: (i) the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is calculated by means of the Boltzmann equation; (ii) the EEDF is considered to be Maxwellian; (iii) the dissociative recombination is excluded from the chemical kinetics dynamics, but the nonequilibrium EEDF is preserved. From this analysis, the dissociative recombination is shown to be the leading mechanism in the constriction of surface-wave plasmas. The results are compared with mass spectrometry measurements of the radial density profile of the ions Ar+ and Ar2+. An explanation is proposed for the trends seen by Thomson scattering diagnostics that shows a substantial increase of electron temperature towards the plasma borders where the electron density is small.

  7. Resonant pressure wave setup for simultaneous sensing of longitudinal viscosity and sound velocity of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigelbeck, Roman; Cerimovic, Samir; Keplinger, Franz; Jakoby, Bernhard; Antlinger, Hannes; Clara, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demands for online monitoring of liquids have not only resuted in many new devices relying on well-established sensing parameters like shear viscosity but also initiated research on alternative parameters. Recently, the longitudinal viscosity has been evaluated as a promising candidate because the devices arising enable the bulk of the liquid to be probed rather than a thin surface layer. We report on a multi-purpose sensor which allows simultaneous measurement of the sound velocity and longitudinal viscosity of liquids. The device embodiment features a cube-shaped chamber containing the sample liquid, where one boundary surface carries a flush-mounted PZT transducer. In operation, the transducer induces standing, resonant pressure waves in the liquid under test. We studied the influences of sound velocity and longitudinal viscosity on the generated pressure waves by means of the Navier–Stokes equation for adiabatic compressible liquids and exploited both parameters as the basic sensing mechanism. Furthermore, a three-port network model describing the interaction of the transducer and sample liquid was developed in order to be applied for extracting the parameters of interest from the raw measurement data. Finally, we demonstrate the device and method by carrying out and discussing test measurements on glycerol–water solutions. (paper)

  8. DAPSY - a computer program for the pressure wave propagation in reactor cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillenberger, T.

    1976-10-01

    The computer code DAPSY is developed to calculate pressure wave phenomena in the primary coolant system. For this purpose it is necessary to treat 3-dimensional single-phase and two-phase flow of water and steam. The technique used in DAPSY is the simulation of the real geometry by a pipe network with connected one-dimensional flow paths. The calculation of the unsteady one-dimensional flow is taken from the BLAST code. In this code pressure wave propagation and delayed attainment of thermal equilibrium is taken into consideration. Integration by the method of characteristics in a fixed grid, which is used in this code, is very convenient for the computation of boundary value problems, especially for critical state of flow. In order to determine the boundary conditions of each pipe, calculated by the one-dimensional code, subroutines were developed, which simulate several components of the primary system, e.g. strong cross-section variations with eventual critical flow, valves, pumps, dead ends of pipes, perhaps with a gas bulb, breaking points with critical mass-flow rate and eventual orifices, connection points of several pipes, free surfaces of water with transition to steam phase, and separators in which two-phase mixture is divided in steam and water flow. These components can be composed in any way so that a whole primary system is described. (orig.) [de

  9. Synthesizing ocean bottom pressure records including seismic wave and tsunami contributions: Toward realistic tests of monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tatsuhiko; Tsushima, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    The present study proposes a method for synthesizing the ocean bottom pressure records during a tsunamigenic earthquake. First, a linear seismic wave simulation is conducted with a kinematic earthquake fault model as a source. Then, a nonlinear tsunami simulation is conducted using the sea bottom movement calculated in the seismic wave simulation. By using these simulation results, this method can provide realistic ocean bottom pressure change data, including both seismic and tsunami contributions. A simple theoretical consideration indicates that the dynamic pressure change caused by the sea bottom acceleration can contribute significantly until the duration of 90 s for a depth of 4000 m in the ocean. The performance of a tsunami monitoring system was investigated using the synthesized ocean bottom pressure records. It indicates that the system based on the hydrostatic approximation could not measure the actual tsunami height when the time does not elapse enough. The dynamic pressure change and the permanent sea bottom deformation inside the source region break the condition of a simple hydrostatic approximation. A tsunami source estimation method of tFISH is also examined. Even though the synthesized records contain a large dynamic pressure change, which is not considered in the algorithm, tFISH showed a satisfactory performance 5 min after the earthquake occurrence. The pressure records synthesized in this study, including both seismic wave and tsunami contributions, are more practical for evaluating the performance of our monitoring ability, whereas most tsunami monitoring tests neglect the seismic wave contribution.

  10. New Approaches for Channel Prediction Based on Sinusoidal Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekman Torbjörn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range channel prediction is considered to be one of the most important enabling technologies to future wireless communication systems. The prediction of Rayleigh fading channels is studied in the frame of sinusoidal modeling in this paper. A stochastic sinusoidal model to represent a Rayleigh fading channel is proposed. Three different predictors based on the statistical sinusoidal model are proposed. These methods outperform the standard linear predictor (LP in Monte Carlo simulations, but underperform with real measurement data, probably due to nonstationary model parameters. To mitigate these modeling errors, a joint moving average and sinusoidal (JMAS prediction model and the associated joint least-squares (LS predictor are proposed. It combines the sinusoidal model with an LP to handle unmodeled dynamics in the signal. The joint LS predictor outperforms all the other sinusoidal LMMSE predictors in suburban environments, but still performs slightly worse than the standard LP in urban environments.

  11. The E-wave delayed relaxation pattern to LV pressure contour relation: model-based prediction with in vivo validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovács, Sándor J

    2010-03-01

    The transmitral Doppler E-wave "delayed relaxation" (DR) pattern is an established sign of diastolic dysfunction (DD). Furthermore, chambers exhibiting a DR filling pattern are also expected to have a prolonged time-constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau). The simultaneous observation of a DR pattern and normal tau in the same heart is not uncommon, however. The simultaneous hemodynamic equivalent of the DR pattern has not been proposed. To determine the feature of the left ventricular (LV) pressure contour during the E-wave that is causally related to its DR pattern we applied kinematic and fluid mechanics based arguments to derive the pressure recovery ratio (PRR). The PRR is dimensionless and is defined by the left ventricular pressure difference between diastasis and minimum pressure, normalized to the pressure difference between a fiducial diastolic filling pressure and minimum pressure [PRR=(P(Diastasis)-P(Min))/(P(Fiducial)-P(Min))]. We analyzed 354 cardiac cycles from 40 normal sinus rhythm (NSR) subjects and 113 beats from nine atrial fibrillation (AF) subjects from our database of simultaneous transmitral flow-micromanometric LV pressure recordings. The fiducial pressure is defined by the end diastolic pressure in NSR and by the pressure at dP/dt(MIN) in the setting of AF. Consistent with derivation, PRR was linearly related to a DR pattern related, model-based relaxation parameter (R(2) = 0.77, 0.83 in NSR and AF, respectively). Furthermore, the PRR successfully differentiated subjects with a DR pattern from subjects with partial DR or normal E-wave pattern (p waves, even when tau cannot. Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....

  13. Compressed Domain Packet Loss Concealment of Sinusoidally Coded Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødbro, Christoffer A.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Andersen, Søren Vang

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of packet loss concealment for voice over IP (VoIP). The speech signal is compressed at the transmitter using a sinusoidal coding scheme working at 8 kbit/s. At the receiver, packet loss concealment is carried out working directly on the quantized sinusoidal parameters......, based on time-scaling of the packets surrounding the missing ones. Subjective listening tests show promising results indicating the potential of sinusoidal speech coding for VoIP....

  14. A prediction model for two-dimensional pressure distribution from underwater shock wave focusing by an ellipsoidal reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Guo, Rui; Chen, Liang; Cao, Yu; Yang, Yongliang; Zhao, Bobo

    2016-12-01

    Underwater shock wave focusing by ellipsoidal reflector is an important method for medical treatment, detection, and acoustic warfare. However, its pressure field is difficult to predict due to complicated physics. In this study, the pressure by focusing is modeled based on theories of shock wave propagation, nonlinear reflection, and nonlinear focusing, and the calculation domain is determined by approximate equations of wave fronts and lines. The pressure field during the whole process is described by combining direct and focusing pressures in the time and space domains. On this basis, the focusing behavior is simulated, and obtained pressure profiles are compared with experimental results, and the influence of reflector length on focusing performance is also discussed. The results indicate that although there are some rough assumptions, this model can simulate the underwater focusing in some detail and does a good job of predicting the pressure distribution, especially for the positive peak pressure, with an error below 10%; as the reflector length increases, the dynamic focus tends to move linearly forward to the other geometric focus, and the pressure gain increases continuously but the growth rate decreases.

  15. Attenuation Effects of Plasma on Ka-Band Wave Propagation in Various Gas and Pressure Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates attenuation effects of plasma on waves propagating in the 26.5–40 GHz range. The effect is investigated via experiments measuring the transmission between two Ka-band horn antennas set 30 cm apart. A dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD plasma generator with a size of 200 mm × 100 mm × 70 mm and consisting of 20 layers of electrodes is placed between the two antennas. The DBD generator is placed in a 400 mm × 300 mm × 400 mm acrylic chamber so that the experiments can be performed for plasma generated under various conditions of gas and pressure, for instance, in air, Ar, and He environments at 0.001, 0.05, and 1 atm of pressure. Attenuation is calculated by the difference in the transmission level, with and without plasma, which is generated with a bias voltage of 20 kV in the 0.1–1.4 kHz range. Results show that the attenuation varies from 0.05 dB/m to 9.0 dB/m depending on the environment. Noble gas environments show higher levels of attenuation than air, and He is lossier than Ar. In all gas environments, attenuation increases as pressure increases. Finally, electromagnetic models of plasmas generated in various conditions are provided.

  16. Observations of wave-induced pore pressure gradients and bed level response on a surf zone sandbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dylan; Cox, Dan; Mieras, Ryan; Puleo, Jack A.; Hsu, Tian-Jian

    2017-06-01

    Horizontal and vertical pressure gradients may be important physical mechanisms contributing to onshore sediment transport beneath steep, near-breaking waves in the surf zone. A barred beach was constructed in a large-scale laboratory wave flume with a fixed profile containing a mobile sediment layer on the crest of the sandbar. Horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients were obtained by finite differences of measurements from an array of pressure transducers buried within the upper several centimeters of the bed. Colocated observations of erosion depth were made during asymmetric wave trials with wave heights between 0.10 and 0.98 m, consistently resulting in onshore sheet flow sediment transport. The pore pressure gradient vector within the bed exhibited temporal rotations during each wave cycle, directed predominantly upward under the trough and then rapidly rotating onshore and downward as the wavefront passed. The magnitude of the pore pressure gradient during each phase of rotation was correlated with local wave steepness and relative depth. Momentary bed failures as deep as 20 grain diameters were coincident with sharp increases in the onshore-directed pore pressure gradients, but occurred at horizontal pressure gradients less than theoretical critical values for initiation of the motion for compact beds. An expression combining the effects of both horizontal and vertical pore pressure gradients with bed shear stress and soil stability is used to determine that failure of the bed is initiated at nonnegligible values of both forces.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThe pressure gradient present within the seabed beneath breaking waves may be an important physical mechanism transporting sediment. A large-scale laboratory was used to replicate realistic surfzone conditions in controlled tests, allowing for horizontal and vertical pressure gradient magnitudes and the resulting sediment bed response to be observed with precise instruments

  17. Sinusoidal Order Estimation Using Angles between Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Holdt Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the order of a parametric model from a noisy signal based on the geometry of the space. More specifically, we do this using the nontrivial angles between the candidate signal subspace model and the noise subspace. The proposed principle is closely related to the subspace orthogonality property known from the MUSIC algorithm, and we study its properties and compare it to other related measures. For the problem of estimating the number of complex sinusoids in white noise, a computationally efficient implementation exists, and this problem is therefore considered in detail. In computer simulations, we compare the proposed method to various well-known methods for order estimation. These show that the proposed method outperforms the other previously published subspace methods and that it is more robust to the noise being colored than the previously published methods.

  18. Stochastic analysis/synthesis using sinusoidal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    This work proposes a method for re-synthesizing music for use in perceptual experiments regarding structural changes and in music creation. Atoms are estimated from music audio, modelled in a stochastic model, and re-synthesized from the model pa- rameters. The atoms are found by splitting...... sinusoids into short segments, and modelled into amplitude and envelope shape, frequency, time and duration. A simple model for creating envelopes with percussive, sustained or crescendo shape is presented. Single variable and joint probability density functions are created from the atom parameters and used...... to re-create sounds with the same distribution of the atoms parameters. A novel method for visualization music, the musigram, permits a better understanding of the re- synthesized sounds....

  19. New pulse wave measurement method using different hold-down wrist pressures according to individual patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seong Ki; Shin, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Bum; Jin, Seung Oh

    2013-01-01

    In traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, doctors first observe a patient's pulse by gently and strongly pressing their fingers onto the wrist, and then make a diagnosis based on the observed pulse waves. The most common method to implement this diagnostic technique is to mechanically extract the pulse waves by applying a fixed range of pressures for all patients. However, this method does not consider the patients individual characteristics such as age, sex, and skin thickness. In the present study, we propose a new method of pulse wave extraction that incorporates the personal characteristics of the patients. This method measures the pulse wave signal at varying hold-down pressures, rather than applying a fixed hold-down pressure for all patients. To compare this new technique with existing methods, we extracted pulse waves from 20 subjects, and then determined the actual applied pressure at each step, the coefficient of floating and sinking pulse (CFS), and the distinction of floating/sinking pulse for each group. Consequently, each subject had a different pressure range in our proposed method, whereas all subjects had a similar pressure range in the existing method. Four of 20 subjects exhibited different floating/sinking pulse patterns due to the value of the first pressure step and the range of hold-down pressures. These four subjects were categorized as overweight based on BMI. In addition, the moving distance of the proposed method was longer than the existing method (p = 0.003, paired t-test), and the correlation coefficient between CFS values of two different methods was 0.321, indicating that there was no correlation.

  20. The association of 25(OH)D with blood pressure, pulse pressure and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity in African women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, I.M.; Kruger, M.C.; Doak, C.M.; Schutte, A.E.; Huisman, H.W.; van Rooyen, J.M.; Schutte, R.; Malan, L.; Malan, N.T.; Fourie, C.M.; Kruger, A.

    2013-01-01

    High susceptibility of the African population to develop cardiovascular disease obliges us to investigate possible contributing risk factors. Our aim was to determine whether low 25(OH)D status is associated with increased blood pressure and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity in black South African

  1. Theory of sinusoidal modulation of the resonant neutron scattering in high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tao

    2001-01-01

    A model with interlayer pairing is proposed to explain the sinusoidal modulation of the resonant neutron scattering in high-temperature superconductors. It is found that the interlayer pairing has s-wave symmetry in the CuO 2 plane and has comparable magnitude with the d-wave intralayer pairing. It is also found that the interlayer pairing mainly affects momentum close to the hot spots on the Fermi surface while its effect on the gap nodes is negligible. It is pointed out that these characteristics of the interlayer pairing can be understood in a model in which the superconducting pairing originates from the exchange of the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation

  2. Frequency response evaluation of radial artery catheter-manometer systems: sinusoidal frequency analysis versus flush method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwid, H A

    1988-07-01

    It is well recognized that catheter-manometer systems significantly distort direct radial artery pressure measurements. Sinusoidal frequency analysis and the flush method of assessing the degree of distortion caused by the monitoring system were compared to determine whether these two methods agree in the estimation of natural frequency and damping coefficient. The frequency response of 30 radial artery catheter-manometer systems used for intensive-care unit patients was measured by the flush method and sinusoidal frequency analysis. The monitoring system consisted of a 20-gauge cannula, 150-cm pressure tubing, two plastic stopcocks, a continuous infusion device with fast flush valve, an American Edwards dome, a Hewlett-Packard quartz transducer, and a Hewlett-Packard blood pressure amplifier. Sinusoidal frequency analysis demonstrated second-order underdamped response for all 30 catheter-manometer systems. No secondary resonance peaks were observed up to a frequency of 200 Hz. The measured frequency response demonstrated that the average catheter-manometer system in use in our intensive care unit would cause significant distortion of the radial artery pressure, with the mean natural frequency (fn) of 14.7 +/- 3.7 Hz and the mean damping coefficient (zeta) of 0.24 +/- 0.07. Although the 30 monitoring systems had identical configurations and visible bubbles were carefully removed, a wide range of frequency responses was found (fn = 10.2 to 25.3; zeta = 0.15 to 0.44).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Sound Propagation in a Duct with Wall Corrugations Having Square-Wave Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Hawwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls having square-wave wall corrugations is considered in the context of a perturbation formulation. Using the ratio of wall corrugation amplitude to the mean duct half width, a small parameter is defined and a two levels of approximations are obtained. The first-order solution produces an analytical description of the pressure field inside the duct. The second-order solution yields an analytical estimate of the phase speed of waves transmitting through the duct. The effect of wall corrugation density on acoustic impedance and wave speeds is highlighted. The analysis reveals that waves propagating in a duct with square-wave wall corrugation are slower than waves propagating in a duct with sinusoidal wave corrugation having the same corrugation wavelength.

  4. Characterization of Interfacial Waves and Pressure Drop in Horizontal Oil-Water Core-Annular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Tripathi, Sumit; Singh, Ramesh; Tabor, Rico; Vinay, K. S.

    2017-11-01

    Core-Annular Flows (CAF) consist of a highly viscous fluid (e.g. oils, emulsions) being pumped through pipelines while being lubricated by a fluid of a much lower viscosity (e.g. water). In a series of experiments, we study CAF with the core fluid as oil. We find a clear scaling for the energy spectra of the interfacial waves with respect to the shear Reynolds number Rec of the fluid flow in the annulus. Specifically, we find that, at low values of Rec , the low wavenumber modes of the interface appear to dominate, while, at high values of Rec , the high wavenumber modes of the interface appear to dominate. Linear stability analysis of viscosity stratified flows appears to confirm this trend. The effective friction factor does not appear to change strongly with Rec , suggesting that the interfacial waves do not significantly change the effective shear stress felt by the core fluid. This weak dependence of the friction factor on Rec , along with a model for the holdup ratio, allows us to propose a very straightforward relationship between the pressure gradient and the flow rates of the core and annular fluids, which agrees with the experimental data. We thank Orica Limited (Australia) for funding the experiment via the IITB-Monash Research Academy.

  5. Vertical structure of pore pressure under surface gravity waves on a steep, megatidal, mixed sand-gravel-cobble beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Tristan B.; Hay, Alex E.

    2017-01-01

    The vertical structure of surface gravity wave-induced pore pressure is investigated within the intertidal zone of a natural, steeply sloping, megatidal, mixed sand-gravel-cobble beach. Results from a coherent vertical array of buried pore pressure sensors are presented in terms of signal phase lag and attenuation as functions of oscillatory forcing frequency and burial depth. Comparison of the observations with the predictions of a theoretical poro-elastic bed response model indicates that the large observed phase lags and attenuation are attributable to interstitial trapped air. In addition to the dependence on entrapped air volume, the pore pressure phase and attenuation are shown to be sensitive to the hydraulic conductivity of the sediment, to the changing mean water depth during the tidal cycle, and to the redistribution/rearrangement of beach face material by energetic wave action during storm events. The latter result indicates that the effects on pore pressure of sediment column disturbance during instrument burial can persist for days to weeks, depending upon wave forcing conditions. Taken together, these results raise serious questions as to the practicality of using pore pressure measurements to estimate the kinematic properties of surface gravity waves on steep, mixed sand-gravel beaches.

  6. Power Analysis of Traction Transformer under Non-Sinusoidal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Kijonka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with power analysis of traction transformer 100/27 kV, Sn= 10MVA under non-sinusoidal conditions. The power analysis is evaluated by means of IEEE Trial Use Standard Definitions of the Electric Power Quantities under Non-Sinusoidal Conditions, Document Number: IEEE 1459-2000.

  7. Parametric modeling for damped sinusoids from multiple channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Zhenhua; So, Hing Cheung; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    The problem of parametric modeling for noisy damped sinusoidal signals from multiple channels is addressed. Utilizing the shift invariance property of the signal subspace, the number of distinct sinusoidal poles in the multiple channels is first determined. With the estimated number, the distinct...

  8. Variable Dimension Trellis-Coded Quantization of Sinusoidal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Holm; Christensen, Mads G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we propose joint quantization of the parameters of a set of sinusoids based on the theory of trellis-coded quantization. A particular advantage of this approach is that it allows for joint quantization of a variable number of sinusoids, which is particularly relevant in variable...

  9. Analytical Stationary Acoustic Wave in a Liquid over Which a Moving Pressure Runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Langlet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study of the stationary response of a liquid loaded on its free surface by an ideal pressure step moving in a constant direction at a constant velocity. The acoustic pressure in the liquid is found, in four different examples, by means of the Fourier Transform. Two loading regimes are considered; subsonic and supersonic. Two configurations of liquid domains are also studied, the first one is a half infinite space while the second one is bounded by a rigid bottom at a finite depth. For the two supersonic cases, a simple reasoning based on the existence of a front of discontinuity in the liquid and on the property of reflection of waves confirms the result of the mathematical investigations. The results obtained for the steady state case are of intererest, even when the loading is not exactly stationary, such as the presure produced by an explosion occurring in the vicinity of the surface of a liquid. Two numerically resolved examples are presented, which confirm this assumption.

  10. Diagnostics of surface wave driven low pressure plasmas based on indium monoiodide-argon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ögün, C M; Kaiser, C; Kling, R; Heering, W

    2015-01-01

    Indium monoiodide is proposed as a suitable alternative to hazardous mercury, i.e. the emitting component inside the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), with comparable luminous efficacy. Indium monoiodide-argon low pressure lamps are electrodelessly driven with surface waves, which are launched and coupled into the lamp by the ‘surfatron’, a microwave coupler optimized for an efficient operation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. A non intrusive diagnostic method based on spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy is employed to characterize the plasma parameters. The line emission coefficients of the plasma are derived by means of Abel’s inversion from the measured spectral radiance data. The characteristic plasma parameters, e.g. electron temperature and density are determined by comparing the experimentally obtained line emission coefficients with simulated ones from a collisional-radiative model. Additionally, a method to determine the absolute plasma efficiency via irradiance measurements without any goniometric setup is presented. In this way, the relationship between the plasma efficiency and the plasma parameters can be investigated systematically for different operating configurations, e.g. electrical input power, buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature. The performance of indium monoiodide-argon plasma is compared with that of conventional CFLs. (paper)

  11. Impulses and pressure waves cause excitement and conduction in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Helmut; Schreiber, Almut; Barz, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    It is general accepted, that nerval excitement and conduction is caused by voltage changes. However, the influx of fluid into an elastical tube releases impulses or pressure waves. Therefore an influx of ion currents, respectively fluid motions into the elastic neuronal cells and fibres also induce impulses. This motion of charge carriers are measured by voltage devices as oscillations or action potentials, but the voltage changes may be an epiphenomenon of the (mechanical) impulses. Impulse waves can have a high speed. As stiffer or inelastic a tube wall, the greater is the speed of the impulse. Myelin sheaths cause a significant stiffening of the nerve fibre wall and myelinated fibres have a conduction velocity up to 120 m/s. The influx of fluid at the nodes of Ranvier intensifies periodically the impulse wave in the nerve fibres. The authors suggest that also the muscle end-plate acts as a conductor of axonal impulses to the inner of the muscle fibres and that the exocytosis of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft may be an amplifier of the axonal impulse. It is discussed that intracellular actin filaments may also influence motions at the neuronal membrane. Many sensory nerve cells are excited due to exogenous or endogenous mechanical impulses. It may plausible that such impulses are conducted directly to the sensory nerve cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia without the transformation in electric energy. Excitation conduction happens without noteworthy energy consumption because the flow of ion currents through the membranes takes place equivalent to the concentration gradient. Impulse waves cause short extensions of the lipid membranes of the cell- and fibres walls and therefore they can induce opening and closing of the included ion channels. This mechanism acts to "voltage gated" and "ligand-gated" channels likewise. The concept of neuronal impulses can be helpful to the understanding of other points of neurophysiology or neuronal diseases. This includes

  12. Submillimeter-wave measurements of the pressure broadening of BrO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.M.; Kobayashi, M.; Habara, H.; Amano, T.; Drouin, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    The N 2 and O 2 pressure broadening coefficients of the J=23.5 ↔ 22.5 and J=25.5 ↔ 24.5 rotational transitions in the ground vibronic state X 2 Π 3/2 of 81 BrO at 624.768 and 650.178 GHz have been independently measured at Ibaraki University and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These lines are expected to be monitored by the superconducting submillimeter-wave limb emission sounder in the Japanese Experiment Module on the International Space Station (JEM/SMILES) as well as the earth observing system microwave limb sounder (EOS-MLS). This work provides temperature-dependent pressure broadening parameters of BrO needed by the space station and satellite based observations. The BrO pressure broadening coefficients and their 1σ uncertainties are: γ 0 (N 2 )=3.24±0.05 MHz/Torr and γ 0 (O 2 )=2.33±0.06 MHz/Torr for the 624.768 GHz transition at room temperature (296 K). For the 650.178 GHz line, the results are: γ 0 (N 2 )=3.20±0.07 MHz/Torr and γ 0 (O 2 )=2.41±0.06 MHz/Torr. The temperature dependence exponents and their 1σ error are determined to be: n(N 2 )=-0.76±0.05 and n(O 2 )=-0.93±0.07 for the 624.768 GHz transition, and n(N 2 )=-0.84±0.07 and n(O 2 )=-0.70±0.07 for the 650.178 GHz transition

  13. Quadratic sinusoidal analysis of voltage clamped neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Christophe; Moore, Lee E

    2011-11-01

    Nonlinear biophysical properties of individual neurons are known to play a major role in the nervous system, especially those active at subthreshold membrane potentials that integrate synaptic inputs during action potential initiation. Previous electrophysiological studies have made use of a piecewise linear characterization of voltage clamped neurons, which consists of a sequence of linear admittances computed at different voltage levels. In this paper, a fundamentally new theory is developed in two stages. First, analytical equations are derived for a multi-sinusoidal voltage clamp of a Hodgkin-Huxley type model to reveal the quadratic response at the ionic channel level. Second, the resulting behavior is generalized to a novel Hermitian neural operator, which uses an algebraic formulation capturing the entire quadratic behavior of a voltage clamped neuron. In addition, this operator can also be used for a nonlinear identification analysis directly applicable to experimental measurements. In this case, a Hermitian matrix of interactions is built with paired frequency probing measurements performed at specific harmonic and interactive output frequencies. More importantly, eigenanalysis of the neural operator provides a concise signature of the voltage dependent conductances determined by their particular distribution on the dendritic and somatic membrane regions of neurons. Finally, the theory is concretely illustrated by an analysis of an experimentally measured vestibular neuron, providing a remarkably compact description of the quadratic responses involved in the nonlinear processing underlying the control of eye position during head rotation, namely the neural integrator.

  14. A Novel Dynamic Model for Predicting Pressure Wave Velocity in Four-Phase Fluid Flowing along the Drilling Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic pressure wave velocity model is presented based on momentum equation, mass-balance equation, equation of state, and small perturbation theory. Simultaneously, the drift model was used to analyze the flow characteristics of oil, gas, water, and drilling fluid multiphase flow. In addition, the dynamic model considers the gas dissolution, virtual mass force, drag force, and relative motion of the interphase as well. Finite difference and Newton-Raphson iterative are introduced to the numerical simulation of the dynamic model. The calculation results indicate that the wave velocity is more sensitive to the increase of gas influx rate than the increase of oil/water influx rate. Wave velocity decreases significantly with the increase of gas influx. Influenced by the pressure drop of four-phase fluid flowing along the annulus, wave velocity tends to increase with respect to well depth, contrary to the gradual reduction of gas void fraction at different depths with the increase of backpressure (BP. Analysis also found that the growth of angular frequency will lead to an increase of wave velocity at low range. Comparison with the calculation results without considering virtual mass force demonstrates that the calculated wave velocity is relatively bigger by using the presented model.

  15. Lack of difference between nebivolol/hydrochlorothiazide and metoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide on aortic wave augmentation and central blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Daan W.; van den Bogaard, Bas; Cammenga, Marianne; Westerhof, Berend E.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    The vasodilating beta-blocker nebivolol is thought to be superior in lowering wave reflection and central blood pressure (BP) compared to nonvasodilating beta-blockers. The results from studies comparing nebivolol with either metoprolol or atenolol, with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), are

  16. Numerical simulation of wave propagation in a realistic model of the human external ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Mohaddeseh; Abouali, Omid; Emdad, Homayoun; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a numerical investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of high-pressure sinusoidal and blast wave's propagation around and inside of a human external ear. A series of computed tomography images are used to reconstruct a realistic three-dimensional (3D) model of a human ear canal and the auricle. The airflow field is then computed by solving the governing differential equations in the time domain using a computational fluid dynamics software. An unsteady algorithm is used to obtain the high-pressure wave propagation throughout the ear canal which is validated against the available analytical and numerical data in literature. The effects of frequency, wave shape, and the auricle on pressure distribution are then evaluated and discussed. The results clearly indicate that the frequency plays a key role on pressure distribution within the ear canal. At 4 kHz frequency, the pressure magnitude is much more amplified within the ear canal than the frequencies of 2 and 6 kHz, for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study, attributable to the '4-kHz notch' in patients with noise-induced hearing loss. According to the results, the pressure distribution patterns at the ear canal are very similar for both sinusoidal pressure waveform with the frequency of 2 kHz and blast wave. The ratio of the peak pressure value at the eardrum to that at the canal entrance increases from about 8% to 30% as the peak pressure value of the blast wave increases from 5 to 100 kPa for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study. Furthermore, incorporation of the auricle to the ear canal model is associated with centerline pressure magnitudes of about 50% and 7% more than those of the ear canal model without the auricle throughout the ear canal for sinusoidal and blast waves, respectively, without any significant effect on pressure distribution pattern along the ear canal for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study.

  17. Non-invasive aortic systolic pressure and pulse wave velocity estimation in a primary care setting: An in silico study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Andrea; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca; Mesin, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Everyday clinical cardiovascular evaluation is still largely based on brachial systolic and diastolic pressures. However, several clinical studies have demonstrated the higher diagnostic capacities of the aortic pressure, as well as the need to assess the aortic mechanical properties (e.g., by measuring the aortic pulse wave velocity). In order to fill this gap, we propose to exploit a set of easy-to-obtain physical characteristics to estimate the aortic pressure and pulse wave velocity. To this aim, a large population of virtual subjects is created by a validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system. Quadratic regressive models are then fitted and statistically selected in order to obtain reliable estimations of the aortic pressure and pulse wave velocity starting from the knowledge of the subject age, height, weight, brachial pressure, photoplethysmographic measures and either electrocardiogram or phonocardiogram. The results are very encouraging and foster clinical studies aiming to apply a similar technique to a real population. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the effects of the pressure wave generated in loss of coolant accidents in reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero Martinez, M.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing demands in the field of ''Nuclear Safety'', obliges to a perfect knowledge of the causes and effects of every possible accident in a nuclear power plant. In this paper will be analysed the effects of the pressure wave appearing in a LOCA (Loss of collant accident). The pressure wave could deform the following structures: core barrel wall, cover and bottom, control rods and safety coolant system. Any change of the geometry of these structures could provoke and incorrect system reaction after the accident has happened. The basis and hypothesis for the theoretical analysis will be exposed. The structures are considered to be rigid. A typical boiling water be analysed and the developed theory will be verified in comparations with experimental results and the results obtained with some others models. Due to the easy application and short calculation time of the created programmes, they are recommended for parametrical calculations in the analysis of the pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. (author)

  19. Signal Analysis and Waveform Reconstruction of Shock Waves Generated by Underwater Electrical Wire Explosions with Piezoelectric Pressure Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Underwater shock waves (SWs generated by underwater electrical wire explosions (UEWEs have been widely studied and applied. Precise measurement of this kind of SWs is important, but very difficult to accomplish due to their high peak pressure, steep rising edge and very short pulse width (on the order of tens of μs. This paper aims to analyze the signals obtained by two kinds of commercial piezoelectric pressure probes, and reconstruct the correct pressure waveform from the distorted one measured by the pressure probes. It is found that both PCB138 and Müller-plate probes can be used to measure the relative SW pressure value because of their good uniformities and linearities, but none of them can obtain precise SW waveforms. In order to approach to the real SW signal better, we propose a new multi-exponential pressure waveform model, which has considered the faster pressure decay at the early stage and the slower pressure decay in longer times. Based on this model and the energy conservation law, the pressure waveform obtained by the PCB138 probe has been reconstructed, and the reconstruction accuracy has been verified by the signals obtained by the Müller-plate probe. Reconstruction results show that the measured SW peak pressures are smaller than the real signal. The waveform reconstruction method is both reasonable and reliable.

  20. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, N.; Palomares, J. M.; Iordanova, E. I.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2008-10-01

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, ne, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, Te, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the ne values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 ± 0.5) × 1019 m-3, whereas the ne value (2 ± 0.5) × 1019 m-3 obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high (~1020 m-3). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the Te values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 ± 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  1. Polydiagnostic calibration performed on a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, N de; Iordanova, E I; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Mullen, J J A M van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Palomares, J M [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, ed. C-2, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)], E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.Mullen@tue.nl

    2008-10-21

    The electron density and electron temperature of a low pressure surface wave sustained argon plasma have been determined using passive and active (laser) spectroscopic methods simultaneously. In this way the validity of the various techniques is established while the plasma properties are determined more precisely. The electron density, n{sub e}, is determined with Thomson scattering (TS), absolute continuum measurements, Stark broadening and an extrapolation of the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). The electron temperature, T{sub e}, is obtained using TS and absolute line intensity (ALI) measurements combined with a collisional-radiative (CR) model for argon. At an argon pressure of 15 mbar, the n{sub e} values obtained with TS and Stark broadening agree with each other within the error bars and are equal to (4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, whereas the n{sub e} value (2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} obtained from the continuum is about 30% lower. This suggests that the used formula and cross-section values for the continuum method have to be reconsidered. The electron density determined by means of extrapolation of the ASDF to the continuum is too high ({approx}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}). This is most probably related to the fact that the plasma is strongly ionizing so that the extrapolation method is not justified. At 15 mbar, the T{sub e} values obtained with TS are equal to 13 400 {+-} 1100 K while the ALI/CR-model yields an electron temperature that is about 10% lower. It can be concluded that the passive results are in good or fair agreement with the active results. Therefore, the calibrated passive methods can be applied to other plasmas in a similar regime for which active diagnostic techniques cannot be used.

  2. Planar time-resolved PIV for velocity and pressure retrieval in atmospheric boundary layer over surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil; Bopp, Maximilian; Caulliez, Guillemette

    2017-04-01

    Air-sea coupling in general is important for weather, climate, fluxes. Wind wave source is crucially important for surface waves' modeling. But the wind-wave growth rate is strongly uncertain. Using direct measurements of pressure by wave-following Elliott probe [1] showed, weak and indefinite dependence of wind-wave growth rate on the wave steepness, while Grare et.al. [2] discuss the limitations of direct measurements of pressure associated with the inability to measure the pressure close to the surface by contact methods. Recently non-invasive methods for determining the pressure on the basis of technology of time-resolved PIV are actively developed [3]. Retrieving air flow velocities by 2D PIV techniques was started from Reul et al [4]. The first attempt for retrieving wind pressure field of waves in the laboratory tank from the time-resolved PIV measurements was done in [5]. The experiments were performed at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m). For 18 regimes with wind speed up to 14 m/s including presence of puddle waves, a combination of time resolved PIV technique and optical measurements of water surface form was applied to detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. Ammonium chloride smoke was used for flow visualization illuminated by two 6 Wt blue diode lasers combined into a vertical laser plane. Particle movement was captured with high-speed camera using Scheimpflug technique (up to 20 kHz frame rate with 4-frame bursts, spatial resolution about 190 μm, field of view 314x12 mm). Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave form. The resulting time resolved instantaneous velocity fields on regular grid allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from measured air velocity fluctuations. The average wind velocity patterns were

  3. Cascading pulse tubes on a large diaphragm pressure wave generator to increase liquefaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, A.; Meier, J.; Nation, M.; Reynolds, H.; Boyle, C.; Tanchon, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fabrum Solutions, in collaboration with Absolut System and Callaghan Innovation, produce a range of large pulse tube cryocoolers based on metal diaphragm pressure wave generator technology (DPWG). The largest cryocooler consists of three in-line pulse tubes working in parallel on a 1000 cm3 swept volume DPWG. It has demonstrated 1280 W of refrigeration at 77 K, from 24 kW of input power and was subsequently incorporated into a liquefaction plant to produce liquid nitrogen for an industrial customer. The pulse tubes on the large cryocooler each produced 426 W of refrigeration at 77 K. However, pulse tubes can produce more refrigeration with higher efficiency at higher temperatures. This paper presents the results from experiments to increase overall liquefaction throughput by operating one or more pulse tubes at a higher temperature to pre-cool the incoming gas. The experiments showed that the effective cooling increased to 1500 W resulting in an increase in liquefaction rate from 13 to 16 l/hour.

