WorldWideScience

Sample records for sinusoidal noise corrupting

  1. Noise upon the Sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    Sinusoids are used for making harmonic and other sounds. In order to having life in the sounds and adding a wide variety of noises, irregularities are inserted in the frequency and amplitudes. A simple and intuitive noise model is presented, consisting of a low-pass filtered noise, and having...... control for strength and bandwidth. The noise is added on the frequency and amplitudes of the sinusoids, and the resulting irregularity’s (jitter and shimmer) bandwidth is derived. This, together with an overview of investigation methods of the jitter and shimmer results in an analysis of the necessary...

  2. Noise Estimation and Quality Assessment of Gaussian Noise Corrupted Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, V. M.; Bhurchandi, K.

    2018-03-01

    Evaluating the exact quantity of noise present in an image and quality of an image in the absence of reference image is a challenging task. We propose a near perfect noise estimation method and a no reference image quality assessment method for images corrupted by Gaussian noise. The proposed methods obtain initial estimate of noise standard deviation present in an image using the median of wavelet transform coefficients and then obtains a near to exact estimate using curve fitting. The proposed noise estimation method provides the estimate of noise within average error of +/-4%. For quality assessment, this noise estimate is mapped to fit the Differential Mean Opinion Score (DMOS) using a nonlinear function. The proposed methods require minimum training and yields the noise estimate and image quality score. Images from Laboratory for image and Video Processing (LIVE) database and Computational Perception and Image Quality (CSIQ) database are used for validation of the proposed quality assessment method. Experimental results show that the performance of proposed quality assessment method is at par with the existing no reference image quality assessment metric for Gaussian noise corrupted images.

  3. Electric stimulation with sinusoids and white noise for neural prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Freeman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We are investigating the use of novel stimulus waveforms in neural prostheses to determine whether they can provide more precise control over the temporal and spatial pattern of elicited activity as compared to conventional pulsatile stimulation. To study this, we measured the response of retinal ganglion cells to both sinusoidal and white noise waveforms. The use of cell-attached and whole cell patch clamp recordings allowed the responses to be observed without significant obstruction from the stimulus artifact. Electric stimulation with sinusoids elicited robust responses. White noise analysis was used to derive the linear kernel for the ganglion cell’s spiking response as well as for the underlying excitatory currents. These results suggest that in response to electric stimulation, presynaptic retinal neurons exhibit bandpass filtering characteristics with peak response that occur 25ms after onset. The experimental approach demonstrated here may be useful for studying the temporal response properties of other neurons in the CNS.

  4. Removal of Stationary Sinusoidal Noise from Random Vibration Signals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian; Cap, Jerome S.

    2018-02-01

    In random vibration environments, sinusoidal line noise may appear in the vibration signal and can affect analysis of the resulting data. We studied two methods which remove stationary sine tones from random noise: a matrix inversion algorithm and a chirp-z transform algorithm. In addition, we developed new methods to determine the frequency of the tonal noise. The results show that both of the removal methods can eliminate sine tones in prefabricated random vibration data when the sine-to-random ratio is at least 0.25. For smaller ratios down to 0.02 only the matrix inversion technique can remove the tones, but the metrics to evaluate its effectiveness also degrade. We also found that using fast Fourier transforms best identified the tonal noise, and determined that band-pass-filtering the signals prior to the process improved sine removal. When applied to actual vibration test data, the methods were not as effective at removing harmonic tones, which we believe to be a result of mixed-phase sinusoidal noise.

  5. An approach to remove impulse noise from a corrupted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Cong; Yan, Meng; Jin, Shu-Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficient approach for detecting the impulse noise from corrupted images. This method is based on the principle that the feature of the digital image is usually local correlation and the feature of the impulse noise is usually located near one of the two ends of the image’s maximum and minimum gray values. After the noisy pixel has been detected by the proposed detector, a modified version of the mean filter is proposed to remove the detected impulse noise. Experimental results show that the implementation of the proposed method is simple, and it has better performance than comparison filters with regard to effective noise suppression and preservation of detail, especially when the noise ratio is very high. (paper)

  6. Some New Results on the Estimation of Sinusoids in Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the problem of estimating sinusoidal parameters from noisy observations. This field of research is applicable to solving problems in a large number of areas such as music and speech processing, electrocardiography, seismology, radar and sonar processing, astronomy....... Third, an efficient algorithm for performing inference and interpolation in a dynamic sinusoidal model is proposed. This method is applied to packet-loss concealment, and listening tests indicate that the proposed algorithm can be used for this purpose. Fourth, the Capon filtering method for amplitude...

  7. An Adaptive Filter for the Removal of Drifting Sinusoidal Noise Without a Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John W; Siewiorek, Daniel P; Smailagic, Asim; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for filtering sinusoidal noise with a variable bandwidth filter that is capable of tracking a sinusoid's drifting frequency. The method, which is based on the adaptive noise canceling (ANC) technique, will be referred to here as the adaptive sinusoid canceler (ASC). The ASC eliminates sinusoidal contamination by tracking its frequency and achieving a narrower bandwidth than typical notch filters. The detected frequency is used to digitally generate an internal reference instead of relying on an external one as ANC filters typically do. The filter's bandwidth adjusts to achieve faster and more accurate convergence. In this paper, the focus of the discussion and the data is physiological signals, specifically electrocorticographic (ECoG) neural data contaminated with power line noise, but the presented technique could be applicable to other recordings as well. On simulated data, the ASC was able to reliably track the noise's frequency, properly adjust its bandwidth, and outperform comparative methods including standard notch filters and an adaptive line enhancer. These results were reinforced by visual results obtained from real ECoG data. The ASC showed that it could be an effective method for increasing signal to noise ratio in the presence of drifting sinusoidal noise, which is of significant interest for biomedical applications.

  8. Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, L.; Gerlagh, R.

    2004-01-01

    A common finding of recent theoretical and empirical literature is that corruption has a negative effect on economic growth. In the paper, through growth regression analysis, we estimate the direct and indirect effects of corruption on economic growth. The indirect transmission channels,

  9. A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter for extremely corrupted images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Hai; Adhami, Reza; Wang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    A multi-stage noise adaptive switching filter (MSNASF) is proposed for the restoration of images extremely corrupted by impulse and impulse-like noise. The filter consists of two steps: noise detection and noise removal. The proposed extrema-based noise detection scheme utilizes the false contouring effect to get better over detection rate at low noise density. It is adaptive and will detect not only impulse but also impulse-like noise. In the noise removal step, a novel multi-stage filtering scheme is proposed. It replaces corrupted pixel with the nearest uncorrupted median to preserve details. When compared with other methods, MSNASF provides better peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structure similarity index (SSIM). A subjective evaluation carried out online also demonstrates that MSNASF yields higher fidelity.

  10. False-nearest-neighbors algorithm and noise-corrupted time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.; Morari, M.

    1997-01-01

    The false-nearest-neighbors (FNN) algorithm was originally developed to determine the embedding dimension for autonomous time series. For noise-free computer-generated time series, the algorithm does a good job in predicting the embedding dimension. However, the problem of predicting the embedding dimension when the time-series data are corrupted by noise was not fully examined in the original studies of the FNN algorithm. Here it is shown that with large data sets, even small amounts of noise can lead to incorrect prediction of the embedding dimension. Surprisingly, as the length of the time series analyzed by FNN grows larger, the cause of incorrect prediction becomes more pronounced. An analysis of the effect of noise on the FNN algorithm and a solution for dealing with the effects of noise are given here. Some results on the theoretically correct choice of the FNN threshold are also presented. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. An all digital phase locked loop for synchronization of a sinusoidal signal embedded in white Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. P.; Gupta, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    An all digital phase locked loop which tracks the phase of the incoming sinusoidal signal once per carrier cycle is proposed. The different elements and their functions and the phase lock operation are explained in detail. The nonlinear difference equations which govern the operation of the digital loop when the incoming signal is embedded in white Gaussian noise are derived, and a suitable model is specified. The performance of the digital loop is considered for the synchronization of a sinusoidal signal. For this, the noise term is suitably modelled which allows specification of the output probabilities for the two level quantizer in the loop at any given phase error. The loop filter considered increases the probability of proper phase correction. The phase error states in modulo two-pi forms a finite state Markov chain which enables the calculation of steady state probabilities, RMS phase error, transient response and mean time for cycle skipping.

  12. Evaluation and statistical judgement of neural responses to sinusoidal stimulation in cases with superimposed drift and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P W

    1979-06-01

    Time histograms of neural responses evoked by sinuosidal stimulation often contain a slow drifting and an irregular noise which disturb Fourier analysis of these responses. Section 2 of this paper evaluates the extent to which a linear drift influences the Fourier analysis, and develops a combined Fourier and linear regression analysis for detecting and correcting for such a linear drift. Usefulness of this correcting method is demonstrated for the time histograms of actual eye movements and Purkinje cell discharges evoked by sinusoidal rotation of rabbits in the horizontal plane. In Sect. 3, the analysis of variance is adopted for estimating the probability of the random occurrence of the response curve extracted by Fourier analysis from noise. This method proved to be useful for avoiding false judgements as to whether the response curve was meaningful, particularly when the response was small relative to the contaminating noise.

  13. The augmented lagrange multipliers method for matrix completion from corrupted samplings with application to mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Meng

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of the restoration of images corrupted by mixed Gaussian-impulse noise. In recent years, low-rank matrix reconstruction has become a research hotspot in many scientific and engineering domains such as machine learning, image processing, computer vision and bioinformatics, which mainly involves the problem of matrix completion and robust principal component analysis, namely recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete but accurate sampling subset of its entries and from an observed data matrix with an unknown fraction of its entries being arbitrarily corrupted, respectively. Inspired by these ideas, we consider the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix from an incomplete sampling subset of its entries with an unknown fraction of the samplings contaminated by arbitrary errors, which is defined as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings and modeled as a convex optimization problem that minimizes a combination of the nuclear norm and the l(1-norm in this paper. Meanwhile, we put forward a novel and effective algorithm called augmented Lagrange multipliers to exactly solve the problem. For mixed Gaussian-impulse noise removal, we regard it as the problem of matrix completion from corrupted samplings, and restore the noisy image following an impulse-detecting procedure. Compared with some existing methods for mixed noise removal, the recovery quality performance of our method is dominant if images possess low-rank features such as geometrically regular textures and similar structured contents; especially when the density of impulse noise is relatively high and the variance of Gaussian noise is small, our method can outperform the traditional methods significantly not only in the simultaneous removal of Gaussian noise and impulse noise, and the restoration ability for a low-rank image matrix, but also in the preservation of textures and details in the image.

  14. Effects of frequency and duration on psychometric functions for detection of increments and decrements in sinusoids in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B C; Peters, R W; Glasberg, B R

    1999-12-01

    Psychometric functions for detecting increments or decrements in level of sinusoidal pedestals were measured for increment and decrement durations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ms and for frequencies of 250, 1000, and 4000 Hz. The sinusoids were presented in background noise intended to mask spectral splatter. A three-interval, three-alternative procedure was used. The results indicated that, for increments, the detectability index d' was approximately proportional to delta I/I. For decrements, d' was approximately proportional to delta L. The slopes of the psychometric functions increased (indicating better performance) with increasing frequency for both increments and decrements. For increments, the slopes increased with increasing increment duration up to 200 ms at 250 and 1000 Hz, but at 4000 Hz they increased only up to 50 ms. For decrements, the slopes increased for durations up to 50 ms, and then remained roughly constant, for all frequencies. For a center frequency of 250 Hz, the slopes of the psychometric functions for increment detection increased with duration more rapidly than predicted by a "multiple-looks" hypothesis, i.e., more rapidly than the square root of duration, for durations up to 50 ms. For center frequencies of 1000 and 4000 Hz, the slopes increased less rapidly than predicted by a multiple-looks hypothesis, for durations greater than about 20 ms. The slopes of the psychometric functions for decrement detection increased with decrement duration at a rate slightly greater than the square root of duration, for durations up to 50 ms, at all three frequencies. For greater durations, the increase in slope was less than proportional to the square root of duration. The results were analyzed using a model incorporating a simulated auditory filter, a compressive nonlinearity, a sliding temporal integrator, and a decision device based on a template mechanism. The model took into account the effects of both the external noise and an assumed internal

  15. Adaptive iterated function systems filter for images highly corrupted with fixed - Value impulse noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugavadivu, P.; Eliahim Jeevaraj, P. S.

    2014-06-01

    The Adaptive Iterated Functions Systems (AIFS) Filter presented in this paper has an outstanding potential to attenuate the fixed-value impulse noise in images. This filter has two distinct phases namely noise detection and noise correction which uses Measure of Statistics and Iterated Function Systems (IFS) respectively. The performance of AIFS filter is assessed by three metrics namely, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Structural Similarity Index Matrix (MSSIM) and Human Visual Perception (HVP). The quantitative measures PSNR and MSSIM endorse the merit of this filter in terms of degree of noise suppression and details/edge preservation respectively, in comparison with the high performing filters reported in the recent literature. The qualitative measure HVP confirms the noise suppression ability of the devised filter. This computationally simple noise filter broadly finds application wherein the images are highly degraded by fixed-value impulse noise.

  16. Analysis of regularized inversion of data corrupted by white Gaussian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, Hanne; Lassas, Matti; Siltanen, Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Tikhonov regularization is studied in the case of linear pseudodifferential operator as the forward map and additive white Gaussian noise as the measurement error. The measurement model for an unknown function u(x) is m(x) = Au(x) + δ ε (x), where δ > 0 is the noise magnitude. If ε was an L 2 -function, Tikhonov regularization gives an estimate T α (m) = u∈H r arg min { ||Au-m|| L 2 2 + α||u|| H r 2 } for u where α = α(δ) is the regularization parameter. Here penalization of the Sobolev norm ||u|| H r covers the cases of standard Tikhonov regularization (r = 0) and first derivative penalty (r = 1). Realizations of white Gaussian noise are almost never in L 2 , but do belong to H s with probability one if s < 0 is small enough. A modification of Tikhonov regularization theory is presented, covering the case of white Gaussian measurement noise. Furthermore, the convergence of regularized reconstructions to the correct solution as δ → 0 is proven in appropriate function spaces using microlocal analysis. The convergence of the related finite-dimensional problems to the infinite-dimensional problem is also analysed. (paper)

  17. Corruption and Anti-Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Larmour, Peter; Wolanin, Nick

    2013-01-01

    There is new international attention being given to the old problem of corruption. It has been taken up by international organisations, and driven by economic analysis. It is impatient of cultural justifications, and suspicious of state action. It is concerned with corruption prevention as much as detection, investigation and prosecution. Corruption and Anti-Corruption deals with the international dimensions of corruption, including campaigns to recover the assets of former dictators, and...

  18. Misunderestimating Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Kraay, Aart; Murrell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the extent of corruption rely largely on self-reports of individuals, business managers, and government officials. Yet it is well known that survey respondents are reticent to tell the truth about activities to which social and legal stigma are attached, implying a downward bias in survey-based estimates of corruption. This paper develops a method to estimate the prevalence of...

  19. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  20. A Kullback-Leibler approach for 3D reconstruction of spectral CT data corrupted by Poisson noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohweiller, Tom; Ducros, Nicolas; Peyrin, Françoise; Sixou, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    While standard computed tomography (CT) data do not depend on energy, spectral computed tomography (SPCT) acquire energy-resolved data, which allows material decomposition of the object of interest. Decompo- sitions in the projection domain allow creating projection mass density (PMD) per materials. From decomposed projections, a tomographic reconstruction creates 3D material density volume. The decomposition is made pos- sible by minimizing a cost function. The variational approach is preferred since this is an ill-posed non-linear inverse problem. Moreover, noise plays a critical role when decomposing data. That is why in this paper, a new data fidelity term is used to take into account of the photonic noise. In this work two data fidelity terms were investigated: a weighted least squares (WLS) term, adapted to Gaussian noise, and the Kullback-Leibler distance (KL), adapted to Poisson noise. A regularized Gauss-Newton algorithm minimizes the cost function iteratively. Both methods decompose materials from a numerical phantom of a mouse. Soft tissues and bones are decomposed in the projection domain; then a tomographic reconstruction creates a 3D material density volume for each material. Comparing relative errors, KL is shown to outperform WLS for low photon counts, in 2D and 3D. This new method could be of particular interest when low-dose acquisitions are performed.

  1. Corruption and firm behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Sequeira; Simeon Djankov

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how corruption affects firrm behavior. Firms can engage in two types of corruption when seeking a public service: cost-reducing "collusive" corruption and cost increasing "coercive" corruption. Using an original and unusually rich dataset on bribe payments at ports matched to firrm-level data, we observe how firms respond to each type of corruption by adjusting their shipping and sourcing strategies. "Collusive" corruption is associated with higher usage of the corrupt...

  2. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Dominique-Charles; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is characterized by damage to small hepatic vessels affecting particularly sinusoidal endothelium. Damaged sinusoids can be associated with a partial or complete occlusion of small hepatic veins, hence the previous denomination of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Exposure to certain exogenous toxins appears to be specific to this condition and is frequently included in its definition. Typical histopathological features of SOS in a liver biopsy specimen are presented in the text. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the different entities corresponding to this general definition. Such entities include: (i) liver disease related to pyrrolizidine alcaloids; (ii) liver injury related to conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; (iii) vascular liver disease occurring in patients treated with chemotherapy for liver metastasis of colorectal cancer; and (iv) other liver diseases related to toxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Corruption and Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Neeman, Zvika; Paserman, M. Daniele; Simhon, Avi

    2003-01-01

    We consider a neoclassical growth model with endogenous corruption. Corruption and wealth, which are co-determined in equilibrium, are shown to be negatively correlated. Richer countries tend to be less corrupt, and corrupt economies tend to be poorer. This observation gives rise to the following puzzle: If poorer countries do indeed experience higher levels of corruption, and if indeed as suggested by a number of empirical studies corruption hampers growth, then how did rich countries, who w...

  4. Converter for Measurement of non-sinusoidal current peak value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butvin, P.; Nielsen, Otto V; Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current.......A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current....

  5. Psychophysical assessment of sinusoidal whole-body vibration in z-axis between 0.6 and 5 Hz combined with different noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, H; Richter, J; Kurerov, N N; Schajpak, E J; Blüthner, R; Erdmann, U; Hinz, B

    1989-01-01

    Nine healthy sitting males evaluated the intensity of vertical whole-body vibration (WBV) in z-axis at four frequencies (F1 = 0.63 Hz, F2 = 1.25 Hz, F3 = 2.5 Hz, F4 = 5 Hz) and two intensities (I1 = 1 ms-2 rms, I2 = 2 ms-2 rms) by cross-modality matching (CMM). The subjects were simultaneously exposed to low-frequency noise at two levels (L1 = 65 dBA, L2 = 86 dBA). L1 and L2 were context conditions which did not have to be evaluated by CMM. The results indicate a flat response between F2 and F3; the sensitivity increases towards F1. Different exponents of Stevens' power law for the frequencies of WBV contradict the frequency range tested to be a sensory continuum. L2 caused practically significantly stronger sensations of the WBV-intensity from F1 to F3 (I1) and at F2 (I2). No synergistic effect of noise and WBV was shown at F3I2. Weighting factors were calculated for all exposure conditions using Stevens' power law. The weighting of F2 and F3 contradicts that of the International Standard ISO 2631-1985 (E). The results enable recommendations for the frequency weighting of WBV between 0.63 and 1 Hz, as well as for the equivalence of noise and WBV with combined exposure.

  6. Education and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will draw on standard international definitions of "corruption" and apply them to the education sector. It will define corruption in education, explain why it is important, and describe various types of corruption and their causes. Emphasis will be placed on the role of higher education institutions in educational corruption, but the…

  7. Is corruption really persistent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.

    Theoretical and empirical research on corruption generally concludes that corruption is persistent. However, using International Country Risk Guide data for the period 1984-2008 for 101 countries, we find strong evidence that corruption changes over time. In the present study, corruption levels of

  8. Developmental effects of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Frøystad, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, typical measures of corruption have been broad, composite indices which are often meant to measure overall corruption level in a country. In this thesis I study how different types of corruption can have different effects on development, measured by GDP growth, GDP per capita growth and GDP per capita. Thereby, I wanted to see if some types of corruption could be concluded as more damaging than others. I have discussed and empirically tested the consequences of corruption in pu...

  9. Corruption and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    , and societal levels, as well as how corruption is and can be responded to through public scandals and more elaborate communicative strategies of corruption control, or anti-corruption. A focus on corruption and corruption control provides organizational communication scholars with entry points to explore...... the powerful communicative dynamics playing out between the local organizational meanings of particular practices and externally imposed definitions of what constitutes appropriate organizational behavior....

  10. A Brief Psychology of Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Antonio C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Examines types of corruption (white-collar crime) in Philippine society, including political, bureaucratic, and corporate corruption. Identifies three major causes of corruption, individuals most prone to corruption, organizations most vulnerable to corruption, and societies most supportive of corruption. (Author/NB)

  11. Corruption and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Uslaner, Eric M.

    2006-01-01

    Economic inequality provides a fertile breeding ground for corruption and, in turn, leads to further inequalities. Most corruption models focus on the institutional determinants of government dishonesty. However, such accounts are problematic. Corruption is remarkably sticky over time. There is a very powerful correlation between crossnational measures corruption in 1980 and in 2004. In contrast, measures of democracy such as the Freedom House scores are not so strongly correlated over time, ...

  12. Corruption and the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports o...

  13. Corruption, Institutions and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Breen; Robert Gillanders

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effects of corruption and institutional quality on the quality of business regulation. Our key findings indicate that corruption negatively aspects the quality of regulation and that general institutional quality is insignificant once corruption is controlled for. These findings hold over a number of specifications which include additional exogenous historical and geographic controls. The findings imply that policy-makers should focus on curbing corruption to improve regulat...

  14. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  15. Corruption in Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    KARYMSHAKOV, Kamalbek; ABDYKAPAROV, Yzat

    2008-01-01

    This paper proceeding from the results of recent empirical studies and theoretical arguments on corruption in economic literature attempts to show the factors causing corruption and focuses on some facts of its consequences inKyrgyzstan. Literature on corruption defines main causes of corruption as: 1) Excessive regulatory burden; 2) Weak juridical system; 3) Level of political competition and democracy; 4) Sociological factors; 5) Low wages in public sector Results of application of regressi...

  16. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  17. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar TIWARI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of the explanatory variables. We also find that, surprisingly, higher democracy and rule of law are positively associated with the level of corruption while higher bureaucracy negatively.

  18. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Hove Henriksen, Morten

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control has put much emphasis on analyzing the surge of anti-corruption legislations, principles and regulatory modes at the macro level. This paper examines the micro practice of corruption control, as exemplified by the deployment of due diligence...... in corporate anti-corruption work, building on concepts from studies of the cultural political economy, risk and classifications in examination process. Empirically we focus on anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm specialized in corporate mergers and acquisitions....

  19. Corruption Clubs: Endogenous Thresholds in Corruption and Development

    OpenAIRE

    M. Emranul Haque; Richard Kneller

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between corruption and economic development is characterised by three stylised facts: (i) a strong negative correlation between corruption and development (ii) countries can remain trapped in high corruption-low development or low corruption-high development equilibria (iii) amongst intermediate levels of development corruption levels are more variable, some countries have high corruption and others low corruption. This paper argues that existing models are consistent with th...

  20. Managing Corruption Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the emerging engagement of private actors and specifically Western corporations in international anti-corruption, drawing on Foucauldian studies of governmentality. It explores this engagement as governing practices that have emanated quite independently from the inter......-state system commonly understood to be at the core of the anti-corruption regime. It demonstrates how corporate anti-corruption ties in with a relatively new way of perceiving corruption. In this framing, anti-corruption comes out as risk management, which is latched on to notions of corporate social...... responsibility and business ethics. Moreover, the constitution of corruption risk relates to the rise of new actors and networks engaged in a wider business of anti-corruption, including commercial and hybrid actors that supply corporations with managerial instruments, benchmarks for best practice, rankings...

  1. Sinusoidal Order Estimation Using Angles between Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Holdt Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the order of a parametric model from a noisy signal based on the geometry of the space. More specifically, we do this using the nontrivial angles between the candidate signal subspace model and the noise subspace. The proposed principle is closely related to the subspace orthogonality property known from the MUSIC algorithm, and we study its properties and compare it to other related measures. For the problem of estimating the number of complex sinusoids in white noise, a computationally efficient implementation exists, and this problem is therefore considered in detail. In computer simulations, we compare the proposed method to various well-known methods for order estimation. These show that the proposed method outperforms the other previously published subspace methods and that it is more robust to the noise being colored than the previously published methods.

  2. Corruption and the economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzi Vito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the economic and not on the political impact of corruption. Corruption delegitimizes the working of a market economy, as well as the outcomes of political processes. This paper highlights ways in which corruption, by distorting economic decisions and the working of the market economy, inevitably reduces a country’s rate of growth. The paper also discusses some of the channels through which corruption distorts various economic decisions. Finally, the paper reports on some actions that have been taken by countries in their attempt to reduce corruption stressing that the fight against corruption cannot rely on a magic bullet but has to be fought on many fronts.

  3. Making up Corruption Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Tang-Jensen, Morten Hove

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on corruption control lacks an analytical focus on anti-corruption in practice. We examine corruption control at the micro-level as exemplified by the use of anti-corruption due diligence in a Danish law firm. Building on concepts from studies of the cultural economy, anti......-policy, risk theory and classifications in examination processes, we argue that careful analysis of the subtle processes involved in the conduct of due diligence by professionals provides insights into the ambiguous implications of mobilizing particular forms of knowledge and expertise in practical corruption...... control work. By providing also an extended view on the operations of due diligence in the wider corruption control regime the paper problematizes clear-cut distinctions and categories used in established literatures....

  4. Inequality and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    High-quality data on state-level inequality and incomes, panel data on corruption convictions, and careful attention to the consequences of including or excluding fixed effects in the panel specification allow us to estimate the impact of income considerations on the decision to undertake corrupt...... acts. Following efficiency wage arguments, for a given institutional environment the corruptible employee's or official's decision to engage in corruption is affected by relative wages and expected tenure in the public sector, the probability of detection, the cost of fines and jail terms......, and the degree of inequality, which indicate diminished prospects facing those convicted of corruption. In US states over 25 years we show that inequality and higher government relative wages significantly and robustly produce less corruption. This reverses other findings of a positive association between...

  5. Globalization, Inequality, and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Badinger; Elisabeth Nindl

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new empirical evidence on the determinants of corruption, focussing on the role of globalization and inequality. The estimates for a panel of 102 countries over the period 1995-2005 point to three main results: i) Detection technologies, reflected in a high level of development, human capital, and political rights reduce corruption, whereas natural resource rents increase corruption. ii) Globalization (in terms of both trade and financial openness) has a neg...

  6. Local Governance and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Marius PROFIROIU; Tudorel ANDREI; Gheorghe POPESCU; Alina PROFIROIU

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of ...

  7. Samuel Pepys and corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Knights, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Picking up a theme that runs through David Hayton's work, this article examines corruption in the later Stuart period through a case study of Samuel Pepys. The latter's diary can be read alongside the public record of parliamentary inquiries and vilification in the press, allowing us a rare opportunity to study corruption simultaneously through the eyes of a perpetrator and his critics. Pepys reveals ambiguities in how corruption was defined and defended. At the same time as he criticized cor...

  8. Who cares about corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment (FDI). It argues that corruption results not only in a reduction in FDI, but also in a change in the composition of country of origin of FDI. It presents two key findings. First, corruption results in relatively lower FDI from countries that have signed the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. This sugges...

  9. Corruption and Torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Why do people give money to the police? Because they have to! Or face the violent consequences! This book addresses policing torture and corruption as interlinked practices. Rather than separating corruption and torture, the collection suggests exploring their linkages in the everyday encounter...... attempt to navigate to stay safe and maybe even express claims of belonging and rights. As such this book will provide a welcome contribution to policing and corruption studies as well as NGOs, human rights organizations and policy makers within the fields of state violence and corruption....

  10. Sinusoids theory and technological applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Prem K

    2014-01-01

    A Complete Treatment of Current Research Topics in Fourier Transforms and Sinusoids Sinusoids: Theory and Technological Applications explains how sinusoids and Fourier transforms are used in a variety of application areas, including signal processing, GPS, optics, x-ray crystallography, radioastronomy, poetry and music as sound waves, and the medical sciences. With more than 200 illustrations, the book discusses electromagnetic force and sychrotron radiation comprising all kinds of waves, including gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light rays, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves. It also covers topics of common interest, such as quasars, pulsars, the Big Bang theory, Olbers' paradox, black holes, Mars mission, and SETI.The book begins by describing sinusoids-which are periodic sine or cosine functions-using well-known examples from wave theory, including traveling and standing waves, continuous musical rhythms, and the human liver. It next discusses the Fourier series and transform in both continuous and...

  11. Corruption, Growth, and Public Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi; Hamid R Davoodi

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses some channels through which corruption affects growth such as the impact of corruption on enterprises, on the allocation of talent, and on investment. It also discusses the impact of corruption on some aspects of public finance.

  12. Tax structure and corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Popov Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the impact of corruption, both administrative and state capture, on the tax structure is carried out. The authors established a negative correlation between the degree of corruption and the height of the effective tax burden, while isolating a simultaneous directly proportional impact of the nominal tax burden (which could reflect state intervention - the main corruption factor on the scope of corruption. The effects of corruption on the decrease of individual taxes' share in GDP are diversified, with impact on direct taxes as a whole being more observable. The mode of tax assessment significantly determines exposure of certain tax to the administrative corruption: it is generally larger in case of taxes assessed by the decision of the competent tax officials who are carrying out both assessment and audit, while in the case of self-assessment and withholding they just perform audits implying limited exposure to corruption. Corruptive state capture is present in the case of taxes which are important for influential corruptors. That is why in Serbia laws preventing taxation of capital gains or heavier taxation of dividends and other income paid to non-residents located in the tax havens were adopted, while by-laws which should have enabled implementation of prescribed lump sum taxation based on external signs of wealth have not been enacted. The authors concluded that the anti-corruption strategy should rely on the increasing role of self-assessment, which could reduce the room for administrative corruption. Unclear and imprecise formulations of the tax norms facilitate corruption, because they create room for arbitrariness in interpretation and implementation of the laws and by-laws. It is therefore necessary to surprises discretion, simplify tax procedure and diminish the number of tax relief's.

  13. Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Ackerman, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

  14. Corruption in the Media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spence, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a general model of corruption that explains and accounts for corruption across different corporate and professional activities, the paper will examine how certain practices in the media, especially in areas where journalism, advertising and public relations regularly intersect and converge,

  15. Enforcement and Public Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James E., Alt; Lassen, David Dreyer

    corrupt acts. Consistent with "system capacity" arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. We find more limited, recent evidence for the deterrent effect of increased prosecutions. We control for and confirm in a panel context...

  16. Corruption in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu DUȚULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corruption as a phenomenon is of great interest for the society we live in. As there is no unit of measurement to determine the scale of this phenomenon, comparative studies are chosen most often for the areas concerned. The present paper describes a study focused on all counties in Romania, Bucharest included. The purpose of this research is to establish the determinant factors that influence the size and spread of corruption, as it manifests strong negative effects on the society we live in. Thus, using a set of regressions over the main variables, some correlation coefficients have been set, which after processing rendered a ranking of all the 42 analysed territorial units, sorted by the estimated size of corruption. The whole scientific approach was completed with a map of corruption, which synthesizes and presents the corruption spread nationwide

  17. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  18. PUBLIC GOODS, CORRUPTION AND GROWTH???

    OpenAIRE

    Ratbek Dzhumashev

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse implications of corruption on growth. We extend existing growth models by incorporating ubiquitous corruption as a by-product of the public sector. Corruption affects both taxation and public good provision, and therefore causes income redistribution and inefficiencies in the public sector. These effects of corruption lead to lower growth through distortions of investment incentives and resources allocation.

  19. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  20. Does corruption discourage international trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Bogmans, C.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We use measures of trade-related corruption to investigate the effects of corruption on international trade and compare the results with those of corruption in general. We distinguish corruption in an exporting economy from that in an importing economy. Both distinctions appear to be important.

  1. A combined method to estimate parameters of the thalamocortical model from a heavily noise-corrupted time series of action potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruofan; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Liu, Chen; Wei, Xile; Tsang, K. M.; Chan, W. L.

