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Sample records for sintering process part

  1. Processing of Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Microspheres for Part Manufacturing through Selective Laser Sintering

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Syndiotactic polystyrene pellets were processed into powder form using mechanical (ball milling, rotor milling and physicochemical (spray drying techniques with the intention of using it as feed material for selective laser sintering. New materials are an important component in broadening the application window for selective laser sintering but must meet strict requirements to be used. Particles obtained were characterized in size and shape using SEM imaging, analyzed by software, and compared to the product obtained by conventional ball milling. Rotor milling and spray drying proved capable of making spherical powders, yet only rotor milling achieved particles with a mean diameter within the desired range of 45–97 µm. Subsequently, the obtained powders were examined for the effect each processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed amorphization for all methods and a reduction in crystallinity after processing, however, the reduction in crystallinity was acceptably low for the spray-dried and rotor-milled powders. Ball milling displayed an exceptional reduction in crystallinity, suggesting severe degradation. As a final test, the rotor-milled powder was subjected to single-layer test and displayed good coalescence and smooth morphology, albeit with a large amount of warpage.

  2. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  3. Spray Drying as a Processing Technique for Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Powder Form for Part Manufacturing Through Selective Laser Sintering

    Mys, N.; Verberckmoes, A.; Cardon, L.

    2017-03-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapidly expanding field of the three-dimensional printing concept. One stumbling block in the evolution of the technique is the limited range of materials available for processing with SLS making the application window small. This article aims at identifying syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) as a promising material. sPS pellets were processed into powder form with a lab-scale spray dryer with vibrating nozzle. This technique is the focus of this scope as it almost eliminates the agglomeration phenomenon often encountered with the use of solution-based processing techniques. Microspheres obtained were characterized in shape and size by scanning electron microscopy and evaluation of the particle size distribution. The effect the processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material was examined by differential scanning calorimetry analysis.

  4. Adjustment of Part Properties for an Elastomeric Laser Sintering Material

    Wegner, A.; Ünlü, T.

    2018-03-01

    Laser sintering of polymers is gaining more and more importance within the field of small series productions. Polyamide 12 is predominantly used, although a variety of other materials are also available for the laser sintering process. For example, elastomeric, rubberlike materials offer very different part property profiles. Those make the production of flexible parts like, e.g., sealings, flexible tubes or shoe soles possible because they offer high part ductility and low hardness. At the chair for manufacturing technology, a new elastomeric laser sintering material has been developed and then commercialized by a spin-off from university. The aim of the presented study was the analysis of the new material's properties. Proof was found that Shore hardness can be modified by varying the parameter settings. Therefore, the correlation between process parameters, energy input, Shore hardness and other part properties like mechanical properties were analyzed. Based on these results, suitable parameter settings were established which lead to the possibility of producing parts with different Shore hardnesses.

  5. A finite difference model of the iron ore sinter process

    Muller, J.; de Vries, T.L.; Dippenaar, B.A.; Vreugdenburg, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Iron ore fines are agglomerated to produce sinter, which is an important feed material for blast furnaces worldwide. A model of the iron ore sintering process has been developed with the objective of being representative of the sinter pot test, the standard laboratory process in which the behaviour of specific sinter feed mixtures is evaluated. The model aims to predict sinter quality, including chemical quality and physical strength, as well as key sinter process performance parameters such ...

  6. Removable partial denture alloys processed by laser-sintering technique.

    Alageel, Omar; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Alsheghri, Ammar; Song, Jun; Caron, Eric; Tamimi, Faleh

    2018-04-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are traditionally made using a casting technique. New additive manufacturing processes based on laser sintering has been developed for quick fabrication of RPDs metal frameworks at low cost. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical, physical, and biocompatibility properties of RPD cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys produced by two laser-sintering systems and compare them to those prepared using traditional casting methods. The laser-sintered Co-Cr alloys were processed by the selective laser-sintering method (SLS) and the direct metal laser-sintering (DMLS) method using the Phenix system (L-1) and EOS system (L-2), respectively. L-1 and L-2 techniques were 8 and 3.5 times more precise than the casting (CC) technique (p laser-sintered and cast alloys were biocompatible. In conclusion, laser-sintered alloys are more precise and present better mechanical and fatigue properties than cast alloys for RPDs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1174-1185, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Two-dimensional simulation of sintering process

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Pinto, Lucio Carlos Martins; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two-dimensional simulations are directly applied to systems in which one of the dimensions is much smaller than the others, and to sections of three dimensional models. Moreover, these simulations are the first step of the analysis of more complex three-dimensional systems. In this work, two basic features of the sintering process are studied: the types of particle size distributions related to the powder production processes and the evolution of geometric parameters of the resultant microstructures during the solid-state sintering. Random packing of equal spheres is considered in the sintering simulation. The packing algorithm does not take into account the interactive forces between the particles. The used sintering algorithm causes the densification of the particle set. (author)

  8. PRODUCTION OF PROTOTYPE PARTS USING DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Josef Sedlak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional methods of modern materials preparation include additive technologies which involve the sintering of powders of different chemical composition, granularity, physical, chemical and other utility properties. The technology called Rapid Prototyping, which uses different technological principles of producing components, belongs to this type of material preparation. The Rapid Prototyping technology facilities use photopolymers, thermoplastics, specially treated paper or metal powders. The advantage is the direct production of metal parts from input data and the fact that there is no need for the production of special tools (moulds, press tools, etc.. Unused powder from sintering technologies is re-used for production 98% of the time, which means that the process is economical, as well as ecological.The present paper discusses the technology of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS, which falls into the group of additive technologies of Rapid Prototyping (RP. The major objective is a detailed description of DMLS, pointing out the benefits it offers and its application in practice. The practical part describes the production and provides an economic comparison of several prototype parts that were designed for testing in the automotive industry.

  9. Sintering of Multilayered Porous Structures: Part I-Constitutive Models

    Olevsky, Eugene; Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of shrinkage and distortion kinetics during sintering of bilayered porous structures are carried out. The developed modeling framework is based on the continuum theory of sintering; it enables the direct assessment of the cofiring process outcomes and of the impact of process...

  10. Temperature Field Simulation of Powder Sintering Process with ANSYS

    He, Hongxiu; Wang, Jun; Li, Shuting; Chen, Zhilong; Sun, Jinfeng; You, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the “spheroidization phenomenon” in the laser sintering of metal powder and other quality problems of the forming parts due to the thermal effect, the finite element model of the three-dimensional transient metal powder was established by using the atomized iron powder as the research object. The simulation of the mobile heat source was realized by means of parametric design. The distribution of the temperature field during the sintering process under different laser power and different spot sizes was simulated by ANSYS software under the condition of fully considering the influence of heat conduction, thermal convection, thermal radiation and thermophysical parameters. The influence of these factors on the actual sintering process was also analyzed, which provides an effective way for forming quality control.

  11. From Powders to Dense Metal Parts: Characterization of a Commercial AlSiMg Alloy Processed through Direct Metal Laser Sintering.

    Manfredi, Diego; Calignano, Flaviana; Krishnan, Manickavasagam; Canali, Riccardo; Ambrosio, Elisa Paola; Atzeni, Eleonora

    2013-03-06

    In this paper, a characterization of an AlSiMg alloy processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is presented, from the analysis of the starting powders, in terms of size, morphology and chemical composition, through to the evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties of specimens built along different orientations parallel and perpendicular to the powder deposition plane. With respect to a similar aluminum alloy as-fabricated, a higher yield strength of about 40% due to the very fine microstructure, closely related to the mechanisms involved in this additive process is observed.

  12. From Powders to Dense Metal Parts: Characterization of a Commercial AlSiMg Alloy Processed through Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Eleonora Atzeni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a characterization of an AlSiMg alloy processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is presented, from the analysis of the starting powders, in terms of size, morphology and chemical composition, through to the evaluation of mechanical and microstructural properties of specimens built along different orientations parallel and perpendicular to the powder deposition plane. With respect to a similar aluminum alloy as-fabricated, a higher yield strength of about 40% due to the very fine microstructure, closely related to the mechanisms involved in this additive process is observed.

  13. An Investigation of Sintering Parameters on Titanium Powder for Electron Beam Melting Processing Optimization

    Philipp Drescher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Selective electron beam melting (SEBM is a relatively new additive manufacturing technology for metallic materials. Specific to this technology is the sintering of the metal powder prior to the melting process. The sintering process has disadvantages for post-processing. The post-processing of parts produced by SEBM typically involves the removal of semi-sintered powder through the use of a powder blasting system. Furthermore, the sintering of large areas before melting decreases productivity. Current investigations are aimed at improving the sintering process in order to achieve better productivity, geometric accuracy, and resolution. In this study, the focus lies on the modification of the sintering process. In order to investigate and improve the sintering process, highly porous titanium test specimens with various scan speeds were built. The aim of this study was to decrease build time with comparable mechanical properties of the components and to remove the residual powder more easily after a build. By only sintering the area in which the melt pool for the components is created, an average productivity improvement of approx. 20% was achieved. Tensile tests were carried out, and the measured mechanical properties show comparatively or slightly improved values compared with the reference.

  14. An Investigation of Sintering Parameters on Titanium Powder for Electron Beam Melting Processing Optimization.

    Drescher, Philipp; Sarhan, Mohamed; Seitz, Hermann

    2016-12-01

    Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is a relatively new additive manufacturing technology for metallic materials. Specific to this technology is the sintering of the metal powder prior to the melting process. The sintering process has disadvantages for post-processing. The post-processing of parts produced by SEBM typically involves the removal of semi-sintered powder through the use of a powder blasting system. Furthermore, the sintering of large areas before melting decreases productivity. Current investigations are aimed at improving the sintering process in order to achieve better productivity, geometric accuracy, and resolution. In this study, the focus lies on the modification of the sintering process. In order to investigate and improve the sintering process, highly porous titanium test specimens with various scan speeds were built. The aim of this study was to decrease build time with comparable mechanical properties of the components and to remove the residual powder more easily after a build. By only sintering the area in which the melt pool for the components is created, an average productivity improvement of approx. 20% was achieved. Tensile tests were carried out, and the measured mechanical properties show comparatively or slightly improved values compared with the reference.

  15. Processing and Properties of Distaloy Sa Sintered Alloys with Boron and Carbon

    Karwan-Baczewska J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prealloyed iron-based powders, manufactured in Höganäs Company, are used in the automotive parts industry. The properties and life time of such sintered parts depend, first of all, on their chemical composition, the production method of the prealloyed powder as well as on the technology of their consolidation and sintering. One of simpler and conventional methods aimed at increasing the density in sintered products is the process of activated sintering, performed, for example, by adding boron as elementary boron powder. Under this research project obtained were novel sintered materials, based on prealloyed and diffusion bonded powder, type: Distaloy SA, with the following chemical composition: Fe-1.75% Ni-1.5%Cu- 0.5%Mo with carbon (0.55%; 0.75% and boron (0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%. Distaloy SA samples alloyed with carbon and boron were manufactured by mixing powders in a Turbula mixer, then compressed using a hydraulic press under a pressure of 600 MPa and sintered in a tube furnace at 1473 K, for a 60 minute time, in the hydrogen atmosphere. After the sintering process, there were performed density and porosity measurements as well as hardness tests and mechanical properties were carried out, too. Eventually, analyzed was the effect of boron upon density, hardness and mechanical properties of novel sintered construction parts made from Distaloy SA powder.

  16. Sintering-alkaline processing of borosilicate ores of Tajikistan

    Nazarov, F.A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the work is to study the processes of decomposition of boron-containing ore by sintering with NaOH, finding the optimal parameters of the decomposition process, studying the kinetics of processes and developing the technological foundations for ore processing. The processes of borosilicate ore processing were studied by sintering with NaOH. Possible mechanisms of chemical reactions of the process of sintering-alkaline decomposition of boron-containing ore are established, the results of which are substantiated by physicochemical methods of analysis. A principal technological scheme for processing of borosilicate ores by a sintering-alkaline method has been developed. In the first chapter, data on alkaline and caking processes for processing boron-containing and aluminium comprising raw materials are available in the literature. Based on this, the directions of our own research are outlined. The second chapter is devoted to the study of the chemical and mineralogical compositions of borosilicate ores and their concentrates with the help of X-ray phase and chemical analysis methods, the stoichiometric calculation of the formation of aluminum, iron, and boron salts has been carried out, and a thermodynamic analysis of the processes of sintering borosilicate ores with alkali has been considered. The third chapter presents the results of a study of sintering-alkaline method of processing of initial borosilicate ore of the Ak-Arkhar Deposit and its concentrate without calcination and after calcination. The kinetics of sintering of borosilicate ores with sodium hydroxide was studied. The optimal conditions of borosilicate ore sintering before and after the preliminary calcination with alkali were determined. Optimal parameters of the sintering process have been found: sintering temperature 800-8500 deg C, duration of the process - 60 minutes, mass ratio of NaOH to raw materials 2: 1. The conditions for sintering of borosilicate concentrate with alkali have been

  17. Titanium Powder Sintering in a Graphite Furnace and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Parts

    Changzhou Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent accreditation of titanium powder products for commercial aircraft applications marks a milestone in titanium powder metallurgy. Currently, powder metallurgical titanium production primarily relies on vacuum sintering. This work reported on the feasibility of powder sintering in a non-vacuum furnace and the tensile properties of the as-sintered Ti. Specifically, we investigated atmospheric sintering of commercially pure (C.P. titanium in a graphite furnace backfilled with argon and studied the effects of common contaminants (C, O, N on sintering densification of titanium. It is found that on the surface of the as-sintered titanium, a severely contaminated porous scale was formed and identified as titanium oxycarbonitride. Despite the porous surface, the sintered density in the sample interiors increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. Tensile specimens cut from different positions within a large sintered cylinder reveal different tensile properties, strongly dependent on the impurity level mainly carbon and oxygen. Depending on where the specimen is taken from the sintered compact, ultimate tensile strength varied from 300 to 580 MPa. An average tensile elongation of 5% to 7% was observed. Largely depending on the interstitial contents, the fracture modes from typical brittle intergranular fracture to typical ductile fracture.

  18. Consolidation & Factors Influencing Sintering Process in Polymer Powder Based Additive Manufacturing

    Sagar, M. B.; Elangovan, K.

    2017-08-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is two decade old technology; where parts are build layer manufacturing method directly from a CAD template. Over the years, AM techniques changes the future way of part fabrication with enhanced intricacy and custom-made features are aimed. Commercially polymers, metals, ceramic and metal-polymer composites are in practice where polymers enhanced the expectations in AM and are considered as a kind of next industrial revolution. Growing trend in polymer application motivated to study their feasibility and properties. Laser sintering, Heat sintering and Inhibition sintering are the most successful AM techniques for polymers but having least application. The presentation gives up selective sintering of powder polymers and listed commercially available polymer materials. Important significant factors for effective processing and analytical approaches to access them are discussed.

  19. In situ process monitoring in selective laser sintering using optical coherence tomography

    Gardner, Michael R.; Lewis, Adam; Park, Jongwan; McElroy, Austin B.; Estrada, Arnold D.; Fish, Scott; Beaman, Joseph J.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2018-04-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an efficient process in additive manufacturing that enables rapid part production from computer-based designs. However, SLS is limited by its notable lack of in situ process monitoring when compared with other manufacturing processes. We report the incorporation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) into an SLS system in detail and demonstrate access to surface and subsurface features. Video frame rate cross-sectional imaging reveals areas of sintering uniformity and areas of excessive heat error with high temporal resolution. We propose a set of image processing techniques for SLS process monitoring with OCT and report the limitations and obstacles for further OCT integration with SLS systems.

  20. Effect of process parameters on surface oxides on chromium-alloyed steel powder during sintering

    Chasoglou, D.; Hryha, E.; Nyborg, L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of chromium in the PM steel industry today puts high demands on the choice and control of the atmosphere during the sintering process due to its high affinity to oxygen. Particular attention is required in order to control the surface chemistry of the powder which in turn is the key factor for the successful sintering and production of PM parts. Different atmosphere compositions, heating rates and green densities were employed while performing sintering trials on water atomized steel powder pre-alloyed with 3 wt.% Cr in order to evaluate the effect on surface chemical reactions. Fracture surfaces of sintered samples were examined using high resolution scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. The investigation was complemented with thermogravimetric (TG) studies. Reaction products in particulate form containing strong-oxide forming elements such as Cr, Si and Mn were formed during sintering for all conditions. Processing in vacuum results in intensive inter-particle neck development during the heating stage and consequently in the excessive enclosure of surface oxide which is reflected in less good final mechanical properties. Enhanced oxide reduction was observed in samples processed in hydrogen-containing atmospheres independent of the actual content in the range of 3–10 vol.%. An optimum heating rate was required for balancing reduction/oxidation processes. A simple model for the enclosure and growth of oxide inclusions during the sinter-neck development is proposed. The obtained results show that significant reduction of the oxygen content can be achieved by adjusting the atmosphere purity/composition. - Highlights: ► A local atmosphere microclimate is very important for sintering of PM steels. ► High risk of surface oxide enclosure between 800 and 1000 °C. ► Coalescence and agglomeration of enclosed oxides take place during sintering. ► The effect of different process parameters on the oxide reduction is examined. ► A

  1. An investigation on preparation of CIGS targets by sintering process

    Zhang Ning, E-mail: zhn98@126.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhuang Daming; Zhang Gong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Pressureless sintering process was used to fabricate CIGS targets with Cu{sub 2}Se, In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, and Ga{sub 2}Se{sub 3} as raw powders mixed according to the stoichiometry of CuIn{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 0.28}Se{sub 2} (CIGS). The results showed that only CuIn{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}Se{sub 2} phase can be detected in the sintered targets. The pores in sintered specimen become smaller and distribute more homogeneously under the conditions of finer powders and higher cold pressure. Both mass loss caused by the formation of volatile phase relating to Ga and volume expansion occur during the sintering process, which result in the decrease of density. The tendency of anti-densification becomes stronger under the conditions of coarser powders and higher cold pressure. The sintering process and causes for anti-densification were discussed. Finally, a hot pressing process was carried out, which was proved to be fairly effective to increase the density of CIGS target. The fabricated target can be used for magnetron-sputtering deposition of CIGS absorbers.

  2. Study of automatic boat loading unit and horizontal sintering process of uranium dioxide pellet

    He Zhongjing; Chen Yu; Yao Dengfeng; Wang Youliang; Shu Binhua; Wu Genjiu

    2014-01-01

    Sintering process is a key process for the manufacture of nuclear fuel UO_2 pellet. In our factory, the continuous high temperature sintering furnace is used for sintering process. During the sintering of green pellets, the furnace, the boat and the accumulation way can influence the quality of the final product. In this text, on the basis of early process research, The automatic loading boat Unit and horizontal sintering process is studied successively. The results show that the physical and chemical properties of the products manufactured by automatic loading boat unit and horizontal sintering process can meet the technique requirements completely, and this system is reliable and continuous. (authors)

  3. The influence of green microstructure and sintering parameters on precipitation process during copper-nickel-zinc ferrites sintering

    Barba, A.; Clausell, C.; Jarque, J. C.; Monzo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructural changes that occur during heat treatment of copper-nickel-zinc ferrites have been studied. The process of precipitation of the two types of crystals that occur during the sintering process has been analyzed. It is found that this process depends on dry relative density of the press specimens and on the following sintering parameters: sintering temperature, sintering time and cooling rate of the thermal cycle. Crystal precipitates characterization have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These techniques have allowed to determine the nature of these crystals, which in this case correspond to zinc and copper oxides. It has been used two chemical reactions to explain the bulk precipitation and subsequent re-dissolution of these crystal precipitates during sintering. (Author)

  4. Development of a Sinter/HIP process for the superalloy Udimet 700 with investigations of the influence of the sinteratmosphere

    Wenning, L.

    1991-03-01

    The oxidation free treatment of reactive metalpowders like the nickel base alloy Udimet 700 demands sufficient oxygen free sinteratmospheres in nowadays sinter-HIP plants are not reachable. The reported work deals with the development of a sinter-HIP process which enables a sufficient low partial pressure of oxygen by scavenging the Udimet 700 powder packings with argon during vacuum sintering. By this the sinter hindering oxidation is avoided. Intensive investigations of the sinteratmosphere with a mass spectrometer and a zirconium oxide probe verify the reduction of the oxygen content of the residual gas atmosphere reached with different processes. In a second part the applicability of the scavenging gas process during the capsule free sinter-HIP treatment of metall injection moulded (MIM) samples is shown. (orig.) [de

  5. End Uses Mechanical Properties Settled By The Modified Sintering Conditions Of The Metal Injection Molding Process

    Marray, Tarek; Jaccquet, Philippe; Moinard-Checot, Delphine; Fabre, Agnes; Barrallier, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Most common mechanical applications require parts with specific properties as hard faced features. It is well known that treating parts under suitable atmospheres may improve hardness and strength yield of steels. Heat treatment process and more particularly thermo-chemical diffusion processes (such as carburizing or its variation: carbonitriding) can be performed to reach the industrial hardness profile requirements. In this work, a low-alloyed steel feedstock based on water soluble binder system is submitted to the MIM process steps (including injection molding, debinding and sintering). As-sintered parts are then treated under a low pressure carbonitriding treatment. This contribution focuses on preliminary results such as microstructural analyses and mechanical properties which are established at each stage of the process to determine and monitor changes.

  6. Microstructure and properties of TiC-high manganese steel cermet prepared by different sintering processes

    Wang, Zhi; Lin, Tao, E-mail: lintao@ustb.edu.cn; He, Xinbo; Shao, Huiping; Zheng, Jianshu; Qu, Xuanhui

    2015-11-25

    In the paper, the TiC −50 wt.% high manganese steel cermet was made with different sintering processes including vacuum sintering, hot pressing, microwave sintering and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure, porosity and fracture morphology of the samples were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The density, hardness, transverse rupture strength (TRS) and wear resistance were investigated for the effect of the sintering processes. The results showed that the core–shell structure was not clearly observed for the TiC particles in microstructures and the high manganese steel matrix is BCC structure. Hot pressing, microwave sintering and SPS are useful processes for densification of the cermet. Nearly full density and higher hardness can be reached by these three processes at a lower sintering temperature and in a shorter sintering time. However, higher TRS can be reached by means of alloying completely in a longer sintering time, for example vacuum sintering. Pre-sintering in a long sintering time at a lower sintering temperature is also useful for improving the TRS. Finally, vacuum sintering is an effective process for producing this composite with the lowest cost in the mass production. - Highlights: • TiC-high manganese steel cermets were prepared by four sintering processes. • The core–shell structure was not clearly observed for the TiC particles in microstructures. • Th high manganese steel matrix is BCC structure instead of FCC structure. • Pre-sintering before microwave sintering is also useful for improving the TRS. • Vacuum sintering can be effective way for prepare this cermet in mass production.

  7. Comparison of Ti(C,N)-based cermets processed by hot-pressing sintering and conventional pressureless sintering

    Xu, Qingzhong; Ai, Xing; Zhao, Jun; Qin, Weizhen; Wang, Yintao; Gong, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The HP sintered Ti(C,N)-based cermets exhibit high hardness with fine grain size. • The PLS sintered cermets possess high mechanical properties with low porosity. • The applied pressure can rearrange particles and contribute to grain refinement. • The heating rate can greatly affect the solid and liquid phase sintering of cermets. - Abstract: A suitable sintering method is important to obtain the Ti(C,N)-based cermets with superior properties. In this paper, Ti(C,N)-based cermets were fabricated by hot-pressing sintering (HP) and conventional pressureless sintering (PLS) technology, respectively, to investigate the influence of different sintering methods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cermets materials. The microstructure, fracture morphology, indention cracks and phase composition were observed and detected using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The transverse rupture strength (TRS), Vickers hardness (HV) and fracture toughness (K IC ) were also measured. The results reveal that all of the Ti(C,N)-based cermets exhibit core–rim microstructures with black cores, white cores and grey rims embedded into metal binder phases. The grain size of the samples fabricated by HP is much finer and the structure is more compact than those fabricated by PLS, while there exist pores in the HP sintered samples. The sintering process has no influence on the phase composition of cermets, but affects the phase content and crystallinity. The samples fabricated by PLS present higher transverse rupture strength, fracture toughness and density than samples fabricated by HP. However, the HP sintered samples possess a higher hardness

  8. Improvement of mechanical strength of sintered Mo alloyed steel by optimization of sintering and cold-forging processes with densification

    Kamakoshi, Y.; Shohji, I.; Inoue, Y.; Fukuda, S.

    2017-10-01

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) materials have been expected to be spread in automotive industry. Generally, since sintered materials using P/M ones contain many pores and voids, mechanical properties of them are inferior to those of conventional wrought materials. To improve mechanical properties of the sintered materials, densification is effective. The aim of this study is to improve mechanical strength of sintered Mo-alloyed steel by optimizing conditions in sintering and cold-forging processes. Mo-alloyed steel powder was compacted. Then, pre-sintering (PS) using a vacuum sintering furnace was conducted. Subsequently, coldforging (CF) by a backward extrusion method was conducted to the pre-sintered specimen. Moreover, the cold-forged specimen was heat treated by carburizing, tempering and quenching (CQT). Afterwards, mechanical properties were investigated. As a result, it was found that the density of the PS specimen is required to be more than 7.4 Mg/m3 to strengthen the specimen by heat treatment after CF. Furthermore, density and the microstructure of the PS specimen are most important factors to make the high density and strength material by CF. At the CF load of 1200 kN, the maximum density ratio reached approximately 99% by the use of the PS specimen with proper density and microstructure. At the CF load of 900 kN, although density ratio was high like more than 97.8%, transverse rupture strength decreased sharply. Since densification caused high shear stress and stress concentration in the surface layer, microcracks occurred by the damages of inter-particle sintered connection of the surface layer. On the contrary, in case of the CF load of 1200 kN, ultra-densification of the surface layer occurred by a sufficient plastic flow. Such sufficient compressed specimens regenerated the sintered connections by high temperature heat treatment and thus the high strength densified material was obtained. These processes can be applicable to near net shape manufacturing

  9. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    Mohamed F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of an iron ore. The results showed that the granules having the highest mechanical properties were obtained with 14.5 wt % molasses addition. The sintering experiments were performed by using coke breeze in different shapes (-3+1 mm in size, coke breeze without sieving and coke breeze granules -3+1 mm. The reduction experiments, microscopic structure and X-ray analysis for the produced sinter were carried out. The results revealed that, all sinter properties (such as shatter test, productivity of sinter machine and blast furnace, reduction time and chemical composition for produced sinter by using coke breeze with size -3+1 mm and coke breeze granules were almost the same. The iron ore sinter which was produced by using coke breeze without sieving yielded low productivity for both sinter machine and blast furnace. Furthermore, using coke breeze without sieving in sintering of an iron ore decreases the vertical velocity of sinter machine and increases the reduction time.

  10. Characterization and Sintering of Armstrong Process Titanium Powder

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Nash, Philip; Mangabhai, Damien

    2017-04-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys have a high strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance but also need longer time and have a higher cost on machining. Powder metallurgy offers a viable approach to produce near net-shape complex components with little or no machining. The Armstrong titanium powders are produced by direct reduction of TiCl4 vapor with liquid sodium, a process which has a relatively low cost. This paper presents a systematic research on powder characterization, mechanical properties, and sintering behavior and of Armstrong process powder metallurgy, and also discusses the sodium issue, and the advantages and disadvantages of Armstrong process powders.

  11. Process for the production of metal nitride sintered bodies and resultant silicon nitride and aluminum nitride sintered bodies

    Yajima, S.; Omori, M.; Hayashi, J.; Kayano, H.; Hamano, M.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the manufacture of metal nitride sintered bodies, in particular, a process in which a mixture of metal nitrite powders is shaped and heated together with a binding agent is described. Of the metal nitrides Si3N4 and AIN were used especially frequently because of their excellent properties at high temperatures. The goal is to produce a process for metal nitride sintered bodies with high strength, high corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, thermal shock resistance, and avoidance of previously known faults.

  12. Preparation of (Bi, Pb)-2223/Ag tapes by high temperature sintering and post-annealing process

    Hua, L.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Andersen, L.G.

    2002-01-01

    A novel heat treatment process was developed to fabricate (Bi, Pb)-2223/Ag tapes with high critical current density (J(c)). The process can be divided into two parts: reformation and post-annealing. Tapes were first heated to the maximum temperature (830-860 degreesC) followed by slow cooling...... (reformation). Then, tape, were annealed between 760 and 820 degreesC (post-annealing). Reformation is expected to produce a large amount of liquid phase which may heat microcracks, decrease porosity, and improve grain growth. However, since the sintering temperature is beyond the Bi-2223 single-phase region......-energy synchrotron XRD and SEM/EDX. Some process parameters e.g. sintering temperature. cooling rate. and post-annealing time were optimised. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Effect of sintering process parameters on the properties of 3Y-PSZ ceramics

    Chu, H L; Chen, R S; Wang, C L; Hwang, W S; Lee, H E; Sie, Y Y; Wang, M C

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering process parameters on the properties of 3 mol% yttria partially stability zirconia (3Y-PSZ) ceramics has been investigated. The relative density of the sintered pellet rapidly increases from 70.5 to 93.6% with rose temperature from 1473 to 1573 K. In addition, the relative density only slightly increases from 94.9 to 96.6 %, when rose sintered temperature from 1573 to 1773 K. This result shows that no significant influence on the densification behavior when sintering at 1573 to 1773 K for 2 h. The Vickers hardness and toughness also increase with the sintered temperature

  14. Development of a dielectric ceramic based on diatomite-titania. Part one: powder preparation and sintering study

    Tavares Elcio Correia de Souza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents powder preparation and sintering experiments of a mixture diatomite-titania. X-ray diffraction, DTA, TGA as well as chemical and microstructural analyses were made. The sintering process was investigated as a function of sintering temperature and time, mass variation, linear shrinkage and activation energy. The results show that sintering of diatomite-titania could be described by a viscous flow mechanism.

  15. Preparation of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets from HDDR-processed powder

    Takagi, Kenta, E-mail: k-takagi@aist.go.jp [Green Innovative Magnetic Materials Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Akada, Misaho [Magnetic Materials R& D Center, Research Associations of Magnetic Materials for High-Efficiency Motors (MagHEM), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Soda, Rikio; Ozaki, Kimihiro [Green Innovative Magnetic Materials Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    The electric-current sintering technique was used to fully densify hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination (HDDR)-processed Nd–Fe–B powder at temperatures below the grain growth temperature in order to produce high-coercive bulk magnets. However, the sintered magnets exhibited anomalous coercivity reduction that depended on sintered density. Reheating examination of the sintered magnets revealed that the reduced coercivity was increased in proportion to the heating temperature, resulting in complete recovery of coercivity. As a result, the combination of electric-current sintering and post-annealing produced sintered magnets with a coercivity of 15 kOe. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence that associated the anomalous coercivity reduction and recovery with grain boundary morphology. On the other hand, various HDDR powders with different particle sizes were sintered, and finer powders yielded lower coercivity after sintering, implying that the anomalous coercivity reduction was associated with particle surface oxides of the raw powder. - Highlights: • We conduct a sintering of HDDR-processed Nd–Fe–B powder without coercivity reduction. • Rapid current sintering allows densification of this powder without grain growth. • However, the sintered magnets show an anomalous coercivity reduction phenomenon. • It is found that post-annealing completely recovers the reduced coercivity. • The anomalous coercivity reduction would be due to surface oxide of the raw powder.

  16. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 2

    Batten, J.J.; Moore, B.T.

    1988-12-01

    The behaviour of four high-density sintered tungsten alloys has been evluated and compared with that of pure tungsten. Rates of corrosion during the cyclic humidity and the salt mist tests were ascertained from weight loss measurements. Insight into the corrosion mechanism was gained from the nature of the corrosion products and an examination of the corroded surfaces. In the tests, the alloy 95% W, 2.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe was the most corrosion resistant. The data showed that copper as an alloying element accelerates corrosion of tungsten alloys. Both attack on the tungsten particles and the binder phase were observed together with tungsten grain loss. 6 refs., 3 tabs.,

  17. Process parameter influence on Electro-sinter-forging (ESF) of titanium discs

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels

    Electro-sinter-forging (ESF) is a sintering process based on the resistance heating principle, which makes it faster than conventional sintering. The process is investigated as a function of the main process parameters, namely compacting pressure, electrical current density and sintering time....... The present work is focused on analysing the influence of these process parameters on the final density of a disc sample made from commercially pure titanium powder. Applying the design of experiments (DoE) approach, the electrical current was seen to be of largest influence. The maximum obtained density...

  18. Process parameter influence on Electro-sinter-forging (ESF) of titanium discs

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels

    Electro-sinter-forging (ESF) is an innovative sintering process based on the principle of electrical Joule heating. The electrical current is flowing through the powder compact, which is under mechanical pressure. As compared to conventional sintering [1] and spark plasma sintering [2], the main...... advantages are the decreased sintering time and high relative density [3]. Near net-shape components can be manufactured and post-removal processing is limited to surface polishing. The present work is focused on analysing the influence of the main process parameters, namely compacting pressure, sintering...... time and electrical current density, on the final density of a disc sample made from commercially pure titanium powder. The maximum achieved relative density was 94% of the bulk density of pure titanium. The density estimation was carried out by using both Archimedes’ and 3D scanning....