  4. Direct analysis of dispersive wave fields from near-field pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horchens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Flexural waves play a significant role for the radiation of sound from plates. The analysis of flexural wave fields enables the detection of sources and transmission paths in plate-like structures. The measurement of these wave fields can be carried out indirectly by means of near-field acoustic

  5. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. II. Sinusoidally driven shear and multisinusoidal inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Benjamin A; Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-07-01

    We use molecular-dynamics computer simulations to investigate the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure responses of a simple model atomic fluid to transverse and longitudinal external forces. We have previously introduced a response function formalism for describing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in an atomic fluid when it is perturbed by a combination of longitudinal and transverse external forces that are independent of time and have a simple sinusoidal spatial variation. In this paper, we extend the application of the previously introduced formalism to consider the case of a longitudinal force composed of multiple sinusoidal components in combination with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We find that additional harmonics are excited in the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles due to couplings between the force components. By analyzing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in Fourier space, we are able to evaluate the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, which now have additional components describing the coupling relationships. Having evaluated the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, we are then able to accurately predict the density, velocity, and shear-pressure profiles for fluids that are under the influence of a longitudinal force composed of two or three sinusoidal components combined with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We also find that in the case of a multisinusoidal longitudinal force, it is sufficient to include only pairwise couplings between different longitudinal force components. This means that it is unnecessary to include couplings between three or more force components in the case of a longitudinal force composed of many Fourier components, and this paves the way for a highly accurate but tractable treatment of nonlocal transport phenomena in fluids with density and strain-rate inhomogeneities on the molecular length scale.

  6. Asymptotic Theory of the Least Squares Estimators of Sinusoidal Signal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kundu, Debasis

    1997-01-01

    ... normality are derived for the sinusoidal signal under the assumption of normal error (Kundu; 1993) and under the assumptions of independent and identically distributed random variables in Kundu and Mitra...

  7. Effect of Pressure Gradients on the Initiation of PBX-9502 via Irregular (Mach) Reflection of Low Pressure Curved Shock Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Lawrence Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Phillip Isaac [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moro, Erik Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    In the instance of multiple fragment impact on cased explosive, isolated curved shocks are generated in the explosive. These curved shocks propagate and may interact and form irregular or Mach reflections along the interaction loci, thereby producing a single shock that may be sufficient to initiate PBX-9501. However, the incident shocks are divergent and their intensity generally decreases as they expand, and the regions behind the Mach stem interaction loci are generally unsupported and allow release waves to rapidly affect the flow. The effects of release waves and divergent shocks may be considered theoretically through a “Shock Change Equation”.

  8. Pressure wave propagation induced by short circuits inside power transformers: Development of a simulation tool, comparisons with experiments and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Muller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transformer explosion and its prevention is a complex industrial issuewhere various physical phenomena occur. To understand them, anexperimental test campaign was performed by CEPEL on large scaletransformers. It consisted in creating arcing in oil filled transformer tanks.The tests confirmed that the arc generates dynamic pressure waves thatpropagate in the oil. Reflections of these waves on the walls build up highstatic pressure to which transformer tanks can not withstand. This staticpressure increase can be prevented by a quick oil evacuation triggered bythe first dynamic pressure peak generated by the electrical arc. Moreover,a numerical tool was developed to simulate the phenomena highlightedduring the tests and mainly the pressure wave propagation. It is thus basedon a compressible two-phase flow modelling where viscous flow,electromagnetic, thermal and gravity effects are taken into account. Theequations are solved using a finite volume method allowing computingcomplex 3D transformer geometries. Comparisons between the dataobtained during the experiments and the results given by the simulationsvalidated the model. It can be used to study transformer explosions as wellas depressurisation induced by the explosion prevention technology basedon a quick oil evacuation.

  9. Converter for Measurement of non-sinusoidal current peak value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butvin, P.; Nielsen, Otto V; Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current.......A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current....

  10. Fluid Pressure Increases in Hydrothermal Systems Induced by Seismic Waves: Possible Triggers of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeloffs, E.

    2002-12-01

    That seismic waves trigger microseismicity in hydrothermal settings hundreds of km from the epicenter is plausibly linked to seismic-wave-induced fluid pressure changes at these distances. Although fluid pressure decreases have been observed in diverse settings, in the hydrothermal system at Long Valley, California, that seismic waves from earthquakes increase fluid pressure or discharge. Other published data, from thermal springs in Japan, Yellowstone, and Klamath Falls, Oregon, support the idea that seismic waves have induced pressure and discharge changes and that, in hydrothermal systems, these changes are usually increases. Temperature increases in seafloor hydrothermal vents within days after earthquakes as distant as 220 km imply, moreover, that seismic waves enhance conductance of vertical fluid flow pathways. The influence of seismic waves (wavelengths of km), on hot, fluid-filled subsurface fractures (apertures of mm to cm) could proceed by several mechanisms. Local fluid flow induced at crack walls could remove mineral seals. Spatially uniform acceleration can move gas bubbles relative to denser liquid and solid phases. Thermal expansion can elevate pressure around hot fluid that has penetrated upward. By lowering effective stress and directly weakening faults that are themselves flow paths, seismic waves could initiate processes leading to volcanic eruptions or other earthquakes where sufficient subsurface magma or elastic strain energy have previously accumulated. This type of earthquake-volcano linkage could explain why volcanos statistically erupt more frequently up to 5 years after M>7 earthquakes hundreds of km distant. For example, 11 months elapsed after the Ms 7.8 Luzon (Phillipines) earthquake before Mount Pinatubo erupted on June 15, 1991, 100 km away. Steam emission and 3 M4+ earthquakes in the Pinatubo area followed within days of the Luzon event, however, and a hydrothermal explosion on April 2 started the continuous unrest that built to

  11. Analysis and Implementation of Multiple Bionic Motion Patterns for Caterpillar Robot Driven by Sinusoidal Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhe Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Articulated caterpillar robot has various locomotion patterns—which make it adaptable to different tasks. Generally, the researchers have realized undulatory (transverse wave and simple rolling locomotion. But many motion patterns are still unexplored. In this paper, peristaltic locomotion and various additional rolling patterns are achieved by employing sinusoidal oscillator with fixed phase difference as the joint controller. The usefulness of the proposed method is verified using simulation and experiment. The design parameters for different locomotion patterns have been calculated that they can be replicated in similar robots immediately.

  12. Ultrafast dynamics in CeTe{sub 3} near the pressure-induced charge-density-wave transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauch, Jonas; Obergfell, Manuel [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Schaefer, Hanjo [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology (Germany); Demsar, Jure [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz (Germany); Giraldo, Paula; Fisher, Ian R. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University (United States); Pashkin, Alexej [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is an efficient tool for studying ultrafast dynamics in strongly correlated electronic systems, in particular, compounds with a charge-density-wave (CDW) order. Application of external pressure often leads to a suppression of a CDW state due to an impairment of the Fermi surface nesting. We combine time-resolved optical spectroscopy and diamond anvil cell technology to study electron and lattice dynamics in tri-telluride compound CeTe{sub 3}. Around pressures of 4 GPa we observe a gradual vanishing of the relaxation process related to the recombination of the photoexcited quasiparticles. The coherent oscillations of the phonon modes coupled to the CDW order parameter demonstrate even more dramatic suppression with increasing pressure. These observations clearly indicate a transition into the metallic state of CeTe{sub 3} induced by the external pressure.

  13. Investigation on the energy absorption performance of a fixed-bottom pressure-differential wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babarit, A.; Wendt, F.; Yu, Y. -H.; Weber, J.

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the energy absorption performance of a fixed-bottom pressure-differential wave energy converter. Two versions of the technology are considered: one has the moving surfaces on the bottom of the air chambers whereas the other has the moving surfaces on the top. We developed numerical models in the frequency domain, thereby enabling the power absorption of the two versions of the device to be assessed. It is observed that the moving surfaces on the top allow for easier tuning of the natural period of the system. Taking into account stroke limitations, the design is optimized. Results indicate that the pressure-differential wave energy converter is a highly efficient technology both with respect to energy absorption and selected economic performance indicators.

  14. Bayesian interpolation in a dynamic sinusoidal model with application to packet-loss concealment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Cemgil, Ali Taylan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Bayesian interpolation and parameter estimation in a dynamic sinusoidal model. This model is more flexible than the static sinusoidal model since it enables the amplitudes and phases of the sinusoids to be time-varying. For the dynamic sinusoidal model, we derive...

  15. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...

  16. Numerical Simulation and Experiment for Underwater Shock Wave in Newly Designed Pressure Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shibuta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern eating habits depend in large part on the development of food processing technology. Thermal treatments are often performed in the conventional food processing, but it can cause discoloration and loss of nutrients of the food by thermal processing or treatment. On the other hand, food processing using an underwater shock wave has little influence of heat and its processing time is very short, preventing the loss of nutrients. In this research optical observation experiment and the numerical simulation were performed, in order to understand and control the behavior of the underwater shock wave in the development of the processing container using an underwater shock wave for the factory and home. In this experiment a rectangular container was used to observe the behavior of the underwater shock wave. In the experiment, the shock wave was generated by using explosive on the shock wave generation side. The shock wave, which passed through the phosphor bronze and propagated from the aluminum sidewall, was observed on the processing container side. Numerical simulation of an analogous experimental model was investigated, where LS-DYNA software was used for the numerical simulation. The comparative study of the experiment and the numerical simulation was investigated. The behavior of a precursor shock wave from the device wall was able to be clarified. This result is used for development of the device in numerical simulation.

  17. Correlation of pulse wave velocity with left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension once blood pressure has been normalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu H. Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stiffness has been proposed as a simple method to assess arterial loading conditions of the heart which induce left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. There is some controversy as to whether the relationship of vascular stiffness to LVH is independent of blood pressure, and which measurement of arterial stiffness, augmentation index (AI or pulse wave velocity (PWV is best. Carotid pulse wave contor and pulse wave velocity of patients (n=20 with hypertension whose blood pressure (BP was under control (<140/90 mmHg with antihypertensive drug treatment medications, and without valvular heart disease, were measured. Left ventricular mass, calculated from 2D echocardiogram, was adjusted for body size using two different methods: body surface area and height. There was a significant (P<0.05 linear correlation between LV mass index and pulse wave velocity. This was not explained by BP level or lower LV mass in women, as there was no significant difference in PWV according to gender (1140.1+67.8 vs 1110.6+57.7 cm/s. In contrast to PWV, there was no significant correlation between LV mass and AI. In summary, these data suggest that aortic vascular stiffness is an indicator of LV mass even when blood pressure is controlled to less than 140/90 mmHg in hypertensive patients. The data further suggest that PWV is a better proxy or surrogate marker for LV mass than AI and the measurement of PWV may be useful as a rapid and less expensive assessment of the presence of LVH in this patient population.

  18. Measuring the Allan variance by sinusoidal fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ralph G.

    2018-02-01

    The Allan variance of signal and reference frequencies is measured by a least-square fit of the output of two analog-to-digital converters to ideal sine waves. The difference in the fit phase of the two channels generates the timing data needed for the Allan variance. The fits are performed at the signal frequency (≈10 MHz) without the use of heterodyning. Experimental data from a modified digital oscilloscope yield a residual Allan deviation of 3 × 10-13/τ, where τ is the observation time in s. This corresponds to a standard deviation in time of statistical theory and Monte Carlo simulations which suggest that optimized devices may have one or two orders of magnitude better performance.

  19. Effect of environmental factors (wave exposure and depth) and anthropogenic pressure in the C sink capacity of Posidonia oceanica meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, Inés

    2017-03-20

    Seagrass are among the most important natural carbon sinks on Earth with Posidonia oceanica (Mediterranean Sea) considered as the most relevant species. Yet, the number of direct measurements of organic carbon burial rates in P. oceanica is still scarce and the effect of local environmental factors remains largely unexplored. In addition, P. oceanica meadows are declining due to the increase in anthropogenic pressure in coastal areas during the last century. The aim of this study is to assess the recent carbon sink capacity of P. oceanica and particularly the effect of human pressure and two environmental factors, water depth and exposure to wave energy (based on a fetch index), on the carbon burial rate since 1900. We conducted an extensive survey of sediment cores in meadows distributed across a gradient of depth, fetch, and human pressure around The Balearic Islands. Sediment and carbon accumulation rates were obtained from 210Pb concentrations profiles. Top-30 centimeters carbon stocks (6.1 ± 1.4 kg C m−2) and burial rates (26 ± 6 g C m−2 yr1) varied up to fivefold across meadows. No significant effect of water depth in carbon burial rates was observed. Although fetch was significantly correlated with sediment mean grain size, confirming the effect of wave exposure in the patterns of sedimentation, fetch alone could not explain the differences in carbon burial rates among the meadows examined. Human pressure affected carbon burial rates, leading to increased rates since the onset of the rise in anthropogenic pressure, particularly so in sheltered meadows supporting high human pressure.

  20. The Importance of Pressure Sampling Frequency in Models for Determination of Critical Wave Loadingson Monolithic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of wave load sampling frequency on calculated sliding distance in an overall stability analysis of a monolithic caisson. It is demonstrated by a specific example of caisson design that for this kind of analyses the sampling frequency in a small scale model could...... be as low as 100 Hz in model scale. However, for design of structure elements like the wave wall on the top of a caisson the wave load sampling frequency must be much higher, in the order of 1000 Hz in the model. Elastic-plastic deformations of foundation and structure were not included in the analysis....

  1. Simultaneous angular alignment of segmented mirrors using sinusoidal pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejoo; Trumper, Isaac; Dubin, Matthew; Zhao, Wenchuan; Kim, Dae Wook

    2017-08-01

    A segmented mirror is one of the most promising solutions to build an extremely large aperture telescope to reveal the secrets of the universe. In this manuscript, we present a simultaneous angle alignment method for segmented mirrors. By taking the displayed sinusoidal pattern reflecting off the mirrors, the tip-tilt angles are measured with 0.8 μrad resolution for a flat mirror. Due to the efficient calculation using Fourier analysis, the total measurement time for seven flat mirrors is 0.07 s. In addition, a multiplexed sinusoidal pattern is adapted to resolve the intrinsic 2π ambiguity problem in a sinusoidal signal. The presented method can measure any number of segmented mirrors provided that the camera's field of view can cover them all simultaneously.

  2. Experimental study on the pressure and pulse wave propagation in viscoelastic vessel tubes-effects of liquid viscosity and tube stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Yuki; Nishi, Shohei; Komagata, Yuka; Saito, Masashi; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Asada, Takaaki; Matsukawa, Mami

    2013-11-01

    A pulse wave is the displacement wave which arises because of ejection of blood from the heart and reflection at vascular bed and distal point. The investigation of pressure waves leads to understanding the propagation characteristics of a pulse wave. To investigate the pulse wave behavior, an experimental study was performed using an artificial polymer tube and viscous liquid. A polyurethane tube and glycerin solution were used to simulate a blood vessel and blood, respectively. In the case of the 40 wt% glycerin solution, which corresponds to the viscosity of ordinary blood, the attenuation coefficient of a pressure wave in the tube decreased from 4.3 to 1.6 dB/m because of the tube stiffness (Young's modulus: 60 to 200 kPa). When the viscosity of liquid increased from approximately 4 to 10 mPa·s (the range of human blood viscosity) in the stiff tube, the attenuation coefficient of the pressure wave changed from 1.6 to 3.2 dB/m. The hardening of the blood vessel caused by aging and the increase of blood viscosity caused by illness possibly have opposite effects on the intravascular pressure wave. The effect of the viscosity of a liquid on the amplitude of a pressure wave was then considered using a phantom simulating human blood vessels. As a result, in the typical range of blood viscosity, the amplitude ratio of the waves obtained by the experiments with water and glycerin solution became 1:0.83. In comparison with clinical data, this value is much smaller than that seen from blood vessel hardening. Thus, it can be concluded that the blood viscosity seldom affects the attenuation of a pulse wave.

  3. Passive Wireless Multi-Sensor Temperature and Pressure Sensing System Using Acoustic Wave Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the continued development of passive, orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and multi-sensor systems, an...

  4. PASSIVE WIRELESS MULTI-SENSOR TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE SENSING SYSTEM USING ACOUSTIC WAVE DEVICES Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and multi-sensor systems for NASA application to remote wireless sensing of...

  5. PASSIVE WIRELESS MULTI-SENSOR TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE SENSING SYSTEM USING ACOUSTIC WAVE DEVICES, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and multi-sensor systems for NASA application to remote wireless sensing of...

  6. Noninvasive measurement of wave speed of porcine cornea in ex vivo porcine eyes for various intraocular pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Boran; Sit, Arthur J; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to extend an ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE) technique for noninvasive measurement of ocular tissue elastic properties. In particular, we aim to establish the relationship between the wave speed of cornea and the intraocular pressure (IOP). Normal ranges of IOP are between 12 and 22mmHg. Ex vivo porcine eye balls were used in this research. The porcine eye ball was supported by the gelatin phantom in a testing container. Some water was pour into the container for the ultrasound measurement. A local harmonic vibration was generated on the side of the eye ball. An ultrasound probe was used to measure the wave propagation in the cornea noninvasively. A 25 gauge butterfly needle was inserted into the vitreous humor of the eye ball under the ultrasound imaging guidance. The needle was connected to a syringe. The IOP was obtained by the water height difference between the water level in the syringe and the water level in the testing container. The IOP was adjusted between 5mmHg and 30mmHg with a 5mmHg interval. The wave speed was measured at each IOP for three frequencies of 100, 150 and 200Hz. Finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate the wave propagation in the corneal according to our experimental setup. A linear viscoelastic FEM model was used to compare the experimental data. Both the experiments and the FEM analyses showed that the wave speed of cornea increased with IOP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Solitary traveling wave solutions of pressure equation of bubbly liquids with examination for viscosity and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Mostafa M. A.; Seadawy, Aly R.; Lu, Dianchen

    2018-03-01

    In this research, we investigate one of the most popular model in nature and also industrial which is the pressure equation of bubbly liquids with examination for viscosity and heat transfer which has many application in nature and engineering. Understanding the physical meaning of exact and solitary traveling wave solutions for this equation gives the researchers in this field a great clear vision of the pressure waves in a mixture liquid and gas bubbles taking into consideration the viscosity of liquid and the heat transfer and also dynamics of contrast agents in the blood flow at ultrasonic researches. To achieve our goal, we apply three different methods which are extended tanh-function method, extended simple equation method and a new auxiliary equation method on this equation. We obtained exact and solitary traveling wave solutions and we also discuss the similarity and difference between these three method and make a comparison between results that we obtained with another results that obtained with the different researchers using different methods. All of these results and discussion explained the fact that our new auxiliary equation method is considered to be the most general, powerful and the most result-oriented. These kinds of solutions and discussion allow for the understanding of the phenomenon and its intrinsic properties as well as the ease of way of application and its applicability to other phenomena.

  8. CNNs for sinusoidal signal recognition in hearing rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnimeo, Leonarda; Giaquinto, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, a contribution is given to provide a tool to the recognition of sinusoidal signals with a particular reference to the field of pediatric hearing rehabilitation. To this purpose, a synthesis technique previously developed by the authors' is used to design a Cellular Neural Network for an Associative Memory able to compare submitted discrete-time sinusoidal signals with memorized ones. A robustness analysis of the synthesized associative memory is also developed both for noisy inputs and for parameter variations. Simulation results are then reported to illustrate the performances of the designed network.

  9. Pulse Wave Velocity as Marker of Preclinical Arterial Disease: Reference Levels in a Uruguayan Population Considering Wave Detection Algorithms, Path Lengths, Aging, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Farro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV has emerged as the gold standard for non-invasive evaluation of aortic stiffness; absence of standardized methodologies of study and lack of normal and reference values have limited a wider clinical implementation. This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American population in order to characterize normal, reference, and threshold levels of PWV considering normal age-related changes in PWV and the prevailing blood pressure level during the study. A conservative approach was used, and we excluded symptomatic subjects; subjects with history of cardiovascular (CV disease, diabetes mellitus or renal failure; subjects with traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender; asymptomatic subjects with atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries; patients taking anti-hypertensives or lipid-lowering medications. The included subjects (n=429 were categorized according to the age decade and the blood pressure levels (at study time. All subjects represented the “reference population”; the group of subjects with optimal/normal blood pressures levels at study time represented the “normal population.” Results. Normal and reference PWV levels were obtained. Differences in PWV levels and aging-associated changes were obtained. The obtained data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related arterial changes.

  10. Roles of positively charged heavy ions and degenerate plasma pressure on cylindrical and spherical ion acoustic solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, M. R.; Nahar, L.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The properties of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) solitary structures associated with the nonlinear propagation of cylindrical and spherical electrostatic perturbations in an unmagnetized, collisionless dense plasma system has been investigated theoretically. Our considered model contains degenerate electron and inertial light ion fluids, and positively charged static heavy ions, which is valid for both of the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limits. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations have been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method, and numerically examined in order. It has been found that the effect of degenerate pressure and number density of electron and inertial light ion fluids, and positively charged static heavy ions significantly modify the basic features of HIA solitary waves. It is also noted that the inertial light ion fluid is the source of dispersion for HIA waves and is responsible for the formation of solitary waves. The basic features and the underlying physics of HIA solitary waves, which are relevant to some astrophysical compact objects, are briefly discussed.

  11. On the Accurate Determination of Shock Wave Time-Pressure Profile in the Experimental Models of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Skotak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement issues leading to the acquisition of artifact-free shock wave pressure-time profiles are discussed. We address the importance of in-house sensor calibration and data acquisition sampling rate. Sensor calibration takes into account possible differences between calibration methodology in a manufacturing facility, and those used in the specific laboratory. We found in-house calibration factors of brand new sensors differ by less than 10% from their manufacturer supplied data. Larger differences were noticeable for sensors that have been used for hundreds of experiments and were as high as 30% for sensors close to the end of their useful lifetime. These observations were despite the fact that typical overpressures in our experiments do not exceed 50 psi for sensors that are rated at 1,000 psi maximum pressure. We demonstrate that sampling rate of 1,000 kHz is necessary to capture the correct rise time values, but there were no statistically significant differences between peak overpressure and impulse values for low-intensity shock waves (Mach number <2 at lower rates. We discuss two sources of experimental errors originating from mechanical vibration and electromagnetic interference on the quality of a waveform recorded using state-of-the-art high-frequency pressure sensors. The implementation of preventive measures, pressure acquisition artifacts, and data interpretation with examples, are provided in this paper that will help the community at large to avoid these mistakes. In order to facilitate inter-laboratory data comparison, common reporting standards should be developed by the blast TBI research community. We noticed the majority of published literature on the subject limits reporting to peak overpressure; with much less attention directed toward other important parameters, i.e., duration, impulse, and dynamic pressure. These parameters should be included as a mandatory requirement in publications so the results can be properly

  12. Behavioral and inflammatory response in animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave and supplemented with β-alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Zuckerman, Amitai; Ram, Omri; Sadot, Oren; Stout, Jeffrey R; Ostfeld, Ishay; Cohen, Hagit

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the benefit of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg -1 ) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast. Validated cognitive-behavioral paradigms were used to assess both mTBI and PTSD-like behavior on days 7-14 following the blast. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau protein expressions were analyzed a day later. In addition, brain carnosine and histidine content was assessed as well. The prevalence of animals exhibiting mTBI-like behavior was significantly lower (p = 0.044) in BA than PL (26.5 and 46%, respectively), but no difference (p = 0.930) was noted in PTSD-like behavior between the groups (10.2 and 12.0%, respectively). Carnosine content in the cerebral cortex was higher (p = 0.048) for BA compared to PL, while a trend towards a difference was seen in the hippocampus (p = 0.058) and amygdala (p = 0.061). BDNF expression in the CA1 subregion of PL was lower than BA (p = 0.009) and CTL (p animals exposed to a low-pressure blast wave.

  13. Modeling and experiments with low-frequency pressure wave propagation in liquid-filled, flexible tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelland, C; Bjarnø, Leif

    1992-01-01

    A model for wave propagation in a liquid-filled viscoelastic tube with arrays of receivers inside, is being used to analyze the influence of noise generated by in-line vibrational noise sources. In this model, distensibility is of greater importance than compressibility of the liquid....... The dispersion and attenuation is shown to be strongly dependent on the viscoelastic properties of the tube wall. The complex, frequency-dependent moduli of relevant tube materials have been measured in stress wave transfer function experiments. The moduli are used in the model to produce realistic dispersion...... relations and frequency-dependent attenuation. A 12-m-long, liquid-filled tube with interior stress members and connectors in each end is hanging vertically from an upper fixture. The lower end connector is excited by a power vibrator to generate the relevant wave modes. Measurements with reference...

  14. High-frequency bottom-pressure and acoustic variations in a sea strait: internal wave turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2012-01-01

    During a period of 3 days, an accurate bottom-pressure sensor and a four-beam acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were mounted in a bottom frame at 23 m in a narrow sea strait with dominant near-rectilinear tidal currents exceeding 1 m s(-1) in magnitude. The pressure record distinguishes small

  15. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. I - Pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions are derived for the pressure distribution in the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. The undisturbed boundary layer is characterized by the law of the wall and the law of the wake for compressible flow. In the limiting case considered, for 'high' transonic speeds, the sonic line is very close to the wall. Comparisons with experiment are shown, with corrections included for the effect of longitudinal wall curvature and for the boundary-layer displacement effect in a circular pipe.

  16. Numerical survey of pressure wave propagation around and inside an underground cavity with high order FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    The research on purely numerical methods for modeling seismic waves has been more and more intensified over last decades. This development is mainly driven by the fact that on the one hand for subsurface models of interest in exploration and global seismology exact analytic solutions do not exist, but, on the other hand, retrieving full seismic waveforms is important to get insides into spectral characteristics and for the interpretation of seismic phases and amplitudes. Furthermore, the computational potential has dramatically increased in the recent past such that it became worthwhile to perform computations for large-scale problems as those arising in the field of computational seismology. Algorithms based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models as they provide more geometrical flexibility in terms of complexity as well as heterogeneity of the materials. In particular, we want to demonstrate the benefit of high-order FEMs as they also provide a better control on the accuracy. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Further we are interested in the generation of synthetic seismograms including direct, refracted and converted waves in correlation to the presence of an underground cavity and the detailed simulation of the comprehensive wave field inside and around such a cavity that would have been created by a nuclear explosion. The motivation of this application comes from the need to find evidence of a nuclear test as they are forbidden by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). With this approach it is possible for us to investigate the wave field over a large bandwidth of wave numbers. This again will help to provide a better understanding on the characteristic signatures of an underground cavity, improve the protocols for

  17. Compressed Sensing Of Complex Sinusoids Off The Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Cheng; Liu, Shi; Jiaqun, Zhao

    2015-07-01

    To solve off-grid problem in compressed sensing, a new reconstruction algorithm for complex sinusoids is proposed. The compressed sensing reconstruction problem is transformed into a joint optimized problem. Based on coordinate descent approach and linear estimator, a new iteration algorithm is proposed. The results of experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... filometry [7–9] and monitoring of surface self-diffusion of solids under ultrahigh vacuum conditions [10]. In the present work, recording parameters, i.e. exposure time and deve- lopment time for fabrication of such holographic gratings have been optimized to obtain nearly perfect sinusoidal profiles in the ...

  19. Harmonic analysis of DC capacitor current in sinusoidal and space ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    triple-throw switch with the load terminal being the pole. The pole voltage vRO equals +0.5VDC, ... The harmonic content of the line current in a sinusoidally modulated NPC inverter is quite low when the switching ..... and the switching pulses for the switches SR2 and SR4 is generated by comparison with the bottom carrier.

  20. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... Astable sinusoidal pattern generated using a two-beam laser interferometric technique was recorded in thin films of positive photoresist deposited on glass substrates. Several gratings were generated by varying the exposure time of interference pattern and time of chemical development of exposed media.

  1. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  2. Using Antenna Arrays to Motivate the Study of Sinusoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Educational activities involving antenna arrays to motivate the study of sinusoids are described. Specifically, using fundamental concepts related to phase and simple geometric arguments, students are asked to predict the location of interference nulls in the radiation pattern of two-element phased array antennas. The location of the radiation…

  3. Quasi-elastic high-pressure waves in 2024 Al and Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.; Fritz, J.N.; Holian, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Release waves from the back of a plate slap experiment are used to estimate the longitudinal modulus, bulk modulus and shear strength of the metal in the state produced by a symmetric collision. The velocity of the interface between the metal target and a window material is measured by the axially symmetric magnetic (ASM) probe. Wave profiles for initial states up to 90 GPa for 2024 Al and up to 150 GPa for Cu have been obtained. Elastic perfectly-plastic (EPP) theory cannot account for the results. A relatively simple quasi-elastic plastic (QEP) model can

  4. Spatial Distribution of Wave Pressures on Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    above the other. Comprehensive 2D and 3D wave tank model tests were carried out at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The model scale used was 1:60 of the SSG prototype at the planned location of a pilot plant at the west coast of the island...... Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The research study is intended to be of direct use to engineers analyzing design and stability of the pilot plant....

  5. Nonlinear waves and solitons propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field in bi-ion plasma with finite plasma pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Dubinin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the nature of nonlinear waves propagating transverse to the magnetic field in a bi-ion plasma including plasma pressure. By using the conservation laws derived from the multi-ion fluid equations the system may be described by a single order differential equation whose properties control the structure of the flow and the magnetic field. Compressive solitons exist in specific ranges of the characteristic Mach numbers. Various features of solitons differ in different existence "windows". For example, there are solitons that contain a strong proton rarefaction core embedded in the main compressional structure. Compressive solitons are found in a wide range of flow parameters. Finite ion pressure introduces critical Mach numbers. In contrast to a plasma consisting only of protons and electrons these singular points are reached where a specific combination of ion and electron speeds lies on particular locii, in multi-parameter space, which corresponds to the generalized "sonic point" of the compound system.

  6. Mechanical Behavior of Quasi-sinusoidal Corrugated Composite sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyan Ghabezi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An aircraft wing needs to display different mechanical behavior in different directions. 1- stiffness in the spanwise (transverse to the corrugation direction which enables the aerodynamic and inertial loads to be carried. 2- compliance in the chordwise (corrugation direction which would allow shape changes and increases in surface area; whereas a corrugated sheet due to their special geometry has potential to use in morphing applications. Therefore, in this paper the mechanical behaviour of quasi-sinusoidal corrugated composites is studied by commercial FEM software ABAQUS and a simple analytical model which is used for the initial stiffness of the quasi-sinusoidal corrugated composites (Yokozeki model. The elongation and effective stiffness in longitudinal and transverse directions of quasi-sinusoidal  corrugated  skins  and fat  composites  are  calculated  and  compared together.  Using  frst  and  second  Castigliano’s  theorem  and  Bernoulli-Euler  beam theorem can be used to calculate the defection and rotational angle of a beam (sheet. In this research, different dimensions of quasi-sinusoidal element for unidirectional and woven composites of E-glass/epoxy are investigated. FEM results and analytical model are compared together. Then, the analytical model is validated by experimental results of plain woven E-glass/epoxy composites. The results of FEM, experimental and analytical simulations show that how a corrugated composite can afford with certainty larger deformation than the fat composite in using this analytical model to predict the mechanical behavior of quasi-sinusoidal corrugated composites. It was found that the corrugated composites display extremely high anisotropic behavior and have high  tensile and fexural stiffness  in  transverse direction while exhibiting  low stiffness in longitudinal direction of corrugation.

  7. Spectral element modelling of seismic wave propagation in visco-elastoplastic media including excess-pore pressure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Elif; Gélis, Céline; Bonilla, Luis Fabián; Delavaud, Elise

    2017-12-01

    Numerical modelling of seismic wave propagation, considering soil nonlinearity, has become a major topic in seismic hazard studies when strong shaking is involved under particular soil conditions. Indeed, when strong ground motion propagates in saturated soils, pore pressure is another important parameter to take into account when successive phases of contractive and dilatant soil behaviour are expected. Here, we model 1-D seismic wave propagation in linear and nonlinear media using the spectral element numerical method. The study uses a three-component (3C) nonlinear rheology and includes pore-pressure excess. The 1-D-3C model is used to study the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake (ML 6.6), which was recorded at the Wildlife Refuge Liquefaction Array, USA. The data of this event present strong soil nonlinearity involving pore-pressure effects. The ground motion is numerically modelled for different assumptions on soil rheology and input motion (1C versus 3C), using the recorded borehole signals as input motion. The computed acceleration-time histories show low-frequency amplification and strong high-frequency damping due to the development of pore pressure in one of the soil layers. Furthermore, the soil is found to be more nonlinear and more dilatant under triaxial loading compared to the classical 1C analysis, and significant differences in surface displacements are observed between the 1C and 3C approaches. This study contributes to identify and understand the dominant phenomena occurring in superficial layers, depending on local soil properties and input motions, conditions relevant for site-specific studies.

  8. Pressure dependence of the optical properties of the charge-density-wave compound LaTe2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavagnini, M.; Sacchetti, A.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Arcangeletti, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Postorino, P.; Lupi, S.; /Rome U.; Perucchi, A.; /INFM, Trieste; Shin, K.Y.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14

    We report the pressure dependence of the optical response of LaTe{sub 2}, which is deep in the charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state even at 300 K. The reflectivity spectrum is collected in the mid-infrared spectral range at room temperature and at pressures between 0 and 7 GPa. We extract the energy scale due to the single particle excitation across the CDW gap and the Drude weight. We establish that the gap decreases upon compressing the lattice, while the Drude weight increases. This signals a reduction in the quality of nesting upon applying pressure, therefore inducing a lesser impact of the CDW condensate on the electronic properties of LaTe{sub 2}. The consequent suppression of the CDW gap leads to a release of additional charge carriers, manifested by the shift of weight from the gap feature into the metallic component of the optical response. On the contrary, the power-law behavior, seen in the optical conductivity at energies above the gap excitation and indicating a weakly interacting limit within the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid scenario, seems to be only moderately dependent on pressure.

  9. Interaction of Acoustic Waves with a Cryogenic Nitrogen Jet at Sub- and Supercritical Pressures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chehroudi, B

    2001-01-01

    ...), and can lead to local burnout of the combustion chamber walls and injector plates. This is caused by extreme heat-transfer rates brought about by high-frequency pressure and gas velocity fluctuations, see Harrje and Reardon.

  10. Black Tea Lowers Blood Pressure and Wave Reflections in Fasted and Postprandial Conditions in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomised Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period. Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001. Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001. Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection.

  11. Controlled generation of nonlinear resonances through sinusoidal lattice modes in Bose–Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Priyam; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2015-01-01

    We study Bose–Einstein condensate in the combined presence of time modulated optical lattice and harmonic trap in the mean-field approach. Through the self-similar method, we show the existence of sinusoidal lattice modes in this inhomogeneous system, commensurate with the lattice potential. A significant advantage of this system is wide tunability of the parameters through chirp management. The combined effect of the interaction, harmonic trap and lattice potential leads to the generation of nonlinear resonances, exactly where the matter wave changes its direction. When the harmonic trap is switched off, the BEC undergoes a nonlinear compression for the static optical lattice potential. For better understanding of chirp management and the nature of the sinusoidal excitation, we investigate the energy spectrum of the condensate, which clearly reveals the generation of nonlinear resonances in the appropriate regime. We have also identified a classical dynamical phase transition occurring in the system, where loss of superfluidity takes the superfluid phase to an insulating state. (paper)

  12. Central aortic blood pressure, augmentation index, and reflected wave transit time: reproducibility and repeatability of data obtained by oscillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageenkova O

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Olga A Ageenkova, Marina A Purygina Department of Therapy, Functional and Ultrasound Diagnostics, Postgraduate Training Faculty of Smolensk State Medical Academy, Smolensk, Russian Federation Background: The evidence suggests that arterial stiffness acts as an independent predictor of general as well as cardiovascular mortality, strokes in patients with arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus in the elderly, and in the general population. The oscillometric method measures parameters of arterial stiffness by applying special methods of processing oscillograms. This is a study of the reproducibility and repeatability of central aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP, augmentation index, and reflected wave transit time measured by Vasotens® technology. Methods: Anthropometric and hemodynamic measurements for 90 volunteers were made by two observers using the 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system, BPLab®, with Vasotens technology in "office" mode, over a period of two days and always at the same time in the morning. Initialization of the device was performed prior to each measurement cycle for each participant. Results: Analysis of short-term repeatability and reproducibility data for central aortic systolic blood pressure, reflected wave transit time, and augmentation index did not reveal any statistically significant differences. For observer A, SBP was 0.11 ± 7.53 mmHg and aortic SBP was 0.26 ± 6.11 mmHg; for observer B, SBP was 0.14 ± 8.42 and aortic SBP was 0.2 ± 7.25 mmHg. Short-term reproducibility for the different observers with averaging of both measurements was 0.36 ± 5.69 mmHg for SBP and 0.37 ± 6.7 mmHg for aortic SBP; the next day, repeatability for observer A was 0.52 ± 10.7 mmHg for SBP and 0.73 ± 8.98 mmHg for aortic SBP. Conclusion: BPLab with Vasotens technology has good reproducibility and repeatability, and can be recommended for clinical vascular risk estimation. Keywords: arterial stiffness, central aortic

  13. Experimental study of fluid flow in the entrance of a sinusoidal channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo-Tolentino, F.; Romero-Mendez, R.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Giron-Palomares, B.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental flow visualization study of the entrance section of channels formed with sinusoidal plates was made. The experiments were conducted in a water tunnel and a laser illuminated particle tracking was used as the technique of flow visualization. The geometric parameters of the plates were maintained constant while the distance between plates, phase angle, and the Reynolds number were varied during the experiments. The flow regimes that were found in the experiments are steady, unsteady and significantly-mixed flows. Instabilities of the flow first appear near the exit of the channel, and move closer to the inlet waves as the Reynolds number grows, but in the first wave from inlet the flow is always steady. The results show that, for all other parameters fixed, the Reynolds number at which unsteady flow first appears grows with the distance between plates. The phase angle that best promotes unsteady flow depends on the average distance between plates: for certain average distance between plates, there is a phase angle that best disturbs the flow. For the set of parameters used in this experiment, a channel with eight waves is sufficiently long and the flow features presented in the first eight waves of a longer channel will be similar to what was observed here

  14. The sinusoidal lining cells in "normal" human liver. A scanning electron microscopic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, T; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christoffersen, P

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscopic was used to study the fenestrations of human liver sinusoids. Thirteen biopsies, where light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed normal sinusoidal architecture, were investigated. The number of fenestrae was calculated in acinar zone 3...