    2014-01-01

    A combined method composing of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the synchronization-based method is proposed for estimating electrophysiological variables and parameters of a thalamocortical (TC) neuron model, which is commonly used for studying Parkinson's disease for its relay role of connecting the basal ganglia and the cortex. In this work, we take into account the condition when only the time series of action potential with heavy noise are available. Numerical results demonstrate that not only this method can estimate model parameters from the extracted time series of action potential successfully but also the effect of its estimation is much better than the only use of the UKF or synchronization-based method, with a higher accuracy and a better robustness against noise, especially under the severe noise conditions. Considering the rather important role of TC neuron in the normal and pathological brain functions, the exploration of the method to estimate the critical parameters could have important implications for the study of its nonlinear dynamics and further treatment of Parkinson's disease

  2. A combined method to estimate parameters of the thalamocortical model from a heavily noise-corrupted time series of action potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruofan; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Liu, Chen; Wei, Xile; Tsang, K. M.; Chan, W. L.

    2014-03-01

    A combined method composing of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the synchronization-based method is proposed for estimating electrophysiological variables and parameters of a thalamocortical (TC) neuron model, which is commonly used for studying Parkinson's disease for its relay role of connecting the basal ganglia and the cortex. In this work, we take into account the condition when only the time series of action potential with heavy noise are available. Numerical results demonstrate that not only this method can estimate model parameters from the extracted time series of action potential successfully but also the effect of its estimation is much better than the only use of the UKF or synchronization-based method, with a higher accuracy and a better robustness against noise, especially under the severe noise conditions. Considering the rather important role of TC neuron in the normal and pathological brain functions, the exploration of the method to estimate the critical parameters could have important implications for the study of its nonlinear dynamics and further treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  3. A combined method to estimate parameters of the thalamocortical model from a heavily noise-corrupted time series of action potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruofan; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin, E-mail: dengbin@tju.edu.cn; Liu, Chen; Wei, Xile [Department of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Tsang, K. M.; Chan, W. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-03-15

    A combined method composing of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the synchronization-based method is proposed for estimating electrophysiological variables and parameters of a thalamocortical (TC) neuron model, which is commonly used for studying Parkinson's disease for its relay role of connecting the basal ganglia and the cortex. In this work, we take into account the condition when only the time series of action potential with heavy noise are available. Numerical results demonstrate that not only this method can estimate model parameters from the extracted time series of action potential successfully but also the effect of its estimation is much better than the only use of the UKF or synchronization-based method, with a higher accuracy and a better robustness against noise, especially under the severe noise conditions. Considering the rather important role of TC neuron in the normal and pathological brain functions, the exploration of the method to estimate the critical parameters could have important implications for the study of its nonlinear dynamics and further treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Corruption in FIFA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Wagner, Mads Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the susceptibility of the formal FIFA network to a grand vote rigging corruption scheme of the FIFA World Cup host elections. To date, little research has been published on the vulnerabilities of FIFA’s inter-organisational network structure. Following...... the elections of Russia to host the World Cup in 2018 and Qatar to host the World Cup in 2022, 34 FIFA officials and two corporations were indicted by the FBI on charges of different forms of corruption. The indictments reveal an organisation deeply embedded with corruption and with complete disregard...

  5. Cascading Corruption News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...

  6. Cascading Corruption News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...... by the media, with harmful effects on democracy....

  7. Bureaucratic Corruption, MNEs and FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Tobias; Johnson, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    This paper adds to the limited number of studies analysing the relationship between host country corruption and FDI inflows. A model describes the incentives foreign MNEs and host country bureaucrats have for engaging in corruption and shows how corruption increases the MNE costs of operations in the host country. The model predicts that the costs caused by corruption reduce FDI inflows. Regression analysis using panel data finds that host country corruption has a significant negative effect ...

  8. Local Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro [1995]1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger [1974]3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi [1998]4, Shang-Jin Wei [2001]5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah [2006]6.

  9. Corruption dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafeyev, O. A.; Nemnyugin, S. A.; Rylow, D.; Kolpak, E. P.; Awasthi, Achal

    2017-07-01

    The corruption dynamics is analyzed by means of the lattice model which is similar to the three-dimensional Ising model. Agents placed at nodes of the corrupt network periodically choose to perfom or not to perform the act of corruption at gain or loss while making decisions based on the process history. The gain value and its dynamics are defined by means of the Markov stochastic process modelling with parameters established in accordance with the influence of external and individual factors on the agent's gain. The model is formulated algorithmically and is studied by means of the computer simulation. Numerical results are obtained which demonstrate asymptotic behaviour of the corruption network under various conditions.

  10. Trust and Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why are the Scandinavian countries in the European Union significantly richer than South-ern/Eastern European countries? We try to answer this question from an empirical social capital perspective. In particular, we are interested in the interplay of social trust as a positive and corruption...... capital by applying a path model that accounts for Granger-like causal effects. Our empirical results, referring to a sample of up to 25 EU countries, show that corruption might harm poor European countries but is not able to affect social trust. However, corruption in itself means that resources end up...... in the wrong places and not in socioeconomically optimal investments. There is, therefore, a direct damaging effect of corruption on wealth. This implies that economic actors have to invest higher transaction and control costs which will bind resources to non-productive purposes and thus destroy economic...

  11. Enforcement and public corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2014-01-01

    . Consistent with system capacity arguments, we find that greater prosecutor resources result in more convictions for corruption, other things equal. By explicitly determining the allocation of prosecutorial resources endogenously from partisan and administrative considerations, we show that this specification...

  12. Corruption and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no sustainable economic development without a functioning rule of law. Besides sustainable economic policies like low interest rates, low inflation, low budget deficit, reasonable taxes and economic freedom for business development, the necessary ones for country’s economic growth are functioning of state institutions, support and development of reforms as well as successful fight against corruption. Corruption is a phenomena often encountered and spread in countries that have problems with rule of law as well as with judiciary system. Corruption manifestation is inevitable in circumstances when state institutions are weak. The phenomena is especially problematic in countries that go through transition periods since these countries are often characterized as nonefficient in fighting this phenomena1 . Countries in transition continue to have the image of countries with high level of corruption, which causes serious crisis from local opinion and continuous demand from international community due to the unsuccessful fight against this malevolence. World Bank considers corruption as the biggest obstacle in the fight for poverty eradication, since it undermines the rule of law, weakens state institutions and most of all it affects the poor. Politically, it undermines democracy and good governance, economic equal growth and development, as well as people’s trust in state institutions. Lately, several anti-corruption laws have been adopted in Kosovo, but they have not been implemented in practice and were not sufficient in fight against corruption. Kosovo’s long lasting dream of integrating in European Union, necessarily demands to built and functionalize anti-corruptive measures with priority, as a fundamental precondition for EU pre-accession process

  13. Power and corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Francisco; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar A

    2011-04-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous in the natural world. What seems nonsensical is why natural selection favors a behavior whereby individuals would lose out by benefiting their competitor. This conundrum, for almost half a century, has puzzled scientists and remains a fundamental problem in biology, psychology, and economics. In recent years, the explanation that punishment can maintain cooperation has received much attention. Individuals who punish noncooperators thrive when punishment does not entail a cost to the punisher. However when punishment is costly, cooperation cannot be preserved. Most literature on punishment fails to consider that punishers may act corruptly by not cooperating when punishing noncooperators. No research has considered that there might be power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers that turn one of these type of individuals more or less susceptible to experiencing punishment. Here, we formulate a general game allowing corruption and power asymmetries between punishers and nonpunishers. We show that cooperation can persist if punishers possess power and use it to act corruptly. This result provides a new interpretation of recent data on corrupt policing in social insects and the psychology of power and hypocrisy in humans. These results suggest that corruption may play an important role in maintaining cooperation in insects and human societies. In contrast with previous research, we contend that costly punishment can be beneficial for social groups. This work allows us to identify ways in which corruption can be used to the advantage of a society. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. The Optimization of Corruption Prevention Towards Indonesia Corruption-free

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Hibnu; Raharjo, Agus; Pranoto

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and eraducation of corruption case are the strategy which can't be implemented separatly it should be done synergistically, integrated and concurrently to prevent a new corruptor generation and other new corruptor. So the problem comes on how the strategy which are prevention and eraducation corruption by Indonesian goverment to reach Indonesia free from corruption and what the obsacles in order to reach strategy prevention and eraducation of corruption that already done by Indones...

  15. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  16. Corruption in emergency procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina

    2008-12-01

    Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.

  17. Corruption and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2003-01-01

    I examine the causal relation between social capiatl and corruption. A simple model illustrates potential mechanisms and yields testable implications, which I estimate in a sample of European countries. The estimated effect of social capital on corruption is found to be robust to the inclusion...... of a number of other variables and supplementing the sample with slightly older data from non-European countries. The evidence of the reverse causal direction is weak. I suggest that it is possible to build social capiatl through investing in education, interest in society and some level of income...

  18. Corruption, public investment and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzi, Vito; 中村, まづる

    1998-01-01

    Corruption, particularly political or “grand” corruption, distorts the entire decision-making process connected with public investment projects. The degree of distortions is higher with weaker auditing institutions. The evidence presented shows that higher corruption is associated with (i) higher public investment; (ii) lower government revenues; (iii) lower expenditures on operations and maintenance; and (iv) lower quality of public infrastructure. The evidence also shows that corruption inc...

  19. [Corruption and health care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana

    2014-06-01

    Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.

  20. Corruption, Governmental Activities, and Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi

    1994-01-01

    Paper discusses the factors that contribute to the spread of corruption as well as the implications of corruption for markets and for public sector activities. It is argued that corruption can be contained mainly by a scaling down of the public sector activities that stimulate its growth.

  1. Initiation of corrupt exchanges and severity of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Goel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of corruption control depending upon whether the bribe taker or the bribe giver initiates the corrupt interaction. The probability of corrupt exchanges depends upon the bribe and the corrupt market structure. The probability of apprehension is set but punishment can be influenced via bribes. Results show that the effectiveness of apprehension hinges on whether higher bribes invite harsher fines. Competition for favors intimidates the bribe giver into offering lower bribes, while greater agency competition has a similar effect on the bribe demanded. Consistent with intuition, better paid bureaucrats demand smaller bribes. Some implications for anti-corruption policy are discussed.

  2. Cosmology and the Sinusoidal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2006-06-01

    The nature of dark matter (and dark energy) remains a mystery. An alternative is being explored by several scientists: changing Newton's (and Einstein's) field equations. The sinusoidal potential is the latest attempt[1]. Here the gravitational law is alternately attractive and repulsive:φ = -GM cos(kor)/r, where λo=2π/ko = 1/20 of the distance from the sun to the center of the Milky Way. The proposal accommodates several structural features of the Milky Way including, paradoxically, its spiral shape and flat rotation curve. The sinusoidal potential's unique feature is strong galactic tidal forces (dg/dr). These may explain why the new planetoid Sedna is securely between the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud and why distant comets are more influenced by galactic tides that are in the r, rather than the z-direction.At this meeting I discuss the consequences of the sinusoidal potential for cosmology. Here the alternation of attraction and repulsion gives (i) an open universe, and (ii) gravitational lensing which is usually weak, but occasionally very strong. An open universe is one that, asymptotically, has a size R which varies directly as time t. The open universe conflicts both with the old Einstein-deSitter model (R α t2/3} and the new accelerating one. The evidence for an accelerating universe decisively rejects the Einstein-deSitter model. The rejection of an open (or empty) universe is less secure. This rejection is influenced by the different ways the groups studying the brightness of supernovae use the HST. Surprising additional inputs include neutrino masses, the equivalence principle, LSB galaxies, and "over-luminous" Sn1a. I thank Mostafa Jon Dadras and Patrick Motl for early help and John Cumalat for continual support. [1] D.F. Bartlett, "Analogies between electricity and gravity", Metrologia 41, S115-S124 (2004).

  3. Full-Band Quasi-Harmonic Analysis and Synthesis of Musical Instrument Sounds with Adaptive Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoids are widely used to represent the oscillatory modes of musical instrument sounds in both analysis and synthesis. However, musical instrument sounds feature transients and instrumental noise that are poorly modeled with quasi-stationary sinusoids, requiring spectral decomposition and further dedicated modeling. In this work, we propose a full-band representation that fits sinusoids across the entire spectrum. We use the extended adaptive Quasi-Harmonic Model (eaQHM to iteratively estimate amplitude- and frequency-modulated (AM–FM sinusoids able to capture challenging features such as sharp attacks, transients, and instrumental noise. We use the signal-to-reconstruction-error ratio (SRER as the objective measure for the analysis and synthesis of 89 musical instrument sounds from different instrumental families. We compare against quasi-stationary sinusoids and exponentially damped sinusoids. First, we show that the SRER increases with adaptation in eaQHM. Then, we show that full-band modeling with eaQHM captures partials at the higher frequency end of the spectrum that are neglected by spectral decomposition. Finally, we demonstrate that a frame size equal to three periods of the fundamental frequency results in the highest SRER with AM–FM sinusoids from eaQHM. A listening test confirmed that the musical instrument sounds resynthesized from full-band analysis with eaQHM are virtually perceptually indistinguishable from the original recordings.

  4. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  5. Why Should Donors Care about Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is bad for donor business. Corruption reduces popular support for aid in donor countries. However, aid agencies should pay attention to corruption because it is the right thing to do, rather than just the smart thing to do. Donor anti-corruption policies require a strong grounding in ethics. Corruption produces bad development outcomes. This is the reasoning largely underlying donor anti-corruption efforts. The focus on consequences of corruption makes donor anticorruptioneffo...

  6. Political Corruption: An Introduction to the Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Inge

    1999-01-01

    Corruption is generally defined as the misuse of public authority, and political corruption is here defined as corruption in which the political decision-makers are involved. In addition to a review of the various definitions of corruption a classification of the various forms of corruption (bribery, embezzlement, fraud and extortion), this paper presents two alternative theories on corruption ("extractive" and "redistributive") in order to illustrate the effects of corruption in various regi...

  7. Single ICCII Sinusoidal Oscillators Employing Grounded Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two inverting second-generation current conveyors (ICCII based sinusoidal oscillators are presented. The first sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and two resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable. The second sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and three resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be independently controllable through different resistors.

  8. Electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florescu, Valeriu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two types of active configurations for realizing electronically tunable RC sinusoidal oscillators. The type-1 network employs two grounded scaled resistances KR 1 and KR 2 , where K is scaling factor. The frequency of oscillation W 0 is controlled conveniently by adjusting K, since W 0 appears in the form W 0 =1/K √ R 1 C 1 R 2 C 2 . For realizing the scaled resistances, an active configuration is proposed, which realizes KR 1 =R 1 /(1+f(V B )), where f(V B ) denotes a function of a controlling voltage V B . Thus the frequency tuning can be effected by controlling a voltage V B . The type-2 oscillator uses two periodically switched conductances. It is shown that the tuning of oscillation frequency can be done by varying the pulse width-to-period ratio (t/T) of the periodically switched conductances. (author)

  9. White coated corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vijay

    2010-01-01

    This essay documents the state of the medical profession which was once a respected line of work but today is corrupted at every level, from medical education to medical practice, and ir both the private and government sectors. It calls for doctors, thE government and the public to act against dishonest doctors restore the dignity of the profession and work for the benefit of society.

  10. Corrupt reciprocity: An experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Lambsdorff, Johann; Frank, Björn

    2007-01-01

    We let students play a corruption game, embedded into a variant of the ultimatum game. Those allotted the role of public servants chose between whistleblowing, opportunism and reciprocity by delivery (of a contract) and those acting as businesspeople chose how to frame the game and whether to blow the whistle. While opportunism and abstaining from whistleblowing is the Nash equilibrium, another likely outcome was that businesspeople allocate resources to punishing public servants for non-deli...

  11. Internal and International Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2015-01-01

    This subject, whence the name of this paper originates from, must be addressed with courage and intellectual integrity by all of us, the different parts of the civil society, the public institutions, the entrepreneurs and the legal professionals, the youth and the new generations. All the public policies of the European governments share the belief of a direct correlation between the criminal density connected to corruption of States political and economic protagonists and the lack of ava...

  12. Corruptive Tendencies, Conscientiousness, and Collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Juneman Abraham; Murty Magda Pane

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the relation between conscientiousness, collectivism, and corrupt tendency–which is represented by moral emotions (shame and guilt proneness). The study was conducted on 117 students (76 male, 41 female; M = 18.93 years old; SD = 1.67 years old) in Jakarta. The result shows that collectivism has positive predictive correlation with the tendency of not doing corruption and that conscientiousness is not able to predict corrupt tendencies. Collectivism of which every g...

  13. Mandeville on Corruption and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Simonazzi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes a distinction between two different meanings of the word «corruption»: moral corruption and legal corruption. The thesis is that in Mandeville's thought vice can be useful, while crime is always damaging. In this perspective, law is fundamental to tell vice from crime. Three points are examined: 1) the relationships between law and human nature, law and ethics, law and society; 2) the analysis of Mandeville's theory of law, in particular its nature and development; 3) the the...

  14. Corporate Corruption in Russian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ledeneva, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    To understand corporate corruption in Russia and to develop both effective anti-corruption policies at the macro level and anti-corruption strategies at the firm level one has to move beyond the predominant paradigm and to disaggregate its measurement. This article outlines the results of a pilot survey of CEOs of leading companies operating in the Russian regions with regard to their use of informal practices.

  15. Mathematical Models of the Sinusoidal Screen Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Koren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will define a family of sinusoidal screening elements and explore the possibilities of their application in graphic arts, securities printing and design solutions in photography and typography editing. For this purpose mathematical expressions of sinusoidal families were converted into a Postscript language. The introduction of a random variable results in a countless number of various mutations which cannot be repeated without knowing the programming code itself. The use of the family of screens in protection of securities is thus of great importance. Other possible application of modulated sinusoidal screens is related to the large format color printing. This paper will test the application of sinusoidal screens in vector graphics, pixel graphics and typography. The development of parameters in the sinusoidal screen element algorithms gives new forms defined within screening cells with strict requirements of coverage implementation. Individual solutions include stochastic algorithms, as well as the autonomy of screening forms in regard to multicolor printing channels.

  16. Bureaucratic corruption and anti-corruption strategies in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper derives from the contemporary concern facing good governance and the sustainability of democratic government in Nigeria. The phenomenon of corruption i.e. bureaucratic corruption has negative implications on the nation and therefore capable of terminating our nascent democracy, hence, the need to curb or ...

  17. Galalctic Tides & the Sinusoidal Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David F.

    2011-05-01

    The sinusoidal potential is a nonNewtonian alternative to dark matter. Instead of φ = -GM/r we write φ = -(GM/r) cos kor, where ko= 2π/ λo and λo = Ro/20= 400 pc. Evidence for this choice for the "wavelength” λo has been given in one article and many previous meetings of the AAS & DDA. The solar system and nearby stars are trapped in a local groove of width Δr Quality (4 types) and semi-major axis aoriginal . For 10 of the 12 classes radial tides dominate Z-tides. The classic Oort cloud comets (1851-1996) have a particularly strong modulation with galactic longitude. This modulation is exactly in those directions where a radial tide would be important. The equally numerous recent Oort comets (1996-2008) show a different evidence for strong radial tides. The recent comets generally have much larger perihelion distances q than the classic ones. Here the evidence is that a radial tide is removing angular momentum from the orbit and thus bringing the perihelion closer to the earth and to observers.

  18. From Development and Grand Corruption to Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Scott MacWilliam; Mike Rafferty

    2017-01-01

    In development policy circles, corruption has become a pressing global issue. Yet the contemporary relationship between corruption and development is complex and contested. For many, corruption robs people of economic resources and social wealth, and denudes the state of important capacities. That is, corruption prevents or blocks development. For others, corruption often occurs in the process of development as the form in which a class of developers accumulates wealth. That is, corruption is...

  19. Combating Corruption Based on International Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Maskun, -

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is a universal problem that is taking place all over the world, either in developed countries or developing or under developing countries. It is caused by some issues such as poorly designed economic policies, low levels of education, underdeveloped civil society, and the weak accountability of public institution. Those causes of corruption can be separated in some different types of corruption. The types are bureaucratic corruption, political corruption, grand corruption, and comm...

  20. A continuous wavelet transform approach for harmonic parameters estimation in the presence of impulsive noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Xue, Yuan; Zhang, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Impulsive noise caused by some random events has the main character of short rise-time and wide frequency spectrum range, so it has the potential to degrade the performance and reliability of the harmonic estimation. This paper focuses on the harmonic estimation procedure based on continuous wavelet transform (CWT) when the analyzed signal is corrupted by the impulsive noise. The digital CWT of both the time-varying sinusoidal signal and the impulsive noise are analyzed, and there are two cross ridges in the time-frequency plane of CWT, which are generated by the signal and the noise separately. In consideration of the amplitude of the noise and the number of the spike event, two inequalities are derived to provide limitations on the wavelet parameters. Based on the amplitude distribution of the noise, the optimal wavelet parameters determined by solving these inequalities are used to suppress the contamination of the noise, as well as increase the amplitude of the ridge corresponding to the signal, so the parameters of each harmonic component can be estimated accurately. The proposed procedure is applied to a numerical simulation and a bone vibration signal test giving satisfactory results of stationary and time-varying harmonic parameter estimation.

  1. DOES FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT REDUCE CORRUPTION?

    OpenAIRE

    John Thornton

    2009-01-01

    I estimate the impact of bank cred it to the private sector on corruption using indicators of a country's legal origin as instrumental variables to assess causality. I find that bank credit reduces corruption, with the result robust to instrumenting for bank credit and for different controls.

  2. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  3. Dying of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Sören; Rothstein, Bo

    2011-10-01

    In many poor countries, over 80% of the population have experienced corrupt practices in the health sector. In rich countries, corruption takes other forms such as overbilling. The causal link between low levels of the quality of government (QoG) and population health can be either direct or indirect. Using cross-sectional data from more than 120 countries, our findings are that more of a QoG variable is positively associated with higher levels of life expectancy, lower levels of mortality rates for children and mothers, higher levels of healthy life expectancies and higher levels of subjective health feelings. In contrast to the strong relationships between the QoG variables and the health indicators, the relationship between the health-spending measures and population health are rather weak most of the time and occasionally non-existent. Moreover, for private health spending as well as for private share of total health spending, the relation to good health is close to zero or slightly negative. The policy recommendation coming out of our study to improve health levels around the world, in rich countries as well as in poor countries, is to improve the QoG and to finance health care with public, not private, money.

  4. Control of corruption in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal

    2015-01-01

    A recently published article on corruption in Indian healthcare in the BMJ has triggered a hot debate and numerous responses (1, 2, 3, 4). We do agree that corruption in Indian healthcare is a colossal issue and needs to be tackled urgently (5). However, we want to highlight that corruption in healthcare is not a local phenomenon confined to the Indian subcontinent, though India does serve as a good case study and intervention area due to the magnitude of the problem and the country's large population (6). Good governance, strict rules, transparency and zero tolerance are some of the strategies prescribed everywhere to tackle corruption. However, those entrusted with implementing good governance and strict rules in India need to go through a process of introspection to carry out their duties in a responsible fashion. At present, it looks like a no-win situation. In this article, we recommend education in medical ethics as the major intervention for dealing with corruption in healthcare.

  5. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  6. Corruption Markets: An Analytical Framework For Assessing Anti-Corruption Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Varvara M. Vasileva; Anton N. Vorobyev

    2014-01-01

    Assuming that there is a “missing factor” in the modern corruption studies, authors develop a new conceptual approach to the study of corruption and effectiveness of anti-corruption regulations in the public service. This “missing factor” is a “corruption market”, particularly, its size, type and nature. Conflict of interest regulations aim at controlling key channels of corruption behavior, and corruption market in its turn determines prevailing channels of existing corruption behavior. Misi...

  7. Contextualizing conceptions of corruption: Challenges for the international anti-corruption campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Gephart, Malte

    2009-01-01

    While in an initial legal and academic anti-corruption wave corruption itself was at the center of analysis, research is now increasingly focused on anti-corruption discourse and praxis. The latter analyses have generated numerous criticisms of anti-corruption activities and anti-corruption research, and these are presented in this literature review. These criticisms range from the anti-corruption norm's legitimacy deficit, to the difficulty of defining and measuring corruption, to the discou...

  8. Adaptive noise cancellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique. (author)

  9. Reconstruction of ECG signals in presence of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshapillai, Gartheeban; Liu, Jessica F; Guttag, John

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to identifying and reconstructing corrupted regions in a multi-parameter physiological signal. The method, which uses information in correlated signals, is specifically designed to preserve clinically significant aspects of the signals. We use template matching to jointly segment the multi-parameter signal, morphological dissimilarity to estimate the quality of the signal segment, similarity search using features on a database of templates to find the closest match, and time-warping to reconstruct the corrupted segment with the matching template. In experiments carried out on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, a two-parameter database with many clinically significant arrhythmias, our method improved the classification accuracy of the beat type by more than 7 times on a signal corrupted with white Gaussian noise, and increased the similarity to the original signal, as measured by the normalized residual distance, by more than 2.5 times.

  10. Discourses of Anti-corruption in Mexico. Culture of Corruption or Corruption of Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronado

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global capitalism the so-called developing countries are considered ‘commodities’ in offer in the global economy as emerging markets or for foreign investment. Countries need to show they are potentially highly competitive with low risk. The value of country characteristics is set by globalised managerial discourses, based on postcolonial ideologies that rate cultures and societies in terms of linear notions of progress and civilisation. Cultures and behaviours are judged positively or negatively according to the position countries supposedly have in the evolution of world society. In this framework one element that countries need to eradicate or reduce in order to be seen as ‘attractive’ is corruption. Towards this aim international and national government and non-government organisations have put in place anti-corruption campaigns. In communications with the general public, these schemes represent actors and acts of corruption through discursive strategies that characterize world cultures and their links with corruption in terms of postcolonial ideologies. In this paper I focus on the implications of the metaphor ‘culture of corruption’ for rating countries, questioning its effectiveness in anti-corruption campaigns. I argue that anti-corruption instruments based on postcolonial ideologies corrupt representations of national cultures and peoples behaviours, instead of targeting local and global sectors that gain from institutionalised corruption. Through the analysis of anti-corruption cultural texts publicly available in Mexico I illustrate how the ideological misrepresentation of corruption fails its stated aim, to transform a ‘culture of corruption’ into a ‘culture of legality’.

  11. Corrupt to the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.

    1988-01-01

    Many countries do not have the facilities necessary to process their nuclear waste. They have to export it to another country with suitable facilities. Some countries in Europe both export their own waste and import other peoples. This situation is described with details of facilities available and current practices of who sends what where. The problem of nuclear waste processing and disposal has led to corruption and widespread malpractice, in particular in West Germany and Belgium. Although not involved with these scandals Britain will receive large amounts of spent nuclear fuel once the THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) is ready at BNFL's site at Sellafield. Britain will then have to deal with companies and countries whose record on the transportation of nuclear waste is bad. (U.K.)

  12. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Helja; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antii

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE. Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. \\ud \\ud METHODS. Contrast energy thresho...

  13. [Corruption as individual and organizational sinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The article qualifies the nature of psychosociological perspective in analysing corruption in organizations. Corruption is analysed as a mental event and social conditions of corruption are investigated. In particular six social and organizational factors are identified as relevant in determining the diffusion of corruption: meaning, work wellbeing, consistency, social recognition, reflexivity, social relations. The main hypothesis explored in the article is that to take managerial care of the organisational factors above mentioned is a strong and active prevention of the risk of corruption.

  14. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In this thesis we analyze how tactical procurement can be managed to fight corruption and promote integrity in the decentralized context in local governments in Uganda. Specifically, we identify the mos...

  15. Notes on Corruption and Morality

    OpenAIRE

    Hatti, Neelambar; Hoadley, Mason

    2015-01-01

    An actor perspective within a moralistic approach to corruption in india and Southeast Asia contrasts to a (Weberian) institutional one. This emphasizes local values which help explain apparent lack of social constraints to everyday corrupt practices as bribery. In Karnataka the approach indicates that status and power within one’s own community gained by amassing wealth however acquired overrides morality; overstepping moral taboos can easily be rectified through an appropriate ritual. In po...

  16. Economic integration and corruption: The corrupt soul of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Juan J. Ganuza; Esther Hauk

    2000-01-01

    We study the link between corruption and economic integration. We show that if an economic union establishes a common regulation for public procurement, the country more prone to corruption benefits more from integration. However, if the propensities to corruption are too distinct, the less corrupt country will not be willing to join the union. This difference in corruption propensities can be offset by a difference in efficiency. We also show that corruption is lower if integration occurs. A...

  17. Encryption in Chaotic Systems with Sinusoidal Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Obregón-Pulido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution an encryption method using a chaotic oscillator, excited by “n” sinusoidal signals, is presented. The chaotic oscillator is excited by a sum of “n” sinusoidal signals and a message. The objective is to encrypt such a message using the chaotic behavior and transmit it, and, as the chaotic system is perturbed by the sinusoidal signal, the transmission security could be increased due to the effect of such a perturbation. The procedure is based on the regulation theory and consider that the receiver knows the frequencies of the perturbing signal, with this considerations the algorithm estimates the excitation in such a way that the receiver can cancel out the perturbation and all the undesirable dynamics in order to produce only the message. In this way we consider that the security level is increased.

  18. Combating Corruption Based on International Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Maskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a universal problem that is taking place all over the world, either in developed countries or developing or under developing countries. It is caused by some issues such as poorly designed economic policies, low levels of education, underdeveloped civil society, and the weak accountability of public institution. Those causes of corruption can be separated in some different types of corruption. The types are bureaucratic corruption, political corruption, grand corruption, and common corruption. In terms of tackling some problems of corruption, there are so many things to do including international law commitment. Some international law commitment can be seen like OAS Convention, OECD’s anti-bribery Convention, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the United Nation Convention against Corruption (UNCAC. Those laws must be analyzed not only in context of substantive of those laws but also how they are implemented in state practices.

  19. Directional Total Generalized Variation Regularization for Impulse Noise Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas; Dong, Yiqiu

    2017-01-01

    this regularizer for directional images is highly advantageous. In order to estimate directions in impulse noise corrupted images, which is much more challenging compared to Gaussian noise corrupted images, we introduce a new Fourier transform-based method. Numerical experiments show that this method is more...

  20. Corruption, regionalization and local governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is old almost as human societies and it was developed simultaneously with enlargement of social and political power, bureaucracy and involvement of the state into market transactions. Specific conditions that are characteristic of Serbian society and that have favorably influenced the growth of corruption are: dissolution/break up of Yugoslavia war in surroundings, economic sanctions and NATO bombing. Besides these basic causes of corruption in Serbia are state control over the economy, lack of the rule of law, and breakdown of social values, that is, anomy and poverty. The lack of the rule of law and the state control of economy, which often occur together, are older conditions, while distorted social values, that is, moral crisis and poverty are newer. Subordination of judicial system to the executive authorities enabled different sorts of bribe and corruption to be tolerated. Therefore, the corruption has spread and became contemporary method of conducting business and almost a common thing, regardless of the party composition of the authorities. This thesis is confirmed by the empirical data: 17.9% of citizens claim that all local officials and corrupted and 48.4% claim that majority of them are. On the other side, only 27.5% of citizens claim that local party officials (all of them or majority accept bribe, and 31.1% claim that only some do. Therefore, we are faced with higher interest in political engagement, because it is becoming a highly profitable occupation and posts in local government are highly appreciated because corruption profit is calculated in advance.

  1. Estimating Aquifer Properties Using Sinusoidal Pumping Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, T. C.; Haborak, K. G.; Young, M. H.

    2001-12-01

    We develop the theoretical and applied framework for using sinusoidal pumping tests to estimate aquifer properties for confined, leaky, and partially penetrating conditions. The framework 1) derives analytical solutions for three boundary conditions suitable for many practical applications, 2) validates the analytical solutions against a finite element model, 3) establishes a protocol for conducting sinusoidal pumping tests, and 4) estimates aquifer hydraulic parameters based on the analytical solutions. The analytical solutions to sinusoidal stimuli in radial coordinates are derived for boundary value problems that are analogous to the Theis (1935) confined aquifer solution, the Hantush and Jacob (1955) leaky aquifer solution, and the Hantush (1964) partially penetrated confined aquifer solution. The analytical solutions compare favorably to a finite-element solution of a simulated flow domain, except in the region immediately adjacent to the pumping well where the implicit assumption of zero borehole radius is violated. The procedure is demonstrated in one unconfined and two confined aquifer units near the General Separations Area at the Savannah River Site, a federal nuclear facility located in South Carolina. Aquifer hydraulic parameters estimated using this framework provide independent confirmation of parameters obtained from conventional aquifer tests. The sinusoidal approach also resulted in the elimination of investigation-derived wastes.