  19. Investigation of the Sintering Process Using Non-Contact Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers

    James C. Foley; David K. Rehbein; Daniel J. Barnard

    2001-01-01

    In-situ characterizations of green state part density and sintering state have long been desired in the powder metal community. Recent advances in non-contact electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) technology have enabled in-situ monitoring of acoustic amplitude and velocity as sintering proceeds. Samples were made from elemental powders of Al (99.99%), Al (99.7%), Ag, (99.99%), Cu (99.99%) and Fe (99.9%). The powders were pressed in a uniaxial die and examined with acoustic waves for changes in velocity and amplitude during sintering for the samples containing Al, Ag, and Cu. The changes in acoustic properties were correlated with sample microstructures and mechanical properties. Evolution of a series of reverberating echoes during sintering is shown to provide information on the state of sintering, and changes in sintering kinetics as well as having the potential for detection of interior flaws

  20. Influence of Various Process Parameters on the Density of Sintered Aluminium Alloys

    Mateusz Laska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of density measurements carried out on Alumix sintered parts. ECKA Alumix aluminium powders were used because of their wide application in the powder metallurgy industry. The compacts were produced using a wide range of compaction pressures for three different chemical compositions. The compacts were then sintered under a pure dry nitrogen atmosphere at three different temperatures. The heating and cooling rates were the same throughout the entire test. The results showed that the green density increases with compaction pressure, but that sintered density is independent of green density (compaction pressure for each sintering temperature.

  1. Real-time operation guide system for sintering process with artificial intelligence

    FAN Xiao-hui; CHEN Xu-ling; JIANG Tao; LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    In order to optimize the sintering process, a real-time operation guide system with artificial intelligence was developed, mainly including the data acquisition online subsystem, the sinter chemical composition controller, the sintering process state controller, and the abnormal conditions diagnosis subsystem. Knowledge base of the sintering process controlling was constructed, and inference engine of the system was established. Sinter chemical compositions were controlled by the strategies of self-adaptive prediction, internal optimization and center on basicity. And the state of sintering was stabilized centering on permeability. In order to meet the needs of process change and make the system clear, the system has learning ability and explanation function. The software of the system was developed in Visual C++ programming language. The application of the system shows that the hitting accuracy of sinter compositions and burning through point prediction are more than 85%; the first-grade rate of sinter chemical composition, stability rate of burning through point and stability rate of sintering process are increased by 3%, 9% and 4%, respectively.

  2. SINTERING, A PROCESS OF METAL FORMING AS AN ECONOMIC ALTERNATIVE WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Ángel Silvio Machado Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sintering is a process of metal forming using metal powders, and it has a wide range of applications including for example, the manufacturing of parts for automotive components, home appliances, cutting tools, power tools, for the manufacturing of dental devices, among others. The process is characterized by the production of large-scale low cost parts and has a low environmental impact compared to other existing technologies, it requires less energy for processing and enables high utilization of raw materials. Also, it has the characteristic of obtaining, in most cases, the parts with final tolerances necessary for direct use by the customer, which ultimately reduces considerably the cost of production. The process is characterized by minimizing the loss of raw materials; facilitating precise control of the desired chemical composition; eliminating or reducing machining operations; providing a good surface finish; being an easy production process of automation; obtaining high purity; and ensuring exactly resistance characteristics required for each project.

  3. Two-step flash light sintering process for crack-free inkjet-printed Ag films

    Park, Sung-Hyeon; Kim, Hak-Sung; Jang, Shin; Lee, Dong-Jun; Oh, Jehoon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a two-step flash light sintering process for inkjet-printed Ag films is investigated with the aim of improving the quality of sintered Ag films. The flash light sintering process is divided into two steps: a preheating step and a main sintering step. The preheating step is used to remove the organic binder without abrupt vaporization. The main sintering step is used to complete the necking connections among the silver nanoparticles and achieve high electrical conductivity. The process minimizes the damage on the polymer substrate and the interface between the sintered Ag film and polymer substrate. The electrical conductivity is calculated by measuring the resistance and cross-sectional area with an LCR meter and 3D optical profiler, respectively. It is found that the resistivity of the optimal flash light-sintered Ag films (36.32 nΩ m), which is 228.86% of that of bulk silver, is lower than that of thermally sintered ones (40.84 nΩ m). Additionally, the polyimide film used as the substrate is preserved with the inkjet-printed pattern shape during the flash light sintering process without delamination or defects. (paper)

  4. Sintering of Multilayered Porous Structures: Part II – Experiments and Model Applications

    Ni, De Wei; Olevsky, Eugene; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Experimental analyses of shrinkage and distortion kinetics during sintering of bilayered porous and dense gadolinium-doped ceria Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95d structures are carried out, and compared with the theoretical models developed in Part I of this work. A novel approach is developed for the determinat...

  5. Fabrication mechanism of FeSe superconductors with high-energy ball milling aided sintering process

    Zhang, Shengnan; Liu, Jixing; Feng, Jianqing; Wang, Yao; Ma, Xiaobo; Li, Chengshan; Zhang, Pingxiang

    2015-01-01

    FeSe Superconducting bulks with high content of superconducting PbO-type β-FeSe phase were prepared with high-energy ball milling (HEBM) aided sintering process. During this process, precursor powders with certain Fe/Se ratio were ball milled first then sintered. The influences of HEBM process as well as initial Fe/Se ratio on the phase evolution process were systematically discussed. With HEBM process and proper initial Fe/Se ratio, the formation of non-superconducting hexagonal δ-FeSe phase were effectively avoided. FeSe bulk with the critical temperature of 9.0 K was obtained through a simple one-step sintering process with lower sintering temperature. Meanwhile, the phase evolution mechanism of the HEBM precursor powders during sintering was deduced based on both the thermodynamic analysis and step-by-step sintering results. The key function of the HEBM process was to provide a high uniformity of chemical composition distribution, thus to successfully avoide the formation of intermediate product during sintering, including FeSe 2 and Fe 7 Se 8 . Therefore, the fundamental principal for the synthesis of FeSe superconductors were concluded as: HEBM aided sintering process, with the sintering temperature of >635 °C and a slow cooling process. - Highlights: • A novel synthesis technique was developed for FeSe based superconductors. • FeSe bulks with high Tc and high β-FeSe phase content has been obtained. • Phase evolution process for the HEBM aided sintering process was proposed

  6. Computerized simulation of sintering process through single geometric arrangements utilization

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1995-01-01

    In materials science and engineering, microstructure is of crucial importance in determining the properties and therefore the performance of the designed products. However, the parameters and processes which control microstructural evolution in multi-phase polycrystalline systems have not been systematically examined yet. This is specially true in the case of powder processing of ceramics, where the final microstructure is related not only to the densification process, but also to the characteristics of the green compact, such as particle size distribution and packing density. One way to carry out the study of this problem with the of a computer is to consider the green compact as a periodic arrangement of mono-sized hard spheres, e.g., the simple cubic, the body-centered cubic (b.c.) and the face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) arrays. That simplification allows to foresee the resultant morphology when the array is sintered to full density through a simulation algorithm that allows the spheres to penetrate one another and conserve their mass. Typical powder compacts have a random, rather than regular, structures. An element of randomness is introduced and various parameters for this case (e.g. density, coordination number, morphology) are compared with the simple ones. Thermodynamic features of the simulated microstructures which may reveal which one resembles a more realistic equilibrium configuration are also included. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  7. Solidification of high level liquid waste (HLLW) into ceramics by sintering process

    Masuda, Sumio; Oguino, Naohiko; Tsunoda, Naomi; O-oka, Kazuo; Ohta, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    One of the alternatives to vitrified solid which is acceptable and well characterized for storing radioactive HLLW with desirable long-term stability is ceramics. On the other hand, the solidification process of highly radioactive wastes should be simple and suitable for continuous production. On the above described basis, the authors have made preliminary study on the production of sintered ceramics by the addition of several oxides to HLLW. The simulated waste and additive oxides were pressed in a mold to make the preforms of 50 mm diameter and 10 to 15 mm thick. The preforms were then normally sintered at temperature from 1000 to 1400 deg C for 2 to 4 hours. The characterization of the sintered solids revealed the following facts. (1) X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the expected crystals were formed by normal-sintering as well as by hot-pressing. (2) The bulk density of the ceramics by normal-sintering was around 90 to 95% of the assumed theoretical values. (3) The leach-rate of the solids was affected by the bulk density. (4) Other properties of the solids, such as thermal expansion or thermal conductivity, are dominantly determined by those of main crystals in the solids. Sintering process is generally simple and productive as far as normal sintering is concerned. However, hot-pressing is an intermittent and time consuming process. From this fact, the authors intended to adopt the normal sintering process for the ceramic solidification of high level liquid wastes. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Process for preparing sintered uranium dioxide nuclear fuel

    Carter, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Uranium dioxide is prepared for use as fuel in nuclear reactors by sintering it to the desired density at a temperature less than 1300 0 C in a chemically controlled gas atmosphere comprised of at least two gases which in equilibrium provide an oxygen partial pressure sufficient to maintain the uranium dioxide composition at an oxygen/uranium ratio of at least 2.005 at the sintering temperature. 7 Claims, No Drawings

  9. Iron ore sintering. Part 3: Automatic and control systems

    Alejandro Cores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de sinterización implica un gran número de parámetros, más de quinientos, cada uno de los cuales ejerce una mayor o menor influencia y necesita ser controlado, dentro de los límites posibles, con el fin de optimizar la productividad, la estabilidad del proceso, y la composición y la calidad de la sinterizado producido. Para cumplir con la legislación ambiental, un sistema de control de la contaminación debe monitorizar la composición de las partículas y los gases generados en la planta de sinterización y emitidos a la atmósfera. Los sistemas de automatización y control son herramientas vitales para ayudar a los operadores de la planta en el seguimiento de cada etapa del proceso de producción de sinterizado.

  10. Plasma debinding and pre-sintering of injected parts

    Santos Maria Antônia dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of polypropylene removal in injected metallic parts by using plasma technology are presented. The samples were injected with 55.18% Vol. of unalloyed iron powder, 23.57% Vol. of paraffin and 21.25% Vol. of polypropylene. The paraffin was previously removed in hexane bath, followed by a treatment in abnormal glow discharge of argon and hydrogen for the removal of the polypropylene. The electric discharge was generated in two configurations: a confined anode-cathode with the samples placed on the anode and a confined grid (anode-cathode system with the sample placed on a holder at floating potential inside the grid. In the first geometry, electrons bombarded the sample surface, while in the second, they are collected by the grid. The samples were characterized by mass loss measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the hydrogen discharge was more efficient for both configurations, which is attributed to the high reactivity of hydrogen atoms produced in the discharge. In addition, when plasma debinding was performed at 400 ºC for 10 min, by using the confined anode-cathode configuration, the polypropylene removal was total, while in the confined grid (anode-cathode geometry the removal was approximately 32%. The higher polypropylene removing observed in the anode-cathode configuration is attributed to electron bombardment of the surface of the sample.

  11. Tensile Properties Characterization of AlSi10Mg Parts Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering via Nested Effects Modeling

    Biagio Palumbo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A statistical approach for the characterization of Additive Manufacturing (AM processes is presented in this paper. Design of Experiments (DOE and ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA, both based on Nested Effects Modeling (NEM technique, are adopted to assess the effect of different laser exposure strategies on physical and mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg parts produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS. Due to the wide industrial interest in AM technologies in many different fields, it is extremely important to ensure high parts performances and productivity. For this aim, the present paper focuses on the evaluation of tensile properties of specimens built with different laser exposure strategies. Two optimal laser parameters settings, in terms of both process quality (part performances and productivity (part build rate, are identified.

  12. Tensile Properties Characterization of AlSi10Mg Parts Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering via Nested Effects Modeling.

    Palumbo, Biagio; Del Re, Francesco; Martorelli, Massimo; Lanzotti, Antonio; Corrado, Pasquale

    2017-02-08

    A statistical approach for the characterization of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes is presented in this paper. Design of Experiments (DOE) and ANalysis of VAriance (ANOVA), both based on Nested Effects Modeling (NEM) technique, are adopted to assess the effect of different laser exposure strategies on physical and mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg parts produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Due to the wide industrial interest in AM technologies in many different fields, it is extremely important to ensure high parts performances and productivity. For this aim, the present paper focuses on the evaluation of tensile properties of specimens built with different laser exposure strategies. Two optimal laser parameters settings, in terms of both process quality (part performances) and productivity (part build rate), are identified.

  13. The influence of green microstructure and sintering parameters on precipitation process during copper-nickel-zinc ferrites sintering

    Barba, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural changes that occur during heat treatment of copper-nickel-zinc ferrites have been studied. The process of precipitation of the two types of crystals that occur during the sintering process has been analyzed. It is found that this process depends on dry relative density of the press specimens and on the following sintering parameters: sintering temperature, sintering time and cooling rate of the thermal cycle. Crystal precipitates characterization have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. These techniques have allowed to determine the nature of these crystals, which in this case correspond to zinc and copper oxides. It has been used two chemical reactions to explain the bulk precipitation and subsequent re-dissolution of these crystal precipitates during sintering.En este trabajo se han estudiado los cambios microestructurales que se producen durante el tratamiento térmico de las ferritas de cobre-níquel-cinc y se ha analizado el proceso de precipitación de los dos tipos de cristales que aparecen durante el proceso de sinterización. Se ha encontrado que este proceso depende de la densidad relativa en seco de las muestras compactadas y de las siguientes variables de la etapa de sinterización: temperatura y tiempo de sinterización y velocidad de enfriamiento. La caracterización de los cristales precipitados se ha realizado por microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, microanálisis por dispersión de energía de rayos X (EDX, difracción de rayos X (DRX, y espectroscopía de fotoelectrones de rayos X (XPS. Estas técnicas han permitido determinar la naturaleza de estos cristales, que en este caso corresponden a los óxidos de cinc y de cobre. Se han propuesto dos reacciones químicas que permiten explicar el proceso de precipitación y la posterior re-disolución de estos cristales precipitados durante la

  14. Sintering and Microstructures of SUS 316L Powder Produced by 3D Printing Process

    Kim W.J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser sintering (SLS is a type of laminating sintering technique, using CO2 laser with (metal, polymer, and ceramic powders. In this result, the flake SUS 316L was used to achieve a high porous product, and compare to spherical type. After SLS, the porosity of flake-type sample with 34% was quite higher than that of the spherical-type one that had only 11%. The surface roughness of the flake SLS sample were also investigated in both inner and surface parts. The results show that the deviation of the roughness of the surface part is about 64.40μm, while that of the internal one was about 117.65μm, which presents the containing of high porosity in the uneven surfaces. With the process using spherical powder, the sample was quite dense, however, some initial particles still remained as a result of less energy received at the beneath of the processing layer.

  15. Material Evaluation and Process Optimization of CNT-Coated Polymer Powders for Selective Laser Sintering

    Shangqin Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs as nano-reinforcements were introduced to facilitate the laser sintering process and enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of polymeric composites. A dual experimental-theoretical method was proposed to evaluate the processability and predict the process parameters of newly developed CNT-coated polyamide 12 (CNTs/PA12 powders. The thermal conductivity, melt viscosity, phase transition and temperature-dependent density and heat capacity of PA12 and CNTs/PA12 powders were characterized for material evaluation. The composite powders exhibited improved heat conduction and heat absorption compared with virgin polymer powders, and the stable sintering range of composite powders was extended and found to be favourable for the sintering process. The microstructures of sintered composites revealed that the CNTs remained at the powder boundaries and formed network architectures, which instantaneously induced the significant enhancements in tensile strength, elongation at break and toughness without sacrificing tensile modulus.

  16. Formation of solid solution during mutual diffusion of tungsten and molybdenum in the process of sintering

    Timofeeva, A.A.; Bulat, I.B.; Voronin, Yu.V.; Fedoseev, G.K.; Karasev, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    A process of a solid solution homogenization during sintering of W-15Mo and W-5Mo alloys is studied by the methods of density measurements, analysis of the X-ray lines physical broadening and determination of crystalline lattice constant. Study of the process of solid solution formation under conditions of powder composite sintering is shown to be conducted with account of peculiarities of tungsten and molybdenum mutual diffusion in the investigated temperature range of concentrations

  17. Optimization of process parameters for spark plasma sintering of nano structured SAF 2205 composite

    Samuel Ranti Oke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research optimized spark plasma sintering (SPS process parameters in terms of sintering temperature, holding time and heating rate for the development of a nano-structured duplex stainless steel (SAF 2205 grade reinforced with titanium nitride (TiN. The mixed powders were sintered using an automated spark plasma sintering machine (model HHPD-25, FCT GmbH, Germany. Characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Density and hardness of the composites were investigated. The XRD result showed the formation of FeN0.068. SEM/EDS revealed the presence of nano ranged particles of TiN segregated at the grain boundaries of the duplex matrix. A decrease in hardness and densification was observed when sintering temperature and heating rate were 1200 °C and 150 °C/min respectively. The optimum properties were obtained in composites sintered at 1150 °C for 15 min and 100 °C/min. The composite grades irrespective of the process parameters exhibited similar shrinkage behavior, which is characterized by three distinctive peaks, which is an indication of good densification phenomena. Keywords: Spark plasma sintering, Duplex stainless steel (SAF 2205, Titanium nitride (TiN, Microstructure, Density, Hardness

  18. Liquid phase sintered SiC. Processing and transformation controlled microstructure tailoring

    V.A. Izhevskyi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure development and phase formation processes during sintering of silicon carbide based materials with AlN-Y2O3, AlN-Yb2O3, and AlN-La2O3 sintering additives were investigated. Densification of the materials occurred by liquid-phase sintering mechanism. Proportion of alpha- and beta-SiC powders in the initial mixtures was a variable parameter, while the molar ratio of AlN/RE2O3, and the total amount of additives (10 vol. % were kept constant. Shrinkage behavior during sintering in interrelation with the starting composition of the material and the sintering atmosphere was investigated by high temperature dilatometry. Kinetics of b-SiC to a-SiC phase transformation during post-sintering heat treatment at temperatures 1900-1950 °C was studied, the degree of phase transformation being determined by quantitative x-ray analysis using internal standard technique. Evolution of microstructure resulting from beta-SiC to alpha-SiC transformation was followed up by scanning electron microscopy on polished and chemically etched samples. Transformation-controlled grain growth mechanism similar to the one observed for silicon nitride based ceramics was established. Possibility of in-situ platelet reinforced dense SiC-based ceramics fabrication with improved mechanical properties by means of sintering was shown.

  19. Clean recycle and utilization of hazardous iron-bearing waste in iron ore sintering process.

    Gan, Min; Ji, Zhiyun; Fan, Xiaohui; Chen, Xuling; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Guojing; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Tao

    2018-04-18

    Applying recycled iron-bearing waste materials (RIM) into iron ore sintering process is the general disposal approach worldwide, while its use is still a thorny problem. Results showed that adding RIM increased contents of hazardous elements (K, Na, Pb, Zn, and Cl) in sinter product, and also enhanced emission concentration of PM 2.5 in flue gas; increasing reaction temperature, and contents of CaO & coke breeze in raw mixtures improved hazardous elements removal. Based on these features, a novel method through granulating natural iron ores and RIM separately and distributing granulated RIM in bottom sintering layers was proposed for clean RIM cycle. When recycling 5% RIM, granulating RIM separately with higher contents of CaO and coke breeze removed hazardous elements effectively, the contents of which in sinter were reduced to comparable level of the case without RIM. Moreover, distributing RIM in bottom sintering layer reached intensive release of hazardous elements and PM 2.5 during sintering, which reduced the flue gas volume needing purification by about 2/3. Through activated carbon purification, about 60% of PM 2.5 comprised high contents of hazardous elements was removed. Novel technique eliminated the negative impact of RIM and has the prospect to reach clean recycle in sinter-making plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Study of the sintering process and the formation of a (Th, U) O2 solid solution

    Tomasi, Roberto

    1979-01-01

    The effect of some variables in the (Th, U) O 2 sintering process and solid solution formation was studied. ThO 2 , U 3 O 8 and UO 2 powder were prepared. The ThO 2 powders were obtained by calcination of thorium at 500 and 750 deg C; the U 3 O 8 powders were derived from the calcination of ADU at 660 and 750 deg C; the UO 2 powder were prepared from ADU and from ATCU. The different characteristics of these materials were determined by measurements of surface area, by scanning electron microscopy, tap density tests, X-ray diffractometry and by measurements of the O/U ratios. The oxide mixtures were chosen in order to produce a final composition with 10 w/o of UO 2 . A mixture of thorium oxalate and ADU was also prepared by calcining these salts in air at 700 deg C, in order to obtain certain amount of solid solution prior to sintering. The sintering operations were developed in an argon atmosphere at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 deg C, during interval varying from 1 to 4 hours. The effect of the mixture characteristics on the sintering process and solid solution formation were studied considering the results of densification, microstructure development and X-ray diffractometry. The ThO 2 powder characteristics have a main effect on the mixtures compactability and sinterability, the higher calcining temperatures increasing the green density, but decreasing the final density of the sintered pellets. In the sintering of mixtures containing U 3 O 3 , this oxide is reduced to UO 2 and it is possible to obtain pellets with density and microstructures similar to those produced from mixtures containing UO 2 . But if oxygen in excess is present during sintering, the process is affected, occurring exaggerated grain growth. The densification results were related to the Coble's kinetics equation for second stage of sintering, valid for bulk diffusion, grain boundary acting as vacancy sinks. The sintering activation energy is independent from the powder starting

  1. Effects of pressure and temperature on sintering of Cr-doped Al2O3 by pulsed electric current sintering process

    Dang, K. Q.; Nanko, M.

    2011-03-01

    The aluminium oxide crystal, Al2O3, which contains a small amount of chromium, Cr, is called ruby. Pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) was applied to sinter ruby polycrystals. Cr2O3-Al2O3 powder mixture prepared by drying an aqueous slurry containing amounts of Al2O3 and Cr(NO3)3 was consolidated by PECS process. The PECS process was performed in vacuum at sintering temperature raging from 1100 to 1300°C with heating rate of 2 K/min under applied uniaxial pressure varied from 40 to 100 MPa. This study found that highly densified and transparent Cr-doped Al2O3 can be obtained by the PECS process with the high applied pressure at sintering temperature of 1200°C.

  2. Microstructural development and mechanical properties of iron based cermets processed by pressureless and spark plasma sintering

    Alvaredo, P.; Gordo, E.; Van der Biest, O.; Vanmeensel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Processing of Fe-based cermets by pressureless sintering and spark plasma sintering. ► Influence of carbon content on the sintering mechanism and hardness. ► The cermet phase diagram was calculated and permits to explain the microstructure. ► SPS provides ferritic matrix and different carbide distribution than CPS samples. ► Pressureless sintered samples contain retained austenite at room temperature. - Abstract: Iron-based cermets are an interesting class of metal-ceramic composites in which properties and the factors influencing them are to be explored. In this work the metal matrix contains Cr, W, Mo and V as alloying elements, and the hard phase is constituted by 50 vol% of titanium carbonitride (TiCN) particles. The work studies the influence of the C content and the processing method on the sinterability, microstructure and hardness of the developed cermet materials. For that purpose, cermet samples with different C content in the matrix (0 wt%, 0.25 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt%) were prepared by conventional pressureless sintering (CPS) and, in order to achieve finer microstructures and to reduce the sintering time, by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The density and hardness (HV30) of the processed materials was evaluated, while their phase composition and microstructure was characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The equilibrium phase diagram of the composite material was calculated by ThermoCalc software in order to elucidate the influence of the carbon content on the obtained phases and developed microstructures.

  3. Continuum simulation of heat transfer and solidification behavior of AlSi10Mg in Direct Metal Laser Sintering Process

    Ojha, Akash; Samantaray, Mihir; Nath Thatoi, Dhirendra; Sahoo, Seshadev

    2018-03-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) process is a laser based additive manufacturing process, which built complex structures from powder materials. Using high intensity laser beam, the process melts and fuse the powder particles makes dense structures. In this process, the laser beam in terms of heat flux strikes the powder bed and instantaneously melts and joins the powder particles. The partial solidification and temperature distribution on the powder bed endows a high cooling rate and rapid solidification which affects the microstructure of the build part. During the interaction of the laser beam with the powder bed, multiple modes of heat transfer takes place in this process, that make the process very complex. In the present research, a comprehensive heat transfer and solidification model of AlSi10Mg in direct metal laser sintering process has been developed on ANSYS 17.1.0 platform. The model helps to understand the flow phenomena, temperature distribution and densification mechanism on the powder bed. The numerical model takes into account the flow, heat transfer and solidification phenomena. Simulations were carried out for sintering of AlSi10Mg powders in the powder bed having dimension 3 mm × 1 mm × 0.08 mm. The solidification phenomena are incorporated by using enthalpy-porosity approach. The simulation results give the fundamental understanding of the densification of powder particles in DMLS process.

  4. Al2O3-TiC Composite Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering Process: Evaluation of Mechanical and Tribological Properties

    Kumar, Rohit; Chaubey, A. K.; Bathula, Sivaiah; Prashanth, K. G.; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-03-01

    Al2O3-10TiC composites were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the composite reveal homogeneous distribution of the fine TiC particles in the matrix. The samples were produced with different sintering temperature, and it shows that the hardness and density gradually increases with increasing sintering temperature. Abrasion wear test result reveals that the composite sintered at 1500 °C shows high abrasion resistance (wt. loss 0.016 g) and the lowest abrasion resistance was observed for the composite sample sintered at 1100 °C (wt. loss 1.459 g). The profilometry surface roughness study shows that sample sintered at 1100 °C shows maximum roughness ( R a = 6.53 µm) compared to the sample sintered at 1500 °C ( R a = 0.66 µm) corroborating the abrasion wear test results.

  5. Sintering Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered SiC with Si-SiC Composite Nanoparticles Prepared by Thermal DC Plasma Process

    Yu, Yeon-Tae; Naik, Gautam Kumar; Lim, Young-Bin; Yoon, Jeong-Mo

    2017-11-01

    The Si-coated SiC (Si-SiC) composite nanoparticle was prepared by non-transferred arc thermal plasma processing of solid-state synthesized SiC powder and was used as a sintering additive for SiC ceramic formation. Sintered SiC pellet was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, and the effect of nano-sized Si-SiC composite particles on the sintering behavior of micron-sized SiC powder was investigated. The mixing ratio of Si-SiC composite nanoparticle to micron-sized SiC was optimized to 10 wt%. Vicker's hardness and relative density was increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. The relative density and Vicker's hardness was further increased by reaction bonding using additional activated carbon to the mixture of micron-sized SiC and nano-sized Si-SiC. The maximum relative density (97.1%) and Vicker's hardness (31.4 GPa) were recorded at 1800 °C sintering temperature for 1 min holding time, when 0.2 wt% additional activated carbon was added to the mixture of SiC/Si-SiC.

  6. Sintering Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered SiC with Si-SiC Composite Nanoparticles Prepared by Thermal DC Plasma Process.

    Yu, Yeon-Tae; Naik, Gautam Kumar; Lim, Young-Bin; Yoon, Jeong-Mo

    2017-11-25

    The Si-coated SiC (Si-SiC) composite nanoparticle was prepared by non-transferred arc thermal plasma processing of solid-state synthesized SiC powder and was used as a sintering additive for SiC ceramic formation. Sintered SiC pellet was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process, and the effect of nano-sized Si-SiC composite particles on the sintering behavior of micron-sized SiC powder was investigated. The mixing ratio of Si-SiC composite nanoparticle to micron-sized SiC was optimized to 10 wt%. Vicker's hardness and relative density was increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. The relative density and Vicker's hardness was further increased by reaction bonding using additional activated carbon to the mixture of micron-sized SiC and nano-sized Si-SiC. The maximum relative density (97.1%) and Vicker's hardness (31.4 GPa) were recorded at 1800 °C sintering temperature for 1 min holding time, when 0.2 wt% additional activated carbon was added to the mixture of SiC/Si-SiC.

  7. The DCRS: Dynamic compaction resistance sintering. A flash sintering process with a dynamic loading ability

    Allain-Bonnasso N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A homemade powder processing device combining Joule heating and dynamic compaction is presented. This device has been tested at temperatures as high as 1850 ∘C with heating rates up to 1000 ∘C/min. A detailed description of this device is given here followed by mechanical response and thermal validation tests. This highlights the reproducibility of the results on both the thermal and mechanical point of view.

  8. Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process Recycling of NdFeB sintered magnets

    Xia, Manlong; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Bahl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered...

  9. Effect of processing conditions on microstructural features in Mn–Si sintered steels

    Oro, Raquel, E-mail: raqueld@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hryha, Eduard, E-mail: hryha@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Rännvägen 2A, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Campos, Mónica, E-mail: campos@ing.uc3m.es [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Torralba, José M., E-mail: torralba@ing.uc3m.es [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Materials Institute, c/Eric Kandel, 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Sintering of steels containing oxidation sensitive elements is possible if such elements are alloyed with others which present lower affinity for oxygen. In this work, a master alloy powder containing Fe–Mn–Si–C, specifically designed to create a liquid phase during sintering, has been used for such purpose. The effect of processing conditions such as sintering temperature and atmosphere was studied with the aim of describing the microstructural evolution as well as the morphology and distribution of oxides in the sintered material, evaluating the potential detrimental effect of such oxides on mechanical properties. Chemical analyses, metallography and fractography studies combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses on the fracture surfaces were used to reveal the main mechanism of fracture and their correlation with the chemical composition of the different fracture surfaces. The results indicate that the main mechanism of failure in these steels is brittle fracture in the surrounding of the original master alloy particles due to degradation of grain boundaries by the presence of oxide inclusions. Mn–Si oxide inclusions were observed on intergranular decohesive facets. The use of reducing atmospheres and high sintering temperatures reduces the amount and size of such oxide inclusions. Besides, high heating and cooling rates reduce significantly the final oxygen content in the sintered material. A model for microstructure development and oxide evolution during different stages of sintering is proposed, considering the fact that when the master alloy melts, the liquid formed can dissolve some of the oxides as well as the surface of the surrounding iron base particles. - Highlights: • Oxide distribution in steels containing oxidation-sensitive elements • Mn, Si introduced in a master alloy powder, mixed with a base iron powder • Selective oxidation of Mn and Si on iron grain boundaries • Decohesive fracture caused by degradation of grain

  10. Effect of processing conditions on microstructural features in Mn–Si sintered steels

    Oro, Raquel; Hryha, Eduard; Campos, Mónica; Torralba, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Sintering of steels containing oxidation sensitive elements is possible if such elements are alloyed with others which present lower affinity for oxygen. In this work, a master alloy powder containing Fe–Mn–Si–C, specifically designed to create a liquid phase during sintering, has been used for such purpose. The effect of processing conditions such as sintering temperature and atmosphere was studied with the aim of describing the microstructural evolution as well as the morphology and distribution of oxides in the sintered material, evaluating the potential detrimental effect of such oxides on mechanical properties. Chemical analyses, metallography and fractography studies combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses on the fracture surfaces were used to reveal the main mechanism of fracture and their correlation with the chemical composition of the different fracture surfaces. The results indicate that the main mechanism of failure in these steels is brittle fracture in the surrounding of the original master alloy particles due to degradation of grain boundaries by the presence of oxide inclusions. Mn–Si oxide inclusions were observed on intergranular decohesive facets. The use of reducing atmospheres and high sintering temperatures reduces the amount and size of such oxide inclusions. Besides, high heating and cooling rates reduce significantly the final oxygen content in the sintered material. A model for microstructure development and oxide evolution during different stages of sintering is proposed, considering the fact that when the master alloy melts, the liquid formed can dissolve some of the oxides as well as the surface of the surrounding iron base particles. - Highlights: • Oxide distribution in steels containing oxidation-sensitive elements • Mn, Si introduced in a master alloy powder, mixed with a base iron powder • Selective oxidation of Mn and Si on iron grain boundaries • Decohesive fracture caused by degradation of grain

  11. Densification of silicon and zirconium carbides by a new process: spark plasma sintering

    Guillard, F.

    2006-12-01

    Materials research for suitable utilization in 4. generation nuclear plants needs new ways to densify testing components. Two carbides, silicon and zirconium carbide seems to be the most suitable choice due to their mechanical, thermal and neutron-transparency properties against next nuclear plant specifications. Nevertheless one main difficulty remains, which is densifying them even at high temperature. Spark Plasma Sintering a new metal-, ceramic- and composite-sintering process has been used to densify both SiC and ZrC. Understanding bases of mass transport mechanisms in SPS have been studied. Composites and interfaces have been processed and analyzed. This manuscript reports original results on SiC and ZrC ceramics sintered with commercial powder started, without additives. (author)

  12. Process Developed for Generating Ceramic Interconnects With Low Sintering Temperatures for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Zhong, Zhi-Min; Goldsby, Jon C.