  15. Investigation of shock waves in explosive blasts using fibre optic pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); MacPherson, W N [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Barton, J S [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Jones, J D C [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Tyas, A [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Pichugin, A V [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hindle, A [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Parkes, W [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Dunare, C [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom); Stevenson, T [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    We describe miniature all-optical pressure sensors, fabricated by wafer etching techniques, less than 1mm{sup 2} in overall cross-section with rise times in the {mu}s regime and pressure ranges typically 600 kPa. Their performance is suitable for experimental studies of the pressure-time history for test models exposed to shocks initiated by an explosive charge. The small size and fast response of the sensors promises higher quality data than has been previously available from conventional electrical sensors, with potential improvements to numerical models of blast effects. Provisional results from blast tests will be presented in which up to 6 sensors were multiplexed, embedded within test models in a range of orientations relative to the shock front.

  16. Investigation of shock waves in explosive blasts using fibre optic pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S; MacPherson, W N; Barton, J S; Jones, J D C; Tyas, A; Pichugin, A V; Hindle, A; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Stevenson, T

    2005-01-01

    We describe miniature all-optical pressure sensors, fabricated by wafer etching techniques, less than 1mm 2 in overall cross-section with rise times in the μs regime and pressure ranges typically 600 kPa. Their performance is suitable for experimental studies of the pressure-time history for test models exposed to shocks initiated by an explosive charge. The small size and fast response of the sensors promises higher quality data than has been previously available from conventional electrical sensors, with potential improvements to numerical models of blast effects. Provisional results from blast tests will be presented in which up to 6 sensors were multiplexed, embedded within test models in a range of orientations relative to the shock front

  17. Optimized Shapes of Ocsillating Resonators for Generating High-Amplitude Pressure Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fan; Finkbeiner, Joshua; Daniels, Christopher; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that the resonator geometry strongly influences the resonant frequencies of an acoustical resonator and the generated nonlinear standing pressure waveform. Maximizing the ratio of maximum to minimum gas pressure at an end of an oscillating resonator by optimizing the cavity contour is investigated numerically. A quasi-Newton type scheme is used to find optimized axisymmetric resonator shapes to achieve the maximum pressure compression ratio. The acoustical field is solved using a one-dimensional model, and the resonance frequency shift and hysteresis effects are obtained through an automation scheme based on continuation methods. Results are presented from optimizing cone, horn-cone, and cosine resonator geometries. Significant performance improvement is found in the optimized shapes over others previously published. Different optimized shapes are found when starting with different initial guesses, indicating multiple local extrema. The numerical model is validated by comparing with the experimental results of a horn-cone shaped resonator.

  18. Pressure-induced forces and shear stresses on rubble mound breakwater armour layers in regular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of the pressure-induced forces in the core material below the main armour layer and shear stresses on the armour layer for a porous breakwater structure. Two parallel experiments were performed which both involved pore pressure...... measurements in the core material: (1) core material with an idealized armour layer made out of spherical objects that also allowed for detailed velocity measurements between and above the armour, and (2) core material with real rock armour stones. The same core material was applied through the entire...... and turbulence measurements showed that the large outward directed pressure gradients in general coincide, both in time and space, with the maximum bed-shear stresses on the armour layer based on the Reynolds-stresses. The bed-shear stresses were found to result in a Shields parameter in the same order...

  19. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  20. Electric stimulation with sinusoids and white noise for neural prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Freeman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We are investigating the use of novel stimulus waveforms in neural prostheses to determine whether they can provide more precise control over the temporal and spatial pattern of elicited activity as compared to conventional pulsatile stimulation. To study this, we measured the response of retinal ganglion cells to both sinusoidal and white noise waveforms. The use of cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp recordings allowed the responses to be observed without significant obstruction from the stimulus artifact. Electric stimulation with sinusoids elicited robust responses. White noise analysis was used to derive the linear kernel for the ganglion cell’s spiking response as well as for the underlying excitatory currents. These results suggest that in response to electric stimulation, presynaptic retinal neurons exhibit bandpass filtering characteristics with peak response that occur 25ms after onset. The experimental approach demonstrated here may be useful for studying the temporal response properties of other neurons in the CNS.

  1. Pore Pressure Under A Gravity Based Structure Under The Influence Of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Carstensen, Stefan; Madsen, Mikael Thyge

    2017-01-01

    based foundation. This leads typically to very conservative designs in order to accommodate the uncertainties in the procedure. The experiments shall lead to better prediction models based on for instance CFD model’s with the direct calculation of pressure variations in the seabed and any erosion...

  2. Accurate estimation of the illumination pattern's orientation and wavelength in sinusoidal structured illumination microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrberg, Marcel; Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar; Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh

    2018-02-10

    Structured illumination microscopy is able to improve the spatial resolution of wide-field fluorescence imaging by applying sinusoidal stripe pattern illumination to the sample. The corresponding computational image reconstruction requires precise knowledge of the pattern's parameters, which are its phase (ϕ) and wave vector (p). Here, a computationally inexpensive method for estimation of p from the raw data is proposed and illustrated with simulations. The method estimates p through a selective discrete Fourier transform at tunable subpixel precision. This results in an accurate p estimation for all the illumination patterns and subsequently improves the superresolution image recovery by a factor of 10 around sharp edges as compared to an integer pixel approach. The technique as presented here is of major interest to the large variety of custom-build systems that are used. The feasibility of the presented method is proven in comparison with published data.

  3. Electric field measurements in near-atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air based on a four-wave mixing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Sarah; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Electric fields are measured for the first time in molecular nitrogen at atmospheric pressures. Measurements are performed in either pure nitrogen or air. The laser spectroscopic technique applied here is based on a CARS-like four-wave mixing scheme originally developed for measurements in molecular hydrogen by Ochkin and Tskhai in 1995. The technique is ideal for investigation of microdischarges at atmospheric pressures. The frequencies of two focussed laser beams in the visible are tuned to match the energy difference between the two lowest vibrational levels in nitrogen. The presence of a static electric field then leads to the emission of coherent IR radiation at this difference frequency. The signal intensity scales with the square of the static electric field strength. Parallel to this process also anti-Stokes radiation by the standard CARS process is generated. Normalization of the IR signal by the CARS signal provides a population independent measurement quantity. Experimental results at various pressures and electric field strengths are presented.

  4. On the Unsteadiness of a Transitional Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interaction Using Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, E. Lara; Schmisseur, John

    2017-11-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint has been used to evaluate the unsteady dynamics of transitional and turbulent shock wave-boundary layer interactions generated by a vertical cylinder on a flat plate in a Mach 2 freestream. The resulting shock structure consists of an inviscid bow shock that bifurcates into a separation shock and trailing shock. The primary features of interest are the separation shock and an upstream influence shock that is intermittently present in transitional boundary layer interactions, but not observed in turbulent interactions. The power spectral densities, frequency peaks, and normalized wall pressures are analyzed as the incoming boundary layer state changes from transitional to fully turbulent, comparing both centerline and outboard regions of the interaction. The present study compares the scales and frequencies of the dynamics of the separation shock structure in different boundary layer regimes. Synchronized high-speed Schlieren imaging provides quantitative statistical analyses as well as qualitative comparisons to the fast-response pressure sensitive paint measurements. Materials based on research supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under Award Number N00014-15-1-2269.

  5. Total harmonic distortion of an asymmetric quasi-sinusoidal current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebennikov Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the correlation of factors that determine the quality of asymmetric quasi-sinusoidal output current and dynamic losses in the switches of the current generator circuit. The operating mode of the generator was obtained, especially of its power circuit elements, where combination of acceptable output current quality with relatively small dynamic losses in switches and mass-dimensional parameters of the inductor are provided. Achieved results can be used in designing this type of generators.

  6. Self-reported sitting time is associated with higher pressure from wave reflections independent of physical activity levels in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Tarzia, Brendan J; Kasprowicz, Ari G; Lefferts, Wesley K; Hatanaka, Miho; Jae, Sae Young

    2013-08-01

    Time spent in sedentary pursuits such as sitting (SIT) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease independent of physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of PA and SIT with central hemodynamic burden in young adults. Aortic pressure waveforms were obtained using radial applanation tonometry and a generalized transfer function in 70 young healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 29) (mean age = 23±1 years; body mass index = 24±1kg/m(2)). A wave separation technique that uses a physiologic pseudoaortic flow waveform was used to derive incident/forward wave pressure (Pf) and reflected/backward wave pressure (Pb). Levels of PA (metabolic equivalent, minutes per week) and SIT (sitting time per day) were obtained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A negative correlation existed between PA and Pf (r = -0.30; P pressure) and PA, associations between SIT and Pf (P pressure and backward wave pressure, 2 novel hemodynamic correlates of cardiovascular disease risk and target organ damage, in young apparently healthy men and women. This association is independent of PA.

  7. Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams with Sinusoidal Periodically Varying Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Botong; Liu, Chein-Shan; Zhu, Liangliang

    2017-12-01

    As an increasing variety of composite materials with complex interfaces are emerging, we develop a theory to investigate composite beams and shed some light on new physical insights into composite beams with sinusoidal periodically varying interfaces. For the natural vibration of composite beams with continuous or periodically varying interfaces, the governing equation has been derived according to the generalised Hamiltonian principle. For composite beams having different boundary conditions, we transform the governing equations into integral equations and solve them by using the sinusoidal functions as test functions as well as the basis of the vibration modes. Due to the orthogonality of the sinusoidal functions, expansion coefficients in closed form can be found. Therefore, the proposed iterative schemes, with the help of the Rayleigh quotient and boundary functions, can quickly find the eigenvalues and free vibration modes. The obtained natural frequencies agree well with those obtained using the finite element method. In addition, the proposed method can be extended easily to laminated composite beams in more general cases or complex components and geometries in vibration engineering. The effects of different material properties of the upper and lower components and varying interface geometry function on the frequency of the composite beams are examined. According to our investigation, the natural frequency of a laminated beam with a continuous or periodically varying interface can be changed by altering the density or elastic modulus. We also show the responses of the frequencies of the components to the varying periodic interface.

  8. Designing and Implementation of Stable Sinusoidal Rough-Neural Identifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ghasem; Teshnehlab, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    A rough neuron is defined as a pair of conventional neurons that are called the upper and lower bound neurons. In this paper, the sinusoidal rough-neural networks (SR-NNs) are used to identify the discrete dynamic nonlinear systems (DDNSs) with or without noise in series-parallel configuration. In the identification of periodic nonlinear systems, sinusoidal activation functions provide more efficient neural networks than the sigmoidal activation functions. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an online learning algorithm is developed to train the SR-NNs. The asymptotically convergence of the identification error to zero and the boundedness of parameters as well as predictions are proved. SR-NNs are used to identify some DDNSs and the cement rotary kiln (CRK). CRK is a complex nonlinear system in the cement factory, which produces the cement clinker. The experiments show that the SR-NNs in the identification of nonlinear systems have better performances than multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), sinusoidal neural networks, and rough MLPs, particularly in the presence of noise.

  9. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  10. A photon pressure calibrator for the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavi, K.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Seifert, F.; Weiland, U.; Smith, J.R.; Lueck, H.; Grote, H.; Willke, B.; Danzmann, K.

    2006-01-01

    Interferometer mirror displacement induced by radiation pressure is used to demonstrate an alternative calibration method for the GEO 600 detector. The photon calibrator utilizes an amplitude modulated laser diode with up to 1.4 W output power at a wavelength of 1035 nm. The achieved accuracy of the strain amplitude calibration is dominated by the laser power calibration error, which is in the range of ±4% for the measurements presented in this Letter

  11. Softening of stressed granular packings with resonant sound waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C J Olson; Lopatina, L M; Jia, X; Johnson, P A

    2015-08-01

    We perform numerical simulations of a two-dimensional bidisperse granular packing subjected to both a static confining pressure and a sinusoidal dynamic forcing applied by a wall on one edge of the packing. We measure the response experienced by a wall on the opposite edge of the packing and obtain the resonant frequency of the packing as the static or dynamic pressures are varied. Under increasing static pressure, the resonant frequency increases, indicating a velocity increase of elastic waves propagating through the packing. In contrast, when the dynamic amplitude is increased for fixed static pressure, the resonant frequency decreases, indicating a decrease in the wave velocity. This occurs both for compressional and for shear dynamic forcing and is in agreement with experimental results. We find that the average contact number Zc at the resonant frequency decreases with increasing dynamic amplitude, indicating that the elastic softening of the packing is associated with a reduced number of grain-grain contacts through which the elastic waves can travel. We image the excitations created in the packing and show that there are localized disturbances or soft spots that become more prevalent with increasing dynamic amplitude. Our results are in agreement with experiments on glass bead packings and earth materials such as sandstone and granite and may be relevant to the decrease in elastic wave velocities that has been observed to occur near fault zones after strong earthquakes, in surficial sediments during strong ground motion, and in structures during earthquake excitation.

  12. Measurement of high-pressure shock waves in cryogenic deuterium-tritium ice layered capsule implosions on NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H F; Moody, J D; Celliers, P M; Ross, J S; Ralph, J; Le Pape, S; Berzak Hopkins, L; Parham, T; Sater, J; Mapoles, E R; Holunga, D M; Walters, C F; Haid, B J; Kozioziemski, B J; Dylla-Spears, R J; Krauter, K G; Frieders, G; Ross, G; Bowers, M W; Strozzi, D J; Yoxall, B E; Hamza, A V; Dzenitis, B; Bhandarkar, S D; Young, B; Van Wonterghem, B M; Atherton, L J; Landen, O L; Edwards, M J; Boehly, T R

    2013-08-09

    The first measurements of multiple, high-pressure shock waves in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility have been performed. The strength and relative timing of these shocks must be adjusted to very high precision in order to keep the DT fuel entropy low and compressibility high. All previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion implosions [T. R. Boehly et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195005 (2011), H. F. Robey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 215004 (2012)] have been performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas regions were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. This report presents the first experimental validation of the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique.

  13. Thermal-hydraulics of wave propagation and pressure distribution under hypothetical steam explosion conditions in the ANS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; N-Valenit, S.; Kim, S.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes salient aspects of the modeling and analysis framework for evaluation of dynamic loads, wave propagation, and pressure distributions (under hypothetical steam explosion conditions) around key structural boundaries of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor core region. A staged approach was followed, using simple thermodynamic models for bounding loads and the CTH code for evaluating realistic estimates in a staged multidimensional framework. Effects of nodalization, melt dispersal into coolant during explosion, single versus multidirectional dissipation, energy level of melt, and rate of energy deposition into coolant were studied. The importance of capturing multidimensional effects that simultaneously account for fluid-structural interactions was demonstrated. As opposed to using bounding loads from thermodynamic evaluations, it was revealed that the ANS reactor system will not be vulnerable to vertically generated missiles that threaten containment if realistic estimates of energetics are used (from CTH calculations for thermally generated steam explosions without significant aluminum ignition).

  14. X-ray absorption radiography for high pressure shock wave studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Batani, D.; Baton, S. D.; Brambrink, E.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Koenig, M.; Le Bel, E.; Maheut, Y.; Nguyen-Bui, T.; Richetta, M.; Rousseaux, C.; Ribeyre, X.; Schiavi, A.; Trela, J.

    2018-01-01

    The study of laser compressed matter, both warm dense matter (WDM) and hot dense matter (HDM), is relevant to several research areas, including materials science, astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion. X-ray absorption radiography is a unique tool to diagnose compressed WDM and HDM. The application of radiography to shock-wave studies is presented and discussed. In addition to the standard Abel inversion to recover a density map from a transmission map, a procedure has been developed to generate synthetic radiographs using density maps produced by the hydrodynamics code DUED. This procedure takes into account both source-target geometry and source size (which plays a non negligible role in the interpretation of the data), and allows to reproduce transmission data with a good degree of accuracy.

  15. Construction of the prediction model between pressure and flow rate for pulsating flows based on the Greenfield-Fry model concerning wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sejong; Jin, Jonghan; Cho, Wan-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Wave dispersion is the key feature in understanding pulsating flows in a rigid circular pipe with small diameter. The wave dispersion makes flow signals distorted in the pulsating flows by boundary conditions due to pipe surface. Detailed description of this phenomenon can make the Greenfield-Fry model more practical. This model describes the relationship between the pressure gradient and the flow rate in the rigid circular pipe. Because pressure gradient measurement requires more than two pressure transducers, it would become more practical if only one pressure transducer is needed by applying the Taylor's frozen field hypothesis. This implies that only one pressure transducer is satisfactory for predicting flow signals with the Greenfield-Fry model. By applying the frequency variant convection velocity to consider the wave dispersion, the Taylor's frozen field hypothesis can relate the pressure signals with the flow signals according to the Greenfield-Fry model. In this study, the Taylor's frozen field hypothesis is reformulated into a simpler functional form with the frequency variant convection velocity in a zero-dimensional model with the Newtonian fluid, uniform, laminar, axially and one-dimensional pulsatile flow assumption. An experiment with a blood flow simulator is exemplified to demonstrate its usefulness to predict the flow signals from the pressure signals with the Greenfield-Fry model. Moreover, the three-element Windkessel model is compared to emphasize the importance of the physical model derived from the Navier-Stokes equation, such as the Greenfield-Fry model for the pulsating flows.

  16. Arterial pulse attenuation prediction using the decaying rate of a pressure wave in a viscoelastic material model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacho, J; Rotllant, L; Molins, J J; Reyes, G; García-Granada, A A; Balcells, M; Martorell, J

    2018-04-01

    The present study examines the possibility of attenuating blood pulses by means of introducing prosthetic viscoelastic materials able to absorb energy and damp such pulses. Vascular prostheses made of polymeric materials modify the mechanical properties of blood vessels. The effect of these materials on the blood pulse propagation remains to be fully understood. Several materials for medical applications, such as medical polydimethylsiloxane or polytetrafluoroethylene, show viscoelastic behavior, modifying the original vessel stiffness and affecting the propagation of blood pulses. This study focuses on the propagation of pressure waves along a pipe with viscoelastic materials using the Maxwell and the Zener models. An expression of exponential decay has been obtained for the Maxwell material model and also for low viscous coefficient values in the Zener model. For relatively high values of the viscous term in the Zener model, the steepest part of the pulse can be damped quickly, leaving a smooth, slowly decaying wave. These mathematical models are critical to tailor those materials used in cardiovascular implants to the mechanical environment they are confronted with to repair or improve blood vessel function.

  17. Pulse-wave encephalopathy: a comparative study of the hydrodynamics of leukoaraiosis and normal-pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, G.A. [Department of Medical Imaging, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle (Australia)

    2002-09-01

    There is a strong association between the occurrence of leukoaraiosis and normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Venous compression secondary to alterations in craniospinal compliance is implicated in the pathogenesis of NPH, and venous pathology has also been implicated in leukoaraiosis. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the blood-flow and fluid-pulsatility characteristics of these conditions. I initially studied 18 subjects without pathology, with MRI flow-quantification studies of the cerebral arteries and veins, to define the range of normality. The main study involved 10 patients with idiopathic dementia but no leukoaraiosis who served as controls, 50 with idiopathic dementia with varying degrees of leukoaraiosis and 18 with NPH. I compared blood-flow volumes, vascular pulse-wave amplitudes and velocities. There was no significant difference in blood flow across the dementia patients. In patients with moderate leukoaraiosis, arterial pulsatility was 69%, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsation 104%, sagittal sinus pulsatility 48% and cortical vein pulsatility 34% higher than in demented patients without leukoaraiosis. Patients with NPH showed similar results with arterial pulsatility increased by 56% and sagittal sinus pulsatility by 70%. By contrast, the NPH patients' CSF pulse was 42% and the pulse wave delay at the sagittal sinus 50% less than in moderate leukoaraiosis. Thus, leukoaraiosis and NPH share increased arterial and sinus pulsatility. In leukoaraiosis cortical vein compliance is initially increased but in severe leukoaraiosis and NPH it is reduced. (orig.)

  18. The product of resting heart rate times blood pressure is associated with high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential associations between resting heart rate, blood pressure and the product of both, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV as a maker of arterial stiffness. METHODS: The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a general Chinese population and included participants with an age of 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. Arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV≥1400 cm/s. We measured and calculated the product of resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure (RHR-SBP and the product of resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure (RHR-MAP. RESULTS: The study included 5153 participants with a mean age of 55.1 ± 11.8 years. Mean baPWV was 1586 ± 400 cm/s. Significant (P<0.0001 linear relationships were found between higher baPWV and higher resting heart rate or higher arterial blood pressure, with the highest baPWV observed in individuals from the highest quartiles of resting heart rate and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding parameters such as age, sex, educational level, body mass index, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, blood lipids and high-sensitive C-reactive protein, smoking status and alcohol consumption, prevalence of arterial stiffness increased significantly (P<0.0001 with increasing RHR-SBP quartile (Odds Ratio (OR: 2.72;95%Confidence interval (CI:1.46,5.08 and increasing RHR-MAP (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.18,3.72. Similar results were obtained in multivariate linear regression analyses with baPWV as continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS: Higher baPWV as a marker of arterial stiffness was associated with a higher product of RHR-SBP and RHR-MAP in multivariate analysis. In addition to other vascular risk factors, higher resting heart rate in combination with higher blood pressure are risk factors for arterial stiffness.

  19. Dynamics of the Josephson multi-junction system with junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abal'osheva, I.; Lewandowski, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the inclusion of junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship in the systems composed of multiple Josephson junctions - results in the appearance of additional system phase states. Numerical simulations and stability considerations confirm that those phase states can be realized in practice. Moreover, spontaneous formation of the grain boundary junctions in high-T c superconductors with non-trivial current-phase relations due to the d-wave symmetry of the order parameter is probable. Switching between the phase states of multiple grain boundary junction systems can lead to additional 1/f noise in high-T c superconductors. (author)

  20. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of parameters affecting water hammer pressure wave behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Uspuras, E.; Vaisnoras, M.

    2006-01-01

    Pressure surges occurring in pipeline systems may be caused by fast control interference, start up and shut down processes and operation failure. They lead to water hammer upstream the closing valve and cavitational hammer downstream the valve, which may cause considerable damages to the pipeline and the support structures. Appearance of water hammer in thermal-hydraulic systems was widely studied employing different state-of-the-art thermal-hydraulic codes in many organizations. For the analysis water hammer test performed at Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) at Oberhausen was considered. This paper presents the comparison of UMSICHT test facility experiment calculations employing the best estimate system code RELAP5/Mod3.3 to measured water hammer values after fast closure of a valve. The analysis revealed that the calculated first pressure peak, which has the highest value, matches the measured value very well. The performed analysis (as well as any other analyses) as a results of each individual calculation always contains uncertainty owing to initial conditions of installations, errors of measuring systems, errors caused by nodalization of objects at modelling, code correlations, etc. In this connection, results of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the initial conditions and code-selected models are shown in the paper. (orig.)

  1. Attenuation of wave-induced groundwater pressure in shallow water. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis³aw R. Massel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A coastal aquifer has a dynamic seaward boundary at the beach face where physical and ecological processes are influenced by oceanic water level fluctuations. Many basic groundwater concepts and the role of the impact of groundwater seepage on beach ecosystems are still poorly understood. Studies are needed to improve our understanding of the relationships between surface and subsurface flow processes on beaches. This is particularly helpful in clarifying the interaction of the physical processes, biodiversity and productivity of sandy beaches, sediment transport and coastal structure stability and modern beach nourishment techniques. As the estimation of infiltration into beach sand is very difficult to carry out under real sea conditions, a control led large-scale laboratory experiment was carried out in the Large Wave Channel in Hannover (Germany as part of a project supported by the European Community (contract HPRI-CT-2001-00157. First part of the paper describes the technology applied in the experiment and reports some preliminary results.

  2. New investigations on shock-wave synthesized high-pressure phases in the system Si-Al-O-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlothauer, T.; Greif, A.; Keller, K.; Schwarz, M. R.; Kroke, E.; Heide, G.

    2012-12-01

    The shock-wave synthesis of nanostructured high-pressure phases at a gram-scale permits the analysis of spinel type nitrides with different chemical composition using methods not suitable for microgram amounts of material. Methods with a significant mass loss through the analytical process like TG-MS or FT-IR or bulk methods at the g-scale like 29Si-MAS-NMR or neutron diffraction were used. The synthesis of pure high-pressure modifications (gamma-phases) of different SiAlON-compounds using amorphous H-bearing precursors at pressures of 30-40 GPa is a necessary prerequisite for precise determinations of crystal chemical features. Etching with HF is a well-known method to purify the high-pressure nitrides (Sekine 2002). The etched parts were analyzed by neutron diffraction, TG-MS, and carrier gas hot extraction (CGHE). Volatile elements like H2 and Cl2, as well as non-stoichiometric oxygen and nitrogen, and NOx, H2O are enriched in the disordered rims. This degassing process ends at temperatures of approximately 600°C, while the spinel structure remains well preserved up to 1300°C. Under these conditions the gamma-phases stay unchanged under air, argon and vacuum. Furthermore chlorine, an important impurity of the H-bearing precursors neither influences the synthesized products nor the synthesis process itself. IR-spectroscopy of gamma-Si3(O,N)4 shows that peak shifts of octahedral lattice vibrations (≈ 680 cm-1) and both tetrahedral vibrations (ny3 and ny4) (Jeanloz 1980, Preudhomme & Tarte 1971) to higher frequencies with decreasing oxygen content occur. This effect is also visible in samples contaminated with impurities of low pressure modifications. The more complex structure of gamma-SiAlON and the simultaneously exchange of the cation- and the anion-positions prevents the appearance of this important feature. Yet to be synthesized pure gamma-SiAlON using similar H-bearing precursors is necessary to resolve its structure. Sekine, T., H. He, T. Kobayashi, K

  3. Numerical analysis of beam with sinusoidally corrugated webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Pieńko, Michał; Łagoda, GraŻyna

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents numerical tests results of the steel beam with sinusoidally corrugated web, which were performed in the Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2010. The analysis was preceded by laboratory tests including the beam's work under the influence of the four point bending as well as the study of material characteristics. Significant web's thickness and use of tools available in the software allowed to analyze the behavior of the plate girder as beam, and also to observe the occurrence of stresses in the characteristic element - the corrugated web. The stress distribution observed on the both web's surfaces was analyzed.

  4. Chaotic Dynamics of Red Blood Cells in a Sinusoidal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupire, Jules; Abkarian, Manouk; Viallat, Annie

    2010-04-01

    We show that the motion of individual red blood cells in an oscillating moderate shear flow is described by a nonlinear system of three coupled oscillators. Our experiments reveal that the cell tank treads and tumbles either in a stable way with synchronized cell inclination, membrane rotation and hydrodynamic oscillations, or in an irregular way, very sensitively to initial conditions. By adapting our model described previously, we determine the theoretical diagram for the red cell motion in a sinusoidal flow close to physiological shear stresses and flow variation frequencies and reveal large domains of chaotic motions. Finally, fitting our observations allows a characterization of cell viscosity and membrane elasticity.

  5. The Casimir force for 2d sinusoidal gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marachevsky Valery N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Casimir free energy for 2d gratings separated by a vacuum slit is expressed in terms of Rayleigh coefficients, a novel general approach valid for arbitrary 2d surface profiles of gratings is outlined. The normal Casimir force in the system of two identical Si gratings with 2d sinusoidal surface profiles separated by a vacuum slit is computed for several amplitudes of surface profiles, distance dependence of the force is studied. A comparison with results for flat boundaries is performed.

  6. Monitoring sinusoidal vibration environments with a television system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.W.; Anderson, F.O.; Lookabill, H.J.; Taylor, R.D.

    1975-02-01

    The development and prove-in work of this experiment established a technology for using television equipment to monitor hybrid microcircuits and other miniature assemblies in sinusoidal vibration environments. Production assemblies were run through sine vibration test sequences with television systems used to monitor the sequences. During the experiment different television lens systems were tried to obtain clean, sharp, highly magnified pictures of the assemblies being monitored. Successful monitoring of production assemblies during the experiment was accomplished, resulting in design changes to the assemblies and establishment of a television monitoring system.

  7. Characterization of interfacial waves and pressure drop in horizontal oil-water core-annular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sumit; Tabor, Rico F.; Singh, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Amitabh

    2017-08-01

    We study the transportation of highly viscous furnace-oil in a horizontal pipe as core-annular flow (CAF) using experiments. Pressure drop and high-speed images of the fully developed CAF are recorded for a wide range of flow rate combinations. The height profiles (with respect to the centerline of the pipe) of the upper and lower interfaces of the core are obtained using a high-speed camera and image analysis. Time series of the interface height are used to calculate the average holdup of the oil phase, speed of the interface, and the power spectra of the interface profile. We find that the ratio of the effective velocity of the annular fluid to the core velocity, α , shows a large scatter. Using the average value of this ratio (α =0.74 ) yields a good estimate of the measured holdup for the whole range of flow rate ratios, mainly due to the low sensitivity of the holdup ratio to the velocity ratio. Dimensional analysis implies that, if the thickness of the annular fluid is much smaller than the pipe radius, then, for the given range of parameters in our experiments, the non-dimensional interface shape, as well as the non-dimensional wall shear stress, can depend only on the shear Reynolds number and the velocity ratio. Our experimental data show that, for both lower and upper interfaces, the normalized power spectrum of the interface height has a strong dependence on the shear Reynolds number. Specifically, for low shear Reynolds numbers, interfacial modes with large wavelengths dominate, while, for large shear Reynolds numbers, interfacial modes with small wavelengths dominate. Normalized variance of the interface height is higher at lower shear Reynolds numbers and tends to a constant with increasing shear Reynolds number. Surprisingly, our experimental data also show that the effective wall shear stress is, to a large extent, proportional to the square of the core velocity. Using the implied scalings for the holdup ratio and wall shear stress, we can derive

  8. Sinusoidal echo-planar imaging with parallel acquisition technique for reduced acoustic noise in auditory fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, Jascha; Schmitter, Sebastian; Schad, Lothar R

    2012-09-01

    To extend the parameter restrictions of a silent echo-planar imaging (sEPI) sequence using sinusoidal readout (RO) gradients, in particular with increased spatial resolution. The sound pressure level (SPL) of the most feasible configurations is compared to conventional EPI having trapezoidal RO gradients. We enhanced the sEPI sequence by integrating a parallel acquisition technique (PAT) on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. The SPL was measured for matrix sizes of 64 × 64 and 128 × 128 pixels, without and with PAT (R = 2). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was examined for both sinusoidal and trapezoidal RO gradients. Compared to EPI PAT, the SPL could be reduced by up to 11.1 dB and 5.1 dB for matrix sizes of 64 × 64 and 128 × 128 pixels, respectively. The SNR of sinusoidal RO gradients is lower by a factor of 0.96 on average compared to trapezoidal RO gradients. The sEPI PAT sequence allows for 1) increased resolution, 2) expanded RO frequency range toward lower frequencies, which is in general beneficial for SPL, or 3) shortened TE, TR, and RO train length. At the same time, it generates lower SPL compared to conventional EPI for a wide range of RO frequencies while having the same imaging parameters. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of blood pressure and thermal responses in rats exposed to millimeter wave energy or environmental heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millenbaugh, Nancy J; Kiel, Johnathan L; Ryan, Kathy L; Blystone, Robert V; Kalns, John E; Brott, Becky J; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lawrence, William S; Soza, Laura L; Mason, Patrick A

    2006-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields at millimeter wave lengths are being developed for commercial and military use at power levels that can cause temperature increases in the skin. Previous work suggests that sustained exposure to millimeter waves causes greater heating of skin, leading to faster induction of circulatory failure than exposure to environmental heat (EH). We tested this hypothesis in three separate experiments by comparing temperature changes in skin, subcutis, and colon, and the time to reach circulatory collapse (mean arterial blood pressure, 20 mmHg) in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to the following conditions that produced similar rates of body core heating within each experiment: (1) EH at 42 degrees C, 35 GHz at 75 mW/cm, or 94 GHz at 75 mW/cm under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia; (2) EH at 43 degrees C, 35 GHz at 90 mW/cm, or 94 GHz at 90 mW/cm under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia; and (3) EH at 42 degrees C, 35 GHz at 90 mW/cm, or 94 GHz at 75 mW/cm under isoflurane anesthesia. In all three experiments, the rate and amount of temperature increase at the subcutis and skin surface differed significantly in the rank order of 94 GHz more than 35 GHz more than EH. The time to reach circulatory collapse was significantly less only for rats exposed to 94 GHz at 90 mW/cm, the group with the greatest rate of skin and subcutis heating of all groups in this study, compared with both the 35 GHz at 90 mW/cm and the EH at 43 degrees C groups. These data indicate that body core heating is the major determinant of induction of hemodynamic collapse, and the influence of heating of the skin and subcutis becomes significant only when a certain threshold rate of heating of these tissues is exceeded.

  10. Neuronal Oscillations with Non-sinusoidal Morphology Produce Spurious Phase-to-Amplitude Coupling and Directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; ter Huurne, Niels; Oostenveld, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (>40 Hz) occur non-uniformly within the phase of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC). However, the CFC patterns might be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave morphology. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer) in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM), we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8–12 Hz) phase was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20–45 Hz) amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh) values observed in the alpha-phase to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD). Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero phase-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs. Furthermore, we

  11. Neuronal oscillations with non-sinusoidal morphology produce spurious phase-to-amplitude coupling and directionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lozano-Soldevilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations support cognitive processing. Modern views suggest that neuronal oscillations do not only reflect coordinated activity in spatially distributed networks, but also that there is interaction between the oscillations at different frequencies. For example, invasive recordings in animals and humans have found that the amplitude of fast oscillations (> 40 Hz occur non-uniformly within the phase of slower oscillations, forming the so-called cross-frequency coupling (CFC. However, the CFC patterns be influenced by features in the signal that do not relate to underlying physiological interactions. For example, CFC estimates may be sensitive to spectral correlations due to non-sinusoidal properties of the alpha band wave morphology. To investigate this issue, we performed CFC analysis using experimental and synthetic data. The former consisted in a double-blind magnetoencephalography pharmacological study in which participants received either placebo, 0.5 mg or 1.5 mg of lorazepam (LZP; GABAergic enhancer in different experimental sessions. By recording oscillatory brain activity with during rest and working memory (WM, we were able to demonstrate that posterior alpha (8 – 12 Hz phase was coupled to beta-low gamma band (20 – 45 Hz amplitude envelope during all sessions. Importantly, bicoherence values around the harmonics of the alpha frequency were similar both in magnitude and topographic distribution to the cross-frequency coherence (CFCoh values observed in the alpha-phase to beta-low gamma coupling. In addition, despite the large CFCoh we found no significant cross-frequency directionality (CFD. Critically, simulations demonstrated that a sizable part of our empirical CFCoh between alpha and beta-low gamma coupling and the lack of CFD could be explained by two-three harmonics aligned in zero phase-lag produced by the physiologically characteristic alpha asymmetry in the amplitude of the peaks relative to the troughs

  12. Propiedades de transporte de una superred de grafeno tipo sinusoidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Briones-Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo usamos el método de la matriz de transferencia para estudiar el tunelamiento de los electrones de Dirac a través de superredes en grafeno. Consideramos una superred con potencial sinusoidal o polaridad invertida, para ello consideramos dos maneras de crearla, una por medio de sustratos mixtos junto con la aplicación de un campo perpendicular sobre el sustrato de Óxido de Silicio (SiO2, la otra por medio de potenciales alternados aplicados perpendicularmente sobre la sábana de grafeno. Calculamos las propiedades de transmisión, transporte y estructura electrónica, variando diferentes parámetros como ángulo de incidencia, anchos de pozos y barreras y diferente número de barreras. Se encontró (1 el importante papel que juega el efecto Klein en tales estructuras, (2 las propiedades de transmisión y transporte presentan cierta simetría respecto del origen de la energía, y (3 el carácter sinusoidal del sistema trae consigo una baja en el nivel de energía de las subbandas en el espectro de estados acotados, además las degenera y origina que la apertura-cierre de las minibandas sea en el mismo nivel de energía.