  2. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path: Can it Cause Illusory Forward and Backward Motion? Anuj Bhatnagar. Classroom Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 387-392 ...

  3. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  4. Model selection and comparison for independents sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    In the signal processing literature, many methods have been proposed for estimating the number of sinusoidal basis functions from a noisy data set. The most popular method is the asymptotic MAP criterion, which is sometimes also referred to as the BIC. In this paper, we extend and improve this me...

  5. Divorce and Corruption: New Study, New Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Azia-Dimbu, Florentin; Kalemasi-Mosengo, Cedrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying the effects of divorce alongside on corruption controlling. We find no significant effect of divorce on corruption. The same conclusion is found in cross-section and panel data.

  6. The Silence of Corruption : Identifying Underreporting of Business Corruption through Randomized Response Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Nathan M.; Rahman, Aminur

    2011-01-01

    Research on the economic consequences of corruption has been hampered by the inability to directly measure corruption. Using an innovative methodology that allows respondents to report individual experiences with corruption while minimizing self-incrimination and an objective diagnostic to evaluate lying (false responses), this paper explores the extent of business corruption in Bangladesh...

  7. Misery, Corruption, and Presidential Approval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38.......This is a guest post by Guillermo Rosas and Luigi Manzetti. It summarizes their recent paper, ‘Reassessing the trade-off hypothesis: How misery drives the corruption effect on presidential approval’ that was published in Electoral Studies, Volume 39, September 2015, pp. 26–38....

  8. Corruption, fraud and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-01-01

    The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud a...

  9. Corporate reporting on corruption: an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Barkemeyer, Ralf; Preuss, Lutz; Lee, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Building on an institutionalist framework of the various organizational field-level pressures on firms to engage with the challenge of corruption, we analyse anti-corruption disclosures across a sample of 933 sustainability reports. Such reporting complements anti-corruption initiatives, as it allows the company to demonstrate its commitment. Our results show clear country- and sector-level differences in the extent to which companies communicate their anti-corruption engagement. However, the...

  10. Corruption, Political Connections, and Municipal Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander W. Butler; Larry Fauver; Sandra Mortal

    2009-01-01

    We show that state corruption and political connections have strong effects on municipal bond sales and underwriting. Higher state corruption is associated with greater credit risk and higher bond yields. Corrupt states can eliminate the corruption yield penalty by purchasing credit enhancements. Underwriting fees were significantly higher during an era when underwriters made political contributions to win underwriting business. This pay-to-play underwriting fee premium exists only for negoti...

  11. Victimological aspect of a corruption deal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Ivanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to present the author39s concept of the victimological aspect of corruption crime. Methods dialectical method of cognition mainly the systemic approach analysis. Results the article discusses the concept of corruption deal as an unlawful act statutory offence bribery and subornation law abuse by the authorized entity. The illegal most common and manipulative types of corruption deals and their mechanisms are defined as well as the ways of their implementation which include mutually beneficial bilateral trade extortion and initiative active bribery. The diverse negative effects of corruption on the legal relationships are proved. The danger of the crime deal is shown as the factor of corrupt behavior and active means of formation of corruption networks which increases victimogenity of corruption acts doing harm not only to physical but also legal entities. In accordance with this the point of view supported and proved that it is necessary to expand the notion of victim of corruption offences to legal persons. The conclusion is made about the feasibility of a legal assessment of corruption deals as a qualifying feature of a criminal offense. Scientific novelty the article justifies the author39s position in relation to an assessment of corruption victimization of the deal victimological characteristic of a corrupt deals victim are given critical analysis of basic victimological concepts is made to identify the potential corrupt deals victims and ensure victim safety. Practical significance the idea is expressed of reorienting public consciousness views on corruption as a way of solving problems of changing tolerance to corruption due to which the legal subjects become victims of corrupt deals of amending the anticorruption policies towards more careful attention to the protection of the legal relations subjects against the corruption threat. nbsp

  12. Corruption and Firm Growth: Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; You, J.

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is one of the most pervasive obstacles to economic and social development. However, in the existing literature it appears that corruption seems to be less harmful in some countries than in others. The most striking examples are well known as the "East Asian paradox": countries displaying exceptional growth records despite having thriving corruption cultures. The aim of this paper is to explain the high corruption but fast economic growth puzzle in China by providing firm-level evid...

  13. The Vicissitudes of Corruption : Degeneration - transgression - jouissance

    OpenAIRE

    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro

    2007-01-01

    In a time when corruption is receiving increasing media coverage and when many claim to wage a war on corruption, this book brings up the need for a problematisation and an increased understanding of the different manifestations – the vicissitudes – of corruption and also what measures are taken against it. The book advances the claim that corruption is tightly related to modernity and particularly to a transgression of the public / private dichotomy. It furthermore explores ancient, postmode...

  14. Between two evils: Investors prefer grand corruption!

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Lambsdorff, Johann

    2005-01-01

    Recent empirical studies claim that, in addition to levels of corruption, investors are deterred by its unpredictability. I claim instead that it is petty corruption that deters investors. I employ seven subcomponents of corruption for a sample of 102 countries that appear in the 2003 Global Competitiveness Report of the WEF. The second principal component of this data depicts a grand, political type, embracing corruption in government policymaking and in judicial decisions as opposed to corr...

  15. THE NONLINEAR IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON CORRUPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jayoti Das; Cassandra DiRienzo

    2009-01-01

    Some researchers have argued that globalization has increased the opportunity for corrupt practices, while others state that globalization has lead to a decrease in corruption as countries wishing to join the global economy must comply with international anti-corruption rules and regulations. This study empirically explores this paradox using the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and the Konjunkturforschungsstelle (KOF) globalization Index. The results suggest that a nonlinear relationship e...

  16. Should Corrupt Countries receive Budget Support?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Corruption makes budget support ineffective, and sometimes counter-productive. Budget support is particularly unsuitable in partner countries where political corruption is rampant. As donors increase budget support, it is a paradox that corruption is not more of an issue in evaluations and public financial management assessment methods.

  17. The Cost of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.; Nuraliyeva, Nazym

    2008-01-01

    Corruption was symptomatic of business and government interactions in Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union before and during the economic transition of the 1990s. Corruption is difficult to quantify, but the perception of corruption is quantifiable. Nations can even be arranged along a hierarchy by the degree to which they are…

  18. Corruption: How should Christians respond? | Theron | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International indicate the seriousness of the worldwide corruption problem. Although recent decades have witnessed a global public awareness and an increase in attempts to eradicate corruption, it is an ongoing problem. It is evident that legislation is ...

  19. Taxonomy of Corruption in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of corruption that has become common in higher education in developing countries around the world. Cases of educational corruption include, among others, paying bribes for grades, buying diplomas, and admissions to universities. An available body of literature on educational corruption does not provide…

  20. A principal-agent Model of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    1997-01-01

    One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is

  1. The Efficiency of Repressive Anti-Corruption Measures in Conditions of High-Level Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Abramov Fedir V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at determining the efficiency of repressive anti-corruption measures in conditions of high-level corruption. It is shown that the formal rules regulating the use of repressive methods of countering corruption are characterized by a significant level of the target inefficiency of formal rules. Resulting from ignorance as to the causes of both occurence and spread of corruption – the inefficiency of the current formal rules – repressive anti-corruption measures are fundamen...

  2. A Good Turn Deserves Another: Political Stability, Corruption and Corruption-Control

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A Asongu

    2015-01-01

    We build on existing literature and contemporary challenges to African development to assess the role of political stability in fighting corruption and boosting corruption-control in 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. We postulate that on the one hand, an atmosphere of political instability should increase the confidence of impunity owing to less corruption-control. On the other hand, in the absence such impunity from corruption, political instability further fuels corruption. Our...

  3. Communication system with adaptive noise suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, David (Inventor); Devault, James A. (Inventor); Birr, Richard B. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A signal-to-noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction process eliminates noise from noise-corrupted speech signals. The process first pre-emphasizes the frequency components of the input sound signal which contain the consonant information in human speech. Next, a signal-to-noise ratio is determined and a spectral subtraction proportion adjusted appropriately. After spectral subtraction, low amplitude signals can be squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both the noise-corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoiced frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Spectral subtraction may be performed on a composite noise-corrupted signal, or upon individual sub-bands of the noise-corrupted signal. Pre-averaging of the input signal's magnitude spectrum over multiple time frames may be performed to reduce musical noise.

  4. Combating corruption in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian; Lewis, Maureen; Vian, Taryn

    2017-08-09

    Corruption is a critical challenge to global health efforts, and combating it requires international action, advocacy, and research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In

  6. Harassment, corruption and tax policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces ‘harassment’ in a model of bribery and corruption. We characterize the harassment equilibrium and show that taxpayers, with all possible levels of income, participate in such equilibrium. Harassment has a regressive bias. Harassment costs as such may not affect tax revenue.

  7. Provincial corruption and local development bank performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murharsito Murharsito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of provincial corruption on the performance of local development bank, specifically to the profitability and credit quality. We use the data of 26 local development banks in 2012 and 2013. For the provincial corruption measurement we use “Public Institution Openness Index”. Results of this study are first, corruption significantly has a negative effect on the profitability of local development bank. Second, corruption doesn’t affect the credit quality of local development bank. These results are expected to enrich the within country corruption effect to the economic studies, particularly to the local development bank which is infrequently investigated.

  8. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  9. From Development and Grand Corruption to Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott MacWilliam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In development policy circles, corruption has become a pressing global issue. Yet the contemporary relationship between corruption and development is complex and contested. For many, corruption robs people of economic resources and social wealth, and denudes the state of important capacities. That is, corruption prevents or blocks development. For others, corruption often occurs in the process of development as the form in which a class of developers accumulates wealth. That is, corruption is a phase of development. This article explores the contested relationship through two case studies: in Sub-Saharan Africa; and in the former Soviet Union. The article also links contemporary debates about corruption and development with earlier thinking about capitalist progress and development.

  10. The Road to Bribery and Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2017-03-01

    Major forms of corruption constitute a strong threat to the functioning of societies. The most frequent explanation of how severe corruption emerges is the slippery-slope metaphor-the notion that corruption occurs gradually. While having widespread theoretical and intuitive appeal, this notion has barely been tested empirically. We used a recently developed paradigm to test whether severely corrupt acts happen gradually or abruptly. The results of four experimental studies revealed a higher likelihood of severe corruption when participants were directly given the opportunity to engage in it (abrupt) compared with when they had previously engaged in minor forms of corruption (gradual). Neither the size of the payoffs, which we kept constant, nor evaluations of the actions could account for these differences. Contrary to widely shared beliefs, sometimes the route to corruption leads over a steep cliff rather than a slippery slope.

  11. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.

  12. THE OPAQUE PORTRAIT OF CORRUPTION ERADICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Mas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The war against corruption should not only by exposing the various cases of corruption, but the most important thing is to punish the corrupt in an extraordinary way to have a deterrent effect and not replicable by potential criminals that have been queued. Corruption is more structured and systematic, from the center to the regions. In fact, gave birth to a new generation of fat accounts with the discovery of a number of civil servants who are still young. Stop the robbery of money the state cannot just with rhetoric, let alone just a call that seemed hot chicken droppings. Blurred portrait of corruption is characterized by a large number of cases the defendant is acquitted of corruption Anticorruption Court. Similarly, many major cases involving alleged power elite and the ruling political party that is not completed, such as the Bank Century case, the case Hambalang project, as well as allegations of corruption Pensions SEA Games athletes

  13. Approximations to camera sensor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2013-02-01

    Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.

  14. The Efficiency of Repressive Anti-Corruption Measures in Conditions of High-Level Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Fedir V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at determining the efficiency of repressive anti-corruption measures in conditions of high-level corruption. It is shown that the formal rules regulating the use of repressive methods of countering corruption are characterized by a significant level of the target inefficiency of formal rules. Resulting from ignorance as to the causes of both occurence and spread of corruption – the inefficiency of the current formal rules – repressive anti-corruption measures are fundamentally incapable of achieving a significant reduction in the level of corruptness. It has been proved that, in addition to significant target inefficiency, repressive anti-corruption methods can potentially lead to increased levels of corruption because of abusing by supervisory officials of their official duties and the spread of internal corruption within anti-corruption structures. The potential threats from the uncontrolled anti-corruption structures towards other controlling organizations were considered. It is shown that in conditions of high-level corruption repressive anti-corruption measures can lead to expansion of imitation of anti-corruption activity.

  15. Discourse on corruption counteraction in network trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Zhigun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the specific forms of corruption and promising methods to counteract corruption in network trade. Methods the combination of inductive observations comparisons generalizations facts and trends of corruption in network trade with a logical analytical deduction of economic theories and the corruption concept are the basis of the study and provide an opportunity on the one hand to assess the level of compliance of theoretical concepts of corruption with the practice and on the other handnbsp to determine their applicability to organize opposition and create conditions to prevent its occurrence to summarize the features of corruption in the form of a kickback the discourse method was applied in this work. Results on the basis of theoretical provisions and facts of corruption in trade it is proved that it has typical characteristics of corruption in commercial and nonprofit organizations. The key reasons are identified why corruption occurs in trade. Among them supply of poor quality goods at inflated prices leading to bribery in the form of laquopersonal bonusraquo to administrator of the trading organization when selling goods by an unscrupulous supplier and also supply goods to the trade organizations which will not buy without kickback. Most of these corrupt deals are carried out by natural monopolies in the form of state and municipal procurement. In some cases the kickback is the argument stimulating the decision to introduce new and advanced technologies. The factors that lead to corruption in trade are listed and reasonable methods to counteract it are grounded allowing to create conditions for its eradication in other branches of business as well. Scientific novelty for the first time a generalization has been made about the deficit as the driving force in the mechanism when the bribegivers and bribetakers change places. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the

  16. Regorafenib suppresses sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masayuki; Hatano, Etsuro; Nakamura, Kojiro; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Kasai, Yosuke; Nishio, Takahiro; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a form of drug-induced liver injury related to oxaliplatin treatment, is associated with postoperative morbidity after hepatectomy. This study aimed to examine the impact of regorafenib, the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor to show efficacy against metastatic colorectal cancer, on a rat model of SOS. Rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced SOS were divided into two groups according to treatment with either regorafenib (6 mg/kg) or vehicle alone, which were administered at 12 and 36 h, respectively, before MCT administration. Histopathologic examination and serum biochemistry tests were performed 48 h after MCT administration. Sinusoidal endothelial cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. To examine whether regorafenib preserved remnant liver function, a 30% hepatectomy was performed in each group. The rats in the vehicle group displayed typical SOS features, whereas these features were suppressed in the regorafenib group. The total SOS scores were significantly lower in the regorafenib group than in the vehicle group. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy showed that regorafenib had a protective effect on sinusoidal endothelial cells. The postoperative survival rate after 7 d was significantly better in the regorafenib group than that in the vehicle group (26.7% versus 6.7%, P Regorafenib reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activation and decreased the activity of MMP-9, one of the crucial mediators of SOS development. Regorafenib suppressed MCT-induced SOS, concomitant with attenuating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and MMP-9 activation, suggesting that regorafenib may be a favorable agent for use in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadzi Krsteski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The business corruption is established and active in the circle of the businesses partners that express a gratitude, return a service or bribes (apart from ordinary price for a business transfer to be provided. Those prohibited transfers differs from the usual business transfers, such as activities related to marketing and public relations where they have a specific goal to use illegal means in order to infringe the recipients` identity of prohibited value in an interchange for a inducement. That is a procedure of enticement, which prevents the useful instruments in the permitted bazaar and not solitary that it is harmful for the businesses whose representatives accept bribe, however it is also harmful for the civilisation as an entire. The occurrence of business corruption is intended as a amount of companies that presented cash, a gratitude or a service in return, in adding to every usual deal of any person who is working for a business entity from the private sector in any capacity, including the one through a mediator, happening to at minimum single juncture in the past 12 months previous to this research. The usual commonness of the business-to-corruption in the Republic of Macedonia is 3% compared to 4% at a regional level. While it is fewer than the regular pervasiveness of salaried briberies by enterprises to civic bureaucrats, this discovery designates that bribery in the secluded segment is a difficult in the Republic of Macedonia.

  18. Corruption in Higher Education: Conceptual Approaches and Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    Corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Forms of corruption are multiple. Measuring corruption is necessary not only for getting ideas about the scale and scope of the problem, but for making simple comparisons between the countries and conducting comparative analysis of corruption. While the total impact of corruption is indeed…

  19. Public Debt, Corruption and Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that look into the relationship between public debt and economic growth. It is hard to find, however, research addressing the role of corruption between these two variables. Noticing this vacancy in current literature, we strive to investigate the effect of corruption on the relationship between public debt and economic growth. For this purpose, the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects models and the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM models (Arellano-Bond, 1991 are estimated with data of 77 countries from 1990 to 2014. The empirical results show that the interaction term between public debt and corruption is statistically significant. This confirms the hypothesis that the effect of public debt on economic growth is a function of corruption. The sign of the marginal effect is negative in corrupt countries, but public debt enhances economic growth within countries that are not corrupt, i.e., highly transparent.

  20. Economic effects of corruption in judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to explore economic effects of corruption in judiciary. The examination included the analysis of economic features of judiciary and economic mechanisms of corruption in judiciary within the theoretical framework of Backer's model of criminal behavior. The analysis demonstrates that corruption in judiciary violates the rule of law, hence undermines the fundaments of market economy and specialization, i.e. social division of labor as the ground for improving economic efficiency. As to the static economic efficiency, the most important effect of corruption in judiciary is transaction costs that are generated and the consequent allocative inefficiency. As to the dynamic economic efficiency, corruption decreases economic growth rates and reallocates recourses from productive to distributive activities. The effects of corruption in judiciary to economic inequality are not significant, particularly not comparing with the already identified effects to the economic efficiency.

  1. Humane Orientation and Corruption in Bank Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwapong Dheera-aumpon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in bank lending can seriously adversely affect credit allocation. Besides banking factors, national culture can also affect the corruption of bank officials. Prior studies have shown that collectivism increases bank corruption. This paper aims to assess the effects of cultural dimensions, besides collectivism, on the corruption of bank officials. Instead of using Hofstede's cultural data, this paper uses the data from the GLOBE project which is more recent and reports more cultural dimensions than Hofstede’s. Using the data covering more than 3000 firms in 32 countries, this paper finds that humane orientation increases the corruption of bank officials. The effect of humane orientation on the corruption of bank officials is not only statistically significant but also economically relevant. The magnitude of its effect is relatively comparable to that of collectivism.

  2. On the parameter estimation of first order IMA model corrupted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we showed how the autocovariance functions can be used to estimate the true parameters of IMA(1) models corrupted with white noise . We performed simulation studies to demonstrate our findings. The simulation studies showed that under the presence of errors in not more than 30% of total data points, our ...

  3. Corruption and growth in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Corruption is morally condemnable but what about its economical effect on the efficiency of on economy? Different transmission channels positively and negatively correlated with growth exist. The aim of this work is to catch the overall reality behind this impressively high number of transmission channels. Another task is to show the concrete consequences of corruption on a little economy like Haïti and what could be the consequences of the weaknesses induced by corruption. A presentation of ...

  4. Democracy, property rights, income equality, and corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bin; Torgler, Benno

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence on the nexus between corruption and democracy. We establish a political economy model where the effect of democracy on corruption is conditional on income distribution and property rights protection. Our empirical analysis with cross-national panel data provides evidence that is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the effect of democratization on corruption depends on the protection of property rights and income equality...

  5. Transparency and corruption: an optimal taxation policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Bouzahzah, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Under Principal-Agent-Supervisor paradigm, we examine in this paper how a tax collection agency changes optimal schemes in order to lessen the occurrence of corruption between the tax collector and the taxpayer. Indeed, the Principal, who maximizes the expected net fiscal revenue, reacts by decreasing tax rates when the supervisor is likely to engage in corrupt transaction with taxpayer. Therefore, the optimal policy against collusion and corruption may explain the rational of the greater rel...

  6. Bureaucratic Corruption and Profit Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke

    2006-01-01

    Firms may evade taxes on profits and can also avoid fulfilling legal restrictions on production activities by bribing bureaucrats. It is shown that the existence of tax evasion does not affect corruption activities at the firm level, while the budgetary repercussions of tax evasion induce less corruption. Policy measures which alter the gains or losses from corruption have a non-systematic impact on tax evasion behaviour.

  7. Four Essays on Corruption and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains four separate studies in the fields of corruption and cooperation. The first chapter explicates the mechanism that links the fractionalization of society with its level of corruption within a theoretical model of relational contracting. The other three chapters describe experimental studies. The second and third chapters evaluate two popular anti-corruption policies, the ‘Four-Eyes-Principle’ and ‘Whistle- Blowing’, with respect to their effectiveness in decreasing ...

  8. Corruption in India: Causes and Remedial Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Nabi Naz

    2017-01-01

    After independence, the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a setback, post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognized as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes...

  9. The Manifestation of Corruption in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Hladky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the main manifestations of corruption in the states of Eastern Europe, and, first of all, in Ukraine, which since 2014 has been actively carrying out multiple anti-corruption transformations, although the state is becoming increasingly corrupt every year. The author defines the main groups of manifestations of corruption and analyzes their constituent elements, in the light of which, delineates such categories as "gratitude", bribe, and corruption "gratitude". Particular attention is paid to the study of corruption intercession, which unites nepotism, cronyism and corruption lobbying. It is noted that to date nepotism is essentially supplanted by the rabble, which is the advantage of "privatization" of the state in the light of the clan capitalism. It is concluded that bribery and deviant intercession (corruption protection, as the main manifestations of corruption, the facts that corruption behavior is life-affirming security and protective actions of people, to which they resort, on the one hand, because of the insolvency of the state and society, but, on the other hand, to optimize the achievement of the good that is provided by the state and society, however, in an improper way. Meanwhile, if the discrepancy measures and methods of granting the benefits of state benefits (i.e., on average, the measure and method is applicable, then ignoring the state provision of certain goods as such (i.e., they can be provided only in the corruption plane - this phenomenon is completely objective. On this basis, it is argued that the policy of counteracting corrupt practices in the state should focus, first of all, on the solution of such problems and objective problems, the refusal to account, which will lead to further criminalization of the society, which is observed, in particular, in modern Ukraine.

  10. Corruption and Development: A Review of Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab Bardhan

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we start with a discussion of some of the different denotations of the problem of corruption. We then consider the ways in which the damaging consequences of corruption operate in a developing economy, while not ignoring its possible redeeming features in some cases. We pursue the question of why corruption is perceptibly so different in different societies and also persistent. Finally, we examine the feasible policy issues that arise in this context.

  11. Fighting corruption in Africa: do existing corruption-control levels matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across African countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To assess these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Design/methodology/approach – The panel quantile regression technique enables us to investigate if ...

  12. Perception of the dynamic visual vertical during sinusoidal linear motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomante, A; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system provides information for spatial orientation. However, this information is ambiguous: because the otoliths sense the gravitoinertial force, they cannot distinguish gravitational and inertial components. As a consequence, prolonged linear acceleration of the head can be interpreted as tilt, referred to as the somatogravic effect. Previous modeling work suggests that the brain disambiguates the otolith signal according to the rules of Bayesian inference, combining noisy canal cues with the a priori assumption that prolonged linear accelerations are unlikely. Within this modeling framework the noise of the vestibular signals affects the dynamic characteristics of the tilt percept during linear whole-body motion. To test this prediction, we devised a novel paradigm to psychometrically characterize the dynamic visual vertical-as a proxy for the tilt percept-during passive sinusoidal linear motion along the interaural axis (0.33 Hz motion frequency, 1.75 m/s 2 peak acceleration, 80 cm displacement). While subjects ( n =10) kept fixation on a central body-fixed light, a line was briefly flashed (5 ms) at different phases of the motion, the orientation of which had to be judged relative to gravity. Consistent with the model's prediction, subjects showed a phase-dependent modulation of the dynamic visual vertical, with a subject-specific phase shift with respect to the imposed acceleration signal. The magnitude of this modulation was smaller than predicted, suggesting a contribution of nonvestibular signals to the dynamic visual vertical. Despite their dampening effect, our findings may point to a link between the noise components in the vestibular system and the characteristics of dynamic visual vertical. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A fundamental question in neuroscience is how the brain processes vestibular signals to infer the orientation of the body and objects in space. We show that, under sinusoidal linear motion, systematic error patterns appear in the

  13. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2012-05-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE DETERMINATION OF CRIMES OF CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rubantsova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to determination of starting conceptual positions of a concept and signs of corruption. In article it is noted that qualification of this type of crimes is rather difficult. To a basis of a corruption crime the illegal transaction having criminal character constitutes. The government employee, having the rights and obligations of the government employee, he sells to other persons that he by right doesn’t belong to it. The corruption crime becomes result of this transaction. It always has mercenary character and is made for the sake of receipt of benefit of property nature. Corruption in the state has system nature.

  15. Attitudes of Belgrade University employees on corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gredelj Stjepan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is widely overspread phenomenon in all transition countries. In this sense Serbia is not exception, on the contrary, it was always highly ranked in all corruption indices of Transparency International. Among social areas which are considered as saturated with corruption highly ranked is the field of university education. In order to check justification of such perceptions, we have conducted a survey among Belgrade University employees. The findings confirmed that there exist corruption in high education on one side and that there is not too much readiness of employees to oppose it, if not to tear it out, than at least to diminish it.

  16. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....

  17. Compressed Domain Packet Loss Concealment of Sinusoidally Coded Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødbro, Christoffer A.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Andersen, Søren Vang

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of packet loss concealment for voice over IP (VoIP). The speech signal is compressed at the transmitter using a sinusoidal coding scheme working at 8 kbit/s. At the receiver, packet loss concealment is carried out working directly on the quantized sinusoidal parameters......, based on time-scaling of the packets surrounding the missing ones. Subjective listening tests show promising results indicating the potential of sinusoidal speech coding for VoIP....

  18. Individual and Institutional Corruption in European and US Healthcare: Overview and Link of Various Corruption Typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit; Wild, Claudia; Stepan, Adolf; Reichmann, Gerhard; Fried, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, the fight against healthcare corruption has intensified. Estimates from the European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network calculate an approximate €56 billion annual loss to Europe as a result of corruption. To promote understanding of the complexity and interconnection of corrupt activities, we aim to present healthcare-related corruption typologies of the European Union and European Healthcare Fraud and Corruption Network. We subsequently link them to the typology of individual and institutional corruption introduced by Dennis Thompson in the context of investigating misconduct of US Congressional members. According to Thompson, individual corruption is the personal gain of individuals performing duties within an institution in exchange for nurturing private interests, while institutional corruption pertains to the failure of the institution in directing the individual's behaviour towards the achievement of the institution's primary purpose because the institutional design promotes the pursuit of individual goals. Effective anti-corruption activities not only require the enactment of anti-corruption laws but also the monitoring and, where appropriate, revision of institutional frameworks to prevent the undermining of the primary purposes of health systems or institutions. To gain further understanding of the similarities and differences of the three typologies, prime examples of corrupt activities in the health sector in the European Union and USA (along with their potential remedies) are provided. Linking corruption cases to Thompson's typology revealed that many corrupt activities may show elements of both individual and institutional corruption because they are intertwined, partly overlap and may occur jointly. Hence, sanctioning individual actors only does not target the problem.

  19. The collaborative roots of corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-08-25

    Cooperation is essential for completing tasks that individuals cannot accomplish alone. Whereas the benefits of cooperation are clear, little is known about its possible negative aspects. Introducing a novel sequential dyadic die-rolling paradigm, we show that collaborative settings provide fertile ground for the emergence of corruption. In the main experimental treatment the outcomes of the two players are perfectly aligned. Player A privately rolls a die, reports the result to player B, who then privately rolls and reports the result as well. Both players are paid the value of the reports if, and only if, they are identical (e.g., if both report 6, each earns €6). Because rolls are truly private, players can inflate their profit by misreporting the actual outcomes. Indeed, the proportion of reported doubles was 489% higher than the expected proportion assuming honesty, 48% higher than when individuals rolled and reported alone, and 96% higher than when lies only benefited the other player. Breaking the alignment in payoffs between player A and player B reduced the extent of brazen lying. Despite player B's central role in determining whether a double was reported, modifying the incentive structure of either player A or player B had nearly identical effects on the frequency of reported doubles. Our results highlight the role of collaboration-particularly on equal terms-in shaping corruption. These findings fit a functional perspective on morality. When facing opposing moral sentiments-to be honest vs. to join forces in collaboration-people often opt for engaging in corrupt collaboration.

  20. The collaborative roots of corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Ori; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for completing tasks that individuals cannot accomplish alone. Whereas the benefits of cooperation are clear, little is known about its possible negative aspects. Introducing a novel sequential dyadic die-rolling paradigm, we show that collaborative settings provide fertile ground for the emergence of corruption. In the main experimental treatment the outcomes of the two players are perfectly aligned. Player A privately rolls a die, reports the result to player B, who then privately rolls and reports the result as well. Both players are paid the value of the reports if, and only if, they are identical (e.g., if both report 6, each earns €6). Because rolls are truly private, players can inflate their profit by misreporting the actual outcomes. Indeed, the proportion of reported doubles was 489% higher than the expected proportion assuming honesty, 48% higher than when individuals rolled and reported alone, and 96% higher than when lies only benefited the other player. Breaking the alignment in payoffs between player A and player B reduced the extent of brazen lying. Despite player B's central role in determining whether a double was reported, modifying the incentive structure of either player A or player B had nearly identical effects on the frequency of reported doubles. Our results highlight the role of collaboration—particularly on equal terms—in shaping corruption. These findings fit a functional perspective on morality. When facing opposing moral sentiments—to be honest vs. to join forces in collaboration—people often opt for engaging in corrupt collaboration. PMID:26261341

  1. What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Facundo Sepúlveda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the behavior of three objective measures of corruption: absolute corruption incidence, relative corruption incidence, and corruption rents. We present a theoretical model of bribery and investment in which these measures of corruption are defined and compared. We then study the changes that arise when key parameters of the model change and show that, under identical circumstances, the behavior of any particular corruption measure can differ completely from the beha...

  2. Parametric modeling for damped sinusoids from multiple channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Zhenhua; So, Hing Cheung; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    frequencies and damping factors are then computed with the multi-channel weighted linear prediction method. The estimated sinusoidal poles are then matched to each channel according to the extreme value theory of distribution of random fields. Simulations are performed to show the performance advantages......The problem of parametric modeling for noisy damped sinusoidal signals from multiple channels is addressed. Utilizing the shift invariance property of the signal subspace, the number of distinct sinusoidal poles in the multiple channels is first determined. With the estimated number, the distinct...... of the proposed multi-channel sinusoidal modeling methodology compared with existing methods....

  3. Current-phase relations and noise in rf biased SQUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.; Clark, T.D.; Buhrman, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of the weak link current-phase relation on noise in rf biased SQUIDs. Non-sinusoidal current-phase relations were observed in various weak links, and these non-sinusoidal relations were correlated with significantly increased intrinsic noise in the SQUID ring. The current-phase relation was also found to affect the amplitude of the rf SQUID ring dissipation. The result of an rf SQUID system noise analysis shows that, due to increased intrinsic noise and reduced ring dissipation, the minimum attainable noise for a SQUID ring having a very non-sinusoidal current-phase relation is considerably greater than for a ring with a sinusoidal relation

  4. Stochastic analysis/synthesis using sinusoidal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    This work proposes a method for re-synthesizing music for use in perceptual experiments regarding structural changes and in music creation. Atoms are estimated from music audio, modelled in a stochastic model, and re-synthesized from the model pa- rameters. The atoms are found by splitting...... sinusoids into short segments, and modelled into amplitude and envelope shape, frequency, time and duration. A simple model for creating envelopes with percussive, sustained or crescendo shape is presented. Single variable and joint probability density functions are created from the atom parameters and used...... to re-create sounds with the same distribution of the atoms parameters. A novel method for visualization music, the musigram, permits a better understanding of the re- synthesized sounds....

  5. Contextualizing Corruption: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to Studying Corruption in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanti Pertiwi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to establish how organization and management research, an extensive field that has contributed a great deal to research on corruption, could apply insights from other disciplines in order to advance the understanding of corruption, often considered as a form of unethical behavior in organizations. It offers an analysis of important contributions of corruption research, taking a ‘rationalist perspective’, and highlights the central tensions and debates within this vast body of literatures. It then shows how these debates can be addressed by applying insights from corruption studies, adopting anthropological lens. The paper thus proposes a cross-disciplinary approach, which focuses on studying corruption by looking at what it means to individuals implicated by the phenomenon while engaging in social relations and situated in different contexts. It also offers an alternative approach to the study of corruption amidst claims that anti-corruption efforts have failed to achieve desirable results.