    2005-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered as premium future power generation devices because they have demonstrated high energy-conversion efficiency, high power density, and extremely low pollution, and have the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuel. The Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) initiative, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and private industries, is leading the development and commercialization of SOFCs for low-cost stationary and automotive markets. The targeted power density for the initiative is rather low, so that the SECA SOFC can be operated at a relatively low temperature (approx. 700 C) and inexpensive metallic interconnects can be utilized in the SOFC stack. As only NASA can, the agency is investigating SOFCs for aerospace applications. Considerable high power density is required for the applications. As a result, the NASA SOFC will be operated at a high temperature (approx. 900 C) and ceramic interconnects will be employed. Lanthanum chromite-based materials have emerged as a leading candidate for the ceramic interconnects. The interconnects are expected to co-sinter with zirconia electrolyte to mitigate the interface electric resistance and to simplify the processing procedure. Lanthanum chromites made by the traditional method are sintered at 1500 C or above. They react with zirconia electrolytes (which typically sinter between 1300 and 1400 C) at the sintering temperature of lanthanum chromites. It has been envisioned that lanthanum chromites with lower sintering temperatures can be co-fired with zirconia electrolyte. Nonstoichiometric lanthanum chromites can be sintered at lower temperatures, but they are unstable and react with zirconia electrolyte during co-sintering. NASA Glenn Research Center s Ceramics Branch investigated a glycine nitrate process to generate fine powder of the lanthanum-chromite-based materials. By simultaneously doping calcium on the lanthanum site, and cobalt and aluminum on the

  13. Comparison between Palm Oil Derivative and Commercial Thermo-Plastic Binder System on the Properties of the Stainless Steel 316L Sintered Parts

    Ibrahim, R.; Azmirruddin, M.; Wei, G. C.; Fong, L. K.; Abdullah, N. I.; Omar, K.; Muhamad, M.; Muhamad, S.

    2010-03-01

    Binder system is one of the most important criteria for the powder injection molding (PIM) process. Failure in the selection of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. The objectives of this studied is to develop a novel binder system based on the local natural resources and environmental friendly binder system from palm oil derivative which is easily available and cheap in our country of Malaysia. The novel binder that has been developed will be replaced the commercial thermo-plastic binder system or as an alternative binder system. The results show that the physical and mechanical properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) standard 35 for PIM parts. The biocompatibility test using cell osteosarcoma (MG63) and vero fibroblastic also shows that the cell was successfully growth on the sintered stainless steel 316L parts indicate that the novel binder was not toxic. Therefore, the novel binder system based on palm oil derivative that has been developed as a binder system fulfills the important criteria for the binder system in PIM process.

  14. Processing and properties of mechanically alloyed sintered steels with hard inclusions

    Gutsfeld, C.

    1991-10-01

    The aim of this work was the development of mechanically alloyed sintered steels with inert hard inclusions and their characterisation concerning the mechanical properties and the sliding wear behaviour. For this material concept the hard materials NbC, TiC, TiN and Al 2 O 3 were chosen with volume contents upto 20%. Mechanical alloying of the raw powders is a necessary prerequisit for an extreme fine and homogeneous microstructure and good mechanical and wear properties. Through a connecting powder annealing a conventional powder metallurgical processing with cold pressing and sintering is possible. For the consolidation pressureless liquid phase sintering initiated through phosphorus contents of 0,6% is suitable. Because of the strong hampering of grain growth through the included hard particles sintering densities upto 99% TD are possible with extreme fine microstructures. The mechanical properties can be varied in wide ranges. So tensile strengths of 1150 MPa, elongations at fracture of 17%, hardness of over 800 HV and fatigue strengths of 370 MPa have been reached. Throughout HIP or sinter forging the mechanical properties can be improved furthermore. (orig.) [de

  15. Microstructure and superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes fabricated in the two-step sintering process

    Lu, X.Y.; Nagata, A.; Sugawara, K.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes fabricated in the two-step sintering process were investigated. The tapes were then subjected to two heat treatments with an intermediate rolling. All the tapes were sintered at 835 deg. C for 24 h at initial sintering stage. A two-step sintering procedure was then used in the final sintering stage. In the first step, the tapes are sintered at 840-865 deg. C for 1 h. In the second step, they were sintered at 835 deg. C for 120 h. The results show that the first step sintering temperature has significant influence on the microstructure and the critical current density J c . The observed microstructures are consistent well with the different J c performances of the tapes first-step-sintered at different temperatures. The tape first-step-sintered at 850 deg. C, which has small secondary phases, stronger c-axis grain alignment, higher proportion of Bi-2223 phase, and no cracks, exhibits the highest J c value

  16. Design of microreactor by integration of reverse engineering and direct metal laser sintering process

    Bineli, Aulus Roberto Romao; Gimenez Perez, Ana Paula; Bernardes, Luiz Fernando; Munhoz, Andre Luiz Jardini; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade de Campinas (LOPCA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering. Laboratory of Optimization, Design and Advanced Process Control], Email: aulus@feq.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    The propose of this work is to present high precision microfabrication facilities using computer aided technologies as Reverse Engineering (RE) and Rapid Manufacturing (RM) to analyze, design and construct micro reactors to produce high content hydrogen gas. Micro reactors are very compact, have a high surface to volume ratio, exhibit enhanced heat and mass transfer rates, denotes extremely low pressure drop and allow improved thermal integration in the processes involved. The main goals of micro reactors are the optimization of conventional chemical plants and low footprint, opening different ways to research new process technologies and synthesis of new products. In this work, a microchannels plate and housing structure of these plates were fabricated using DMLS method (Direct Metal Laser Sintering). The plates were analyzed to verify the minimum thickness wall that machine can produce, and the housing structure were digitalized, using a 3D scanning, to perform a 3D inspection and to verify the deflection of the constructed part in comparison with original CAD design models. It was observed that DMLS systems are able to produce micro reactors and microchannels plates with high precision at different metallic materials. However, it is important to choose appropriate conditions to avoid residual stresses and consequently warping parts. (author)

  17. Effect of two-stage sintering process on microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS tungsten heavy alloy

    Lee, Kyong H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Seung I. [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science 1-1, Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Ryu, Ho J. [DUPIC, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shhong@kaist.ac.kr

    2007-06-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) tungsten heavy alloys have been considered as promising candidates for advanced kinetic energy penetrator due to their characteristic fracture mode compared to conventional tungsten heavy alloy. In order to obtain high relative density, the ODS tungsten heavy alloy needs to be sintered at higher temperature for longer time, however, induces growth of tungsten grains. Therefore, it is very difficult to obtain controlled microstructure of ODS tungsten heavy alloy having fine tungsten grains with full densification. In this study, two-stage sintering process, consisted of primary solid-state sintering and followed by secondary liquid phase sintering, was introduced for ODS tungsten heavy alloys. The mechanically alloyed 94W-4.56Ni-1.14Fe-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders are solid-state sintered at 1300-1450 deg. C for 1 h in hydrogen atmosphere, and followed by liquid phase sintering temperature at 1465-1485 deg. C for 0-60 min. The microstructure of ODS tungsten heavy alloys showed high relative density above 97%, with contiguous tungsten grains after primary solid-state sintering. The microstructure of solid-state sintered ODS tungsten heavy alloy was changed into spherical tungsten grains embedded in W-Ni-Fe matrix during secondary liquid phase sintering. The two-stage sintered ODS tungsten heavy alloy from mechanically alloyed powders showed finer microstructure and higher mechanical properties than conventional liquid phase sintered alloy. The mechanical properties of ODS tungsten heavy alloys are dependent on the microstructural parameters such as tungsten grain size, matrix volume fraction and tungsten/tungsten contiguity, which can be controlled through the two-stage sintering process.

  18. Reaction behavior of SO2 in the sintering process with flue gas recirculation.

    Yu, Zhi-Yuan; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xu-Ling; Chen, Qiang; Huang, Yun-Song

    2016-07-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to reveal the reaction behavior of SO2 in the sinter zone, combustion zone, drying-preheating zone, and over-wet zone during flue gas recirculation (FGR) technique. The results showed that SO2 retention in the sinter zone was associated with free-CaO in the form of CaSO3/CaSO4, and the SO2 adsorption reached a maximum under 900ºC. SO2 in the flue gas came almost from the combustion zone. One reaction behavior was the oxidation of sulfur in the sintering mix when the temperature was between 800 and 1000ºC; the other behavior was the decomposition of sulfite/sulfate when the temperature was over 1000ºC. However, the SO2 adsorption in the sintering bed mainly occurred in the drying-preheating zone, adsorbed by CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, and CaO. When the SO2 adsorption reaction in the drying-preheating zone reached equilibrium, the excess SO2 gas continued to migrate to the over-wet zone and was then absorbed by Ca(OH)2 and H2O. The emission rising point of SO2 moved forward in combustion zone, and the concentration of SO2 emissions significantly increased in the case of flue gas recirculation (FGR) technique. Aiming for the reuse of the sensible heat and a reduction in exhaust gas emission, the FGR technique is proposed in the iron ore sintering process. When using the FGR technique, SO2 emission in exhaust gas gets changed. In practice, the application of the FGR technique in a sinter plant should be cooperative with the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technique. Thus, it is necessary to study the influence of the FGR technique on SO2 emissions because it will directly influence the demand and design of the FGD system.

  19. A constitutive model and numerical simulation of sintering processes at macroscopic level

    Wawrzyk, Krzysztof; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Nosewicz, Szymon; Rojek, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents modelling of both single and double-phase powder sintering processes at the macroscopic level. In particular, its constitutive formulation, numerical implementation and numerical tests are described. The macroscopic constitutive model is based on the assumption that the sintered material is a continuous medium. The parameters of the constitutive model for material under sintering are determined by simulation of sintering at the microscopic level using a micro-scale model. Numerical tests were carried out for a cylindrical specimen under hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure. Results of macroscopic analysis are compared against the microscopic model results. Moreover, numerical simulations are validated by comparison with experimental results. The simulations and preparation of the model are carried out by Abaqus FEA - a software for finite element analysis and computer-aided engineering. A mechanical model is defined by the user procedure "Vumat" which is developed by the first author in Fortran programming language. Modelling presented in the paper can be used to optimize and to better understand the process.

  20. Sintering behavior of porous wall tile bodies during fast single-firing process

    Sidnei José Gomes Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In ceramic wall tile processing, fast single-firing cycles have been widely used. In this investigation a fast single-firing porous wall tile mixture was prepared using raw materials from the North Fluminense region.Specimens were obtained by uniaxial pressing and sintered in air at various temperatures (1080 - 1200 °C using a fast-firing cycle (60 minutes. Evolution of the microstructure was followed by XRD and SEM. The results revealed that the main phases formed during the sintering step are anorthite, gehlenite and hematite. It appears that the sintering process is characterized by the presence of a small amount of a liquid phase below 1140 °C. As a result, the microstructure of the ceramic bodies showed a network of small dense zones interconnected with a porous phase. In addition, the strength of the material below 1140 °C appeared to be related to the type and quantity of crystalline phases in the sintered bodies.

  1. Study of nano-metric silicon carbide powder sintering. Application to fibers processing

    Malinge, A.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide ceramic matrix composites (SiCf/SiCm) are of interest for high temperature applications in aerospace or nuclear components for their relatively high thermal conductivity and low activation under neutron irradiation. While most of silicon carbide fibers are obtained through the pyrolysis of a poly-carbo-silane precursor, sintering of silicon carbide nano-powders seems to be a promising route to explore. For this reason, pressureless sintering of SiC has been studied. Following the identification of appropriate sintering aids for the densification, optimization of the microstructure has been achieved through (i) the analysis of the influence of operating parameters and (ii) the control of the SiC β a SiC α phase transition. Green fibers have been obtained by two different processes involving the extrusion of SiC powder dispersion in polymer solution or the coagulation of a water-soluble polymer containing ceramic particles. Sintering of these green fibers led to fibers of around fifty microns in diameter. (author) [fr

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel coated multi walled carbon nanotube reinforced stainless steel 316L matrix composites by laser sintering process

    Mahanthesha, P.; Mohankumar, G. C.

    2018-04-01

    Electroless Ni coated Multi-walled Carbon nanotubes reinforced with Stainless Steel 316L matrix composite was developed by Direct Metal Laser Sintering process (DMLS). Homogeneous mixture of Stainless Steel 316L powder and carbon nanotubes in different vol. % was obtained by using double cone blender machine. Characterization of electroless Ni coated carbon nanotubes was done by using X-ray diffraction, FESEM and EDS. Test samples were fabricated at different laser scan speeds. Effect of process parameters and CNT vol. % content on solidification microstructure and mechanical properties of test samples was investigated by using Optical microscopy, FESEM, and Hounsfield tensometer. Experimental results reveal DMLS process parameters affect the density and microstructure of sintered parts. Dense parts with minimum porosity when processed at low laser scan speeds and low CNT vol. %. Tensile fractured surface of test specimens evidences the survival of carbon nanotubes under high temperature processing condition.

  3. The investigation of order–disorder transition process of ZSM-5 induced by spark plasma sintering

    Wang, Liang [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Jiang, Wan [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 239 Zhangheng Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200120 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Based on the amorphization of zeolites, an order–disorder transition method was used to prepare silica glass via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). In order to get a better understanding about the mechanism of amorphization induced by SPS, the intermediate products in this process were prepared and characterized by different characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction and High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering show a gradual transformation from ordered crystal to glass. Local structural changes in glass network including Si–O bond length, O–Si–O bond angle, size of rings, coordination were detected by Infrared spectroscopy and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Topologically ordered, amorphous material with a different intermediate-range structure can be obtained by precise control of intermediate process which can be expected to optimize and design material. - Graphical abstract: Low-density, ordered zeolites collapse to the rigid amorphous glass through spark plasma sintering. The intermediate-range structure formed in the process of order–disorder transition may give rise to specific property. - Highlights: • Order–disorder transition process of ZSM-5 induced by spark plasma sintering was investigated using several methods including XRD, High-energy synchrotron X-ray scattering, SAXS, IR, NMR, ect. • Order–disorder transition induced by SPS was compared with TIA and PIA. • Three stages has been divided during the whole process. • The collapse temperature range which may give rise to intermediate-range structure has been located.

  4. Influence of the starch content and sintering temperature on the processing of porous zirconia substrates

    Albano, Maria P; Garrido, Liliana B

    2008-01-01

    Porous ceramics are used as electrodes in fuel cells, separators in batteries, filters, etc. Thin porous substrates of zirconium stabilized with yttrium oxide (ZSY) are used as anodes in solid oxide fuel cells. One way to obtain a porous band is to mix starch particles during the preparation stage of the ZSY suspension. The starch burns during the removal of the binder and leaves stable pores that are not eliminated in the subsequent sintering stage. This work used the band pouring process to produce porous bands of ZSY with porosities of 29% to 53% using starch as a transitory additive. Concentrated aqueous suspensions of ZSY were prepared with different contents of starch and of an acrylic latex binder. The influence of the fraction of starch volume and of the temperature on the sintering behavior and on the final micro structure of the bands was studied. The total porosity of the bands was higher than the fractions in volume of added starch, due to the presence of closed porosity in the matrix. The deviations compared to the porosity predicted based on the fractions in the volume of starch, were greater as the starch content increased. The percentage of open porosity in the sintered bands depended on the fraction in the volume of added starch and on the sintering temperature. When the fraction in volume of starch increased from 17.6% to 37.8% a gradual increase occurred in the opening of the porous structure. The contraction of the bands during sintering at a given temperature correlated with the density of the packing of ZSY (au)

  5. Matrix densification of SiC composites by sintering process

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jang, Doo-Hee; Eom, Jung-Hye; Chun, Yong-Seong

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this research are to develop a process for dense SiC fiber-SiC composites with a porosity of 5% or less and to develop high-strength SiC fiber-SiC composites with a strength of 500 MPa or higher. To meet the above objectives, the following research topics were investigated ; new process development for the densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites, effect of processing parameters on densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites, effect of additive composition on matrix microstructure, effects of additive composition and content on densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites, mechanical properties of SiC fiber-SiC composites, effect of fiber coating on densification and strength of SiC fiber-SiC composites, development of new additive composition. There has been a great deal of progress in the development of technologies for the processing and densification of SiC fiber-SiC composites and in better understanding of additive-densification-mechanical property relations as results of this project. Based on the progress, dense SiC fiber-SiC composites (≥97%) and high strength SiC fiber-SiC composites (≥600 MPa) have been developed. Development of 2D SiC fiber-SiC composites with a relative density of ≥97% and a strength of ≥600 MPa can be counted as a notable achievement

  6. Determination of optimum thermal debinding and sintering process parameters using Taguchi Method

    Seerane, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available powder and a wax-based binder. The binder’s backbone component is a low density polyethylene (LDPE). Careful selection of thermal debinding parameters was guided by thermo- gravimetric analysis (TGA) results. The Taguchi method was used to determine... International Light Metals Technology Conference (LMT 2015), Port Elizabeth, South Africa, July 27-29 Determination of Optimum Process for Thermal Debinding and Sintering using Taguchi Method SEERANE Mandya,*, CHIKWANDA Hildab, MACHAKA Ronaldc CSIR...

  7. Spark Plasma Sintering constrained process parameters of sintered silver paste for connection in power electronic modules: Microstructure, mechanical and thermal properties

    Alayli, N. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Propre de Recherche 3407, 99 avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris 06, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/INSU, Laboratoire Atmosphères Milieux Observations Spatiales-IPSL, Quartier des Garennes, 11 Boulevard d' Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Schoenstein, F., E-mail: frederic.schoenstein@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Propre de Recherche 3407, 99 avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Girard, A. [Office National d' Étude et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Laboratoire d' Étude des Microstructures, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 104, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, F-92322 Châtillon (France); and others

    2014-11-14

    Processing parameters of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique were constrained to process nano sized silver particles bound in a paste for interconnection in power electronic devices. A novel strategy combining debinding step and consolidation processes (SPS) in order to elaborate nano-structured silver bulk material is investigated. Optimum parameters were sought for industrial power electronics packaging from the microstructural and morphological properties of the sintered material. The latter was studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the density and the grain size of crystallites. Two types of samples, termed S1 (bulk) and S2 (multilayer) were elaborated and characterized. They are homogeneous with a low degree of porosity and a good adhesion to the substrate and the process parameters are compatible with industrial constraints. As the experimental results show, the mean crystallite size is between 60 nm and 790 nm with a density between 50% and 92% resulting in mechanical and thermal properties that are better than that of lead free solder. The best SPS sintering parameters, the applied pressure, the temperature and the processing time were determined as being 3 MPa, 300 °C and 1 min respectively when the desizing time of the preprocessing step was kept below 5 min at 150 °C. Using these processing parameters, acceptable for automotive packaging industry, a semi-conductor power chip was successfully connected to a metalized substrate by sintered silver with thermal and electrical properties better than those of current solders and with thermomechanical properties allowing absorption of thermoplastic stresses. - Highlights: • The sintered silver joints have nanometric structure. • The grain growth was controlled by the SPS sintering parameters. • New connection material improve thermal and electrical properties of current solders. • Interconnection's plastic strain can absorb thermo

  8. Process for obtaining sintered conglomerates with a high density of rare earth oxides and actinides

    Pasto, A.E.

    1974-01-01

    The invention concerns a method to produce agglomerates of actinide and rare earth oxides possessing a cubic-monoclinic transformation in order to obtain high densities close to the theoretical density, and the articles produced by the method. The process is based on the use of a rare earth or actinide oxide, in particular Eu 2 O 3 , with a cubic-monoclinic phase transformation, the oxide being sintered by hot compression at a temperature 50 deg C to 100 deg C above the transformation temperature. The sintered agglomerates obtained can have a purity of at least 99.9% and a density of practically 100%. These agglomerates are suitable in particular for the formation of nuclear reactor control rods [fr

  9. Pore Formation Process of Porous Ti3SiC2 Fabricated by Reactive Sintering

    Huibin Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Porous Ti3SiC2 was fabricated with high purity, 99.4 vol %, through reactive sintering of titanium hydride (TiH2, silicon (Si and graphite (C elemental powders. The reaction procedures and the pore structure evolution during the sintering process were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Our results show that the formation of Ti3SiC2 from TiH2/Si/C powders experienced the following steps: firstly, TiH2 decomposed into Ti; secondly, TiC and Ti5Si3 intermediate phases were generated; finally, Ti3SiC2 was produced through the reaction of TiC, Ti5Si3 and Si. The pores formed in the synthesis procedure of porous Ti3SiC2 ceramics are derived from the following aspects: interstitial pores left during the pressing procedure; pores formed because of the TiH2 decomposition; pores formed through the reactions between Ti and Si and Ti and C powders; and the pores produced accompanying the final phase synthesized during the high temperature sintering process.

  10. Fabrication of Li_2TiO_3 pebbles by a selective laser sintering process

    Zhou, Qilai; Gao, Yue; Liu, Kai; Xue, Lihong; Yan, Youwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective laser sintering (SLS) is employed to fabricate ceramic pebbles. • Quantities and diameter of the pebbles could be easily controlled by adjusting the model of pebbles. • All the pebbles could be prepared at a time within several minutes. • The Li_2TiO_3 pebbles sintered at 1100 °C show a notable crush load of 43 N. - Abstract: Lithium titanate, Li_2TiO_3, is an important tritium breeding material for deuterium (D)–tritium (T) fusion reactor. In test blanket module (TBM) design of China, Li_2TiO_3 is considered as one candidate material of tritium breeders. In this study, selective laser sintering (SLS) technology was introduced to fabricate Li_2TiO_3 ceramic pebbles. This fabrication process is computer assisted and has a high level of flexibility. Li_2TiO_3 powder with a particle size of 1–3 μm was used as the raw material, whilst epoxy resin E06 was adopted as a binder. Green Li_2TiO_3 pebbles with certain strengths were successfully prepared via SLS. Density of the green pebbles was subsequently increased by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) process. Li_2TiO_3 pebbles with a diameter of about 2 mm were obtained after high temperature sintering. Density of the pebbles reaches 80% of theoretical density (TD) with a comparable crush load of 43 N. This computer assisted approach provides a new efficient route for the production of Li_2TiO_3 ceramic pebbles.

  11. Pressless process in route of obtaining sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Popov, A.G, E-mail: apopov@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, UB of the RAS, 18, S. Kovalevskoy, Street, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Golovnia, O.A. [Institute of Metal Physics, UB of the RAS, 18, S. Kovalevskoy, Street, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bykov, V.A. [Institute of Metallurgy, UB of the RAS, 101, Amundsena, Street, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    A short review on the pressless process (PLP) involved in the manufacture of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet is given. Two approaches to increasing the degree of powder alignment with a high filling density ρ{sub f} in PLP-containers are proposed. (1) An increase in the pulse duration of applied magnetic field from 3.6 to 6.5 ms enhances the magnetic alignment of magnets prepared from the powder with ρ{sub f}=2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and ρ{sub f}=3 g/cm{sup 3} by 3% and 11%, respectively. (2) Addition of internal lubricants such as zinc stearate or esters reduces friction forces between the powder particles and, when the concentration of lubricants is bellow a critical concentration C{sub cr}, increases B{sub r} and (BH){sub max} by 5–7%. Simulation of the magnetic alignment of uniaxial particles demonstrates that a decrease in the coefficient of friction between the powder particles from 0.9 to 0.6 caused by the lubricant addition enhances the alignment degree. Contact dilatometry was used to study the anisotropy of densification of PLP-powders upon sintering. It has been shown that the anisotropy of the powder shrinkage is formed at the first stage of sintering at the temperature about 800 °C and is caused by the capillary action in the Nd-rich liquid. - Highlights: • A review of the pressless process for NdFeB magnets in the world and Russia is given. • Enhancement of the alignment degree by application of pulsed magnetic field is studied. • Reduction of the friction forces via addition of internal lubricants is proposed. • The simulation of the magnetic alignment of Nd–Fe–B uniaxial particles is presented. • A reason of anisotropic shrinkage of the powder at sintering is suggested.

  12. The effect of post-sintering treatments on the fatigue and biological behavior of Ti-6Al-4V ELI parts made by selective laser melting.

    Benedetti, M; Torresani, E; Leoni, M; Fontanari, V; Bandini, M; Pederzolli, C; Potrich, C

    2017-07-01

    Fatigue resistance and biocompatibility are key parameters for the successful implantation of hard-tissue prostheses, which nowadays are more and more frequently manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). For this purpose, the present paper is aimed at investigating the effect of post-sintering treatments on the fatigue behavior and biological properties of Ti samples produced by SLM. After the building process, all samples are heat treated to achieve a complete stress relief. The remaining ones are tribofinished with the aim of reducing the surface roughness of the as-sintered condition. Part of the tribofinished samples are then subjected to one of the following post-sintering treatments: (i) shot peening, (ii) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and (iii) electropolishing. It is found that shot peening and HIP are the most effective treatments to improve the high and the very-high cycle fatigue resistance, respectively. At the same time, they preserve the good biocompatibility ensured by the biomedical Titanium Grade 23. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of B2O3 and P2O5 on fluorosilicic mica glass-ceramic sintering process

    Wu S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of B2O3 and P2O5 on fluorosilicic mica glass-ceramic sintering process, six sets of K2O-MgO-SiO2-F glasses were prepared by using B2O3 and P2O5 as sintering aid, respectively. Green bodies of the glass powder were formed by gel casting and sintered at 800, 850, 900, 950, 1000oC for 6 hours, resectively. The sintering and crystallization behavior were studied by thermal shrinkage , X-ray diffraction and SEM. The results showed that the shrinkage rate of the glass with 2wt% B2O3 and P2O5 was highest, while the rate of the glass with 5wt% P2O5 was lowest. An additional crystal other than fluorosilicic mica was precipitated in the glass ceramics generated by sintering of glass powder. The present results confirmed that the glass powder of pure K2O-MgO-SiO2-Fsystem had poor sinterability, while glass powder with minor addition of P2O5 and/or B2O3 showed good sinterability. This result was also verified by SEM.

  14. Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process recycling of NdFeB sintered magnets

    Xia, Manlong; Abrahamsen, Asger B.; Bahl, Christian R. H.; Veluri, Badrinath; Søegaard, Allan I.; Bøjsøe, Poul

    2017-11-01

    A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Coercivities up to 534 kA/m were obtained in porous samples based on powder size d 100 μm. The coercivity reached Hci = 957 kA/m being 86% of the original N48M material without addition of rare earth elements.

  15. Surprising synthesis of nanodiamond from single-walled carbon nanotubes by the spark plasma sintering process

    Mirzaei, Ali; Ham, Heon; Na, Han Gil; Kwon, Yong Jung; Kang, Sung Yong; Choi, Myung Sik; Bang, Jae Hoon; Park, No-Hyung; Kang, Inpil; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2016-10-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) was successfully synthesized using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a pure solid carbon source by means of a spark plasma sintering process. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the generation of the cubic diamond phase by means of the SPS process. Lattice-resolved TEM images confirmed that diamond nanoparticles with a diameter of about ˜10 nm existed in the products. The NDs were generated mainly through the gas-phase nucleation of carbon atoms evaporated from the SWCNTs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Sintering studies on iron-carbon-copper compacts

    Perianayagam Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintered Iron-Carbon-Copper parts are among the most widely used powder metallurgy product in automobile. In this paper, studies have been carried out to find out the sintering characteristics of iron-carbon-copper compacts when sintered in nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of various processing parameters on the sintering characteristics were studied. The various processing parameters considered were compaction pressure, green density and sintering temperature. The sintering characteristics determined were sintered density, porosity, dimensional change, micro hardness and radial crush strength. The results obtained have been discussed on the basis of micro structural observations. The characteristics of SEM fractography were also used to determine the mechanism of fracture. The fracture energy is strongly dependent on density of the compact.

  17. Residual stress determination of direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) inconel specimens and parts

    Watkins, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Unocic, Kinga A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maziasz, Philip J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bunn, Jeffrey R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fancher, Christopher M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peralta, Alonso [Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Sundarraj, Suresh [Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Neumann, James [Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Residual stress determinations and microstructural studies were performed on a series of Inconel 718Plus prisms built using Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) at Honeywell Aerospace (hereafter also referred to as Honeywell). The results are being used to validate and improve existing models at Honeywell, and ultimately will expedite the implementation of DMLS throughout various industrial sectors (automotive, biomedical, etc.).

  18. Characteristics of products generated by selective sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes

    Cariapa, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The trend in the modern global economy towards free market policies has motivated companies to use rapid prototyping technologies to not only reduce product development cycle time but also to maintain their competitive edge. A rapid prototyping technology is one which combines computer aided design with computer controlled tracking of focussed high energy source (eg. lasers, heat) on modern ceramic powders, metallic powders, plastics or photosensitive liquid resins in order to produce prototypes or models. At present, except for the process of shape melting, most rapid prototyping processes generate products that are only dimensionally similar to those of the desired end product. There is an urgent need, therefore, to enhance the understanding of the characteristics of these processes in order to realize their potential for production. Currently, the commercial market is dominated by four rapid prototyping processes, namely selective laser sintering, stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing. This phase of the research has focussed on the selective laser sintering and stereolithography rapid prototyping processes. A theoretical model for these processes is under development. Different rapid prototyping sites supplied test specimens (based on ASTM 638-84, Type I) that have been measured and tested to provide a data base on surface finish, dimensional variation and ultimate tensile strength. Further plans call for developing and verifying the theoretical models by carefully designed experiments. This will be a joint effort between NASA and other prototyping centers to generate a larger database, thus encouraging more widespread usage by product designers.

  19. Faceted shell structure in grain boundary diffusion-processed sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Seelam, U.M.R.; Ohkubo, T.; Abe, T.; Hirosawa, S.; Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp

    2014-12-25

    Graphical abstract: The grain boundary diffusion process (GBDP) using a heavy rare earth elements (HRE) such as Dy and Tb is known as an effective method to enhance the coercivity of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets without reducing remanence. This process has been industrially implemented to manufacture Nd–Fe–B based sintered magnets with high coercivity and high remanence. In this process, Dy is considered to diffuse through grain boundaries (GBs) to form (Nd{sub 1−x}Dy{sub x}){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shells surrounding the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains and the higher anisotropy field of the Dy-rich shell is considered to suppress the nucleation of reverse domains at low magnetic field. Although there are several investigations on the microstructure of HRE GBDP Nd–Fe–B magnets, no paper addressed the origin of the asymmetric formation of HRE rich shells. Based on detailed analysis of facet planes of core/shell interfaces, we propose a mechanism of the faceted core/shell microstructure formation in the GBDP sintered magnets. We believe that this gives new insights on understanding the coercivity enhancement by the GBDP. - Highlights: • Faceting was observed at the interfaces of cores and shells. • The core/shell interfaces are sharp with an abrupt change in Dy concentration. • Meting occurs at the interfaces of metalic Nd-rich/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phases above 685 °C due to eutectic reaction. • Solidification of Dy-enriched liquid phase from 900 °C can result in the shell formation. - Abstract: Dysprosium enriched shell structure formed by the grain boundary diffusion process (GBDP) of a sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Faceted core–shell interfaces with an abrupt change in Dy concentration suggest the Dy-rich shells are formed by the solidification of the liquid phase during cooling from the GBDP temperature. The Nd-rich phases

  20. Faceted shell structure in grain boundary diffusion-processed sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Seelam, U.M.R.; Ohkubo, T.; Abe, T.; Hirosawa, S.; Hono, K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The grain boundary diffusion process (GBDP) using a heavy rare earth elements (HRE) such as Dy and Tb is known as an effective method to enhance the coercivity of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets without reducing remanence. This process has been industrially implemented to manufacture Nd–Fe–B based sintered magnets with high coercivity and high remanence. In this process, Dy is considered to diffuse through grain boundaries (GBs) to form (Nd 1−x Dy x ) 2 Fe 14 B shells surrounding the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains and the higher anisotropy field of the Dy-rich shell is considered to suppress the nucleation of reverse domains at low magnetic field. Although there are several investigations on the microstructure of HRE GBDP Nd–Fe–B magnets, no paper addressed the origin of the asymmetric formation of HRE rich shells. Based on detailed analysis of facet planes of core/shell interfaces, we propose a mechanism of the faceted core/shell microstructure formation in the GBDP sintered magnets. We believe that this gives new insights on understanding the coercivity enhancement by the GBDP. - Highlights: • Faceting was observed at the interfaces of cores and shells. • The core/shell interfaces are sharp with an abrupt change in Dy concentration. • Meting occurs at the interfaces of metalic Nd-rich/Nd 2 Fe 14 B phases above 685 °C due to eutectic reaction. • Solidification of Dy-enriched liquid phase from 900 °C can result in the shell formation. - Abstract: Dysprosium enriched shell structure formed by the grain boundary diffusion process (GBDP) of a sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Faceted core–shell interfaces with an abrupt change in Dy concentration suggest the Dy-rich shells are formed by the solidification of the liquid phase during cooling from the GBDP temperature. The Nd-rich phases are almost free from Dy, and

  1. Techniques for ceramic sintering using microwave energy

    Kimrey, H.D.; Janney, M.A.; Becher, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of microwave energy for ceramic sintering offers exciting new possibilities for materials processing. Based on experience gathered in microwave processing associated with the heating of fusion plasmas, we have developed hardware and methods for uniformly heating ceramic parts of large volume and irregular shape to temperatures in excess of 1600 0 C, in vacuum or pressurized atmosphere. Microwave processing at 28 GHz yields enhanced densification rates with a corresponding reduction in sintering temperatures. 6 refs

  2. Fabrication and testing of the sintered ceramic UO2 fuel - I - III, Part III - testing of sintered uranium dioxide properties dependent on the fabrication procedure

    Novakovic, M.; Ristic, M.M.