  13. Design and Optimization of Sinusoidal Formed Femur Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Zafer ŞENALP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in hip replacement surgery is the hip replacement loosening. Hip replacement loosening occurs over time after the surgery and it is related to the discretization between the bone cement and prosthesis. The underlying factors of this situation are the stress occurring in the bone cement and the shape of the prosthesis. In this study, cortical and trabecular layers of the femur, bone cement and prosthesis were modeled. The models of bone cement and prosthesis were constructed parametrically and two different sinusoidal formed prostheses were developed unlike the former prostheses shapes. Analyses were conducted for these two different sinusoidal forms by using finite element method and optimization was conducted to obtain the appropriate prosthesis stem shape and bone cement thickness by using parametric modeling in finite element analyses. For finite element analyses and optimization, Ansys Workbench software was used and analyses were conducted for 316LS stainless steel material. Finally, the optimum prosthesis stem shape and bone cement thickness was determined by using the results of the analyses in the first stage

  14. Removal of Stationary Sinusoidal Noise from Random Vibration Signals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian; Cap, Jerome S.

    2018-02-01

    In random vibration environments, sinusoidal line noise may appear in the vibration signal and can affect analysis of the resulting data. We studied two methods which remove stationary sine tones from random noise: a matrix inversion algorithm and a chirp-z transform algorithm. In addition, we developed new methods to determine the frequency of the tonal noise. The results show that both of the removal methods can eliminate sine tones in prefabricated random vibration data when the sine-to-random ratio is at least 0.25. For smaller ratios down to 0.02 only the matrix inversion technique can remove the tones, but the metrics to evaluate its effectiveness also degrade. We also found that using fast Fourier transforms best identified the tonal noise, and determined that band-pass-filtering the signals prior to the process improved sine removal. When applied to actual vibration test data, the methods were not as effective at removing harmonic tones, which we believe to be a result of mixed-phase sinusoidal noise.

  15. Time-frequency analyses of fluid–solid interaction under sinusoidal translational shear deformation of the viscoelastic rat cerebrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Lauren N.; Haslach, Henry W.

    2018-02-01

    During normal extracellular fluid (ECF) flow in the brain glymphatic system or during pathological flow induced by trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, ECF-solid matter interactions result from sinusoidal shear waves in the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both heterogeneous biological tissues with high fluid content. The flow in the glymphatic system is known to be forced by pulsations of the cranial arteries at about 1 Hz. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat cerebrum and bovine aortic tissue. Time-frequency analyses aim to correlate the shear stress signal frequency components over time with the behavior of brain tissue constituents to identify the physical source of the shear nonlinear viscoelastic response. Discrete fast Fourier transformation analysis and the novel application to the shear stress signal of harmonic wavelet decomposition both show significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component in brain tissue, whose magnitude is much larger than in aortic tissue, may result from interstitial fluid induced drag forces. The harmonic wavelet decomposition locates 3 Hz harmonics whose magnitudes decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of bond breaking that results in easier fluid movement. Both tissues exhibit transient shear stress softening similar to the Mullins effect in rubber. The form of a new mathematical model for the drag force produced by ECF-solid matter interactions captures the third harmonic seen experimentally.

  16. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  17. Degenerate pressure driven self-gravito-acoustic solitary waves in a self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    A general (but realistic) self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma system (SG-DQPS) containing inertialess degenerate electron species, inertial degenerate light, and heavy ion/nucleus species is considered to examine the possibility for the existence of degenerate pressure driven self-gravito-acoustic (DPD-SGA) solitary waves (SWs) formed in such a SG-DQPS. The pseudo-potential approach, which is valid for the arbitrary amplitude DPD-SGA SWs, is employed. It is found that depending on the value of the number density of heavy ion/nucleus species, the SG-DQPS under consideration supports the existence of positive or the coexistence of positive and negative DPD-SGA SWs. The basic features (polarity, amplitude, and width) of both positive and negative DPD-SGA SWs are found to be significantly modified by the dynamics of heavy ion/nucleus species. The theoretical investigation presented here is so general that it can be applied not only in astrophysical SG-DQPSs (such as white dwarf and neutron star SG-DQPSs), but also in laboratory SG-DQPSs (viz., solid density and laser-produced SG-DQPSs) to identify the salient features of the DPD-SGA SWs formed in them.

  18. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Peñaloza-López

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD. Methods We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Results Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Conclusion Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD.

  19. Current and Voltage Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CBTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sagbas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current-mode (CM and voltage-mode (VM multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO structures using current backward transconductance amplifier (CBTA are proposed. The proposed oscillators can generate n current or voltage signals (n being even or odd equally spaced in phase. n+1 CBTAs, n grounded capacitors and a grounded resistor are used for nth-state oscillator. The oscillation frequency can be independently controlled through transconductance (gm of the CBTAs which are adjustable via their bias currents. The effects caused by the non-ideality of the CBTA on the oscillation frequency and condition have been analyzed. The performance of the proposed circuits is demonstrated on third-stage and fifth-stage MSOs by using PSPICE simulations based on the 0.25 µm TSMC level-7 CMOS technology parameters.

  20. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-López, Yolanda; Herrera-Rangel, Aline; Pérez-Ruiz, Santiago J; Poblano, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA) and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD). We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD.

  1. New Realizations of Single OTRA-Based Sinusoidal Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chun Chien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes three new sinusoidal oscillators based on an operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA. Each of the proposed oscillator circuits consists of one OTRA combined with a few passive components. The first circuit is an OTRA-based minimum RC oscillator. The second circuit is capable of providing independent control on the condition of oscillation without affecting the oscillation frequency. The third circuit exhibits independent control of oscillation frequency through a capacitor. This study first introduces the OTRA and the related formulations of the proposed oscillator circuits, and then discusses the nonideal effects, sensitivity analyses, and frequency stability of the presented circuits. The proposed oscillators exhibit low sensitivities and good frequency stability. Because the presented circuits feature low impedance output, they can be connected directly to the next stage without cascading additional voltage buffers. HSPICE simulations and experimental results confirm the feasibility of the new oscillator circuits.

  2. Ageing monitoring in IGBT module under sinusoidal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Rannestad, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    until failure. The characterization at different stages of lifetime indicates that the rise in resistance originates from thermo-mechanical degradation of interconnects. Post-test investigations: four-point probing and micro-sectioning indicate thermo-mechanical induced degradation of the chip topside...... different ways: calibration of power modules after 24 h of operation, offline characterization every 5 min of operation, and continuous measurement during normal converter operation. Four power modules are tested, which are cycled to different degradation levels by number of cycles, where one is tested......This paper presents monitoring of ageing in high power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules subjected to sinusoidal loading at nominal power level. On-state voltage for IGBT, diode, and rise in interconnection resistance are used as ageing parameters. These are measured in three...

  3. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Schwen

    Full Text Available The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale.

  4. Effect of back-pressure forcing on shock train structures in rectangular channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnani, F.; Zare-Behtash, H.; White, C.; Kontis, K.

    2018-04-01

    The deceleration of a supersonic flow to the subsonic regime inside a high-speed engine occurs through a series of shock waves, known as a shock train. The generation of such a flow structure is due to the interaction between the shock waves and the boundary layer inside a long and narrow duct. The understanding of the physics governing the shock train is vital for the improvement of the design of high-speed engines and the development of flow control strategies. The present paper analyses the sensitivity of the shock train configuration to a back-pressure variation. The complex characteristics of the shock train at an inflow Mach number M = 2 in a channel of constant height are investigated with two-dimensional RANS equations closed by the Wilcox k-ω turbulence model. Under a sinusoidal back-pressure variation, the simulated results indicate that the shock train executes a motion around its mean position that deviates from a perfect sinusoidal profile with variation in oscillation amplitude, frequency, and whether the pressure is first increased or decreased.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Pressure Distribution in the Reactor Vessel Downcomer Region Fluctuated by the Reactor Coolant Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Dong Hwa; Jung, Byung Ryul; Jang, Ho Cheol; Yune, Seok Jeong; Kim, Eun Kee [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study the numerical simulation of the pressure distribution in the downcomer region resulting from the pressure pulsation by the Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) is performed using the Finite Difference Method (FDM). Simulation is carried out for the cylindrical shaped 2-dimensional model equivalent to the outer surface of the Core Support Barrel (CSB) of APR1400 and a 1/2 model is adopted based on the bilateral symmetry by the inlet nozzle. The fluid temperature is 555 .deg. F and the forcing frequencies are 120Hz, 240Hz, 360Hz and 480Hz. Simulation results of the axial pressure distributions are provided as the Root Mean Square (RMS) values at the five locations of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135° and 180° in the circumferential direction from the inlet nozzle location. In the study, the numerical simulation of pressure distributions in the downcomer region induced by the RCP was performed using FDM and the results were reviewed. The interference of the waves returned from both boundaries in the axial direction and the source of the sinusoidal wave is shown on the inlet nozzle interface pressure point. It seems that the maximum pressures result from the superposition of the waves reflected from the seating surface and the waves newly arrived from the inlet nozzle interface pressure location.

  6. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  7. Preparative engineering on the Tomari Nuclear Power Station Unit 3. In-site measurement on wave pressure working to new type bank protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoriaki; Hoshi, Hideki; Amano, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    The Tomari Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 is planned to construct it at sea-side area adjacent to southern-east portion of Unit 1 and 2, and has been carried out its preparative engineerings such as bank protection with about 670 m in length, its development, and so on, corresponding to it. Among them, as type of landfill for protection of important construction at its background the Amahata covered-block type bank protection developed by a series of hydrologic tests was adopted. This engineering was begun on March, 2001, and most of establishment on the landfill bank protection was finished on June, 2003. Then, an in-situ measurement aiming to obtain actual testing data and so on of wave pressure at this type of bank protection, was planned, to carry out its measurement at winter (October, 2002 to February, 2003) showing the highest wave at this sea area. Here were reported on relationship between incident wave and wave pressure feature working at new type bank protection together with describing on outlines of the in-situ measurement. (G.K.)

  8. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow and heat transfer though sinusoidal ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroshan, Hamid

    2018-02-01

    Turbulent forced convection heat transfer in corrugated plate surfaces was studied by means of CFD. Flow through corrugated plates, which are sets of sinusoidal ducts, was analyzed for different inlet flow angles (0° to 50°), aspect ratios (0.1 to 10), Reynolds numbers (2000 to 40,000) and Prantdel numbers (0.7 to 5). Heat transfer is affected significantly by variation of aspect ratio. A maximum heat transfer coefficient is observed at a particular aspect ratio although the aspect ratio has a minor effect on friction factor. Enlarging inlet flow angle also leads to a higher heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss in aspect ratios close to unity. Dependency of Nusselt and friction factor on the angle and aspect ratio was interpreted by means of appearance of secondary motions and coexistence of laminar and turbulent flow in a cross section. Comparing the results with experimental data shows a maximum 12.8% difference. By evaluating the results, some correlations were proposed to calculate Nusselt number and friction factor for entrance and fully developed regions. A corrugated plate with an aspect ratio equal to 1.125 and an inlet flow angle equal to 50° gives the best heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics.

  9. Energy Extraction from a Slider-Crank Wave Energy under Irregular Wave Conditions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Yuanrui; Karayaka, H. Bora; Yan, Yanjun; Zhang, James Z.; Muljadi, Eduard; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2015-08-24

    A slider-crank wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel energy conversion device. It converts wave energy into electricity at a relatively high efficiency, and it features a simple structure. Past analysis on this particular WEC has been done under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, and suboptimal energy could be achieved. This paper presents the analysis of the system under irregular wave conditions; a time-domain hydrodynamics model is adopted and a rule-based control methodology is introduced to better serve the irregular wave conditions. Results from the simulations show that the performance of the system under irregular wave conditions is different from that under regular sinusoidal wave conditions, but a reasonable amount of energy can still be extracted.

  10. Sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators using modern electronic circuit building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, V K; Sharma, R K

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a single-source reference to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as a variety of modern electronic circuit building blocks. It provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators and includes a catalogue of over 600 configurations of oscillators and waveform generators, describing their relevant design details and salient performance features/limitations. The authors discuss a number of interesting, open research problems and include a comprehensive collection of over 1500 references on oscillators and non-sinusoidal waveform generators/relaxation oscillators. Offers readers a single-source reference to everything connected to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as modern electronic circuit building blocks; Provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators; Includes a catalog of over 600 configurations of oscillato...

  11. Cylindrical sound wave generated by shock-vortex interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribner, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    The passage of a columnar vortex broadside through a shock is investigated. This has been suggested as a crude, but deterministic, model of the generation of 'shock noise' by the turbulence in supersonic jets. The vortex is decomposed by Fourier transform into plane sinusoidal shear waves disposed with radial symmetry. The plane sound waves produced by each shear wave/shock interaction are recombined in the Fourier integral. The waves possess an envelope that is essentially a growing cylindrical sound wave centered at the transmitted vortex. The pressure jump across the nominal radius R = ct attenuates with time as 1/(square root of R) and varies around the arc in an antisymmetric fashion resembling a quadrupole field. Very good agreement, except near the shock, is found with the antisymmetric component of reported interferometric measurements in a shock tube. Beyond the front r approximately equals R is a precursor of opposite sign, that decays like 1/R, generated by the 1/r potential flow around the vortex core. The present work is essentially an extension and update of an early approximate study at M = 1.25. It covers the range (R/core radius) = 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 for M = 1.25 and (in part) for M = 1.29 and, for fixed (R/core radius) = 1000, the range M = 1.01 to infinity.

  12. Cracked rocks with positive and negative Poisson's ratio: real-crack properties extracted from pressure dependence of elastic-wave velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Radostin, Andrey V.; Dyskin, Arcady V.; Pasternak, Elena

    2017-04-01

    We report results of analysis of literature data on P- and S-wave velocities of rocks subjected to variable hydrostatic pressure. Out of about 90 examined samples, in more than 40% of the samples the reconstructed Poisson's ratios are negative for lowest confining pressure with gradual transition to the conventional positive values at higher pressure. The portion of rocks exhibiting negative Poisson's ratio appeared to be unexpectedly high. To understand the mechanism of negative Poisson's ratio, pressure dependences of P- and S-wave velocities were analyzed using the effective medium model in which the reduction in the elastic moduli due to cracks is described in terms of compliances with respect to shear and normal loading that are imparted to the rock by the presence of cracks. This is in contrast to widely used descriptions of effective cracked medium based on a specific crack model (e.g., penny-shape crack) in which the ratio between normal and shear compliances of such a crack is strictly predetermined. The analysis of pressure-dependences of the elastic wave velocities makes it possible to reveal the ratio between pure normal and shear compliances (called q-ratio below) for real defects and quantify their integral content in the rock. The examination performed demonstrates that a significant portion (over 50%) of cracks exhibit q-ratio several times higher than that assumed for the conventional penny-shape cracks. This leads to faster reduction of the Poisson's ratio with increasing the crack concentration. Samples with negative Poisson's ratio are characterized by elevated q-ratio and simultaneously crack concentration. Our results clearly indicate that the traditional crack model is not adequate for a significant portion of rocks and that the interaction between the opposite crack faces leading to domination of the normal compliance and reduced shear displacement discontinuity can play an important role in the mechanical behavior of rocks.

  13. Optimization of the sinusoidal phase modulation technique in resonant fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linglan; Li, Hanzhao; Zhang, Jianjie; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe

    2017-03-01

    The sinusoidal wave phase modulation and demodulation have been widely used in the signal processing system of the resonant fiber optic gyro (RFOG). An appropriate selection of the modulation frequency is of great importance, for the frequency value directly affects the slope of the demodulation curve at the resonance point which carries the gyro output information. A large demodulation slope is pursued in a high-performance RFOG. In this paper, an analytical expression of the demodulation slope is for the first time deduced in both transmission-type and reflection-type fiber ring resonators without any approximation. The relationship between the slope value and the modulation frequency at the resonance point is accurately calculated. The calculated best modulation frequency maximizing the demodulation slope at the resonance point is different from previous widely used optimal frequency given by the Lorentzian approximation method. More importantly, both theoretical and experimental results indicate that the achieved maximal demodulation slope from the proposed analytical expression method is double of that obtaining from the Lorentzian approximation method.

  14. Orbital component extraction by time-variant sinusoidal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Zivanovic, Miroslav; De Vleeschouwer, David; Claeys, Philippe; Schoukens, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Accurately deciphering periodic variations in paleoclimate proxy signals is essential for cyclostratigraphy. Classical spectral analysis often relies on methods based on the (Fast) Fourier Transformation. This technique has no unique solution separating variations in amplitude and frequency. This characteristic makes it difficult to correctly interpret a proxy's power spectrum or to accurately evaluate simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency in evolutionary analyses. Here, we circumvent this drawback by using a polynomial approach to estimate instantaneous amplitude and frequency in orbital components. This approach has been proven useful to characterize audio signals (music and speech), which are non-stationary in nature (Zivanovic and Schoukens, 2010, 2012). Paleoclimate proxy signals and audio signals have in nature similar dynamics; the only difference is the frequency relationship between the different components. A harmonic frequency relationship exists in audio signals, whereas this relation is non-harmonic in paleoclimate signals. However, the latter difference is irrelevant for the problem at hand. Using a sliding window approach, the model captures time variations of an orbital component by modulating a stationary sinusoid centered at its mean frequency, with a single polynomial. Hence, the parameters that determine the model are the mean frequency of the orbital component and the polynomial coefficients. The first parameter depends on geologic interpretation, whereas the latter are estimated by means of linear least-squares. As an output, the model provides the orbital component waveform, either in the depth or time domain. Furthermore, it allows for a unique decomposition of the signal into its instantaneous amplitude and frequency. Frequency modulation patterns can be used to reconstruct changes in accumulation rate, whereas amplitude modulation can be used to reconstruct e.g. eccentricity-modulated precession. The time-variant sinusoidal model

  15. Perception of the dynamic visual vertical during sinusoidal linear motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomante, A; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system provides information for spatial orientation. However, this information is ambiguous: because the otoliths sense the gravitoinertial force, they cannot distinguish gravitational and inertial components. As a consequence, prolonged linear acceleration of the head can be interpreted as tilt, referred to as the somatogravic effect. Previous modeling work suggests that the brain disambiguates the otolith signal according to the rules of Bayesian inference, combining noisy canal cues with the a priori assumption that prolonged linear accelerations are unlikely. Within this modeling framework the noise of the vestibular signals affects the dynamic characteristics of the tilt percept during linear whole-body motion. To test this prediction, we devised a novel paradigm to psychometrically characterize the dynamic visual vertical-as a proxy for the tilt percept-during passive sinusoidal linear motion along the interaural axis (0.33 Hz motion frequency, 1.75 m/s 2 peak acceleration, 80 cm displacement). While subjects ( n =10) kept fixation on a central body-fixed light, a line was briefly flashed (5 ms) at different phases of the motion, the orientation of which had to be judged relative to gravity. Consistent with the model's prediction, subjects showed a phase-dependent modulation of the dynamic visual vertical, with a subject-specific phase shift with respect to the imposed acceleration signal. The magnitude of this modulation was smaller than predicted, suggesting a contribution of nonvestibular signals to the dynamic visual vertical. Despite their dampening effect, our findings may point to a link between the noise components in the vestibular system and the characteristics of dynamic visual vertical. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A fundamental question in neuroscience is how the brain processes vestibular signals to infer the orientation of the body and objects in space. We show that, under sinusoidal linear motion, systematic error patterns appear in the

  16. Numerical investigation of magnetic field effect on mixed convection heat transfer of nanofluid in a channel with sinusoidal walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, M.M.; Nasiri, Mohammad; Khezerloo, Marzieh; Laraqi, Najib

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mixed convection heat transfer of nano-fluid flow in vertical channel with sinusoidal walls under magnetic field effect is investigated numerically. The heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics have been examined. This study has performed for 500≤Re≤1000, 5×104≤Gr≤1×106 , three amplitude sine wave (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and three values of Hartman numbers (0, 5 and 10). Water was utilized as the base fluid and Al2O3 is the considered nano-particle. Flow is assumed two dimensional, laminar, steady and incompressible. As well the thermo-physical properties of nano-fluid are considered constant. The Boussinesq approximation used for calculated the density variations. The average Nusslet number increases by increasing the Grashof number for nano-fluids with different volume fraction. The average Nusselt and Poiseuille number increase as Reynolds number increases. Also, the average Nusselt number and Poiseuille number increases by increasing the Hartman number. - Highlights: • Mixed convection of nanofluid flow in a sinusoidal vertical channel is studied. • MHD effects on heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics are investigated. • The Nusselt number increases by adding the nanoparticles to the base fluid. • With applying a magnetic field, the velocity profile will be more uniform. • The Nusselt number increases by increasing the Hartman number.

  17. Numerical investigation of magnetic field effect on mixed convection heat transfer of nanofluid in a channel with sinusoidal walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, M.M., E-mail: mm_rashidi@sawtc.com [Shanghai Key Lab of Vehicle Aerodynamics and Vehicle Thermal Management Systems, Shanghai (China); ENN-Tongji Clean Energy Institute of Advanced Studies, Shanghai (China); Nasiri, Mohammad, E-mail: m.nasiri1989@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khezerloo, Marzieh, E-mail: m.khezerloo91@ms.tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laraqi, Najib, E-mail: najib.laraqi@u-paris10.fr [Universite Paris 10, LTIE, EA 4415, GTE, 50 Rue de Sevres, F92410 Ville d' Avray (France)

    2016-03-01

    In this study, mixed convection heat transfer of nano-fluid flow in vertical channel with sinusoidal walls under magnetic field effect is investigated numerically. The heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics have been examined. This study has performed for 500≤Re≤1000, 5×104≤Gr≤1×106 , three amplitude sine wave (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and three values of Hartman numbers (0, 5 and 10). Water was utilized as the base fluid and Al2O3 is the considered nano-particle. Flow is assumed two dimensional, laminar, steady and incompressible. As well the thermo-physical properties of nano-fluid are considered constant. The Boussinesq approximation used for calculated the density variations. The average Nusslet number increases by increasing the Grashof number for nano-fluids with different volume fraction. The average Nusselt and Poiseuille number increase as Reynolds number increases. Also, the average Nusselt number and Poiseuille number increases by increasing the Hartman number. - Highlights: • Mixed convection of nanofluid flow in a sinusoidal vertical channel is studied. • MHD effects on heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics are investigated. • The Nusselt number increases by adding the nanoparticles to the base fluid. • With applying a magnetic field, the velocity profile will be more uniform. • The Nusselt number increases by increasing the Hartman number.

  18. Four-Wire Delta Service Sinusoidal Operation and Compensation Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente León-Martínez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An off-line simulator based on Excel used to evaluate the operation of four-wire delta (4WD services as well as the effects of reactive and imbalance compensators in sinusoidal steady-state conditions is described in this paper. Voltages, currents and powers in the primary and secondary windings of the transformer as well as in the high voltage (HV and low voltage (LV lines and in the loads are calculated through that simulator. The apparent powers in the mains, transformer and loads are determined applying Buchholz’s and unified power measurement (UPM formulations in both scalar and vector notations. The effects of the neutral current are especially examined, in order to minimize them, and the optimal wye load distribution is determined by the simulator. The simulator provides the necessary elements of passive reactive and unbalanced compensators that optimize the 4WD transformer operation too. Those compensators are determined for each load, and they can be separately selected and included in the simulation process or not. An application example is finally used to step by step explain how the simulator runs.

  19. Magnetic field components in a sinusoidally varying helical wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspi, S.

    1994-07-27

    One may be interested in a pure multipole magnetic field (i.e., proportional to sin(n{theta}) or cos(n{theta}) whose strength varies purely as a Fourier sinusoidal series of the longitudinal coordinate z (say proportional to cos{sub L}/{sup (2m-1){pi}z}), where L denotes the half-period of the wiggler and m=1,2,3{hor_ellipsis}). Associated with such a z variation, there necessarily will be presented a z component of magnetic field which in the source-free region, in fact, will give rise to both normal and skew transverse fields associated with the functions A{sub n}(z) and {Angstrom}{sub n}(z) as expressed in Reference{sup bc}. In this note the field components and expression for the scalar potential both inside and outside a thin pure winding surface are included with additional contributions from a possible high permeable shield. It is also shown that for a pure dipole case of n=1 and pure axial variation of m=1 the transverse field can be derived from a simple two dimensional field.

  20. Response of rat skin flaps to sinusoidal electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, E.

    1987-01-01

    Electrical stimulation to heal bone fractures has been used clinically since the early 1970s. As a result of treatment with either direct current or electromagnetic fields, there was an indication that the electrical signals enhanced the ingrowth of blood vessels into the treated area. This possibility was one of the reasons for the initial studies on the influence of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on healing of skin flaps. These investigations reported a decrease in the amount of necrosis of a skin flap after PEMF treatment. The skin flap model was chosen in these studies, as it is generally accepted for the investigation of the influence of different treatments on wound healing. The skin flap is a partially detached portion of the skin which retains part of its blood supply. However, if the flap is too long for its width, part of it will die after the transfer. Flap necrosis, therefore, represents a difficult clinical problem, especially in classes where a large area has to be covered. In the present study the authors address whether enhanced skin flap survival after treatment with PEMF is signal specific, that is , whether one could obtain similar results using various sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs). Specifically, they investigated the influence on skin flap survival of SEMFs with different frequencies but the same maximum of dB/dt

  1. Sinusoidal magnetic fields and chawki (silkworm) rearing in sericulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, S M H; Dhahira Beevi, N; Mani, A; Leelapriya, T; Dhilip, K S; Sanker Narayan, P V

    2006-01-01

    Effects of sinusoidal magnetic fields on chawki silkworm rearing have been studied. The experiment was conducted using a multi X Bi silkworm hybrid, PM x CSR 2. Disease-free layings were reared from hatching to cocooning and by subjecting first and second instar to three magnetic field frequencies: 0.1, 1.0, and 10 Hz at 1500 nT, pp, for six days at six hours per day. Controls were maintained simultaneously. Larval durations for both young-stage chawki (I and II) and late stage (III, IV, V) were calculated in days and hours, including the feeding and moulting periods for I to IV instars, and the feeding period for V instar up to the time of spinning. The study revealed that the magnetic exposures reduced both feeding and moulting times with no adverse effects on larval growth. The substantial reductions in time, 33 hours in instars I and II, and 64 hours in total larval duration, could be commercially important in chawki rearing, saving time, leaf consumption, and labor expenses.

  2. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  3. Measured temperature and pressure dependence of compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave speeds in compacted, polycrystalline ice lh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgerud, M.B.; Waite, W.F.; Kirby, S.H.; Nur, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on laboratory measurements of compressional- and shear-wave speeds in a compacted, polycrystalline ice-Ih sample. The sample was made from triply distilled water that had been frozen into single crystal ice, ground into small grains, and sieved to extract the 180–250 µm diameter fraction. Porosity was eliminated from the sample by compacting the granular ice between a hydraulically driven piston and a fixed end plug, both containing shear-wave transducers. Based on simultaneous compressional- and shear-wave-speed measurements, we calculated Poisson's ratio and compressional-wave, bulk, and shear moduli from –20 to –5°C and 22 to 33 MPa.

  4. Three dimensional dynamic study of a metal halide thallium iodine discharge plasma powered by a sinusoidal and square signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechir Ben Hamida, Mohamed; Charrada, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic of a metal halide thallium iodine discharge lamp fed by a sinusoidal and square power supply. For this, a chemical model under Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium conditions has been developed to compute the plasma composition and transport coefficients such as thermal conductivity, viscosity and electric conductivity. This is then coupled with a three-dimensional time-dependent code that solves the system of the mass, energy and momentum equations, as well as the Laplace equation for the plasma using Comsol Multiphysics with Matlab. After validation with the experimental results, this model was applied to analyze the influence of the key parameters on the discharge behavior such as frequency for an AC arc current and the atomic ratio for square arc-current wave form on the convective process.

  5. Love waves in a structure with an inhomogeneous layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.B.; Piliposyan, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the propagation of Love type waves in a structure consisting of a finite inhomogeneous layer sandwiched between two isotropic homogeneous half spaces is investigated. Two types of inhomogeneity are considered. It is shown that in one case the amplitude of vibrations in the middle layer is a sinusoidal function of distance from the plane of symmetry, but that in the other case it may be non-sinusoidal for certain values of the parameters of the problem

  6. Computationally Efficient Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Audio Coding using Frequency-Domain Linear Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2006-01-01

    A method for amplitude modulated sinusoidal audio coding is presented that has low complexity and low delay. This is based on a subband processing system, where, in each subband, the signal is modeled as an amplitude modulated sum of sinusoids. The envelopes are estimated using frequency......-domain linear prediction and the prediction coefficients are quantized. As a proof of concept, we evaluate different configurations in a subjective listening test, and this shows that the proposed method offers significant improvements in sinusoidal coding. Furthermore, the properties of the frequency...

  7. High resolution DAS via sinusoidal frequency scan OFDR (SFS-OFDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Eyal; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-12-28

    There are many advantages to using direct frequency modulation for OFDR based DAS. However, achieving sufficiently linear scan via direct frequency modulation is challenging and poses limits on the scan parameters. A novel method for analyzing sinusoidal frequency modulated light is presented and demonstrated for both static and dynamic sensing. SFS-OFDR projects the measured signal onto appropriate sinusoidal phase terms to obtain spatial information. Thus, by using SFS-OFDR on sinusoidal modulated light it is possible to make use of the many advantages offered by direct frequency modulation without the limitations posed by the linearity requirement.

  8. Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Wang, S. Q.; Fu, J.; Peng, Y. X.

    2013-02-01

    So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.

  9. Unsteady flow damping force prediction of MR dampers subjected to sinusoidal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M; Fu, J; Wang, S Q; Peng, Y X

    2013-01-01

    So far quasi-steady models are usually used to design magnetorheological (MR) dampers, but these models are not sufficient to describe the MR damper behavior under unsteady dynamic loading, for fluid inertia is neglected in quasi-steady models, which will bring more error between computer simulation and experimental results. Under unsteady flow model, the fluid inertia terms will bring error calculated upto 10%, so it is necessary to be considered in the governing equation. In this paper, force-stroke behavior of MR damper with flow mode due to sinusoidal loading excitation is mainly investigated, to simplify the analysis, the one-dimensional axisymmetric annular duct geometry of MR dampers is approximated as a rectangular duct. The rectangular duct can be divided into 3 regions for the velocity profile of the incompressible MR fluid flow, in each region, a partial differential equation is composed of by Navier-Stokes equations, boundary conditions and initial conditions to determine the velocity solution. In addition, in this work, not only Bingham plastic model but the Herschel—Bulkley model is adopted to analyze the MR damper performance. The damping force resulting from the pressure drop of unsteady MR dampers can be obtained and used to design or size MR dampers. Compared with the quasi-steady flow damping force, the damping force of unsteady MR dampers is more close to practice, particularly for the high-speed unsteady movement of MR dampers.

  10. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Pflugradt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG. Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depends on careful fiducial point extraction and is therefore seriously affected during periods of increased occurring extrasystoles. In the scope of this work, a novel ectopic beat discriminator with low computational complexity has been developed, which takes advantage of multimodal features derived from ECG and pulse wave relating measurements, thereby providing additional information on the underlying cardiac activity. Moreover, the blood pressure estimations’ vulnerability towards ectopic beats is closely examined on records drawn from the Physionet database as well as signals recorded in a small field study conducted in a geriatric facility for the elderly. It turns out that a reliable extrasystole identification is essential to unsupervised blood pressure estimation, having a significant impact on the overall accuracy. The proposed method further convinces by its applicability to battery driven hardware systems with limited processing power and is a favorable choice when access to multimodal signal features is given anyway.

  11. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugradt, Maik; Geissdoerfer, Kai; Goernig, Matthias; Orglmeister, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depends on careful fiducial point extraction and is therefore seriously affected during periods of increased occurring extrasystoles. In the scope of this work, a novel ectopic beat discriminator with low computational complexity has been developed, which takes advantage of multimodal features derived from ECG and pulse wave relating measurements, thereby providing additional information on the underlying cardiac activity. Moreover, the blood pressure estimations’ vulnerability towards ectopic beats is closely examined on records drawn from the Physionet database as well as signals recorded in a small field study conducted in a geriatric facility for the elderly. It turns out that a reliable extrasystole identification is essential to unsupervised blood pressure estimation, having a significant impact on the overall accuracy. The proposed method further convinces by its applicability to battery driven hardware systems with limited processing power and is a favorable choice when access to multimodal signal features is given anyway. PMID:28098831

  12. Quantification of the Effect of Pressure Wire Drift on the Diagnostic Performance of Fractional Flow Reserve, Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio, and Whole-Cycle Pd/Pa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christopher M; Ahmad, Yousif; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Petraco, Ricardo; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P; Sen, Sayan; Davies, Justin E

    2016-04-01

    Small drifts in intracoronary pressure measurements (±2 mm Hg) can affect stenosis categorization using pressure indices. This has not previously been assessed for fractional flow reserve (FFR), instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR), and whole-cycle distal pressure/proximal pressure (Pd/Pa) indices. Four hundred forty-seven stenoses were assessed with FFR, iFR, and whole-cycle Pd/Pa. Cut point values for significance were predefined as ≤0.8, Pa indices were recalculated and stenosis misclassification quantified. Median (±median absolute deviation) values for FFR, iFR, and whole-cycle Pd/Pa were 0.81 (±0.11), 0.90 (±0.07), and 0.93 (±0.06), respectively. For the cut point of FFR, iFR, and whole-cycle Pd/Pa, 34.6% (155), 50.1% (224), and 62.2% (278) of values, respectively, lay within ±0.05 U. With ±2 mm Hg pressure wire drift, 21% (94), 25% (110), and 33% (148) of the study population were misclassified with FFR, iFR, and whole-cycle Pd/Pa, respectively. Both FFR and iFR had significantly lower misclassification than whole-cycle Pd/Pa (PPa is more vulnerable to such reclassification than FFR and iFR. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Dimensional reduction by pressure in the magnetic framework material CuF2(D2O)2 (pyz): From spin-wave to spinon excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulatos, M.; Mânsson, M.; Fiolka, C.; Krämer, K. W.; Schefer, J.; White, J. S.; Rüegg, Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Metal organic magnets have enormous potential to host a variety of electronic and magnetic phases that originate from a strong interplay between the spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. We control this interplay in the quantum magnet CuF2(D2O )2(pyz ) by using high pressure to drive the system through structural and magnetic phase transitions. Using neutron scattering, we show that the low pressure state, which hosts a two-dimensional square lattice with spin-wave excitations and a dominant exchange coupling of 0.89 meV, transforms at high pressure into a one-dimensional spin chain hallmarked by a spinon continuum and a reduced exchange interaction of 0.43 meV. This direct microscopic observation of a magnetic dimensional crossover as a function of pressure opens up new possibilities for studying the evolution of fractionalised excitations in low-dimensional quantum magnets and eventually pressure-controlled metal-insulator transitions.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of ejecta production from sinusoidal tin surfaces under supported and unsupported shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bao; Wu, FengChao; Zhu, YinBo; Wang, Pei; He, AnMin; Wu, HengAn

    2018-04-01

    Micro-ejecta, an instability growth process, occurs at metal/vacuum or metal/gas interface when compressed shock wave releases from the free surface that contains surface defects. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the ejecta production from tin surface shocked by supported and unsupported waves with pressures ranging from 8.5 to 60.8 GPa. It is found that the loading waveforms have little effect on spike velocity while remarkably affect the bubble velocity. The bubble velocity of unsupported shock loading remains nonzero constant value at late time as observed in experiments. Besides, the time evolution of ejected mass in the simulations is compared with the recently developed ejecta source model, indicating the suppressed ejection of unmelted or partial melted materials. Moreover, different reference positions are chosen to characterize the amount of ejecta under different loading waveforms. Compared with supported shock case, the ejected mass of unsupported shock case saturates at lower pressure. Through the analysis on unloading path, we find that the temperature of tin sample increases quickly from tensile stress state to zero pressure state, resulting in the melting of bulk tin under decaying shock. Thus, the unsupported wave loading exhibits a lower threshold pressure causing the solid-liquid phase transition on shock release than the supported shock loading.

  15. Effect of Chemical Pressure on the Charge Density Wave Transition in Rare-Earth Tritellurides RTe3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, N.; Condron, C.L.; Margulis, G.Y.; Shin, K.Y.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Toney, M.F.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL /Bristol U.

    2009-04-30

    The charge density wave transition is investigated in the bilayer family of rare-earth tritelluride RTe{sub 3} compounds (R=Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) via high-resolution x-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity. The transition temperature increases monotonically with increasing lattice parameter from 244(3) K for TmTe{sub 3} to 416(3) K for SmTe{sub 3}. The heaviest members of the series, R=Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm, are observed to have a second transition at a lower temperature, which marks the onset of an additional charge density wave with wave vector almost equal in magnitude to the first, but oriented in the perpendicular direction.

  16. AC losses in HTS coils for high-frequency and non-sinusoidal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, B. J. H.; Jansen, J. W.; Lomonova, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    AC losses in racetrack coils that are wound of YBCO tapes are measured for sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal transport currents with fundamental frequencies up to 1 kHz. An electrical method to measure losses for non-sinusoidal currents is developed for this purpose. The measured losses are compared to the losses calculated by 2D finite element models with power-law material models. The frequency and waveform-dependency of the measured losses are shown and compared to the results of the models over a wide range of frequencies and waveforms. Finally, it is shown that the finite element models can accurately predict AC losses resulting from non-sinusoidal transport currents as are present in highly dynamic motors with AC armature coils.