  6. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  7. Corruption and political crisis in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Alexei; Bogun, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews issues of corruption and political crisis in Ukraine in the context of international organisations reports that estimate corruption levels and entrepreneurial climate worldwide. The article examines countries of the European Union and member states of the Customs Union, asseses the political crisis in Ukraine.

  8. Atypical Corruption at Institutions of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an incident involving twelve teachers at Anhui Haozhou Normal Junior College who used purchased dissertations to apply for professional titles over three consecutive years. Academic corruption is not merely today's problem, and the academic corruption at the institutions of higher learning that the author discloses in this…

  9. Political Corruption, Democratic Theory, and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Navot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to recent conceptual proposals, institutional corruption should be understood within the boundaries of the institution and its purpose. Political corruption in democracies, prominent scholars suggest, is characterized by the violation of institutional ideals or behaviors that tend to harm democratic processes and institutions. This paper rejects the idea that compromises, preferences, political agreements, or consent can be the baseline of conceptualization of political corruption. In order to improve the identification of abuse of power, the concept of political corruption should not be related directly to democratic institutions and processes; rather, it should be related to ideals whose content is independent of citizens’ preferences, institutions and processes. More specifically, I articulate the relations between political corruption and the notion of subjection, and include powerful citizens in the category of political corruption. Yet, I also suggest redefining under what conditions agents are culpable for their motivations in promoting private gain. By doing this, we better realize how democratic institutions can be the source of corruption and not just its victims. Such a redefinition, I propose finally, is the basis for the distinction between individual and institutional corruption.

  10. Independence requirements for anti-corruption institutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Court's approach and these apparent requirements are compared with current provisions for political 'independence' of anti-corruption agencies in Australia and Indonesia, raising, in particular, an assessment of the arguments for and against (a) the need for an anti-corruption investigative agency to be separate from ...

  11. Corruption of Prison Staff in Inmate Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Daniel; Fry, Lincoln J.

    1987-01-01

    Qualitative study of New Jersey State Prison (Sykes, 1956) concluded that authority of guards was corrupted by inmates. This study analyzed quantitative and qualitative research from three California prisons which supports Sykes' conclusion and agrees that reciprocity and default are factors in the corruption. (Author/NB)

  12. Political Corruption as Deformities of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Allard-Tremblay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conception of corruption informed by epistemic democratic theory. I first explain the view of corruption as a disease of the political body. Following this view, we have to consider the type of actions that debase a political entity of its constitutive principal in order to assess corruption. Accordingly, we need to consider what the constitutive principle of democracy is. This is the task I undertake in the second section where I explicate democratic legitimacy. I present democracy as a procedure of social inquiry about what ought to be done that includes epistemic and practical considerations. In the third section, I argue that the problem of corruption for a procedural conception of democracy is that the epistemic value of the procedure is diminished by corrupted agents’ lack of concern for truth. Corruption, according to this view, consists in two deformities of truth: lying and bullshit. These deformities corrupt since they conceal private interests under the guise of a concern for truth. In the fourth section, I discuss the difficulties a procedural account may face in formulating solutions to the problem of corruption.

  13. The Good Cause. Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; von Maravić, P.; Wagenaar, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    From conceptualization to ideas on practical policy recommendations, The Good Cause presents a state-of-the-art study on the causes of corruption. A cohort of internationally-recognized researchers from the various academic fields that study corruption come together to explain their different

  14. Corruption as a social-economic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejanović Radovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses corruption as a primarily socio-economic construction. This paper tests the hypothesis of corruption as a systemic problem. The system is (economic, political, legal the main source of corruption. There are, regarding to this, the system generators of corruption: state, property and market. They are the key institutions of society that are placed in a destructive political system, create corruption, which undermines the economic, political, legal and moral foundations of society. Corruption is the inevitable partner of administrative, bureaucratic, party, non-market societies, societies in which dominate monopoly on coercion and obligation (and the prohibition of coercion. Disorganized, monopolized markets and asymmetric information is also an important source of corruption. All this, in terms of the collective (public, government property, which is 'used as its own, and kept as others', on a system of vicious cycle, develop and rise corruption. Therefore, the system changes (reforms are necessary at all levels of government, and introduction of ethical standards in order to eradicate the causes of this social scourge.

  15. Corruption: A many-headed monster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. van der Walt

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of corruption poses a serious threat to our nation. This paper intends to investigate, apart from the various forms of corruption and our reactions to them, the causes of and the possible cures for this evil in our society.

  16. CORRUPTION AND MINORITY RIGHTS IN A DEMOCRATIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study discusses issues bordering on corruption, corrupt practices and monitory rights as articulated in the above play. This shall be achieved through the careful appraisal of the conflicts in The. Gods and the Scavengers, with particular attention to some specific characters and or group of characters, ...

  17. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  18. Corruption, fraud and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud are developing every year. Thus, the introduction of computerized accounting has created the opportunities to conduct very comprehensive tests at relatively little cost. However, the fraudsters became more and more clever, and the controllers are responsible for the prevention and detection of fraud. The procedures that controllers should adopt with regard to fraud depend on the risk that fraud could occur and remain undetected and also the risk of that fraud impairing the truth and fairness of the statement.

  19. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  20. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. Do Corruption Measures Have a Perception Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    How well do corruption perception measures reflect actual levels of public sector corruption? Leading cross-national corruption perception measures have come under much theoretical and empirical scrutiny in recent years, with serious implications for the validity and reliability of the data...... in this ever growing sub-field. Critics argue that perceptions – in particular those of outside experts – do not reflect actual corruption in that they are far too ‘noisy’ or simply biased by external factors such as economic performance. Moreover, a number of recent empirical studies, focused on developing...... areas, have put forth evidence that outside expert assessments of corruption correspond little, if at all, with the experiences and views of actual citizens, and that such a lack of correspondence demonstrates pessimism for existing perception measures. This study offers a systematic analysis...

  2. Corruption and the Securitisation of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob White

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers corruption in Australia in relation to the exploitation and preservation of natural resources. In doing so, it examines issues pertaining to a proposed pulp mill and the forestry industry in Tasmania, the development of mining and ports in Queensland, and international agreements pertaining to deep-sea oil drilling in the Timor Sea. Corruption relating to the environment is interpreted in this article as implying both moral corruption and/or direct corruption. Gaining unfair advantage, protecting specific sectoral interests and over-riding existing environmental regulations are all features of the types of corruption associated with the exploitation of natural resources. The result is lack of transparency, a substantial democratic deficit, and expenditure of public monies, time and resources in support of environmentally and socially dubious activities.

  3. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  4. Variable Dimension Trellis-Coded Quantization of Sinusoidal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Holm; Christensen, Mads G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we propose joint quantization of the parameters of a set of sinusoids based on the theory of trellis-coded quantization. A particular advantage of this approach is that it allows for joint quantization of a variable number of sinusoids, which is particularly relevant in variable...

  5. An Archeology of Corruption in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Miles; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian

    2018-07-01

    Corruption is a word used loosely to describe many kinds of action that people find distasteful. We prefer to reserve it for the intentional misuse of the good offices of an established social entity for private benefit, posing as fair trading. The currency of corruption is not always material or financial. Moral corruption is all too familiar within churches and other ostensibly beneficent institutions, and it happens within medicine and the pharmaceutical industries. Corrupt behavior reduces trust, costs money, causes injustice, and arouses anger. Yet it persists, despite all efforts since the beginnings of societies. People who act corruptly may lack conscience and empathy in the same way as those with some personality disorders. Finding ways to prevent corruption from contaminating beneficent organizations is therefore likely to be frustratingly difficult. Transparency and accountability may go some way, but the determined corruptor is unlikely to feel constrained by moral and reporting requirements of this kind. Punishment and redress are complicated issues, unlikely to satisfy victims and society at large. Both perhaps should deal in the same currency-material or social-in which the corrupt dealing took place.

  6. Corruption in Mexico: A Historical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Nieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the many consequences of colonialism that are still present in postcolonial societies are corruption and the lack of strong institutions to fight against this phenomenon. What used to be unequal power relations between the colonizers and the colonies have been replaced by the dominance of the local elites over ordinary citizens, who have practically given the former a lot of leeway to commit acts of corruption with a sense of impunity and without regard for accountability. One case in point is Mexico which, in recent times, has made international news headlines because of incidences of drug trafficking, violence, and corruption in the country. This article delineates the historical relationship between corruption and colonialism, and how these forces have shaped Mexican culture. The discussion tackles the presence of corruption since the colonial times to the present. Specif ically, it starts with an analysis of the role of colonialism in the incidence of corruption. Secondly, it describes the discrepancy between the law and its application, from the arrival of the Spanish colonizers to the present. Finally, it examines the cultural, educational, and social challenges that should be addressed in order to surmount the colonial legacies that breed corruption.

  7. The 3-D alignment of objects in dynamic PET scans using filtered sinusoidal trajectories of sinogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostopoulos, Aristotelis E.; Happonen, Antti P.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    In this study, our goal is to employ a novel 3-D alignment method for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Because the acquired data (i.e. sinograms) often contain noise considerably, filtering of the data prior to the alignment presumably improves the final results. In this study, we utilized a novel 3-D stackgram domain approach. In the stackgram domain, the signals along the sinusoidal trajectory signals of the sinogram can be processed separately. In this work, we performed angular stackgram domain filtering by employing well known 1-D filters: the Gaussian low-pass filter and the median filter. In addition, we employed two wavelet de-noising techniques. After filtering we performed alignment of objects in the stackgram domain. The local alignment technique we used is based on similarity comparisons between locus vectors (i.e. the signals along the sinusoidal trajectories of the sinogram) in a 3-D neighborhood of sequences of the stackgrams. Aligned stackgrams can be transformed back to sinograms (Method 1), or alternatively directly to filtered back-projected images (Method 2). In order to evaluate the alignment process, simulated data with different kinds of additive noises were used. The results indicated that the filtering prior to the alignment can be important concerning the accuracy

  8. Sallust's Account of Corruption and Its Western Accomplices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ruler got in the Roman senate a viral school of bribery. Interestingly, the episode of corruption ended when the will of the corrupt Roman senators was thwarted. Therefore, mitigating corruption could begin from the West that hosts its influential accomplices. Key words: Africa, Corruption, Sallust, Western Collaborators ...

  9. How Taxing is Corruption on International Investors?

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Jin Wei

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of corruption on foreign direct investment. The sample covers bilateral investment from fourteen source countries to forty-five host countries during 1990-91. There are three central findings. (1) A rise in either the tax rate on multinational firms or the corruption level in a host country reduces inward foreign direct investment (FDI). An increase in the corruption level from that of Singapore to that of Mexico is equivalent to raising the tax rate by over twen...

  10. Corruption, Trust and their Public Sector Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Scott A.; Serritzlew, Søren; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Corruption and trust are two important determinants of the quality of public sectors. Empirical studies in different literatures suggest that corruption and trust have effects on factors such as economic growth, the quality of democratic institutions, life quality, the size and effectiveness....... The aim is to show that these two concepts are highly relevant to each other, and that their interconnections are important to understand the public sector consequences of corruption and trust. By focusing on these concepts, we hope that this special issue can pave the road for further comparative...

  11. A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Desainte-Catherine

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.

  12. Signal recovery of the corrupted metal impact signal using the adaptive filtering in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dai Il; Shin, Won Ky; Oh, Sung Hun; Yun, Won Young

    1995-01-01

    Loose Part Monitoring System (LPMS) is one of the fundamental diagnostic tools installed in the nuclear power plants. In this paper, recovery process algorithm and model for the corrupted impact signal generated by loose parts is presented. The characteristics of this algorithm can obtain a proper burst signal even though background noise is considerably high level comparing with actual impact signal. To verify performance of the proposed algorithm, we evaluate mathematically signal-to-noise ratio of primary output and noise. The performance of this recovery process algorithm is shown through computer simulation

  13. Corruption Cases Mapping Based on Indonesia’s Corruption Perception Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerlina; Wulandhari, L. A.; Sasmoko; Muqsith, A. M.; Alamsyah, M.

    2017-01-01

    Government plays an important role in nation economic growth. Nevertheless, there are still many occurrences of government officers abusing their offices to do an act of corruption. In this order, the central government should pay attention to every area in the nation to avoid corruption case. Meanwhile, the news media always constantly preach about corruption case, this makes the news media relevant for being one of the sources of measurement of corruption perception index (CPI). It is required to map the corruption case in Indonesia so the central government can pay attention to every region in Indonesia. To develop the mapping system, researchers use Naïve Bayes Classifier to classify which news articles talk about corruption and which news articles are not, before implementing a Naïve Bayes Classifier there are some text processing such as tokenizing, stopping, and stemming.

  14. Uncovering High-Level Corruption: Cross-National Objective Corruption Risk Indicators Using Public Procurement Data

    OpenAIRE

    Fazekas, Mihaly; Kocsis, G

    2017-01-01

    Measuring high-level corruption is subject to extensive scholarly and policy interest, which has achieved moderate progress in the last decade. This article develops two objective proxy measures of high-level corruption in public procurement: single bidding in competitive markets and a composite score of tendering ‘red flags’. Using official government data on 2.8 million contracts in twenty-eight European countries in 2009–14, we directly operationalize a common definition of corruption: unj...

  15. THE POLICY OF GRANTING REMISSION TO CORRUPTION INMATES IN ORDER TO ERADICATE CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    M Ali Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    Corruption is an extraordinary crime, even though the laws have been revised and has a more progressive character has also established Anti-Corruption Commission the number of crimes of corruption still do not show any significant change. In the midst of public pessimism, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights has initiated efforts to revise the Government Regulation Number 99 Year 2012. The tightening of remission meant that the convict is not easy to get their sentences reduced. Attempts ...

  16. Sensorless optimal sinusoidal brushless direct current for hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, C. S.; Bi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Initiated by the availability of digital signal processors and emergence of new applications, market demands for permanent magnet synchronous motors have been surging. As its back-emf is sinusoidal, the drive current should also be sinusoidal for reducing the torque ripple. However, in applications like hard disk drives, brushless direct current (BLDC) drive is adopted instead of sinusoidal drive for simplification. The adoption, however, comes at the expense of increased harmonics, losses, torque pulsations, and acoustics. In this paper, we propose a sensorless optimal sinusoidal BLDC drive. First and foremost, the derivation for an optimal sinusoidal drive is presented, and a power angle control scheme is proposed to achieve an optimal sinusoidal BLDC. The scheme maintains linear relationship between the motor speed and drive voltage. In an attempt to execute the sensorless drive, an innovative power angle measurement scheme is devised, which takes advantage of the freewheeling diodes and measures the power angle through the detection of diode voltage drops. The objectives as laid out will be presented and discussed in this paper, supported by derivations, simulations, and experimental results. The proposed scheme is straightforward, brings about the benefits of sensorless sinusoidal drive, negates the need for current sensors by utilizing the freewheeling diodes, and does not incur additional cost.

  17. THE POLICY OF GRANTING REMISSION TO CORRUPTION INMATES IN ORDER TO ERADICATE CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Zaidan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is an extraordinary crime, even though the laws have been revised and has a more progressive character has also established Anti-Corruption Commission the number of crimes of corruption still do not show any significant change. In the midst of public pessimism, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights has initiated efforts to revise the Government Regulation Number 99 Year 2012. The tightening of remission meant that the convict is not easy to get their sentences reduced. Attempts to revise the provisions concerning remission, it should consider how far can reduce corruption and its impact on inmates and the public

  18. An assessment of the ethical dimensions that impact on corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Napal, Geetanee

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the ethical dimensions of corruption. Corruption in the form of bribery is widespread in the developing world and this includes Mauritius. Corruption assessed in absolute terms is unethical. However, if one were to use relativistic views, one would make allowances for ‘mild’ forms of corruption like seeking favours to obtain unwarranted advantages or paying bribes in the form of ‘speed-up gratuities’. Our study shows that in many contexts, acts of corruption are acc...

  19. On Self Selection of the Corrupt into the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Baul, Tushi; Rosenblat, Tanya

    Do corrupt people self select themselves in professions where the scope of corruption is high? We conduct a corruption experiment with private sector job aspirants and aspirants of Indian bureaucracy. The game models embezzlement of resources in which “supervisors” evaluate the performance of “wo...... of “workers” and then pay them. We find that aspirant bureaucrats indulge in more corruption than private sector aspirants but the likelihood of being corrupt is same across two sectors....

  20. The transition of corruption: From poverty to honesty

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Erich; Paldam, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Measures of corruption and income are highly correlated across countries. We use prehistoric measures of biogeography as instruments for modern income levels to identify an exogenous long-run income effect. We find that our corruption-free incomes explain the cross-country pattern of corruption just as well as actual incomes. This result suggests that the long-run causality is exclusively from income to corruption. As countries get rich, corruption vanishes and there is a transition of corrup...

  1. The Effects of Corruption in a Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Fortuny, Judit

    2015-01-01

    Many countries around the world suffer from corruption. In a monetary union, corruption varies from one country to another. It is possible corruption in one country may affect another country in a monetary union. We demonstrate that this feature has important implications in a monetary union with two asymmetric countries. Country 1 has a corrupted government while country 2 does not. Within this framework, we determine under which conditions corruption damages or benefits both countr...

  2. Can corruption favour growth via the composition of government spending?

    OpenAIRE

    Sugata Ghosh; Andros Gregoriou

    2010-01-01

    In an endogenous growth model with two public goods, we analytically derive the optimal composition of government spending in the presence of corruption. Although corruption results in a loss of productivity per se, an increase in corruption in the category of public spending that is harmed relatively more by corruption could have a favourable effect on growth, as it would encourage a benevolent government to divert spending towards the public good that is more productive, net of corruption.

  3. The effectiveness of anti-corruption policy: the Singapore experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu MANOLE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a problem that needs to be dealt with in both the public and private sectors. Singapore has adopted a comprehensive approach in tackling corruption in both sectors for a long time. The anti‐ corruption successes of Singapore have encouraged the establishment of strong, centralized anti‐corruption agencies across the globe. In this article, it is accentuated the importance of the effectiveness of anti-corruption policy in the general context of public administration in Singapore.

  4. Corruption Around the World: Causes, Consequences, Scope, and Cures

    OpenAIRE

    Vito Tanzi

    1998-01-01

    Corruption is attracting a lot of attention around the world. This paper surveys and discusses issues related to the causes, consequences, and scope of corruption, and possible corrective actions. It emphasizes the costs of corruption in terms of economic growth. It also emphasizes that the fight against corruption may not be cheap and cannot be independent from the reform of the state. If certain reforms are not made, corruption is likely to continue to be a problem regardless of actions dir...

  5. Understanding Tax Corruption in Transition Economies: Evidence from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Pashev, Konstantin

    2006-01-01

    Measures of corruption are based on the concept of bribes as extra business costs. Drawing evidence from corruption surveys of business and tax service in Bulgaria, this paper looks at the bribe as a price paid by the taxpayer in exchange for income-maximizing services supplied by corrupt tax officials. It distinguishes between corruption for tax evasion and corruption related to excessive voluntary compliance costs. The latter is closer to the concept of bribes as costs imposed on business, ...

  6. Causes of Corruption in Russia: A Disaggregated Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Belousova, Veronika; Rajeev, K. Goel; Korhonen, Iikka

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of corruption across Russian regions. Key contributions include: (i) a formal study of economic corruption determinants across Russian regions; (ii) comparisons of determinants of perceived corruption versus those of actual corruption; and (iii) studying the influence of market competition and other factors on corruption. The results show that economic prosperity, population, market competition and urbanization are significant determinants of Russian corruptio...

  7. Tax corruption and private sector development in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Doan, Quang Hung; Tran-Nam, Binh

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to examine the impact of tax corruption on private sector development in Vietnam. It is motivated by two separate but related considerations. First, despite the seriousness of the phenomenon of corruption, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research of corruption, particularly tax corruption, in Vietnam. Secondly, ineffective control of corruption is viewed as a cause of Vietnam’s recent total factor productivity (TFP) slowdown or its poor industrial policy, both of wh...

  8. Defibrotide: An Oligonucleotide for Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, May T; Kakadiya, Payal P; Kush, Samantha M; Weigel, Kylie; Lowe, Denise K

    2018-02-01

    To review the efficacy and safety of defibrotide as well as its pharmacology, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics (PK), drug-drug interactions, dosing, cost considerations, and place in therapy. A PubMed search was performed through August 2017 using the terms defibrotide, oligonucleotide, hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Other data sources were from references of identified studies, review articles, and conference abstracts plus manufacturer product labeling and website, the Food and Drug Administration website, and clinicaltrials.gov. English-language trials that examined defibrotide's pharmacodynamics, mechanism, PK, efficacy, safety, dosing, and cost-effectiveness were included. Trials have confirmed the safety and efficacy of defibrotide for treatment of VOD/SOS in adult and pediatric HCT patients, with complete response rates and day +100 overall survival rates ranging from 25.5% to 76% and 35% to 64%, respectively. The British Committee for Standards in Haematology/British Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Guidelines recommend defibrotide prophylaxis in pediatric and adult HCT patients with risk factors for VOD/SOS; however, its prophylactic use in the United States is controversial. Although there are efficacy data to support this strategy, cost-effectiveness data have not shown it to be cost-effective. Defibrotide has manageable toxicities, with low rates of grade 3 to 4 adverse effects. Defibrotide is the first medication approved in the United States for the treatment of adults and children with hepatic VOD/SOS, with renal or pulmonary dysfunction following HCT. Data evaluating defibrotide for VOD/SOS prevention are conflicting and have not shown cost-effectiveness.

  9. Sinusoidal Analysis-Synthesis of Audio Using Perceptual Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Ted; Spanias, Andreas

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new method for the selection of sinusoidal components for use in compact representations of narrowband audio. The method consists of ranking and selecting the most perceptually relevant sinusoids. The idea behind the method is to maximize the matching between the auditory excitation pattern associated with the original signal and the corresponding auditory excitation pattern associated with the modeled signal that is being represented by a small set of sinusoidal parameters. The proposed component-selection methodology is shown to outperform the maximum signal-to-mask ratio selection strategy in terms of subjective quality.

  10. A PRACTICAL-THEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON CORRUPTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of practical theology in an attempt to address the issue of corruption. Finally, one ... and ethical behavior is becoming a relative, intellectualised concept, the question .... business and politics, and a closed culture within government. However,.

  11. CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA: A CULTURE OR RETROGRESSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    and economic phenomenon that affect all facets and the fabric of. Nigerian society. ... ethnic resistant to change, gender inequality, political corruption and the reckless misuse ..... man and the priest who took the bribe died in a mysterious fire.

  12. ETHICS in GOVERNMENT: ANTI-CORRUPTION MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Can Aktan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unethicalbehavior in government is viewed as a situation where there isfraudulent or dishonest conduct or improper behaviour by people who are in aposition or power. Bribery, extortion, embezzlement,the use of legislated powersby government officials for illegitimate private gain, nepotism, rent seeking etc.are some examples forunethical behavior in government.How to deal with unethical behavior in government?. How to curb corruption?Experience demonstrates that establishing an ethical government is not an easytask. There is no single approach to curb (political corruption effectively. Instead,controlling (political corruption requires a wide range of strategies.Thisdescriptive survey aims to explore the anti-corruptions measures in general.

  13. Korean nuclear industry hit by corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Bin

    2013-12-01

    After a four-month investigation, a court in South Korea has indicted 100 officials and suppliers on corruption charges over bogus safety certifications for parts that were supplied to some of the country's 23 nuclear reactors.

  14. MAINSTREAMING CORRUPTION POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolaade Omede

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an outline of Nigeria’s experience on corruption in the context of poverty and Development. It discusses the effects of corruption which are rooted in the political and economic situation of the polity. The challenge of corruption is at the root of our underdevelopment .It has become so pervasive that many essential public projects for which vast sums of money have been paid to concerned contractors have been abandoned. And when such public projects have been completed, their costs are always higher in comparison with the costs of similar projects in other countries. In Nigeria corruption stifle economic growth, reduce economic efficiency and development despite the enormous resources in the country. It depends essentially on data from secondary sources such as books, journal articles, government publications, among other relevant documents. The data were analyzed qualitatively using the descriptive analytical method in order to achieve the primary objective of the paper.

  15. Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... While taxation definitely stimulated economic activities in Igbominaland at ...

  16. fighting military corruption in latin america

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    in corrupt military institutions to move towards an ethical role-modelling environment. ... transparency, according to Klaus9) is not surviving the hard facts and media reports ..... has authority linked to rank; relies on one-way communication –.

  17. History gone wrong: Rousseau on corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupa Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It can be said that Rousseau is one of the most acute thinkers of the corruption of civilization. In fact, the Second Discourse and the Essay on the Origins of Languages could be read as elaborate analyses of advanc­ing social and cultural decline inasmuch as mankind is continually moving away from the original state of natural innocence. But Rousseau’s idea of corruption is not straightforward. I try to show that in the Essay, Rousseau emphasizes the natural causes for corruption. I argue that an opposition between necessity and contingency, which more accurately represents the two modes operating in Rousseau’s doctrine, should replace the standard nature/culture divide. The contingency of natural catastrophes is found to be ultimately responsible for the corruption in the social realm, which is therefore largely driven by natural causes.

  18. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Gupta

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that high and rising corruption increases income inequality and poverty by reducing economic growth, the progressivity of the tax system, the level and effectiveness of social spending, and the formation of human capital, and by perpetuating an unequal distribution of asset ownership and unequal access to education. These findings hold for countries with different growth experiences, at different stages of development, and using various indices of corruption. An import...

  19. Careers, Connections and Corruption Risks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Dahlström, Carl; Fazekas, Mihály

    the interplay between politics and bureaucracy. It suggests that corruption risks are minimized when the two groups involved in decision-making on public contracts—politicians and bureau-crats—have known different interests. This is institutionalized when politicians are accountable to the electorate, while.......4 million procurement contracts. Both show a remarkable sub-national variation across Europe. The study finds corruption risks significantly lower where bureau-crats’ careers do not depend on political connections....

  20. Fighting corruption with cultural dynamics: when legal-origins, religious-influences and existing corruption-control levels matter

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2012-01-01

    Are there different determinants in the fight against corruption across developing countries? Why are some countries more effective at battling corruption than others? To investigate these concerns we examine the determinants of corruption-control throughout the conditional distribution of the fight against corruption using panel data from 46 African countries for the period 2002-2010. Our findings demonstrate that blanket corruption-control policies are unlikely to succeed equally across c...

  1. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasszauer, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect.

  2. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church.

  3. CORRUPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA: GENESIS AND OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in South Africa includes the private use of public resources, bribery and improper favouritism. South Africa scored 45 points out of 100 on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International. Corruption Index in South Africa averaged 46.97 Points from 1996 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of 56.80 Points in 1996 and a record low of 41 Points in 2011. A tenderpreneur is common corruption in South Africa. It is an individual who enriches themselves through corrupting the awarding of government tender contracts, mostly based on personal connections and corrupt relationships - although outright bribery might also take place - and sometimes involving an elected or politically appointed official (or his or her family members holding simultaneous business interests. This is often accompanied by overcharging and shoddy workmanship. BEE-fronting is an abuse of the rules governing Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, where qualifying persons are given a seat on the Board of Directors of a company while having no decision-making power in the company, in order to qualify the company for government contracts in terms of BEE.

  4. Decision-Based Marginal Total Variation Diffusion for Impulsive Noise Removal in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive noise removal for color images usually employs vector median filter, switching median filter, the total variation L1 method, and variants. These approaches, however, often introduce excessive smoothing and can result in extensive visual feature blurring and thus are suitable only for images with low density noise. A marginal method to reduce impulsive noise is proposed in this paper that overcomes this limitation that is based on the following facts: (i each channel in a color image is contaminated independently, and contaminative components are independent and identically distributed; (ii in a natural image the gradients of different components of a pixel are similar to one another. This method divides components into different categories based on different noise characteristics. If an image is corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise, the components are divided into the corrupted and the noise-free components; if the image is corrupted by random-valued impulses, the components are divided into the corrupted, noise-free, and the possibly corrupted components. Components falling into different categories are processed differently. If a component is corrupted, modified total variation diffusion is applied; if it is possibly corrupted, scaled total variation diffusion is applied; otherwise, the component is left unchanged. Simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  5. Hidden foreign trade and corruption on customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Богдан Миколайович Головкін

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA, the volume of the "shadow" economy in Ukraine is 1.1 trillion hryvnias or 45.1 % of the gross domestic product. Estimates of the Federation of Employers of Ukraine show that only 50 % of payments to the state budget comes from the clearance of goods, while the rest comprise a corruption component of 40 billion UAH for a year. Much of the large companies move non-declared goods across the state border and do not pay taxes. However, at the official level in Ukraine, it is still not accepted to talk about the servicing of the shadow foreign trade by the customs administration and the collection of corrupt rents from illegal trade in the state. Understanding the essence of the problem gives grounds to assert that the corruption risks in the work of customs are laid down in imperfect customs legislation, high tariff rates of duties and taxes, discrete powers of customs inspectors, the regime of customs procedures in the customs control zone, low level of their automation and physical contact of declarants from customs officers. In the customs case, the main type of corruption is bribery and abuse of influence related to the assistance of illegal and criminal activity in the foreign economic sphere. Subjects of foreign economic activity reduce costs and receive revenues through customs fraud or smuggling. Without corruption, this activity is impossible. On the illegal movement of goods and vehicles, smuggling and counterfeiting through the customs border, a criminal corruption business was created for all bodies and services that carry out various types of state control and law enforcement activities in the customs sphere. The most profitable are corruption schemes related to the illegal import / export of three groups of highly liquid products: tobacco products, counterfeit IT products, petroleum products, cars with foreign registration. For an independent study, illegal

  6. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Heljä; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antti

    2002-09-01

    Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. Contrast energy thresholds (E(th)) were measured for flicker at 1.25 to 20 Hz in strong, purely temporal (spatially uniform), additive, external noise. The masking power of white external noise, characterized by its spectral density at zero frequency N0, increases with the duration of the noise frame. For short noise frame durations, E(th) increased in direct proportion to N0, keeping the nominal signal-to-noise ratio [SNR = (E(th)/N0)(0.5)] constant at threshold. The masking effect thus increased with the duration of the noise frame and the noise mimicked white noise. When noise frame duration and N0 increased further, the nominal SNR at threshold started to decrease, indicating that noise no longer mimicked white noise. The minimum number of noise frames per flicker cycle needed to mimic white noise decreased with increasing flicker frequency from 8.3 at 1.25 Hz to 1.6 at 20 Hz. The critical high-frequency cutoff of detection-limiting temporal noise in terms of noise frames per signal cycle depends on the temporal frequency of the signal. This is opposite to the situation in the spatial domain and must be taken into consideration when temporal signals are masked with temporal noise.

  7. Adaptive Feedforward Cancellation of Sinusoidal Disturbances in Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kandil, T H; Hartung, W; Khalil, H; Popielarski, J; Vincent, J; York, R C

    2004-01-01

    A control method, known as adaptive feedforward cancellation (AFC) is applied to damp sinusoidal disturbances due to microphonics in superconducting RF (SRF) cavities. AFC provides a method for damping internal, and external sinusoidal disturbances with known frequencies. It is preferred over other schemes because it uses rudimentary information about the frequency response at the disturbance frequencies, without the necessity of knowing an analytic model (transfer function) of the system. It estimates the magnitude and phase of the sinusoidal disturbance inputs and generates a control signal to cancel their effect. AFC, along with a frequency estimation process, is shown to be very successful in the cancellation of sinusoidal signals from different sources. The results of this research may significantly reduce the power requirements and increase the stability for lightly loaded continuous-wave SRF systems.

  8. Asymptotic Theory of the Least Squares Estimators of Sinusoidal Signal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kundu, Debasis

    1997-01-01

    ... normality are derived for the sinusoidal signal under the assumption of normal error (Kundu; 1993) and under the assumptions of independent and identically distributed random variables in Kundu and Mitra...