    1961-12-01

    The objective of this task was testing the influence of some parameters on the properties of sintered UO 2 . The influence of parameters tested were as follows: adhesives; pressure in the pressing procedure; temperature of sintering of the UO 2 powder. Other parameters were chosen according to the theoretical study. Sintering was done in argon atmosphere. Characterization of the UO 2 powder was performed meaning determining the needed chemical, physical and physico-chemical properties. Some new methods were developed within this task: SET method for measuring the specific surfaces, DTA, TGA, high-temperature torsion

  3. Effect of material, process parameters, and simulated body fluids on mechanical properties of 13-93 bioactive glass porous constructs made by selective laser sintering.

    Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C; Hilmas, Gregory E; Velez, Mariano

    2012-09-01

    The effect of particle size distribution, binder content, processing parameters, and sintering schedule on the microstructure and mechanical properties of porous constructs was investigated. The porous constructs were produced by indirect selective laser sintering (SLS) of 13-93 bioactive glass using stearic acid as a polymeric binder. The binder content and d(50) particle size in the feedstock powders were simultaneously reduced from 22 to 12 wt% and from 20 to 11 μm, respectively, to identify the minimum binder content required for the SLS fabrication. An average particle size of ∼16 μm with a binder content of 15 wt% significantly reduced post-processing time and improved mechanical properties. Increasing the laser power and scan speed at the energy density of 1 cal/cm² maintained the feature sharpness of the parts during the fabrication of green parts and could almost double the mechanical properties of the sintered parts. Changes in the heating rates, ranging from 0.1 to 2 °C/min, during the post-processing of the fabricated "green" scaffolds showed that the heating rate significantly affects the densification and mechanical properties of the sintered scaffolds. The compressive strength of the scaffolds manufactured with the optimized parameters varied from 41 MPa, for a scaffold with a porosity of ∼50%, to 157 MPa, for a dense part. The bioactive scaffolds soaked in simulated body fluids for durations up to 6 weeks were used to evaluate the change in mechanical properties in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetics of UO2 sintering

    Ristic, M.M.

    1962-01-01

    Detailed conclusions related to the UO 2 sintering can be drawn from investigating the kinetics of the sintering process. This report gives an thorough analysis of the the data concerned with sintering available in the literature taking into account the Jander and Arrhenius laws. This analysis completes the study of influence of the O/U ratio and the atmosphere on the sintering. Results presented are fundamentals of future theoretical and experimental work related to characterisation of the UO 2 sintering process

  5. Sintering Process and Mechanical Property of MWCNTs/HDPE Bulk Composite.

    Ming-Wen, Wang; Tze-Chi, Hsu; Jie-Ren, Zheng

    2009-08-01

    Studies have proved that increasing polymer matrices by carbon nanotubes to form structural reinforcement and electrical conductivity have significantly improved mechanical and electrical properties at very low carbon nanotubes loading. In other words, increasing polymer matrices by carbon nanotubes to form structural reinforcement can reduce friction coefficient and enhance anti-wear property. However, producing traditional MWCNTs in polymeric materix is an extremely complicated process. Using melt-mixing process or in situ polymerization leads to better dispersion effect on composite materials. In this study, therefore, to simplify MWCNTs /HDPE composite process and increase dispersion, powder was used directly to replace pellet to mix and sinter with MWCNTs. The composite bulks with 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% nanotube content by weight was analyzed under SEM to observe nanotubes dispersion. At this rate, a MWCNTs/HDPE composite bulk with uniformly dispersed MWCNTs was achieved, and through the wear bench (Pin-on-Disk), the wear experiment has accomplished. Accordingly, the result suggests the sintered MWCNTs/HDPE composites amplify the hardness and wear-resist property.

  6. Heat processing of gels into sintered uranium dioxide modelled by thermal analysis. I

    Landspersky, H.; Urbanek, V.

    1979-01-01

    Thermoanalytical methods were used for investigating the processes of air drying and calcination of gels prepared by internal gelation of uranyl nitrate, urea and urotropine solutions at 90 degC. The gels were dried in air at room temperature, at 220 degC in a controlled atmosphere or by azeotropic distillation with CCl 4 . The course of thermal decomposition of the gel depends not only on the drying method used but also on the medium in which the drying process takes place. If the drying is carried out so as to produce a macroporous structure after the elimination of most of the water, ammonia and possibly other gelation by-products and non-reacted gelating agents, the resulting gels can be further processed by calcination, reduction and sintering, thus obtaining compact undamaged spheres of sintered uranium dioxide. Dilatometric analysis generated of uranium trioxide gels showed that the transformation of UO 3 to U 3 O 8 generated another intermediate thermal decomposition product showing a change in dimensions at temperatures of about 520 degC and a change in colour. This phenomenon is analogous to the decomposition of UO 3 prepared by thermal decomposition of α-UO 3 .2H 2 O involving a change in weight producing the UOsub(3-x) compound or a phase transformation with a change in colour; the structural conversion cannot be identified by X-ray structural analysis. (author)

  7. Ir-based refractory superalloys by pulse electric current sintering (PECS) process (II prealloyed powder)

    Huang, C.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.; Harada, H.

    2002-02-01

    Five prealloyed powder samples prepared from binary Ir-based refractory superalloys were sintered at 1800 °C for 4 h by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS). No metal loss was observed during sintering. The relative densities of the sintered specimens all exceeded 90% T.D. The best one was Ir-13% Hf with the density of 97.82% T.D. Phases detected in sintered samples were in accordance with the phase diagram as expected. Fractured surfaces were observed in two samples (Ir-13% Hf and Ir-15% Zr). Some improvements obtained by using prealloyed powders instead of elemental powders, which were investigated in the previous studies, were presented.

  8. Interface evolution and shear strength of Al/Ti bi-metals processed by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus

    Miriyev, Aslan, E-mail: aslan.miriyev@columbia.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University in the City of New York, 500 W. 120th St., Mudd 220, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Levy, Asaf; Kalabukhov, Sergey; Frage, Nachum [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beer Sheva 8410501 (Israel)

    2016-09-05

    Microstructural evolution of the Al/Ti bi-metal interface during heat treatment in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus was investigated under various conditions for the first time. A mechanism of interfacial layer growth was suggested based on the results of SEM, TEM and X-ray diffraction analysis. A continuous TiAl{sub 3} intermetallic layer was formed at the Al/Ti interface even after a processing time as short as about a minute. The TiAl{sub 3} layer grew mainly into the Ti part, while only a few individual grains grew into the Al part. Evolution of the interlayer was determined by Al diffusion through the (TiAl{sub 3}/TiAl{sub 3}) grain boundary. The activation energy of the process was 140 kJ/mol. The shear strength of the interface in the Al/Ti bi-metal was determined after various heat treatments. The shear strength of the bi-metal was limited by the properties of aluminum, with no effect of interlayer thickness or current mode and pulse pattern of the SPS treatment being detected. - Highlights: • Spark plasma sintering apparatus was used for heat treatment of Al/Ti bi-metals. • Microstructural evolution of Al/Ti interface during SPS treatment was investigated. • A continuous TiAl{sub 3} intermetallic layer was formed at the Al/Ti interface. • The bi-metal shear strength was limited by the properties of pure aluminum. • No effect of TiAl{sub 3} thickness or SPS current mode and pulse pattern was detected.

  9. Process-generated nanoparticles from ceramic tile sintering: Emissions, exposure and environmental release.

    Fonseca, A S; Maragkidou, A; Viana, M; Querol, X; Hämeri, K; de Francisco, I; Estepa, C; Borrell, C; Lennikov, V; de la Fuente, G F

    2016-09-15

    The ceramic industry is an industrial sector in need of significant process changes, which may benefit from innovative technologies such as laser sintering of ceramic tiles. Such innovations result in a considerable research gap within exposure assessment studies for process-generated ultrafine and nanoparticles. This study addresses this issue aiming to characterise particle formation, release mechanisms and their impact on personal exposure during a tile sintering activity in an industrial-scale pilot plant, as a follow-up of a previous study in a laboratory-scale plant. In addition, possible particle transformations in the exhaust system, the potential for particle release to the outdoor environment, and the effectiveness of the filtration system were also assessed. For this purpose, a tiered measurement strategy was conducted. The main findings evidence that nanoparticle emission patterns were strongly linked to temperature and tile chemical composition, and mainly independent of the laser treatment. Also, new particle formation (from gaseous precursors) events were detected, with nanoparticles efficiency of the filtration system was successfully tested and evidenced a >87% efficiency in particle number concentrations removal. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Foam Titanium Carbide Ceramics Fabricated by Reaction Sintering Process

    Ma, Yana; Bao, Chonggao; Chen, Jie; Song, Suocheng; Han, Longhao

    2018-05-01

    Foam titanium carbide (TiC) ceramics with a three-dimensional network structure were fabricated by the reaction sintering process, in which polyurethane foam was taken as the template, and TiO2 and phenolic resin were used as the reactants. Phase, microstructures and fracture morphologies of foam TiC ceramics were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results show that when the mass ratios of phenolic resin and TiO2 (F/T) are (0.8-1.2): 1, foam TiC ceramics with pure TiC phase can be formed. As the F/T ratios increase, crystal lattice parameters of fabricated foam TiC ceramics become bigger. When the value of F/T decreases from 1.2 to 0.8, grain size of TiC grows larger and microstructures get denser; meanwhile, the compressive strength increases from 0.10 to 1.05 MPa. Additionally, either raising the sintering temperatures or extending holding time can facilitate the completion of the reaction process and increase the compressive strength.

  11. Effects of Post-Sinter Processing on an Al–Zn–Mg–Cu Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    Matthew David Harding

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of several post-sinter processing operations (heat-treatment, sizing, shot peening on a press-and-sinter 7xxx series aluminum powder metallurgy (PM alloy. The characterization of the products was completed through a combination of non-contact surface profiling, hardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, tensile, and three-point bend fatigue testing. It was determined that sizing in the as-quenched state imparted appreciable reductions in surface hardness (78 HRB and fatigue strength (168 MPa relative to counterpart specimens that were sized prior to solutionizing (85 HRB and 228 MPa. These declines in performance were ascribed to the annihilation of quenched in vacancies that subsequently altered the nature of precipitates within the finished product. The system responded well to shot peening, as this process increased fatigue strength to 294 MPa. However, thermal exposure at 353 K (80 °C and 433 K (160 °C then reduced fatigue performance to 260 MPa and 173 MPa, respectively, as a result of residual stress relaxation and in-situ over-aging.

  12. Challenges in Laser Sintering of Melt-Processable Thermoset Imide Resin

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Gornet, Timothy; Koerner, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Laser Sintering (LS) is an additive manufacturing technique that builds 3D models layer by layer using a laser to selectively melt cross sections in powdered polymeric materials, following sequential slices of the CAD model. LS generally uses thermoplastic polymeric powders, such as polyamides (i.e. Nylon), and the resultant 3D objects are often weaker in their strength compared to traditionally processed materials, due to the lack of polymer inter-chain connection in the z-direction. The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility of printing a melt-processable RTM370 imide resin powder terminated with reactive phenylethynyl groups by LS, followed by a postcure in order to promote additional crosslinking to achieve higher temperature (250-300 C) capability. A preliminary study to build tensile specimens by LS and the corresponding DSC and rheology study of RTM370 during LS process is presented.

  13. Experiments for practical education in process parameter optimization for selective laser sintering to increase workpiece quality

    Reutterer, Bernd; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Drauschke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is considered as one of the most important additive manufacturing processes due to component stability and its broad range of usable materials. However the influence of the different process parameters on mechanical workpiece properties is still poorly studied, leading to the fact that further optimization is necessary to increase workpiece quality. In order to investigate the impact of various process parameters, laboratory experiments are implemented to improve the understanding of the SLS limitations and advantages on an educational level. Experiments are based on two different workstations, used to teach students the fundamentals of SLS. First of all a 50 W CO2 laser workstation is used to investigate the interaction of the laser beam with the used material in accordance with varied process parameters to analyze a single-layered test piece. Second of all the FORMIGA P110 laser sintering system from EOS is used to print different 3D test pieces in dependence on various process parameters. Finally quality attributes are tested including warpage, dimension accuracy or tensile strength. For dimension measurements and evaluation of the surface structure a telecentric lens in combination with a camera is used. A tensile test machine allows testing of the tensile strength and the interpreting of stress-strain curves. The developed laboratory experiments are suitable to teach students the influence of processing parameters. In this context they will be able to optimize the input parameters depending on the component which has to be manufactured and to increase the overall quality of the final workpiece.

  14. Development of a manufacturing process of (Th,U)O2 sintered pellets to be used as nuclear fuel

    Neto Ferreira, R.A.; Santos, A.M. dos; Lameiras, F.S.; Cardoso, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The R and D result of a reliable manufacturing process of sintered (Th,U)O 2 pellets meeting the operational requirements of pressurized light water nuclear reactors is presented. Available technologies were used as much as possible. The R and D effort was directed to perform the required adaptations. The gel precipitation process was adapted successfully to the specific requirements of direct pressing and sintering. This was done mainly by adjusting the composition of the feed solution. The direct pressing and sintering parameters could be kept almost unchanged in relation to the manufacturing of UO 2 pellets. The design criteria of the (Th,U)O 2 nuclear fuel for pressurized light water reactors were identified and settled in the specification for this fuel. This R and D work was made jointly with the Kernforschungsanlage - Juelich, NUKEM and SIEMENS, Group KWU [pt

  15. Study on the process of sintering matrix metallic Fe-Cu-25%Nb and Fe-Cu-25%Co during hot pressing

    Batista, A.C.; Oliveira, H.C.P.; Souza, M.H.; Assis, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    The sintering process promotes densification and the evolution of the microstructure of the material, with consequent significant increase in hardness and mechanical strength. However, few studies show the influence of pressure and temperature during sintering by hot pressing. In this sense, this work aims to evaluate the microstructural changes and properties with the variation of pressure and temperature and the type suffered by sintering metal powders during sintering by hot pressing. For this, two samples were studied by changing the sintering parameters: 25% Fe-50% Cu-25% Nb and 25% Fe-50% Cu-25% Co. Samples were analyzed by SEM / EDS in order to check the morphology and the presence of pores, as well as the interaction between the metallic constituents of each sample by the EDS analysis in line. They also determined the relative density, porosity and Vickers hardness (HV5). At the end of the study it was concluded that niobium alloy composite element by sintering activated suffered together with the liquid phase sintering. For cobalt alloys were observed by liquid phase sintering. The increase in the severity of the sintering conditions (temperature and pressure) led to an improvement in physical and mechanical properties of the alloys, which indicates that these parameters are directly related to the mechanisms of diffusion in the sintering process, improving the properties and diffusivity between elements. (author)

  16. Investigation of the sintering mechanisms for (U,Am)O{sub 2} pellets obtained by CRMP process

    Caisso, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN, DTEC/SECA/LFC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); CEA, Centre de Marcole, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR 5635 CNRS-ENSCM-UM, CC047, Campus Triolet, Universite de Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Boulesteix, R.; Maitre, A. [SPCTS, UMR 7315 CNRS-Universite de Limoges-ENSCI, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 Rue Atlantis, F-87068 Limoges (France); Picart, S.; Delahaye, T. [CEA, Centre de Marcole, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Ayral, A. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR 5635 CNRS-ENSCM-UM, CC047, Campus Triolet Universite de Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2016-07-01

    The use of CRMP (Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization) process for AmBB (Americium Bearing Blankets) fabrication is today a key research axis in americium transmutation domain, where its very high activity requires minimization of powder dissemination. In this aim, the use of oxide microspheres as compaction precursors is a promising clean alternative to powder metallurgy. Understanding the different steps of densification during CRMP pellet sintering thus appears as fundamental to obtain final materials with the specific features required for AmBB. The densification curve recorded in dynamic conditions shows different sintering steps. A first decrease of shrinkage rate happens at low temperature, around 1100 K. This phenomenon is not normally observed in the sintering of conventional powders. Chemical and microstructural studies were performed on (U,Am)O{sub 2} and also on (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} surrogate compound to highlight the causes of this low-temperature sintering step. Multi-scale reorganization finally appears as the sole explanation, through the sintering of nano-metric aggregate present in the green pellet and related to the morphology of the starting microspheres employed as pelletization precursors. (authors)

  17. Preliminary study of sintering of metallic niobium processed for mechanical milling

    Tamura, H.M.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M.; Sandim, H.R.Z.; Leite, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    In present study was preliminary study of mechanical milling influence on preparing of metallic niobium powder for sintering. Sample of metallic niobium in powder passing in sieve no. 635 mesh was processed by mechanical milling in SPEX mill for 8 hours using power grinding of 7:1 and a nitrogen atmosphere. The powder was annealed at different temperatures, 900 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1 hour in an atmosphere of hydrogen and argon to study their crystallization, which then were formed into blank for analysis of the curves compressibility. These samples were also subjected to x-ray diffraction in that their data were compared between the annealing temperatures. We also evaluate the compressibility curves of niobium samples with and without grinding these samples were subjected to x-ray diffraction and fluorescence. (author)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of alumina-coated aluminum sponges manufactured by sintering and dissolution process as possible structured reactors

    Méndez, Franklin J.; Rivero-Prince, Sayidh; Escalante, Yelisbeth; Villasana, Yanet; Brito, Joaquín L.

    2016-01-01

    Al_2O_3–Al sponges were manufactured by sintering and dissolution process with the aim of using these materials as structured catalytic reactors. For this purpose, several synthesis conditions were examined for the design of the cellular material, such as: particle size of NaCl, weight fraction of Al, compaction pressure, and sintering temperature or time. An alumina layers was grown on top of the aluminum surfaces during both: sintering and thermal treatment. The obtained results showed that the synthesized materials could be promising as structured reactors for endothermic or exothermic reactions. - Highlights: • An efficient method for manufactured of aluminum sponges is reported. • Methods for productions of superficial Al_2O_3 are studied. • Al_2O_3–Al sponges could be used as structured reactors.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of alumina-coated aluminum sponges manufactured by sintering and dissolution process as possible structured reactors

    Méndez, Franklin J., E-mail: fmendez@ivic.gob.ve [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado Postal 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Rivero-Prince, Sayidh [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado Postal 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Escalante, Yelisbeth; Villasana, Yanet [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado Postal 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Brito, Joaquín L., E-mail: joabrito@ivic.gob.ve [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado Postal 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Al sponges were manufactured by sintering and dissolution process with the aim of using these materials as structured catalytic reactors. For this purpose, several synthesis conditions were examined for the design of the cellular material, such as: particle size of NaCl, weight fraction of Al, compaction pressure, and sintering temperature or time. An alumina layers was grown on top of the aluminum surfaces during both: sintering and thermal treatment. The obtained results showed that the synthesized materials could be promising as structured reactors for endothermic or exothermic reactions. - Highlights: • An efficient method for manufactured of aluminum sponges is reported. • Methods for productions of superficial Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are studied. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Al sponges could be used as structured reactors.

  20. Properties of Mo-alloyed sintered manganese steels

    Romanski, A.; Cias, A.

    1998-01-01

    Sintered alloy steels are needed for mostly PM structural parts. Powder metallurgy techniques provide a means of fabricating high quality steel parts with tailored mechanical properties. It is now possible to produce sintered steel parts with properties equal to an even superior to those of parts made by more traditional routes. Challenges arise both with the material selection and component fabrication. This work outlines the processing for high performance structural application. (author)

  1. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  2. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2016-07-01

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  3. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan, E-mail: ahsan.mian@wright.edu; Srinivasan, Raghavan [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  4. Sintering process of Eu doped luminescent glass prepared from porous glass

    Akai, T; Murakami, M; Yamashita, M; Okajima, T; Umesaki, N

    2011-01-01

    Eu doped high silica glass prepared by sintering porous glass exhibits blue luminescence with high quantum efficiency. In this work, we studied effects of sintering temperature on valance state of europium ion. To investigate a change of valance state of Eu, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy measurements were carried out. Intensity of blue emission at around 430nm drastically increases when the sintering temperature is above 1000 deg. C. From XANES spectra, it is found that almost all the Eu exist as Eu 3+ in a samples sintered below 900 deg. C, while more than 70% of Eu exist as Eu 2+ in the sample sintered at 1050 deg. C and 1100 deg. C. The drastic change of oxidation state of europium ion between 900 and 1050 deg. C is discussed in relation to the structural change probed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

  5. Anisotropic powder from sintered NdFeB magnets by the HDDR processing route

    Sheridan, R.S.; Sillitoe, R.; Zakotnik, M.; Harris, I.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Williams, A.J., E-mail: a.j.williams@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Sintered NdFeB-based scrap magnets were recovered and processed using the HD and HDDR routes. The effects of varying the HDDR processing temperature were investigated (over the range 835-930 deg. C). The disproportion was carried out with a pressure ramp to a maximum of 1000 mbar hydrogen pressure with a 1 h hold time at each step and the optimum recombination conditions were set at 100 mbar with a 20 min hold time. Anisotropic NdFeB powder was produced in all cases with the best magnetic properties achieved at a processing temperature of 880 deg. C, producing powder with a remanence of 1.10({+-}0.02) T and an intrinsic coercivity of 800 ({+-}16) kA m{sup -1} and giving a (BH){sub max} of 129({+-}2.5) kJ m{sup -3}. - Highlights: > Production of anisotropic permanent magnet powder from scrap NdFeB magnets by HDDR. > Reaction pressure increases with increasing processing temperature. > Best magnetic properties achieved by processing at 880 deg. C.

  6. Anisotropic powder from sintered NdFeB magnets by the HDDR processing route

    Sheridan, R.S.; Sillitoe, R.; Zakotnik, M.; Harris, I.R.; Williams, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sintered NdFeB-based scrap magnets were recovered and processed using the HD and HDDR routes. The effects of varying the HDDR processing temperature were investigated (over the range 835-930 deg. C). The disproportion was carried out with a pressure ramp to a maximum of 1000 mbar hydrogen pressure with a 1 h hold time at each step and the optimum recombination conditions were set at 100 mbar with a 20 min hold time. Anisotropic NdFeB powder was produced in all cases with the best magnetic properties achieved at a processing temperature of 880 deg. C, producing powder with a remanence of 1.10(±0.02) T and an intrinsic coercivity of 800 (±16) kA m -1 and giving a (BH) max of 129(±2.5) kJ m -3 . - Highlights: → Production of anisotropic permanent magnet powder from scrap NdFeB magnets by HDDR. → Reaction pressure increases with increasing processing temperature. → Best magnetic properties achieved by processing at 880 deg. C.

  7. Thermal Mechanical Processing Effects on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of the Sintered Ti-22Al-25Nb Alloy.

    Wang, Yuanxin; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhang, Dalin

    2016-03-11

    This work illustrates the effect of thermal mechanical processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti-22Al-25Nb alloy prepared by reactive sintering with element powders, consisting of O, B2 and Ti₃Al phases. Tensile and plane strain fracture toughness tests were carried out at room temperature to understand the mechanical behavior of the alloys and its correlation with the microstructural features characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the increased tensile strength (from 340 to 500 MPa) and elongation (from 3.6% to 4.2%) is due to the presence of lamellar O/B2 colony and needle-like O phase in B2 matrix in the as-processed Ti-22Al-25Nb alloys, as compared to the coarse lath O adjacent to B2 in the sintered alloys. Changes in morphologies of O phase improve the fracture toughness ( K IC ) of the sintered alloys from 7 to 15 MPa·m -1/2 . Additionally, the fracture mechanism shifts from cleavage fracture in the as-sintered alloys to quasi-cleavage fracture in the as-processed alloys.

  8. Development of AUC-based process at BARC for production of free-flowing and sinterable UO2 powder

    Keni, V.S.; Ghosh, S.K.; Ganguly, C.; Majumdar, S.

    1994-01-01

    Ammonium uranium carbonate (AUC) process has been developed and industrially used in Germany for preparation of free-flowing and sinterable UO 2 powder for fabrication of UO 2 fuel pellets for light water reactors (LWR). Efforts are underway at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for developing AUC-based process which would yield free-flowing UO 2 powder suitable for direct pelletisation and sintering to very high density (> 96% T.D.) UO 2 fuel pellets for pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) in India. The first phase of this work has been completed jointly by Chemical Engineering Division (ChED) and Radiometallurgy Division (RMD) in batches of 1.5 kg. It was possible to fabricate UO 2 pellets of density 93-95% T.D. on a reproducible basis. At ChED, process parameters have been optimised for fabrication of AUC with suitable physical properties in batches of 1.5 kg (U), starting with nuclear pure uranyl nitrate solution. At RMD calcination parameters of AUC was optimised in batches of 500 g for obtaining free-flowing UO 2 powder, suitable for direct pelletisation and sintering. The pelletisation and sintering have been carried out at Radiometallurgy Division in batches of 1-1.5 kg. The maximum achievable density of UO 2 pellets has been in the range of 95.5-96% T.D. (author). 11 refs

  9. Reaction sintering process of tyranno SA/SiC composites and their characterization

    Lee, S.P.; Yoon, H.K.; Park, J.S.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the efficiency of fiber preform preparation route for the fabrication of reaction sintering (RS) SiC f /SiC composites and their characterization, including density, microstructure and mechanical property. The applicability of carbon interfacial layer has been investigated in the RS process. The fiber preform was prepared by the consecutive slurry infiltration process, which associated with the combination of constant gas impregnation pressure and different magnitudes of cold pressure. The consecutive slurry infiltration process used for the preparation of fiber preform can be regarded as a promising technique for high density RS-SiC f /SiC composites, even if their mechanical properties depend on the magnitudes of cold pressure used. RS-SiC f /SiC composites entirely showed the morphology of near stoichiometric SiC phase in the intra-fiber bundle matrix, compared to that in the inter-fiber bundle matrix. The carbon interfacial layer was insufficient for the pseudo-ductile failure of RS-SiC f /SiC composites, even if some amount of fiber pull-out and interfacial delamination was observed in the tensile surface of bending test sample

  10. Sintering the beaks of the elevator manufactured by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS process from Co - Cr alloy

    D. I. Băilă

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two prototypes of dental elevator was made by DMLS process, using a super alloy powder of Co – Cr (ST2724G, with Phenix Systems machine, type PXS & PXM Dental, one with a threaded tail and another with a cylindrical tail. The quality obtained for the elevator is better, thanks to the material used and to the manufacturing process. For the elevator prototypes there were performed some Finite element method (FEM analysis to identify stress locations and displacements. It was realized corrosion test in artificial saliva Fusayama Meyer (pH 5,5 at temperature of 37 ± 1 °C for 24 hours and remarks the importance of post treatment after DMLS process to obtain a better corrosion resistance in vitro.

  11. Sintering the beaks of the elevator manufactured by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process from Co - Cr alloy

    Băilă, D. I.; Doicin, C. V.; Cotruț, C. M.; Ulmeanu, M. E.; Ghionea, I. G.; Tarbă, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, two prototypes of dental elevator was made by DMLS process, using a super alloy powder of Co – Cr (ST2724G), with Phenix Systems machine, type PXS & PXM Dental, one with a threaded tail and another with a cylindrical tail. The quality obtained for the elevator is better, thanks to the material used and to the manufacturing process. For the elevator prototypes there were performed some Finite element method (FEM) analysis to identify stress locations and displacements. It was re...

  12. Sintering process optimization for multi-layer CGO membranes by in situ techniques

    Kaiser, Andreas; Prasad, A.S.; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn

    2013-01-01

    The sintering of asymmetric CGO bi-layers (thin dense membrane on a porous support; Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-delta = CGO) with Co3O4 as sintering additive has been optimized by combination of two in situ techniques. Optical dilatometry revealed that bi-layer shape and microstructure are dramatically...... changing in a narrow temperature range of less than 100 degrees C. Below 1030 degrees C, a higher densification rate in the dense membrane layer than in the porous support leads to concave shape, whereas the densification rate of the support is dominant above 1030 degrees C, leading to convex shape. A fiat...... bi-layer could be prepared at 1030 degrees C, when shrinkage rates were similar. In situ van der Pauw measurements on tape cast layers during sintering allowed following the conductivity during sintering. A strong increase in conductivity and in activation energy E-a for conduction was observed...

  13. Porous calcium polyphosphate bone substitutes: additive manufacturing versus conventional gravity sinter processing-effect on structure and mechanical properties.

    Hu, Youxin; Shanjani, Yaser; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Grynpas, Marc; Wang, Rizhi; Pilliar, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) structures proposed as bone-substitute implants and made by sintering CPP powders to form bending test samples of approximately 35 vol % porosity were machined from preformed blocks made either by additive manufacturing (AM) or conventional gravity sintering (CS) methods and the structure and mechanical characteristics of samples so made were compared. AM-made samples displayed higher bending strengths (≈1.2-1.4 times greater than CS-made samples), whereas elastic constant (i.e., effective elastic modulus of the porous structures) that is determined by material elastic modulus and structural geometry of the samples was ≈1.9-2.3 times greater for AM-made samples. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that samples made by either method displayed the same crystal structure forming β-CPP after sinter annealing. The material elastic modulus, E, determined using nanoindentation tests also showed the same value for both sample types (i.e., E ≈ 64 GPa). Examination of the porous structures indicated that significantly larger sinter necks resulted in the AM-made samples which presumably resulted in the higher mechanical properties. The development of mechanical properties was attributed to the different sinter anneal procedures required to make 35 vol % porous samples by the two methods. A primary objective of the present study, in addition to reporting on bending strength and sample stiffness (elastic constant) characteristics, was to determine why the two processes resulted in the observed mechanical property differences for samples of equivalent volume percentage of porosity. An understanding of the fundamental reason(s) for the observed effect is considered important for developing improved processes for preparation of porous CPP implants as bone substitutes for use in high load-bearing skeletal sites. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Speech parts as Poisson processes.

    Badalamenti, A F

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents evidence that six of the seven parts of speech occur in written text as Poisson processes, simple or recurring. The six major parts are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, with the interjection occurring too infrequently to support a model. The data consist of more than the first 5000 words of works by four major authors coded to label the parts of speech, as well as periods (sentence terminators). Sentence length is measured via the period and found to be normally distributed with no stochastic model identified for its occurrence. The models for all six speech parts but the noun significantly distinguish some pairs of authors and likewise for the joint use of all words types. Any one author is significantly distinguished from any other by at least one word type and sentence length very significantly distinguishes each from all others. The variety of word type use, measured by Shannon entropy, builds to about 90% of its maximum possible value. The rate constants for nouns are close to the fractions of maximum entropy achieved. This finding together with the stochastic models and the relations among them suggest that the noun may be a primitive organizer of written text.

  15. Unintentional production of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants during iron ore sintering processes.

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Mei; Li, Changliang; Chen, Yuan

    2017-06-05

    Iron ore sintering (SNT) processes are major sources of unintentionally produced chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). However, few studies of emissions of brominated POPs, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), during SNT have been performed. Stack gas and fly ash samples from six typical SNT plants in China were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations and profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs, as well as any correlations among these compounds. The PCDD/F, PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors were 2.47, 0.61, 552, 0.32, and 107μgt -1 , respectively (109, 4.07, 10.4, 4.41 and 0.02ng toxic equivalents t -1 , respectively). PCBs were the most abundant compounds by mass, while PCNs were the next most abundant, contributing 51% and 42% to the total POP concentration, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs were the dominant contributors to the chlorinated and brominated POP toxic equivalent concentrations, contributing 89% to the total toxic equivalent concentration. The PCDD/F and other chlorinated and brominated POP concentrations were positively correlated, indicating that chlorinated and brominated POP emissions could be synergistically decreased using the best available technologies/best environmental practices already developed for PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Processing of pure titanium containing titanium-based reinforcing ceramics additives using spark plasma sintering

    Mondiu Olayinka DUROWOJU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The densification behaviour, microstructural changes and hardness characteristics during spark plasma sintering of CP-Ti reinforced with TiC, TiN, TiCN and TiB2 were investigated. Commercially pure Ti powders were dry mixed with varied amounts (2.5 and 5 wt. % of the ceramic additives using a T2F Turbula mixer for 5 h and at a speed of 49 rpm. The blended composite powders were then sintered using spark plasma sintering system (model HHPD-25 from FCT Germany at a heating rate of 100oC min-1, dwell time of 5 min and sintering temperature of 950ºC. The sintering of CP-Ti was used as a base study to select the proper spark plasma sintering temperature for full density. Densification was monitored through analysis of the recorded punch displacement and the measured density of the sintered samples using Archimedes method. High densities ranging from 97.8% for 5% TiB2 addition to 99.6% for 5% TiCN addition were achieved at a relatively low temperature of 950°C. Microstructural analyses show a uniform distribution of the additives and finer structure showing their inhibitive effect on grain growth. An improved hardness was observed in all the cases with highest values obtained with TiCN as a result of the combined effect of TiC and TiN. A change in the fracture mode from trans granular to intergranular was also observed.