  17. Nonlinear Alfvén Waves in a Vlasov Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, T.F.

    1965-01-01

    Stationary solutions to the nonlinear Vlasov—Boltzmann equations are considered which represent one-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a hot magnetoplasma. These solutions appear in arbitrary reference frames as circularly polarized, sinusoidal waves of unlimited amplitude, i.e., as nonlinear A...

  18. Surf similarity and solitary wave runup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    to a previous parameterization, which was not given in an explicit form. Good coherency with experimental (breaking) runup data is preserved with this simpler parameter. A recasting of analytical (nonbreaking) runup expressions for sinusoidal and solitary waves additionally shows that they contain identical...

  19. Study of stability of a bandpass sigma delta modulator with sinusoidal input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iu, Herbert H.C. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley (Australia)]. E-mail: herbert@ee.uwa.edu.au

    2007-07-15

    Bandpass sigma delta modulators (SDMs) have applications in areas such as digital radio demodulation. Stability issues of bandpass SDMs have been widely studied. Usually, zero or step inputs are considered. In this paper, we study the stability and non-linear phenomena of a bandpass SDM with sinusoidal input. In particular, the effects of the amplitude and frequency of the sinusoidal input signal will be investigated.

  20. An optimized method for mouse liver sinusoidal endothelial cell isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Jeremy, E-mail: jeremy.meyer@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Lacotte, Stéphanie, E-mail: stephanie.lacotte@unige.ch [Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Morel, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.morel@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.gonelle@unige.ch [Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland); Bühler, Léo, E-mail: leo.buhler@hcuge.ch [Division of Digestive and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Genève 14 (Switzerland); Unit of Surgical Research, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1206 Genève (Switzerland)

    2016-12-10

    The objective of the present study was to develop an accurate and reproducible method for liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) isolation in mice. Non-parenchymal cells were isolated using a modified two-step collagenase digestion combined with Optiprep density gradient centrifugation. LSEC were further purified using two prevalent methods, short-term selective adherence and CD146+ magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), and compared in terms of cell yield, viability and purity to our purification technique using CD11b cell depletion combined with long-term selective adherence. LSEC purification using our technique allowed to obtain 7.07±3.80 million LSEC per liver, while CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence yielded 2.94±1.28 and 0.99±0.66 million LSEC, respectively. Purity of the final cell preparation reached 95.10±2.58% when using our method. In contrast, CD146+ MACS and short-term selective adherence gave purities of 86.75±3.26% and 47.95±9.82%, respectively. Similarly, contamination by non-LSEC was the lowest when purification was performed using our technique, with a proportion of contaminating macrophages of only 1.87±0.77%. Further, isolated cells analysed by scanning electron microscopy presented typical LSEC fenestrations organized in sieve plates, demonstrating that the technique allowed to isolate bona fide LSEC. In conclusion, we described a reliable and reproducible technique for the isolation of high yields of pure LSEC in mice. This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare LSEC for studying their biological functions. - Highlights: • This protocol provides an efficient method to prepare primary mouse LSEC for studying their biological functions. • The liver cell dispersion step was improved by performing a retrograde cannulation of the liver. • The cell yield and the purity obtained were higher than comparative techniques in mice. • Contaminating macrophages were removed by introducing a CD11b- magnetic

  1. Effect of pore water pressure on P-wave velocity in water-filled sands with partial air saturation; Fukanzen howa jotai no suna shiryo wo denpasuru P ha sokudo ni oyobosu kangeki suiatsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanema, T. [Chishitsu-Keisoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to elucidate change in velocity of elastic waves in association with water pressure increase in a sand bed below the groundwater level in a shallow portion of the ground, a measurement experiment was carried out on P-wave velocity in sand samples with partial air saturation. The experiment has used fine sand having an equivalent coefficient of 2.40, a soil particle density of 2.68 g/cm {sup 3} or 60%, and a grain size of 0.36 mm. Inside the water-filled sand sample, two accelerometers were embedded 20 cm apart from each other as vibration receivers. An electromagnetic hammer for P-wave was used as the vibration source. In the experiment, measurement was carried out on the P-wave velocity in association with increase in pore water pressure by applying water pressure afresh to the water-filled sample. As a result of the experiment, the following matters were disclosed: the P-wave velocity increases as the pore water pressure was increased, and a phenomenon was recognized that the dominant frequency changes into high frequency; the degree of increase in the P-wave velocity varies depending on initial saturation of the sample; and bubbles in the pore fluid have their volume decreased due to compression resulted from increased pore water pressure and dissolution of air into the pore water. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Crashworthiness Analysis and Evaluation of Fuselage Section with Sub-floor Composite Sinusoidal Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Mou

    Full Text Available Abstract Crashworthiness is one of the main concerns in civil aviation safety particularly with regard to the increasing ratio of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP in aircraft primary structures. In order to generate dates for model validations, the mechanical properties of T700/3234 were obtained by material performance tests, and energy-absorbing results were gained by quasi-static crushing tests of composite sinusoidal specimens. The correctness of composite material model and single-layer finite element model of composite sinusoidal specimens were verified based on the simulation results and test results that were in good agreement. A typical civil aircraft fuselage section with composite sinusoidal specimens under cargo floor was suggested. The crashworthiness of finite element model of fuselage section was assessed by simulating the vertical drop test subjected to 7 m/s impact velocity, and the influences of different thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens on crashworthiness of fuselage section were also analyzed. The simulation results show that the established finite element model can accurately simulate the crushing process of composite sinusoidal specimens; the failure process of fuselage section is more stable, and the safety of occupants can be effectively improved because of the smaller peak accelerations that was limited to human tolerance, a critical thickness of sub-floor composite sinusoidal specimens can restrict the magnitude of acceleration peaks, which has certain reference values for enhancing crashworthiness capabilities of fuselage section and improving the survivability of passengers.

  3. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... that at resonance a stationary state arise consisting of multiple oscillating shock waves. Off resonance driving leads to a nearly linear oscillating ground state but superimposed by bursts of a fast oscillating shock wave. Based on a travelling wave ansatz for the fluid velocity potential with an added 2'nd order...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  4. Water waves in a ripple tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Goro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Kono, Kimitoshi

    1986-11-01

    The profiles of water waves in a ripple tank were studied for various water depths. Wave forms with moderately large amplitudes varied with propagation at the depths of 0.5 and 1.0 cm due mainly to the nonlinear effects. The front faces of crests became steep, deviating appreciably from a sinusoidal form, and at 0.5-cm depth new ripples were excited in front of the steep forward face. At depths above 2 cm the waves continued to move with almost permanent sinusoidal forms. Ripple tank experiments are appropriate as laboratory work for an undergraduate course as well as for a demonstration of the nature of waves in an elementary physics course.

  5. Asymmetric Fuzzy Control of a Positive and Negative Pneumatic Pressure Servo System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Du, Jing-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yun; Li, Bao-Ren

    2017-11-01

    The pneumatic pressure control systems have been used in some fields. However, the researches on pneumatic pressure control mainly focus on constant pressure regulation. Poor dynamic characteristics and strong nonlinearity of such systems limit its application in the field of pressure tracking control. In order to meet the demand of generating dynamic pressure signal in the application of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of aerospace engineering, a positive and negative pneumatic pressure servo system is provided to implement dynamic adjustment of sealed chamber pressure. A mathematical model is established with simulation and experiment being implemented afterwards to discuss the characteristics of the system, which shows serious asymmetry in the process of charging and discharging. Based on the analysis of the system dynamics, a fuzzy proportional integral derivative (PID) controller with asymmetric fuzzy compensator is proposed. Different from conventional adjusting mechanisms employing the error and change in error of the controlled variable as input parameters, the current chamber pressure and charging or discharging state are chosen as inputs of the compensator, which improves adaptability. To verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed controller, the comparison experiments tracking sinusoidal and square wave commands are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed controller can obtain better dynamic performance and relatively consistent control performance across the scope of work (2-140 kPa). The research proposes a fuzzy control method to overcome asymmetry and enhance adaptability for the positive and negative pneumatic pressure servo system.

  6. Electronically Tunable Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Equal Output Amplitudes during Frequency Tuning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Den Satipar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new configuration of voltage-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator is proposed. The proposed oscillator employs two voltage differencing current conveyors (VDCCs, two resistors, and two grounded capacitors. In this design, the use of multiple/dual output terminal active building block is not required. The tuning of frequency of oscillation (FO can be done electronically by adjusting the bias current of active device without affecting condition of oscillation (CO. The electronic tuning can be done by controlling the bias current using a digital circuit. The amplitude of two sinusoidal outputs is equal when the frequency of oscillation is tuned. This makes the sinusoidal output voltages meet good total harmonic distortions (THD. Moreover, the proposed circuit can provide the sinusoidal output current with high impedance which is connected to external load or to another circuit without the use of buffer device. To confirm that the oscillator can generate the quadrature sinusoidal output signal, the experimental results using VDCC constructed from commercially available ICs are also included. The experimental results agree well with theoretical anticipation.

  7. Pressure waves transient occurred in the steam generators feedwater lines of the Atucha-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balino, J.L.; Carrica, P.M.; Larreteguy, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The pressure transient occurred at Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant in March 1990 is simulated. The transient was due to the fast closure of a flow control valve at the steam generators feedwater lines. The system was modelled, including the actuation of the relief valves. The minimum closure time for no actuation of the relief valves and the evolution of the velocity and piezo metric head for different cases were calculated. (author)

  8. New continuous wave infrared Ar-Xe laser at intermediate gas pressures pumped by a transverse RF discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udalov, Yu.B.; Peters, P.J.M.; Ilieva, M.B.; Heeman-Ilieva, M.B.; Ernst, F.H.J.; Ochkin, V.N.; Witteman, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    An atomic Xe laser with a transverse rf excitation has been operated in a cw mode in the intermediate pressure regime. The laser output spectrum consisted of 5 Xe lines with wavelengths of 2.03, 2.63, 2.65, 3.37, and 3.51 μm. The unoptimized total output power of 330 mW was obtained for a gas

  9. Structure and phase diagram of an adhesive colloidal dispersion under high pressure: a small angle neutron scattering, diffusing wave spectroscopy, and light scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrin, R; Kohlbrecher, J; Wilk, A; Ratajczyk, M; Lettinga, M P; Buitenhuis, J; Meier, G

    2009-04-21

    We have applied small angle neutron scattering (SANS), diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to investigate the phase diagram of a sterically stabilized colloidal system consisting of octadecyl grafted silica particles dispersed in toluene. This system is known to exhibit gas-liquid phase separation and percolation, depending on temperature T, pressure P, and concentration phi. We have determined by DLS the pressure dependence of the coexistence temperature and the spinodal temperature to be dP/dT=77 bar/K. The gel line or percolation limit was measured by DWS under high pressure using the condition that the system became nonergodic when crossing it and we determined the coexistence line at higher volume fractions from the DWS limit of turbid samples. From SANS measurements we determined the stickiness parameter tau(B)(P,T,phi) of the Baxter model, characterizing a polydisperse adhesive hard sphere, using a global fit routine on all curves in the homogenous regime at various temperatures, pressures, and concentrations. The phase coexistence and percolation line as predicted from tau(B)(P,T,phi) correspond with the determinations by DWS and were used to construct an experimental phase diagram for a polydisperse sticky hard sphere model system. A comparison with theory shows good agreement especially concerning the predictions for the percolation threshold. From the analysis of the forward scattering we find a critical scaling law for the susceptibility corresponding to mean field behavior. This finding is also supported by the critical scaling properties of the collective diffusion.

  10. Light scattering by sinusoidal surfaces: illumination windows and harmonics in standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, E; Lettieri, T R; Vorburger, T V

    1995-03-01

    Sinusoidal surfaces can be used as material standards to help calibrate instruments that measure the angular distribution of the intensity of light scattered by arbitrary surfaces, because the power in the diffraction peaks varies over several orders of magnitude. The calculated power in the higher-order diffraction peaks from sinusoidal surfaces expressed in terms of Bessel functions is much smaller than the values determined from angular distributions that are measured or computed from measured profiles, both of which are determined mainly by the harmonic contents of the profile. The finite size of the illuminated area, represented by an illumination window, gives rise to a background that is much larger than the calculated power in the higher-order peaks. For a rectangular window of a size equal to an even number of periods of the sinusoid, a computation of the power distribution produces minima at or near the location of the diffraction angles for higher-order diffraction angles.

  11. Comparison of distributed vortex receptivity coefficients at excitation of 3D TS-waves in presence and absence of surface waviness and pressure gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulin, V. I.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Mischenko, D. A.; Fedenkova, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to quantitative experimental investigation of effective mechanisms of excitation of 3D TS instability waves due to distributed boundary layer receptivity to free-stream vortices. Experiments carried out in a self-similar boundary layer with Hartree parameter βH = -0.115 and concentrated on studying two receptivity mechanisms connected with distributed scattering of 3D unsteady free-stream vortices both on the natural boundary layer nonuniformity (smooth surface) and on 2D surface nonuniformity (waviness). Obtained quantitative characteristics (distributed receptivity coefficients) are compared directly with those obtained in Blasius boundary layer. It is found that the adverse pressure gradient leads to reduction of efficiency of the vortex-roughness receptivity mechanism.

  12. Relation between burnout and differential pressure fluctuation characteristics by the disturbance waves near the flow obstacle in a vertical annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Fukano, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    If a flow obstruction such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some cases the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. But the thermo-fluid dynamic mechanism to cause burnout near the spacer is not still clear. In the present paper we discuss temperature fluctuation characteristics in relation to the change of the differential pressure across the spacer caused by the passing of the disturbance waves in case that the burnout generates. (author)

  13. Reference values of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity according to age and blood pressure in a central Asia population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Gulinuer; Zhou, Xianhui; Lv, Wenkui; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Wenhui; Cheng, Xinchun; Li, Yaodong; Xing, Qiang; Zhang, Jianghua; Zhou, Qina; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Yanmei; Wang, Hongli; Tang, Baopeng

    2017-01-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has increasingly become an important assessment for cardiovascular risk. The present study established the reference and normal values of baPWV in a Central Asia population in Xinjiang, China. We recruited participants from a central Asia population in Xinjiang, China. We performed multiple regression analysis to investigate the determinants of baPWV. The median and 10th-90th percentiles were calculated to establish the reference and normal values based on these categories. In total, 5,757 Han participants aged 15-88 years were included in the present study. Spearman correlation analysis showed that age (r = 0.587, p Central Asia population.

  14. 3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

    2013-09-01

    Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape.

  15. Effects of chopped sinusoidal voltages on the behavior and performance of laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidali, G.; Silversides, F.G.; Boily, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Faculte de Sciences et Genie; Villeneuve, P.; Joncas, R. [Quebec Ministere de l`Agriculture, des Pecheries et de l`Aminentation, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Studies were conducted to measure the effects of sinusoidal voltages on hens. One hundred and twenty laying hens between 23 and 43 weeks of age were used in these experiments. Normal sinusoidal voltages with constant amplitudes of one to nine volts and pulses with random amplitudes of 3 to 18 volts were applied to the hens. The electrical resistance of hens was also measured to determine their path resistance to electrical currents. No effects on production performance or behavior of laying hens were found. Neither water and feed consumption, nor egg production and quality were affected by the treatments. No behavioral or health problems were observed. 15 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Plasma diagnostics of low pressure high power impulse magnetron sputtering assisted by electron cyclotron wave resonance plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, V.; Herrendorf, A.-P.; Drache, S.; Čada, Martin; Hubička, Zdeněk; Bogdanowicz, R.; Tichý, M.; Hippler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 9 (2012), "093305-1"-"093305-9" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/0386 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : Langmuir probes * mass spectroscopy * plasma density * plasma diagnostics * plasma materials processing * plasma pressure * plasma radiofrequency heating Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.210, year: 2012 http://jap.aip.org/resource/1/japiau/v112/i9/p093305_s1

  17. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiter, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived which incorporate additional physical effects as higher order terms for the case when the sonic line is very close to the wall. The functional form used for the undisturbed velocity profile is described to indicate how various parameters will be calculated for later comparison with experiment. The basic solutions for the pressure distribution are derived. Corrections are added for flow along a wall having longitudinal curvature and for flow in a circular pipe, and comparisons with available experimental data are shown.

  18. Pressure and stress waves in a spallation neutron source mercury target generated by high-power proton pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Conrad, H; Stechemesser, H

    2000-01-01

    The international ASTE collaboration has performed a first series of measurements on a spallation neutron source target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) in Brookhaven. The dynamic response of a liquid mercury target hit by high-power proton pulses of about 40 ns duration has been measured by a laser Doppler technique and compared with finite elements calculations using the ABAQUS code. It is shown that the calculation can describe the experimental results for at least the time interval up to 100 mu s after the pulse injection. Furthermore, it has been observed that piezoelectric pressure transducers cannot be applied in the high gamma-radiation field of a spallation target.

  19. High-efficiency generation of pulsed Lyman-α radiation by resonant laser wave mixing in low pressure Kr-Ar mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihito; Oishi, Yu; Miyazaki, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Nakamura, Jumpei; Louchev, Oleg A; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-04-04

    We report an experimental generation of ns pulsed 121.568 nm Lyman-α radiation by the resonant nonlinear four-wave mixing of 212.556 nm and 845.015 nm radiation pulses providing a high conversion efficiency 1.7x10-3 with the output pulse energy 3.6 μJ achieved using a low pressure Kr-Ar mixture. Theoretical analysis shows that this efficiency is achieved due to the advantage of using (i) the high input laser intensities in combination with (ii) the low gas pressure allowing us to avoid the onset of full-scale discharge in the laser focus. In particular, under our experimental conditions the main mechanism of photoionization caused by the resonant 2-photon 212.556 nm radiation excitation of Kr atoms followed by the 1-photon ionization leads to ≈17% loss of Kr atoms and efficiency loss only by the end of the pulse. The energy of free electrons, generated by 212.556 nm radiation via (2 + 1)-photon ionization and accelerated mainly by 845.015 nm radiation, remains during the pulse below the level sufficient for the onset of full-scale discharge by the electron avalanche. Our analysis also suggests that ≈30-fold increase of 845.015 nm pulse energy can allow one to scale up the L-α radiation pulse energy towards the level of ≈100 μJ.

  20. Pulse Pressure, Instead of Brachium-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity, is Associated with Reduced Kidney Function in a Chinese Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linpei Jia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this study, we aim to investigate the association between renal function and arterial stiffness in a Chinese Han population, and further to discuss the effects of smoking on renal function. Methods: We collected the data of the brachium-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, blood pressure, blood chemistry and smoking status. Then, the multiple linear regression was done to explore the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR and baPWV. Further, the parameters were compared among the four groups divided according to the quartiles of baPWV. Finally, the baPWV, eGFR and albuminuria values were compared between smokers and non-smokers. Results: baPWV is associated with eGFR in the correlation analysis and univariate linear regression model. After adjustment, the pulse pressure (PP instead of baPWV showed a significant association with eGFR. Nevertheless, the eGFR values differed among the four baPWV groups; the baPWV values were significantly higher in the subjects at the CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and the early CKD stage (eGFR60–80 mL/min/1.73 m2. The baPWV values and the ratio of proteinuria were significantly increased in smokers. Conclusion: PP but not baPWV is a predictor of declined renal function. Smokers have worse arterial stiffness and worse renal function.

  1. Investigation of solitary waves in warm plasma for smaller order relativistic effects with variable pressures and inertia of electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, B. C.; Deka, M.

    2013-02-01

    In the two component relativistic plasmas subject to pressure variation of adiabatic electrons and isothermal ions, both compressive and rarefactive KdV solitons are established in a quite different physical plasma model. It is desirable to define c s in a new way to substantiate the validity of the model under relativistic effects. The corresponding mathematical condition is also determined, which is a new report of this kind. It is also interesting to report that the relativistic rarefactive solitons cease to exist below some critical ion initial streaming speed v i0 for a fixed temperature α and electron streaming speed v e0. Besides, higher initial flux v i0 of ions under constant temperature is observed to generate higher speed v i at the passage of time which causes to increase (in relativistic sense) its mass diminishing thereby the growth of soliton amplitudes.

  2. Experimental study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability induced by a Mach 3 shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BP Puranik; JG Oakley; MH Anderson; R Bonaazza

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 An experimental investigation of a shock-induced interfacial instability (Richtmyer-Meshkov instability) is undertaken in an effort to study temporal evolution of interfacial perturbations in the late stages of development. The experiments are performed in a vertical shock tube with a square cross-section. A membraneless interface is prepared by retracting a sinusoidally shaped metal plate initially separating carbon dioxide from air, with both gases initially at atmospheric pressure. With carbon dioxide above the plate, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability commences as the plate is retracted and the amplitude of the initial sinusoidal perturbation imposed on the interface begins to grow. The interface is accelerated by a strong shock wave (M=3.08) while its shape is still sinusoidal and before the Kelvin-Helmhotz instability distorts it into the well known mushroom-like structures; its initial amplitude to wavelength ratio is large enough that the interface evolution enters its nonlinear stage very shortly after shock acceleration. The pre-shock evolution of the interface due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the post-shock evolution of the interface due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are visualized using planar Mie scattering. The pre-shock evolution of the interface is carried out in an independent set of experiments. The initial conditions for the Richtmyer-Meshkov experiment are determined from the pre-shock Rayleigh-Taylor growth. One image of the post-shock interface is obtained per experiment and image sequences, showing the post-shock evolution of the interface, are constructed from several experiments. The growth rate of the perturbation amplitude is measured and compared with two recent analytical models of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

  3. Stability of sinusoidal responses of marginally stable bandpass sigma delta modulators

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen; Reiss, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the stability of the sinusoidal responses of second order interpolative marginally stable bandpass sigma delta modulators (SDMs) with the sum of the numerator and denominator polynomials equal to one and explore new results on the more general second order interpolative marginally stable bandpass SDMs. These results can be further extended to the high order interpolative marginally stable bandpass SDMs.

  4. Comparison between the water activation effects by pulsed and sinusoidal helium plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Liu, Dingxin; Xia, Wenjie; Chen, Chen; Wang, Weitao; Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Xiaohua; Kong, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    Comparisons between pulsed and sinusoidal plasma jets have been extensively reported for the discharge characteristics and gaseous reactive species, but rarely for the aqueous reactive species in water solutions treated by the two types of plasma jets. This motivates us to compare the concentrations of aqueous reactive species induced by a pulsed and a sinusoidal plasma jet, since it is widely reported that these aqueous reactive species play a crucial role in various plasma biomedical applications. Experimental results show that the aqueous H2O2, OH/O2-, and O2-/ONOO- induced by the pulsed plasma jet have higher concentrations, and the proportional difference increases with the discharge power. However, the emission intensities of OH(A) and O(3p5P) are higher for the sinusoidal plasma jet, which may be attributed to its higher gas temperature since more water vapor could participate in the plasma. In addition, the efficiency of bacterial inactivation induced by the pulsed plasma jet is higher than that for the sinusoidal plasma jet, in accordance with the concentration relation of aqueous reactive species for the two types of plasma jets.

  5. The hepatic sinusoid in aging and cirrhosis: effects on hepatic substrate disposition and drug clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Couteur, David G; Fraser, Robin; Hilmer, Sarah; Rivory, Laurent P; McLean, Allan J

    2005-01-01

    The fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium ('liver sieve') and space of Disse in the healthy liver do not impede the transfer of most substrates, including drugs and oxygen, from the sinusoidal lumen to the hepatocyte. Plasma components transfer freely in both directions through the endothelial fenestrations and into the space of Disse. The endothelium is attenuated, there is no basement membrane and there is minimum collagen in the space of Disse, thus minimising any barriers to substrate diffusion. Both cirrhosis and aging are associated with marked structural changes in the sinusoidal endothelium and space of Disse that are likely to influence bulk plasma transfer into the space of Disse, and diffusion through the endothelium and space of Disse. These changes, termed capillarisation and pseudocapillarisation in cirrhosis and aging, respectively, impede the transfer of various substrates. Capillarisation is associated with exclusion of albumin, protein-bound drugs and macromolecules from the space of Disse, and the progressive transformation of flow-limited to barrier-limited distribution of some substrates. There is evidence that the sinusoidal changes in cirrhosis and aging contribute to hepatocyte hypoxia, thus providing a mechanism for the apparent differential reduction of oxygen-dependent phase I metabolic pathways in these conditions. Structural change and subsequent dysfunction of the liver sieve warrant consideration as a significant factor in the impairment of overall substrate handling and hepatic drug metabolism in cirrhosis and aging.

  6. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Par, S.; Kohlrausch, A.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Holdt Jensen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of

  7. A Perceptual Model for Sinusoidal Audio Coding Based on Spectral Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Søren Holdt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of audio signals. In this paper, we present a new perceptual model that predicts masked thresholds for sinusoidal distortions. The model relies on signal detection theory and incorporates more recent insights about spectral and temporal integration in auditory masking. As a consequence, the model is able to predict the distortion detectability. In fact, the distortion detectability defines a (perceptually relevant norm on the underlying signal space which is beneficial for optimisation algorithms such as rate-distortion optimisation or linear predictive coding. We evaluate the merits of the model by combining it with a sinusoidal extraction method and compare the results with those obtained with the ISO MPEG-1 Layer I-II recommended model. Listening tests show a clear preference for the new model. More specifically, the model presented here leads to a reduction of more than 20% in terms of number of sinusoids needed to represent signals at a given quality level.

  8. A perceptual model for sinusoidal audio coding based on spectral integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Par, S.; Kohlrauch, A.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Psychoacoustical models have been used extensively within audio coding applications over the past decades. Recently, parametric coding techniques have been applied to general audio and this has created the need for a psychoacoustical model that is specifically suited for sinusoidal modelling of

  9. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  10. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell

  11. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet using a combination of 50 kHz/2 MHz dual-frequency power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yong-Jie; Yuan, Qiang-Hua; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Gui-Qin; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50 kHz and 2 MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas, namely, the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of α mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation

  12. Standing wave design and optimization of a simulated moving bed chromatography for separation of xylobiose and xylose under the constraints on product concentration and pressure drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Gi; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Park, Chanhun; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda; Mun, Sungyong

    2017-12-08

    The feasibility of a simulated moving bed (SMB) technology for the continuous separation of high-purity xylobiose (X2) from the output of a β-xylosidase X1→X2 reaction has recently been confirmed. To ensure high economical efficiency of the X2 production method based on the use of xylose (X1) as a starting material, it is essential to accomplish the comprehensive optimization of the X2-separation SMB process in such a way that its X2 productivity can be maximized while maintaining the X2 product concentration from the SMB as high as possible in consideration of a subsequent lyophilization step. To address this issue, a suitable SMB optimization tool for the aforementioned task was prepared based on standing wave design theory. The prepared tool was then used to optimize the SMB operation parameters, column configuration, total column number, adsorbent particle size, and X2 yield while meeting the constraints on X2 purity, X2 product concentration, and pressure drop. The results showed that the use of a larger particle size caused the productivity to be limited by the constraint on X2 product concentration, and a maximum productivity was attained by choosing the particle size such that the effect of the X2-concentration limiting factor could be balanced with that of pressure-drop limiting factor. If the target level of X2 product concentration was elevated, higher productivity could be achieved by decreasing particle size, raising the level of X2 yield, and increasing the column number in the zones containing the front and rear of X2 solute band. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of long-term blood pressure variability and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity: a retrospective study from the APAC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Yuling; Wang, Anxin; An, Shasha; Li, Zhifang; Zhang, Wenyan; Liu, Xuemei; Ruan, Chunyu; Liu, Xiaoxue; Guo, Xiuhua; Zhao, Xingquan; Wu, Shouling

    2016-02-19

    We investigated associations between long-term blood pressure variability (BPV) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Within the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community (APAC) study, we retrospectively collected long-term BPV and baPWV measures. Long-term BPV was calculated using the mean and standard deviation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) across 4 years based on annual values of SBP. In total, 3,994 subjects (2,284 men) were eligible for inclusion in this study. We stratified the study population into four SBP quartiles. Left and right baPWV was higher in participants with long-term SBPV in the fourth quartile compared with the first quartile (left: 1,725 ± 488 vs. 1,461 ± 340 [p < 0.001]; right: 1,722 ± 471 vs. 1,455 ± 341 [p < 0.001], respectively). We obtained the same result for total baPWV (fourth vs. first quartile: 1,772 ± 429 vs. 1,492 ± 350 [p < 0.001]). Furthermore, there was a trend for gradually increased baPWV (≥1,400 cm/s) with increased SBPV (p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, baPWV was positively correlated with long-term BPV (p < 0.001). In conclusion, long-term BPV is significantly associated with arterial stiffness as assessed by baPWV.

  14. Pulse Pressure, Instead of Brachium-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity, is Associated with Reduced Kidney Function in a Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Linpei; Zhang, Weiguang; Ma, Jie; Chen, Xizhao; Chen, Lei; Li, Zuoxiang; Cai, Guangyan; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Jinping; Bai, Xiaojuan; Feng, Zhe; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aim to investigate the association between renal function and arterial stiffness in a Chinese Han population, and further to discuss the effects of smoking on renal function. We collected the data of the brachium-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), blood pressure, blood chemistry and smoking status. Then, the multiple linear regression was done to explore the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) and baPWV. Further, the parameters were compared among the four groups divided according to the quartiles of baPWV. Finally, the baPWV, eGFR and albuminuria values were compared between smokers and non-smokers. baPWV is associated with eGFR in the correlation analysis and univariate linear regression model. After adjustment, the pulse pressure (PP) instead of baPWV showed a significant association with eGFR. Nevertheless, the eGFR values differed among the four baPWV groups; the baPWV values were significantly higher in the subjects at the CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and the early CKD stage (eGFR60-80 mL/min/1.73 m2). The baPWV values and the ratio of proteinuria were significantly increased in smokers. PP but not baPWV is a predictor of declined renal function. Smokers have worse arterial stiffness and worse renal function. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Modelling Bathymetric Control of Near Coastal Wave Climate: Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    squares method developed by Funke and Mansard (1980) was used to separate incident and reflected waves. The gage layout relative to the bar field is...propagation over sinusoidally varying topography," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 144, 419- 433. Funke, E.R. and Mansard , E.P.D., 1980, "Measurement of

  16. Analytical solution of groundwater waves in unconfined aquifers with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selva Balaji Munusamy

    2017-07-29

    Jul 29, 2017 ... groundwater table becomes essential. Analytical solution of tide–aquifer interaction is important from field appli- cation [1] point of view. In the present work, the water table wave propagations in coastal aquifers are solved using a homotopy perturbation method with simple har- monic sinusoidal functions ...

  17. Pulse wave velocity, pulse pressure and number of carotid or femoral plaques improve prediction of cardiovascular death in a population at low risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, E; Bongard, V; Ruidavets, J-B; Amar, J; Ferrières, J

    2013-09-01

    The assessment of cardiovascular risk is uniformly recommended as a decision-support for therapies aimed at preventing cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to determine the prognostic significance of vascular markers in apparently healthy subjects. Analyses were based on the Third Toulouse MONICA Survey (1995-1997) carried out in participants aged 35-64, from the general population of South-western France. Causes of death were obtained 14 years after inclusion. There were 1132 participants (51% men). Over the 14-year follow-up period, 61 deaths were recorded, 20% due to a cardiovascular cause. Adding pulse wave velocity (PWV) to Framingham Risk Score (FRS) improved the accuracy of the risk prediction model. The C-statistic increased from 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.89) (FRS alone) to 0.79 (95% CI: 0.64-0.95) (FRS+PWV). The Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI) reached 3.81% (P-valueprediction was also improved by integrating pulse pressure (PP) in the model (C-statistic=0.81 (95% CI: 0.66-0.96); IDI=4.99% (P-valueprediction.

  18. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    a better understanding of the processes involved. The wave's approach towards a structure is modelled with classical irrotational flow to obtain the different types of impact profiles that may or may not lead to air entrapment. The subsequent impact is modelled with a novel compressible-flow model...... local error. The high pressures measured during wave impacts on a breakwater are reproduced and it is shown that trapped air can be compressed to a pressure of several atmospheres. Pressure shock waves, reflected off nearby surfaces such as the seabed, can lead to pressures comparable with those...... for a homogeneous mixture of incompressible liquid and ideal gas. This enables a numerical description of both trapped air pockets and the propagation of pressure shock waves through the aerated water. An exact Riemann solver is developed to permit a finite-volume solution to the flow model with smallest possible...

  19. The two dynamical states in sinusoidal potentials: An analog simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawkmie, Ivan Skhem; Mahato, Mangal C.

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) is usually found to occur theoretically as well as experimentally in bi-stable systems [1]. Recently, it was numerically shown that SR is found to occur in underdamped (friction coefficient γ) sinusoidal potentials also. The occurrence of SR is explained in terms of two competing dynamical states of trajectories as a response to the external periodic drive. We setup an analog simulation experiment similar to the analog simulation work done earlier to study stochastic nonlinear dynamics [2], to verify the existence of the two dynamical states and to investigate the occurrence of SR in sinusoidal potentials obtained earlier [3]. We discuss our experimental setup and the results obtained in detail.

  20. Human thermal sensation: frequency response to sinusoidal stimuli at the surface of the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, J.W.; de Dear, Richard; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    1993-01-01

    . A psychosensory intensity (PSI) model has been developed to relate experimentally derived sensation data to simulated cutaneous thermoreceptor responses to the temperature ramp-plateaux and step stimuli applied to the skin surface by thermodes. From the point of view of signal processing, a natural extension...... of this approach is to ask what the response would be to sinusoidally varying stimuli of differing frequencies, or, in other words, what would be the frequency response of this skin system? The purpose of this paper is to extend the PSI model and apply these sinusoids to it and hence find the frequency response...... function. This function is then compared with the functional form found in two experiments where the stimuli were pulsating airflows of differing frequency. The PSI model seems to simulate well the form of the response of the human skin system to varying temperature changes of a whole range of frequencies...

  1. Credibility Test for Frequency Estimation of Sinusoid Using Chebyshev’s Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guobing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of sinusoid frequency is a key research problem related to radar, sonar, and communication systems. The results of numerous investigations on frequency estimation have been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, none of them have dealt with credibility evaluation, which is used to decide whether an individual frequency estimate of the sinusoid is accurate or not. In this study, the credibility problem is modeled as a hypothesis test based on Chebyshev’s inequality (CI. The correlation calculated from the received signal and the reference signal generated according to the frequency estimate is used as a test statistic. A threshold is determined based on CI, and the analytical expression for the frequency estimation credibility detection performance is derived. Simulations show that the proposed method performs well even at low signal-to-noise ratios.

  2. Rapid and efficient clearance of blood-borne virus by liver sinusoidal endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha P Ganesan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The liver removes quickly the great bulk of virus circulating in blood, leaving only a small fraction to infect the host, in a manner characteristic of each virus. The scavenger cells of the liver sinusoids are implicated, but the mechanism is entirely unknown. Here we show, borrowing a mouse model of adenovirus clearance, that nearly all infused adenovirus is cleared by the liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC. Using refined immunofluorescence microscopy techniques for distinguishing macrophages and endothelial cells in fixed liver, and identifying virus by two distinct physicochemical methods, we localized adenovirus 1 minute after infusion mainly to the LSEC (∼90%, finding ∼10% with Kupffer cells (KC and none with hepatocytes. Electron microscopy confirmed our results. In contrast with much prior work claiming the main scavenger to be the KC, our results locate the clearance mechanism to the LSEC and identify this cell as a key site of antiviral activity.

  3. Multilevel-Dc-Bus Inverter For Providing Sinusoidal And Pwm Electrical Machine Voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN

    2005-11-29

    A circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected to supply current for a corresponding voltage phase to the stator windings, a plurality of diodes, each in parallel connection to a respective one of the commutation switches, a plurality of dc source connections providing a multi-level dc bus for the full bridge network of commutation switches to produce sinusoidal voltages or PWM signals, and a controller connected for control of said dc source connections and said full bridge network of commutation switches to output substantially sinusoidal voltages to the stator windings. With the invention, the number of semiconductor switches is reduced to m+3 for a multi-level dc bus having m levels. A method of machine control is also disclosed.

  4. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  5. On theory and simulation of heaving-buoy wave-energy converters with control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidsmoen, H.

    1995-12-01

    Heaving-buoy wave-energy converters with control were studied. The buoy is small compared to the wavelength. The resonance bandwidth is then narrow and the energy conversion in irregular waves can be significantly increased if the oscillatory motion of the device can be actively controlled, and the power output from the converter will vary less with time than the wave power transport. A system of two concentric cylinders of the same radius, oscillating in heave only, is analysed in the frequency-domain. The mathematical model can be used to study a tight-moored buoy, as well as a buoy reacting against a submerged body. The knowledge of the frequency-domain hydrodynamic parameters is used to develop frequency-domain and time-domain mathematical models of heaving-buoy wave energy converters. The main emphasis is on using control to maximize the energy production and to protect the machinery of the wave-energy converter in very large waves. Three different methods are used to study control. (1) In the frequency-domain explicit analytical expressions for the optimum oscillation are found, assuming a continuous sinusoidal control force, and from these expressions the optimum time-domain oscillation can be determined. (2) The second method uses optimal control theory, using a control variable as the instrument for the optimisation. Unlike the first method, this method can include non-linearities. But this method gives numerical time series for the state variables and the control variable rather than analytical expressions for the optimum oscillation. (3) The third method is time-domain simulation. Non-linear forces are included, but the method only gives the response of the system to a given incident wave. How the different methods can be used to develop real-time control is discussed. Simulations are performed for a tight-moored heaving-buoy converter with a high-pressure hydraulic system for energy production and motion control. 147 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. A Novel Modular Bioreactor to In Vitro Study the Hepatic Sinusoid

    OpenAIRE

    Illa, Xavi; Vila, Sergi; Yeste, Jose; Peralta, Carmen; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Villa, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    We describe a unique, versatile bioreactor consisting of two plates and a modified commercial porous membrane suitable for in vitro analysis of the liver sinusoid. The modular bioreactor allows i) excellent control of the cell seeding process; ii) cell culture under controlled shear stress stimulus, and; iii) individual analysis of each cell type upon completion of the experiment. The advantages of the bioreactor detailed here are derived from the modification of a commercial porous membrane ...