  9. Corruption - a Relevant Factor in the International Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George DIMOFTE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is divided into small low-level corruption and high-level corruption. Small level little corruption is defined as the area of corruption which does not prejudice the interests of the majority of individuals. This category can be covered by a health care professional, the corruption of a clerk, etc through their decisions is an individual or group of individuals at the expense of others, but this kind of injustice is limited in time and space. Corruption, means high-level corruption of a dignitary, clerk, etc. This kind of corruption and the main effect over the entire State characteristic and the individuals who compose it. The consequences of this kind of corruption can translate into direct and indirect costs that will be supported in the end by all taxpayers. The objectives of corruption are double: profit and power. The international economic crisis has its origin in the manifestations of high level corruption in the governments of different countries. All the state now have to fight against corruption in order to settle new rules to avoid the effects af the crisis and to prevent a deepening of this crisis with devastating effects upon tha population. Here we try to emphasize the importance that we all should give corruption and measures had to be taken by everyone.

  10. ECG De-noising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kevin; Jensen, Søren Hjøllund; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a widely used noninvasive method to study the rhythmic activity of the heart and thereby to detect the abnormalities. However, these signals are often obscured by artifacts from various sources and minimization of these artifacts are of paramount important. This paper...... proposes two adaptive techniques, namely the EEMD-BLMS (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition in conjunction with the Block Least Mean Square algorithm) and DWT-NN (Discrete Wavelet Transform followed by Neural Network) methods in minimizing the artifacts from recorded ECG signals, and compares...... their performance. These methods were first compared on two types of simulated noise corrupted ECG signals: Type-I (desired ECG+noise frequencies outside the ECG frequency band) and Type-II (ECG+noise frequencies both inside and outside the ECG frequency band). Subsequently, they were tested on real ECG recordings...

  11. China's Land Market Auctions: Evidence of Corruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongbin; Henderson, J Vernon; Zhang, Qinghua

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the urban land market in China in 2003-2007. In China, all urban land is owned by the state. Leasehold use rights for land for (re)development are sold by city governments and are a key source of city revenue. Leasehold sales are viewed as a major venue for corruption, prompting a number of reforms over the years. Reforms now require all leasehold rights be sold at public auction. There are two main types of auction: regular English auction and an unusual type which we call a "two stage auction". The latter type of auction seems more subject to corruption, and to side deals between potential bidders and the auctioneer. Absent corruption, theory suggests that two stage auctions would most likely maximize sales revenue for properties which are likely to have relatively few bidders, or are "cold", which would suggest negative selection on property unobservables into such auctions. However, if such auctions are more corruptible, that could involve positive selection as city officials divert hotter properties to a more corruptible auction form. The paper finds that, overall, sales prices are lower for two stage auctions, and there is strong evidence of positive selection. The price difference is explained primarily by the fact that two stage auctions typically have just one bidder, or no competition despite the vibrant land market in Chinese cities.

  12. Complex diffusion process for noise reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Barari, A.

    2014-01-01

    equations (PDEs) in image restoration and de-noising prompted many researchers to search for an improvement in the technique. In this paper, a new method is presented for signal de-noising, based on PDEs and Schrodinger equations, named as complex diffusion process (CDP). This method assumes that variations...... for signal de-noising. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a number of experiments have been performed using Sinusoid, multi-component and FM signals cluttered with noise. The results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the approaches for signal de-noising known in prior art....

  13. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2)= 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.valueCorruption Perception Index (p.valuecorruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  14. Bureaucracy and Corruption in Public Sector Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bureaucracy and corruption represent major causes of fiscal crises, and structural unemployment all over the world. According to WEF 2014 Global Risk Report, the bureaucracy has a high level in European countries and appreciation is growing that high historical rates of economic progress, especially those experienced by emerging markets, may not be sustainable in the future.  Corruption is growing in a changing global environment and is considered one of the most important geopolitical risks. Most of the time, corruption is associated with fraud and money laundering. European growing cities and public administration have a strong influence over bureaucracy in public sector accounting and more time to process the accounting and fiscal information.

  15. Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for Nigeria: a reflection on Ola Rotimi's Our husband has gone mad again. ... The corrupt tendencies of this select few, which come in various forms, have ... from 32 Countries:.

  16. The Economic Cost of Corruption: A Survey and New Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreher, A.; Herzfeld, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the economic costs of corruption. Corruption affects economic growth, the level of GDP per capita, investment activity, international trade and price stability negatively. Additionally, it biases the composition of government expenditures. The second

  17. EFFECT OF POLITICAL LEADERSHIP ON THE CORRUPTION IN THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VORONOV Oleksandr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has led to the fact that corruption in one country can affect the situation in other states. A number of top managers worldwide who are willing to pay bribes to keep or expand their business is increasing. However, the most common and dangerous corruption is in the government structures and corruption that associated with the use of administrative resources. The level of corruption in Ukraine is very high and remained stable for the past ten years. One of the factors of increasing corruption in Ukraine is considered the problem of political leadership. Using the Y.Engvalya theory of corruption allows re-evaluating mass and rationality of what is happening, indicates the fallacy of traditionally definition of corruption as unacceptable for majority. Existing corruption model today can be recognized as a widespread one, which significantly increases the role of political leadership. Implementation of new management standards is an important task for many states.

  18. Corrupción pública/Public corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Patricia Espinosa Leal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain what you meant by corruption, expose theories, analyze the classifications, manifest expressions of public corruption and institutional review and Mexican federal law used to fight against it.

  19. IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON FARM PRODUCTION AND PROFIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Reza Anik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing experiences of 210 rice farmers belonging to six villages of six different districts in Bangladesh this article estimates the impact of corruption on farm production and profit. Unlike existing literature corruption here is defined in broader term. Both explicit and implicit cost items are included while calculating the cost of corruption. Through estimating the marginal physical product of fertilizer, a relative impact of corruption on farm production is estimated. Then by hypothesizing different scenarios with different levels of corruption, changes in a farmer's benefit cost ratio is estimated. It has been observed that with reducing cost of corruption farmers observe higher benefit cost ratio and vice versa. Cost of corruption is found to be relatively higher in restricted input market situation and relatively lower when the market is more competitive. Thus our results are suggestive for competitive market policy to reduce corruption which will ultimately result in more farm production and profit.

  20. Accountability and Corruption in Argentina During the Kirchners’ Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzetti, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    centralized authority in the name of expanding government intervention in the economy. In both cases, corruption has tended to go unchecked due to insufficient government accountability. Therefore, although economic policies and political rhetoric have changed dramatically, government corruption remains...

  1. FUSION OF ANTI–CORRUPTION AGENCIES IN NIGERIA: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Act,13 corruption is defined to include: ... duty and the rights of others; a fiduciary's or official's use of a station or ... manipulation of the voters register, the falsification of election results and other.

  2. 45 CORRUPTION, THE STATE AND THE CHALLENGE OF SOCIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    development theory which focuses mainly on socio-economic factors. Another approach ... corruption and the social instability that plagues the country. A healthier ... Corruption, the State and the Challenge of Social Stability in Nigeria - Rev.

  3. ANTI-CORRUPTION MEASURES FOR CORPORATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate security should commit to ethical management and raising the quality of companies and markets through improving cooperation and transparency by applying anticorruption measures such as accepting a code of ethics; respect and follow international business principles for dealing with bribery; improve their transparency - via access to information; involvement in politics to protect persons who disclose corruption cases; and improving corporate governance - through active mutual discussions on adjustment of legal regulations. Research methods used in the paper are: qualitative analysis of secondary data obtained from relevant institutions. Results obtained from the survey include fighting corruption in corporations must find a unique solution that is long-term strategy developed transparent society crucial criteria and principles to meet the political criteria by the fulfillment of anti-corruption standards; it requires continuous cooperation of public and private sector, NGOs and the general corpus of all stakeholders in the country against corruption; the lack of a legal framework or platform for establishing public and private partnerships, is an important factor for anti-corruption measures to improve corporate governance; mechanisms for cooperation does not seem sufficiently developed between the public, private, political and civil society; the most important factor to tackle corruption is to adopt a law on public prosecutors and determination of higher norms and standards. Conclusions drawn from the survey: in the area of pre-trial procedure requires shifting responsibilities of Interior Ministry body training in the area of the judicial system; it is necessary to change the Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code by changing certain legal provisions which refer to the Agency for money laundering SCCP, a financial police and overall legislation.

  4. Forms of corruption in the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper continues the story of corruption as a socially harmful phenomenon that affected all societies, from ancient times, through mediaeval times, to modern age. Although the concept of corruption changed in the course of history, the essence has remained the same: it encompasses the abuse of power, corruption, bribery, and offering gratuities in exchange for favors. We shall here focus on the manifestations of corruption in the Middle Ages, the period which coincided with the feudal socio-economic formation, both in its western European variety and in the Byzantine type of feudal society. In the twelfth century, the Byzantine emperors introduced the practice of granting property in land or some other source of income - pronoia - to prominent individuals as a reward for their merits. In contrast, what could be observed from the very beginning in barbarian countries, which were established in the territory of the former Western Roman Empire, were the classic vassal relations, where a fief presented the foundation of the medieval social order; it was land property which the feudal lord (suzerain granted to his vassals (military commanders and units to enjoy, manage, but not control independently. By giving land property - a pronoia or fief to a pronoiario or vassal, the feudal lord (suzerain, in a way, 'bought' their personal loyalty. Particularly conductive to corruption was the hierarchically arranged and ramified bureaucratic apparatus of the mediaeval state. Although the Byzantine highest-ranking bureaucracy was paid for their work, their arbitrariness, bribery, coarseness, and incompetence resulted in strengthening corruption. On the other hand, the greatest influence on the kings in the barbaric mediaeval states was exerted by their commanders (dukes and entourage, who often selfishly abused the benefits bestowed upon them by the kings. Polybius' statement that 'the government has made people prone to bribery and greedy' proved to be

  5. Noise suppression by noise

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, J. M. G. (José M. G.), 1972-; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  6. Religion, culture and political corruption in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhikru A. Yagboyaju

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For so long, development theories and practices have either deliberately neglected or simply overlooked the possible interconnections between religion, culture and the attainment of development goals. Against this background, this article reviews the literature on corruption, as a major factor of underdevelopment in Nigeria, particularly as it relates to religion and culture in the country. In its analysis, this article argues that corruption in Nigeria, especially in view of the country’s multi-ethnic and multi-religious status, must be conceived as a phenomenon transcending legal, political and economic boundaries. The study adopts an interpretative and descriptive methodology for its analysis.

  7. Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estache, Antonio; Goicoechea, Ana; Trujillo, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)

  8. Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estache, Antonio [ECARES, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Goicoechea, Ana [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Trujillo, Lourdes [DAEA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Centre for Transport Studies, University College of London (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)

  9. Corruption and government spending : The role of decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Korneliussen, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis points to a possible weakness of the empirical literature on corruption and government spending. That corruption affects the composition of government spending, and in particular that it affects education and health spending adversely, seems to be empirically well established. However, there exist additional literature closely related to corruption and government spending, treating(i) a relationship between corruption and decentralization, and (ii) a relationship between decentral...

  10. A NOTE ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORRUPTION AND GOVERNMENT REVENUE

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyoung Hwang

    2002-01-01

    This paper empirically traces out the impacts of corruption on government revenue. The total amount of government revenue decreases as corruption reduces tax revenues if it contributes to tax evasion, improper tax exemptions or weak tax administration. In addition, corruption may distort the composition of government revenue: that is, a country with a higher level of corruption increases the proportion of international tax revenue rather than domestic tax one as the source of government reven...

  11. Does Everyday Corruption Affect How Russians View their Political Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-22

    2011; Treisman 2011, 2014). At present, though, oil prices have collapsed, wage arrears have recommenced, inflation is high, pensions endangered, and...personal corrupt behavior and political attitudes. We show that participation in everyday corruption lowers a person’s support for the political regime... corruption are less, not more, happy with the regime. Street-level corruption is corrosive of the body politic. Our 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4

  12. The Political Economy of Corruption: A Philippine Illustrationa

    OpenAIRE

    James Roumasset

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores the nature, causes, and consequences of corruption as it pertains to entire regimes. Grand corruption is modeled as a type of unproductive rent-seeking at the highest levels of government. The economic costs of corruption are assumed to increase in the decentralization (and relaxation) of its governance, increase convexly in the percentage extracted, and decreasing in the opportunities for productive rent-seeking. Combining these assumptions with the benefits of corruption...

  13. How Does Corruption Affect Public Debt? An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arusha Cooray; Friedrich Schneider

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between corruption and public debt in 106 countries. Results suggest that corruption leads to an increase in public debt. We also investigate if the effect of corruption on pblic debt is increased by government expenditure, the shadow economy and military expenditure. We find that the effect of corruption on public debt is compounded by increased government expenditure and increased size of the shadow economy.

  14. How do Institutions Affect Corruption and the Shadow Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Dreher; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes a simple model that captures the relationship between institutional quality, the shadow economy and corruption. It shows that an improvement in institutional quality reduces the shadow economy and affects the corruption market. The exact relationship between corruption and institutional quality is, however, ambiguous and depends on the relative effectiveness of the institutional quality in the shadow and corruption markets. The predictions of the model are empirically test...

  15. Social impacts of corruption upon community resilience and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    James Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Corruption at all levels of all societies is a behavioural consequence of power and greed. With no rulebook, corruption is covert, opportunistic, repetitive and powerful, reliant upon dominance, fear and unspoken codes: a significant component of the 'quiet violence'. Descriptions of financial corruption in China, Italy and Africa lead into a discussion of 'grand', 'political' and 'petty' corruption. Social consequences are given emphasis but elude analysis; those in Bangladesh and the Philip...

  16. Corruption in international sports and how it may be combatted

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Maennig

    2008-01-01

    This contribution attempts a delimitation of the concept of corruption in sport and gives an overview of topical instances. It is thereby demonstrated why the definition of corruption in sport is especially problematic. The causes of the corruption and their social costs are analysed. The anti-corruption measures of the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) and the German Football Association (DFB) are described. These are based on two fundamentally different approaches and can be r...

  17. LEGEND Analytical Paper 1: Tackling corruption in land governance

    OpenAIRE

    Koechlin, Lucy; Quan, Julian; Mulukutla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    International surveys such as the Global Corruption Barometer and the East African Bribery Index have shown that institutions responsible for land management are among the most corrupt. The paper analyses the causes, types and effects of corruption in land governance and provides evidence-based recommendations on how governments, donors and the private sector can address land corruption, with a particular focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. It identifies prevalence of discretionary power within land...

  18. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, C. E.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Cragin, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    By using the Ogo 6 satellite, McClure and Hanson (1973) have discovered sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region ion number density. In the present investigation, a description is provided of the properties of a distinct category of sinusoidal irregularities found in equatorial data from the AE-C and AE-E satellites. The observed scale sizes vary from about 300 m to 3 km in the direction perpendicular to B, overlapping with and extending the range observed by using Ogo 6. Attention is given to low and high resolution data, a comparison with Huancayo ionograms, the confinement of 'bottomside sinusoidal' (BSS) irregularities essentially to the bottomside of the F layer, spectral characteristics, and BSS, scintillation, and ionosonde observations.

  19. Corruption and Entrepreneurship in Kenya | Ngunjiri | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of corruption on entrepreneurship in Kenya. The findings indicate that when formal institutions are inefficient corruption which subverts these institutions is beneficial in terms of economic development. Conversely, where formal institutions are relatively efficient, corruption is detrimental.

  20. Corruption in the Nigerian healthcare system | Buowari | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is the use of public resources for private gain. This is common in most countries though reduced in some and alarming in others. It affects all sectors of the economy and the healthcare system is not spared. Medical corruption is increasing in countries with high rates of corruption and all healthcare professionals ...

  1. Corruption in Organizations: Ethical Climate and Individual Motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelijne Gorsira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine how organizational and individual factors, in concert, shape corruption. We examined whether the ethical climate of organizations is related to corruption, and if so, whether it affects corruption through individual motives for corruption. A large-scale questionnaire study was conducted among public officials (n = 234 and business employees (n = 289 who were in a position to make corrupt decisions. The findings suggest that public and private sector employees who perceive their organizational climate as more egoistic and less ethical are more prone to corruption. This relationship was fully mediated by individual motives, specifically by personal and social norms on corruption. These results indicate that employees who perceive their organization’s ethical climate as more egoistic and less ethical experience weaker personal and social norms to refrain from corruption, making them more corruption-prone. Hence, strategies addressing the interplay between organizational factors and individual motives seem promising in curbing corruption. To effectively withhold employees from engaging in corruption, organizations could deploy measures that strengthen an organizations’ ethical climate and encourage ethical decision-making based on concern for the wellbeing of others, as well as measures increasing the strength of personal and social norms to refrain from corruption.

  2. Evolution of cooperation in a hierarchical society with corruption control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long

    2018-07-14

    Punishment is widely recognized as a potential promoter in sustaining or even enhancing public cooperation, but it meanwhile induces the problem of second-order free-riders. Particularly, recent evidence shows that costly punishment can be maintained if punishers may engage in corruption. However, how to reduce or eliminate incidents of corruption has been the enduring conundrum in human society. As power asymmetries are associated with hierarchies, we investigate how costly punishment affects the evolution of cooperation in the cases without and with corruption control. In the absence of corruption control, altruistic punishers are incapable of punishing corrupt punishers. Corrupt punishment maintains civilian cooperation but undermines the evolution of altruistic punishment. Otherwise, altruistic punishers can enforce symmetrical or asymmetrical punishment on both corrupt punishers and civilian defectors. In this case, both civilian cooperation and altruistic punishment can be promoted. And as an instrument of corruption control, the policy of asymmetrical punishment is more effective in fostering public cooperation and improving social welfare than symmetrical punishment. Moreover, no matter whether corruption control is considered or not, spiteful corruption that non-cooperative punishers penalize defectors is a more effective form for enhancing cooperation compared with bribery. Our work may thus offer an insight into the effects of corruption on public cooperation and the policy of anti-corruption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Corruption in Russian Higher Education as Reflected in the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers corruption in higher education in Russia as reflected in the national media, including such aspects as corruption in admissions to higher education institutions and corruption in administering the newly introduced standardized test. The major focus is on the opinions of the leading figures of the education reform as related to…

  4. Foreign Experience of Formation of Anti-Corruption Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaganbetov, Pernebay; Kenzhibekova, Elmira; Khvedelidze, Teimuraz; Buranbayeva, Saliman; Sailibayeva, Zhanel

    2016-01-01

    Corruption is the main obstacle on the way toward state's economic and political growth. Corrupt practices are one of the oldest forms of crime that arose with an appearance of nationhood. Nowadays, corruption harms the economies of developing countries that are undergoing a process of an economic model transformation. Kazakhstan is among these…

  5. On Certain Aspects of Acts of Corruption Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamitova, Zhanat A.; Kumarbekkyzy, Zhaniya; Tapenova, Asem R.; Mahanov, Talgat G.

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of developing countries, including Kazakhstan, is corruption. Corruption significantly decelerates the development of economic and social institutions, which may cause distrust in the authorities and a social crisis. Therefore, fighting corruption is a top-priority task of the government of Kazakhstan; this task…

  6. Corruption and Educational Outcomes: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis Lim

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is a problem that continues to plague developed and developing countries worldwide. Previous studies have explored the negative implications of corruption on several aspects of human development, but, despite its serious and long-lasting consequences, the impact of corruption on educational outcomes has started to receive attention only…

  7. Why Do People Engage in Corruption? The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavits, Margit

    2010-01-01

    This study uses survey data for 2004 on the general public (N = 788) and public officials (N = 791) in the young post-communist democracy of Estonia to examine individual-level determinants of corruption. The results indicate that both public officials and citizens are more likely to engage in corruption when they do not define corruption as…

  8. Yoruba proverbs and the anti-corruption crusade in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is entrenched in the public space in Nigeria. Various attempts by policymakers to stamp out this social cankerworm seem not to be yielding positive results, as more incidences of corruption continue to ravage the polity. This paper therefore contributes to the campaign for anti-corruption in Nigeria by drawing on ...

  9. A Critical Analysis of Corruption and Governance in Nigeria | Ajagun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the impact of corruption on governance in Nigeria based on an analysis of secondary data. Our analysis showed that corruption has become pervasive and widespread in the Nigeria society; it is a re-occurring decimal in the process of governance. The pervasiveness of corruption has ferociously eroded the ...

  10. The Impact and Consequences of Corruption on the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no doubt that corruption has eaten deep into the fabric of the Nigerian society. Successive governments in the country since independence in 1960 had in recognition of the evil of corruption established programmes and agencies to deal with it. These include the War Against Indiscipline and Corruption (WAIC); ...

  11. Executive corruption in Nigeria: a critical overview of its socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent times, the issue of executive corruption has taken a front burner. Simply defined as corruptive practices involving politicians, policy makers, bureaucrats, top members of business community, the paper argued that the phenomenon is very rampant in Nigeria. Tracing the evolution of executive corruption in the ...

  12. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  13. Using Supply, Demand, and the Cournot Model to Understand Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    The author combines the supply and demand model of taxes with a Cournot model of bribe takers to develop a simple and useful framework for understanding the effect of corruption on economic activity. There are many examples of corruption in both developed and developing countries. Because corruption decreases the level of economic activity and…

  14. Bad leadership and institutional failure: foundation of corruption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study basically assesses the phenomenal rise of corruption in Nigeria. While the study recognizes the varying perspectives of the causes of corruption among developing nations, the study asserts that the dramatic rise of corruption to the present level of impurity is caused by bad leadership and institutional failure.

  15. The Ethiopian Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian FEACC is a dedicated anti-corruption agency, invested with expansive powers to combat corruption in the country. It was established in 2001 in the context of the accelerated internationalisation of anti-corruption law. The mandate of the FEACC is wide, spanning the prevention, investigation and prosecution ...

  16. The role of museum in curbing corruption in Nigeria | Edet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is a scandal that has been with human beings from antiquity to the present (Tylor, 1871). It pervades and permeates society. Corruption in Nigeria has assumed a enormous proportion and has constituted a serious national problem. Government put in place some machinery to fight corruption but to no avail.

  17. Corruption and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Theoretical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Theoretical Review. ... By using a theoretical method of analysis, the study reveals that corruption has been a deterrent to economic development in Nigeria. ... Section two discusses the theoretical and conceptual issues in corruption and economic development. Section ...

  18. CNNs for sinusoidal signal recognition in hearing rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnimeo, Leonarda; Giaquinto, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, a contribution is given to provide a tool to the recognition of sinusoidal signals with a particular reference to the field of pediatric hearing rehabilitation. To this purpose, a synthesis technique previously developed by the authors' is used to design a Cellular Neural Network for an Associative Memory able to compare submitted discrete-time sinusoidal signals with memorized ones. A robustness analysis of the synthesized associative memory is also developed both for noisy inputs and for parameter variations. Simulation results are then reported to illustrate the performances of the designed network.

  19. Gender and Corruption in Nigerian Politics.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the relationships, or the lack thereof, between gender and grand corruption ... Unfortunately, women's growing participation in Nigerian public sphere has not ..... sponsor;” and “allow Uba control over all important government appointments ..... African Women and Political Development: A Case Study of.

  20. Transnational corruption and innovation in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habiyaremye, A.; Raymond, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how transnational corruption affects host country firms’ innovation behaviour and performance in transition economies of Eastern Europe and Central and Western Asia. Using firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey, we show that the

  1. Actors in Corruption: Business Politicians in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    della Porta, Donatella

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the development of political corruption brings about important changes in the political system and in the characteristics of the political class. Describes the emergence and activities of a group of "business politicians" in Italy who have transformed political parties into socializing agencies for illicit activities. (MJP)

  2. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified...

  3. Policing Corruption Post- and Pre-crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    How are we to understand the proliferating attempts amongst transnational corporations (TNCs) at collectively reducing the risk of corruption in business operations and interactions with state officials around the world? How are these endeavors linked to transformations of public and private auth...

  4. Glossary of Higher Education Corruption with Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education corruption is an emerging sub-field of research that has yet to develop its terminological apparatus and own specific research methodologies. The interdisciplinary nature of this sub-field predetermines its dependency on other well-established fields, such as microeconomics, organizational theory, political economy, education…

  5. Corruption, Governance and Political Instability in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and cyclical legitimacy crisis. In the absence of support from civil society, the effective power of government was eroded and patron-client relationships took a prime role over the formal aspects of politics, such as the rule of law, ...

  6. Investigative Journalism, Corruption and Sustainable Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigative journalism is critical to the advancement and preservation of a country's democratic institutions and way of life and in helping to catalyse equitable development. Thus, the study focuses on how to curb corruption in Nigeria, through investigative journalism, so as to engender development at all levels. The study ...

  7. Page | 198 POLICE CORRUPTION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... to be abused due to the influence of social evils such as corruption, favouritism, dishonesty, fraud, tribalism, ethnicity and even villagism. These social problems are not peculiar to the Nigeria Police alone. They are ..... At this stage, the suspect sometimes through his lawyer has to negotiate with the Police ...

  8. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2012-01-01

    and government contracts. Third, the observed decrease in bribe incidence between 2005 and 2007 is largely driven by significant behavioral changes. These behavioral changes seem to be associated with policy initiatives to improve law enforcement and increased media focus on punitive actions against corruption....

  9. Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a unique panel dataset on firm-level corruption. It contains quantitative information on bribe payments by a sample of formal and informal Vietnamese firms. We show that bribe incidence is highly associated with firm-level differences in (i) visibility, (ii) sunk costs, (iii...

  10. Cycle of Bad Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nuruddeen Suleiman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that bad governance and corruption particularly in the Northern part of Nigeria have been responsible for the persistent rise in the activities of Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (JASLWJ, Arabic for “people committed to the propagation of the tradition and jihad.” It is also known as “Boko Haram,” commonly translated as “Western education is sin.” Based on qualitative data obtained through interviews with Nigerians, this article explicates how poor governance in the country has created a vicious cycle of corruption, poverty, and unemployment, leading to violence. Although JASLWJ avows a religious purpose in its activities, it takes full advantage of the social and economic deprivation to recruit new members. For any viable short- or long-term solution, this article concludes that the country must go all-out with its anti-corruption crusade. This will enable the revival of other critical sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing, likely ensuring more employment. Should the country fail to stamp out corruption, it will continue to witness an upsurge in the activities of JASLWJ, and perhaps even the emergence of other violent groups. The spillover effects may be felt not only across Nigeria but also within the entire West African region.

  11. CORRUPTION AND GOVERNANCE IN A PLURAL BUT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    corruption is also an outcrop of the integration of Africa into the world capitalist ... Nigeria, like most other developing democracies and economies, perceive .... Ekekwe further avers that every mode of production introduces its own super ... in its widest sense, can be regarded as a process of trade in social rewards (Scolt,.

  12. Enterprises Dealing with Corruption: A Microeconomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermira Hoxha Kalaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on survey data and qualitative evidence from Albanian manufacturing firms to examine the scale and consequences of corruption and tax evasion at the enterprise level. It discusses the costs and benefits from the entrepreneur’s perspective. The vector of covariates includes information about; use of external finance, policy influence, experience of corruption, firms size and ownership structure. To control for differences in the availability of collateral, the proportion of the fixed assets is included. The models used in the paper are probit where the dependent variable is binary and ordered probit where the dependent variable is categorical and orderable. Empirical results show that manufacturing firms operating in an environment in which tax evasion is more prevalent are more likely to suffer demands for bribes from corrupt officials. The regression analysis shows that tax evasion is a matter of degree and that is not limited to small and medium-sized enterprises. Even quite large firms acknowledge concealing part of their sales from tax authorities. Enterprises that are evading taxes are less likely to obtain an external audit. In addition, the data predict that corruption and tax evasion is more likely to occur when the principal owner is male rather than female. Moreover, findings show that the main effect of the separation of ownership on the likelihood of bribery is insignificant.

  13. Leadership, Governance and Corruption in Nigeria | Ologbenla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper believes that fighting corruption at all levels is a priority, as it constitutes a serious barrier to effective resource mobilisation and allocation, and diverts resources away from activities that are vital to poverty eradication and sustainable economic development. NESG Economic Indicators Vol. 14 (1) 2008: pp. 36-44.

  14. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Hanf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. METHODS: The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. FINDINGS: The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2= 0.89 included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.value<0.001, logarithm of total health expenditure (p.value = 0.006, Corruption Perception Index (p.value<0.001, presence of an arid climate on the national territory (p = 0.006, and the dependency ratio (p.value<0.001. A decrease in CPI of one point (i.e. a more important perceived corruption was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. INTERPRETATIONS: Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  15. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  16. Automatic fringe enhancement with novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxing; Kemao, Qian; Da, Feipeng

    2017-10-02

    Fringe-based optical measurement techniques require reliable fringe analysis methods, where empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an outstanding one due to its ability of analyzing complex signals and the merit of being data-driven. However, two challenging issues hinder the application of EMD in practical measurement. One is the tricky mode mixing problem (MMP), making the decomposed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) have equivocal physical meaning; the other is the automatic and accurate extraction of the sinusoidal fringe from the IMFs when unpredictable and unavoidable background and noise exist in real measurements. Accordingly, in this paper, a novel bidimensional sinusoids-assisted EMD (BSEMD) is proposed to decompose a fringe pattern into mono-component bidimensional IMFs (BIMFs), with the MMP solved; properties of the resulted BIMFs are then analyzed to recognize and enhance the useful fringe component. The decomposition and the fringe recognition are integrated and the latter provides a feedback to the former, helping to automatically stop the decomposition to make the algorithm simpler and more reliable. A series of experiments show that the proposed method is accurate, efficient and robust to various fringe patterns even with poor quality, rendering it a potential tool for practical use.

  17. Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisor, Anne C; Gurven, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS), we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  18. Corruption and the Other(s: Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C Pisor

    Full Text Available The decision to engage in corruption-public and private corruption, nepotism, and embezzlement-is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves. However, the importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her. We hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. Using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study (WVS, we explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity or a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible. We find mixed support for our hypotheses, but consistently find that WVS participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities-that is, actors whose primary identities that encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. We discuss the importance of considering an actor's valuation of others when modeling corruption persistence, noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shunt costs.

  19. Uniform Recovery Bounds for Structured Random Matrices in Corrupted Compressed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Gan, Lu; Ling, Cong; Sun, Sumei

    2018-04-01

    We study the problem of recovering an $s$-sparse signal $\\mathbf{x}^{\\star}\\in\\mathbb{C}^n$ from corrupted measurements $\\mathbf{y} = \\mathbf{A}\\mathbf{x}^{\\star}+\\mathbf{z}^{\\star}+\\mathbf{w}$, where $\\mathbf{z}^{\\star}\\in\\mathbb{C}^m$ is a $k$-sparse corruption vector whose nonzero entries may be arbitrarily large and $\\mathbf{w}\\in\\mathbb{C}^m$ is a dense noise with bounded energy. The aim is to exactly and stably recover the sparse signal with tractable optimization programs. In this paper, we prove the uniform recovery guarantee of this problem for two classes of structured sensing matrices. The first class can be expressed as the product of a unit-norm tight frame (UTF), a random diagonal matrix and a bounded columnwise orthonormal matrix (e.g., partial random circulant matrix). When the UTF is bounded (i.e. $\\mu(\\mathbf{U})\\sim1/\\sqrt{m}$), we prove that with high probability, one can recover an $s$-sparse signal exactly and stably by $l_1$ minimization programs even if the measurements are corrupted by a sparse vector, provided $m = \\mathcal{O}(s \\log^2 s \\log^2 n)$ and the sparsity level $k$ of the corruption is a constant fraction of the total number of measurements. The second class considers randomly sub-sampled orthogonal matrix (e.g., random Fourier matrix). We prove the uniform recovery guarantee provided that the corruption is sparse on certain sparsifying domain. Numerous simulation results are also presented to verify and complement the theoretical results.

  20. Trans-sinusoidal maxillary distraction in three cleft patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenghoefer, M.H.; Martini, M.; Nadjmi, N.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Jagtman, A.K.; Bergé, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The trans-sinusoidal maxillary distractor (TS-MD) was used to achieve maxillary advancement in three patients with repaired cleft lip and palate. After preoperative computer-aided planning of the distraction vectors, each TS-MD was bent on a stereolithographic model of the maxilla of the patient.

  1. Sinusoidal velaroidal shell – numerical modelling of the nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nonlinearity, applied to a sinusoidal velaroidal shell with the inner radius r0, the outer variables radii from 10m to 20m and the number of waves n=8, will give rise to the investigation of its nonlinear buckling resistance. The building material is a high-performant concrete. The investigation emphasizes more on the ...

  2. Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... filometry [7–9] and monitoring of surface self-diffusion of solids under ultrahigh vacuum conditions [10]. In the present work, recording parameters, i.e. exposure time and deve- lopment time for fabrication of such holographic gratings have been optimized to obtain nearly perfect sinusoidal profiles in the ...