  17. A Review of Metal Injection Molding- Process, Optimization, Defects and Microwave Sintering on WC-Co Cemented Carbide

    Shahbudin, S. N. A.; Othman, M. H.; Amin, Sri Yulis M.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.

    2017-08-01

    This article is about a review of optimization of metal injection molding and microwave sintering process on tungsten cemented carbide produce by metal injection molding process. In this study, the process parameters for the metal injection molding were optimized using Taguchi method. Taguchi methods have been used widely in engineering analysis to optimize the performance characteristics through the setting of design parameters. Microwave sintering is a process generally being used in powder metallurgy over the conventional method. It has typical characteristics such as accelerated heating rate, shortened processing cycle, high energy efficiency, fine and homogeneous microstructure, and enhanced mechanical performance, which is beneficial to prepare nanostructured cemented carbides in metal injection molding. Besides that, with an advanced and promising technology, metal injection molding has proven that can produce cemented carbides. Cemented tungsten carbide hard metal has been used widely in various applications due to its desirable combination of mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Moreover, areas of study include common defects in metal injection molding and application of microwave sintering itself has been discussed in this paper.

  18. Densification of silicon and zirconium carbides by a new process: spark plasma sintering; Densification des carbures de silicium et de zirconium par un procede innovant: le spark plasma sintering

    Guillard, F

    2006-12-15

    Materials research for suitable utilization in 4. generation nuclear plants needs new ways to densify testing components. Two carbides, silicon and zirconium carbide seems to be the most suitable choice due to their mechanical, thermal and neutron-transparency properties against next nuclear plant specifications. Nevertheless one main difficulty remains, which is densifying them even at high temperature. Spark Plasma Sintering a new metal-, ceramic- and composite-sintering process has been used to densify both SiC and ZrC. Understanding bases of mass transport mechanisms in SPS have been studied. Composites and interfaces have been processed and analyzed. This manuscript reports original results on SiC and ZrC ceramics sintered with commercial powder started, without additives. (author)

  19. Commercial Parts Technology Qualification Processes

    Cooper, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Many high-reliability systems, including space systems, use selected commercial parts (including Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronics or PEMs) for unique functionality, small size, low weight, high mechanical shock resistance, and other factors. Predominantly this usage is subjected to certain 100% tests (typically called screens) and certain destructive tests usually (but not always) performed on the flight lot (typically called qualification tests). Frequently used approaches include those documented in EEE-INST-002 and JPL DocID62212 (which are sometimes modified by the particular aerospace space systems manufacturer). In this study, approaches from these documents and several space systems manufacturers are compared to approaches from a launch systems manufacturer (SpaceX), an implantable medical electronics manufacturer (Medtronics), and a high-reliability transport system process (automotive systems). In the conclusions section, these processes are outlined for all of these cases and presented in tabular form. Then some simple comparisons are made. In this introduction section, the PEM technology qualification process is described, as documented in EEE-INST-002 (written by the Goddard Space Flight Center, GSFC), as well as the somewhat modified approach employed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Approaches used at several major NASA contractors are also described

  20. Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 2. Effects of sintering and deposit microstructure

    A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

    2000-04-01

    The authors report results from an experimental study that examines the influence of sintering and microstructure on ash deposit thermal conductivity. The measurements are made using a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. The technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. The initial stages of sintering and densification are accompanied by an increase in deposit thermal conductivity. Subsequent sintering continues to densify the deposit, but has little effect on deposit thermal conductivity. SEM analyses indicates that sintering creates a layered deposit structure with a relatively unsintered innermost layer. They hypothesize that this unsintered layer largely determines the overall deposit thermal conductivity. A theoretical model that treats a deposit as a two-layered material predicts the observed trends in thermal conductivity.

  1. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Science of sintering

    Kuczynski, G.

    1977-01-01

    Although the methods of integration of materials by sintering, have been used since the early history of humanity, the actual understanding of the process involved came only in the last three decades. As in the most human endeavors, the art preceded theory. The comprehension of the elementary processes occuring during sintering comes from the studies of model system. Although the elementary processes occuring during sintering are today quite well understood, the problem of shrinkage of a powder compact which was at the origin of Sintering Science is still far from solved. This is due to the complexity of the internal geometry of the compacts. The recent attempts to apply statistics to this problem, seem to offer some promise

  3. Chemical reactions during sintering of Fe-Cr-Mn-Si-Ni-Mo-C-steels with special reference to processing in semi-closed containers

    Cias A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintering of Cr, Mn and Si bearing steels has recently attracted both experimental and theoretical attention and processing in semiclosed containers has been reproposed. This paper brings together relevant thermodynamic data and considers the kinetics of some relevant chemical reactions. These involve iron and carbon, water vapour, carbon monoxide and dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen of the sintering atmospheres and the alloying elements Cr, Mn, Mo and Si. The paper concludes by presenting mechanical properties data for three steels sintered in local microatmosphere with nitrogen, hydrogen, nitrogen-5% hydrogen and air as the furnace gas.

  4. Sintering of beryllium oxide

    Caillat, R.; Pointud, R.

    1955-01-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [fr

  5. Influence of sintering temperature on microstructures and energy-storage properties of barium strontium titanate glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel process

    Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Song, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Dongliang; Chen, Yongzhou [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The sol-gel processing, microstructures, dielectric properties and energy-storage properties of barium strontium titanate glass-ceramics over the sintering temperature range of 1000-1150 C were studied. Through the X-ray diffraction result, it is revealed that the crystallinity increases as the sintering temperature increased from 1000 to 1080 C and has reached a steady-state regime above 1100 C. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that with the increase of sintering temperature, the crystal size increased. Dielectric measurements revealed that the increase in the sintering temperature resulted in a significant increase in the dielectric constant, a strong sharpness of the temperature-dependent dielectric response and a pronounced decrease of the temperature of the dielectric maximum. The correlation between charge spreading behavior and activation energies of crystal and glass was discussed by the employment of the impedance spectroscopy studies. As a result of polarization-electric field hysteresis loops, both the charged and discharged densities increased with increasing sintering temperature. And the maximum value of energy storage efficiency was found to occur at 1130 C. Finally, the dependence of released energy and power densities calculated from the discharged current-time (I-t) curves on the sintering temperature was studied. The relationship between the energy storage properties and microstructure was correlated. Polarization-electric field hysteresis loops for the BST glass-ceramics sintered at different temperatures. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Effects of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition on NiZn ferrite synthesized using two-step sintering process

    Hu Jun [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Shi Gang; Ni Zheming; Zheng Li [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Aimin, E-mail: hjzjut@zjut.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2012-06-15

    The combined influence of a two-step sintering (TSS) process and addition of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiZn ferrite was investigated. As comparison, samples prepared by the conventional single-step sintering (SSS) procedure were also studied. It was found that with 0.3 wt% V{sub 2}O{sub 5} additive, the sample sintered by the two-step sintering process at a high temperature of 1250 Degree-Sign C for 30 min and a lower temperature of 1180 Degree-Sign C for 3 h exhibited more homogeneous microstructure and higher permeability with a high Q-factor. The results showed that the TSS method with suitable additive brought positive improvement of the microstructure and magnetic properties of NiZn ferrite.

  7. Effect of processing variables on mechanical properties of sintered manganese steels Fe-3%Mn-0.8%C

    Sulowski, M.; Cias, A.

    1998-01-01

    The powder metallurgy route may allow sintered manganese steels to be made based on pure iron powder and ferromanganese powder with control over alloy microstructure. The factors that contribute to the mechanical properties of sintered Fe-3%Mn-0.8%C manganese steel, such as the sintering atmosphere, dew point, sintering temperature, cooling rate are summarised. The paper shows the influence of these parameters on the tensile strength, yield strength, transverse rupture strength, impact strength and hardness. It is showed that tensile high strength level higher than those of many present sintered steels can be obtained already in the as-sintered condition. (author)

  8. PLZT (9/65/35) sintering and characterization through the Pechini and partial oxalate processes

    Cerqueira, Marinalva; Nasar, Ricardo Silveira; Leite, Edson Roberto; Longo, Elson; Varela, Jode Arana

    1996-01-01

    Zr Ti O 4 obtained by the Pechini method was used as precursor for obtaining PLZT. An aqueous solution of oxalic acid was prepared with ZT, Pb (NO 3 ) 2 and La 2 O 3 particles. After the Pb C 2 O 4 and La 2 O 3 precipitation on ZT, the material was calcined and x-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the cubic phase of PLZT. This material was sintered in two steps and density about 8.0 g/cm 3 were obtained. After second sintering XRD showed the occurrence of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases. This was caused by an estequiometric deviation, however the material showed a high optical transparency. (author)

  9. Asymmetric designed sintered metal filter elements in the HTF process of LILW vitrification plant

    Roehlig, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Sintered metal filter elements have been used for years and have been successfully in operation in different application. The technical and economical advantages of only recently developed asymmetric Metallic Membranes elements, which operate as a surface filter, will be shown in comparison with standard sintered metal filter cartridges. The permeability, particle retention and back flushing performance have been improved. In order to achieve this, an asymmetric structure was designed in which an active filtration layer is applied onto a coarse porous metal support material made out of the same alloy. The economical benefits for customers are low maintenance and reduced investment cost as well as defined particle retention as is required by the users

  10. Lithium and rubidium extraction from zinnwaldite by alkali digestion process: Sintering mechanism and leaching kinetics

    Vu, H.; Bernardi, J.; Jandová, J.; Vaculíková, Lenka; Goliáš, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2013), s. 9-17 ISSN 0301-7516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : zinnwaldite * lithium * rubidium * sintering mechanism * leaching kinetics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301751613001087

  11. The influence of processing conditions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of reaction sintered silicon nitride

    Heinrich, J.

    1979-09-01

    The microstructure of reaction sintered silicon nitride (RBSN) was changed in a wide range of varying green density, grain size of the silicon starting powder, nitriding conditions, and by introducing artificial pores. The influence of single microstructural parameters on mechanical properties like room temperature strength, creep behaviour, and resistance to thermal shock has been investigated. The essential factors influencing these properties were found to be total porosity, pore size distribution, and the fractions of α- and β-Si 3 N 4 . In view of high temperature engineering applications of RBSN possibilities to optimize the material's properties by controlled processing are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCoCrAlYTa alloy processed by press and sintering route

    Pereira, J.C., E-mail: jpereira@uc.edu.ve [Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de vera s/n, Valencia, España (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones en Mecánica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Zambrano, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones en Mecánica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Afonso, C.R.M. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Amigó, V. [Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de vera s/n, Valencia, España (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Nickel-based superalloys such as NiCoCrAlY are widely used in high-temperature applications, such as gas turbine components in the energy and aerospace industries, due to their strength, high elastic modulus, and high-temperature oxidation resistance. However, the processing of these alloys is complex and costly, and the alloys are currently used as a bond coat in thermal barrier coatings. In this work, the effect of cold press and sintering processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCoCrAlY alloy were studied using the powder metallurgy route as a new way to obtain NiCoCrAlYTa samples from a gas atomized prealloyed powder feedstock. High mechanical strength and adequate densification up to 98% were achieved. The most suitable compaction pressure and sintering temperature were determined for NiCoCrAlYTa alloy through microstructure characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis (EDS) were performed to confirm the expected γ-Ni matrix and β-NiAl phase distribution. Additionally, the results demonstrated the unexpected presence of carbides and Ni–Y-rich zones in the microstructure due to the powder metallurgy processing parameters used. Thus, microhardness, nanoindentation and uniaxial compression tests were conducted to correlate the microstructure of the alloy samples with their mechanical properties under the different studied conditions. The results show that the compaction pressure did not significantly affect the mechanical properties of the alloy samples. In this work, the compaction pressures of 400, 700 and 1000 MPa were used. The sintering temperature of 1200 °C for NiCoCrAlYTa alloy was preferred; above this temperature, the improvement in mechanical properties is not significant due to grain coarsening, whereas a lower temperature produces a decrease in mechanical properties due to high porosity and

  13. Sintering Theory and Practice

    German, Randall M.

    1996-01-01

    Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment of this subject that will be of great use to manufacturers and scientists alike. This practical guide to sintering considers the fact that while the bonding process improves strength and other engineering properties of the compacted material, inappropriate methods of control may lead to cracking, distortion, and other defects. It provides a working knowledge of sintering, and shows how to avoid problems while accounting for variables such as particle size, maximum temperature, time at that temperature, and other problems that may cause changes in processing. The book describes the fundamental atomic events that govern the transformation from particles to solid, covers all forms of the sintering process, and provides a summary of many actual production cycles. Building from the ground up, it begins with definitions and progresses to measurement techniques, easing the transition, especially for students, into advanced topics such as single-phase solid-state sintering, microstructure changes, the complications of mixed particles, and pressure-assisted sintering. German draws on some six thousand references to provide a coherent and lucid treatment of the subject, making scientific principles and practical applications accessible to both students and professionals. In the process, he also points out and avoids the pitfalls found in various competing theories, concepts, and mathematical disputes within the field. A unique opportunity to discover what sintering is all about--both in theory and in practice What is sintering? We see the end product of this thermal

  14. Powder densification maps in Selective Laser Sintering

    Bourell, D.; Wohlert, M.; Harlan, N.; Beaman, J.; Das, S.

    2002-01-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a manufacturing process in which a part is produced without the need for part-specific tooling. It competes effectively with other manufacturing processes when part geometry is complex and the production run is not large. Traditionally, this was limited to prototype production, although tooling applications are now appearing. This paper describes several applications of powder densification maps to advance solutions in direct SLS of metallic and ceramic powders. Time-dependent plasticity issues arise in pre-processing of powder to make it suitable for SLS and in post-processing of SLS parts to obtain desired density. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to a temperature in the range 700/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acidsoluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  16. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm 3 , weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  17. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin, E-mail: leeam@dlut.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  18. Effects of sintering temperature on the density and porosity

    2013-03-01

    bonding) between the salt beads at all the temperatures in which sintering was performed. .... and the sintering of some covalent solids and low- stability ceramics. The entire sintering process is gen- erally considered to occur in ...

  19. Mineral Phases and Release Behaviors of As in the Process of Sintering Residues Containing As at High Temperature

    Xingrun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of sintering temperature and sintering time on arsenic volatility and arsenic leaching in the sinter, we carried out experimental works and studied the structural changes of mineral phases and microstructure observation of the sinter at different sintering temperatures. Raw materials were shaped under the pressure of 10 MPa and sintered at 1000~1350°C for 45 min with air flow rate of 2000 mL/min. The results showed that different sintering temperatures and different sintering times had little impact on the volatilization of arsenic, and the arsenic fixed rate remained above 90%; however, both factors greatly influenced the leaching concentration of arsenic. Considering the product’s environmental safety, the best sintering temperature was 1200°C and the best sintering time was 45 min. When sintering temperature was lower than 1000°C, FeAsS was oxidized into calcium, aluminum, and iron arsenide, mainly Ca3(AsO42 and AlAsO4, and the arsenic leaching was high. When it increased to 1200°C, arsenic was surrounded by a glass matrix and became chemically bonded inside the matrix, which lead to significantly lower arsenic leaching.

  20. Master Sintering Surface: A practical approach to its construction and utilization for Spark Plasma Sintering prediction

    Pouchly V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering is a complex thermally activated process, thus any prediction of sintering behaviour is very welcome not only for industrial purposes. Presented paper shows the possibility of densification prediction based on concept of Master Sintering Surface (MSS for pressure assisted Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. User friendly software for evaluation of the MSS is presented. The concept was used for densification prediction of alumina ceramics sintered by SPS.

  1. Effect of sintering processing on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn alloy for biomedical applications

    Guo, Shibo; Chu, Aimin; Wu, Haijiang; Cai, Chunbo; Qu, Xuanhui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn alloy is prepared by powder metallurgy method. • The alloy prepared at 1250 °C for 2 h has more β-matrix and tiny α-precipitation. • The alloy prepared at 1250 °C for 2 h possesses good mechanical properties. • The alloy prepared at 1250 °C for 2 h exhibits better corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn alloy was prepared by Powder Metallurgy (PM) method using titanium hydride powder, niobium powder, zirconium powder, and tin powder as raw materials. The effect of sintering processing on microstructure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance was investigated in details. The alloy possessed dominant β-matrix and a little α-precipitation. The mechanical properties of the alloy sintered at 1250 °C for 2 h were better than those of the alloys with other sintering processing, which would avoid stress shielding and thus prevent bone resorption in orthopedic implants applications. As long-term stability in biological environment is required, the electrochemical behaviors in a simulated body fluid (Hank’s solution and simulated saliva solution) were also evaluated. Potentiodynamic polarization curves exhibited that the sample sintered at 1250 °C for 2 h had better corrosion properties than those of other sintering processing. The good corrosion resistance combined with better mechanical biocompatibility made the Ti–24Nb–4Zr–7.9Sn alloy suitable for use as orthopedic implants

  2. Flash sintering of ceramic materials

    Dancer, C. E. J.

    2016-10-01

    During flash sintering, ceramic materials can sinter to high density in a matter of seconds while subjected to electric field and elevated temperature. This process, which occurs at lower furnace temperatures and in shorter times than both conventional ceramic sintering and field-assisted methods such as spark plasma sintering, has the potential to radically reduce the power consumption required for the densification of ceramic materials. This paper reviews the experimental work on flash sintering methods carried out to date, and compares the properties of the materials obtained to those produced by conventional sintering. The flash sintering process is described for oxides of zirconium, yttrium, aluminium, tin, zinc, and titanium; silicon and boron carbide, zirconium diboride, materials for solid oxide fuel applications, ferroelectric materials, and composite materials. While experimental observations have been made on a wide range of materials, understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the onset and latter stages of flash sintering is still elusive. Elements of the proposed theories to explain the observed behaviour include extensive Joule heating throughout the material causing thermal runaway, arrested by the current limitation in the power supply, and the formation of defect avalanches which rapidly and dramatically increase the sample conductivity. Undoubtedly, the flash sintering process is affected by the electric field strength, furnace temperature and current density limit, but also by microstructural features such as the presence of second phase particles or dopants and the particle size in the starting material. While further experimental work and modelling is still required to attain a full understanding capable of predicting the success of the flash sintering process in different materials, the technique non-etheless holds great potential for exceptional control of the ceramic sintering process.

  3. Study on Formation Mechanism of Fayalite (Fe2SiO4) by Solid State Reaction in Sintering Process

    Wang, Zhongbing; Peng, Bing; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhao, Zongwen; Liu, Degang; Peng, Ning; Wang, Dawei; He, Yinghe; Liang, Yanjie; Liu, Hui

    2018-04-01

    The sintering behaviors among SiO2, FeS and Fe3O4 were detected to reveal the formation mechanism of Fe2SiO4. The results indicated that the formation mechanism is divided into five steps: (1) migration of O2- induced by S2- under a reducing atmosphere; (2) formation of Fe3O4- β ; (3) migration of Fe(II) into a ferrite cluster structure to gain oxygen and form Fe3- x O4; (4) Fe(II) invaded the silicon atomic position and released Si(IV); and (5) formation of the stable structure of Fe2SiO4 through chemical diffusion between cations of Fe(II) and Si(IV). These findings can provide theoretical support for controlling the process of the recovery of valuable metals in copper slag through the combined roasting modification-magnetic separation process.

  4. Effects of sintering processes on mechanical properties and microstructure of TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material

    Zou Bin; Huang Chuanzhen; Song Jinpeng; Liu Ziye; Liu Lin; Zhao Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic tool material was sintered by six processes. ► The properties of material depended mainly on the holding stages and duration. ► SP1 process was involved with the multiple holding stages and longer duration. ► SP1 process led to many pores, and coarsening and brittle rupture of grains. ► Tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum mechanical properties. - Abstract: TiB 2 –TiC composite powder was prepared by ball-milled with ethanol and vacuum dry, and TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material was sintered using vacuum hot-pressed sintering technique by six processes which included the different holding stages and times. The effects of sintering processes on the mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. The polished surface and fracture surface of TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramics sintered by the different sintering processes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure were discussed. The mechanical properties and microstructure depended mainly on the total holding time and the different holding stages. The longer holding time and multiple holding stages led to coarsening of TiB 2 and TiC grains, formation of pores and the brittle rupture of grains, which deteriorated the mechanical properties of TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic. TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum resultant mechanical properties because of its finer microstructure and higher relative density, and its flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness were 916.8 MPa, 7.80 MPa m 1/2 and 22.54 GPa, respectively.

  5. Optimization of Sintering Time and Holding Time for 3D Printing of Fe-Based Metallic Glasses

    Wenzheng Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-based metallic glasses are amorphous alloys with high strength, high hardness, and excellent corrosion resistance; however, the immaturity of processing methods has prevented their wide application in industrial production. Fe-based metallic glass parts were manufactured employing pneumatic injection additive manufacturing in this study. An evenly dispersed and stable Fe-based metallic glass powder slurry with a solids content of 50% was prepared firstly. Then the Fe-based metallic glass parts were printed. The printed parts were dried, debinded, and sintered for strengthening. The deformations of the printed parts and sintered parts relative to the original model were then analyzed by a 3D scanning reconstruction method. The slightly average bulging and sunken deformation of the printed parts and sintered parts confirmed the good printing accuracy of the pneumatic injection manufacture system. The effects of the sintering temperature and holding time on the properties of the sintered parts were studied. For a sintering temperature of 580 °C and holding time of 1 h, the surface quality of the sintered parts was better. The sintering of 3D-printed Fe-based metallic glass parts was preliminarily realized in this study, and the feasibility of preparing Fe-based metallic glass using pneumatic injection additive manufacture was verified.

  6. Computer Modeling of Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A computational approach to modeling direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing process is presented. The primary application of the model is for determining the temperature history of parts fabricated using DMLS to evaluate residual stresses found in finished pieces and to assess manufacturing process strategies to reduce part slumping. The model utilizes MSC SINDA as a heat transfer solver with imbedded FORTRAN computer code to direct laser motion, apply laser heating as a boundary condition, and simulate the addition of metal powder layers during part fabrication. Model results are compared to available data collected during in situ DMLS part manufacture.

  7. Processing and characterization of laser sintered hybrid B4C/cBN reinforced Ti-based metal matrix composite

    Gupta, Ankit; Hussain, Manowar; Misra, Saurav; Das, Alok Kumar; Mandal, Amitava

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a boron carbide (B4C) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) reinforced Ti6Al4V metal matrix composites (MMC's) by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique using the continuous wave (CW) SPI fiber laser and to check the feasibility of the formation of three dimensional objects by this process. For this study, the process parameters like laser power density (3.528-5.172 W/cm2 (×104), scanning speed (3500-4500 mm/min), composition of the reinforced materials B4C (5-25% by volume) and cBN (3% by volume) were taken as input variables and hatching gap (0.2 mm), spot diameter (0.4 mm), layer thickness (0.4 mm) were taken as constant. It was analyzed that surface characteristic, density and the mechanical properties of sintered samples were greatly influenced by varying the input process parameters. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) were performed for microstructural analysis, elemental analysis, and recognition of intermetallic compounds respectively. Mechanical properties like micro-hardness & wear rate were examined by Vickers micro-hardness tester & pin on disc arrangement respectively. From hardness tests, it was observed that hardness property of the sintered specimens was increased as compared to the parent material. The XRD results show that there is a good affinity between Ti6Al4V-B4C-cBN to produce various intermetallic compounds which themselves enhance the mechanical properties of the samples. From FESEM analysis, we can conclude that there is a uniform distribution of reinforcements in the titanium alloy matrix. Furthermore, the coefficient of friction (COF) was characterized by the irregular pattern and it tends to decrease with an increase in the volume % of reinforcement. The results obtained in this work may be useful in preparing the MMC's with improved mechanical properties and overall characteristics.

  8. Preparation of Cu2Sn3S7 Thin-Film Using a Three-Step Bake-Sulfurization-Sintering Process and Film Characterization

    Tai-Hsiang Lui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2Sn3S7 (CTS can be used as the light absorbing layer for thin-film solar cells due to its good optical properties. In this research, the powder, baking, sulfur, and sintering (PBSS process was used instead of vacuum sputtering or electrochemical preparation to form CTS. During sintering, Cu and Sn powders mixed in stoichiometric ratio were coated to form the thin-film precursor. It was sulfurized in a sulfur atmosphere to form CTS. The CTS film metallurgy mechanism was investigated. After sintering at 500°C, the thin film formed the Cu2Sn3S7 phase and no impurity phase, improving its energy band gap. The interface of CTS film is continuous and the formation of intermetallic compound layer can increase the carrier concentration and mobility. Therefore, PBSS process prepared CTS can potentially be used as a solar cell absorption layer.

  9. Missing facial parts computed by a morphable model and transferred directly to a polyamide laser-sintered prosthesis: an innovation study.

    Mueller, A A; Paysan, P; Schumacher, R; Zeilhofer, H-F; Berg-Boerner, B-I; Maurer, J; Vetter, T; Schkommodau, E; Juergens, P; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K

    2011-12-01

    Mirroring of missing facial parts and rapid prototyping of templates have become widely used in the manufacture of prostheses. However, mirroring is not applicable for central facial defects, and the manufacture of a template still requires labour-intensive transformation into the final facial prosthesis. We have explored innovative techniques to meet these remaining challenges. We used a morphable model of a face for the reconstruction of missing facial parts that did not have mirror images, and skin-coloured polyamide laser sintering for direct manufacture of the prosthesis. From the knowledge gleaned from a data set of 200 coloured, three-dimensional scans, we generated a missing nose that was statistically compatible with the remaining parts of the patient's face. The planned prosthesis was manufactured directly from biocompatible skin-coloured polyamide powder by selective laser sintering, and the prosthesis planning system produced a normal-looking reconstruction. The polyamide will need adjustable colouring, and we must be able to combine it with a self-curing resin to fulfil the requirements of realistic permanent use. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanostructured cobalt powders synthesised by polyol process and consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Fellah, F.; Schoenstein, F.; Dakhlaoui-Omrani, A.; Cherif, S.M.; Dirras, G.; Jouini, N., E-mail: jouini@univ-paris13.fr

    2012-07-15

    Bulk nanostructured cobalt was processed using a bottom-up strategy. Nanostructured particle agglomerates of about 50 and 240 nm in diameter were synthesised using a polyol route and subsequently consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The microstructure of the starting powders and of the processed bulk samples was studied and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD patterns of the as-prepared powders showed predominantly a face centred cubic (fcc) crystalline phase, whereas both fcc and hexagonal close packed (hcp) phases were found within the consolidated samples. A sample with the highest relative mass density (94.5%) was obtained from the small powder particles. TEM observations revealed a lamellar substructure with a high density of nanotwins and stacking faults in every grain in the sample with the highest density. Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and quasistatic compression tests were used to investigate the mechanical properties of the consolidated samples. The two techniques yielded Young modulus values of 168 GPa and 130 GPa, respectively, in the sample with the highest density. This sample also exhibited a yield stress higher than 1 GPa after the compression test, which is mainly attributed to the lamellar-like structure occurring in almost every grain of the polycrystalline aggregate. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt nanoparticles produced by the polyol process present mainly the fcc metastable phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulk nanostructured cobalt is obtained from the nano-particles by Spark Plasma Sintering consolidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanotwins and stacking faults are present in every grain of the more dense sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yield strength and plastic domain may be varied depending on the nanoparticle size and the porosity of the consolidated material.

  11. Holistic processing from learned attention to parts.

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Attention helps us focus on what is most relevant to our goals, and prior work has shown that aspects of attention can be learned. Learned inattention to parts can abolish holistic processing of faces, but it is unknown whether learned attention to parts is sufficient to cause a change from part-based to holistic processing with objects. We trained subjects to individuate nonface objects (Greebles) from 2 categories: Ploks and Glips. Diagnostic information was in complementary halves for the 2 categories. Holistic processing was then tested with Plok-Glip composites that combined the kind of part that was diagnostic or nondiagnostic during training. Exposure to Greeble parts resulted in general failures of selective attention for nondiagnostic composites, but face-like holistic processing was only observed for diagnostic composites. These results demonstrated a novel link between learned attentional control and the acquisition of holistic processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The behaviour of doped elements in tungsten sintering

    Scheiner, L.

    1975-01-01

    The lecture deals with the occurrence of bubbles in the sintering of doped tungsten. The doping of tungsten normally takes place by the addition of K, Al and Si compounds. A part of the doping substances disappears with sintering which can easily be proved by chemical analyses. In the process described here, the evaporation is non-destructively observed during sintering with an absorption spectrometer. Temperature, absorption slope and sintering resistance are recorded. The evaluation of the absorption curves gives a diffusion equation. The discussion of the curves resulted so far in that a doped substance compound sets free the single elements of the compound at high temperature. Aluminium and silicon diffuse out. In the case of aluminium, the activation energy can be determined. (GSC/LH) [de

  13. Fast and low-temperature sintering of silver complex using oximes as a potential reducing agent for solution-processible, highly conductive electrodes

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Su Bin; Kim, Ji Man; Han, Dae Sang; Chae, Jangwoo; Kwak, Jeonghun

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive, solution-processed silver thin-films were obtained at a low sintering temperature of 100 °C in a short sintering time of 10 min by introducing oximes as a potential reductant for silver complex. The thermal properties and reducibility of three kinds of oximes, acetone oxime, 2-butanone oxime, and one dimethylglyoxime, were investigated as a reducing agent, and we found that the thermal decomposition product of oximes (ketones) accelerated the conversion of silver complex into highly conductive silver at low sintering temperature in a short time. Using the acetone oxime, the silver thin-film exhibited the lowest surface resistance (0.91 Ω sq −1 ) compared to those sing other oximes. The silver thin-film also showed a high reflectance of 97.8%, which is comparable to evaporated silver films. We also demonstrated inkjet printed silver patterns with the oxime-added silver complex inks. (paper)

  14. Laser sintering of copper nanoparticles

    Zenou, Michael; Saar, Amir; Ermak, Oleg; Kotler, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Copper nanoparticle (NP) inks serve as an attractive potential replacement to silver NP inks in functional printing applications. However their tendency to rapidly oxidize has so far limited their wider use. In this work we have studied the conditions for laser sintering of Cu-NP inks in ambient conditions while avoiding oxidation. We have determined the regime for stable, low-resistivity copper (< ×3 bulk resistivity value) generation in terms of laser irradiance and exposure duration and have indicated the limits on fast processing. The role of pre-drying conditions on sintering outcome has also been studied. A method, based on spectral reflectivity measurements, was used for non-contact monitoring of the sintering process evolution. It also indicates preferred spectral regions for sintering. Finally, we illustrated how selective laser sintering can generate high-quality, fine line (<5 µm wide) and dense copper circuits. (paper)

  15. Dimensional accuracy of internal cooling channel made by selective laser melting (SLM And direct metal laser sintering (DMLS processes in fabrication of internally cooled cutting tools

    Ghani S. A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting(SLM and direct metal laser sintering(DMLS are preferred additive manufacturing processes in producing complex physical products directly from CAD computer data, nowadays. The advancement of additive manufacturing promotes the design of internally cooled cutting tool for effectively used in removing generated heat in metal machining. Despite the utilisation of SLM and DMLS in a fabrication of internally cooled cutting tool, the level of accuracy of the parts produced remains uncertain. This paper aims at comparing the dimensional accuracy of SLM and DMLS in machining internally cooled cutting tool with a special focus on geometrical dimensions such as hole diameter. The surface roughness produced by the two processes are measured with contact perthometer. To achieve the objectives, geometrical dimensions of identical tool holders for internally cooled cutting tools fabricated by SLM and DMLS have been determined by using digital vernier calliper and various magnification of a portable microscope. In the current study, comparing internally cooled cutting tools made of SLM and DMLS showed that generally the higher degree of accuracy could be obtained with DMLS process. However, the observed differences in surface roughness between SLM and DMLS in this study were not significant. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that the additive manufacturing processes selected for fabricating the tool holders for internally cooled cutting tool in this research are capable of producing the desired internal channel shape of internally cooled cutting tool.

  16. Processing of Polysulfone to Free Flowing Powder by Mechanical Milling and Spray Drying Techniques for Use in Selective Laser Sintering

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSU has been processed into powder form by ball milling, rotor milling, and spray drying technique in an attempt to produce new materials for Selective Laser Sintering purposes. Both rotor milling and spray drying were adept to make spherical particles that can be used for this aim. Processing PSU pellets by rotor milling in a three-step process resulted in particles of 51.8 μm mean diameter, whereas spray drying could only manage a mean diameter of 26.1 μm. The resulting powders were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and X-ray Diffraction measurements (XRD. DSC measurements revealed an influence of all processing techniques on the thermal behavior of the material. Glass transitions remained unaffected by spray drying and rotor milling, yet a clear shift was observed for ball milling, along with a large endothermic peak in the high temperature region. This was ascribed to the imparting of an orientation into the polymer chains due to the processing method and was confirmed by XRD measurements. Of all processed powder samples, the ball milled sample was unable to dissolve for GPC measurements, suggesting degradation by chain scission and subsequent crosslinking. Spray drying and rotor milling did not cause significant degradation.