  7. Realization of Electronically Tunable Current- Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CFTAs

    OpenAIRE

    Prungsak Uttaphut

    2012-01-01

    An implementation of current-mode multiphase sinusoidal oscillators is presented. Using CFTA-based lossy integrators, odd and odd/even phase systems can be realized with following advantages. The condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation can be orthogonally tuned. The high output impedances facilitate easy driving an external load without additional current buffers. The proposed MSOs provide odd or even phase signals that are equally spaced in phase and equal amplitude. The circui...

  8. Synthesis of Voltages of Multiple Uniform PWM, Generated by Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Ctryzhniou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of synthesis and qualitative estimation of the harmonic composition of voltages of multiple uniform PWM pulses generated by trapezoidal and sinusoidal functions is considered. Analytical expressions for PWM pulses parameters ai  and ti have been received and they can be used for program-based generation of multiple uniform PWM, determination of n-harmonic magnitude in pulse-width regulation and AC motor operation simulation.

  9. Evaluation of Steel Shear Walls Behavior with Sinusoidal and Trapezoidal Corrugated Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Hosseinpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of structures aims to control the input energy of unnatural and natural forces. In the past four decades, steel shear walls are utilized in huge constructions in some seismic countries such as Japan, United States, and Canada to lessen the risk of destructive forces. The steel shear walls are divided into two types: unstiffened and stiffened. In the former, a series of plates (sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated with light thickness are used that have the postbuckling field property under overall buckling. In the latter, steel profile belt series are employed as stiffeners with different arrangement: horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in one side or both sides of wall. In the unstiffened walls, increasing the thickness causes an increase in the wall capacity under large forces in tall structures. In the stiffened walls, joining the stiffeners to the wall is costly and time consuming. The ANSYS software was used to analyze the different models of unstiffened one-story steel walls with sinusoidal and trapezoidal corrugated plates under lateral load. The obtained results demonstrated that, in the walls with the same dimensions, the trapezoidal corrugated plates showed higher ductility and ultimate bearing compared to the sinusoidal corrugated plates.

  10. Analysis of Passive Mixing in a Serpentine Microchannel with Sinusoidal Side Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Javaid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample mixing is difficult in microfluidic devices because of laminar flow. Micromixers are designed to ensure the optimal use of miniaturized devices. The present study aims to design a chaotic-advection-based passive micromixer with enhanced mixing efficiency. A serpentine-shaped microchannel with sinusoidal side walls was designed, and three cases, with amplitude to wavelength (A/λ ratios of 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 were investigated. Numerical simulations were conducted using the Navier–Stokes equations, to determine the flow field. The flow was then coupled with the convection–diffusion equation to obtain the species concentration distribution. The mixing performance of sinusoidal walled channels was compared with that of a simple serpentine channel for Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.1 to 50. Secondary flows were observed at high Reynolds numbers that mixed the fluid streams. These flows were dominant in the proposed sinusoidal walled channels, thereby showing better mixing performance than the simple serpentine channel at similar or less mixing cost. Higher mixing efficiency was obtained by increasing the A/λ ratio.

  11. Intravascular Immune Surveillance by CXCR6+ NKT Cells Patrolling Liver Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geissmann Frederic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the in vivo behavior of liver natural killer T cells (NKT cells by intravital fluorescence microscopic imaging of mice in which a green fluorescent protein cDNA was used to replace the gene encoding the chemokine receptor CXCR6. NKT cells, which account for most CXCR6+ cells in liver, were found to crawl within hepatic sinusoids at 10-20 µm/min and to stop upon T cell antigen receptor activation. CXCR6-deficient mice exhibited a selective and severe reduction of CD1d-reactive NKT cells in the liver and decreased susceptibility to T-cell-dependent hepatitis. CXCL16, the cell surface ligand for CXCR6, is expressed on sinusoidal endothelial cells, and CXCR6 deficiency resulted in reduced survival, but not in altered speed or pattern of patrolling of NKT cells. Thus, NKT cells patrol liver sinusoids to provide intravascular immune surveillance, and CXCR6 contributes to liver-based immune responses by regulating their abundance.

  12. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype...

  13. Characterization of the pressure wave originating in the explosion of an extended heavy gas cloud: critical analysis of the treatment of its propagation in air and interaction with obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essers, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The protection of nuclear power plants against external explosions of heavy gas clouds is a relevant topic of nuclear safety studies. The ultimate goal of such studies is to provide realistic inputs for the prediction of structure loadings and transient response. To obtain those inputs, relatively complex computer codes have been constructed to describe the propagation in air of strong perturbations due to unconfined gas cloud explosions. A detailed critical analysis of those codes is presented. In particular, the relative errors on wave speed, induced flow velocity, as well as on reflected wave speed and overpressure, respectively due to the use of a simplified non-linear isentropic approximation and of linear acoustic models, are estimated as functions of the overpressure of the incident pulse. The ability of the various models to accurately predict the time and distance required for sharp pressure front formation is discussed. Simple computer codes using implicit finite-difference discretizations are proposed to compare the results obtained with the various models for spherical wave propagation. Those codes are also useful to study the reflection of the waves on an outer spherical flexible wall and to investigate the effect of the elasticity and damping coefficients of the wall on the characteristics of the reflected pressure pulse

  14. Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed intermediate mass black holes in LIGO-Virgo data from 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Agathos, M.; Beker, M.G.; Bertolini, A.; Bulten, H.J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Jonker, R.; Meidam, J.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; LIGO Sci, Collaboration; Virgo, Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as

  15. Numerical simulation of a ramjet inlet flowfield in response to large amplitude combustor pressure oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, T.; Wardlaw, A. B., Jr.; Coakley, T.

    1984-01-01

    The unsteady flow of a two-dimensional ramjet inlet is studied numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation turbulence model. Unsteadiness is introduced by prescribing the pressure disturbance at the inlet exit plane. The case with a sinusoidal exit plane pressure fluctuation of 20 percent of the steady exit pressure is considered. The resulting flow field exhibits a complicated interaction between the terminal shock, separation pockets and core flow. The exit plane properties feature a non-linear response to the imposed sinusoidal pressure variation.

  16. 3D hepatic cultures simultaneously maintain primary hepatocyte and liver sinusoidal endothelial cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Kim

    Full Text Available Developing in vitro engineered hepatic tissues that exhibit stable phenotype is a major challenge in the field of hepatic tissue engineering. However, the rapid dedifferentiation of hepatic parenchymal (hepatocytes and non-parenchymal (liver sinusoidal endothelial, LSEC cell types when removed from their natural environment in vivo remains a major obstacle. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate that hepatic cells cultured in layered architectures could preserve or potentially enhance liver-specific behavior of both cell types. Primary rat hepatocytes and rat LSECs (rLSECs were cultured in a layered three-dimensional (3D configuration. The cell layers were separated by a chitosan-hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM, which served to mimic the Space of Disse. Hepatocytes and rLSECs exhibited several key phenotypic characteristics over a twelve day culture period. Immunostaining for the sinusoidal endothelial 1 antibody (SE-1 demonstrated that rLSECs cultured in the 3D hepatic model maintained this unique feature over twelve days. In contrast, rLSECs cultured in monolayers lost their phenotype within three days. The unique stratified structure of the 3D culture resulted in enhanced heterotypic cell-cell interactions, which led to improvements in hepatocyte functions. Albumin production increased three to six fold in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Only rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures exhibited increasing CYP1A1/2 and CYP3A activity. Well-defined bile canaliculi were observed only in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Together, these data suggest that rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures are highly suitable models to monitor the transformation of toxins in the liver and their transport out of this organ. In summary, these results indicate that the layered rLSEC-PEM-hepatocyte model, which recapitulates key features of hepatic sinusoids, is a potentially powerful medium for obtaining comprehensive knowledge on liver metabolism

  17. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Sinusoid Foam Sandwich Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L; Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich energy absorber was developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research project. The energy absorber, designated the "sinusoid," consisted of hybrid carbon- Kevlar® plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical or crush direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM(TradeMark) P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/ft3) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorber was to achieve an average floor-level acceleration of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in the design were assessed through quasi-static and dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the design was finalized, a 5-ft-long subfloor beam was fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorber prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LSDYNA ®, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test analysis results are presented for the sinusoid foam sandwich energy absorber as comparisons of load-displacement and acceleration-time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage for each evaluation level (component testing through barrel section drop testing).

  18. Unique cell type-specific junctional complexes in vascular endothelium of human and rat liver sinusoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrill Géraud

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelium is strategically positioned to control access of fluids, macromolecules and cells to the liver parenchyma and to serve clearance functions upstream of the hepatocytes. While clearance of macromolecular debris from the peripheral blood is performed by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs using a delicate endocytic receptor system featuring stabilin-1 and -2, the mannose receptor and CD32b, vascular permeability and cell trafficking are controlled by transcellular pores, i.e. the fenestrae, and by intercellular junctional complexes. In contrast to blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in other organs, the junctional complexes of LSECs have not yet been consistently characterized in molecular terms. In a comprehensive analysis, we here show that LSECs express the typical proteins found in endothelial adherens junctions (AJ, i.e. VE-cadherin as well as α-, β-, p120-catenin and plakoglobin. Tight junction (TJ transmembrane proteins typical of endothelial cells, i.e. claudin-5 and occludin, were not expressed by rat LSECs while heterogenous immunreactivity for claudin-5 was detected in human LSECs. In contrast, junctional molecules preferentially associating with TJ such as JAM-A, B and C and zonula occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 were readily detected in LSECs. Remarkably, among the JAMs JAM-C was considerably over-expressed in LSECs as compared to lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we show here that LSECs form a special kind of mixed-type intercellular junctions characterized by co-occurrence of endothelial AJ proteins, and of ZO-1 and -2, and JAMs. The distinct molecular architecture of the intercellular junctional complexes of LSECs corroborates previous ultrastructural findings and provides the molecular basis for further analyses of the endothelial barrier function of liver sinusoids under pathologic conditions ranging from hepatic inflammation to formation of liver metastasis.

  19. Preliminary wave and hydrostatic pressure data collected from moored directional wave gauges in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the LATEX project from 19920825 to 19920826 (NODC Accession 9400018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data is a special submission to NODC containing wave data during Hurricane Andrew August 25-26, 1992. This data file contains 24 bursts spaced at 2 hour...

  20. Generation of hyperchaos from the Chen-Lee system via sinusoidal perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, L.M. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Av. Padre Thomas Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macau (China)], E-mail: fstlmt@umac.mo; Chen, J.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wai Meng Si Tou [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Av. Padre Thomas Pereira S.J., Taipa, Macau (China)

    2008-11-15

    A system with more than one positive Lyapunov exponent can be classified as a hyperchaotic system. In this study, a sinusoidal perturbation was designed for generating hyperchaos from the Chen-Lee chaotic system. The hyperchaos was identified by the existence of two positive Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams. The system is hyperchaotic in several different regions of the parameters c, {epsilon}, and {omega}. It was found that this method not only can enhance or suppress chaotic behavior, but also induces chaos in non-chaotic parameter ranges. In addition, two interesting dynamical behaviors, Hopf bifurcation and intermittency, were also found in this study.

  1. New Results on Single-Channel Speech Separation Using Sinusoidal Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2011-01-01

    We present new results on single-channel speech separation and suggest a new separation approach to improve the speech quality of separated signals from an observed mix- ture. The key idea is to derive a mixture estimator based on sinusoidal parameters. The proposed estimator is aimed at finding...... the proposed method over other methods are confirmed by employing perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) as an objective measure and a MUSHRA listening test as a subjective evaluation for both speaker-dependent and gender-dependent scenarios....

  2. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Desainte-Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  3. Voltage-Mode Four-Phase Sinusoidal Generator and Its Useful Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Maheshwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new voltage-mode second-order sinusoidal generator circuit with four active elements and six passive elements, including grounded capacitors. The frequency and condition of oscillation can be independently controlled. The effect of active element’s nonidealities and parasitic effects is also studied; the proposed topology is good in absorbing several parasitic elements involved with the active elements. The circuit is advantageous for generating high frequency signals which is demonstrated for 25 MHz outputs. Several circuit extensions are also given which makes the new proposal useful for real circuit adoption. The proposed theory is validated through simulation results.

  4. Investigation of phase error correction for digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.; Quan, C.; Zhu, R.; Tay, C. J.

    2012-08-01

    Digital sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (DSPFPP) is a powerful tool to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) surface of diffuse objects. However, a highly accurate profile is often hindered by nonlinear response, color crosstalk and imbalance of a pair of digital projector and CCD/CMOS camera. In this paper, several phase error correction methods, such as Look-Up-Table (LUT) compensation, intensity correction, gamma correction, LUT-based hybrid method and blind phase error suppression for gray and color-encoded DSPFPP are described. Experimental results are also demonstrated to evaluate the effectiveness of each method.

  5. OTRA based second and third order sinusoidal oscillators and their phase noise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komanapalli, Gurumurthy; Pandey, Neeta; Pandey, Rajeshwari

    2017-07-01

    In this paper operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA) based second and third order sinusoidal oscillators are proposed. The proposed second order oscillator is designed using single OTRA based Sallen Key low pass filter structure and third order oscillator is obtained by cascading three low pass filters and placing in a loop. The non-ideality and phase noise analyses of the circuits are also presented with necessary mathematical formulations. Workability of the proposed oscillators are verified through PSPICE simulations using 0.18µm AGILENT CMOS process parameters. The total harmonic distortion (THD) for proposed second order and third order oscillators are found as 3.27% and 0.631% respectively.

  6. Application of Lattice-Boltzmann method and analysis of fluid flow between two sinusoidal plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena Đ.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with numerical study of fluid flow through a pair of corrugated platest. The aim was to observe and understand the behavior of the flow and vortex formation through channels where the fluid is subjected to a periodic increase and decrease in cross-section area. The plates modeled for the study had sinusoidal profiles. A pair of plates with 180° phase shift was simulated in two-dimensional spaces. The Reynolds number was a function of the average plate spacing (Havg and the laminar flow velocity and it was in the range between 200 and 1000.

  7. High pressure generation by laser driven shock waves: application to equation of state measurement; Generation de hautes pressions par choc laser: application a la mesure d'equations d'etat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benuzzi, A

    1997-12-15

    This work is dedicated to shock waves and their applications to the study of the equation of state of compressed matter.This document is divided into 6 chapters: 1) laser-produced plasmas and abrasion processes, 2) shock waves and the equation of state, 3) relative measuring of the equation of state, 4) comparison between direct and indirect drive to compress the target, 5) the measurement of a new parameter: the shock temperature, and 6) control and measurement of the pre-heating phase. In this work we have reached relevant results, we have shown for the first time the possibility of generating shock waves of very high quality in terms of spatial distribution, time dependence and of negligible pre-heating phase with direct laser radiation. We have shown that the shock pressure stays unchanged as time passes for targets whose thickness is over 10 {mu}m. A relative measurement of the equation of state has been performed through the simultaneous measurement of the velocity of shock waves passing through 2 different media. The great efficiency of the direct drive has allowed us to produce pressures up to 40 Mbar. An absolute measurement of the equation of state requires the measurement of 2 parameters, we have then performed the measurement of the colour temperature of an aluminium target submitted to laser shocks. A simple model has been developed to infer the shock temperature from the colour temperature. The last important result is the assessment of the temperature of the pre-heating phase that is necessary to know the media in which the shock wave propagates. The comparison of the measured values of the reflectivity of the back side of the target with the computed values given by an adequate simulation has allowed us to deduce the evolution of the temperature of the pre-heating phase. (A.C.)

  8. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  9. CTD, current meter, pressure gauge, and wave spectra data from fixed platforms and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California as part of the Santa Barbara Channel project from 1983-04-27 to 1985-01-04 (NODC Accession 8500177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, current meter, pressure gauge, and wave spectra data were collected from fixed platforms and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California from 27 April...

  10. Attenuation of Shock Waves using Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, CH V. L. C. S.; Hitesh Reddy, C.; Rahul Sai, L.; Dharani Kumar, K. S. S.; Nagaraja, S. R.

    2017-08-01

    The shock/blast waves generated due to explosions cause wide spread damage to the objects in its path. Different techniques have been used to attenuate shock wave over pressure, to reduce the catastrophic effects. Perforated plates can be used effectively to attenuate the shock wave pressure. In this paper shock wave interaction with perforated plates is simulated using COMSOL multiphysics software. The pressure drop varied from 43.75% to 26% for porosity varying from 10% to 40.

  11. The Relationship between Fenestrations, Sieve Plates and Rafts in Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Gregory P.; Owen, Dylan M.; Zencak, Dusan; Zykova, Svetlana N.; Crane, Harry; Huser, Thomas; Quinn, Ronald J.; Smedsrød, Bård; Le Couteur, David G.; Cogger, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Fenestrations are transcellular pores in endothelial cells that facilitate transfer of substrates between blood and the extravascular compartment. In order to understand the regulation and formation of fenestrations, the relationship between membrane rafts and fenestrations was investigated in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells where fenestrations are grouped into sieve plates. Three dimensional structured illumination microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy were used to study liver sinusoidal endothelial cells isolated from mice. There was an inverse distribution between sieve plates and membrane rafts visualized by structured illumination microscopy and the fluorescent raft stain, Bodipy FL C5 ganglioside GM1. 7-ketocholesterol and/or cytochalasin D increased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane, while Triton X-100 decreased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane. The effects of cytochalasin D on fenestrations were abrogated by co-administration of Triton X-100, suggesting that actin disruption increases fenestrations by its effects on membrane rafts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) depleted lipid-ordered membrane and increased fenestrations. The results are consistent with a sieve-raft interaction, where fenestrations form in non-raft lipid-disordered regions of endothelial cells once the membrane-stabilizing effects of actin cytoskeleton and membrane rafts are diminished. PMID:23029409

  12. The 3-D alignment of objects in dynamic PET scans using filtered sinusoidal trajectories of sinogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostopoulos, Aristotelis E.; Happonen, Antti P.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    In this study, our goal is to employ a novel 3-D alignment method for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Because the acquired data (i.e. sinograms) often contain noise considerably, filtering of the data prior to the alignment presumably improves the final results. In this study, we utilized a novel 3-D stackgram domain approach. In the stackgram domain, the signals along the sinusoidal trajectory signals of the sinogram can be processed separately. In this work, we performed angular stackgram domain filtering by employing well known 1-D filters: the Gaussian low-pass filter and the median filter. In addition, we employed two wavelet de-noising techniques. After filtering we performed alignment of objects in the stackgram domain. The local alignment technique we used is based on similarity comparisons between locus vectors (i.e. the signals along the sinusoidal trajectories of the sinogram) in a 3-D neighborhood of sequences of the stackgrams. Aligned stackgrams can be transformed back to sinograms (Method 1), or alternatively directly to filtered back-projected images (Method 2). In order to evaluate the alignment process, simulated data with different kinds of additive noises were used. The results indicated that the filtering prior to the alignment can be important concerning the accuracy

  13. Biliary obstruction dissipates bioelectric sinusoidal-canalicular barrier without altering taurocholate uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotting, J.; Zysset, T.; Reichen, J.

    1989-01-01

    To study immediate events during extrahepatic cholestasis, we investigated the effect of short-term biliary obstruction on the bioelectrical sinusoidal-canalicular barrier in the rat using molecular weight-matched uncharged and negatively charged inert solute pairs. The bioelectrical barrier averaged -22 +/- 5 and -18 +/- 4 mV (NS) using the pair carboxy-/methoxyinulin and ferrocyanide/sucrose, respectively. After a 20-min biliary obstruction both decreased by 61 and 11%, respectively, but only the large molecular weight pair (the inulins) returned to base line after release of the obstruction. Inert solute clearances were increased after short biliary obstruction depending on molecular size and negative charge (ferrocyanide greater than sucrose greater than carboxyinulin greater than inulin), suggesting that both permeability and bioelectrical barriers were affected by obstruction. The hepatic extraction in vivo of a passively transported drug not excreted into bile (D-propranolol) was not affected by obstruction, whereas that of an actively transported drug (glycocholate) decreased from 66 +/- 8 to 41 +/- 20% during biliary obstruction (P less than 0.01). Unidirectional transfer of glycocholate was not affected by short-term biliary obstruction in the situ perfused rat liver; however, 2 min after [14C]glycocholate administration, increased return was observed in hepatic venous effluent in obstructed animals. Our findings demonstrate a loss of the bioelectrical barrier immediately after short-term biliary obstruction. Decreased hepatic extraction in the view of unaltered sinusoidal uptake demonstrates regurgitation of bile into blood during short-term biliary obstruction

  14. Automatic fringe enhancement with novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxing; Kemao, Qian; Da, Feipeng

    2017-10-02

    Fringe-based optical measurement techniques require reliable fringe analysis methods, where empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an outstanding one due to its ability of analyzing complex signals and the merit of being data-driven. However, two challenging issues hinder the application of EMD in practical measurement. One is the tricky mode mixing problem (MMP), making the decomposed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) have equivocal physical meaning; the other is the automatic and accurate extraction of the sinusoidal fringe from the IMFs when unpredictable and unavoidable background and noise exist in real measurements. Accordingly, in this paper, a novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted EMD (BSEMD) is proposed to decompose a fringe pattern into mono-component bidimensional IMFs (BIMFs), with the MMP solved; properties of the resulted BIMFs are then analyzed to recognize and enhance the useful fringe component. The decomposition and the fringe recognition are integrated and the latter provides a feedback to the former, helping to automatically stop the decomposition to make the algorithm simpler and more reliable. A series of experiments show that the proposed method is accurate, efficient and robust to various fringe patterns even with poor quality, rendering it a potential tool for practical use.

  15. A novel modular bioreactor to in vitro study the hepatic sinusoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavi Illa

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, versatile bioreactor consisting of two plates and a modified commercial porous membrane suitable for in vitro analysis of the liver sinusoid. The modular bioreactor allows i excellent control of the cell seeding process; ii cell culture under controlled shear stress stimulus, and; iii individual analysis of each cell type upon completion of the experiment. The advantages of the bioreactor detailed here are derived from the modification of a commercial porous membrane with an elastomeric wall specifically moulded in order to define the cell culture area, to act as a gasket that will fit into the bioreactor, and to provide improved mechanical robustness. The device presented herein has been designed to simulate the in vivo organization of a liver sinusoid and tested by co-culturing endothelial cells (EC and hepatic stellate cells (HSC. The results show both an optimal morphology of the endothelial cells as well as an improvement in the phenotype of stellate cells, most probably due to paracrine factors released from endothelial cells. This device is proposed as a versatile, easy-to-use co-culture system that can be applied to biomedical research of vascular systems, including the liver.

  16. CFD study on NACA 4415 airfoil implementing spherical and sinusoidal Tubercle Leading Edge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M A Aftab

    Full Text Available The Humpback whale tubercles have been studied for more than a decade. Tubercle Leading Edge (TLE effectively reduces the separation bubble size and helps in delaying stall. They are very effective in case of low Reynolds number flows. The current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD study is on NACA 4415 airfoil, at a Reynolds number 120,000. Two TLE shapes are tested on NACA 4415 airfoil. The tubercle designs implemented on the airfoil are sinusoidal and spherical. A parametric study is also carried out considering three amplitudes (0.025c, 0.05c and 0.075c, the wavelength (0.25c is fixed. Structured mesh is utilized to generate grid and Transition SST turbulence model is used to capture the flow physics. Results clearly show spherical tubercles outperform sinusoidal tubercles. Furthermore experimental study considering spherical TLE is carried out at Reynolds number 200,000. The experimental results show that spherical TLE improve performance compared to clean airfoil.

  17. Aerosol absorption measurement with a sinusoidal phase modulating fiber optic photo thermal interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuwang; Shao, Shiyong; Mei, Haiping; Rao, Ruizhong

    2016-10-01

    Aerosol light absorption plays an important role in the earth's atmosphere direct and semi-direct radiate forcing, simultaneously, it also has a huge influence on the visibility impairment and laser engineering application. Although various methods have been developed for measuring aerosol light absorption, huge challenge still remains in precision, accuracy and temporal resolution. The main reason is that, as a part of aerosol light extinction, aerosol light absorption always generates synchronously with aerosol light scattering, and unfortunately aerosol light scattering is much stronger in most cases. Here, a novel photo-thermal interferometry is proposed only for aerosol absorption measurement without disturbance from aerosol scattering. The photo-thermal interferometry consists of a sinusoidal phase-modulating single mode fiber-optic interferometer. The thermal dissipation, caused by aerosol energy from photo-thermal conversion when irritated by pump laser through interferometer, is detected. This approach is completely insensitive to aerosol scattering, and the single mode fiber-optic interferometer is compact, low-cost and insensitive to the polarization shading. The theory of this technique is illustrated, followed by the basic structure of the sinusoidal phase-modulating fiber-optic interferometer and demodulation algorithms. Qualitative and quantitative analysis results show that the new photo-thermal interference is a potential approach for aerosol absorption detection and environmental pollution detection.

  18. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis

  19. A Comparison Study of Sinusoidal PWM and Space Vector PWM Techniques for Voltage Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Türksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methods used to control voltage source inverters which have been intensively investigated in recent years are compared. Although the most efficient result is obtained with the least number of switching elements in the inverter topologies, the method used in the switching is at least as effective as the topology. Besides, the selected switching method to control the inverter will play an effective role in suppressing harmonic components while producing the ideal output voltage. There are many derivatives of pulse width modulation techniques that are commonly used to control voltage source inverters. Some of widespread methods are sinusoidal pulse width modulation and space vector pulse width modulation techniques. These modulation techniques used for generating variable frequency and amplitude output voltage in voltage source inverters, have been simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. And, the total harmonic distortions of the output voltages are compared. As a result of simulation studies, sinusoidal pulse width modulation has been found to have more total harmonic distortion in output voltages of voltage source inverters in the simulation. Space vector pulse width modulation has been shown to produce a more efficient output voltage with less total harmonic distortion.

  20. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity: relationship to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality in diabetic patients or metabolic syndrome. An observational prospective study. LOD-DIABETES study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; Castaño-Sánchez, Yolanda; de Cabo-Laso, Angela; Sánchez-Salgado, Benigna; Rodríguez-Martín, Carmela; Castaño-Sánchez, Carmen; Gómez-Sánchez, Leticia; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2010-03-18

    Diabetic patients show an increased prevalence of non-dipping arterial pressure pattern, target organ damage and elevated arterial stiffness. These alterations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk.The objectives of this study are the following: to evaluate the prognostic value of central arterial pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation to the incidence and outcome of target organ damage and the appearance of cardiovascular episodes (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, chest pain and stroke) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. This is an observational prospective study with 5 years duration, of which the first year corresponds to patient inclusion and initial evaluation, and the remaining four years to follow-up. The study will be carried out in the urban primary care setting. Consecutive sampling will be used to include patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 20-80 years of age. A total of 110 patients meeting all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be included. Patient age and sex, family and personal history of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Height, weight, heart rate and abdominal circumference. Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, lipid profile, creatinine, microalbuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood insulin, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clinical and 24-hour ambulatory (home) blood pressure monitoring and self-measured blood pressure. Common carotid artery ultrasound for the determination of mean carotid intima-media thickness. Electrocardiogram for assessing left ventricular hypertrophy. Ankle-brachial index. Retinal vascular study based on funduscopy with non-mydriatic retinography and evaluation of pulse wave morphology and pulse wave velocity using the SphygmoCor system. The medication used for diabetes, arterial hypertension and hyperlipidemia will be registered, together

  1. Understanding the Effects of Blast Wave on the Intracranial Pressure and Traumatic Brain Injury in Rodents and Humans Using Experimental Shock Tube and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    infant brain makes it more susceptible to TBI [75]. In 2006, Mao developed an anatomically detailed high-resolution finite element model of the rat...Zhu in 2011 developed a rat head model based on a previous rat brain model by Mao and his colleagues for simulating a blunt controlled cortical impact...percent increase in lung mass, P: Any characteristic pressure of the pulse occurring in the lungs, such as peak pressure, Po: Ambient pressure, t: Any

  2. Opposite predictive value of pulse pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity on heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: insights from an Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study (EPHESUS) substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, Veronique; Lagrange, Jérémy; Pizard, Anne; Safar, Michel E; Fay, Renaud; Pitt, Bertram; Challande, Pascal; Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Lacolley, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although hypertension contributes significantly to worsen cardiovascular risk, blood pressure increment in subjects with heart failure is paradoxically associated with lower risk. The objective was to determine whether pulse pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) remain prognostic markers, independent of treatment in heart failure with reduced left ventricular function. The investigation involved 6632 patients of the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study. All subjects had acute myocardial infarction with left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and signs/symptoms of heart failure. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in a subpopulation of 306 subjects. In the overall population, baseline mean arterial pressure <90 mm Hg was associated with higher all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.30]; P<0.05), whereas higher left ventricular ejection fraction or pulse pressure was associated with lower rates of all-cause death, cardiovascular death/hospitalization, and cardiovascular death. In the subpopulation, increased baseline PWV was associated with worse outcomes (all-cause death: 1.16 [1.03-1.30]; P<0.05 and cardiovascular deaths: 1.16 [1.03-1.31]; P<0.05), independent of age and left ventricular ejection fraction. Using multiple regression analysis, systolic blood pressure and age were the main independent factors positively associated with pulse pressure or PWV, both in the entire population or in the PWV substudy. In heart failure and low ejection fraction, our results suggest that pulse pressure, being negatively associated with outcome, is more dependent on left ventricular function and thereby no longer a marker of aortic elasticity. In contrast, increased aortic stiffness, assessed by PWV, contributes significantly to cardiovascular death.

  3. A feedback control system for vibration of magnetostrictive plate subjected to follower force using sinusoidal shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the vibrational behavior of magnetostrictive plate (MsP as a smart component is studied. The plate is subjected to an external follower force and a magnetic field in which the vibration response of MsP has been investigated for both loading combinations. The velocity feedback gain parameter is evaluated to study the effect of magnetic field which is generated by the coil. Sinusoidal shear deformation theory is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial function with respect to other plate theories. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM considering general boundary conditions. The effects of aspect ratio, thickness ratio, follower force and velocity feedback gain are investigated on the frequency response of MsP. Results indicate that magneto-mechanical coupling in MsM helps to control vibrational behaviors of systems such as electro-hydraulic actuator, wireless linear Motors and sensors.

  4. Continuously varying skin potentials elicited by sinusoidally varying electric shock potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senders, J. W.; Senders, V. L.; Tursky, B.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine whether a form of quasi-linear systems analysis can be applied to electrodormal responses to yield new insights into the nature of the response mechanisms and their interrelationships. The response investigated was the electrodermal response (galvanic skin potential, GSP) as elicited by an electric shock stimulus applied to the skin. The response subsequent to this stimulation was examined and its characteristics measured. A series of experimental runs on three Ss was accomplished, using sinusoidal modulation envelopes of frequencies. Results showed that it was possible to drive the GSP and to achieve relatively high coherence between the driving frequency and the response itself. The analysis was limited to Fourier analysis of the response in order to determine the relative energies at the driving frequency and at successive harmonics of that driving frequency, and correlational analysis in order to determine the degree of linear relationship between the driving frequency and the driven response.

  5. Influence of muscle cooling on the viscoelastic response of the human ankle to sinusoidal displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R; Lehmann, J F

    1990-09-01

    The changes in passive mechanical muscle properties due to cooling of the calf in healthy human volunteers were investigated. The technique, using sinusoidal driving of the foot, permitted the separation of muscle stiffness response into its elastic and viscous components. Cooling the calf with ice for 30 minutes increases the rate of change of elastic stiffness with frequency, and it increases the frictional stiffness over a frequency range of 3 to 12Hz. Such cooling would produce an estimated 3% to 10% increase in total stiffness, on average, in a spastic person. This increase in stiffness would counteract reductions in total stiffness achieved during the application of cryotherapy to relieve spasticity. However, one could expect that for a clinically significant reduction of spasticity, the increase in passive stiffness of the muscle generated by cooling would be largely overshadowed by the decrease in reflex reactivity.

  6. Exponential sinusoidal model for predicting temperature inside underground wine cellars from a Spanish region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarron, Fernando R.; Canas, Ignacio [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This article develops a mathematical model for determining the annual cycle of air temperature inside traditional underground wine cellars in the Spanish region of ''Ribera del Duero'', known because of the quality of its wines. It modifies the sinusoidal analytical model for soil temperature calculation. Results obtained when contrasting the proposed model with experimental data of three subterranean wine cellars for 2 years are satisfactory. The RMSE is below 1 C and the index of agreement is above 0.96 for the three cellars. When using the average of experimental data corresponding to the 2 years' time, results improve noticeably: the RMSE decreases by more than 30% and the mean d reaches 0.99. This model should be a useful tool for designing underground wine cellars making the most of soil energy advantages. (author)

  7. Engraftment and reconstitution of hematopoiesis is dependent on VEGFR2-mediated regeneration of sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Andrea T; Butler, Jason M; Nolan, Daniel J; Kranz, Andrea; Iida, Kaoruko; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Shido, Koji; Petit, Isabelle; Yanger, Kilangsungla; James, Daylon; Witte, Larry; Zhu, Zhenping; Wu, Yan; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Rosenwaks, Zev; Mittal, Vivek; Sato, Thomas N; Rafii, Shahin

    2009-03-06

    Myelosuppression damages the bone marrow (BM) vascular niche, but it is unclear how regeneration of bone marrow vessels contributes to engraftment of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restoration of hematopoiesis. We found that chemotherapy and sublethal irradiation induced minor regression of BM sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), while lethal irradiation induced severe regression of SECs and required BM transplantation (BMT) for regeneration. Within the BM, VEGFR2 expression specifically demarcated a continuous network of arterioles and SECs, with arterioles uniquely expressing Sca1 and SECs uniquely expressing VEGFR3. Conditional deletion of VEGFR2 in adult mice blocked regeneration of SECs in sublethally irradiated animals and prevented hematopoietic reconstitution. Similarly, inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in lethally irradiated wild-type mice rescued with BMT severely impaired SEC reconstruction and prevented engraftment and reconstitution of HSPCs. Therefore, regeneration of SECs via VEGFR2 signaling is essential for engraftment of HSPCs and restoration of hematopoiesis.

  8. Compact ASD Topologies for Single-Phase Integrated Motor Drives with Sinusoidal Input Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A standard configuration of an Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) consists of two separate units: an AC motor, which runs with fixed speed when it is supplied from a constant frequency grid voltage and a frequency converter, which is used to provide the motor with variable voltage-variable frequency......-density integration of the converter caused by the large size of the passive components (electrolytic capacitors and iron chokes) and vibration of the converter enclosure. This paper analyzes the implementation aspects for obtaining a compact and cost effective single-phase ASD with sinusoidal input current...... for high frequency operation, higher core losses will occur, but outside the converter enclosure. The advantages are: the reduction of the number of active semiconductor devices, the reduction of the ASD size and the better integration potential....

  9. Performance of pyrolyzed photoresist carbon films in a microchip capillary electrophoresis device with sinusoidal voltammetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Nicole E; Snyder, Brian; McCreery, Richard L; Kuhr, Werner G; Brazill, Sara A

    2003-08-15

    Pyrolyzed photoresist films (PPF) are introduced as planar carbon electrodes in a PDMS-quartz hybrid microchip device. The utility of PPF in electroanalytical applications is demonstrated by the separation and detection of various neurotransmitters. PPF is found to form a stable, low-capacitance, durable layer on quartz, which can then be used in conjunction with a microchip capillary electrophoretic device. Sinusoidal voltammetric detection at PPF electrodes is shown to be very sensitive, with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 100 nM for dopamine, corresponding to a mass detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2 amol. The selectivity of analysis in the frequency domain is demonstrated by isolating each individual signal in a pair of analytes that are chromatographically unresolved. Effectively decoupling the electrophoresis and electrochemical systems allows the electrodes to be placed just inside the separation channel, which results in efficient separations (80 000-100 000 plates/m).

  10. A "Brick Mass Spectrometer" Driven by a Sinusoidal Frequency Scanning Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Zhang, Hongjia; Tang, Yang; Zhai, Yanbing; Xu, Wei; Xu, Hualei; Zhao, Xinying; Li, Dayu; Xu, Wei

    2017-05-16

    In this work, a "brick" size miniature mass spectrometer (28 cm × 21 cm × 16 cm) was developed and characterized, which was enabled by the development of a new frequency scanning technique. Different from the conventional voltage scanning method or the digital waveforms used on a digital ion trap, a sinusoidal frequency scanning technique was developed to drive the linear ion trap of the brick mass spectrometer (BMS). Both an in-vacuum plasma ionization source and an electrospray ionization source were coupled with this BMS for the analyses of volatile and nonvolatile samples. Stability diagram, sensitivity, mass resolution, and mass range of the BMS were explored. This new frequency scanning technique could not only reduce the size and power consumption of a miniature mass spectrometer but also improve its analytical performances, especially in terms of mass range and resolution. Analogous to the development of cell phones, this BMS would be an important step from "brick" mass spectrometer to "cell" mass spectrometer.