  3. Evoked responses to sinusoidally modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielen, A.M.; Kamp, A.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Reneau, J.P.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    1. 1. Responses evoked by sinusoidally amplitude-modulated sound in unanaesthetized dogs have been recorded from inferior colliculus and from auditory cortex structures by means of chronically indwelling stainless steel wire electrodes. 2. 2. Harmonic analysis of the average responses demonstrated

  4. Deep-etched sinusoidal polarizing beam splitter grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Zhou, Changhe; Cao, Hongchao; Lv, Peng

    2010-04-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped fused-silica grating as a highly efficient polarizing beam splitter (PBS) is investigated based on the simplified modal method. The grating structure depends mainly on the ratio of groove depth to grating period and the ratio of incident wavelength to grating period. These ratios can be used as a guideline for the grating design at different wavelengths. A sinusoidal-groove PBS grating is designed at a wavelength of 1310 nm under Littrow mounting, and the transmitted TM and TE polarized waves are mainly diffracted into the zeroth order and the -1st order, respectively. The grating profile is optimized by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The designed PBS grating is highly efficient (>95.98%) over the O-band wavelength range (1260-1360 nm) for both TE and TM polarizations. The sinusoidal grating can exhibit higher diffraction efficiency, larger extinction ratio, and less reflection loss than the rectangular-groove PBS grating. By applying wet etching technology on the rectangular grating, which was manufactured by holographic recording and inductively coupled plasma etching technology, the sinusoidal grating can be approximately fabricated. Experimental results are in agreement with theoretical values.

  5. Using piecewise sinusoidal basis functions to blanket multiple wire segments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses application of the piecewise sinusoidal (PWS) basis function (BF) over a chain of several wire segments, for example as a multiple domain basis function. The usage of PWS BF is compared to results based on the piecewise linear...

  6. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  7. BPM Offset Determination by Sinusoidal Quadrupole K-modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    To ensure an adequate orbit steering that maximizes the machine aperture, a good knowledge of the BPM measurement offsets is crucial. During this MD, a sinusoidal k-modulation of individually powered quadrupoles was performed to determine the offsets of the nearby BPMs. An accuracy of 10µm for the determination of the absolute beam position is reached.

  8. Corruption as a Problem of Political Theory and Political Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Shashkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is dedicated to the analysis of "corruption" from point of view of political practice and political theory. The present article studies historical examples of corruption: corruption during the era of Alexander the Great, Carthage, Roman Republic. The article gives the evolution of the term "corruption", pointing out current aspects of the term. The article provides positive and negative results of corruption, gives resume. The present article analyses corruption results: economical, political and social. Most important economical consequences of corruption are the following: increase of shadow economy, decrease of tax payments, weakening of the state budget, breach of market competition, decrease of market effectiveness, destabilization of the idea of market economy. Most important social consequences of corruption are the following: great distinction between the declared and real values, which creates a "double standard" of the moral and behavior, distraction of great sums from public and humanitarian development, increase of property disproportion, increase of social tension. The present article names most important political consequences of corruption: shift of ideas from public development to the security of power of oligarchy, decrease of trust to the state, decrease of image of the country at the international arena, increase of its economical and political isolation, decrease of political competition. The present article gives one of the resumes that the globalization process increases corruption. Together with globalization most important role is given to corporations and corporate corruption comes to the front raw.

  9. Preventing corruption in humanitarian assistance: perceptions, gaps and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  10. Corruption and Stock Market Development: New Evidence from GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Alsherfawi Aljazaerli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical relationship between corruption and stock market development has been debated quite extensively in the literature, yet the evidence on the impact of corruption on stock market development remains contradictory and ambiguous. This paper investigates the impact of corruption, as measured by Corruption Perception Index (CPI published by Transparency International, on stock market development focusing exclusively on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries with its special characteristics of combining richness with relatively high level of corruption. Results from an estimation of alternative regression models on a panel of six GCC countries over the period 2003–2011, through which CPI is legitimately comparable, confirms a positive impact of corruption on stock market development, where the latter is measured by market capitalization. This is consistent with the view that corruption greases the wheels of economy by expediting transactions and allowing private firms to overcome governmentally imposed inefficiencies.

  11. Harmonization Of Inter-Institutional Authority In Eradicate Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the agenda of corruption eradication have been undertaken by various institutions such as the judiciary the police the Corruption Eradication Commission and other bodies related to the corruption eradication. The type of research used in this study is normative-jurisdiction and empirical-jurisdiction. To obtain the necessary data in this study the researcher conducted library research as a reference in some libraries are quite representative. Results shows that the effectiveness of corruption eradication that conducted by regulatory authorities in order to combat corruption has not been implemented maximally because each institution as a subsystem has not carried out an interdependent relationship both vertical and horizontal nature. If we expect the eradication of corruption can be implemented optimally it is recommended that the coordination between law enforcement agencies in the integrated criminal justice system is necessary to build their common vision interpretation and perception in the implementation of the duties for the institution authorized to eradicate corruption.

  12. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  13. POLITICAL PROCESS DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada-Iuliana POPESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption stands as one of the many obstacles to the political and economic security of the Eastern European region. Thus, despite the political and economic instability in the region, Eastern European countries, in and outside of the European Union need to fight corruption collectively and individually. The task is difficult, but hope is justified because the causes of corruption in this part of the region are similar and anti-corruption expertise is available. We believe that a deeper analysis of corruption’s drivers can produce a better articulated and more efficient anti-corruption strategy. This strategy will create an anti-corruption infrastructure that will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership. As a prelude to the deeper analysis that we believe must be a part of this strategy, this paper identifies the main drivers of corruption in the Eastern European Partnership countries and explains why addressing these drivers will strengthen the Eastern European Partnership.

  14. Causal Factors of Corruption in Construction Project Management: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Emmanuel Kingsford; Chan, Albert P C; Shan, Ming

    2017-11-11

    The development of efficient and strategic anti-corruption measures can be better achieved if a deeper understanding and identification of the causes of corruption are established. Over the past years, many studies have been devoted to the research of corruption in construction management (CM). This has resulted in a significant increase in the body of knowledge on the subject matter, including the causative factors triggering these corrupt practices. However, an apropos systematic assessment of both past and current studies on the subject matter which is needful for the future endeavor is lacking. Moreover, there is an absence of unified view of the causative factors of corruption identified in construction project management (CPM). This paper, therefore, presents a comprehensive review of the causes of corruption from selected articles in recognized construction management journals to address the mentioned gaps. A total number of 44 causes of corruption were identified from 37 publications and analyzed in terms of existing causal factors of corruption, annual trend of publications and the thematic categorization of the identified variables. The most identifiable causes were over close relationships, poor professional ethical standards, negative industrial and working conditions, negative role models and inadequate sanctions. A conceptual framework of causes of corruption was established, after categorizing the 44 variables into five unique categories. In descending order, the five constructs are Psychosocial-Specific Causes, Organizational-Specific Causes, Regulatory-Specific Causes, Project-Specific Causes and Statutory-Specific Causes. This study extends the current literature of corruption research in construction management and contributes to a deepened understanding of the causal instigators of corruption identified in CPM. The findings from this study provide valuable information and extended knowledge to industry practitioners and policymakers as well as

  15. Systemic roots of corruption: Corruption and its perception: Reality vs. appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madžar Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia is widely believed to be a country flooded with corruption. The question naturally arises as to what might be the causes of this unwelcome phenomenon. The basic stand extensively elaborated in this text is that the causes of the corruption are institutional, i.e. systemic. Without recourse to the systemic causes, the alternative would be that corruption arises from some special anthropological traits of this people. Upon rejecting such an explanation of corruptive practices, the institutional roots are further elaborated. Economic and other policies can also be conducive to corruption, but they are made in an environment structured in the spirit of public choice - policies themselves are motivated by the systemic peculiarities - so that the ultimate determinants are again to be sought in the institutional order of the given society. It might appear at first sight that corruption should be easy to eliminate, as institutions are man-made and not an unchangeable given coming from nature or some uncontrollable entity. However, institutional development is constrained by many factors - knowledge, competent people, information systems, real resources, and financial means - and it is argued that it can be as painful, uncertain, costly and slow as the economic development itself. The complexity of the corruption as an economic, social and even ethical phenomenon is demonstrated by the multiplicity of its definitions and by the conspicuous succession of alternative definitions in time. The problems of measurement are elaborated to some length. Corruption is illegal and therefore, unlike most economic aggregates, cannot be measured directly; it is the perception of the corruption rather than the corruption itself that is being measured in widely cited national and international surveys. The respondents are not centered exclusively at revealing the truth, but are subject to a wide variety of motivations. Some of them are motivated to overstate the

  16. Does Introduction of Bureaucratic Competition Reduce Corruption in Public Service Delivery?

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Panchali; Mukherjee, Vivekananda

    2015-01-01

    The paper theoretically explores the impact of introducing bureaucratic competition on corruption. For this purpose it considers three different measures of corruption such as corruption incidence (CI), relative corruption incidence (CRI) and corruption rents (CR) in two different types of economies namely corruption-tolerant economies and corruption-reliant economies. As it compares both intensive margin (i.e. the magnitude of bribe) and extensive margin (i.e. the number of bribe incident) o...

  17. Money-Scape: A Generic Agent-Based Model of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Hokky Situngkir

    2004-01-01

    There has been a lot of works on corruption cases. We must think that corruption is a cultural aspect in a social life. We cannot separate the corruption with the cultural system where the corruption raised. Indonesia has been recorded to be one of the countries of the worst economic and political system on corruption case. The paper is introducing the usage of agent based simulation for analyzing the corruption specifically in Indonesia as the biggest corruption level. The model showed is na...

  18. State Administrative Legal Review on the Bill of Retraction Law of Corrupted Assets in Eradication Effort of Corruption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Puji Simatupang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since eradicating corruption having been continously encouraged by late governments – and until now – , there would not be less important as to retracting the corrupted assets. There are many aspects to be considered in doing such action, such as manifesting the legal aspects of administrative law, and so other applied national regulations. By these regulations, such as Law No. 7 of 2006 on Ratification of United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2003 (Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa Anti-Korupsi, 2003, Law Number 25 of 2003 On Amendment to Law Number 15 of 2002 on Money Laundering, Act 30 of 2002 on Corruption Eradication Commission, Law Number 20 Year 2001 regarding Amendment to Law Number 31 Year 1999 on the Eradication of Corruption, and Government Regulation Number 65 of 1999 on Implementation Procedures for Examination of State Property, retraction the corrupted assets should be define in order to get known about eradicating corruption.

  19. The disease of corruption: views on how to fight corruption to advance 21st century global health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Savedoff, William D; Vogl, Frank; Lewis, Maureen; Sale, James; Michaud, Joshua; Vian, Taryn

    2016-09-29

    Corruption has been described as a disease. When corruption infiltrates global health, it can be particularly devastating, threatening hard gained improvements in human and economic development, international security, and population health. Yet, the multifaceted and complex nature of global health corruption makes it extremely difficult to tackle, despite its enormous costs, which have been estimated in the billions of dollars. In this forum article, we asked anti-corruption experts to identify key priority areas that urgently need global attention in order to advance the fight against global health corruption. The views shared by this multidisciplinary group of contributors reveal several fundamental challenges and allow us to explore potential solutions to address the unique risks posed by health-related corruption. Collectively, these perspectives also provide a roadmap that can be used in support of global health anti-corruption efforts in the post-2015 development agenda.

  20. Essays on environmental policies, corruption, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Soham

    This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for

  1. Combating corruption in the pharmaceutical arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Gagnon, Marc André; Crombie, James; Thacker, Paul; Shnier, Adrienne

    2018-03-15

    Corruption in healthcare generally and specifically in the pharmaceutical arena has recently been highlighted in reports by Transparency International. This article focuses on four areas of corruption: legislative/regulatory, financial, ideological/ethical, and communications. The problems identified and the solutions considered focus on structural considerations affecting how pharmaceuticals are discovered, developed, distributed, and ultimately used in clinical settings. These include recourse to user fees in the regulatory sphere, application of intellectual property rights to medical contexts (patents and access to research data), commercial sponsorship of ghost writing and guest authors, linkage/delinkage of the funding of research and overall health objectives to/from drug pricing and sales, transparency of payments to healthcare professionals and institutions, and credible regulatory sanctions. In general, financial and other incentives for all actors in the system should be structured to align with desired social outcomes - and to minimise conflicts of interest among researchers and clinicians.

  2. Image reconstruction under non-Gaussian noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciacchitano, Federica

    During acquisition and transmission, images are often blurred and corrupted by noise. One of the fundamental tasks of image processing is to reconstruct the clean image from a degraded version. The process of recovering the original image from the data is an example of inverse problem. Due...... to the ill-posedness of the problem, the simple inversion of the degradation model does not give any good reconstructions. Therefore, to deal with the ill-posedness it is necessary to use some prior information on the solution or the model and the Bayesian approach. Additive Gaussian noise has been......D thesis intends to solve some of the many open questions for image restoration under non-Gaussian noise. The two main kinds of noise studied in this PhD project are the impulse noise and the Cauchy noise. Impulse noise is due to for instance the malfunctioning pixel elements in the camera sensors, errors...

  3. Dynamics of the Josephson multi-junction system with junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abal'osheva, I.; Lewandowski, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the inclusion of junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship in the systems composed of multiple Josephson junctions - results in the appearance of additional system phase states. Numerical simulations and stability considerations confirm that those phase states can be realized in practice. Moreover, spontaneous formation of the grain boundary junctions in high-T c superconductors with non-trivial current-phase relations due to the d-wave symmetry of the order parameter is probable. Switching between the phase states of multiple grain boundary junction systems can lead to additional 1/f noise in high-T c superconductors. (author)

  4. Corruption in schools? The scale and sources of corruption perceptions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Wysmułek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the scale and sources of views on the prevalence of corruption in the education sector in Poland. Through the use of public opinion surveys, I answer questions on how the corruption level in Polish educational institutions has changed over time and how it compares to other public institutions (such as the health care sector and police and to the situation in other European countries. My goal is to investigate the effect of individual-level predictors of perceiving schools as corrupt in Poland, with special attention given to structural determinants and previous bribe-giving experiences of respondents. The results reveal that in Poland relatively few respondents have experienced recent acts of giving bribes in schools or perceive educational institutions as corrupt. However, there is a structural pattern behind the sources of negative opinions. The effect of socio-economic determinants on views relating to corruption in Polish schools is strongly pronounced and trends in the opposite direction compared to the effects reported in other European countries.

  5. ETHICS IN GOVERNMENT: ANTI-CORRUPTION MEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Aktan, Coşkun Can

    2018-01-01

    Unethicalbehavior in government is viewed as a situation where there isfraudulent or dishonest conduct or improper behaviour by people who are in aposition or power. Bribery, extortion, embezzlement,the use of legislated powersby government officials for illegitimate private gain, nepotism, rent seeking etc.are some examples forunethical behavior in government.How to deal with unethical behavior in government?. How to curb corruption?Experience demo...

  6. Roots of political corruption in ancient history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has always been regarded as a special form of enrichment, based on prohibited and unethical grounds. Hence 'political corruption' could be defined as the immorality of the powerful; as the use of political power for the purpose of getting rich without any legal basis. Immorality of the powerful is the root of all the abuses that occur in the society. Those who are at the top of the pyramid of power have been particularly prominent in acquiring as large a fortune as possible. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' has been known in all societies, from the oldest to modern ones. In the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, there was an established custom of reciprocity between deliberate gifts and requested services. This phenomenon could be observed with Pericles, who is, among other things, attributed the idea of compensation for participation in state affairs. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' is referred to in Cicero's Rome, where bribery as a form of wealth acquisition without legal basis was formally condemned, but also widespread. Even today we can see that there are powerful persons who persist in the violation or circumvention of rules which guide any structured society: their wealth originates from the enormous acquisition of material things, but also the acquisition of various privileges which they are not entitled to, such as titles, promotions, etc. They are the ones who have brought about the demise of the Latin sentence that the basis of any developed society is: 'To live an honest life, hurt no one, and grant everyone their due.'.

  7. Panama: Democracy Under the Shadow of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Orlando J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2016 Panama was buffeted by corruption scandals and a decelerating economy, which had negative consequences for the political standing of President Juan Carlos Varela. The “Panama Papers” revealed the underlying pathology in Panama's political and economic system. After a decade of rapid economic growth, Panama's economy showed signs of slowing down. However, the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project provided hope for an economic boost as the waterway was able to servic...

  8. Business corruption, uncertainty and risk aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Søreide

    2006-01-01

    The presence of business-corruption in a market provokes firms to make choices between legal business approaches and illegal bribery. The outcome of a chosen strategy will usually be uncertain at the time the decision is made, and a firm's decision will depend partly on its attitude towards risk. Drawing on the empirical data provided by a survey of 82 Norwegian exporting businesses, the paper proposes a theory about firm's choices between legal and illegal business practices. It begins by de...

  9. Providing Technical assistance on corruption control

    OpenAIRE

    Serge, Lortie

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon referred to as corruption has now been generating a high degree of interest for over twenty years. It has in fact spawned not only an abundant literature but also a monitoring and advisory industry whose specific outlook heavily shapes the debate on integrity issues. This industry is widely supported by aid providers, be it the international financing institutions or national development agencies. At this juncture, it therefore seemed worthwhile to examine more critically an ar...

  10. Three essays on corruption and auctions

    OpenAIRE

    PAPIOTI, Katerina Chara

    2014-01-01

    Defence date: 1 December 2014 Examining Board: Professor Massimo Morelli, Bocconi University, Supervisor; Professor Andrea Mattozzi, EUI; Professor Marco Celentani, Universidad Carlos III; Professor Matthias Dahm, University of Nottingham. This thesis contributes to the understanding of corruption and auctions. It consists of three chapters focusing on diverse aspects of these two general topics as well as their combinations, from an applied microeconomic theory perspective: (i) the eff...

  11. Stochastic resonance in underdamped periodic potential systems with alpha stable Lévy noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo-Nan; Kang, Yan-Mei

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of alpha stable Lévy noise with alpha stability index α (0 noise (0 noise has a more notable impact on the resonant effect of the asymmetric ratchet potential than that of the symmetric sinusoidal potential because of symmetry breaking.

  12. Noise Reduction of Measurement Data using Linear Digital Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitzmann B.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Butterworth, Chebyshev (Type I and II and Elliptic digital filters are designed for signal noise reduction. On-line data measurements of substrate concentration from E. coli fed-batch cultivation process are used. Application of the designed filters leads to a successful noise reduction of on-line glucose measurements. The digital filters presented here are simple, easy to implement and effective - the used filters allow for a smart compromise between signal information and noise corruption.

  13. The sinusoidal lining cells in "normal" human liver. A scanning electron microscopic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, T; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christoffersen, P

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscopic was used to study the fenestrations of human liver sinusoids. Thirteen biopsies, where light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed normal sinusoidal architecture, were investigated. The number of fenestrae was calculated in acinar zone 3...

  14. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, T. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: araya@sup.ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Kamishiro, M. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Sakuta, K. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Itozaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: itozaki@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-10-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise.

  15. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Kamishiro, M.; Sakuta, K.; Itozaki, H.

    2006-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise

  16. Unified design of sinusoidal-groove fused-silica grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Zhou, Changhe; Cao, Hongchao; Lu, Peng

    2010-10-20

    A general design rule of deep-etched subwavelength sinusoidal-groove fused-silica grating as a highly efficient polarization-independent or polarization-selective device is studied based on the simplified modal method, which shows that the device structure depends little on the incident wavelength, but mainly on the ratio of groove depth to incident wavelength and the ratio of wavelength to grating period. These two ratios could be used as the design guidelines for wavelength-independent structure from deep ultraviolet to far infrared. The optimized grating profile with a different function as a polarizing beam splitter, a polarization-independent two-port beam splitter, or a polarization-independent grating with high efficiency of -1st order is obtained at a wavelength of 1064 nm, and verified by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The performance of the sinusoidal grating is better than a conventional rectangular one, which could be useful for practical applications.

  17. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe

    2010-01-01

    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  18. Corruption and stock market development: A quantitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    2011-11-01

    Studying the relation between corruption and economic factors and examining its consequences for economic development have attracted many economists and physicists in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the role of stock market development on corruption. Analyzing a data set of corruption and stock market development measures such as market capitalization and total value of share trading for 46 countries around the world for the period 2007-2009, we examine the dependence of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) on stock market development. Our findings suggest that there exists a power-law dependence between corruption and stock market development. We also observe a negative relation between level of corruption and financial system improvement.

  19. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CORRUPTION UPON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper is dedicated to estimating the influence of corruption upon Romania’s economic growth by means of an econometric model ARMA component. In order to quantify the impact, firstly some indicators have been identified to properly assess the economic condition and corruption. The most important economic growth indicator is real GDP growth rate (or chain index of real GDP. In order to estimate the level of corruption, the authors have used the Corruption Perceptions Index, annually launched and calculated by Transparency International. The model chosen for this paper has an ARMA component and expresses the dependence of the economic variable on the corruption variable by a straight-line relationship. The model shows that one of the factors having a significant negative impact upon the economic growth is corruption.

  20. Problems of corruption in transition: A case of judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The author is analyzing intensity and outspread of corruption in Serbian judicial system, with special emphasis on business courts. After the introductory part, the analysis starts with the trust of the citizens and economic subjects in the institution of judiciary. Then author elaborates the extent to which Serbian judiciary is liable to corruption, how large is the corruptive pressure, in what scope it is corrupted and what actors bear crucial responsibility for the present situation. Hence, basic causes of corruption, the scope and locations and the channels through which it spreads are being analyzed. At the end, a point view of entrepreneurs regarding the causes of corruption in business courts will be presented.

  1. Modelling of corruption repression by Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Muhammad Ridwan Reza; Nuraini, Nuning

    2017-03-01

    Based on data from transparency.org, in 2015 Indonesia was ranked 88 out of 168 most corrupt countries in the world, with a score of 36 (high corruption levels 0 - 100 free of corruption). Scores of corruption in Indonesia increased from 32 to 36 since 2012 until 2015. Since 2002, the eradication of corruption in Indonesia conducted by Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi. The number of legal actions undertaken by the Commission since 2002 to 2015 increased. In the mathematical model, we want to know the tendency of many legal actions carried out by the Commission for the foreseeable future. By knowing these trends, we can take a variety of strategies that can make Indonesia free from corruption.

  2. Corruption: Taking into account the psychological mimicry of officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesin, Igor; Malafeyev, Oleg; Andreeva, Mariia; Ivanukovich, Georgiy

    2017-07-01

    A mathematical model of corruption with regard to psychological mimicry in the administrative apparatus with three forms of corruption is constructed. It is assumed that the change of officials forms of corruption is due to situational factors, and anti-corruption laws imply the change of the dominant form. Form's changing is modeled by the system of four differential equations (including groups of corrupt officials), describing the number of groups. The speed of the transition from group to group is expressed through the frequency of meetings. The controlling influence is expressed through the force of anticorruption laws. Two cases are discussed: strictly constant and variable (depending on the scope of one or another form). The equilibrium states that allow to specify the dominant form and investigate its stability, depending on the parameters of the psychological mimicry and rigor of anti-corruption laws are found and discussed.

  3. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  4. Dietary macronutrients and the aging liver sinusoidal endothelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Victoria Carroll; Mohamad, Mashani; Solon-Biet, Samantha Marie; Senior, Alistair M; Warren, Alessandra; O'Reilly, Jennifer Nicole; Tung, Bui Thanh; Svistounov, Dmitri; McMahon, Aisling Clare; Fraser, Robin; Raubenheimer, David; Holmes, Andrew J; Simpson, Stephen James; Le Couteur, David George

    2016-05-01

    Fenestrations are pores within the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) that line the sinusoids of the highly vascularized liver. Fenestrations facilitate the transfer of substrates between blood and hepatocytes. With pseudocapillarization of the hepatic sinusoid in old age, there is a loss of fenestrations. LSECs are uniquely exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial substrates delivered by the portal circulation to the liver. Here we studied the effect of 25 diets varying in content of macronutrients and energy on LSEC fenestrations using the Geometric Framework method in a large cohort of mice aged 15 mo. Macronutrient distribution rather than total food or energy intake was associated with changes in fenestrations. Porosity and frequency were inversely associated with dietary fat intake, while fenestration diameter was inversely associated with protein or carbohydrate intake. Fenestrations were also linked to diet-induced changes in gut microbiome, with increased fenestrations associated with higher abundance of Firmicutes and reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes Diet-induced changes in levels of several fatty acids (C16:0, C19:0, and C20:4) were also significantly inversely associated with fenestrations, suggesting a link between dietary fat and modulation of lipid rafts in the LSECs. Diet influences fenestrations and these data reflect both the key role of the LSECs in clearing gut-derived molecules from the vascular circulation and the impact these molecules have on LSEC morphology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Fibronectin Extra Domain A Promotes Liver Sinusoid Repair following Hepatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Sackey-Aboagye

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs are the main endothelial cells in the liver and are important for maintaining liver homeostasis as well as responding to injury. LSECs express cellular fibronectin containing the alternatively spliced extra domain A (EIIIA-cFN and increase expression of this isoform after liver injury, although its function is not well understood. Here, we examined the role of EIIIA-cFN in liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. We carried out two-thirds partial hepatectomies in mice lacking EIIIA-cFN and in their wild type littermates, studied liver endothelial cell adhesion on decellularized, EIIIA-cFN-containing matrices and investigated the role of cellular fibronectins in liver endothelial cell tubulogenesis. We found that liver weight recovery following hepatectomy was significantly delayed and that sinusoidal repair was impaired in EIIIA-cFN null mice, especially females, as was the lipid accumulation typical of the post-hepatectomy liver. In vitro, we found that liver endothelial cells were more adhesive to cell-deposited matrices containing the EIIIA domain and that cellular fibronectin enhanced tubulogenesis and vascular cord formation. The integrin α9β1, which specifically binds EIIIA-cFN, promoted tubulogenesis and adhesion of liver endothelial cells to EIIIA-cFN. Our findings identify a role for EIIIA-cFN in liver regeneration and tubulogenesis. We suggest that sinusoidal repair is enhanced by increased LSEC adhesion, which is mediated by EIIIA-cFN.

  6. Strategies for Minimizing Corruption in the Construction Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick X.W. Zou

    2006-01-01

    Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to revie...

  7. Corruption, shadow economy and income inequality: evidence from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Saibal; Saha, Shrabani

    2012-01-01

    A number of recent studies for Latin America show that as the size of the informal economy grows, corruption is less harmful to inequality. We investigate if this relationship is equally compelling for developing countries in Asia where corruption, inequality and shadow economies are considerably large. We use Panel Least Square and Fixed Effects Models for Asia to find that both 'Corruption Perception Index' and 'ICRG' index are sensitive to a number of important macroeconomic variables. We ...

  8. Investing in Threatened Species Conservation: Does Corruption Outweigh Purchasing Power?

    OpenAIRE

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by th...

  9. Fostering ethical behavior and preventing corruption: - A purchasing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Løvdahl, Sebastian Rosten

    2014-01-01

    In the view of the latest corporate scandals in Norway and increased focus on ethics and anti-corruption, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the roles of Purchasing and Supply Management and Organizational Culture when fostering ethical behavior and preventing corruption. More specifically, this research attempts to investigate and theorize how organizations can foster ethical behavior and prevent corruption in their respective activities. The research methodology is qualitative...

  10. Bureaucratic Complexity and Impacts of Corruption in Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Tøndel, Line; Søreide, Tina

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how the relationship between bureaucratic complexity and corruption affects the performance in utilities. We observe considerable variation in the performance of the utilities across countries, also across countries which appear to be relatively similar in terms of GDP per capita. Our hypothesis is that corruption is an important explanatory factor. In particular, corruption coupled with a complex regulatory structure can have negative effects on performance in this sector...

  11. Corruption and innovation in the Albanian public procurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Reida Kashta

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the measures and means used to fight against corruption in public procurement in Albania. Because public procurement is one of the key areas where the public sector and the private sector interact financially and this interaction is based on public money, it is a prime candidate for corrupt activity, cronyism and favoritism as well as outright bribery. The question marks that this paper raises are: what are the means used in the war against corruption in the public ...

  12. Corruption, social violence and ethical culture in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Johnmary, Ani Kelechi

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is the direct or indirect act of violence aimed at exploiting unmerited gain and or advantage from a person, structure, institution or environment. In Nigeria, corruption has grown to an unquantifiable level. The major causes of corruption include absence of political will, progressive suppression of the culture of accountability, geometric societal poverty and negative socio-economic conditions as well as greed and the get-rich-quick syndrome etc. The paper presents the multi-dime...

  13. Political corruption and voter turnout: mobilization or disaffection?

    OpenAIRE

    Costas-Pérez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Corruption may affect voter turnout either by mobilizing citizens to go to the polls or by promoting voter disaffection. Using Spanish local and survey data, we study whether these effects depend on partisan leanings or the timing of scandals. Our results show that repeated episodes of corruption increase the boost abstentionism. Independent voters – those with no political attachments – are the only group that that abstains in response to corruption. The incumbent’s core supporters fail to r...

  14. The Corruption Trend among Public Officials in Malaysia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Sulastry Yurni Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The war against corruption is vital to a nation. No one can dispute the negative consequences of corruption, but still, there are those who tend to condone its practice and view it as a necessary evil of economic development. Governments in several Asian and African countries tend to accept this as part and partial of economic development. However, the fallacy of this argument was exposed following the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which demonstrated how corruption had short-changed the countr...

  15. Relationship-oriented cultures, corruption, and international marketing success

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, JD; Graham, JL

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the general problems associated with marketing across international markets and focuses specifically on the role of corruption in deterring international marketing success. The authors do this by introducing a broader conceptualization of corruption. The dimensions of corruption and their importance in explaining the exporters' successes in international markets are developed empirically. Partial Least Squares formative indicators are used in a comprehensive model includin...

  16. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    OpenAIRE

    U. Weitzel; S. Berns

    2006-01-01

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance-related factors such as political stability, legal systems, and financial disclosure standards. We estimate that deterioration in the corruption index by one point (on a 10-point scale) is, on average, associated with a reduction of 21&per...

  17. Corruption and its Impact on the Kosovo economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Hoti

    2017-01-01

    Corruption today is quite a complex phenomenon in Kosovo, which is a serious obstacle for an efficient state. Today experience shows that corruption is bad and affects economic development. Corruption leads governments to intervene where they do not need, and this impairs their ability to formulate and implement policies in the areas in which government intervention is needed, such as: health, environment, welfare people and economic development in general. This paper will address the nature ...

  18. Fairness Concerns and Corrupt Decisions :an Experimental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Epp, Lena; Leszczynska, Nastassia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of a public officials' fairness considerations towards citizens in a petty corruption situation. Other-regarding preferences, and, more particularly, fairness concerns are widely acknowledged as crucial elements of individual economic decision-making. In petty corruption contexts, public officials are to a large extent aware of differences between citizens. Here, we experimentally investigate how fairness considerations may impact on corrupt behaviour. Our n...

  19. Crime, poverty and police corruption: a review of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Andvig, Jens Chr.; Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge

    2008-01-01

    Crime and the fear of being hit by crime and small-scale violence are key economic and social problems in most developing countries, not least felt strongly by the poor. Extensive corruption in the police, experienced or perceived, contributes seriously to the problem. A key question raised in the paper is: How is police corruption linked to the wider processes of development - including crime, violence and poverty? The paper examines (i) how and why corruption may arise in the daily routines...

  20. Corrupt Organizational Hierarchies in the Former Soviet Bloc

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2007-01-01

    Increasing scale and scope of corruption in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic transformations as it touches upon issues of organizational structures. This paper presents an overview of the research on corruption in organizations and develops models of corrupt organizations, including the vertical structure, the horizontal structure, and the hierarchy, as applied to transition economies.

  1. Reversal burden of proof on corruption in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Hibnu

    2018-01-01

    Corruption becomes the greatest enemy most countries face including Indonesia. Commitment to eradicate corruption significantly increases yet it would be meaningless if it is not supported by adequate legislation to implement the law effectively. Reversal burden of proof essentially aims to facilitate law enforcers to seek and disclose assets a suspect owns allegedly as corruption crime. The principle of reversal burden of proof was originated from Anglo-Saxon countries and this still applies...