  17. Improved HDDR processing route for production of anisotropic powder from sintered NdFeB type magnets

    Sheridan, R.S.; Williams, A.J.; Harris, I.R.; Walton, A., E-mail: a.walton@bham.ac.uk

    2014-01-15

    The hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) process has been investigated as a possible means of producing bonded magnets from used NdFeB-type sintered magnets with compositions, Nd{sub 13.4}Dy{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.7}Nb{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 78.5}B{sub 6.3} and Nd{sub 12.5}Dy{sub 1.8}Al{sub 0.9}Nb{sub 0.6}Co{sub 5.0}Fe{sub 72.8}B{sub 6.4} (atomic%). It has been shown that by increasing the processing temperature, an increase in the equilibrium pressure for disproportionation and in the overall reaction time was observed. The magnetic properties of the lower Dy content magnet were affected significantly by the change in processing temperature with a peak in properties observed at 880 °C producing magnetic powder with a remanence of 1.08 (±0.02) T, a coercivity of 840 (±17) kA m{sup −1}, and a maximum energy product of 175 (±2.5) kJ m{sup −3}. Further work on magnets with a significantly higher Dy content has shown that simultaneous processing of sintered magnets with varying compositions can be achieved by increasing the hydrogen pressure, however a range of magnetic properties are produced depending on the initial compositions of the samples in the input feed. - Highlights: • Reduced oxidation during the HDDR processing in this work compared to the previous paper resulted in a powder with a higher coercivity. • Increasing the hydrogen pressure for disproportionation allowed for Dy, Co rich NdFeB compositions to be processed. • Mixed compositions (which will be typical from “real scrap”) can be processed simultaneously in the same equipment. • Mixed feeds produced lower magnetic properties due to overprocessing of the low Dy content compositions.

  18. Boric oxide or boric acid sintering aid for sintering ceramics

    Lawler, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to the use of liquid sintering aid in processes involving sintering of ceramic materials to produce dense, hard articles having industrial uses. Although the invention is specifically discussed in regard to compositions containing silicon carbide as the ceramic material, other sinterable carbides, for example, titanium carbide, may be utilized as the ceramic material. A liquid sintering aid for densifying ceramic material is selected from solutions of H 3 BO 3 , B 2 O 3 and mixtures of these solutions. In sintering ceramic articles, e.g. silicon carbide, a shaped green body is formed from a particulate ceramic material and a resin binder, and the green body is baked at a temperature of 500 to 1000 0 C to form a porous body. The liquid sintering aid of B 2 O 3 and/or H 3 BO 3 is then dispersed through the porous body and the treated body is sintered at a temperature of 1900 to 2200 0 C to produce the sintered ceramic article. (U.K.)

  19. Enhancing the Hardness of Sintered SS 17-4PH Using Nitriding Process for Bracket Orthodontic Application

    Suharno, B.; Supriadi, S.; Ayuningtyas, S. T.; Widjaya, T.; Baek, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    Brackets orthodontic create teeth movement by applying force from wire to bracket then transferred to teeth. However, emergence of friction between brackets and wires reduces load for teeth movement towards desired area. In order to overcome these problem, surface treatment like nitriding chosen as a process which could escalate efficiency of transferred force by improving material hardness since hard materials have low friction levels. This work investigated nitriding treatment to form nitride layer which affecting hardness of sintered SS 17-4PH. The nitride layers produced after nitriding process at various temperature i.e. 470°C, 500°C, 530°C with 8hr holding time under 50% NH3 atmosphere. Optical metallography was conducted to compare microstructure of base and surface metal while the increasing of surface hardness then observed using vickers microhardness tester. Hardened surface layer was obtained after gaseous nitriding process because of nitride layer that contains Fe4N, CrN and Fe-αN formed. Hardness layers can achieved value 1051 HV associated with varies thickness from 53 to 119 μm. The presence of a precipitation process occurring in conjunction with nitriding process can lead to a decrease in hardness due to nitrogen content diminishing in solid solution phase. This problem causes weakening of nitrogen expansion in martensite lattice.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured compacts processed by spark plasma sintering

    Saravanan, P., E-mail: psdrdo@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Hsu, Jen-Hwa, E-mail: jhhsu@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sivaprahasam, D. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Chennai 600113 (India); Kamat, S.V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Gram quantities of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders having mean particle size of 20±4 nm were synthesized using a hydrothermal method and then consolidated into dense nanostructured compacts by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at relatively low temperatures: 300–350 °C. The cubic spinel structure of the as-synthesized γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) did not get altered by the SPS process; nevertheless, a moderate increase in their grain sizes was evident in the SPSed compacts (80–125 nm). The physical properties such as density (ρ), coercivity (H{sub c}) and magnetization (M{sub s}) values of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were affected by the SPS temperature. Significantly, higher values of ρ (4.45 g/cm{sup 3}), H{sub c} (274 Oe) and M{sub s} (67.2 emu/g) were achieved for the bulk compact SPSed at 350 °C. This work highlights the merits of sintering γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs by SPS –as a new method of compaction with useful magnetic properties; which cannot be realized with the conventional sintering techniques. Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles with mean size of 20±4 nm were hydrothermally synthesized. • Spark plasma sintering of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was performed below phase transition temperature. • Sintered compacts were investigated with respect to SPS temperature: 300–350 °C. • Cubic spinel structure of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles was retained in sintered compacts. • Maximum values: ρ (4.45 g/cm{sup 3}), H{sub c} (274 Oe) and M{sub s} (67.2 emu/g) obtained at 350 °C.

  1. Determination of the apparent porosity level of refractory concrete during a sintering process using an ultrasonic pulse velocity technique and image analysis

    LJUBICA M. PAVLOVIĆ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete which undergoes a thermal treatment before (pre-casted concrete blocks and during (concrete embedded in-situ its life-service can be applied in plants operating at high temperature and as thermal insulation. Sintering is a process which occurs within a concrete structure in such conditions. Progression of sintering process can be monitored by the change of the porosity parameters determined with a nondestructive test method - ultrasonic pulse velocity and computer program for image analysis. The experiment has been performed on the samples of corundum and bauxite concrete composites. The apparent porosity of the samples thermally treated at 110, 800, 1000, 1300 and 1500 C was primary investigated with a standard laboratory procedure. Sintering parameters were calculated from the creep testing. The loss of strength and material degradation occurred in concrete when it was subjected to the increased temperature and a compressive load. Mechanical properties indicate and monitor changes within microstructure. The level of surface deterioration after the thermal treatment was determined using Image Pro Plus program. Mechanical strength was estimated using ultrasonic pulse velocity testing. Nondestructive ultrasonic mea¬surement was used as a qualitative description of the porosity change in specimens which is the result of the sintering process. The ultrasonic pulse velocity technique and image analysis proved to be reliable methods for monitoring of micro-structural change during the thermal treatment and service life of refractory concrete.

  2. [Study on friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramics processed by microwave and conventional sintering methods].

    Guoxin, Hu; Ying, Yang; Yuemei, Jiang; Wenjing, Xia

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the wear of an antagonist and friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramic that was subjected to microwave and conventional sintering methods. Ten specimens were fabricated from Lava brand zirconia and randomly assigned to microwave and conventional sintering groups. A profile tester for surface roughness was used to measure roughness of the specimens. Wear test was performed, and steatite ceramic was used as antagonist. Friction coefficient curves were recorded, and wear volume were calculated. Finally, optical microscope was used to observe the surface morphology of zirconia and steatite ceramics. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure of zirconia. Wear volumes of microwave and conventionally sintered zirconia were (6.940±1.382)×10⁻², (7.952±1.815) ×10⁻² mm³, respectively. Moreover, wear volumes of antagonist after sintering by the considered methods were (14.189±4.745)×10⁻², (15.813±3.481)×10⁻² mm³, correspondingly. Statistically significant difference was not observed in the wear resistance of zirconia and wear volume of steatite ceramic upon exposure to two kinds of sintering methods. Optical microscopy showed that ploughed surfaces were apparent in zirconia. The wear surface of steatite ceramic against had craze, accompanied by plough. Scanning electron microscopy showed that zirconia was sintered compactly when subjected to both conventional sintering and microwave methods, whereas grains of zirconia sintered by microwave alone were smaller and more uniform. Two kinds of sintering methods are successfully used to produce dental zirconia ceramics with similar friction and wear properties.
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  3. Effect of sintering time at low temperature on the properties of IGZO TFTs fabricated by using the sol-gel process

    Choi, Jun Hyuk; Shim, Jong Hyun; Hwang, Soo Min

    2010-01-01

    We explored the application of the sol-gel process technique to the fabrication of InGaZnO (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). We fabricated IGZO TFTs by using the sol-gel method and evaluated the effect of the sintering time on the electrical properties of the IGZO system with an atomic ratio of In:Ga:Zn = 2:1:1. In the process, IGZO precursor solutions were prepared by mixing In nitrate, Ga nitrate, and Zn acetate and were then deposited on a p-type Si-wafer covered with a thermally grown SiO 2 layer by spin-coating. The sintering process was performed for 3 h, 6 h or 12 h at 300 .deg. C in the ambient atmosphere. The source/drain electrodes of the TFT devices were fabricated using Al thermal evaporation. For all of the samples, a low off current (∼10 -1 1 A) and on-to-off current ratio (∼ 5 x 10 4 ) were obtained in their transfer curves. The saturation mobility increased with increasing sintering time: for the samples sintered for 3 h, 6 h and 12 h, the saturation mobilities were calculated to be 0.825 cm 2 /Vs, 1.65 cm 2 /Vs, and 2.06 cm 2 /Vs, respectively. Based on the XPS and TEM analyses, the enhancement of the mobility was attributed to the increase in the number of oxygen vacancies and the nanocrystalline structure in the amorphous matrix with increasing sintering time. These results demonstrate for the potential application of sol-gel processed IGZO devices on flexible polymer substrates.

  4. Enhanced reversible lithium storage in a nano-Si/MWCNT free-standing paper electrode prepared by a simple filtration and post sintering process

    Yue Lu; Zhong Haoxiang; Zhang Lingzhi

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-Si/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite paper was prepared as free-standing electrode for lithium-ion batteries by a simple filtration method using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing/binding agent, followed by a thermal sintering process. The prepared paper electrode exhibited a significantly improved electrochemical performance, maintaining a specific capacity of 942 mAh g −1 after 30 cycles with a capacity fade of 0.46%/cycle. - Abstract: Nano-Si/(multi-wall carbon nanotube) (Si/MWCNT) composite paper was prepared as flexible electrode for lithium ion batteries by a simple filtration method using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a dispersing/binding agent, followed by a thermal sintering process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that nanosized Si particles were dispersed homogeneously and intertwined by the MWCNT throughout the whole paper electrode. After thermal sintering, Si/MWCNT paper electrode exhibited a significantly improved flexibility with a high Si content of 35.6 wt% as compared with before sintering, and retained a specific capacity of 942 mAh g −1 after 30 cycles with a capacity fade of 0.46%/cycle.

  5. Crystallite-growth, phase transition, magnetic properties, and sintering behaviour of nano-CuFe2O4 powders prepared by a combustion-like process

    Köferstein, Roberto; Walther, Till; Hesse, Dietrich; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of nano-crystalline CuFe 2 O 4 powders by a combustion-like process is described herein. Phase formation and evolution of the crystallite size during the decomposition process of a (CuFe 2 )—precursor gel were monitored up to 1000 °C. Phase-pure nano-sized CuFe 2 O 4 powders were obtained after reaction at 750 °C for 2 h resulting in a crystallite size of 36 nm, which increases to 96 nm after calcining at 1000 °C. The activation energy of the crystallite growth process was calculated as 389 kJ mol −1 . The tetragonal⇄cubic phase transition occurs between 402 and 419 °C and the enthalpy change (ΔH) was found to range between 1020 and 1229 J mol −1 depending on the calcination temperature. The optical band gap depends on the calcination temperature and was found between 2.03 and 1.89 eV. The shrinkage and sintering behaviour of compacted powders were examined. Dense ceramic bodies can be obtained either after conventional sintering at 950 °C or after a two-step sintering process at 800 °C. Magnetic measurements of both powders and corresponding ceramic bodies show that the saturation magnetization rises with increasing calcination-/sintering temperature up to 49.1 emu g −1 (2.1 µ B fu −1 ), whereas the coercivity and remanence values decrease. - Graphical abstract: A cheap one-pot synthesis was developed to obtain CuFe 2 O 4 nano-powders with different crystallite sizes (36–96 nm). The optical band gaps, phase transition temperatures and enthalpies were determined depending on the particle size. The sintering behaviour of nano CuFe 2 O 4 was studied in different sintering procedures. The magnetic behaviour of the nano-powders as well as the corresponding ceramic bodies were investigated. - Highlights: • Eco-friendly and simple synthesis for nano CuFe 2 O 4 powder using starch as polymerization agent. • Monitoring the phase evolution and crystallite growth kinetics during the synthesis. • Determination of the optical band gap

  6. Processing and characterization of a carbon black-filled electrically conductive Nylon-12 nanocomposite produced by selective laser sintering

    Athreya, Siddharth Ram; Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki; Das, Suman

    2010-01-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS), a layered manufacturing technique was explored to process an electrically conductive polymer nanocomposite made of Nylon-12 reinforced with 4 wt% of carbon black. SLS process parameters were optimized in order to maximize the flexural modulus. The porosity and morphology were studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystalline state was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical conductivity was determined using the four probe technique. Results indicate that carbon black-filled Nylon-12 nanocomposites can be successfully made by SLS. Maximum flexural modulus values of 1750 MPa and 1450 MPa were achieved for the neat polymer and the nanocomposite, respectively. A reduction in the flexural modulus of the nanocomposite is likely due to the formation of a segregated structure in the nanocomposite and a weak polymer-filler interface. The optimized neat polymer and the nanocomposites had average densities of around 97% and 96% relative to full density, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite was approximately 1 x 10 -4 S/cm, which is five orders of magnitude higher than that of the neat polymer processed by SLS, and indicates that the onset of percolation behavior occurs below the 4 wt% loading of carbon black.

  7. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  8. Fixed-film processes. Part 2

    Canziani, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These processes no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients suspended solids. Also, processes may work at high rates making is possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film processes include trickling filters (and combined suspended and fixed-films processes), rotating biological contactors, biological aerated submerged, filters moving bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical based governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined, with some simple examples of calculations, underlining the main differences with conventional activate sludge processes. In the second part, the most common types of reactors are reviewed [it

  9. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti 2 Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti 2 Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (> 99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties. - Highlights: • Hot extrusion refined the grain size and Ti 2 Cu phase significantly. • Hot extrusion increased the mechanical properties and the corrosion resistance. • The antibacterial properties was not affected by the hot process.

  10. Sintering of nano crystalline o silicon carbide doping with

    Sinterable silicon carbide powders were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type -SiC. Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of aluminium nitride together with carbon. Nearly 99% sintered density was obtained. The mechanism of sintering was studied by ...

  11. A study on improvement of UO2 powder production process for high sintered density

    Park, Jin Hoh; Hwang, Sung Tae; Jun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lee, Kyoo Il; Kim, Tae Joon; Jung, Kyung Chae; Kim, Kwang Lak; Kwon, Sang Woon; Kim, Byung Hoh; Hong, Soon Bok

    1995-01-01

    Various conversion processes were reviewed from the viewpoint of manufacturing cost, product quality and liquid waste. The MDD process was selected a suitable target process for the good quality of UO 2 powder and the recycling availability of nitric acid. The MDD process consists of two steps, double salt preparation [(NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ] from uranyl nitrate solution and thermal decomposition/reduction to UO 2 powder. The reaction mechanism and properties for the intermediates were analyzed to define the proposed operational conditions of the process. The conceptual process was proposed and experimental facility was designed and installed. 12 figs, 7 tabs, 7 refs. (Author)

  12. LOGISTICS AS A PART OF INNOVATION PROCESS

    Erika Loučanová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of logistics in innovation process. The issue is focused on management of different logistic processes building on the innovation and on innovation process. However, logistics is an essential part of this process. The results describe logistics chain within innovation process for the satisfaction of customers´ demand and fulfilment of customers’ requests on the innovation. This approach involves “7S of logistics” which means: “create proper innovation, in the proper quality, for the right place and in the right time, as well as, with the proper price and package”.

  13. A Novel Process for Joining Ti Alloy and Al Alloy using Two-Stage Sintering Powder Metallurgy

    Long, Luping; Liu, Wensheng; Ma, Yunzhu; Wu, Lei; Liu, Chao

    2018-04-01

    The major challenges for conventional diffusion bonding of joining Ti alloy and Al alloy are the undesirable interfacial reaction, low matrixes and joint strength. To avoid the problem in diffusion bonding, a novel two-stage sintering powder metallurgy process is developed. In the present work, the interface characterization and joint performance of the bonds obtained by powder metallurgy bonding are investigated and are compared with the diffusion bonded Ti/Al joints obtained with the same and the optimized process parameters. The results show that no intermetallic compound is visible in the Ti/Al joint obtained by powder metallurgy bonding, while a new layer formed at the joint diffusion bonded with the same parameters. The maximum tensile strength of joint obtained by diffusion bonding is 58 MPa, while a higher tensile strength reaching 111 MPa for a bond made by powder metallurgy bonding. Brittle fractures occur at all the bonds. It is shown that the powder metallurgy bonding of Ti/Al is better than diffusion bonding. The results of this study should benefit the bonding quality.

  14. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrical wire explosion process of copper/silver hybrid nano-particle ink and its sintering via flash white light to achieve high electrical conductivity.

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Yeon-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-05-20

    In this work, combined silver/copper nanoparticles were fabricated by the electrical explosion of a metal wire. In this method, a high electrical current passes through the metal wire with a high voltage. Consequently, the metal wire evaporates and metal nanoparticles are formed. The diameters of the silver and copper nanoparticles were controlled by changing the voltage conditions. The fabricated silver and copper nano-inks were printed on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate and sintered at room temperature via a flash light process, using a xenon lamp and varying the light energy. The microstructures of the sintered silver and copper films were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). To investigate the crystal phases of the flash-light-sintered silver and copper films, x-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed. The absorption wavelengths of the silver and copper nano-inks were measured using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). Furthermore, the resistivity of the sintered silver and copper films was measured using the four-point probe method and an alpha step. As a result, the fabricated Cu/Ag film shows a high electrical conductivity (4.06 μΩcm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩcm). In addition, the fabricated Cu/Ag nanoparticle film shows superior oxidation stability compared to the Cu nanoparticle film.

  16. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Microstructures and High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg Alloy Manufactured by Liquid Phase Sintering Process

    Heo, Joon-Young; Gwon, Jin-Han; Park, Jong-Kwan; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-05-01

    Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is an aluminum alloy containing at least 12.6 wt.% Si. It is necessary to evenly control the primary Si particle size and distribution in hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. In order to achieve this, there have been attempts to manufacture hypereutectic Al-Si alloy through a liquid phase sintering. This study investigated the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg alloy manufactured by liquid phase sintering process and changes in them after T6 heat treatment. Microstructural observation identified large amounts of small primary Si particles evenly distributed in the matrix, and small amounts of various precipitation phases were found in grain interiors and grain boundaries. After T6 heat treatment, the primary Si particle size and shape did not change significantly, but the size and distribution of CuAl2 ( θ) and AlCuMgSi ( Q) changed. Hardness tests measured 97.36 HV after sintering and 142.5 HV after heat treatment. Compression tests were performed from room temperature to 300 °C. The results represented that yield strength was greater after heat treatment (RT 300 °C: 351 93 MPa) than after sintering (RT 300 °C: 210 89 MPa). Fracture surface analysis identified cracks developing mostly along the interface between the primary Si particles and the matrix with some differences among temperature conditions. In addition, brittle fracture mode was found after T6 heat treatment.

  17. Obtaining of U-2.5Zr7.5Nb and U-3Zr-9Nb alloys by sintering process

    Mazzeu, Thiago de Oliveira; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos; Brina, Jose Giovanni Mascarenhas

    2011-01-01

    The development of metallic fuels with low enrichment to be used in research and test reactors, as well in the future pressurized water reactors, focuses on the search for uranium alloys of high density. Alloying elements such as Zr, Nb and Mo are added to uranium to improve fuel performance in reactors. In this context, the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) in Belo Horizonte is developing the U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb and U- 3Zr-9Nb (weight %) alloys by the innovative process of sintering that utilizes raw materials in the form of powders. The powders were pressed at 400MPa and then sintered under a vacuum of about 5 x 10-6 Torr at temperatures ranging from 1050 deg to 1300 deg C. The densities of the alloys were measured geometrically and by hydrostatic method using water. The microstructures of the pellets were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the elements of alloying were identified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis. The obtained results showed a small increasing density with rising sintering temperature. The highest density achieved was approximately 80% of theoretical density. It was also qualitatively observed that the superficial oxidation of the pellets increased with increasing sintering temperature thus avoiding the fusion of the alloys at higher temperatures. (author)

  18. A study on improvement of UO{sub 2} powder production process for high sintered density

    Park, Jin Hoh; Hwang, Sung Tae; Jun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lee, Kyoo Il; Kim, Tae Joon; Jung, Kyung Chae; Kim, Kwang Lak; Kwon, Sang Woon; Kim, Byung Hoh; Hong, Soon Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Various conversion processes were reviewed from the viewpoint of manufacturing cost, product quality and liquid waste. The MDD process was selected a suitable target process for the good quality of UO{sub 2} powder and the recycling availability of nitric acid. The MDD process consists of two steps, double salt preparation [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}] from uranyl nitrate solution and thermal decomposition/reduction to UO{sub 2} powder. The reaction mechanism and properties for the intermediates were analyzed to define the proposed operational conditions of the process. The conceptual process was proposed and experimental facility was designed and installed. 12 figs, 7 tabs, 7 refs. (Author).

  19. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    Niittynen, J.; Abbel, R.; Mäntysalo, M.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.; Lupo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative

  20. Fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites processed by a hybrid technique based on chemical vapor infiltration, slurry impregnation and spark plasma sintering

    Magnant, J.; Pailler, R.; Le Petitcorps, Y.; Maille, L.; Guette, A.; Marthe, J.

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of multidirectional continuous carbon and silicon carbide fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMC) by a new short time hybrid process was studied. This process is based, first, on the deposition of fiber interphase and coating by chemical vapor infiltration, next, on the introduction of silicon nitride powders into the fibrous preform by slurry impregnation and, finally, on the densification of the composite by liquid phase spark plasma sintering (LP-SPS). The homogeneous introduction of the ceramic charges into the multidirectional fiber pre-forms was realized by slurry impregnation from highly concentrated and well-dispersed aqueous colloid suspensions. The chemical degradation of the carbon fibers during the fabrication was prevented by adapting the sintering pressure cycle. The composites manufactured are dense. Microstructural analyses were conducted to explain the mechanical properties achieved. One main important result of this study is that LP-SPS can be used in some hybrid processes to densify fiber reinforced CMC. (authors)

  1. Magnetic properties of sintered high energy sm-co and nd-fe-b magnets

    Talijan Nadežda M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic properties of permanent magnetic materials based on intermetallic compounds of Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B are in direct dependence on the microstructure. In the first part of this paper, having in mind the importance of the regime of sintering and heat treatment to obtain the optimal magnetic structure, yet another approach in defining the most adequate technological parameters of the sintering process for applied heat treatment conditions was made. The goal of these investigations was to use the correlation that exists between sintering conditions (temperature and time and intensity of the diffraction peak of the (111 plane of the SmCo5 phase to optimize. In the second part a brief overview of high energy magnetic materials based on Nd-Fe-B is presented with special emphasis to the current research and development of high remanent nanocomposite magnetic materials based on Nd-Fe-B alloys with a reduced Nd content. Part of experimental results gained during research of the sintering process of SmCo5 magnetic materials were realized and published earlier. The scientific meeting devoted to the 60th anniversary of Frankel’s theory of sintering was an opportunity to show once more the importance and role of sintering in optimization of the magnetic microstructure of sintered Sm Co5 magnetic materials.

  2. Processing, Mechanical and Optical Properties of Additive-Free ZrC Ceramics Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Clara Musa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nearly fully dense monolithic ZrC samples are produced and broadly characterized from microstructural, mechanical and optical points of view. Specifically, 98% dense products are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS after 20 min dwell time at 1850 °C starting from powders preliminarily prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS followed by 20 min ball milling. A prolonged mechanical treatment up to 2 h of SHS powders does not lead to appreciable benefits. Vickers hardness of the resulting samples (17.5 ± 0.4 GPa is reasonably good for monolithic ceramics, but the mechanical strength (about 250 MPa up to 1000 °C could be further improved by suitable optimization of the starting powder characteristics. The very smoothly polished ZrC specimen subjected to optical measurements displays high absorption in the visible-near infrared region and low thermal emittance at longer wavelengths. Moreover, the sample exhibits goodspectral selectivity (2.1–2.4 in the 1000–1400 K temperature range. These preliminary results suggest that ZrC ceramics produced through the two-step SHS/SPS processing route can be considered as attractive reference materials for the development of innovative solar energy absorbers.

  3. Sintered indium-tin oxide particles induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro, in part through inflammasome activation.

    Melissa A Badding

    Full Text Available Indium-tin oxide (ITO is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. As the demand for consumer electronics continues to increase, so does the concern for occupational exposures to particles containing these potentially toxic metal oxides. Indium-containing particles have been shown to be cytotoxic in cultured cells and pro-inflammatory in pulmonary animal models. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which ITO production materials may be the most toxic to workers and how they initiate pulmonary inflammation remain poorly understood. Here we examined four different particle samples collected from an ITO production facility for their ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. Tin oxide, sintered ITO (SITO, and ventilation dust particles activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB within 3 h of treatment. However, only SITO induced robust cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8 within 24 h in both RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Our lab and others have previously demonstrated SITO-induced cytotoxicity as well. These findings suggest that SITO particles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, which has been implicated in several immune-mediated diseases via its ability to induce IL-1β release and cause subsequent cell death. Inflammasome activation by SITO was confirmed, but it required the presence of endotoxin. Further, a phagocytosis assay revealed that pre-uptake of SITO or ventilation dust impaired proper macrophage phagocytosis of E. coli. Our results suggest that adverse inflammatory responses to SITO particles by both macrophage and epithelial cells may initiate and propagate indium lung disease. These findings will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind an emerging occupational health issue.

  4. Strain-enhanced sintering of iron powders

    Amador, D.R.; Torralba, J.M. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Ciencias de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    Sintering of ball-milled and un-milled Fe powders has been investigated using dilatometry, X-ray, density, and positron annihilation techniques. A considerable sintering enhancement is found in milled powders showing apparent activation energies that range between 0.44 and 0.80 eV/at. The positron annihilation results, combined with the evolution of the shrinkage rate with sintering temperature, indicate generation of lattice defects during the sintering process of milled and un-milled powders. The sintering enhancement is attributed to pipe diffusion along the core of moving dislocations in the presence of the vacancy excess produced by plastic deformation. Positron annihilation results do not reveal the presence of sintering-induced defects in un-milled powders sintered above 1200 K, the apparent activation energy being in good agreement with that for grain-boundary diffusion in {gamma}-Fe. (orig.)

  5. Debinding and Sintering of an Injection-Moulded Hypereutectic Al–Si Alloy

    Jiaqi Ni

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypereutectic Al–Si (20 wt.% alloy parts were fabricated by employing a powder injection moulding (PIM technique with a developed multi-component binder system composed of high-density polyethylene (35 wt.%, carnauba wax (62 wt.% and stearic acid (3 wt.%. The feedstocks contained 83 wt.% metal powders. The debinding process was carried out by a combination of solvent extraction and thermal decomposition. The effects of solvent debinding variables such as kind of solvents, debinding temperatures and time, and the bulk surface area to volume ratios on the debinding process were investigated. Thermal debinding and the subsequent sintering process were carried out in a heating sequence under a nitrogen atmosphere. The influences of sintering temperature and sintering time on the mechanical properties and structure were considered. Under the optimal sintering condition, sintering at 550 °C for 3 h, the final sintering parts were free of distortion and exhibited good mechanical properties. Relative sintered density, Brinell hardness, and tensile strength were ~95.5%, 58 HBW and ~154, respectively.

  6. Debinding and Sintering of an Injection-Moulded Hypereutectic Al⁻Si Alloy.

    Ni, Jiaqi; Yu, Muhuo; Han, Keqing

    2018-05-16

    Hypereutectic Al⁻Si (20 wt.%) alloy parts were fabricated by employing a powder injection moulding (PIM) technique with a developed multi-component binder system composed of high-density polyethylene (35 wt.%), carnauba wax (62 wt.%) and stearic acid (3 wt.%). The feedstocks contained 83 wt.% metal powders. The debinding process was carried out by a combination of solvent extraction and thermal decomposition. The effects of solvent debinding variables such as kind of solvents, debinding temperatures and time, and the bulk surface area to volume ratios on the debinding process were investigated. Thermal debinding and the subsequent sintering process were carried out in a heating sequence under a nitrogen atmosphere. The influences of sintering temperature and sintering time on the mechanical properties and structure were considered. Under the optimal sintering condition, sintering at 550 °C for 3 h, the final sintering parts were free of distortion and exhibited good mechanical properties. Relative sintered density, Brinell hardness, and tensile strength were ~95.5%, 58 HBW and ~154, respectively.

  7. Part 1: The effect of lattice defects on the sintering of lithium fluoride; Part 2: The morphology of calcium oxide from calcium carbonate decomposition

    Fenwick, D.M.

    1990-09-01

    Our motivation for studying the effect of lattice defects on sintering kinetics came from a theory by Searcy concerning surface melting of solids. Surface melting has been shown to occur in ice, argon, and lead at temperatures below the melting point. While surface melting of this sort is an equilibrium phenomenon, Searcy has predicted that surface melting may also occur in a non-equilibrium situation -- when a solid is being rapidly heated and has a below-equilibrium concentration of vacancies for the temperature reached. To test the surface melting theory we have compared the density changes of two different types of powder compacts of lithium fluoride after subjecting both to the same fast-firing heat treatment. One type of compact consisted of powder originating from a crystal which he had quenched from a high temperature, and the other consisted of powder from a crystal which we had annealed at a lower temperature. When calcite is decomposed in vacuum, CaO is sometimes found in two distinguishable layers. Both layers are comprised of fairly uniformly sized, cylindrical rods on the order of 10 nm in diameter with the normal NaCl-type crystal structure. The outer layer consists of ∼1 μm diameter bundles of rods separated by ∼1 μm wide cracks. The second layer, adjacent to any undecomposed calcite -- the ''intermediate layer'' -- probably consists of rods which are relatively evenly spaced. Because sintering is negligible when calcite decomposition occurs below 700 degree C in a vacuum of 10 -3 torr or less, the outer layer is probably formed by a diffusionless, cooperative re-packing of CaO rods first formed with the uniform spacing characteristic of the intermediate layer. 35 refs., 25 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Rapid, cool sintering of wet processed yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic electrolyte thin films.

    Park, Jun-Sik; Kim, Dug-Joong; Chung, Wan-Ho; Lim, Yonghyun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom

    2017-09-29

    Here we report a photonic annealing process for yttria-stabilized zirconia films, which are one of the most well-known solid-state electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Precursor films were coated using a wet-chemical method with a simple metal-organic precursor solution and directly annealed at standard pressure and temperature by two cycles of xenon flash lamp irradiation. The residual organics were almost completely decomposed in the first pre-annealing step, and the fluorite crystalline phases and good ionic conductivity were developed during the second annealing step. These films showed properties comparable to those of thermally annealed films. This process is much faster than conventional annealing processes (e.g. halogen furnaces); a few seconds compared to tens of hours, respectively. The significance of this work includes the treatment of solid-state electrolyte oxides for SOFCs and the demonstration of the feasibility of other oxide components for solid-state energy devices.

  9. The pilot plant experiment of electron beam irradiation process for removal of NOx and SOx from sinter plant exhaust gas in the iron and steel industry

    Kawamura, K.; Katayama, T.; Kawamura, Ke.

    1981-01-01

    Air pollution problem has become more important in the progress of industry. Nitrogen oxides (NOx, mostly NO) and sulfur oxides (SOx, mostly SO 2 ) which are contained in a sinter plant exhaust gas, are known as serious air pollutants. In such circumstances, an attempt has been made to simultaneously remove NOx and SOx from the sinter plant exhaust gas by means of a new electron beam irradiation process. The process consists of adding a small amount of NH 3 to the exhaust gas, irradiating the gas by electron beam, forming ammonium salts by reactions of NOx and SOx with the NH 3 and collecting ammonium salts by dry electrostatic precipitator (E.P.). Basic research on the present process had been performed using heavy oil combustion gas. Based on the results research was launched to study the applicability of the process to the treatment of sinter plant exhaust gas. A pilot plant, capable of treating a gas flow of 3000 Nm 3 /H was set up, and experiments were performed from July 1977 to June 1978. The plant is described and the results are presented. (author)

  10. Effect of Partial Substitution of Neodymium with Praseodymium on the Magnetic and Process Properties of Sintered Magnets of Type NdFeB

    Dormidontov, N. A.; Dormidontov, A. G.; Lileev, A. S.; Kamynin, A. V.; Lukin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of substitution of neodymium with praseodymium in sintered magnets of type NdFeB on their magnetic and process properties in the concentration range of [Pr] = 0 - 13 wt.% is studied. The special features of milling of the alloys, sintering processes and heat treatments in the production of magnets containing praseodymium are discussed. Hysteresis characteristics of B r ≥ 1.2 T, H cJ ≥ 1200 kA/m, H cb ≥ 880 kA/m, H k ≥ 960 kA/m, and BH max ≥ 280 kJ/m3 are obtained for magnets with composition (in wt.%) 33 Nd, 10 Pr, 1.5 (Ti + Al + Cu), 1.3 B, the remainder Fe.