  11. Real-time detection of musical onsets with linear prediction and sinusoidal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John; Lazzarini, Victor; Timoney, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Real-time musical note onset detection plays a vital role in many audio analysis processes, such as score following, beat detection and various sound synthesis by analysis methods. This article provides a review of some of the most commonly used techniques for real-time onset detection. We suggest ways to improve these techniques by incorporating linear prediction as well as presenting a novel algorithm for real-time onset detection using sinusoidal modelling. We provide comprehensive results for both the detection accuracy and the computational performance of all of the described techniques, evaluated using Modal, our new open source library for musical onset detection, which comes with a free database of samples with hand-labelled note onsets.

  12. Sensitivity of echo enabled harmonic generation to sinusoidal electron beam energy structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hemsing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analytically examine the bunching factor spectrum of a relativistic electron beam with sinusoidal energy structure that then undergoes an echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG transformation to produce high harmonics. The performance is found to be described primarily by a simple scaling parameter. The dependence of the bunching amplitude on fluctuations of critical parameters is derived analytically, and compared with simulations. Where applicable, EEHG is also compared with high gain harmonic generation (HGHG and we find that EEHG is generally less sensitive to several types of energy structure. In the presence of intermediate frequency modulations like those produced by the microbunching instability, EEHG has a substantially narrower intrinsic bunching pedestal.

  13. Dynamic Buckling of Embedded Laminated Nanocomposite Plates Based on Sinusoidal Shear Deformation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammd Sharif Zarei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic buckling of the embedded laminated nanocomposite plates is investigated. The plates are reinforced with the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, and the Mori-Tanaka model is applied to obtain the equivalent material properties of them. Based on the sinusoidal shear deformation theory (SSDT, the motion equations are derived using the energy method and Hamilton's principle. The Navier’s method is used in conjunction with the Bolotin's method for obtaining the dynamic instability region (DIR of the structure. The effects of different parameters such as the volume percentage of SWCNTs, the number and orientation angle of the layers, the elastic medium, and the geometrical parameters of the plates are shown on DIR of the structure. Results indicate that by increasing the volume percentage of SWCNTs the resonance frequency increases, and DIR shifts to right. Moreover, it is found that the present results are in good agreement with the previous researches.

  14. Optimal sinusoidal modelling of gear mesh vibration signals for gear diagnosis and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Zhihong; Wang, Wenyi; Khoo, Suiyang; Yin, Juliang

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the synchronous signal average of gear mesh vibration signals is modelled with the multiple modulated sinusoidal representations. The signal model parameters are optimised against the measured signal averages by using the batch learning of the least squares technique. With the optimal signal model, all components of a gear mesh vibration signal, including the amplitude modulations, the phase modulations and the impulse vibration component induced by gear tooth cracking, are identified and analysed with insight of the gear tooth crack development and propagation. In particular, the energy distribution of the impulse vibration signal, extracted from the optimal signal model, provides sufficient information for monitoring and diagnosing the evolution of the tooth cracking process, leading to the prognosis of gear tooth cracking. The new methodologies for gear mesh signal modelling and the diagnosis of the gear tooth fault development and propagation are validated with a set of rig test data, which has shown excellent performance.

  15. Waves on the surface of a magnetic fluid layer in a traveling magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    The plane flow of a layer of incompressible viscous magnetic fluid with constant magnetic permeability under the action of a traveling magnetic field is analyzed. The strength of the magnetic field producing a sinusoidal traveling small-amplitude wave on the surface of a magnetic fluid is found. This flow can be used in designing mobile robots

  16. Validation of a new non-invasive blood pressure measurement method on mice via pulse wave propagation time measurement on a cuff

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Xuan P.; Kronemayer, Ralf; Herrmann, Peter; Mejía, Atila; Daw, Zamira; Nguyen, Xuan D.; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we describe the validation of a new non-invasive method for measuring blood pressure (BP) which also enables to determine the three BP values: systolic, diastolic and mean value. Our method is based on the pulse transit time (PTT) measurement along an artery directly at the BP cuff. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by comparison with the direct simultaneous measurement of blood pressure from 40 anesthetized female mice. Close correlation ...

  17. Propagation of extensional waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the propagation of extensional waves in a thin piezoelectric semiconductor rod of ZnO whose c-axis is along the axis of the rod. The macroscopic theory of piezoelectric semiconductors was used which consists of the coupled equations of piezoelectricity and the conservation of charge. The problem is nonlinear because the drift current is the product of the unknown electric field and the unknown carrier density. A perturbation procedure was used which resulted in two one-way coupled linear problems of piezoelectricity and the conservation of charge, respectively. The acoustic wave and the accompanying electric field were obtained from the equations of piezoelectricity. The motion of carriers was then determined from the conservation of charge using a trigonometric series. It was found that while the acoustic wave was approximated by a sinusoidal wave, the motion of carriers deviates from a sinusoidal wave qualitatively because of the contributions of higher harmonics arising from the originally nonlinear terms. The wave crests become higher and sharper while the troughs are shallower and wider. This deviation is more pronounced for acoustic waves with larger amplitudes.

  18. Relation between the occurrence of Burnout and differential pressure fluctuation characteristics caused by the disturbance waves passing by a flow obstacle in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Fukano, Tohru

    2006-01-01

    If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions the spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface, resulting in burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper (Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90), we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout occurrence. Therefore, in the present paper, the relation between dryout, burnout occurrence, and interval between two successive disturbance waves obtained from the differential pressure fluctuation caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer, is further discussed in detail

  19. Research on a new magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; Liu, Jiaqi; Bai, Jingang; Song, Zhiyi; Liu, Yong

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM), composed of a stator, a modulating ring rotor, and a PM rotor, is a kind of power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In this paper, a new MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring named Sinusoidal-Permeance-Modulating-Ring Brushless Double-Rotor Machine (SPMR-BDRM) is proposed to solve the problem of poor mechanical strength and large iron loss. The structure and the operating principle of the MFM-BDRM are introduced. The design principle of the sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring is analyzed and derived. The main idea of that is to minimize the harmonic permeance of air gap, thereby the harmonic magnetic fields can be restrained. There are comparisons between a MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring and a same size MFM-BDRM with traditional modulating ring, including magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic performances. Most importantly, the iron losses are compared under six different conditions. The result indicates that the harmonic magnetic fields in the air gap are restrained; the electromagnetic torque and power factor are almost the same with same armature current; the torque ripples of the modulating ring rotor and the PM rotor are reduced; the stator loss is reduced by 13% at least and the PM loss is reduced by 20% at least compared with the same size traditional MFM-BDRM under the same operating conditions.

  20. Generation of sinusoidal fringes with a holographic phase grating and a phase-only spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberova, Natalia; Stoykova, Elena; Sainov, Ventseslav

    2012-01-01

    A variety of pattern projection methods for the three-dimensional capture of objects is based on the generation of purely sinusoidal fringes. This is not an easy task, especially when a portable non-interferometric system for outdoor usage is required. The use of phase gratings with coherent illumination as a possible solution has the advantage of providing good stability and a large measurement volume. In this work, we analyze the quality of fringes projected with two sinusoidal phase gratings. The first grating is recorded on a silver-halide holographic plate by means of a Michelson interferometer. The spatial resolution of the silver-halide material used is greater than 6000 lines per millimeter, and the recorded grating is practically analogous to a smooth variation of the phase profile. The second grating is formed as a sinusoidal phase variation on a liquid crystal-on-silicon phase-only reflective display with a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels, a pixel pitch of 8 μm and 256 phase levels. The frequency content of the fringes projected with both gratings is analyzed and compared on the basis of the calculated Fresnel diffraction pattern, taking into account that the sinusoidal phase distribution in the case of a spatial light modulator is both sampled and quantized. Experimental fringe patterns projected using both gratings are also provided.

  1. Research on a new magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic-field-modulated brushless double-rotor machine (MFM-BDRM, composed of a stator, a modulating ring rotor, and a PM rotor, is a kind of power-split device for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. In this paper, a new MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring named Sinusoidal-Permeance-Modulating-Ring Brushless Double-Rotor Machine (SPMR-BDRM is proposed to solve the problem of poor mechanical strength and large iron loss. The structure and the operating principle of the MFM-BDRM are introduced. The design principle of the sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring is analyzed and derived. The main idea of that is to minimize the harmonic permeance of air gap, thereby the harmonic magnetic fields can be restrained. There are comparisons between a MFM-BDRM with sinusoidal-permeance modulating ring and a same size MFM-BDRM with traditional modulating ring, including magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic performances. Most importantly, the iron losses are compared under six different conditions. The result indicates that the harmonic magnetic fields in the air gap are restrained; the electromagnetic torque and power factor are almost the same with same armature current; the torque ripples of the modulating ring rotor and the PM rotor are reduced; the stator loss is reduced by 13% at least and the PM loss is reduced by 20% at least compared with the same size traditional MFM-BDRM under the same operating conditions.

  2. Using composite sinusoidal patterns in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presented a first exploration of using composite sinusoidal patterns that integrated two and three spatial frequencies of interest, in structured-illumination reflectance imaging (SIRI) for enhanced detection of defects in food (e.g., bruises in apples). Three methods based on Fourier tra...

  3. THE SINUSOIDAL EFFLUX OF DIBROMOSULFOPHTHALEIN FROM RAT-LIVER IS STIMULATED BY ALBUMIN, LIGANDIN AND FATTY-ACID-BINDING PROTEIN BUT NOT BY OTHER DIBROMOSULFOPHTHALEIN BINDING-PROTEINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIJSSEN, HMJ; PIJNING, T; PROOST, JH; MEIJER, DKF; GROOTHUIS, GMM

    Organic anions can be excreted from the liver into the bile or back into the general circulation (sinusoidal efflux). It has previously been shown that the net sinusoidal efflux rate of dibromosulfophthalein from the perfused liver into the perfusate is the result of actual efflux from and reuptake

  4. GPR182 is a novel marker for sinusoidal endothelial differentiation with distinct GPCR signaling activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christian David; Schledzewski, Kai; Mogler, Carolin; Waldburger, Nina; Kalna, Viktoria; Marx, Alexander; Randi, Anna Maria; Géraud, Cyrill; Goerdt, Sergij; Koch, Philipp-Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) along the vascular tree exhibit organ-specific angiodiversity. Compared to most other ECs, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) that constitute the organ-specific microvasculature of the liver are morphologically and functionally unique. Previously, we showed that transcription factor Gata4 acts as a master regulator controlling LSEC differentiation. Upon analysis of the molecular signature of LSEC, we identified GPR182 as a potential LSEC-specific orphan G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). Here, we demonstrate that GPR182 is expressed by LSEC and by EC with sinusoidal differentiation in spleen, lymph node and bone marrow in healthy human tissues. In a tissue microarray analysis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples, endothelial GPR182 expression was significantly reduced in tumor samples compared to peritumoral liver tissue samples (p = 0.0105). Loss of endothelial GPR182 expression was also seen in fibrotic and cirrhotic liver tissues. In vitro, GPR182 differentially regulated canonical GPCR signaling pathways as shown using reporter luciferase assays in HEK293T cells. Whereas ERK and RhoA signaling were inhibited, CREB and Calcium signaling were activated by ectopic GPR182 overexpression. Our data demonstrate that GPR182 is an endothelial subtype-specific marker for human sinusoidal EC of the liver, spleen, lymph node and bone marrow. In addition, we provide evidence for GPR182-dependent downstream signaling via ERK and SRF pathways that may be involved in regulating endothelial subtype-specific sinusoidal differentiation and sinusoidal functions such as permeability. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field on in vitro establishment, multiplication, and acclimatization phases of Coffea arabica seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac Alemán, Elizabeth; Oliveira Moreira, Rafael; Almeida Lima, Andre; Chaves Silva, Samuel; González-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Junior, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on net photosynthesis, transpiration, photosynthetic pigment concentration, and gene expression of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RBCS1), during in vitro establishment, in vitro multiplication and acclimatization phases of coffee seedlings were investigated. Untreated coffee plants were considered as control, whereas treated plants were exposed to a 60 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field of 2 mT of magnetic induction during 3 min. This magnetic field was generated by an electromagnet, connected to a wave generator. The results revealed that magnetically treated plants showed a significant increase in net photosynthesis (85.4% and 117.9%, in multiplication and acclimatization phases, respectively), and in photosynthetic pigment concentration (66.6% for establishment phase, 79.9% for multiplication phase, and 43.8% for acclimatization phase). They also showed a differential RBCS1 gene expression (approximately twofold) and a decrease of transpiration rates in regard to their control plants. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the application of 60 Hz magnetic field to in vitro coffee plants may improve the seedlings quality by modifying some photosynthetic physiological and molecular processes, increasing their vigor, and ensuring better plant development in later stages. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Astronomical component estimation (ACE v.1) by time-variant sinusoidal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Zivanovic, Miroslav; De Vleeschouwer, David; Claeys, Philippe; Schoukens, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Accurately deciphering periodic variations in paleoclimate proxy signals is essential for cyclostratigraphy. Classical spectral analysis often relies on methods based on (fast) Fourier transformation. This technique has no unique solution separating variations in amplitude and frequency. This characteristic can make it difficult to correctly interpret a proxy's power spectrum or to accurately evaluate simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency in evolutionary analyses. This drawback is circumvented by using a polynomial approach to estimate instantaneous amplitude and frequency in orbital components. This approach was proven useful to characterize audio signals (music and speech), which are non-stationary in nature. Paleoclimate proxy signals and audio signals share similar dynamics; the only difference is the frequency relationship between the different components. A harmonic-frequency relationship exists in audio signals, whereas this relation is non-harmonic in paleoclimate signals. However, this difference is irrelevant for the problem of separating simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency. Using an approach with overlapping analysis frames, the model (Astronomical Component Estimation, version 1: ACE v.1) captures time variations of an orbital component by modulating a stationary sinusoid centered at its mean frequency, with a single polynomial. Hence, the parameters that determine the model are the mean frequency of the orbital component and the polynomial coefficients. The first parameter depends on geologic interpretations, whereas the latter are estimated by means of linear least-squares. As output, the model provides the orbital component waveform, either in the depth or time domain. Uncertainty analyses of the model estimates are performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, it allows for a unique decomposition of the signal into its instantaneous amplitude and frequency. Frequency modulation patterns reconstruct changes in

  7. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  8. A study of the magnetoresistance of the charge-transfer salt (BEDT-TTF){sub 3}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O at hydrostatic pressures of up to 20 kbar: evidence for a charge-density-wave ground state and the observation of pressure-induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubczynski, W. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Solid State Physics, 41-800 Zabrze, Kalwalca 3 (Poland); Demishev, S.V. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); General Physics Institute, Vavilov Street 38, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation); Singleton, J.; Caulfield, J.M.; Jongh, L du Croo de; Blundell, S.J.; Hayes, W. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kepert, C.J.; Kurmoo, M.; Day, P. [Royal Institution, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1X 4BS (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-12

    The magnetoresistance of single crystals of the quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) organic conductor (BEDT-TTF){sub 3}Cl{sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O has been studied at temperatures between 700 mK and 300 K in magnetic fields of up to 15 T and hydrostatic pressures of up to 20 kbar. Measurements of the resistivity using a direct-current van der Pauw technique at ambient pressure show that the material undergoes a metal-to-insulator transition at {approx}150 K; below this temperature the resistivity increases by more than five orders of magnitude as the samples are cooled to 4.2 K. If the current exceeds a critical value, the sample resistivity undergoes irreversible changes, and exhibits non-ohmic behaviour over a wide temperature range. Below 30 K, either an abrupt increase of the resistivity by two orders of magnitude or bistable behaviour is observed, depending on the size and/or direction of the measurement current and the sample history. These experimental data strongly suggest that the metal - insulator transition and complex resistivity behaviour are due to the formation of a charge-density wave (CDW) with a well-developed domain structure. The magnetotransport data recorded under hydrostatic pressure indicate that pressure has the effect of gradually reducing the CDW ordering temperature. At higher pressures, there is a pressure-induced transition from the CDW state to a metallic, superconducting state which occurs in two distinct stages. Firstly, a relatively small number of Q2D carriers are induced, evidence for which is seen in the form of the magnetoresistance and the presence of Shubnikov - de Haas oscillations; in spite of the low carrier density, the material then superconducts below a temperature of {approx}2-3 K. Subsequently, at higher pressures, the CDW state collapses, resulting in Q1D behaviour of the magnetoresistance, and eventual suppression of the superconductivity. (author)

  9. Flagellum motion in 2-D: Work rate and efficiency of the non-sinusoidal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Nuraini, Nuning; Stephanie, Monica; Rifqi, Ainur; Christina, Dina; Thania, Elsa; Sihite, Erland

    2018-03-01

    Today microorganisms have been widely used to support human life. Some examples include foodstuffs (Spirulina.sp), to help with medical needs, for mining purposes and more. On the other hand, the development of technology is also very big influence on human life. The combination of technology and health science will be very useful if we can develop it. One is the cancer treatment by utilizing the movement of the flagella to be made a nanorobot used as a carrier of cancer drugs. Movement of flagella that resembles the shape of the arc and straight line can be searched formulation and then applied to the manufacture of nanorobot tail. Then the nanorobot will carry a cancer drug that leads directly to the cancer cells. So hopefully with this nanorobot, can minimize the death of healthy cells around cancer cells. From the results of research and analysis of the movement of flagella, it can be concluded that the smaller the mass of the flagella, the greater the efficiency will be or will be more efficient. So, the energy needed nanorobot will be smaller. Model with non-sinusoidal approach (Brokaw, 1965) is discussed in this work and formulation to get the energy efficiency is proposed and analyzed. Unfortunately, there is a negative value in the formulation.

  10. Measurement of electroosmotic and electrophoretic velocities using pulsed and sinusoidal electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Samir H; Pimenta, Francisco; Pinho, Fernando T; Alves, Manuel A

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we explore two methods to simultaneously measure the electroosmotic mobility in microchannels and the electrophoretic mobility of micron-sized tracer particles. The first method is based on imposing a pulsed electric field, which allows to isolate electrophoresis and electroosmosis at the startup and shutdown of the pulse, respectively. In the second method, a sinusoidal electric field is generated and the mobilities are found by minimizing the difference between the measured velocity of tracer particles and the velocity computed from an analytical expression. Both methods produced consistent results using polydimethylsiloxane microchannels and polystyrene micro-particles, provided that the temporal resolution of the particle tracking velocimetry technique used to compute the velocity of the tracer particles is fast enough to resolve the diffusion time-scale based on the characteristic channel length scale. Additionally, we present results with the pulse method for viscoelastic fluids, which show a more complex transient response with significant velocity overshoots and undershoots after the start and the end of the applied electric pulse, respectively. © 2016 The Authors. Electrophoresis published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mixed Over-Voltage Decomposition Using Atomic Decompositions Based on a Damped Sinusoids Atom Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to establish a signal decomposition system aiming at mixed over-voltages in power systems. In an electric power system, over-voltage presents a great threat for the system safety. Analysis and identification of over-voltages is helpful to improve the stability and safety of power systems. Through statistical analysis of a collection of field over-voltage records, it was found that a kind of complicated signals created by mixing of multiple different over-voltages is difficult to identify correctly with current classification algorithms. In order to improve the classification and identification accuracy of over-voltages, a mixed over-voltage decomposition system based on the atomic decomposition and a damped sinusoid atom dictionary has been established. This decomposition system is optimized by using particle swarm optimization and the fast Fourier transform. Aiming at possible fault decomposition results during decomposition of the over-voltage signal, a double-atom decomposition algorithm is proposed in this paper. By taking three typical mixed over-voltages as examples, the validity of the algorithm is demonstrated.

  12. Effects of chronic alcoholism in the sensitivity to luminance contrast in vertical sinusoidal gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éllen Dias Nicácio da Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to measure visual contrast sensitivity (CS of luminance using vertical sinusoidal gratings with spatial frequencies of 0.6, 2.5, 5.0 and 20.0 cycles per degree of visual angle in chronic alcoholics in abstinence period. The participants were 20 volunteers (26–59 years of age divided into two groups: the study group (SG consisted of 10 volunteers with a clinical history of chronic alcoholism abstinence and the control group (CG consisted of 10 healthy volunteers. Each group had five female and five male participants. All participants had normal or corrected visual acuity and were free of identifiable diseases. The psychophysical method of forced choice between two temporal alternatives (2AFC was used to measure visual CS of luminance of 41.2 cd/m2. The results showed significant differences between groups for all spatial frequencies tested (p< 0.001. These results suggest alterations in the visual perception related to chronic alcohol consumption even after years of abstinence.

  13. Fine tuning of optical signals in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals by apodized sinusoidal pulse anodisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Chin Lei, Dominique Wong; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-11-03

    In this study, we present an advanced nanofabrication approach to produce gradient-index photonic crystal structures based on nanoporous anodic alumina. An apodization strategy is for the first time applied to a sinusoidal pulse anodisation process in order to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) in depth. Four apodization functions are explored, including linear positive, linear negative, logarithmic positive and logarithmic negative, with the aim of finely tuning the characteristic photonic stop band of these photonic crystal structures. We systematically analyse the effect of the amplitude difference (from 0.105 to 0.840 mA cm -2 ), the pore widening time (from 0 to 6 min), the anodisation period (from 650 to 950 s) and the anodisation time (from 15 to 30 h) on the quality and the position of the characteristic photonic stop band and the interferometric colour of these photonic crystal structures using the aforementioned apodization functions. Our results reveal that a logarithmic negative apodisation function is the most optimal approach to obtain unprecedented well-resolved and narrow photonic stop bands across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum of NAA-based gradient-index photonic crystals. Our study establishes a fully comprehensive rationale towards the development of unique NAA-based photonic crystal structures with finely engineered optical properties for advanced photonic devices such as ultra-sensitive optical sensors, selective optical filters and all-optical platforms for quantum computing.

  14. Blood-borne LPS is rapidly eliminated by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells via HDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhili; Mates, Jessica M.; Cheplowitz, Alana M.; Hammer, Lindsay P.; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Phillips, Gary S.; Wewers, Mark D.; Rajaram, Murugesan V.S.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.; Ganesan, Latha P.

    2016-01-01

    During Gram-negative bacterial infections, excessive lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation and sepsis via action on immune cells. However, the bulk of LPS can be cleared from circulation by the liver. Liver clearance is thought to be a slow process mediated exclusively by phagocytic resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KC). However, we discovered that LPS disappears rapidly from the circulation, with a half-life of 2–4 minutes in mice and liver eliminates about three quarters of LPS from blood circulation. Using microscopic techniques, we found that ~75% of fluor-tagged LPS in liver became associated with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and only ~25% with KC. Notably, the ratio of LSEC-KC associated LPS remained unchanged 45 min after infusion, indicating that LSEC independently processes the LPS. Most interestingly, results of kinetic analysis of LPS bioactivity, using modified limulus amebocyte lysate assay, suggest that recombinant factor-C, an LPS binding protein, competitively inhibits HDL-mediated LPS association with LSEC early in the process. Supporting the previous notion 3 min post-infusion, 75% of infused fluorescently-tagged LPS-HDL complex associates with LSEC, suggesting that HDL facilitates LPS clearance. These results lead us to propose a new paradigm of LSEC and HDL in clearing LPS with a potential to avoid inflammation during sepsis. PMID:27534554

  15. Engraftment and reconstitution of hematopoiesis is dependent on VEGFR2 mediated regeneration of sinusoidal endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Andrea T.; Butler, Jason M.; Nolan, Daniel J; Kranz, Andrea; Iida, Kaoruko; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Shido, Koji; Petit, Isabelle; Yanger, Kilangsungla; James, Daylon; Witte, Larry; Zhu, Zhenping; Wu, Yan; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Rosenwaks, Zev; Mittal, Vivek; Sato, Thomas N.; Rafii, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The phenotypic attributes and molecular determinants for the regeneration of bone marrow (BM) sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) and their contribution to hematopoiesis are unknown. We show that after myelosuppression VEGFR2 activation promotes reassembly of regressed SECs, reconstituting hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 expression are restricted to BM vasculature, demarcating a continuous network of VEGFR2+VEGFR3+Sca1− SECs and VEGFR2+VEGFR3−Sca1+ arterioles. While chemotherapy (5FU) and sublethal irradiation (650 rad) induce minor SEC regression, lethal irradiation (950 rad) induces severe regression of SECs requiring BM transplantation (BMT) for regeneration. Conditional deletion of VEGFR2 in adult mice blocks regeneration of SECs in sublethally irradiated animals, preventing hematopoietic reconstitution. Inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in lethally irradiated wild type mice rescued with BMT severely impairs SEC reconstruction, preventing engraftment and reconstitution of HSPCs. Therefore, activation of VEGFR2 is critical for regeneration of VEGFR3+Sca1− SECs that are essential for engraftment and restoration of HSPCs and hematopoiesis. PMID:19265665

  16. A metabonomic evaluation of the monocrotaline-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conotte, R.; Colet, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marie.colet@umons.ac.be

    2014-04-15

    The main curative treatment of colorectal cancer remains the surgery. However, when metastases are suspected, surgery is followed by a preventive chemotherapy using oxaliplatin which, unfortunately, may cause liver sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Such hepatic damage is barely detected during or after chemotherapy due to a lack of effective diagnostic procedures, but liver biopsy. The primary objective of the present study was to identify potential early diagnosis biomarkers of SOS using a metabonomic approach. SOS was induced in rats by monocrotaline, a prototypical toxic substance. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine samples collected from rats treated with monocrotaline showed significant metabolic changes as compared to controls. During a first phase, cellular protective mechanisms such as an increased synthesis of GSH (reduced taurine) and the recruitment of cell osmolytes in the liver (betaine) were seen. In the second phase, the disturbance of the urea cycle (increased ornithine and urea reduction) leading to the depletion of NO, the alteration in the GSH synthesis (increased creatine and GSH precursors (glutamate, dimethylglycine and sarcosine)), and the liver necrosis (decrease taurine and increase creatine) all indicate the development of SOS. - Highlights: • Urine metabonomic profiles of SOS have been identified. • Urine osmoprotectants and anti-oxidants indicated an initial liver protection. • Liver necrosis was demonstrated by increased urine levels of taurine and creatine. • NO depletion was suggested by changes in ornithine and urea.

  17. Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells but not hepatocytes contain factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahani, T; Covens, K; Lavend'homme, R; Jazouli, N; Sokal, E; Peerlinck, K; Jacquemin, M

    2014-01-01

    Although the liver is the major site of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) synthesis, the type of cells producing FVIII within the liver is still unclear. To measure FVIII in extracts of primary liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes, thereby preventing potential bias resulting from the modifications of the cell phenotype that can take place during in vitro culture. LSECs were purified by flow cytometry cell sorting on the basis of their coexpression of Tie2 and CD32b. The purity of the cells was controlled by RNA sequencing. FVIII activity (FVIII:C) in extracts of purified cells was measured with a sensitive FVIII chromogenic assay, in which the specificity of the reaction is controlled by neutralization of FVIII activity with specific inhibitor antibodies. The FVIII:C concentration in purified LSECs ranged from 0.3 to 2.8 nU per cell. In contrast, FVIII:C was undetectable in hepatocytes. The intracellular FVIII:C concentrations are therefore at least 10-100-fold higher in LSECs than in hepatocytes. Our data demonstrate that LSECs, but not hepatocytes, contain measurable amounts of FVIII:C, and suggest that the former are the main cells producing FVIII in the human liver. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. © 2011 IEEE

  19. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell differentiation in mice. Using in vitro co-culture systems and subsequent cytokine analysis, we showed that LSECs induced high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in developing Th1 cells. These LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells had no pro-inflammatory capacity in vivo but instead actively suppressed an inflammatory Th1-cell-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Blockage of IL-10 signaling in vivo inhibited immunosuppressive activity of LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells. We identified the Notch pathway as a mechanism how LSECs trigger IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. LSECs expressed high levels of the Delta-like and Jagged family of Notch ligands and induced expression of the Notch target genes hes-1 and deltex-1 in Th1 cells. Blockade of Notch signaling selectively inhibited IL-10 induction in Th1 cells by LSECs. Our findings suggest that LSEC-induced IL-10 expression in Th1 cells via the Notch pathway may contribute to the control of hepatic inflammatory immune responses by induction of a self-regulatory mechanism in pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Flame Structure and Chemiluminescence Emissions of Inverse Diffusion Flames under Sinusoidally Driven Plasma Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of nitric oxides (NOx in aircraft engines and in gas turbines by lean combustion is of great interest in the design of novel combustion systems. However, the stabilization of the flame under lean conditions is a main issue. In this context, the present work investigates the effects of sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD on a lean inverse diffusive methane/air flame in a Bunsen-type burner under different actuation conditions. The flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux, but with varying inner airflow rate. High-speed flame imaging was done by using an intensified (charge-coupled device CCD camera equipped with different optical filters in order to selectively record signals from the chemiluminescent species OH*, CH*, or CO2* to evaluate the flame behavior in presence of plasma actuation. The electrical power consumption was less than 33 W. It was evident that the plasma flame enhancement was significantly influenced by the plasma discharges, particularly at high inner airflow rates. The flame structure changes drastically when the dissipated plasma power increases. The flame area decreases due to the enhancement of mixing and chemical reactions that lead to a more anchored flame on the quartz exit with a reduction of the flame length.

  1. Elementary steps of contraction probed by sinusoidal analysis technique in rabbit psoas fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, M; Zhao, Y; Halvorson, H R

    1993-01-01

    Elementary steps of contraction were probed by sinusoidal analysis technique in skinned fibers from the rabbit psoas muscle during maximal Ca2+ activation (pCa 4.55-4.82) at 20 degrees C and 200 mM ionic strength. Our study included the effects of MgATP, MgADP, and Pi concentrations, and an ATP hydrolysis rate measurement. We increased the frequency range up to 350 Hz, and resolved an extra process (D), in addition to well defined processes (A), (B), and (C). Based on these studies, we established a cross-bridge scheme consisting of six attached states, one detached state, and transitions between these states. We deduced all kinetic constants to specify the scheme. The scheme uniquely explains our data, and no other scheme with an equal degree of simplicity could explain our data. We correlated process (D) to ATP isomerization, process (C) to cross-bridge detachment, and process (B) to cross-bridge attachment. We deduced the tension per cross-bridge state, which indicates that force is generated on cross-bridge attachment and before Pi-release. We also found that the rate constants of elementary steps become progressively slower starting from ATP binding to the myosin head and ending by ADP isomerization, and this stepwise slowing may be the essential and integral part of the energy transduction mechanism by muscle.

  2. Morphology and force probing of primary murine liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapotoczny, B; Owczarczyk, K; Szafranska, K; Kus, E; Chlopicki, S; Szymonski, M

    2017-07-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) represent unique type of endothelial cells featured by their characteristic morphology, ie, lack of a basement membrane and presence of fenestrations-transmembrane pores acting as a dynamic filter between the vascular space and the liver parenchyma. Delicate structure of LSECs membrane combined with a submicron size of fenestrations hinders their visualization in live cells. In this work, we apply atomic force microscopy contact mode to characterize fenestrations in LSECs. We reveal the structure of fenestrations in live LSECs. Moreover, we show that the high-resolution imaging of fenestrations is possible for the glutaraldehyde-fixed LSECs. Finally, thorough information about the morphology of LSECs including great contrast in visualization of sieve plates and fenestrations is provided using Force Modulation mode. We show also the ability to precisely localize the cell nuclei in fixed LSECs. It can be helpful for more precise description of nanomechanical properties of cell nuclei using atomic force microscopy. Presented methodology combining high-quality imaging of fixed cells with an additional nanomechanical information of both live and fixed LSECs provides a unique approach to study LSECs morphology and nanomechanics that could foster understanding of the role of LSECs in maintaining liver homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. An Improved Walsh Function Algorithm for Use in Sinusoidal and Nonsinusoidal Power Components Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifulnizam Bin Abdul Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved Walsh function IWF algorithms as an alternative approach for active and reactive powers measurement in linear and nonlinear, balanced and unbalanced sinusoidal three-phase load system. It takes advantage of Walsh function unified approach, simple algorithm and its intrinsic high level of accuracy as a result of coefficient characteristics and energy behaviour representation. The developed algorithm was modeled on the Matlab Simulink software; different types of load, linear and nonlinear, were also modeled based on practical voltage and current waveforms and tested with the proposed improved Walsh algorithms. The IEEE standard 1459–2000 which is based on fast Fourier transform FFT approach was used as benchmark for the linear load system. The data obtained from laboratory experiment to determine power components in harmonic load systems using Fluke 435 power quality analyzer PQA which complies with IEC/EN61010-1-2001 standard was modeled and used to validate the improved algorithm for nonlinear load measurement. The results showed that the algorithm has the potential to effectively measure three-phase power components under different load conditions.

  4. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome caused by herbal medicine: CT and MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hua; Lou, Hai Yan; Wang, Yi Xiang J.; Xu, Xiao Jun; Zhang, Min Ming

    2014-01-01

    To describe the CT and MRI features of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) caused by herbal medicine Gynura segetum. The CT and MRI features of 16 consecutive Gynura segetum induced HSOS cases (12 men, 4 women) were analyzed. Eight patients had CT; three patients had MRI, and the remaining five patients had both CT and MRI examinations. Based on their clinical presentations and outcomes, the patients were classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The severity of the disease was also evaluated radiologically based on the abnormal hepatic patchy enhancement in post-contrast CT or MRI images. Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and main right hepatic vein narrowing or occlusion were present in all 16 cases. Hepatomegaly and gallbladder wall thickening were present in 14 cases (87.5%, 14/16). Periportal high intensity on T2-weighted images was present in 6 cases (75%, 6/8). Normal liver parenchymal enhancement surrounding the main hepatic vein forming a clover-like sign was observed in 4 cases (25%, 4/16). The extent of patchy liver enhancement was statistically associated with clinical severity classification (kappa = 0.565). Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and the main hepatic veins narrowing were the most frequent signs of herbal medicine induced HSOS. The grade of abnormal patchy liver enhancement was associated with the clinical severity.

  5. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome caused by herbal medicine: CT and MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hua; Lou, Hai Yan [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Yi Xiang J. [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao Jun; Zhang, Min Ming [Dept. of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-04-15

    To describe the CT and MRI features of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) caused by herbal medicine Gynura segetum. The CT and MRI features of 16 consecutive Gynura segetum induced HSOS cases (12 men, 4 women) were analyzed. Eight patients had CT; three patients had MRI, and the remaining five patients had both CT and MRI examinations. Based on their clinical presentations and outcomes, the patients were classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The severity of the disease was also evaluated radiologically based on the abnormal hepatic patchy enhancement in post-contrast CT or MRI images. Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and main right hepatic vein narrowing or occlusion were present in all 16 cases. Hepatomegaly and gallbladder wall thickening were present in 14 cases (87.5%, 14/16). Periportal high intensity on T2-weighted images was present in 6 cases (75%, 6/8). Normal liver parenchymal enhancement surrounding the main hepatic vein forming a clover-like sign was observed in 4 cases (25%, 4/16). The extent of patchy liver enhancement was statistically associated with clinical severity classification (kappa = 0.565). Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and the main hepatic veins narrowing were the most frequent signs of herbal medicine induced HSOS. The grade of abnormal patchy liver enhancement was associated with the clinical severity.

  6. Diagnostic performance of Contrast-enhanced CT in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids-induced Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstructive Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xuefeng; Ye, Jin; Rong, Xinxin; Lu, Zhiwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Keshu; Song, Yuhu; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) can be caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids(PAs)-containing herbals. Since PAs exposure is obscure and clinical presentation of HSOS is unspecific, it is challenge to establish the diagnosis of PAs-induced HSOS. Gynura segetum is one of the most wide-use herbals containing PAs. The aim of our study is to describe the features of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in gynura segetum-induced HSOS, and then determine diagnostic performance of radiological signs. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and CT images of HSOS patients (71 cases) and the controls (222 cases) enrolled from January 1, 2008, to Oct 31, 2015. The common findings of contrast CT in PAs-induced HSOS included: ascites (100%), hepatomegaly (78.87%), gallbladder wall thickening (86.96%), pleural effusion (70.42%), hepatic vein narrowing (87.32%), patchy liver enhancement (92.96%), and heterogeneous hypoattenuation (100%); of these signs, patchy enhancement and heterogeneous hypoattenuation were valuable features. Then, the result of diagnostic performance demonstrated that contrast CT possessed better performance in diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS compared with various parameters of Seattle criteria. In conclusion, the patients with PAs-induced HSOS display distinct radiologic features at CT-scan, which reveals that contrast-enhanced CT provides an effective noninvasive method for diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS. PMID:27897243

  7. Using spatiotemporal source separation to identify prominent features in multichannel data without sinusoidal filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X

    2017-09-27

    The number of simultaneously recorded electrodes in neuroscience is steadily increasing, providing new opportunities for understanding brain function, but also new challenges for appropriately dealing with the increase in dimensionality. Multivariate source separation analysis methods have been particularly effective at improving signal-to-noise ratio while reducing the dimensionality of the data and are widely used for cleaning, classifying and source-localizing multichannel neural time series data. Most source separation methods produce a spatial component (that is, a weighted combination of channels to produce one time series); here, this is extended to apply source separation to a time series, with the idea of obtaining a weighted combination of successive time points, such that the weights are optimized to satisfy some criteria. This is achieved via a two-stage source separation procedure, in which an optimal spatial filter is first constructed and then its optimal temporal basis function is computed. This second stage is achieved with a time-delay-embedding matrix, in which additional rows of a matrix are created from time-delayed versions of existing rows. The optimal spatial and temporal weights can be obtained by solving a generalized eigendecomposition of covariance matrices. The method is demonstrated in simulated data and in an empirical electroencephalogram study on theta-band activity during response conflict. Spatiotemporal source separation has several advantages, including defining empirical filters without the need to apply sinusoidal narrowband filters. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation Using Quadratic Interpolation around Power-Scaled Magnitude Spectrum Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt James Werner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on a rescaled magnitude spectrum using a logarithmic scale has been shown to improve those estimates. In this article, we show how to heuristically tune a power scaling parameter to outperform linear and logarithmic scaling at an equivalent computational cost. Although this power scaling factor is computed heuristically rather than analytically, it is shown to depend in a structured way on window parameters. Invariance properties of this family of estimators are studied and the existence of a bias due to noise is shown. Comparing to two state-of-the-art estimators, we show that an optimized power scaling has a lower systematic bias and lower mean-squared-error in noisy conditions for ten out of twelve common windowing functions.