  2. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  3. Polyfactorial corruption index in the Russian regions: methodology of estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina L. Sidorenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to summarize criminological social and economic indicators of development of the Russian Federation subjects to identify and assess the hidden system dependencies between social indicators and levels of corruption to define the links between individual indicators and to develop the methodology of anticorruption ranking of the regions. Methods comparison analysis synthesis mathematical modeling correlation comparisons and extrapolation. Results in the work the author describes the methodology of the complex analysis of corruption in the Russian Federation subjects and elaborates forecasts for its development short term and medium term. Scientific novelty for the first time in domestic criminology the algorithm is proposed of studying and forecasting regional corruption on the basis of polyfactorial analysis of criminological social and political indicators. For profound and comprehensive study of the regional aspects of corruption a model was developed to monitor and forecast on the basis of measuring the polyfactorial corruption index PCI. PCI consists of two groups of parameters corruption potential of the region of the country CPR and corruption risk in the region CRR. Practical significance the research results can be used in the process of developing regional strategies of corruption counteraction as well as in adjustment of the existing methods of corruption prevention.

  4. Strategies for Minimizing Corruption in the Construction Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick X.W. Zou

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a social phenomenon deep rooted in the history of mankind. It is similar to other kinds of crime which are likely to occur in procurement of works by governments and local authorities, due to the large amount of money involved in a single transaction and the difficulty in monitoring project expenditure. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to minimize any corruption risks and corrupt behaviour in procurement of construction projects. The aim of this paper is to review the current corruption prevention practices in China’s construction industry and suggest ways for improvement. To collect useful and insightful information, desktop studies, focus-group workshops and face-to-face interviews were conducted with supervisory and construction officers at different levels – state, province and municipal in China, who have direct responsibilities and experience in cracking down construction corruption. It was found that corruption happens in different forms during any stage of construction project procurement, and the current anti-corrupt practices are reactive rather than proactive. It was also found that improvements on the legal system, inspection strategies and processes, and promotion of ethical culture are all required. Based on the research findings, corruption prevention strategies were developed. The paper concludes that institution of random and regular checks, severe punishment and prosecution to corrupt personnel, and promotion of a healthy and clean construction culture are all necessary to mitigate the scourge.

  5. Corruption and its Impact on the Kosovo economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Hoti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption today is quite a complex phenomenon in Kosovo, which is a serious obstacle for an efficient state. Today experience shows that corruption is bad and affects economic development. Corruption leads governments to intervene where they do not need, and this impairs their ability to formulate and implement policies in the areas in which government intervention is needed, such as: health, environment, welfare people and economic development in general. This paper will address the nature of corruption, its causes and its effects on the country's economic and social development.

  6. Salt-and-pepper noise removal using modified mean filter and total variation minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajarian, Mickael; McInroy, John E.; Wright, Cameron H. G.

    2018-01-01

    The search for effective noise removal algorithms is still a real challenge in the field of image processing. An efficient image denoising method is proposed for images that are corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise. Salt-and-pepper noise takes either the minimum or maximum intensity, so the proposed method restores the image by processing the pixels whose values are either 0 or 255 (assuming an 8-bit/pixel image). For low levels of noise corruption (less than or equal to 50% noise density), the method employs the modified mean filter (MMF), while for heavy noise corruption, noisy pixels values are replaced by the weighted average of the MMF and the total variation of corrupted pixels, which is minimized using convex optimization. Two fuzzy systems are used to determine the weights for taking average. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, several test images with different noise levels are restored, and the results are quantitatively measured by peak signal-to-noise ratio and mean absolute error. The results show that the proposed scheme gives considerable noise suppression up to a noise density of 90%, while almost completely maintaining edges and fine details of the original image.

  7. Foreign Aid and Corruption: Anti-Corruption Strategies Need Greater Alignment with the Objective of Aid Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Quibria, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    The history of foreign aid has been inextricably linked with corruption. Since the inception of International Development Association(IDA) in 1960, with its concessional lending to developing countries, a large body of writings has emerged on the corrosive effect of corruption that undermines the effectiveness of foreign aid. In view of the pervasiveness of corruption, the international development community has taken a firm stance against it. This essay begins with a brief discussion of the ...

  8. 5 CFR 6701.107 - Reporting waste, fraud, abuse and corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corruption. 6701.107 Section 6701.107 Administrative Personnel GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL..., fraud, abuse and corruption. GSA employees shall disclose immediately any waste, fraud, abuse, and corruption to appropriate authorities, such as the Office of Inspector General. ...

  9. Fighting corruption – a philosophical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalk W. Vorster

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has reached astounding proportions in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to contribute to philosophical approaches aimed at combating corruption. In considering punishment for acts of corruption the most common approach is based on the philosophical theory of consequentialism, which allows only consideration of the consequences of corrupt acts. Ideally, cognisance should be taken of the norms in question, especially those norms demanding the judicious execution of obligations. It was, however, found that the Kantian categorical imperative presupposes an ideal rational society. The imperative has to be ‘softened’ by also allowing for enquiry about the corruptor’s personal circumstances, in the light of Christ’s love commandment. This article highlights the most prominent attributes of two important philosophical theories applicable to the study of corruption, namely utilitarianism (a variant of consequentialism and deontology. It is argued that qualified deontological and utilitistic approaches hold the best promise to curb corruption in the long run. The conclusion is that the state will urgently have to attend to the social context by revitalising programmes of ‘social renewal’, based on effective application of the law, the provision of adequate education and the eradication of poverty. There is also an urgent need for the ‘moral renewal’ of the entire population, focused on Christian values, operationalised within the context of the South Africa of today. Herein lies a massive task for the church. Korrupsie het verstommende afmetings in Suid-Afrika aangeneem. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n bydrae te lewer tot filosofiese benaderings wat daarop gemik is om korrupsie te bestry. By die oorweging van strawwe vir korrupte dade word die mees algemene benadering gebaseer op die teorie van konsekwensialisme, wat slegs die gevolge van korrupte dade oorweeg. Ideaal-gesproke behoort ook kennis geneem te word

  10. Corruption in the public and private sector from Romania: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Duțulescu, Silviu; Nișulescu-Ashrafzadeh, Ileana

    2017-01-01

    Corruption is becoming an increasingly acute problem lately for Romania and the authorities are trying to find solutions in this regard. Until now the anti-corruption strategy has undergone four stages, by approving as many sets of anti-corruption strategic documents (National Anti-corruption Strategies in 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2012). In this research, we started from the assumption that there is a correlation between corruption in the public sector and the corruption in the private s...

  11. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

  12. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about corruption have intensified in recent years as there is a growing realization among international financial donors, including the World Bank, that corruption may undermine development...

  13. Corruption in law enforcement: a paradigm of occupational stress and deviancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, F L; McCafferty, M A

    1998-01-01

    In the closed society of a law enforcement agency, factors such as the conspiracy of silence, authoritarian supervision, and police discretion contribute to corruption. This article describes various types of corrupt behavior by police officers, reports the incidence of corruption in law enforcement agencies, discusses psychiatric conditions that may arise from corruption and also contribute to further corruption, and reviews proposed remedies for corruption. It also suggests that an understanding of corruption in law enforcement might be helpful in understanding, correcting, and preventing corruption in other professions, including medicine.

  14. Sinusoidal modulation analysis for optical system MTF measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, J M; Yu, T; Seibert, J A

    1996-12-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a commonly used metric for defining the spatial resolution characteristics of imaging systems. While the MTF is defined in terms of how an imaging system demodulates the amplitude of a sinusoidal input, this approach has not been in general use to measure MTFs in the medical imaging community because producing sinusoidal x-ray patterns is technically difficult. However, for optical systems such as charge coupled devices (CCD), which are rapidly becoming a part of many medical digital imaging systems, the direct measurement of modulation at discrete spatial frequencies using a sinusoidal test pattern is practical. A commercially available optical test pattern containing spatial frequencies ranging from 0.375 cycles/mm to 80 cycles/mm was sued to determine the MRF of a CCD-based optical system. These results were compared with the angulated slit method of Fujita [H. Fujita, D. Tsia, T. Itoh, K. Doi, J. Morishita, K. Ueda, and A. Ohtsuka, "A simple method for determining the modulation transfer function in digital radiography," IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging 11, 34-39 (1992)]. The use of a semiautomated profiled iterated reconstruction technique (PIRT) is introduced, where the shift factor between successive pixel rows (due to angulation) is optimized iteratively by least-squares error analysis rather than by hand measurement of the slit angle. PIRT was used to find the slit angle for the Fujita technique and to find the sine-pattern angle for the sine-pattern technique. Computer simulation of PIRT for the case of the slit image (a line spread function) demonstrated that it produced a more accurate angle determination than "hand" measurement, and there is a significant difference between the errors in the two techniques (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, p < 0.001). The sine-pattern method and the Fujita slit method produced comparable MTF curves for the CCD camera evaluated.

  15. Propiedades de transporte de una superred de grafeno tipo sinusoidal

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Briones-Torres; I. Rodríguez-Vargas

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo usamos el método de la matriz de transferencia para estudiar el tunelamiento de los electrones de Dirac a través de superredes en grafeno. Consideramos una superred con potencial sinusoidal o polaridad invertida, para ello consideramos dos maneras de crearla, una por medio de sustratos mixtos junto con la aplicación de un campo perpendicular sobre el sustrato de Óxido de Silicio (SiO2), la otra por medio de potenciales alternados aplicados perpendicularmente sobre la sábana de...

  16. Ageing monitoring in IGBT module under sinusoidal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Rannestad, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents monitoring of ageing in high power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules subjected to sinusoidal loading at nominal power level. On-state voltage for IGBT, diode, and rise in interconnection resistance are used as ageing parameters. These are measured in three...... different ways: calibration of power modules after 24 h of operation, offline characterization every 5 min of operation, and continuous measurement during normal converter operation. Four power modules are tested, which are cycled to different degradation levels by number of cycles, where one is tested...

  17. Numerical analysis of beam with sinusoidally corrugated webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Pieńko, Michał; Łagoda, GraŻyna

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents numerical tests results of the steel beam with sinusoidally corrugated web, which were performed in the Autodesk Algor Simulation Professional 2010. The analysis was preceded by laboratory tests including the beam's work under the influence of the four point bending as well as the study of material characteristics. Significant web's thickness and use of tools available in the software allowed to analyze the behavior of the plate girder as beam, and also to observe the occurrence of stresses in the characteristic element - the corrugated web. The stress distribution observed on the both web's surfaces was analyzed.

  18. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence, causes and effects of academic corruption in Rivers State universities, Nigeria. Data were collected from 400 respondents using a 'Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption Questionnaire' (PCEACQ). The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.

  19. Does Corruption Increase or Decrease Employment in Firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Arlette

    2015-01-01

    This article uses representative data for firms for Latin American firms and show that corruption decreases employment in firms. This result is robust to changes in specification and also consistent with the use of an instrumental variables approach. Corruption appears to negatively impact the growth and wealth in a country, not by introducing labour distortion in firms, but by keeping them small.

  20. Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation of the Mkapa administration's anti corruption efforts. Bruce Heilman, Lawrean Ndumbaro. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 1-20). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Corruption and public governance: implication for customer due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... causes and effects of corruption on service delivery in Africa. It is within this context that this paper explored Principal Agent Theory to explain the relationship between corruption, public governance, customer due diligence and the various aspects of development including economic growth and sustainable development.

  2. How corruption affects business results: The case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Budak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of this paper is found in recent theories why corruption prevalence menaces the safety of business environment. In order to examine if exposure to corruption derogates business results of firms in Croatia we have tested the hypothesis that higher corruption perceptions of business leaders in small, medium and large firms in Croatia are associated with firms’ worse financial results. As a seminal research we measure corruption perceptions of business by employing unique data from three annual surveys conducted in more than one hundred firms in Croatia. The constructed index of corruption perceptions of business is used in the empirical analysis how higher corruption perceptions of firms in Croatia are affecting financial results in terms of total revenue per employee, net profit per employee and total sales per employee. The years of observation are 2002, 2003 and 2004. The extension of our research to three groups of small, medium and large firms in Croatia aims to separately examine the correlation between corruption perceptions indices and financial results for each group of firms. The preliminary results indicate that corruption is more affecting small firms in Croatia. Policy recommendations and lines of further research are discussed.

  3. Updating the Potential of Culture in the Prevention of Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Kislov, Alexander G.; Syuzeva, Natalya V.; Ozhegova, Anna P.; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is due to the danger and at the same time the prevalence of corruption, so special attention is given to the need to supplement the repressive state and awareness-raising measures forming, especially in educational institutions of special subculture, raising a categorical rejection of corruption. The…

  4. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  5. Strengthening Integrity and Fighting Corruption in Education: Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education matters. It is a gateway to prosperity of individuals and economies alike. Integrity in education matters too. Corruption hinders prosperity, causes long-term damage to societies, and diminishes the efficiency of investment in their human potential. Driven by the insight that corruption in education can undermine even the best of…

  6. Corruption as a Propensity: Personality and Motivational Determinants Among Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, Aaron Adibe; Iwundu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi

    2016-01-01

    Psychologically oriented studies on corruption are lacking despite the fact that psychology has contributed enormously to the understanding of criminal behaviors over the past decades. Part of this problem relates to the lack of psychological tone in the definition and measurement of corruption. Taking a clue from the extensive psychological discourse on crime, which provides strong evidence for the existence of criminal tendencies, we conceptualized corruption here in terms of propensity. Possible personality and motivation determinants of this propensity were then explored. Results revealed that extraversion and conscientiousness positively and inversely predicted corruption tendencies, respectively. Results further showed that extrinsic motivation positively potentiates corruption tendencies, whereas intrinsic motivation was inversely related to corruption tendencies. Analysis of demographic variables revealed that males were more likely to be corrupt than their female counterparts. In general, findings here are consistent with the criminal behavior literature, which strongly suggests that the study of corruption is indeed amenable to psychological theories and methods and that individual differences variables constitute important explanatory variables in this regard.

  7. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  8. Corruption and Coercion: University Autonomy versus State Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial body of literature considers excessive corruption an indicator of a weak state. However, in nondemocratic societies, corruption--whether informally approved, imposed, or regulated by public authorities--is often an indicator of a vertical power rather than an indicator of a weak state. This article explores the interrelations between…

  9. Causes of corruption: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ato Forson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the causes of corruption in 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1996 to 2013. The sources of corruption are grouped into three main thematic areas – historical roots, contemporary causes and institutional causes to make way for subjective and objective measures. The subjective measures allow for assessment of the effectiveness of anticorruption policies. Using pooled OLS, fixed-effect and instrumental-variable approaches, and focusing on the perceived level of corruption as the dependent variable, we find that ethnic diversity, resource abundance and educational attainment are markedly less associated with corruption. In contrast, wage levels of bureaucrats and anticorruption measures based on government effectiveness and regulatory quality breed substantial corruption. Press freedom is found to be variedly associated with corruption. On the basis of these findings, we recommend that the fight against corruption on the continent needs to be reinvented through qualitative and assertive institutional reforms. Anticorruption policy decisions should focus on existing educational systems as a conduit for intensifying awareness of the devastating effect of corruption on sustainable national development.

  10. Curbing Corruption in Nigeria: The Imperatives of Good Leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work generally examined the past and present government leaderships' efforts at curbing corruption in Nigeria and the imperatives of good leadership. The study, specifically, analyzed the relationship between effectively fighting and curbing corruption and the leadership style in Nigeria. The basic finding is that ...

  11. Visiting Fellowship on Governance and Corruption | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corruption presents a major challenge to democratic oversight of public finance and development in general. John Githongo is a founding member of the Kenyan chapter of Transparency International and has gained a reputation as one of Africa's most distinguished opponents of corruption. Mr Githongo served as ...

  12. Corruption: Threat to democracy and market economy in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the research on 'Corruption: Threat to Democracy and Market Economy', the researchers critically explore the issue of corruption and how it threatens the democracy and market economy in Nigeria. Relevant literature was revised, which formed the secondary data. The theoretical framework of the study is political ...

  13. An Economic Analysis Of Corruption In Nigeria | Ben | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bane of the Nigerian economy has been mainly corruption in all sectors. This work is an in depth analysis on the meaning, kinds, causes and the economic implications to the country. It x-rayed how various leaders past and present have contributed to the underdevelopment of the country through corruption and proffers ...

  14. Perception of public corruption in Kenya | Kimemia | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption decreases government efficiency and effectiveness, and influences the way citizens perceive the overall quality of the government. The main focus of this paper is to examine why perceptions of public corruption did not change during the Kibaki administration. This administration was in power for 10 years ...

  15. The legal regime of corruption in Ethiopia: an assessment from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is a universal problem which compromises people's quest for development, peace, democracy, and human rights though its degree of severity varies. Due to its universality, there was global campaign against corruption and has resulted in an international regime of law. Law is one of the strategies of combating ...

  16. Governance, corruption, and trade in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  17. Can more business ethics teaching halt corruption in companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... teaching of business ethics can/will have a positive effect on the fight against corruption in companies. It is written from a (South) African perspective. Statistics about the alarming state of corruption in South African businesses are provided in the beginning. A Hegelian approach to the problem, in terms of which theory can ...

  18. On the Causes for and Countermeasures against Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongning, Yuan; Jian, Zhang; Haibo, Wang

    2007-01-01

    Combating corruption is an important condition for bringing about the flourishing of academic research. There are many reasons for the emergence and proliferation of academic corruption today. These are closely related to the long-term lack of training among our country's scholars in modern academic standards and the absence of an academic spirit…

  19. Educating Accountants in Corruption Pervasive Societies: A Focus on Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idialu, Jeremiah Uwaifo; Oghuma, Richard Iyere

    2007-01-01

    There has been widespread corruption in almost all societies and a general belief that without the involvement of Accountants, or if accountants carry out their duties effectively, there will be no corruption. Therefore this paper is designed to look at the current approach educating accountants in order to discover the educational arrangement put…

  20. ANTI-CORRUPTION IN THE BRIСS COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurakin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a global challenge which may impact negatively on economic growth and sustainable development of the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. All of these five countries have been held back by corruption, in varying ways, but their rising importance to the global economic system ensures the spotlight now shines brighter than ever on them. Yet some of the BRICS countries have handled the issue better than others. According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index (2017, in the BRICS bloc of major emerging economies, South Africa is ranked the best (71st, followed by China (77th and India (81st, with Brazil is 96th and Russia 135th out of 180 countries. These five nations support the strengthening of international cooperation against corruption, including through the BRICS Anti-Corruption Working Group, as well as on matters related to asset recovery and persons sought for corruption. This article provides a detailed analysis of anti-corruption legislation of four of the BRICS countries (Brazil, South Africa, China and India, as well as a brief overview of the efforts of these countries in the fight against corruption.

  1. Corruption's effect on growth and its transmission channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, L.; Gerlagh, R.

    2004-01-01

    A common finding of recent theoretical and empirical literature is that corruption has a negative effect on economic growth. In the paper, through growth regression analysis, we estimate the direct and indirect effects of corruption on economic growth. The indirect transmission channels,

  2. Corruption and inequality of wealth amongst the very rich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); E.A. de Groot (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCorruption may lead to tax evasion and unbalanced favors and this may lead to extraordinary wealth amongst a few. We study for 13 countries 6 years of Forbes rankings data and we examine whether corruption leads to more inequality amongst the wealthiest. When we correct in our panel

  3. Corruption in Public Procurement: Finding the Right Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.; Deleanu, I.S.; Unger, B.

    2017-01-01

    Red flags are widely used to minimize the risk of various forms of economic misconduct, among which corruption in public procurement. Drawing on criminal investigations, the literature has developed several indicators of corruption in public procurements and has put them forward as viable risk

  4. Corruption clubs: empirical evidence from kernel density estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    A common finding of many analytical models is the existence of multiple equilibria of corruption. Countries characterized by the same economic, social and cultural background do not necessarily experience the same levels of corruption. In this article, we use Kernel Density Estimation techniques to

  5. Corruption in Public Procurement : Finding the Right Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, Joras; Deleanu, Ioana; Unger, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Red flags are widely used to minimize the risk of various forms of economic misconduct, among which corruption in public procurement. Drawing on criminal investigations, the literature has developed several indicators of corruption in public procurements and has put them forward as viable risk

  6. Corruption and Development in Nigeria: Matters Arising | Felix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the link between corruption and development, using a contextual analysis of the Nigerian experience from Independence (1960) to this present day (2010). It conceptualizes corruption as “putrefaction, tainting, debasement, perversion or venality, spoiling, destruction of purity or falling away from ...

  7. Students and staff beliefs of corruption in Nigerian universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This instrument was used for data collection. Three research questions were asked and the findings of the research show that allegations of corruption in Nigerian Universities are not imaginary and false. Intervention strategies were offered, in view that the menace of corruption in Nigerian Universities will be ameliorated.

  8. Book Review: Leslie Holmes, Corruption: A Very Short Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keremis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699.......Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699....

  9. CORRUPTION, SOCIAL VIOLENCE AND ETHICAL CULTURE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Kelechi Johnmary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is the direct or indirect act of violence aimed at exploiting unmerited gain and or advantage from a person, structure, institution or environment. In Nigeria, corruption has grown to an unquantifiable level. The major causes of corruption include absence of political will, progressive suppression of the culture of accountability, geometric societal poverty and negative socio-economic conditions as well as greed and the get-rich-quick syndrome etc. The paper presents the multi-dimensional phases of corruption in Nigeria and the salient mandate of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC as well as Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC. Unfortunately, the work reveal that the effectiveness of the above institutions and other corruption-watchdog setups has being watered-down by the negative push and pull effects of what is popularly known as the ‘Nigerian factor’. Finally, it argues that the most dangerous implications of corruption are the recurrence of social violence and the near-total collapse of ethical culture in every sector of the Nigerian national life, while recommending multidimensional transformative cultures of corruption management that must be collectively championed by the citizenry.

  10. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political

  11. Corruption in Nigeria: A consequence of distorted value system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is abundant evidence in extant literatures which have documented the endemic nature of corruption and its devastating effects on the Nigerian socio political structures. The colossal corruptions have resulted in the loss of the capacity to function. The structure of the Nigerian nation, as it is presently structured cannot ...

  12. Open data for accountability in the fight against corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, Darusalam; Janssen, Marijn; Baldoni, Matteo; Baroglio, Cristina; Micalizio, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper we

  13. Corruption and Economic Activity: Micro Level Evidence from Rural Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, G.; Bulte, E.H.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study how corruption affects economic activities of households in rural Liberia. A proxy of corruption of community leaders is obtained by directly monitoring the diversion of inputs associated with a development project. We measure quantities of these inputs twice; before and after the chief

  14. Open data for accountability in the fight against corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, Joris; Darusalam, D.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a lot of research on the use of open data in the fight against corruption. Although there are some promising examples, it appears that a systematic approach is lacking. What are the design principles for an architecture to open up data and thereby reduce corruption? In this paper

  15. Anatomy of Corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbewere Bankole Ijewereme

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a clog in the wheel of progress in Nigeria and has incessantly frustrated the realization of noble national goals, despite the enormous natural and human resources in Nigeria. The article reviews the concept of corruption in line with its forms and effects on the Nigerian State, as well as corruption in public service from Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa’s era to President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration. The article examines the idealistic, resource curse, two public, low risk–high benefit and anomie theories, and consequently adopts resource curse, low risk–high benefit theories to explain causes of corruption in Nigeria. Also, some personal observations and data from Transparency International are utilized to explain corrupt practices in Nigeria. The article concludes that there is corruption in the Nigerian Public Sector because of societal pressure, tribalism, nepotism, low risk–high benefits of involving in corruption among others. The article recommends some measures to combat corruption in Nigeria.

  16. Corruption and legal (in)effectiveness: an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Weiss, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the causes and measured the consequences of differences in corruption among countries. An effective legal system has been viewed as a key component in reducing corruption. However, estimating cross-sectional as well as panel data models, we find a significant

  17. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; Leveck, Brad L; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H

    2014-04-06

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons.

  19. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; LeVeck, Brad L.; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons. PMID:24478283

  20. Outspread and condemnation of corruption in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The most outspread kind of corruption according to the experience of private entrepreneurs, is in the acquisition of a building location, then during acquisition of import-export licenses, acquiring of government contracts, and acquisition of telephone and electric power services. In contrast to this, bribery is present the least in the fields of tax administration, company registration, and approval of new sales prices Outspread of corruption is large. More than a half of private entrepreneurs (57,8% have declared that they have paid to the public officials so called additional services. Contrary to this, one quarter (24,8% declared that have not done something like that. Most frequent amount of this additional payment goes between 1 and 10% of their income. They not denied that sometimes is possible to avoid this payment, at the cost of spending large amount of time. There is also no guarantee that paid 'service' will be consumed for sure, so one third and often one fifth of entrepreneurs are in need to pay same service again. Service that is matter of deal can be obtain: always in 8,3% cases, usually in 40,1%, often in 15,0%, sometimes in 11,9%, rare in 3,4% and never in 5% of cases.

  1. [Corruption risks in relations between doctor and patient ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolwitz, Marcin; Gąsiorowski, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the problem of corruption occurring in the relationship between doctor and patient. The doctor-patient relationship, including the provision of health services, is one of several potential areas of corruption in the health care system. Among the reasons for the existence of corruption in these relationships are the need to obtain better healthcare for the patient, and higher earnings in the case of a doctor. Indications of corruption are utilitarian (action for personal advantage without ethical aspects), but may also be (actually or in the patient's opinion) the only way to obtain services and save health and even life. Corruption between the doctor and the patient can be limited by better organization of the health care system, including the financing of benefits and education of medical personnel and patients, as well as traditional legal measures, such as prevention or the application of criminal sanctions.

  2. Corruption and economic growth with non constant labor force growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianzoni, Serena; Campisi, Giovanni; Russo, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Based on Brianzoni et al. [1] in the present work we propose an economic model regarding the relationship between corruption in public procurement and economic growth. We extend the benchmark model by introducing endogenous labor force growth, described by the logistic equation. The results of previous studies, as Del Monte and Papagni [2] and Mauro [3], show that countries are stuck in one of the two equilibria (high corruption and low economic growth or low corruption and high economic growth). Brianzoni et al. [1] prove the existence of a further steady state characterized by intermediate levels of capital per capita and corruption. Our aim is to investigate the effects of the endogenous growth around such equilibrium. Moreover, due to the high number of parameters of the model, specific attention is given to the numerical simulations which highlight new policy measures that can be adopted by the government to fight corruption.

  3. State corruption practices as the deviation of the social morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Parkhomenko

    2016-11-01

    Several groups of definitions of corruption have been identified in the article: corruption as the use of their official position by an official, who dispose another’s resources in order to achieve personal goals and their own material enrichment; corruption as a kind of black market of goods and services, where there are (as in a normal economy, the laws of supply and demand, and constantly fulfilled transactions between different subjects; corruption as a strategy of behavior of the two social groups – representatives of the government and private businesses or citizens (in this context, the corruption is considered depending on the fact, which of the parties is trying to establish control over the other.

  4. Game as motivation and action in the corruptive social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L. Iakovleva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the game component in the form of motivation and action which stimulate the specific corruption form of conduct in the space of social glamorous. Methods a complex of classical and postclassical research methods including analytical phenomenological and dialectical methods of cognition in relation to game to gaming motivations and actions setting a variety of game forms attesting to its attractiveness flexibility and plasticity as well as postmodern paradigm of interpretation of the glamour ideology and a special type of personality ndash the corrupt official with the characteristics of a trickster. Results Russian society being in anomia condition exacerbated by corruption however does not give cause for pessimism. Anticorruption policy promoting the scientific search of the motivational causes and effects of personality showing the corrupt behavior and corrupt activity makes the research results known to a wide audience and introduces them into the practical anticorruption activity associated with upbringing education and promotion of anticorruption and inclusive way of living that embodies the included state in the mode of ldquoto Berdquo. Scientific novelty the analysis of the game phenomenon can help to detect corruption in the space where the phenomenon presents itself as motivation and action determined by its ontological inclusiveness and gamification of the modern social. The difficulty to identify the game within the context of its epistemological corruption is caused by its gnosiological incomprehensiveness transformation in the modernity as well as foggy goals and actions of the corruptionist. The study leads to the identification of a new type of personality ndash the corruptionisttrickstertrickstercorruptionist. Knowledge of the gaming motivations and actions of the corruptionist allows to navigate through the complex situations of today having corrupt motives. Practical significance the main provisions and

  5. Spiraling Down into Corruption: A Dynamic Analysis of the Social Identity Processes that Cause Corruption in Organizations to Grow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. den Nieuwenboer (Niki); S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTo date, theory and research on corruption in organizations have primarily focused on its static antecedents. This paper focuses on the spread and growth of corruption in organizations. For this purpose three downward organizational spirals are formulated: the spiral of divergent norms,

  6. Propiedades de transporte de una superred de grafeno tipo sinusoidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Briones-Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo usamos el método de la matriz de transferencia para estudiar el tunelamiento de los electrones de Dirac a través de superredes en grafeno. Consideramos una superred con potencial sinusoidal o polaridad invertida, para ello consideramos dos maneras de crearla, una por medio de sustratos mixtos junto con la aplicación de un campo perpendicular sobre el sustrato de Óxido de Silicio (SiO2, la otra por medio de potenciales alternados aplicados perpendicularmente sobre la sábana de grafeno. Calculamos las propiedades de transmisión, transporte y estructura electrónica, variando diferentes parámetros como ángulo de incidencia, anchos de pozos y barreras y diferente número de barreras. Se encontró (1 el importante papel que juega el efecto Klein en tales estructuras, (2 las propiedades de transmisión y transporte presentan cierta simetría respecto del origen de la energía, y (3 el carácter sinusoidal del sistema trae consigo una baja en el nivel de energía de las subbandas en el espectro de estados acotados, además las degenera y origina que la apertura-cierre de las minibandas sea en el mismo nivel de energía.

  7. Observation of Sinusoidal Voltage Behaviour in Silver Doped YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkok, Atilgan; Olutas, Murat; Kilic, Kivilcim; Kilic, Atilla

    The influence of bi-directional square wave (BSW) current was investigated on the evolution of the V - t curves at different periods (P) , temperatures and external magnetic fields. It was observed that slow transport relaxation measurements result in regular sinusoidal voltage oscillations which were discussed mainly in terms of the dynamic competition between pinning and depinning.The symmetry in the voltage oscillations was attributed to the elastic coupling between the flux lines and the pinning centers along grain boundaries and partly inside the grains. This case was also correlated to the equality between flux entry and exit along the YBCO/Ag sample during regular oscillations. It was shown that the voltage oscillations can be described well by an empirical expression V (t) sin(wt + φ) . We found that the phase angle φgenerally takes different values for the repetitive oscillations. Fast Fourier Transform analysis of the V - t oscillations showed that the oscillation period is comparable to that (PI) of the BSW current. This finding suggests a physical mechanism associated with charge density waves (CDWs), and, indeed, the weakly pinned flux line system in YBCO/Ag resembles the general behavior of CDWs. At certain values of PI, amplitude of BSW current, H and T, the YBCO/Ag sample behaves like a double-integrator, since it converts the BSW current to sinusoidal voltage oscillations in time.

  8. Mapping surface properties of sinusoidal roughness standards by TPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X; Rubert, P

    2005-01-01

    We report our investigation on the surface properties of sinusoidal roughness standards made from pure electroformed nickel. Two specimens having a sinusoidal profile with nominal R a of 0.36 μm and a peak spacing of 25 μm are chosen for this investigation. One specimen is further treated with a hard protective coating of nickel-boron. The surface topography, friction, hardness and Young's modulus of the specimens were measured by a novel instrument, the multi-function Tribological Probe Microscope (TPM). The results show that hardness of these two specimens is 14.1 GPa for uncoated specimen and 25.7 GPa for the coated one, while the Young's modulus is 188 GPa and 225 GPa, respectively. The ramping force was set to 3mN for both the specimens and the effect of the tip penetration was investigated by comparing the topography measurements before and after hardness mapping. It has been found out that there is no significant change in the averaged profiles over the scanned area, which indicates the topography distortion seen in the multi-function mapping, is recoverable. Cross correlation between topography and its corresponding hardness/Young's modulus has been carried out and the result will be discussed in the paper

  9. Hydraulic testing in granite using the sinusoidal variation of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.; Holmes, D.C.; Noy, D.J.