  11. Geometric Model of Induction Heating Process of Iron-Based Sintered Materials

    Semagina, Yu V.; Egorova, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article studies the issue of building multivariable dependences based on the experimental data. A constructive method for solving the issue is presented in the form of equations of (n-1) – surface compartments of the extended Euclidean space E+n. The dimension of space is taken to be equal to the sum of the number of parameters and factors of the model of the system being studied. The basis for building multivariable dependencies is the generalized approach to n-space used for the surface compartments of 3D space. The surface is designed on the basis of the kinematic method, moving one geometric object along a certain trajectory. The proposed approach simplifies the process aimed at building the multifactorial empirical dependencies which describe the process being investigated.

  12. Fixed-film processes. Part 1

    Canziani, R.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, full scale fixed-film or mixed suspended and fixed biomass bioreactors have been applied in many wastewater treatments plants. These process no longer depend on biomass settle ability and can be used to improve the performance of existing plants as required by more stringent discharge permit limits, especially for nutrients and suspended solid. Also, processes may work at high rates making it possible to build small footprint installations. Fixed-film process include trickling filter, moving bed reactors fluidized bed reactors. In the first part, the theoretical base governing fixed-film processes are briefly outlined with some simple examples of calculations underlining the main differences with conventional activated sludge processes [it

  13. Rapid, cool sintering of wet processed yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic electrolyte thin films

    Park, Jun-Sik; Kim, Dug-Joong; Chung, Wan-Ho; Lim, Yonghyun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a photonic annealing process for yttria-stabilized zirconia films, which are one of the most well-known solid-state electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Precursor films were coated using a wet-chemical method with a simple metal-organic precursor solution and directly annealed at standard pressure and temperature by two cycles of xenon flash lamp irradiation. The residual organics were almost completely decomposed in the first pre-annealing step, and the fluorite cr...

  14. Sintering and densification; new techniques: sinter forging

    Winnubst, A.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter pressure assisted sintering methods will be described. Attention will mainly be paid to sinter forging as a die-wall free uniaxial pressure sintering technique, where large creep strains are possible. Sinter forging is an effective tool to reduce sintering temperature and time and to obtain a nearly theoretically dense ceramic. In this way grain size in tetragonal zirconia ceramics can be reduced down to 100 nm. Another important phenomenon is the reduction of the number density and size of cracks and flaws resulting in higher strength and improved reliability, which is of utmost importance for engineering ceramics. The creep deformation during sinter forging causes a rearrangement of the grains resulting in a reduction of interatomic spaces between grains, while grain boundary (glassy) phases can be removed. The toughness and in some cases the wear resistance is enhanced after sinter forging as a result of the grain-boundary-morphology improvement. (orig.)

  15. Processing and Characterization of Liquid-Phase Sintered NiTi Woven Structures

    Erdeniz, Dinc; Weidinger, Ryan P.; Sharp, Keith W.; Dunand, David C.

    2018-03-01

    Porous NiTi is of interest for bone implants because of its unique combination of biocompatibility (encouraging osseointegration), high strength (to prevent fracture), low stiffness (to reduce stress shielding), and shape memory or superelasticity (to deploy an implant). A promising method for creating NiTi structures with regular open channels is via 3D weaving of NiTi wires. This paper presents a processing method to bond woven NiTi wire structures at contact points between wires to achieve structural integrity: (i) a slurry consisting of a blend of NiTi and Nb powders is deposited on the surface of the NiTi wires after the weaving operation; (ii) the powders are melted to create a eutectic liquid phase which collects at contact points; and (iii) the liquid is solidified and binds the NiTi woven structures. The bonded NiTi wire structures exhibited lower transformation temperatures compared to the as-woven NiTi wires because of Nb diffusion into the NiTi wires. A bonded woven sample was deformed in bending and showed near-complete recovery up to 6% strain and recovered nearly half of the deformation up to 19% strain.

  16. The Influence of Sintering Temperature of Reactive Sintered (Ti, MoC-Ni Cermets

    Marek Jõeleht

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium-molybdenum carbide nickel cermets ((Ti, MoC-Ni were produced using high energy milling and reactive sintering process. Compared to conventional TiC-NiMo cermet sintering the parameters for reactive sintered cermets vary since additional processes are present such as carbide synthesis. Therefore, it is essential to acquire information about the suitable sintering regime for reactive sintered cermets. One of the key parameters is the final sintering temperature when the liquid binder Ni forms the final matrix and vacancies inside the material are removed. The influence of the final sintering temperature is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the material are characterized by transverse rupture strength, hardness and fracture toughness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7179

  17. Modeling of sintering of functionally gradated materials

    Gasik, M.; Zhang, B.

    2001-01-01

    The functionally gradated materials (FGMs) are distinguished from isotropic materials by gradients of composition, phase distribution, porosity, and related properties. For FGMs made by powder metallurgy, sintering control is one of the most important factors. In this study sintering process of FGMs is modeled and simulated with a computer. A new modeling approach was used to formulate equation systems and the model for sintering of gradated hard metals, coupled with heat transfer and grain growth. A FEM module was developed to simulate FGM sintering in conventional, microwave and hybrid conditions, to calculate density, stress and temperature distribution. Behavior of gradated WC-Co hardmetal plate and cone specimens was simulated for various conditions, such as mean particle size, green density distribution and cobalt gradation parameter. The results show that the deformation behavior and stress history of graded powder compacts during heating, sintering and cooling could be predicted for optimization of sintering process. (author)

  18. Sintering of a class F fly ash

    Joseph J. Biernacki; Anil K. Vazrala; H. Wayne Leimer [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The sinterability of a class F fly ash was investigated as a function of processing conditions including sintering temperature (1050-1200{sup o}C) and sintering time (0-90 min). Density, shrinkage, splitting tensile strength, water absorption and residual loss on ignition (RLOI) were evaluated as measures of sintering efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction was used to examine microstructure and phase development due to processing. The results show that premature densification can inhibit complete carbon removal and that carbon combustion is influenced by both internal and external mass transfer conditions. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Controlled Assembly of Nanorod TiO2 Crystals via a Sintering Process: Photoanode Properties in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Saeid Vafaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time a synthetic method of obtaining 1D TiO2 nanorods with sintering methods using bundle-shaped 3D rutile TiO2 particles (3D BR-TiO2 with the dimensions of around 100 nm. The purpose of this research is (i to control crystallization of the mixture of two kinds of TiO2 semiconductor nanocrystals, that is, 3D BR-TiO2 and spherical anatase TiO2 (SA-TiO2 on FTO substrate via sintering process and (ii to establish a new method to create photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In addition, we focus on the preparation of low-cost and environmentally friendly titania electrode by adopting the “water-based” nanofluids. Our results provide useful guidance on how to improve the photovoltaic performance by reshaping the numerous 3D TiO2 particles to 1D TiO2-based electrodes with sintering technique.

  20. Physical evaluations of Co-Cr-Mo parts processed using different additive manufacturing techniques

    Ghani, Saiful Anwar Che; Mohamed, Siti Rohaida; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan; Noar, Nor Aida Zuraimi Md

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, additive manufacturing with highly design customization has gained an important technique for fabrication in aerospace and medical fields. Despite the ability of the process to produce complex components with highly controlled architecture geometrical features, maintaining the part's accuracy, ability to fabricate fully functional high density components and inferior surfaces quality are the major obstacles in producing final parts using additive manufacturing for any selected application. This study aims to evaluate the physical properties of cobalt chrome molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloys parts fabricated by different additive manufacturing techniques. The full dense Co-Cr-Mo parts were produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) with default process parameters. The density and relative density of samples were calculated using Archimedes' principle while the surface roughness on the top and side surface was measured using surface profiler. The roughness average (Ra) for top surface for SLM produced parts is 3.4 µm while 2.83 µm for DMLS produced parts. The Ra for side surfaces for SLM produced parts is 4.57 µm while 9.0 µm for DMLS produced parts. The higher Ra values on side surfaces compared to the top faces for both manufacturing techniques was due to the balling effect phenomenon. The yield relative density for both Co-Cr-Mo parts produced by SLM and DMLS are 99.3%. Higher energy density has influence the higher density of produced samples by SLM and DMLS processes. The findings of this work demonstrated that SLM and DMLS process with default process parameters have effectively produced full dense parts of Co-Cr-Mo with high density, good agreement of geometrical accuracy and better surface finish. Despite of both manufacturing process yield that produced components with higher density, the current finding shows that SLM technique could produce components with smoother surface quality compared to DMLS

  1. Microwave sintering of hydroxyapatite-based composites

    Fang, Y.; Roy, D.M.; Cheng, J.; Roy, R.; Agrawal, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Composites of hydroxyapatite/partially stabilized zirconia (HAp/PSZ) and hydroxyapatite/silicon carbide whiskers (HAp/SiC) were sintered at 1100-1200 degrees C by microwave at 2.45 GHz. Characterization of the sintered composites was carried out by density, microstructure, phase composition, and fracture toughness measurements. The results show that although not yet fully densified, a much higher sintered density in the HAp/PSZ composite was achieved by microwave sintering than by conventional sintering at the same temperature. A relative density of 93% was achieved by 20 min. microwave processing at 1200 degrees C. Comparatively, 2 h conventional sintering of the same material at 1200 degrees C led to only 75.5% relative density. K IC of this microwave sintered HAp/PSZ of 93% density was found to be 3.88 MPa√m, which is 250% of the value for pure HAp of the same density. A further increase in K IC could be expected if full or nearly full densification was achieved. Sintering of PSZ particles in the HAp/PSZ composite was also observed in the microwave processed sample. Microwave sintering of HAp/SiC was not successful in the current study due to the oxidation of SiC in air at high temperature. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Sintering of dioxide pellets in an oxidizing atmosphere (CO2)

    Santos, G.R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This work consists in the study of the sintering process of U O 2 pellets in an oxidizing atmosphere. Sintering tests were performed in an CO 2 atmosphere and the influence of temperature and time on the pellets density and microstructure were verified. The results obtained were compared to those from the conventional sintering process and its efficiency was confirmed. (author)

  3. Master sintering curve: A practical approach to its construction

    Pouchly V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a Master Sintering Curve (MSC is a strong tool for optimizing the sintering process. However, constructing the MSC from sintering data involves complicated and time-consuming calculations. A practical method for the construction of a MSC is presented in the paper. With the help of a few dilatometric sintering experiments the newly developed software calculates the MSC and finds the optimal activation energy of a given material. The software, which also enables sintering prediction, was verified by sintering tetragonal and cubic zirconia, and alumina of two different particle sizes.

  4. Influence of sintering temperature on mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered pre-alloyed Ti-6Al-4 V powder

    Muthuchamy, A.; Patel, Paridh; Rajadurai, M. [VIT Univ., Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Chaurisiya, Jitendar K. [NIT, Suratkal (India); Annamalai, A. Raja [VIT Univ., Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India). Centre for Innovative Manufacturing Research

    2018-04-01

    Spark plasma sintering provides faster heating that can create fully, or near fully, dense samples without significant grain growth. In this study, pre-alloyed Ti-6Al-4 V powder compact samples produced through field assisted sintering in a spark plasma sintering machine are compared as a function of consolidation temperature. The effect of sintering temperature on the densification mechanism, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Ti-6Al-4 V alloy compacts was investigated in detail. The compact, sintered at 1100 C, exhibited near net density, highest hardness and strength as compared to the other compacts processed at a temperature lower than 1100 C.

  5. Sintering and characterization of SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 obtained by high-pressure processing at low temperatures

    Souza, Ricson R.; Kirchner, Rejane K.; Jurado, Jose R.; Pereira, Altair S.; Sousa, Vânia C.

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure processing is a very attractive approach for the production of materials with new and/or improved properties. In this work, pressures in the order of 7.7 GPa and 2.5 GPa were induced in SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 samples at different temperatures placed in a specific reaction cell and generated different effects on phase formation. The microstructural evolution during high-pressure processing was investigated by scanning electron microscopy in association with energy dispersion spectroscopy and with the support of an X-ray diffraction analyzer. Frequency response analysis was used to obtain the dielectric curves by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 single-phase sample, treated at 2.5 GPa and 900 °C, was used to evaluate the electrical properties, obtaining a dielectric response similar to SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 samples sintered by conventional processes at temperatures above 1000 °C. In addition, by this method, it was possible to obtain ceramics with uniform microstructure and a relative density of 93%. - Highlights: • The first production of SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 using the technique of high-pressure processing. • The ability to produce single-phase SrBi_2Ta_2O_9 treated at 2.5 GPa and 900 °C. • The electrical properties are compatible with SBT sintered at high temperatures.

  6. Sintered-to-size FBR fuel

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Schaus, P.S.

    1984-04-01

    Fabrication of sintered-to-size PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel pellets was completed for testing of proposed FBR product specifications. Approximately 6000 pellets were fabricated to two nominal diameters and two densities by cold pressing and sintering to size. Process control and correlation between test and production batches are discussed

  7. Sintering characteristics of nano-ceramic coatings

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; Popma, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper concentrates on sintering characteristics of nano-sized ceramic SiO2 particles. The sintering process is studied as a function of temperature using a conventional furnace and using a laser beam. The underlying idea is to combine the nanoceramic sol-gel concept with inkjet technology and

  8. Mechanical characteristics of microwave sintered silicon carbide

    In firing of products by conventionally sintered process, SiC grain gets oxidized producing SiO2 (∼ 32 wt%) and deteriorates the quality of the product substantially. Partially sintered silicon carbide by such a method is a useful material for a varieties of applications ranging from kiln furniture to membrane material.

  9. New materials through a variety of sintering methods

    Jaworska, L.; Cyboroń, J.; Cygan, S.; Laszkiewicz-Łukasik, J.; Podsiadło, M.; Novak, P.; Holovenko, Y.

    2018-03-01

    New sintering techniques make it possible to obtain materials with special properties that are impossible to obtain by conventional sintering techniques. This issue is especially important for ceramic materials for application under extreme conditions. Following the tendency to limit critical materials in manufacturing processes, the use of W, Si, B, Co, Cr should be limited, also. One of the cheapest and widely available materials is aluminum oxide, which shows differences in phase composition, grain size, hardness, strain and fracture toughness of the same type of powder, sintered via various methods. In this paper the alumina was sintered using the conventional free sintering process, microwave sintering, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), high pressure-high temperature method (HP-HT) and High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HP SPS). Phase composition analysis, by X-ray diffraction of the alumina materials sintered using various methods, was carried out. For the conventional sintering method, compacts are composed of α-Al2O3 and θ-Al2O3. For compacts sintered using SPS, microwave and HP-HT methods, χ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3 phases were additionally present. Mechanical and physical properties of the obtained materials were compared between the methods of sintering. On the basis of images from scanning electron microscope quantitative analysis was performed to determine the degree of grain growth of alumina after sintering.

  10. Hydrothermal Cold Sintering

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    Solid state sintering transforms particle compact to a physically robust and dense polycrystalline monolith driven by reduction of surface energy and curvature. Since bulk diffusion is required for neck formation and pore elimination, sintering temperature about 2/3 of melting point is needed. It thus places limitations for materials synthesis and integration, and contributes to significant energy consumption in ceramic processing. Furthermore, since surface transport requires lower temperature than bulk processes, grain growth is often rapid and can be undesired for physical properties. For these reasons, several techniques have been developed including Liquid Phase Sintering (LPS), Hot Pressing (HP) and Field Assisted Sintering Technique (FAST), which introduce either viscous melt, external pressure or electric field to speed up densification rates at lower temperature. However, because of their inherent reliability on bulk diffusion, temperatures required are often too high for integrating polymers and non-noble metals. Reduction of sintering temperature below 400 °C would require a different densification mechanism that is based on surface transport with external forces to drive volume shrinkage. Densification method combining uniaxial pressure and solution under hydrothermal condition was first demonstrated by Kanahara's group at Kochi University in 1986 and was brought to our attention by the work of Kahari, etc, from University of Oulu on densification of Li2MoO 4 in 2015. This relatively new process showed promising ultra-low densification temperature below 300 °C, however little was known about its fundamental mechanism and scope of applications, which became the main focus of this dissertation. In this work, a uniaxial hydraulic press, a standard stainless steel 1/2 inch diameter die with heating band were utilized in densifying metal oxides. Applied pressure and sintering temperature were between 100 MPa and 700 MPa and from room temperature to 300

  11. Determinants of the quality of sintered steel for the automotive industry

    Barbara Lisiecka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand on components obtained using powder metallurgy is driven by economic changes that have turned product quality into the most basic criterion which affects the interest in a component and its successful use. The improvement in quality should be expected in the beginning of the planning of the technological process and selection of adequate raw materials. High requirements concerning product quality management and production improvement stimulates the development of the current automotive industry where sintered steels represent the highest percentage of products. The multiphase sinters investigated in the study were prepared from two types of water–atomized steel powders: 316L and 409L. Optical microscopy, X–ray phase analysis and examinations of microhardness were performed in order to determine the microstructure and basic properties of sintered steels. The main assumption for this study was to analyse the microstructure and mechanical properties of sintered steels used for manufacturing of various car parts.

  12. Current state of the Uranium dioxide sintering theory

    Baranov, V.; Devyatko, Y.; Tenishev, A.; Khlunov, A.; Khomyakov, O.

    2011-01-01

    The basic approaches to the description of the ceramics sintering phenomenon are considered. It is established that diffusive sintering models incorrectly describe an intermediate stage of this process. The physical model of sintering, considering the substance plastic flow of pressing under the influence of internal stress forces and capillary forces, as the basic mechanism defining the shrinkage of sintering oxide nuclear fuel, is offered. (authors)

  13. Plutonium Immobilization Project Binder Burnout and Sintering Studies (Milestone 6.6a)

    Chandler, G.

    1999-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Team has developed an integrated test program to understand and optimize the controlling variables for the sintering step of the plutonium immobilization process. Sintering is the key process step that controls the product mineralogy. It is expected that the sintering will be the limiting process step that controls the throughput of the production line. The goal of the current sintering test program is to better understand factors that affect the sintering process

  14. Plutonium Immobilization Project Binder Burnout and Sintering Studies (Milestone 6.6a)

    Chandler, G.

    1999-10-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Team has developed an integrated test program to understand and optimize the controlling variables for the sintering step of the plutonium immobilization process. Sintering is the key process step that controls the product minerology. It is expected that the sintering will be the limiting process step that controls the throughput of the production line. The goal of the current sintering test program is to better understand factors that affect the sintering process.

  15. TiC含量和烧结工艺对AlN-TiC复相陶瓷烧结性能的影响%Effect of TiC Content and Sintering Process on Sintering Properties of AIN-SiC Composite Ceramics

    程卫华

    2012-01-01

    Taking A1N and TiC as raw materials, the A1N-TiC composite ceramics were prepared by hot pressing sintering process, and the effects of TiC content and sintering process on sintering properties of A1N-SiC composite ceramics were studied. The results show that the composite ceramics didnlt generate new phase and consisted of A1N and TiC phases during sintering. The compact composite ceramics could be prepared after sintering at 1 900 ℃ for 1 h, the relative density reached more than 99%and the TiC content had no effect on sintering properties of the composite ceramics.%以A1N和TiC粉为原料,采用热压烧结工艺制备AlN-TiC复相陶瓷,研究了TiC含量、烧结工艺对复相陶瓷烧结性能的影响。结果表明:在烧结过程中复相陶瓷没有新相生成,由AlN和TiC两相组成;在1900℃下烧结1h后,可以制备出致密的A1N-TiC复相陶瓷,其相对密度达到了99%以上,TiC的加入量对复相陶瓷的烧结性能无影响。

  16. High resolution laser micro sintering / melting using q-switched and high brilliant laser radiation

    Exner, H.; Streek, A.

    2015-03-01

    Since the discovery of selective laser sintering/melting, numerous modifications have been made to upgrade or customize this technology for industrial purposes. Laser micro sintering (LMS) is one of those modifications: Powders with particles in the range of a few micrometers are used to obtain products with highly resolved structures. Pulses of a q-switched laser had been considered necessary in order to generate sinter layers from the micrometer scaled metal powders. LMS has been applied with powders from metals as well as from ceramic and cermet feedstock's to generate micro parts. Recent technological progress and the application of high brilliant continuous laser radiation have now allowed an efficient laser sintering/melting of micrometer scaled metal powders. Thereby it is remarkable that thin sinter layers are generated using high continuous laser power. The principles of the process, the state of the art in LMS concerning its advantages and limitations and furthermore the latest results of the recent development of this technology will be presented. Laser Micro Sintering / Laser Micro Melting (LMM) offer a vision for a new dimension of additive fabrication of miniature and precise parts also with application potential in all engineering fields.

  17. Effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the crystal growth and sintering behavior of YSZ nanopowders prepared by a sol-gel process

    Kuo, C.-W.; Shen, Y.-H. [Department of Resources Engineering, National Chen Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hung, I-M. [Yuan Ze Fuel Cell Center, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chung-Li, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: imhung@saturn.yzu.edu.tw; Wen, S.-B. [General Education Center, Meiho Institute of Technology, 23 Pingguang Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.-E. [Faculty of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw

    2009-03-20

    The effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (8 mol% {<=} Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} {<=} 10 mol%) addition on the crystal growth and sintering behavior of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanocrystallites prepared by a sol-gel process with various mixtures of ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O and Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O ethanol-water solutions at low temperatures has been studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area analyses (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED) and dilatometric analysis (DA) have been utilized to characterize the YSZ nanocrystallites. Characterization reveals that the YSZ nanopowders are weakly agglomerated. When calcined at various temperatures for 2 h, the crystallite size increases and the surface area of the YSZ powders decreases when the calcination temperature increased from 673 to 1273 K. A nanocrystallite size distribution between 10 and 15 nm is obtained in the TEM examination, which is consistent with the XRD investigation. The activation energy for crystal growth were determined as 5.75 {+-} 0.68, 4.22 {+-} 0.51, and 5.24 {+-} 0.20 kJ/mol for 8, 9 and 10 YSZ precipitates, respectively. The morphology of the YSZ sintered at high temperature indicates the abnormal growth is due to the low activation energy for crystallite growth.

  18. Effect of Y2O3 addition on the crystal growth and sintering behavior of YSZ nanopowders prepared by a sol-gel process

    Kuo, C.-W.; Shen, Y.-H.; Hung, I-M.; Wen, S.-B.; Lee, H.-E.; Wang, M.-C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Y 2 O 3 (8 mol% ≤ Y 2 O 3 ≤ 10 mol%) addition on the crystal growth and sintering behavior of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanocrystallites prepared by a sol-gel process with various mixtures of ZrOCl 2 .8H 2 O and Y(NO 3 ) 3 .6H 2 O ethanol-water solutions at low temperatures has been studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area analyses (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED) and dilatometric analysis (DA) have been utilized to characterize the YSZ nanocrystallites. Characterization reveals that the YSZ nanopowders are weakly agglomerated. When calcined at various temperatures for 2 h, the crystallite size increases and the surface area of the YSZ powders decreases when the calcination temperature increased from 673 to 1273 K. A nanocrystallite size distribution between 10 and 15 nm is obtained in the TEM examination, which is consistent with the XRD investigation. The activation energy for crystal growth were determined as 5.75 ± 0.68, 4.22 ± 0.51, and 5.24 ± 0.20 kJ/mol for 8, 9 and 10 YSZ precipitates, respectively. The morphology of the YSZ sintered at high temperature indicates the abnormal growth is due to the low activation energy for crystallite growth

  19. Two steps sintering alumina doped with niobia

    Gomes, L.B.; Hatzfeld, J.; Heck, M.; Pokorny, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, high surface area commercial alumina was doped with niobia and sintered in two steps in order to obtain dense materials with lower processing temperatures. The powders were milled and uniaxially pressed (200 MPa). The first step of sintering took place at 1100°C for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours, followed by the second step at 1350°C for 3 hours. The relative density, porosity and water absorption of the samples were determined by the Archimedes method. The crystalline phases were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the morphology of the samples after sintering, evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the use of niobia combined with the two steps sintering promotes an increase in the density of the material, even at lower sintering temperatures. (author)

  20. Sintered ceramics having controlled density and porosity

    Brassfield, H.C.; DeHollander, W.R.; Nivas, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A new method was developed for sintering ceramic uranium dioxide powders, in which ammonium oxalate is admixed with the powder prior to being pressed into a cylindrical green body, so that the end-point density of the final nuclear-reactor fuel product can be controlled. When the green body is heated, the ammonium oxalate decomposes and leaves discrete porosity in the sintered body, which corresponds to the ammonium oxalate regions in the green body. Thus the end-point density of the sintered body is a function of the amount of ammonium oxalate added. The final density of the sintered product is about 90-97% of the theoretical. The addition of ammonium oxalate also allows control of the pore size and distribution throughout the fuel. The process leaves substantially no impurities in the sintered strucuture. (DN)

  1. The evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of sintered sub-micron WC-Co powders

    Nor Izan Izura; Mohd Asri Selamat; Noraizham Mohamad Diah; Talib Ria Jaafar

    2007-01-01

    A cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) is widely used for a variety of machining, cutting, drilling and other applications. The properties of this tungsten heavy alloy are sensitive to processing and degraded by residual porosity. The sequence of high end powder metallurgy process include mixing, compacting and followed by multi-atmosphere sintering of green compact were analyzed. The sub micron (<1.0 μm) and less than 10.0 μm of WC powders are sintered with a metal binder 6% Co to provide pore-free part. The powder compacts were sintered at temperatures cycle in the range of 1200 degree Celsius-1550 degree Celsius in nitrogen-based sintering atmosphere. To date, however there have been few reported studies in the literature that the best sintering was carried out via liquid phase sintering in vacuum at approximately 1500 degree Celsius. from this study we found that in order to attain high mechanical properties, a fine grain size of powder is necessary. Therefore, the attention of this work is to develop and produce wear resistant component with better properties or comparable to the commercial ones. (author)

  2. On the sintering kinetics in UO2

    Marajofsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    The fabrication process of UO 2 pellets from powders involve pressing and a sintering anneal at high temperature (1650 deg. C to 1750 deg. C) during two or more hours in a hydrogen atmosphere. An alternative method is the oxidative sintering, made at lower temperature (1000 deg. C to 1300 deg. C) in a CO 2 or CO/CO 2 atmosphere. The sintering phenomena consist in the densification of the material by a thermal treatment below the fusion point. For a compact made by pressing a powder, sintering is the process of annulation of the porosity present in the compact or pellet. Several theories describe the sintering phenomena dividing it in three stages, initial, intermediate and final: in all of them the densification is a continuous growing function of time. Nevertheless it has been experimentally reported that a reduction of the density occurs in the third step of the sintering. The phenomena has been called solarization. Solarization has been attributed to the effect of the evolved gases from additives or to the CO 2 atmosphere in oxidative sintering. Thus, it is convenient to distinguish between solarization in oxidative or reducing conditions. Reducing solarization is a consequence of the tendency towards equilibrium of intergranular pores. In oxidative sintering it occurs in the reducing anneal after the sintering and is due to the change in the lattice parameter. This work shows examples of both types of solarization and qualitative interpretation of this phenomena. Both situations show the need of strict control of the sintering and powder production conditions. (author)

  3. Spark Plasma Sintering of Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} nanopowders synthesized by polyol process and their magnetic and mechanical properties

    Ouar, Nassima [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et Matériaux, LSPM, CNRS, UPR 3407, Université Paris XIII, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bousnina, Mohamed Ali [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et Matériaux, LSPM, CNRS, UPR 3407, Université Paris XIII, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Unité de Recherche 99/UR12-30, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Jarzouna (Tunisia); Schoenstein, Frédéric; Mercone, Silvana; Brinza, Ovidiu; Farhat, Samir [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et Matériaux, LSPM, CNRS, UPR 3407, Université Paris XIII, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Jouini, Noureddine, E-mail: jouini@univ-paris13.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et Matériaux, LSPM, CNRS, UPR 3407, Université Paris XIII, 99 Avenue J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} alloy were prepared by reduction in polyol medium. • SPS consolidation of these nanoparticles led to bulk nanostructured alloy. • Nanowires present hard magnetic behavior contrarily to nanospheres. • Tunable magnetic properties are achieved from hard to soft character. • Tunable mechanical behavior is achieved from ductile material to almost brittle one. - Abstract: A bottom-up process to elaborate nanostructured cobalt materials is here described. We first, synthesized Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} nanowires with a mean length L ∼ 270 nm and a mean diameter d ∼ 7 nm and Co{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} nanospheres with a mean diameter D ∼ 200 nm. This was done by a polyol process in presence of Ruthenium (III) chloride hydrate nucleating agent. Then the as-obtained nanopowders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) in order to limit the grain size growth. Nanostructures of powders and of the processed bulk samples were studied and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM). Standard VSM measurements were processed for magnetic characterizations. Magnetic static measurements were performed at 10 K and 300 K showing that magnetic properties of nanostructured cobalt bulk systems can be tuned from hard to soft just changing the shape of nano-systems used for compaction and/or the sintering conditions. Also the mechanical properties show a strong dependence on the relative bulk densities and on the characteristics of grain inside the consolidated samples. Preliminary results show that nanostructured cobalt obtained from nanowires compaction present higher Vickers Hardness value.

  4. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF SOFT-MELTING PROPERTIES ON THE KINETIC OF (CAFE2 O4 -CA2 FE2 O5 FORMATION IN THE IRON ORE SINTERING PROCESS

    José Adilson de Castro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model able to predict the influence of soft-melting properties of the blend of raw materials used in the iron ore sintering process in the kinetic formation of calcium ferrite and di-calcium ferrite constituents. The model is based on the simultaneous solution of transport equations of Momentum, energy and chemical species in multiphase multicomponent systems coupled with the chemical reactions kinetics and phase transformations that occur within the sinter bed. The numerical solution is obtained using the finite volume method and the model is validated using monitoring data from an industrial scale sintering plant. After validation, the model was used to predict processing conditions using raw materials with different soft-melting properties. Results indicate that the temperatures of starting soft-melting, shrinkage and melting range are the main parameters to be controlled in order to attain liquid phases formation responsible to confer good mechanical and reducibility properties for the sinter product. In this study was found that raw materials with high soft-melting temperature and wilder temperature of mushy zone could decrease up to 30% the calcium ferrites formation and hence deteriorates the metallurgical properties of the sinter.

  5. Improving NASICON Sinterability through Crystallization under High Frequency Electrical Fields

    Ilya eLisenker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high frequency (HF electric fields on the crystallization and sintering rates of a lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP ion conducting ceramic was investigated. LAGP with the nominal composition Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO43 was crystallized and sintered, both conventionally and under effect of electrical field. Electrical field application, of 300V/cm at 1MHz, produced up to a 40% improvement in sintering rate of LAGP that was crystallized and sintered under the HF field. Heat sink effect of the electrodes appears to arrest thermal runaway and subsequent flash behavior. Sintered pellets were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and EIS to compare conventionally and field sintered processes. The as-sintered structure appears largely unaffected by the field as the sintering curves tend to converge beyond initial stages of sintering. Differences in densities and microstructure after 1 hour of sintering were minor with measured sintering strains of 31% vs. 26% with and without field, respectively . Ionic conductivity of the sintered pellets was evaluated and no deterioration due to the use of HF field was noted, though capacitance of grain boundaries due to secondary phases was significantly increased.

  6. SINTERED REFRACTORY TUNGSTEN ALLOYS. Gesinterte hochschmelzende wolframlegierungen

    Kieffer, R.; Sedlatschek, K.; Braun, H.

    1971-12-15

    Dependence of the melting point of the refractory metals on their positions in the periodic system - alloys of tungsten with other refractory metals - sintering of the alloys - processing of the alloys - technological properties.

  7. Strain rate dependency of laser sintered polyamide 12

    Cook J.E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parts processed by Additive Manufacturing can now be found across a wide range of applications, such as those in the aerospace and automotive industry in which the mechanical response must be optimised. Many of these applications are subjected to high rate or impact loading, yet it is believed that there is no prior research on the strain rate dependence in these materials. This research investigates the effect of strain rate and laser energy density on laser sintered polyamide 12. In the study presented here, parts produced using four different laser sintered energy densities were exposed to uniaxial compression tests at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 10+3 s−1 at room temperature, and the dependence on these parameters is presented.

  8. Modeling of biopharmaceutical processes. Part 2: Process chromatography unit operation

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; McCue, Justin; Engel, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent. The theoret......Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent...