  9. In-vitro study on haemodiluted blood flow in a sinusoidal microstenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M J; Ji, H-S; Lee, S J

    2010-01-01

    In-vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the haemodynamic and haemorheological behaviours of haemodiluted blood flow through a microstenosis using a micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The micro-PIV system employed in this study consisted of a two-head neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a cooled charge-coupled device camera, and a delay generator. To simulate blood flow in a stenosed vascular vessel, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel with a sinusoidal throat of 80 per cent severity was employed. The width and depth of the microchannel were 100 microm and 50 microm, respectively. To compare the flow characteristics in the microstenosis, the same experiments were repeated in a straight microchannel under the same flow conditions. Using a syringe pump, human blood with 5 per cent haematocrit was supplied into the microstenosis channel. The flow characteristics and transport of blood cells through the microstenosis were investigated with various flowrates. The mean velocity fields were nearly symmetric with respect to the channel centreline. In the contraction section, the oncoming blood flow was accelerated rapidly, and the maximum velocity at the throat was almost 4.99 times faster than that of the straight microchannel without stenosis. In the diffusion section, the blood cells show rolling, deformation, twisting, and tumbling motion due to the flow-choking characteristics at the stenotic region. The results from this study will provide useful basic data for comparison with those obtained by clinical researchers.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of fluid flow in channels with wavy sinusoidal walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaidarah Haitham M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entropy generation in channels with non-uniform cross-section that can be found in many fluid flow systems is an important concern from the thermodynamic design point of view. In this regard, the entropy generation in channels with periodic wavy sinusoidal walls has been considered in present study. The flow is assumed to be two-dimensional steady laminar and the main parameters considered are the Re number, height ratio Hmin/Hmax and module length ratio L/a. The fluid enters the channel with uniform axial velocity and temperature. The wall of the channel is assumed to be at uniform temperature which is different that of the fluid at the inlet of the channel. The distribution of the entropy generation as well as the total entropy generation has been studied numerically. It is found that the Re number and the geometric parameters, height ratio and module length ratio have significant effect on both the local concentrations of entropy generation as well as the total entropy generation in the channel. Flow separation and re-circulation size, strength and location of flow are found to be major concern in determining the local entropy generation.

  11. A high current sinusoidal pulse generator for the diluter magnets of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Vossenberg, Eugène B; Ducimetière, L; Schröder, G H

    2000-01-01

    CERN is constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a superconducting accelerator that will collide protons at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The two colliding beams will each store an energy of up to 540 MJ, which must be safely deposited within one beam revolution of 89 mu s on two external absorbers located about 700 m from the extraction points at the end of dedicated extraction tunnels. To avoid evaporation of the graphite absorber material by the very high energy density of the incident beams, the deposition area of the beams on the absorber front face will be increased. This is done by a pair of sinusoidally powered orthogonal magnet systems producing approximately an e-shape figure of about 35 mm diameter, with a minimum velocity of 10 mm/ mu s during the dumping process. The pulse generators of the horizontally and vertically deflecting diluter magnets are composed of capacitor banks, discharged by stacks of solid state closing switches. They are connected to the magnets by 28 m long low induct...

  12. Correlation between liver morphology and portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    evaluation of liver biopsies, no significant correlation was found between mean hepatocyte volume or relative sinusoidal vascular volume and portal pressure. To test whether an increase in hepatocyte volume compresses the vascular structures and causes portal hypertension, the ratio of relative sinusoidal...... volume. The present findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that elevated hepatic vascular resistance and portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease are in part determined by the severity of the hepatic architectural destruction and subsequent distorsion and compression of the efferent vein system...

  13. Numerical simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scalewaves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations...... demonstrating the ability to reproduce accurate velocity profiles, turbulence, and bed shear stresses on both smooth and rough beds.The validated model is then employed for the study of transient wave boundary layers at full tsunami scales,covering a wide and realistic geophysical range in terms of the flow...... duration, bottom roughness, and associated Reynolds numbers. For this purpose, three different “synthetic” (idealised) tsunami wave descriptions are considered i.e., invoking: (1) single wave (solitary-like, but with independent period and wave height),(2) sinusoidal, and (3) N-wave descriptions. The flow...

  14. Subduction Factory 3: An Excel worksheet and macro for calculating the densities, seismic wave speeds, and H2O contents of minerals and rocks at pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Bradley R.; Abers, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    An Excel macro to calculate mineral and rock physical properties at elevated pressure and temperature is presented. The workbook includes an expandable database of physical parameters for 52 rock-forming minerals stable at high pressures and temperatures. For these minerals the elastic moduli, densities, seismic velocities, and H2O contents are calculated at any specified P and T conditions, using basic thermodynamic relationships and third-order finite strain theory. The mineral modes of suites of rocks are also specifiable, so that their predicted aggregate properties can be calculated using standard solid mixing theories. A suite of sample rock modes taken from the literature provides a useful starting point. The results of these calculations can be applied to a wide variety of geophysical questions including estimating the alteration of the oceanic crust and mantle; predicting the seismic velocities of lower-crustal xenoliths; estimating the effects of changes in mineralogy, pressure and temperature on buoyancy; and assessing the H2O content and mineralogy of subducted lithosphere from seismic observations.

  15. Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanofibrous Polyaniline Thin Film Prepared by Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Polymerization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Sang Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the preparation of plasma-polymerized aniline (pPANI nanofibers and nanoparticles by an intense plasma cloud type atmospheric pressure plasma jets (iPC-APPJ device with a single bundle of three glass tubes. The nano size polymer was obtained at a sinusoidal wave with a peak value of 8 kV and a frequency of 26 kHz under ambient air. Discharge currents, photo-sensor amplifier, and optical emission spectrometer (OES techniques were used to analyze the plasma produced from the iPC-APPJ device. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC techniques were used to analyze the pPANI. FE-SEM and TEM results show that pPANI has nanofibers, nanoparticles morphology, and polycrystalline characteristics. The FT-IR and GC-MS analysis show the characteristic polyaniline peaks with evidence that some quinone and benzene rings are broken by the discharge energy. GPC results show that pPANI has high molecular weight (Mw, about 533 kDa with 1.9 polydispersity index (PDI. This study contributes to a better understanding on the novel growth process and synthesis of uniform polyaniline nanofibers and nanoparticles with high molecular weights using the simple atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization technique.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanofibrous Polyaniline Thin Film Prepared by Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Polymerization Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choon-Sang; Kim, Dong Ha; Shin, Bhum Jae; Tae, Heung-Sik

    2016-01-11

    This work presents a study on the preparation of plasma-polymerized aniline (pPANI) nanofibers and nanoparticles by an intense plasma cloud type atmospheric pressure plasma jets (iPC-APPJ) device with a single bundle of three glass tubes. The nano size polymer was obtained at a sinusoidal wave with a peak value of 8 kV and a frequency of 26 kHz under ambient air. Discharge currents, photo-sensor amplifier, and optical emission spectrometer (OES) techniques were used to analyze the plasma produced from the iPC-APPJ device. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) techniques were used to analyze the pPANI. FE-SEM and TEM results show that pPANI has nanofibers, nanoparticles morphology, and polycrystalline characteristics. The FT-IR and GC-MS analysis show the characteristic polyaniline peaks with evidence that some quinone and benzene rings are broken by the discharge energy. GPC results show that pPANI has high molecular weight ( M w ), about 533 kDa with 1.9 polydispersity index (PDI). This study contributes to a better understanding on the novel growth process and synthesis of uniform polyaniline nanofibers and nanoparticles with high molecular weights using the simple atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization technique.

  18. On the behavior of pressurized pipings under excessive-stresses caused by earthquake loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udoguchi, Y.; Akino, K.; Shibata, H.

    1975-01-01

    Five types of breaking experiments on pipe elements and piping structures had been carried out from 1971 to 1973 by the technical sub-committee of the Japan Electric Association under the leadership taken by Y. Udoguchi, one of the authors. One of the fruitful results was to realize the guillotine-type rupture of pipe element on a shaking table. However, it was also shown that the margin for the design is enough, and allowable stresses under earthquake loading are obtained by modifying those of the Emergency Condition of the ASME Code. The experiments effected were as follows: straight pipe elements, curved pipes and T-branch pipe connections, made of both ferritic and austenitic steels, were subjected to repeated bending moment, torsional moment and combined under pressurized condition. The pressure corresponded to their design value, but the stresses caused by such moments exceeded over their allowable stress of the Faulted Condition of the ASME Code. The wave patterns were both sinusoidal and natural earthquake records

  19. The electronic states calculated using the sinusoidal potential for Cd1-xZnxS quantum dot superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakly, A.; Safta, N.; Mejri, H.; Lamine, A. Ben

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper is dedicated to structures based on Cd 1-x Zn x S. - Abstract: The present work reports on a theoretical investigation of superlattices based on Cd 1-x Zn x S quantum dots embedded in an insulating material. The system to model is assumed to be a series of flattened cylindrical quantum dots with a finite barrier at the boundary and is studied using a sinusoidal potential. The electronic states of both Γ 1 - (ground) and Γ 2 - (first excited) minibands have been computed as a function of inter-quantum dot separation and Zn composition. An analysis of the results shows that the widths of Γ 1 - and Γ 2 - minibands decrease as the superlattice period and Zn content increase separately. Moreover, the sinusoidal shape of the confining potential accounts for the coupling between quantum dots quantitatively less than the Kronig-Penney potential model.

  20. An all digital phase locked loop for synchronization of a sinusoidal signal embedded in white Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. P.; Gupta, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    An all digital phase locked loop which tracks the phase of the incoming sinusoidal signal once per carrier cycle is proposed. The different elements and their functions and the phase lock operation are explained in detail. The nonlinear difference equations which govern the operation of the digital loop when the incoming signal is embedded in white Gaussian noise are derived, and a suitable model is specified. The performance of the digital loop is considered for the synchronization of a sinusoidal signal. For this, the noise term is suitably modelled which allows specification of the output probabilities for the two level quantizer in the loop at any given phase error. The loop filter considered increases the probability of proper phase correction. The phase error states in modulo two-pi forms a finite state Markov chain which enables the calculation of steady state probabilities, RMS phase error, transient response and mean time for cycle skipping.

  1. Wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  2. Sinusoidal 50-Hz magnetic fields depress rat pineal NAT activity and serum melatonin. Role of duration and intensity of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmaoui, B; Touitou, Y

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the exposure to a 50-Hz sinusoidal magnetic field could influence serum melatonin concentration and pineal enzymes activities in rats. The effects of both duration and intensity of exposure were also looked at. Two groups of Wistar male rats were exposed to 50-Hz magnetic fields of either 1, 10 or 100 microT. The first group was exposed for 12 hours and the second for 30 days (18 hours per day). During this time the animals were kept under a standard 12:12 light: dark cycle with a temperature of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity of 45 to 50%. Control (Sham-exposed) animals were kept in a similar environment but without exposure to a magnetic field. The animals were sacrificed under red dim light. Serum melatonin concentration and pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) activities were studied. Long-term exposure to a magnetic field (10 and 100 microT) significantly depressed the nocturne peak of serum melatonin concentration and pineal NAT activity whereas no effect was observed on HIOMT activity. Short-term exposure depressed both pineal NAT activity and nocturnal serum melatonin concentration but only with the highest intensity used (100 microT). Our results suggest that sinusoidal magnetic fields alter the production of melatonin through an inhibition of pineal NAT activity. Both duration and intensity of exposure play an important role in this effect. This work shows that, 1) sinusoidal magnetic field depresses NAT activity as static magnetic field does whereas HIOMT activity remains unaltered whatever the type of experiment and the intensity used, 2) the effect observed is related to both the duration of exposure and the intensity of magnetic fields, 3) the sensitivity threshold to magnetic fields vary with the duration of exposure which strongly suggests a cumulative effect of sinusoidal magnetic fields on pineal function.

  3. Large right ventricular sinusoids in an infant with aorta-left ventricular tunnel and proximal right coronary artery atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C; Spinner, Joseph A; Heinle, Jeffrey S

    2018-04-16

    We report a 1-month-old infant diagnosed with an aorta-left ventricular tunnel, ventricular septal defect, and right coronary atresia with right ventricular sinusoids. The patient's anatomy and physiology did not indicate right-ventricular-dependent coronary circulation, and therefore right ventricular decompression could be performed without compromising coronary perfusion during surgical correction. A detailed understanding of the coronary anatomy is critical in managing this defect when coronary anomalies are present.

  4. Calcium homeostasis is required for contact-dependent helical and sinusoidal tip growth in Candida albicans hyphae

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Alexandra; Lee, Keunsook; Veses, Veronica; Gow, Neil A R

    2009-01-01

    Hyphae of the dimorphic fungus, Candida albicans, exhibit directional tip responses when grown in contact with surfaces. On hard surfaces or in liquid media, the trajectory of hyphal growth is typically linear, with tip re-orientation events limited to encounters with topographical features (thigmotropism). In contrast, when grown on semisolid surfaces, the tips of C. albicans hyphae grow in an oscillatory manner to form regular two-dimensional sinusoidal curves and three-dimensional helices....

  5. Construction of a liver sinusoid based on the laminar flow on chip and self-assembly of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Shengli; Yi, Xiaoman; Du, Zhichang; Xu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Wei

    2018-02-20

    The liver is one of the main metabolic organs, and nearly all ingested drugs will be metabolized by the liver. Only a small fraction of drugs are able to come onto the market during drug development, and hepatic toxicity is a major cause for drug failure. Since drug development is costly in both time and materials, an in vitro liver model that can accelerate bioreactions in the liver and reduce drug consumption is imperative in the pharmaceutical industry. The liver on a chip is an ideal alternative for its controllable environment and tiny size, which means constructing a more biomimetic model, reducing material consumption as well as promoting drug diffusion and reaction. In this study, taking advantage of the laminar flow on chips and using natural degradable gel rat tail Collagen-I, we constructed a liver sinusoid on a chip. By synchronously injecting two kinds of cell-laden collagen, HepG2-laden collagen and HUVEC-laden collagen, we formed two collagen layers with a clear borderline. By controlling the HUVEC density and injection of growth factors, HUVECs in collagen formed a monolayer through self-assembly. Thus, a liver sinusoid on a chip was achieved in a more biomimetic environment with a more controllable and uniform distribution of discrete HUVECs. Viability, album secretion and urea synthesis of the live sinusoid on a chip were analysed on days 3, 5 and 7 after collagen injection with acetaminophen treatment at 0 (control), 10 and 20 mM. The results indicated that our liver sinusoid on a chip was able to maintain bioactivity and function for at least 7 d and was beneficial for hepatotoxic drug screening.

  6. Sinusoidal oscillators with lower gain requirements at higher frequencies based on an explicit tanh(x) nonlinearity

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.

    2009-04-28

    Two novel sinusoidal oscillator structures with an explicit tanh(x) nonlinearity are proposed. The oscillators have the attractive feature: the higher the operating frequency, the lower the necessary gain required to start oscillations. A nonlinear model for the two oscillators is derived and verified numerically. Spice simulations using AMS BiCMOS 0.35 μ model parameters and experimental results are shown. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2012-01-01

    identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  8. Velocidade da onda de pulso, pressão arterial e adipocitocinas em adultos jovens: estudo do Rio de Janeiro Pulse wave velocity, blood pressure and adipocytokines in young adults: the Rio de Janeiro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Pizzi

    2013-01-01

    identificação do acometimento vascular nessa faixa etária.BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive vascular assessment and their association with cardiovascular risk variables are scarce in young individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, anthropometric and metabolic variables, including adipocytokines, in young adults. METHODS: A total of 96 individuals aged 26 to 35 years (mean 30.09 ± 1.92; 51 males were assessed in the Rio de Janeiro study. Pulse wave velocity (Complior method, blood pressure, body mass index, glucose, lipid profile, leptin, insulin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR were analyzed. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to the PWV tertile for each gender. RESULTS: The group with the highest pulse wave velocity (PWV tertile showed higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, body mass index, insulin, and HOMA-IR, as well as lower mean adiponectin; higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus/glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. There was a significant positive correlation of PWV with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean blood pressure, body mass index, and LDL-cholesterol, and a negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin. In the multiple regression model, after adjustment of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and adiponectin for gender, age, body mass index and mean blood pressure, only the male gender and mean blood pressure remained significantly correlated with PWV. CONCLUSION: PWV in young adults showed a significant association with cardiovascular risk variables, especially in the male gender, and mean blood pressure as important determinant variables. The findings suggest that PWV measurement can be useful for the identification of vascular impairment in this age group.

  9. The Influence of Pressure Distribution on the Maximum Values of Stress in FEM Analysis of Plain Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several methods can be used in the FEM studies to apply the loads on a plain bearing. The paper presents a comparative analysis of maximum stress obtained for three loading scenarios: resultant force applied on the shaft – bearing assembly, variable pressure with sinusoidal distribution applied on the bearing surface, variable pressure with parabolic distribution applied on the bearing surface.

  10. Design of Helical Capacitance Sensor for Holdup Measurement in Two-Phase Stratified Flow: A Sinusoidal Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K S; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon

    2016-07-04

    A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a 'sine-like' function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.

  11. Design of Helical Capacitance Sensor for Holdup Measurement in Two-Phase Stratified Flow: A Sinusoidal Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Ghai Lim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function, with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design.

  12. Design of Helical Capacitance Sensor for Holdup Measurement in Two-Phase Stratified Flow: A Sinusoidal Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lam Ghai; Pao, William K. S.; Hamid, Nor Hisham; Tang, Tong Boon

    2016-01-01

    A 360° twisted helical capacitance sensor was developed for holdup measurement in horizontal two-phase stratified flow. Instead of suppressing nonlinear response, the sensor was optimized in such a way that a ‘sine-like’ function was displayed on top of the linear function. This concept of design had been implemented and verified in both software and hardware. A good agreement was achieved between the finite element model of proposed design and the approximation model (pure sinusoidal function), with a maximum difference of ±1.2%. In addition, the design parameters of the sensor were analysed and investigated. It was found that the error in symmetry of the sinusoidal function could be minimized by adjusting the pitch of helix. The experiments of air-water and oil-water stratified flows were carried out and validated the sinusoidal relationship with a maximum difference of ±1.2% and ±1.3% for the range of water holdup from 0.15 to 0.85. The proposed design concept therefore may pose a promising alternative for the optimization of capacitance sensor design. PMID:27384567

  13. Calcium homeostasis is required for contact-dependent helical and sinusoidal tip growth in Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Alexandra; Lee, Keunsook; Veses, Veronica; Gow, Neil A R

    2009-03-01

    Hyphae of the dimorphic fungus, Candida albicans, exhibit directional tip responses when grown in contact with surfaces. On hard surfaces or in liquid media, the trajectory of hyphal growth is typically linear, with tip re-orientation events limited to encounters with topographical features (thigmotropism). In contrast, when grown on semisolid surfaces, the tips of C. albicans hyphae grow in an oscillatory manner to form regular two-dimensional sinusoidal curves and three-dimensional helices. We show that, like thigmotropism, initiation of directional tip oscillation in C. albicans hyphae is severely attenuated when Ca2+ homeostasis is perturbed. Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ or deletion of the Ca2+ transporters that modulate cytosolic [Ca2+] (Mid1, Cch1 or Pmr1) did not affect hyphal length but curve formation was severely reduced in mid1Delta and cch1Delta and abolished in pmr1Delta. Sinusoidal hypha morphology was altered in the mid1Delta, chs3Delta and heterozygous pmr1Delta/PMR1 strains. Treatments that affect cell wall integrity, changes in surface mannosylation or the provision of additional carbon sources had significant but less pronounced effects on oscillatory growth. The induction of two- and three-dimensional sinusoidal growth in wild-type C. albicans hyphae is therefore the consequence of mechanisms that involve Ca2+ influx and signalling rather than gross changes in the cell wall architecture.

  14. Cooperative effect of monoclinic distortion and sinusoidal modulation in the martensitic structure of Ni2FeGa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.B.; Yang, H.X.; Tian, H.F.; Zeng, L.J.; Ma, C.; Feng, L.; Wu, G.H.; Li, J.Q.; Jansen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The structural features of the '5M' martensitic phase in Ni 2 FeGa alloys have been determined by electron diffraction using the multi-slice least-squares (MSLS) method. The results demonstrate that the '5M' phase contains an evident cooperative effect of monoclinic distortion and sinusoidal modulation along the [110] c direction. Theoretical simulations based on our refined data suggest that the '5M' martensitic phase observed in Ni-Fe-Ga and Ni-Mn-Ga has visible common behaviors in both stacking sequence and local structural distortion. Considering the cooperative effect of monoclinic distortion and sinusoidal modulation, we demonstrate that the '7M' martensitic phase could adopt two equivalent structural phases corresponding with the stacking sequences of (43 - ) 2 and (52 - ) 2 , respectively. - Graphical abstract: The structural model of the '5M' Ni 2 FeGa martensite viewed along the [001] c (i.e. [010] m ) zone axis, demonstrating the cooperative effect of monoclinic distortion and sinusoidal modulation along the [110] c direction.

  15. Dynamical pattern formation in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid under two orthogonal sinusoidal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yépez, L.D.; Carrillo, J.L.; Donado, F.; Sausedo-Solorio, J.M.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical pattern formation of clusters of magnetic particles in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid, under the influence of a superposition of two perpendicular sinusoidal fields, is studied experimentally. By varying the frequency and phase shift of the perpendicular fields, this configuration enables us to experimentally analyze a wide range of field configurations, including the case of a pure rotating field and the case of an oscillating unidirectional field. The fields are applied parallel to the horizontal plane where the fluid lies or in the vertical plane. For fields applied in the horizontal plane, we observed that, when the ratio of the frequencies increases, the average cluster size exhibits a kind of periodic resonances. When the phase shift between the fields is varied, the average chain length reaches maximal values for the cases of the rotating field and the unidirectional case. We analyze and discuss these results in terms of a weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number. In the case of a rotating field on the vertical plane, we also observe that the competition between the magnetic and the viscous forces determines the average cluster size. We show that this configuration generates a series of physically meaningful self-organization of clusters and transport phenomena. - Highlights: • A weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number is proposed. • The self-propelling clusters appear when a vertical rotating magnetic field is applied. • The largest average chain lengths are reached when frequencies are multiples one another. • Rotating and unidirectional alternating fields produce the largest average chain length values.

  16. Dynamical pattern formation in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid under two orthogonal sinusoidal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yépez, L.D.; Carrillo, J.L. [Instituto de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Ciudad Universitaria, Edif. 110 A, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Donado, F.; Sausedo-Solorio, J.M.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P. [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca 42090, Pachuca (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    The dynamical pattern formation of clusters of magnetic particles in a low-concentration magnetorheological fluid, under the influence of a superposition of two perpendicular sinusoidal fields, is studied experimentally. By varying the frequency and phase shift of the perpendicular fields, this configuration enables us to experimentally analyze a wide range of field configurations, including the case of a pure rotating field and the case of an oscillating unidirectional field. The fields are applied parallel to the horizontal plane where the fluid lies or in the vertical plane. For fields applied in the horizontal plane, we observed that, when the ratio of the frequencies increases, the average cluster size exhibits a kind of periodic resonances. When the phase shift between the fields is varied, the average chain length reaches maximal values for the cases of the rotating field and the unidirectional case. We analyze and discuss these results in terms of a weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number. In the case of a rotating field on the vertical plane, we also observe that the competition between the magnetic and the viscous forces determines the average cluster size. We show that this configuration generates a series of physically meaningful self-organization of clusters and transport phenomena. - Highlights: • A weighted average of the time-dependent Mason number is proposed. • The self-propelling clusters appear when a vertical rotating magnetic field is applied. • The largest average chain lengths are reached when frequencies are multiples one another. • Rotating and unidirectional alternating fields produce the largest average chain length values.

  17. First evidence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Gao, Hong; Li, Na; Ma, Jiang; Xue, Junyi; Ye, Yang; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Wang, Jiyao; Lin, Ge

    2017-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent phytotoxins widely distributed in plant species around the world. PA is one of the major causes responsible for the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) and exerts hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation to form the reactive metabolites, which bind with cellular proteins to generate pyrrole-protein adducts, leading to hepatotoxicity. PA N-oxides coexist with their corresponding PAs in plants with varied quantities, sometimes even higher than that of PAs, but the toxicity of PA N-oxides remains unclear. The current study unequivocally identified PA N-oxides as the sole or predominant form of PAs in 18 Gynura segetum herbal samples ingested by patients with liver damage. For the first time, PA N-oxides were recorded to induce HSOS in human. PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity was further confirmed on mice orally dosed of herbal extract containing 170 μmol PA N-oxides/kg/day, with its hepatotoxicity similar to but potency much lower than the corresponding PAs. Furthermore, toxicokinetic study after a single oral dose of senecionine N-oxide (55 μmol/kg) on rats revealed the toxic mechanism that PA N-oxides induced hepatotoxicity via their biotransformation to the corresponding PAs followed by the metabolic activation to form pyrrole-protein adducts. The remarkable differences in toxicokinetic profiles of PAs and PA N-oxides were found and attributed to their significantly different hepatotoxic potency. The findings of PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and rodents suggested that the contents of both PAs and PA N-oxides present in herbs and foods should be regulated and controlled in use.

  18. Removing damped sinusoidal vibrations in adaptive optics systems using a DFT-based estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    The problem of a vibrations rejection in adaptive optics systems is still present in publications. These undesirable signals emerge because of shaking the system structure, the tracking process, etc., and they usually are damped sinusoidal signals. There are some mechanical solutions to reduce the signals but they are not very effective. One of software solutions are very popular adaptive methods. An AVC (Adaptive Vibration Cancellation) method has been presented and developed in recent years. The method is based on the estimation of three vibrations parameters and values of frequency, amplitude and phase are essential to produce and adjust a proper signal to reduce or eliminate vibrations signals. This paper presents a fast (below 10 ms) and accurate estimation method of frequency, amplitude and phase of a multifrequency signal that can be used in the AVC method to increase the AO system performance. The method accuracy depends on several parameters: CiR - number of signal periods in a measurement window, N - number of samples in the FFT procedure, H - time window order, SNR, THD, b - number of A/D converter bits in a real time system, γ - the damping ratio of the tested signal, φ - the phase of the tested signal. Systematic errors increase when N, CiR, H decrease and when γ increases. The value of systematic error for γ = 0.1%, CiR = 1.1 and N = 32 is approximately 10^-4 Hz/Hz. This paper focuses on systematic errors of and effect of the signal phase and values of γ on the results.

  19. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  20. A MATLAB toolbox and Excel workbook for calculating the densities, seismic wave speeds, and major element composition of minerals and rocks at pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abers, Geoffrey A.; Hacker, Bradley R.

    2016-02-01

    To interpret seismic images, rock seismic velocities need to be calculated at elevated pressure and temperature for arbitrary compositions. This technical report describes an algorithm, software, and data to make such calculations from the physical properties of minerals. It updates a previous compilation and Excel® spreadsheet and includes new MATLAB® tools for the calculations. The database of 60 mineral end-members includes all parameters needed to estimate density and elastic moduli for many crustal and mantle rocks at conditions relevant to the upper few hundreds of kilometers of Earth. The behavior of α and β quartz is treated as a special case, owing to its unusual Poisson's ratio and thermal expansion that vary rapidly near the α-β transition. The MATLAB tools allow integration of these calculations into a variety of modeling and data analysis projects.

  1. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  2. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  3. Shock Wave Structure in Polyurethane Foam

    OpenAIRE

    ONODERA, Hideki; TAKAYAMA, Kazuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    Shock wave propagation in polyurethane (PU(R)) foam was experimentally studied. The experiment was conducted in a shock tube by measuring pressure along the PU(R) foam in a shock tube, by means of holographic interferometry and streak camera recording. It was found that the stress-strain curve of PU(R) has an inflection point. When the pressure behind the incident shock wave was below the inflection-point pressure P_c, the wave impedance ratio of the incident shock wave and transmitted pressu...

  4. Influence of the Periodicity of Sinusoidal Boundary Condition on the Unsteady Mixed Convection within a Square Enclosure Using an Ag–Water Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharul Karim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of the unsteady mixed convection heat transfer characteristics of an Ag–water nanofluid confined within a square shape lid-driven cavity has been carried out. The Galerkin weighted residual of the finite element method has been employed to investigate the effects of the periodicity of sinusoidal boundary condition for a wide range of Grashof numbers (Gr (105 to 107 with the parametric variation of sinusoidal even and odd frequency, N, from 1 to 6 at different instants (for τ = 0.1 and 1. It has been observed that both the Grashof number and the sinusoidal even and odd frequency have a significant influence on the streamlines and isotherms inside the cavity. The heat transfer rate enhanced by 90% from the heated surface as the Grashof number (Gr increased from 105 to 107 at sinusoidal frequency N = 1 and τ = 1.

  5. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies...

  6. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  7. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  8. Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed intermediate mass black holes in LIGO-Virgo data from 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency $50\\le f_{0}/\\mathrm{Hz} \\le 2000$ and decay timescale $0.0001\\lesssim \\tau/\\mathrm{s} \\lesssim 0.1$ characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant ...

  9. Pore Pressure Measurements Inside Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, H. F.; Grüne, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The present paper presents pore pressure measurements from large scale model tests performed at the Large Wave Channel, Hannover, Germany and small scale model test performed at the Hydraulic & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University, Denmark. Information on pore pressure attenuation...

  10. Acoustic energy transfer to the upper atmosphere from sinusoidal sources and a role of nonlinear processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnov, Valerij Michailovič; Drobzheva, Yana Viktorovna; Laštovička, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 12 (2007), s. 1357-1365 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/2110; GA ČR GA205/07/1367 Grant - others:Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan (KZ) 1-4-1.11-1 (112) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Infrasonic waves * Ionosphere * Atmosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2007

  11. A Modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Approach for Mimicking Dynamic Oscillatory Stress Fluctuations During Earthquake Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunagel, M. J.; Griffith, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Past experimental work has demonstrated that rock failure at high strain rates occurs by fragmentation rather than discrete fracture and is accompanied by a dramatic increase in rock strength. However, these observations are difficult to reconcile with the assertion that pulverized rocks in fault zones are the product of impulsive stresses during the passage of earthquake ruptures, as the distance from the principal slip zones of some pulverized rock is too great to exceed fragmentation transition. One potential explanation to this paradox that has been suggested is that repeated loading over the course of multiple earthquake ruptures may gradually reduce the pulverization threshold, in terms of both strain rate and strength. We propose that oscillatory loading during a single earthquake rupture may further lower these pulverization thresholds, and that traditional dynamic experimental approaches, such as the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) wherein load is applied as a single, smooth, sinusoidal compressive wave, may not reflect natural loading conditions. To investigate the effects of oscillatory compressive loading expected during earthquake rupture propagation, we develop a controlled cyclic loading model on a SHPB apparatus utilizing two striker bars connected by an elastic spring. Unlike traditional SHPB experiments that utilize a gas gun to fire a projectile bar and generate a single compressive wave on impact with the incident bar, our modified striker bar assembly oscillates while moving down the gun barrel and generates two separate compressive pulses separated by a lag time. By modeling the modified assembly as a mass-spring-mass assembly accelerating due to the force of the released gas, we can predict the compression time of the spring upon impact and therefore the time delay between the generation of the first and second compressive waves. This allows us to predictably control load cycles with durations of only a few hundred microseconds. Initial

  12. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  13. Evaluation of seismic characteristic of cylindrical water storage tank by vibration test. Dependence of dynamic fluid pressure distribution on input acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Shimizu, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Michiaki; Fujita, Katsuhisa

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale cylindrical water storage tanks with a large ratio of radius to thickness, which means they have thin walls, cause the coupling vibration with the fluid stored in a tank and the tank structure itself. It is important for the seismic-proof design of the water storage tanks to investigate the mechanism and the influence of this coupling vibration. This paper describes the results of a vibration test with a 1/10th scale reduced model of a large scale industrial cylindrical water storage tank, and also refers to the dependence of the dynamic fluid pressure distribution on input acceleration and its influence on the seismic-proof design. First, a seismic excitation experiment was performed for the scale model tank. Secondly, a large amplitude excitation experiment was conducted using sinusoidal wave of the input excitation by various magnitude. Finally, the dynamic fluid pressure distribution, shear force and bending moment measured by the test were compared with the calculation results of the present methods of the seismic-proof design. The results of the vibration test showed the dependence of the dynamic fluid pressure distribution on the input acceleration which meant that the magnitude and the distribution of the measured pressure fluctuate non-linearly. Taking the influence of the varying pressure of the ovaling vibration on the dynamic fluid pressure distribution into consideration, it was found that the measured values of the dynamic fluid pressure distribution were approximately equaled to the calculated ones. The shearing and bending moment of the tanks, which were important on the seismic-proof design evaluation, were in approximate accordance with the results of the present methods regardless of the magnitude of the input acceleration. (author)

  14. Structures in Detonation Waves in Low-Pressure H2–O2–Ar Mixtures: A Summary of Results Obtained with the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Framework AMROC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Deiterding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multidimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the nonequilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniques in practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, that is, under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis, and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.

  15. Study of the influence of a sinusoidal protuberance on the transfers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The governing elliptic equations are discretized in a two-dimensional domain using the finite-volume method with non-staggered variable arrangement and the PISO algorithm for the velocity-pressure coupling is employed. We analyze the influence of the amplitude of the protuberance and the heat flux applied to its base ...

  16. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  17. Wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, wave energy spectra, significant wave height, dominant wave period and direction, peak wave period and direction, currents, temperature, conductivity, pressure, sigma-theta, river level, sonar readings, and backscatter data collected at Myrtle Beach in the North Atlantic Ocean from instruments deployed on MOORINGS using platforms NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER and RV DAN MOORE from 2003-10-01 to 2004-05-01 (NODC Accession 0066109)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These bottom current, wave and associated observations were collected as part of a larger study to understand the physical processes that control the transport of...

  18. Bound Infragravity Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    19891. Biphases However, similar laboratory experiments by Mansard and Barthel of pressure in depths of 8 m [Elgar el al., 19891, 11 m [llavsef- [19841...section 6. S(2 ) is related to the smoothed instantaneous wave energy his- JV tory (SIWEH) spectrum [Funke and Mansard . 1979; Sand, 1982b]. The S1WEH...energy in shallow water is refractively trapped Funke, E. R., and E. P. D. Mansard , On the synthesis of realistic sea states and does not reach !he deep

  19. Deflagration Wave Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-03

    Shock initiation in a plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) is due to hot spots. Current reactive burn models are based, at least heuristically, on the ignition and growth concept. The ignition phase occurs when a small localized region of high temperature (or hot spot) burns on a fast time scale. This is followed by a growth phase in which a reactive front spreads out from the hot spot. Propagating reactive fronts are deflagration waves. A key question is the deflagration speed in a PBX compressed and heated by a shock wave that generated the hot spot. Here, the ODEs for a steady deflagration wave profile in a compressible fluid are derived, along with the needed thermodynamic quantities of realistic equations of state corresponding to the reactants and products of a PBX. The properties of the wave profile equations are analyzed and an algorithm is derived for computing the deflagration speed. As an illustrative example, the algorithm is applied to compute the deflagration speed in shock compressed PBX 9501 as a function of shock pressure. The calculated deflagration speed, even at the CJ pressure, is low compared to the detonation speed. The implication of this are briefly discussed.

  20. Cylindrical pressure vessel constructed of several layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Takeshi.

    1976-01-01

    For a cylindrical pressure vessel constructed of several layers whose jacket has at least one circumferential weld joining the individual layers, it is proposed to provide this at least at the first bending line turning point (counting from the weld between the jacket and vessel floor), which the sinusoidally shaped jacket has. The section of the jacket extending in between should be made as a full wall section. The proposal is based on calculations of the bending stiffness of cylindrical jackets, which could not yet be confirmed for jackets having several layers. (UWI) [de