    1982-09-01

    Access to two boreholes at the Carwynnen test site in Cornwall enabled the trial of a number of innovative approaches to the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline rock. These methods ranged from the use of seisviewer data to measure the orientation of fractures to the use of the sinusoidal pressure technique to measure directional hydraulic diffusivity. The testing began with a short programme of site investigation consisting of borehole caliper and seisviewer logging followed by some single borehole hydraulic tests. The single borehole hydraulic testing was designed to assess whether the available boreholes and adjacent rock were suitable for testing using the sinusoidal method. The main testing methods were slug and pulse tests and were analysed using the fissured porous medium analysis proposed in Barker and Black (1983). Derived hydraulic conductivity (K) ranged from 2 x 10 -12 m/sec to 5 x 10 -7 m/sec with one near-surface zone of high K being perceived in both boreholes. The results were of the form which is typical of fractured rock and indicated a combination of high fracture frequency and permeable granite matrix. The results are described and discussed. (author)

  10. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  11. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C.; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior—both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research. PMID:26121127

  12. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils C Köbis

    Full Text Available Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1 or after (Study 2 the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3. Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  13. Auditing Nicaragua's anti-corruption struggle, 1998 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosteguí, Jorge; Hernandez, Carlos; Suazo, Harold; Cárcamo, Alvaro; Reyes, Rosa Maria; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J

    2011-12-21

    Four social audits in 1998, 2003, 2006 and 2009 identified actions that Nicaragua could take to reduce corruption and public perception in primary health care and other key services. In a 71-cluster sample, weighted according to the 1995 census and stratified by geographic region and settlement type, we audited the same five public services: health centres and health posts, public primary schools, municipal government, transit police and the courts. Some 6,000 households answered questions about perception and personal experience of unofficial and involuntary payments, payments without obtaining receipts or to the wrong person, and payments "to facilitate" services in municipal offices or courts. Additional questions covered complaints about corruption and confidence in the country's anti-corruption struggle. Logistic regression analyses helped clarify local variations and explanatory variables. Feedback to participants and the services at both national and local levels followed each social audit. Users' experience of corruption in health services, education and municipal government decreased. The wider population's perception of corruption in these sectors decreased also, but not as quickly. Progress among traffic police faltered between 2006 and 2009 and public perception of police corruption ticked upwards in parallel with drivers' experience. Users' experience of corruption in the courts worsened over the study period--with the possible exception of Managua between 2006 and 2009--but public perception of judicial corruption, after peaking in 2003, declined from then on. Confidence in the anti-corruption struggle grew from 50% to 60% between 2003 and 2009. Never more than 8% of respondents registered complaints about corruption.Factors associated with public perception of corruption were: personal experience of corruption, quality of the service itself, and the perception that municipal government takes community opinion into account and keeps people informed

  14. Variational approach for restoring blurred images with cauchy noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciacchitano, Federica; Dong, Yiqiu; Zeng, Tieyong

    2015-01-01

    model, we add a quadratic penalty term, which guarantees the uniqueness of the solution. Due to the convexity of our model, the primal dual algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for simultaneously deblurring...... and denoising images corrupted by Cauchy noise. Comparison with other existing and well-known methods is provided as well....

  15. Seismic noise attenuation using an online subspace tracking algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yatong; Li, Shuhua; Zhang, D.; Chen, Yangkang

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new low-rank based noise attenuation method using an efficient algorithm for tracking subspaces from highly corrupted seismic observations. The subspace tracking algorithm requires only basic linear algebraic manipulations. The algorithm is derived by analysing incremental gradient

  16. Some Optimum and Suboptimum Frame Synchronizers for Binary Data in Gaussian Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Palle Tolstrup

    1973-01-01

    In this correspondence we investigate the performance of several optimum and suboptimum devices for locating a sync word in data corrupted by Gaussian noise. One suboptimum synchronizer, which is extremely simple to instrument, is shown to perform virtually optimally over the entire range...... of interesting signal-to-noise ratios....

  17. A comparative analysis of the implementation of anti-corruption legislation by anti-corruption agencies in the provinces of the Eastern and Northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozama Majila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries experience various degrees of corruption. South Africa is no exception. The undeniable fact is that corruption cannot be reckoned as a mere country- or region- specific problem; it is a far wider phenomenon. However, there has been a growing global movement to condemn corrupt practices, resulting in the removal of certain leaders from office. South Africa has formulated and promulgated legislation that is considered an international example of good practice and has established agencies for the purpose of combating corruption. The Institute for Security Studies (2007:1 proposes that anti-corruption legislation, if enforced, should equip the country’s anti-corruption agencies with a tool that could effectively be utilised as a punitive instrument for offenders and a deterrent for those contemplating corrupt activities. This article examines whether anti-corruption agencies are apolitical and capable of detecting and punishing corruption or whether they are only a response to international demands by international agreements. In this regard the United Nations Convention against Corruption, the SADC Protocol against Corruption and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption are discussed. The article concludes with recommendations based on an empirical survey of anti- corruption legislation and anti-corruption agencies conducted in the Eastern Cape and Northern Cape Provinces.

  18. Administrative corruption from sociology perspective and the relationship between administrative corruption and social security

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Zarei Jlyany; Gholam Reza Sharafi; Mustafa Tavani; Mansour Haghighatian; Moslem Tavani

    2014-01-01

    certain principles Observance and non- Observance on organizing a social system will have Indisputable effect at the Organization. And administrative systems are not exempt from this, also the selection of the Administration components and also How to Place the components together can affect its performance. Meanwhile, the government's role in the prevalence or no-prevalence, the extent type and the way of administrative corruption influence, in this article, researchers wants to explore the ...

  19. Who gets caught for corruption when corruption is pervasive? Evidence from China's anti-bribery blacklist

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Liming; Jin, Zhangfeng; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Original Open Access Repository: https://hydra.hull.ac.uk/resources/hull:13057 This article empirically investigates why in a corruption-pervasive country only a minority of the firms get caught for bribery while the majority get away with it. By matching manufacturing firms to a blacklist of bribers in the healthcare sector of a province in China, we show that the government-led blacklisting is selective: while economically more visible firms are slightly more likely to be blacklisted, st...

  20. Corruption in a Comprehensive School: Sociological Diagnosis and Educational Providence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the phenomenon of corruption in a comprehensive school. It analyses the expression forms of corruption and their peculiarities and disputes the main reasons stimulating educators to take part in corrupt interchanges thus tolerate it. On the ground of empirical research in Vilnius secondary schools it discloses attitudes of teachers, schoolchildren and parents towards corruption. The research was carried out in Vilnius Salomėja Nėris gymnasium, Vilnius Mikalojus Daukša secondary school, Mindaugas secondary school, Užupys gymnasium, Antakalnis gymnasium, Naujamiestis secondary school and Stanevičius secondary school. Overall 500 respondents were questioned: 300 pupils of ninth – twelfth forms, 100 teachers and 100 parents of schoolchildren. Difficult financial circumstances were pointed out as the main reason stimulating teachers to take part in corrupt interchanges. This answer was chosen by 42 per cent of respondents. Most of them think that raising wages would reduce corruption crimes. The research data show it is an important problem in schools though 70 per cent of respondents state it is not the biggest problem in their school. Only 15 per cent of questioned schoolchildren, 4 per cent of parents and 14 percent of teachers safely state that corruption is the main problem in their school. About 20 per cent of respondents (21.4 per cent of schoolchildren, 19 per cent of parents and 21 per cent of teachers acknowledge of making a payoff or receiving an offer to take it. Respondents state that 30 per cent of their friends and relatives made a payoff to school staff. 26.7 percent of schoolchildren and 27 per cent of parents’ acquaintances made a payoff to school staff. Only the answers of teachers did not change – 21 per cent of their colleagues were offered a payoff. These results do not let affirm that corruption is very widely spread in schools and therefore could be named as the biggest problem here. Though

  1. The Classification of Corruption in Indonesia: A Behavioral Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdani Rizki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to investigate and identify the pattern and classification of corruptors in Indonesia, especially the state officials being imprisoned. This research used the qualitative method. The data were collected through documentations and interviews. The source of the data was chosen by purposive sampling technique. The researcher interviewed deeply 9 suspects of corruption cases being imprisoned. The results of the research show that the classification of corruptors in Indonesia includes all types of corruptions constructed by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE, namely: conflict of interest, bribery, illegal gratuities, and economic extortion. Based on the interview, it is found that the interviewees perform different types of corruptions as follows: there are some suspects perform more than one type of corruptions; there are some suspects perform single corruptions with the same type, and there are some suspects perform single corruptions with the different type. In Indonesia, it is not only the people of executive, legislative, and judiciary who can perform corruptions, but also the people of private sections.

  2. WHY CORRUPTION MAY HAPPEN?: A CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Anti Corruption course is one of several ways of anti-corruption’s campaign in Indonesia’s higher education system. In terms of education, the Anti Corruption’s curriculum were prepared and developed by Indonesia’s ministry of education, but in practice it is possible for lecturers to creatively modify the way of delivering subjects to students. The purpose of this study is to explore student perspectives on what causes corruption. The researches itself is a classroom action research, and discuss through intrepretative approach. Sampling technique were done through judgemental sampling. Respondents involved were students who attend the anti-corruption class year 2013 (n = 20. Data collection is done by using open question form in e-learning (elearning.paramadina.ac.id. Questions will lead to response of students about their perspectives of what causes corruption and as a results, students perspectives are then classified into three kinds of responses, they are internal causes of corruption, external and internal causes of corruption and external causes of corruption.

  3. Sinusoidal voltage protocols for rapid characterisation of ion channel kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Kylie A; Hill, Adam P; Bardenet, Rémi; Cui, Yi; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Gavaghan, David J; de Boer, Teun P; Mirams, Gary R

    2018-03-24

    Ion current kinetics are commonly represented by current-voltage relationships, time constant-voltage relationships and subsequently mathematical models fitted to these. These experiments take substantial time, which means they are rarely performed in the same cell. Rather than traditional square-wave voltage clamps, we fitted a model to the current evoked by a novel sum-of-sinusoids voltage clamp that was only 8 s long. Short protocols that can be performed multiple times within a single cell will offer many new opportunities to measure how ion current kinetics are affected by changing conditions. The new model predicts the current under traditional square-wave protocols well, with better predictions of underlying currents than literature models. The current under a novel physiologically relevant series of action potential clamps is predicted extremely well. The short sinusoidal protocols allow a model to be fully fitted to individual cells, allowing us to examine cell-cell variability in current kinetics for the first time. Understanding the roles of ion currents is crucial to predict the action of pharmaceuticals and mutations in different scenarios, and thereby to guide clinical interventions in the heart, brain and other electrophysiological systems. Our ability to predict how ion currents contribute to cellular electrophysiology is in turn critically dependent on our characterisation of ion channel kinetics - the voltage-dependent rates of transition between open, closed and inactivated channel states. We present a new method for rapidly exploring and characterising ion channel kinetics, applying it to the hERG potassium channel as an example, with the aim of generating a quantitatively predictive representation of the ion current. We fitted a mathematical model to currents evoked by a novel 8 second sinusoidal voltage clamp in CHO cells overexpressing hERG1a. The model was then used to predict over 5 minutes of recordings in the same cell in response to

  4. SII-Based Speech Prepocessing for Intelligibility Improvement in Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taal, Cees H.; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    filter sets certain frequency bands to zero when they do not contribute to intelligibility anymore. Experiments show large intelligibility improvements with the proposed method when used in stationary speech-shaped noise. However, it was also found that the method does not perform well for speech...... corrupted by a competing speaker. This is due to the fact that the SII is not a reliable intelligibility predictor for fluctuating noise sources. MATLAB code is provided....

  5. Determinants of anti-corruption activities at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the concept of corruption, defined as an obstacle to economic and social development, created by representatives of the power structures of the country, region, enterprise, weakening the efficiency of management and the institutional foundation of society. Anticorruption activity is presented in the article as conditions created by the state and ensuring that the country's economy is not irreparably damaged by internal and external economic threats. The estimated characteristics of the anti-corruption activities of the regions and the country as a whole, as a rule, are studied in the domestic sources and among foreign authors. Statistical evaluation of the relationship between the level of corruption and indicators: the dynamics of GRP growth, the index of real incomes of the population, the costs of training, health care is made on the basis of the coefficient Pearson correlation. Based on the correlation analysis, stable links were established between the level of corruption and the socio-economic indicators of the region's development: an increase in the level of corruption associated with an increase in the population's spending on education and medicine; a reduction in the level of corruption, as a result of increased incomes of the population and higher wages. The consequences of corruption are presented: legal (the undeveloped legislative base, which involves bribery of powerful people, the growth of corruption in the society, the increase in corruption crimes, the inefficiency of the regulatory framework, social (moral violation, low public evaluation of the activities of power structures, low level of culture and upbringing , economic (bias financial, investment decisions, illegal distribution of property and non-property benefits, the impossibility of competitors Vat with developed countries and others.

  6. Noise Reduction in the Time Domain using Joint Diagonalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2014-01-01

    , an estimate of the desired signal is found by subtraction of the noise estimate from the observed signal. The filter can be designed to obtain a desired trade-off between noise reduction and signal distortion, depending on the number of eigenvectors included in the filter design. This is explored through...... simulations using a speech signal corrupted by car noise, and the results confirm that the output signal-to-noise ratio and speech distortion index both increase when more eigenvectors are included in the filter design....

  7. Perception of Corruption in 36 Major Chinese Cities: Based on Survey of 1,642 Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuguang; Cheng, Wenhao

    2012-01-01

    Perception surveys remain an important tool to measure corruption. However, most existing perception surveys only analyze corruption at the national or international level, and do not provide information about corruption at local levels. But it is corruption in local areas that really influences the everyday life of ordinary people. In order to…

  8. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobis, N.C.; van Prooijen, J-W.; Righetti, F.; van Lange, P. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do

  9. Chasing Moby Dick Across Every Sea and Ocean? Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2011-01-01

    Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)......Draft report commissioned by Norad, c/o ANKOR (the Anti-corruption Project) in cooperation with the Evaluation Department ("Contextual Choices for Results in Fighting Corruption", Referende number 1001232)...

  10. Higher Education Corruption in the World Media: Prevalence, Patterns, and Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is a newly emerging topic in the field of education research. There is a phenomenal growth in the number of media reports on corruption in higher education over the last decade. However, the rigorous systematic research on education corruption is virtually nonexistent. This paper considers corruption in higher…

  11. The Impact of Corruption on GDP Per Capita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Mustapha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. A panel data covers the period between 2003 and 2011. The objective is to test the hypothesis that there is a strong negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita. Three tests were conducted, the pool OLS, The Fixed Effect and the Random effect estimations. The main result of this study is that all three tests had shown strong statistically significant negative impact of corruption on the GDP per capita.

  12. Do Politics in Europe Benefit from Politicising Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bågenholm, Andreas; Charron, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    . It then empirically tests two aspects of this campaign strategy. First, what are the factors that are systematically associated with a party's decision to politicise corruption? Second, what are the electoral effects in terms of relative vote share for parties that politicise corruption? Using an original data......, district magnitude and public party financing. Second, it is found that the main opposition and new parties that use such a campaign strategy make significant electoral gains relative to the previous election compared to parties that do not politicise corruption. Yet gains are offset in low...

  13. Combating healthcare corruption and fraud with improved global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-10-22

    Corruption is a serious threat to global health outcomes, leading to financial waste and adverse health consequences. Yet, forms of corruption impacting global health are endemic worldwide in public and private sectors, and in developed and resource-poor settings alike. Allegations of misuse of funds and fraud in global health initiatives also threaten future investment. Current domestic and sectorial-level responses are fragmented and have been criticized as ineffective. In order to address this issue, we propose a global health governance framework calling for international recognition of "global health corruption" and development of a treaty protocol to combat this crucial issue.

  14. A model of interaction between anticorruption authority and corruption groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neverova, Elena G.; Malafeyef, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a model of interaction between anticorruption unit and corruption groups. The main policy functions of the anticorruption unit involve reducing corrupt practices in some entities through an optimal approach to resource allocation and effective anticorruption policy. We develop a model based on Markov decision-making process and use Howard’s policy-improvement algorithm for solving an optimal decision strategy. We examine the assumption that corruption groups retaliate against the anticorruption authority to protect themselves. This model was implemented through stochastic game

  15. On the Impact of Digital Technologies on Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    We hypothesize that the spread of the Internet has reduced corruption, chiefly through two mechanisms. First, the Internet facilitates the dissemination of information about corrupt behavior, which raises the detection risks to shady bureaucrats and politicians. Second, the Internet has reduced...... is a strong instrument for changes in Internet penetration; and we proceed to show that the spread of the Internet has reduced the extent of corruption across the globe and across the U.S. The size of the impact is economically and statistically significant...

  16. A model of interaction between anticorruption authority and corruption groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neverova, Elena G.; Malafeyef, Oleg A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 35, Universitetskii prospekt, Petrodvorets, 198504 Email:elenaneverowa@gmail.com, malafeyevoa@mail.ru (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-10

    The paper provides a model of interaction between anticorruption unit and corruption groups. The main policy functions of the anticorruption unit involve reducing corrupt practices in some entities through an optimal approach to resource allocation and effective anticorruption policy. We develop a model based on Markov decision-making process and use Howard’s policy-improvement algorithm for solving an optimal decision strategy. We examine the assumption that corruption groups retaliate against the anticorruption authority to protect themselves. This model was implemented through stochastic game.

  17. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  18. Institutional system response mechanism towards corruption: a point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, a lot of practices proper to corruption became widely common and are integrated in a real national bureaucratic culture. Romanian citizens seem to accept and tolerate informal payments in order to obtain the desired or the necessary services. Public officials are doing well, impersonal and they don’t realize they affect social welfare. That’s why fight against corruption must involve complex actions performed on many areas. Such action must be focused on measures that reduce the opportunities for corruption and increase the probability of detection and punish the offences.

  19. Current and Voltage Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CBTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sagbas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current-mode (CM and voltage-mode (VM multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO structures using current backward transconductance amplifier (CBTA are proposed. The proposed oscillators can generate n current or voltage signals (n being even or odd equally spaced in phase. n+1 CBTAs, n grounded capacitors and a grounded resistor are used for nth-state oscillator. The oscillation frequency can be independently controlled through transconductance (gm of the CBTAs which are adjustable via their bias currents. The effects caused by the non-ideality of the CBTA on the oscillation frequency and condition have been analyzed. The performance of the proposed circuits is demonstrated on third-stage and fifth-stage MSOs by using PSPICE simulations based on the 0.25 µm TSMC level-7 CMOS technology parameters.

  20. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-López, Yolanda; Herrera-Rangel, Aline; Pérez-Ruiz, Santiago J; Poblano, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA) and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD). We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD.

  1. New Realizations of Single OTRA-Based Sinusoidal Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chun Chien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes three new sinusoidal oscillators based on an operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA. Each of the proposed oscillator circuits consists of one OTRA combined with a few passive components. The first circuit is an OTRA-based minimum RC oscillator. The second circuit is capable of providing independent control on the condition of oscillation without affecting the oscillation frequency. The third circuit exhibits independent control of oscillation frequency through a capacitor. This study first introduces the OTRA and the related formulations of the proposed oscillator circuits, and then discusses the nonideal effects, sensitivity analyses, and frequency stability of the presented circuits. The proposed oscillators exhibit low sensitivities and good frequency stability. Because the presented circuits feature low impedance output, they can be connected directly to the next stage without cascading additional voltage buffers. HSPICE simulations and experimental results confirm the feasibility of the new oscillator circuits.

  2. One-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with sinusoidal densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, L.; Shang, L.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Properties of electromagnetic waves with normal and oblique incidence have been studied for one-dimensional plasma layers with sinusoidal densities. Wave transmittance as a function of wave frequency exhibits photonic band gaps characteristic of photonic crystals. For periodic structures, increasing collision frequency is demonstrated to lead to greater absorption, increasing the modulation factor enlarges the gap width, and increasing incidence angle can change the gap locations of the two polarizations. If a defect layer is introduced by inserting a new plasma layer in the center, a defect mode may appear within the gap. Periodic number, collision frequency, and modulation factor can affect magnitude of the defect mode. The incidence angle enables the frequency to be tuned. Defect layer thickness affects both frequency and number of defect modes. These results may provide theoretical guidance in designing tunable narrow-band filters

  3. Response of resonant gravitational wave detectors to damped sinusoid signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, A; Celsi, C; Pallottino, G V; D'Antonio, S; Astone, P

    2007-01-01

    Till date, the search for burst signals with resonant gravitational wave (GW) detectors has been done using the δ-function approximation for the signal, which was reasonable due to the very small bandwidth of these detectors. However, now with increased bandwidth (of the order of 10 or more Hz) and with the possibility of comparing results with interferometric GW detectors (broad-band), it is very important to exploit the resonant detectors' capability to detect also signals with specific wave shapes. As a first step, we present a study of the response of resonant GW detectors to damped sinusoids with given frequency and decay time and report on the development of a filter matched to these signals. This study is a preliminary step towards the comprehension of the detector response and of the filtering for signals such as the excitation of stellar quasi-normal modes

  4. Plasma characteristics in non-sinusoidally excited CCP discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Trevor; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2012-10-01

    Using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations we perform a characterization of the plasma response to positive pulse-type voltage excitations (with a repetition frequency of 13.56 MHz) in a geometrically symmetric CCP reactor (with a gap length of 2 cm) operated with argon (for pressures between 20-500 mTorr). Use of these non-sinusoidal waveforms generates an electrical asymmetry effect in the system, which necessitates the formation of a DC bias. This DC bias, together with the shape of the voltage waveforms used, produces a number of new phenomena that are not present in typical sinusoidal discharges: (1) the plasma density and ion flux can be increased as the pulse width is reduced, (2) a significant asymmetry in the ion fluxes to the powered and grounded electrodes develops as the pressure increases, (3) the average ion energy striking the grounded electrode remains low and approximately constant as the pulse width decreases, and (4) the sheath at the grounded electrode never fully collapses; electrons are no longer lost in sharp pulses, but escape essentially throughout the rf cycle. Effects (1) and (3) above offer the possibility for a new form of control in these types of discharges, where the ion flux can be increased while the ion energy on the grounded electrode can be kept small and essentially constant. This effect has recently been exploited to control the crystallinity of silicon thin films [1], where the low ion bombarding energy was found to improve the quality of films grown. [4pt] [1] Johnson E V, Pouliquen S, Delattre P A, and Booth J P, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 2012, in press.

  5. Nematic liquid crystals on sinusoidal channels: the zigzag instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Nuno M; Romero-Enrique, Jose M; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2017-01-11

    Substrates which are chemically or topographically patterned induce a variety of liquid crystal textures. The response of the liquid crystal to competing surface orientations, typical of patterned substrates, is determined by the anisotropy of the elastic constants and the interplay of the relevant lengths scales, such as the correlation length and the surface geometrical parameters. Transitions between different textures, usually with different symmetries, may occur under a wide range of conditions. We use the Landau-de Gennes free energy to investigate the texture of nematics in sinusoidal channels with parallel anchoring bounded by nematic-air interfaces that favour perpendicular (hometropic) anchoring. In micron size channels 5CB was observed to exhibit a non-trivial texture characterized by a disclination line, within the channel, which is broken into a zigzag pattern. Our calculations reveal that when the elastic anisotropy of the nematic does not favour twist distortions the defect is a straight disclination line that runs along the channel, which breaks into a zigzag pattern with a characteristic period, when the twist elastic constant becomes sufficiently small when compared to the splay and bend constants. The transition occurs through a twist instability that drives the defect line to rotate from its original position. The interplay between the energetically favourable twist distortions that induce the defect rotation and the liquid crystal anchoring at the surfaces leads to the zigzag pattern. We investigate in detail the dependence of the periodicity of the zigzag pattern on the geometrical parameters of the sinusoidal channels, which in line with the experimental results is found to be non-linear.

  6. Representative Sinusoids for Hepatic Four-Scale Pharmacokinetics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Ole Schwen

    Full Text Available The mammalian liver plays a key role for metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics in the body. The corresponding biochemical processes are typically subject to spatial variations at different length scales. Zonal enzyme expression along sinusoids leads to zonated metabolization already in the healthy state. Pathological states of the liver may involve liver cells affected in a zonated manner or heterogeneously across the whole organ. This spatial heterogeneity, however, cannot be described by most computational models which usually consider the liver as a homogeneous, well-stirred organ. The goal of this article is to present a methodology to extend whole-body pharmacokinetics models by a detailed liver model, combining different modeling approaches from the literature. This approach results in an integrated four-scale model, from single cells via sinusoids and the organ to the whole organism, capable of mechanistically representing metabolization inhomogeneity in livers at different spatial scales. Moreover, the model shows circulatory mixing effects due to a delayed recirculation through the surrounding organism. To show that this approach is generally applicable for different physiological processes, we show three applications as proofs of concept, covering a range of species, compounds, and diseased states: clearance of midazolam in steatotic human livers, clearance of caffeine in mouse livers regenerating from necrosis, and a parameter study on the impact of different cell entities on insulin uptake in mouse livers. The examples illustrate how variations only discernible at the local scale influence substance distribution in the plasma at the whole-body level. In particular, our results show that simultaneously considering variations at all relevant spatial scales may be necessary to understand their impact on observations at the organism scale.

  7. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cathy Q.; Crawford, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is an obliterative venulitis of the terminal hepatic venules, which in its more severe forms imparts a high risk of mortality. SOS, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD), occurs as a result of cytoreductive therapy prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), following oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver and treated by partial hepatectomy, in patients taking pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing herbal remedies, and in other particular settings such as the autosomal recessive condition of veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI). A central pathogenic event is toxic destruction of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC), with sloughing and downstream occlusion of terminal hepatic venules. Contributing factors are SEC glutathione depletion, nitric oxide depletion, increased intrahepatic expression of matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and activation of clotting factors. The clinical presentation of SOS includes jaundice, development of right upper-quadrant pain and tender hepatomegaly, ascites, and unexplained weight gain. Owing to the potentially critical condition of these patients, transjugular biopsy may be the preferred route for liver biopsy to exclude other potential causes of liver dysfunction and to establish a diagnosis of SOS. Treatment includes rigorous fluid management so as to avoid excessive fluid overload while avoiding too rapid diuresis or pericentesis, potential use of pharmaceutics such as defibrotide, coagulolytic agents, or methylprednisolone, and liver transplantation. Proposed strategies for prevention and prophylaxis include reduced-intensity conditioning radiation for HSCT, treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, and inclusion of bevacizumab with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimes. While significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis

  8. Bregman Cost for Non-Gaussian Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Martin; Dong, Yiqiu; Sciacchitano, Federica

    estimator for the Bregman cost if the image is corrupted by Gaussian noise. In this work we extend this result to other noise models with log-concave likelihood density, by introducing two related Bregman cost functions for which the CM and the MAP estimates are proper Bayes estima-tors. Moreover, we also....... From a theoretical point of view it has been argued that the MAP estimate is only in an asymptotic sense a Bayes estimator for the uniform cost function, while the CM estimate is a Bayes estimator for the means squared cost function. Recently, it has been proven that the MAP estimate is a proper Bayes...

  9. Using spatiotemporal source separation to identify prominent features in multichannel data without sinusoidal filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X

    2017-09-27

    The number of simultaneously recorded electrodes in neuroscience is steadily increasing, providing new opportunities for understanding brain function, but also new challenges for appropriately dealing with the increase in dimensionality. Multivariate source separation analysis methods have been particularly effective at improving signal-to-noise ratio while reducing the dimensionality of the data and are widely used for cleaning, classifying and source-localizing multichannel neural time series data. Most source separation methods produce a spatial component (that is, a weighted combination of channels to produce one time series); here, this is extended to apply source separation to a time series, with the idea of obtaining a weighted combination of successive time points, such that the weights are optimized to satisfy some criteria. This is achieved via a two-stage source separation procedure, in which an optimal spatial filter is first constructed and then its optimal temporal basis function is computed. This second stage is achieved with a time-delay-embedding matrix, in which additional rows of a matrix are created from time-delayed versions of existing rows. The optimal spatial and temporal weights can be obtained by solving a generalized eigendecomposition of covariance matrices. The method is demonstrated in simulated data and in an empirical electroencephalogram study on theta-band activity during response conflict. Spatiotemporal source separation has several advantages, including defining empirical filters without the need to apply sinusoidal narrowband filters. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation Using Quadratic Interpolation around Power-Scaled Magnitude Spectrum Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt James Werner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on a rescaled magnitude spectrum using a logarithmic scale has been shown to improve those estimates. In this article, we show how to heuristically tune a power scaling parameter to outperform linear and logarithmic scaling at an equivalent computational cost. Although this power scaling factor is computed heuristically rather than analytically, it is shown to depend in a structured way on window parameters. Invariance properties of this family of estimators are studied and the existence of a bias due to noise is shown. Comparing to two state-of-the-art estimators, we show that an optimized power scaling has a lower systematic bias and lower mean-squared-error in noisy conditions for ten out of twelve common windowing functions.

  12. Corruption in political democracy is hard to control with law only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Kumar Bhowmik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the types of corruption. To research sources of corruption and defects of corruption control mechanism. To propose ways of solving the problem of corruption. Methods methods of analysis synthesis analogy and summarizing were used. Result The reveals the imperfections of the systemic mechanism of corruption counteraction and analyzes its causes. The stages and scope of imperfections are also indentified. The world economical inequality which determines the lawmakersrsquo activities is a big concern of corruption controlling system. Biometric signature may be used as individual identification at all financerelated performance will identify the corrupt personals at all levels. Scientific novelty As it is stated in the article many dimensions of corruptions may be eliminated with the help of regulatory devices or a total digital controlling system. Practical significance introduction of the digital controlling system will allow to identify and control the corrupt officials at all levels and help to efficient struggle against corruption. nbsp

  13. Do the effects of corruption upon growth differ between democracies and autocracies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Assiotis; Kevin Sylwester

    2013-01-01

    Many studies examining whether corruption lowers economic growth do not consider if the effects of corruption differ across countries. Whether corruption produces the same effects everywhere or whether its effects are conditional on some country characteristics is an important question. We investigate the association between corruption and growth, where the marginal impact of corruption is allowed to differ across democratic and non democratic regimes. Using cross-country, annual data from 19...

  14. Corruption and misconduct: A behavioural reflection from investigative reports into local government

    OpenAIRE

    Aquinas J. Purcell

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a local government perspective on the behavioural factors which can be the precursors for corruption and misconduct and those factors which can prevent corruption and misconduct. The investigation centred on corruption and misconduct evidenced from local government investigation reports in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. A corruption and misconduct taxonomy was developed and the role of the audit committee in the oversight of corruption and misconduct allegati...

  15. The determinants and impact of business corruption : evidence from establishments in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelvik, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    As corruption gains public attention, there is an increased acknowledgement of its impact on business. Circumstances around a corrupt may act differ, but thesis seeks to understand some common factors. Corruption might be embedded in a country or occur sporadically. One of the many ways a business can participate in corrupt acts, willingly or reluctantly, is via bribery of public officials. This thesis seeks to examine corruption and bribery in relation to the government from t...

  16. The Proxy Challenge: Why bespoke proxy indicators can help solve the anti-corruption measurement problem

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsøn, Jesper; Mason, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Practitioners working in anti-corruption face perennial challenges in measuring changes in corruption levels and evaluating whether anti-corruption efforts are successful. These two challenges are linked but not inseparable. To make progress on the latter front, that is, evaluating whether anti-corruption efforts are having an impact, the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre and the UK Department for International Development are launching an exploration into the use of proxy indicators. Proxy ...

  17. Modelling the Impact of Organization Structure and Whistle Blowers on Intra-Organizational Corruption Contagion

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Pinto, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    We complement the rich conceptual work on organizational corruption by quantitatively modelling the spread of corruption within organizations. We systematically vary four organizational culture-related parameters, i.e., organization structure, location of bad apple, employees propensity to become corrupted (corruption probability), and number of whistle-blowers. Our simulation studies find that in organizations with flatter structures, corruption permeates the organization at a lower threshol...

  18. Leadership, Corruption and Governance in Nigeria: Issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    examines the issues of leadership, corruption and governance with a view to adumbrate ..... public realm” and the latter a “moral primordial public realm”. Therefore ... This notion and virus has affected the conduct of government business and.

  19. Assessment of Perceived Corrupt Practices in Marketing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    between selected socio-economic characteristics of women marketers and their perceived level of severity of identified corrupt ... Women participation in agricultural produce marketing is not a ... economic growth, democratic culture, national.

  20. The impact of corruption on the soundness of Islamic banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khemaies Bougatef

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking is developing rapidly around the world and is increasingly recognized as a viable alternative mode of financing especially these last years when capitalism has shown its limits and weaknesses. However, this astronomical growth of banking and Islamic finance was associated with a high level of corruption that plagues many Muslim countries. This ailment of corruption can deter Islamic banking to be a better effective and meaningful pathway for poverty reduction and economic development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of corruption on the soundness of Islamic banks (IBs. Using a panel of 69 IBs over the period 2008–2010, we provide robust evidence that the corruption level aggravates the problem of impaired financing.