  9. Sintering equation: determination of its coefficients by experiments - using multiple regression

    Windelberg, D.

    1999-01-01

    Sintering is a method for volume-compression (or volume-contraction) of powdered or grained material applying high temperature (less than the melting point of the material). Maekipirtti tried to find an equation which describes the process of sintering by its main parameters sintering time, sintering temperature and volume contracting. Such equation is called a sintering equation. It also contains some coefficients which characterise the behaviour of the material during the process of sintering. These coefficients have to be determined by experiments. Here we show that some linear regressions will produce wrong coefficients, but multiple regression results in an useful sintering equation. (orig.)

  10. Comparative sinterability of combustion synthesized and commercial titanium carbides

    Manley, B.W.

    1984-11-01

    The influence of various parameters on the sinterability of combustion synthesized titanium carbide was investigaged. Titanium carbide powders, prepared by the combustion synthesis process, were sintered in the temperature range 1150 to 1600 0 C. Incomplete combustion and high oxygen contents were found to be the cause of reduced shrinkage during sintering of the combustion syntheized powders when compared to the shrinkage of commercial TiC. Free carbon was shown to inhibit shrinkage. The activation energy for sintering was found to depend on stoichiometry (C/Ti). With decreasing C/Ti, the rate of sintering increased. 29 references, 16 figures, 13 tables

  11. Multibarrier waste forms. Part III: Process considerations

    Lokken, R.O.

    1979-10-01

    The multibarrier concept for the solidification and storage of radioactive waste utilizes up to three barriers to isolate radionuclides from the environment: a solidified waste inner core, an impervious coating, and a metal matrix. The coating and metal matrix give the composite waste form enhanced inertness with improvements in thermal stability, mechanical strength, and leach resistance. Preliminary process flow rates and material costs were evaluated for four multibarrier waste forms with the process complexity increasing thusly: glass marbles, uncoated supercalcine, glass-coated supercalcine, and PyC/Al 2 O 3 -coated supercalcine. This report discusses the process variables and their effect on optimization of product quality, processing simplicity, and material cost. 11 figures, 2 tables

  12. Science of sintering and its future

    Ristic, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    Some new books published by M.Yu. Baljshin, V.A. Ivensen, V.V. Skorohod and others are characterized by the wish to give a complete approach to the problems of sintering theory. Bearing just this in mind while writing the book ''An Essay on the Generalization of Sintering Theory'' (G.V.Samsonov, M.M. Ristic with the collaborators) an idea was born: to ask the most eminent scientists in this field to present their own opinions on the theme ''The Science of Sintering and Modern Views on its Future''. There were formed 18 questions, given in the appendix to be answered. The received answers were presented in 10 chapters of this book. The fourth part of the book consists of papers of eminent scientists engaged in the field of sintering science (some of which were published here for the first time). This material is published in the book with the consent of the authors and these original contributions provide a more profound knowledge of sintering. The initial idea, that the book should have a monograph character and in which the answers would serve as some data on the latest notions of the science of sintering, was somewhat changed since the original opinions of individual scientists are given in the book and these, are sometimes very contradictory. This, in fact, gives the book a special charm because the unsolved problems in the science of sintering are most evidently stressed in this way

  13. Preliminary study of sintering of metallic niobium processed for mechanical milling; Estudo preliminar da sinterizacao de niobio metalico processado por moagem de alta energia

    Tamura, H.M.; Vurobi Junior, S.; Cintho, O.M., E-mail: lenatamura@interponta.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Sandim, H.R.Z.; Leite, G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2010-07-01

    In present study was preliminary study of mechanical milling influence on preparing of metallic niobium powder for sintering. Sample of metallic niobium in powder passing in sieve no. 635 mesh was processed by mechanical milling in SPEX mill for 8 hours using power grinding of 7:1 and a nitrogen atmosphere. The powder was annealed at different temperatures, 900 deg C, 1000 deg C, 1100 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1 hour in an atmosphere of hydrogen and argon to study their crystallization, which then were formed into blank for analysis of the curves compressibility. These samples were also subjected to x-ray diffraction in that their data were compared between the annealing temperatures. We also evaluate the compressibility curves of niobium samples with and without grinding these samples were subjected to x-ray diffraction and fluorescence. (author)

  14. Data on the impact of increasing the W amount on the mass density and compressive properties of Ni-W alloys processed by spark plasma sintering.

    Sadat, T; Hocini, A; Lilensten, L; Faurie, D; Tingaud, D; Dirras, G

    2016-06-01

    Bulk Ni-W alloys having composite-like microstructures are processed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) route of Ni and W powder blends as reported in a recent study of Sadat et al. (2016) (DOI of original article: doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2015.10.083) [1]. The present dataset deals with determination of mass density and evaluation of room temperature compressive mechanical properties as function of the amount of W (%wt. basis). The presented data concern: (i) measurement of the mass of each investigated Ni-W alloy which is subsequently used to compute the mass density of the alloy and (ii) the raw (stress (MPa) and strain ([Formula: see text])) data, which can be subsequently used for stress/ strain plots.

  15. Crack and wear behavior of SiC particulate reinforced aluminium based metal matrix composite fabricated by direct metal laser sintering process

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Partha

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, crack density and wear performance of SiC particulate (SiCp) reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) fabricated by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process have been studied. Mainly, size and volume fraction of SiCp have been varied to analyze the crack and wear behavior of the composite. The study has suggested that crack density increases significantly after 15 volume percentage (vol.%) of SiCp. The paper has also suggested that when size (mesh) of reinforcement increases, wear resistance of the composite drops. Three hundred mesh of SiCp offers better wear resistance; above 300 mesh the specific wear rate increases significantly. Similarly, there has been no improvement of wear resistance after 20 vol.% of reinforcement. The scanning electron micrographs of the worn surfaces have revealed that during the wear test SiCp fragments into small pieces which act as abrasives to result in abrasive wear in the specimen.

  16. Titanium carbide-carbon porous nanocomposite materials for radioactive ion beam production: processing, sintering and isotope release properties

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081922; Stora, Thierry

    2017-01-26

    The Isotope Separator OnLine (ISOL) technique is used at the ISOLDE - Isotope Separator OnLine DEvice facility at CERN, to produce radioactive ion beams for physics research. At CERN protons are accelerated to 1.4 GeV and made to collide with one of two targets located at ISOLDE facility. When the protons collide with the target material, nuclear reactions produce isotopes which are thermalized in the bulk of the target material grains. During irradiation the target is kept at high temperatures (up to 2300 °C) to promote diffusion and effusion of the produced isotopes into an ion source, to produce a radioactive ion beam. Ti-foils targets are currently used at ISOLDE to deliver beams of K, Ca and Sc, however they are operated at temperatures close to their melting point which brings target degradation, through sintering and/or melting which reduces the beam intensities over time. For the past 10 years, nanostructured target materials have been developed and have shown improved release rates of the produced i...

  17. Development of an in-situ multi-component reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique — Optimization of process parameters

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar, E-mail: subratagh82@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura 799055 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik; Saha, Partha [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation, an in-situ multi-component reinforced aluminum based metal matrix composite was fabricated by the combination of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and direct metal laser sintering process. The different mixtures of Al, TiO{sub 2} and B{sub 4}C powders were used to initiate and maintain the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis by laser during the sintering process. It was found from the X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy that the reinforcements like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were formed in the composite. The scanning electron microscopy revealed the distribution of the reinforcement phases in the composite and phase identities. The variable parameters such as powder layer thickness, laser power, scanning speed, hatching distance and composition of the powder mixture were optimized for higher density, lower porosity and higher microhardness using Taguchi method. Experimental investigation shows that the density of the specimen mainly depends upon the hatching distance, composition and layer thickness. On the other hand, hatching distance, layer thickness and laser power are the significant parameters which influence the porosity. The composition, laser power and layer thickness are the key influencing parameters for microhardness. - Highlights: • The reinforcements such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiC, and TiB{sub 2} were produced in Al-MMC through SHS. • The density is mainly influenced by the material composition and hatching distance. • Hatching distance is the major influencing parameter on porosity. • The material composition is the significant parameter to enhance the microhardness. • The SEM micrographs reveal the distribution of TiC, TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the composite.

  18. Development of an in-situ multi-component reinforced Al-based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique — Optimization of process parameters

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik; Saha, Partha

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, an in-situ multi-component reinforced aluminum based metal matrix composite was fabricated by the combination of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and direct metal laser sintering process. The different mixtures of Al, TiO 2 and B 4 C powders were used to initiate and maintain the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis by laser during the sintering process. It was found from the X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy that the reinforcements like Al 2 O 3 , TiC, and TiB 2 were formed in the composite. The scanning electron microscopy revealed the distribution of the reinforcement phases in the composite and phase identities. The variable parameters such as powder layer thickness, laser power, scanning speed, hatching distance and composition of the powder mixture were optimized for higher density, lower porosity and higher microhardness using Taguchi method. Experimental investigation shows that the density of the specimen mainly depends upon the hatching distance, composition and layer thickness. On the other hand, hatching distance, layer thickness and laser power are the significant parameters which influence the porosity. The composition, laser power and layer thickness are the key influencing parameters for microhardness. - Highlights: • The reinforcements such as Al 2 O 3 , TiC, and TiB 2 were produced in Al-MMC through SHS. • The density is mainly influenced by the material composition and hatching distance. • Hatching distance is the major influencing parameter on porosity. • The material composition is the significant parameter to enhance the microhardness. • The SEM micrographs reveal the distribution of TiC, TiB 2 and Al 2 O 3 in the composite

  19. METAL CHIP HEATING PROCESS INVESTIGATION (Part I

    O. M. Dyakonov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main calculation methods for heat- and mass transfer in porous heterogeneous medium have been considered. The paper gives an evaluation of the possibility to apply them for calculation of metal chip heating process. It has been shown that a description of transfer processes in a chip has its own specific character that is attributed to difference between thermal and physical properties of chip material and lubricant-coolant components on chip surfaces. It has been determined that the known expressions for effective heat transfer coefficients can be used as basic ones while approaching mutually penetrating continuums. A mathematical description of heat- and mass transfer in chip medium can be considered as a basis of mathematical modeling, numerical solution and parameter optimization of the mentioned processes.

  20. Sandia solidification process: consolidation and characterization. Part I. Consolidation studies

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1978-05-01

    The consolidation behavior of a complex polycrystalline ceramic nuclear waste form composed of titanates, zeolite, and metallic silicon was studied. Initial solidification takes place by an ion exchange process. The resulting powder exhibits a large surface area, approximately 350 m 2 /g, and several decomposition, crystallization and phase change reactions from room temperature to 1100 0 C. In spite of the large surface area, consolidation by cold pressing and atmospheric sintering to 1100 0 C was not satisfactory. Vacuum hot pressing was found to produce fully dense pellets (less than 1% residual porosity) under very mild conditions, 6.9 MPa (1100 psi) and 1100 0 C. The dominant densification mechanism was viscous flow. Under less than optimum hot pressing conditions, three stages of densification were observed. Initial densification took place by particle rearrangement which was described with a viscous flow model. Second stage densification occurred by a solution-precipitation process controlled by a phase boundary dissolution reaction. In several cases, a third, final densification stage was observed. Detailed studies describe the effects of heating rate, processing temperature, pressure, residence time, atmosphere, composition, heat treatment, and the addition of consolidation aids on the densification behavior. In addition, fully radioactive high level mixed fission product titanate/waste pellets (1.27 cm diameter) were hot pressed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of such a process in a remotely operated hot cell. High density uniform pellets were obtained

  1. Immobilization of Uranium Silicides in Sintered Glass

    Mateos, P.; Russo, D.O.; Heredia, A.D.; Sanfilippo, M.

    2003-01-01

    High activity nuclear spent fuels vitrification by fusion is a well known technology which has industrial scale in France, England, Japan, EEUU. Borosilicates glasses are used in this process.Sintered glasses are an alternative to the immobilization task in which there is also a wide experience around the world.The available technics are: cold pressing and sintering , hot-pressing and hot isostatic pressing.This work compares Borosilicates and Iron silicates sintered glasses behaviour when different ammounts of nuclear simulated waste is added

  2. Novel process windows, part 1: Boosted micro process technology

    Hessel, V.; Wang, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Novel Process Windows (NPW) is the use of highly intensified, unusual and typically harsh process conditions to boost micro process technology and flow chemistry for the production of high-added value fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, etc.. It is far from conventional processing and also from

  3. Sintering of nonstoichiometric UO2

    Susnik, D.; Holc, J.

    1983-01-01

    Activated sintering of UO 2 pellets at 1100 deg C is described. In CO 2 atmosphere is UO 2 is nonstoichiometric and pellets from active UO 2 powders sinter at 900 deg C to high density. At 1100 deg C the final sintered density is practically achieved at heating on sintering temperature. After reduction and cooling in H 2 atmosphere which is followed sintering in CO 2 the structure is identical to the structured UO 2 pellets sintered at high temperature in H 2 . Density of activated sintered UO 2 pellets is stable, even after additional sintering at 1800 deg C. (author)

  4. The First Static and Dynamic Analysis of 3-D Printed Sintered Ceramics for Body Armor Applications

    2016-09-01

    hardness , and fracture strength) and semi-infinite penetration performance of 3-D printed sintered alumina. These results are compared with traditionally...parameters (including density, hardness , and fracture strength), semi-infinite penetration performance, and the fracture profile following impact of 3...of advanced ceramics differs mostly in terms of the initial green part formation when compared with a traditional manufacturing process. The

  5. Decontamination Process of Internal Part Pipes - 13442

    Ladet, X.; Sozet, O.; Cabanillas, P.; Macia, G. [STMI, Site de MARCOULE - Batiment 423 - 30204 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Moggia, F.; Damerval, F. [STMI, 1 route de la Noue 91196 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-07-01

    The Marcoule Site, created in 1955 is one of the first nuclear sites in France. It combines the activities of the Research Centre of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and AREVA industrial operations. Today, a large part of the operations on this site consists of the cleaning and the dismantling of nuclear Installations, once the end of their life cycle has been reached. An example can be the reprocessing plant UP1. This unit, started in 1958 has been stopped in 1997 and its dismantling started quickly thereafter. Technical challenges of the UP1 dismantling are mainly linked to a very high risk of exposure due to a large variety of contaminated equipments and residuals of fission products, potential sources of irradiation. The dismantling of Hall 71 is a typical example of such challenge. This paper will present a solution developed by AREVA Clean-Up business unit, in collaboration with COFIM Industry, to remove contamination incrusted inside the pipes before starting the cutting operations, thus reducing irradiation risk. (authors)

  6. Preparation of high-purity ZrSiO4 powder using sol-gel processing and mechanical properties of the sintered body

    Mori, T.; Yamamura, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Mitamura, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that effects of the concentration of ZrOCl 2 , calcination temperature, heating rate, and the size of secondary particles after hydrolysis on the preparation of high-purity ZrSiO 4 fine powders from ZrOCl 2 :8H 2 O (0.2M to 1.7M) and equimolar colloidal SiO 2 using Sol--gel processing have been studied. Mechanical properties of the sintered ZrSiO 4 from the high-purity ZrSiO 4 powders have been also investigated. Single-phase ZrSiO 4 fine powders were synthesized at 1300 degrees C by forming ZrSiO 4 precursors having a Zr---O---Si bond, which was found in all the hydrolysis solutions, and by controlling a secondary particle size after hydrolysis. The conversion rate of ZrSiO 4 precursor gels to ZrSiO 4 powders from concentrations other than 0.4M ZrOCl 2 ·8H 2 O increased when the heating rate was high, whereupon the crystallization of unreacted ZrO 2 and SiO 2 was depressed and the propagation and increase of ZrSiO 4 nuclei in the gels were accelerated. The density of the ZrSiO 4 sintered bodies, manufactured by firing the ZrSiO 4 compacts at 1600 degrees to 1700 degrees C, was more than 95% of the theoretical density, and the grain size ranged around 2 to 4 μm. The mechanical strength was 320 MPa (room temperature to 1400 degrees C), and the thermal shock resistance was superior to that of mullite and alumina, with fairly high stability at higher temperatures

  7. Sintering and microstructure of ice: a review

    Blackford, Jane R

    2007-01-01

    Sintering of ice is driven by the thermodynamic requirement to decrease surface energy. The structural morphology of ice in nature has many forms-from snowflakes to glaciers. These forms and their evolution depend critically on the balance between the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved. Ice is a crystalline material so scientific understanding and approaches from more conventional materials can be applied to ice. The early models of solid state ice sintering are based on power law models originally developed in metallurgy. For pressure sintering of ice, these are based on work on hot isostatic pressing of metals and ceramics. Recent advances in recognizing the grain boundary groove geometry between sintering ice particles require models that use new approaches in materials science. The newer models of sintering in materials science are beginning to incorporate more realistic processing conditions and microstructural complexity, and so there is much to be gained from applying these to ice in the future. The vapour pressure of ice is high, which causes it to sublime readily. The main mechanism for isothermal sintering of ice particles is by vapour diffusion; however other transport mechanisms certainly contribute. Plastic deformation with power law creep combined with recrystallization become important mechanisms in sintering with external pressure. Modern experimental techniques, low temperature scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography, are providing new insights into the evolution of microstructures in ice. Sintering in the presence of a small volume fraction of the liquid phase causes much higher bond growth rates. This may be important in natural snow which contains impurities that form a liquid phase. Knowledge of ice microstructure and sintering is beneficial in understanding mechanical behaviour in ice friction and the stability of snow slopes prone to avalanches. (topical review)

  8. Process chemistry of neptunium. Part II

    Srinivasan, N.; Ramaniah, M. V.; Patil, S. K.; Ramakrishna, V. V.; Swarup, R.; Chadha, A.; Avadhany, G. V.N.

    1974-07-01

    The oxidation state analysis of neptunium in the aqueous feed solution from the Plutonium Plant at Trombay was carried out and it was found that neptunium existed mainly as Np(V) in the feed solution. Batch extraction data for Np(IV) and Np(VI) into 30% TBP/Shell Sol T at different aqueous nitric acid concentration and uranium saturation of the organic phase were obtained at 45 deg C and 60 deg C and the results are summarized. The distribution coefficients of Np(IV) and Np(VI) were obtained as a function of TBP concentration and the data are reported. The effect of nitrous acid on the extraction of neptunium, present in the aqueous phase as Np(IV) and Np(V), by 30% TBP was studied and the data obtained are given. The data on the rate of reduction of NP(VI) and Np(V) to Np(IV) by U(IV) were obtained for different U(IV) and nitric acid concentrations. Some redox reactions involving Np(IV), Pu(IV) and V(V) were investigated and their possible application in the purex process for neptunium recovery were explored. (auth)

  9. Contribution to the modelling of solid state sintering

    Martin, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the simulation of the sintering of nuclear fuel on a pellet scale. The goal is to develop numerical tools which can contribute to a better understanding of the physical phenomena involved in the sintering process. Hence, a multi scale approach is proposed. First of all, a Discrete Element model is introduced. It aims at modeling the motion of particles on a Representative Elementary Volume scale using an original Discrete Element Method. The latter is a Non Smooth Method called Contact Dynamics. Recently, there have been numerous papers about the simulation of sintering using Discrete Element Method. As far as we know, all these papers use smooth methods. Different studies show that the results match well experimental data. However, some limits come from the fact that smooth methods use an explicit scheme which needs very small time steps. In order to obtain an acceptable time step, the mass of particles have to be dramatically increased. The Non Smooth Contact Dynamics uses an implicit scheme, thus time steps can be much larger without scaling up the mass of particles. The comparison between smooth and non smooth approaches shows that our method leads to a more realistic representation of rearrangement. An experimental validation using synchrotron X-Ray microtomography is then presented, followed by a parametric study on the sintering of bimodal powders that aims at showing the capacity of this model. The second part presents a mechanical model on the sub-Granular scale, using a Finite Element method. This targets a better understanding of the behavior of two grains in contact. The model is currently being developed but the first results already show that some parameters like the shape of the surface of the neck are very sensitive. In the future, the Non smooth Contact Dynamics model of sintering may be improved using the results obtained by the sub-Granular scale mechanical model. (author) [fr

  10. Mechanical characteristics of microwave sintered silicon carbide

    Unknown

    sintered process, SiC grain gets oxidized producing SiO2 (∼ 32 wt%) and deteriorates the quality of the product substantially. Partially sintered .... product, could be due to oxidation of SiC, e.g. 50% weight gain of a green SiC sample ... because, the charging current is 90° advanced in phase, ideally, with respect to the ...

  11. Effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Wang, G.P.; Liu, W.Q.; Huang, Y.L.; Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2014-01-01

    Sintered NdFeB-based permanent magnets were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and a conventional method to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties. The experimental results showed that sintered NdFeB magnet prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS NdFeB) possesses a better mechanical properties compared to the conventionally sintered one, of which the maximum value of bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively. The effects of sintering temperature on bending strength and Vickers hardness were investigated. It was shown that the bending strength firstly increases to the maximum value and then decreases with the increase of sintering temperature in a certain range. The investigations of microstructures and mechanical properties indicated that the unique sintering mechanism in the SPS process is responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of SPS NdFeB. Furthermore, the relations between the mechanical properties and relevant microstructure have been analyzed based on the experimental fact. - Highlights: • Studied the sintering temperature effect on strengthening mechanism of NdFeB magnet firstly. • It showed that sintering temperature may effectively affect the mechanical properties. • The maximum bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively

  12. Effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Wang, G.P., E-mail: wgp@jxnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Communication Electronics, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Huang, Y.L.; Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Sintered NdFeB-based permanent magnets were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and a conventional method to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties. The experimental results showed that sintered NdFeB magnet prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS NdFeB) possesses a better mechanical properties compared to the conventionally sintered one, of which the maximum value of bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively. The effects of sintering temperature on bending strength and Vickers hardness were investigated. It was shown that the bending strength firstly increases to the maximum value and then decreases with the increase of sintering temperature in a certain range. The investigations of microstructures and mechanical properties indicated that the unique sintering mechanism in the SPS process is responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of SPS NdFeB. Furthermore, the relations between the mechanical properties and relevant microstructure have been analyzed based on the experimental fact. - Highlights: • Studied the sintering temperature effect on strengthening mechanism of NdFeB magnet firstly. • It showed that sintering temperature may effectively affect the mechanical properties. • The maximum bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively.

  13. Laser sintering of metal powders on top of sintered layers under multiple-line laser scanning

    Xiao Bin; Zhang Yuwen

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model for multiple-line sintering of loose powders on top of multiple sintered layers under the irradiation of a moving Gaussian laser beam is carried out. The overlaps between vertically deposited layers and adjacent lines which strengthen bonding are taken into account. The energy equation is formulated using the temperature transforming model and solved by the finite volume method. The effects of the number of the existing sintered layers, porosity and initial temperature coupled with the optimal combination laser intensity and scanning velocity are presented. The results show that the liquid pool moves slightly towards the negative scanning direction and the shape of the liquid pool becomes shallower with higher scanning velocity. A higher laser intensity is needed to achieve the required overlaps when the number of the existing sintered layers increases. Increasing porosity or initial temperature enhances the sintering process and thus less intensity is needed for the overlap requirement

  14. Recent Advances and Research Status in Energy Conservation of Iron Ore Sintering in China

    Wang, Yao-Zu; Zhang, Jian-Liang; Liu, Zheng-Jian; Du, Cheng-Bo

    2017-11-01

    For the ferrous burden of blast furnaces in China, sinter generally accounts for more than 70% and the sintering process accounts for approximately 6-10% of the total energy consumption of the iron and steel enterprise. Therefore, saving energy during the sintering process is important to reduce the energy consumption in the iron and steel industry. This paper aims to illustrate recent advances and the research status of energy conservation of iron ore sintering in China. It focuses on the development and application of energy-saving technologies such as the composite agglomeration process, sintering with high-proportion flue gas recirculation sintering, recovery of sensible heat from the sinter cooling process, homogeneous deep-bed sintering technology, and comprehensive treatment technology of leakage of sintering. Moreover, some suggestions for the future development of energy-saving technologies are put forward.

  15. U3O8 microspheres sintering kinetics

    Godoy, A.L.E.

    1986-01-01

    U 3 O 8 microspheres sintering kinetics was determined using a hot-stage optical microscopy apparatus, able to reach temperature up to 1350 0 C in controlled atmospheres. The sintered material had its microstructure analysed by optical and electron microscopy. The microspheres were characterized initialy utilizing X-ray diffractometry and thermogravimetry. The equation which describes the microspheres shrinkage in function of the time was obtained using finite difference analysis X-ray diffractometry indicated hexagonal structure for the microspheres main starting material, ammonium diuranate thermogravimetric analysis showed reduction of this material to U 3 O 8 at 600 0 C. Ceramography results showed 5 hours sintered microspheres grain sizes G vary with the temperature. Sintered U 3 O 8 micrographs compared with published results for UO 2 , indicate similar homogeneity microstructural characteristics and suggest the processed micorspheres to be potentially useful as nuclear fuels. (Author) [pt

  16. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part I. Liquid route processes

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2008-01-01

    With its interesting and particular characteristics, cellular metals are taking part of the great family of new materials. They can have open or closed porosity. At the present time, the major challenge for the materials researchers is based in the manufacturing techniques improvement in order to obtain reproducible and reliable cellular metals with quality. In the present paper, the different production methods to manufacture cellular metals by liquid route are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 106 refs

  17. Design of Test Parts to Characterize Micro Additive Manufacturing Processes

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Mischkot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The minimum feature size and obtainable tolerances of additive manufacturing processes are linked to the smallest volumetric elements (voxels) that can be created. This work presents the iterative design of a test part to investigate the resolution of AM processes with voxel sizes at the micro...... scale. Each design iteration reduces the test part size, increases the number of test features, improves functionality, and decreases coupling in the part. The final design is a set of three test parts that are easy to orient and measure, and that provide useful information about micro additive...... manufacturing processes....

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 536 - Consumer Grievance Process

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 536 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 536, App. A Appendix A to Part 536—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 14 - Consumer Grievance Process

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 14 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 14, App. A Appendix A to Part 14—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  20. Microwave sintering of ceramic materials

    Karayannis, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the potential of microwave irradiation as an innovative energy- efficient alternative to conventional heating technologies in ceramic manufacturing is reviewed, addressing the advantages/disadvantages, while also commenting on future applications of possible commercial interest. Ceramic materials have been extensively studied and used due to several advantages they exhibit. Sintering ceramics using microwave radiation, a novel technology widely employed in various fields, can be an efficient, economic and environmentally-friendlier approach, to improve the consolidation efficiency and reduce the processing cycle-time, in order to attain substantial energy and cost savings. Microwave sintering provides efficient internal heating, as energy is supplied directly and penetrates the material. Since energy transfer occurs at a molecular level, heat is generated throughout the material, thus avoiding significant temperature gradients between the surface and the interior, which are frequently encountered at high heating rates upon conventional sintering. Thus, rapid, volumetric and uniform heating of various raw materials and secondary resources for ceramic production is possible, with limited grain coarsening, leading to accelerated densification, and uniform and fine-grained microstructures, with enhanced mechanical performance. This is particularly important for manufacturing large-size ceramic products of quality, and also for specialty ceramic materials such as bioceramics and electroceramics. Critical parameters for the process optimization, including the electromagnetic field distribution, microwave-material interaction, heat transfer mechanisms and material transformations, should be taken into consideration.

  1. Uranium dioxide. Sintering test

    Anon.

    Description of a sintering method and of the equipment devoted to uranium dioxide powder caracterization and comparison between different samples. Determination of the curve giving specific volume versus pressure and micrographic examination of a pellet at medium pressure [fr

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Anode-Supported YSZ Thin Film Electrolyte by Co-Tape Casting and Co-Sintering Process

    Liu, Q L; Fu, C J; Chan, S H; Pasciak, G

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a co-tape casting and co-sintering process has been developed to prepare yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte films supported on Ni-YSZ anode substrates in order to substantially reduce the fabrication cost of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Through proper control of the process, the anode/electrolyte bilayer structures with a size of 7.8cm x 7.8cm were achieved with good flatness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicated that the YSZ electrolyte film was about 16 μm in thickness, highly dense, crack free and well-bonded to the anode support. The electrochemical properties of the prepared anode-supported electrolyte film was evaluated in a button cell mode incorporating a (LaSr)MnO 3 -YSZ composite cathode. With humidified hydrogen as the fuel and stationary air as the oxidant, the cell demonstrated an open-circuit voltage of 1.081 V and a maximum power density of 1.01 W/cm 2 at 800 deg. C. The obtained results represent the important progress in the development of anode-supported intermediate temperature SOFC with reduced fabrication cost.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Anode-Supported YSZ Thin Film Electrolyte by Co-Tape Casting and Co-Sintering Process

    Liu, Q. L.; Fu, C. J.; Chan, S. H.; Pasciak, G.

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a co-tape casting and co-sintering process has been developed to prepare yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte films supported on Ni-YSZ anode substrates in order to substantially reduce the fabrication cost of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Through proper control of the process, the anode/electrolyte bilayer structures with a size of 7.8cm × 7.8cm were achieved with good flatness. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicated that the YSZ electrolyte film was about 16 μm in thickness, highly dense, crack free and well-bonded to the anode support. The electrochemical properties of the prepared anode-supported electrolyte film was evaluated in a button cell mode incorporating a (LaSr)MnO3-YSZ composite cathode. With humidified hydrogen as the fuel and stationary air as the oxidant, the cell demonstrated an open-circuit voltage of 1.081 V and a maximum power density of 1.01 W/cm2 at 800°C. The obtained results represent the important progress in the development of anode-supported intermediate temperature SOFC with reduced fabrication cost.

  4. Effects of forming temperature and sintering rate to the final properties of FeCuAl powder compacts formed through uniaxial die compaction process

    Rahman, M. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Sopyan, I.; Rahman, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental investigation on the effects of forming temperature and sintering schedule to the final characteristics of FeCuAl powder mass formed at different temperature and sintered at different schedule. A lab-scale uni-axial die compaction rig was designed and fabricated which enabled the compaction of powder mass at room temperature as well as elevated temperature. Iron (Fe) powder ASC 100.29 was mechanically mixed with other elemental powders, namely copper (Cu), and aluminum (Al) for 60 minutes and compacted at three different temperature, i.e., 30°C, 150°C, and 200°C by applying 425 MPa of simultaneous downward and upward axial loading to generate green compacts. The as-pressed samples were inspected visually and the defect-free green compacts were subsequently sintered in an argon gas fired furnace at 800°C for 60 min at three different heating/cooling rates, i.e., 5, 10, and 15°C/min, respectively. The sintered samples were then characterised for their physical, electrical, and mechanical properties. The microstructures of the sintered samples were also analysed. The results revealed that a forming temperature of 150°C and a sintering rate of 10°C/min could produce a product with better characteristics.

  5. Production of three-dimensional structures of PHB using selective laser sintering

    Pereira, Tatiana F.; Costa, Marysilvia F.; Thire, Rossana M.S.M.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.; Maia, Izaque A.; Silva, Jorge V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a technology of layer-by-layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models directly from their computational design. The poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a microbial, biodegradable and semicrystalline polyester. The objective of this work was to produce PHB parts, evaluating the reuse of material in the production of the new parts. Images of SEM of part surface showed the formation of neck that indicates sintering between PHB particles during processing. Analysis of NMR and DSC of the reused polymer showed no changes in the chemical structure and thermal properties of PHB. The parts produced from virgin and reused PHB showed no significant difference in their thermal properties. This could suggest that the reuse of raw material did not influence the process reproducibility. (author)

  6. Fabrication of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films by a combination of mechanochemical and screen-printing/sintering processes

    Wada, T.; Matsuo, Y.; Nomura, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miyamura, A.; Chiba, Y.; Konagai, M.; Yamada, A.

    2006-01-01

    We prepared fine Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) powder suitable for screen printing using a mechanochemical process. Particulate precursors were deposited in a thin layer by a screen-printing technique, the remaining organic solvent was removed from the screen-printed CIGS film and finally the porous precursor layer was sintered into a dense polycrystalline film by atmospheric-pressure firing. The crystal structure of the film was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and the microstructure was observed in a SEM. The thickness of the film was 5-10 μm with a grain size of about 2 μm. The films were also observed in a TEM. The grain size of the as-prepared powder was less than 1 μm; however, it enlarged to 2-3 μm after firing at 575 C under a Se ambient. Preliminary CIGS solar cells with our standard Al grid/B-doped ZnO/i-ZnO/ CdS/CIGS/Mo/soda-lime glass structure were fabricated. An efficiency of 2.7%, a V oc of 0.325 V, a J sc of 28.3 mA/cm 2 and a FF of 0.295 was obtained. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 343 - Consumer Grievance Process

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 343, App. A Appendix A to Part 343—Consumer... Consumer Protection (DSC), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, at the following address: 550 17th Street... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part...

  8. The electric conductivity of some forms of sintered synthetic zeolites

    Susic, M.; Petrovic, V.; Ristic, M.; Petranovic, N.

    1978-01-01

    Some forms of synthetic zeolites were sintered and their electric conductivity was measured. The conductivity was observed in correlation with the conductivity of non-sintered pressed samples. Also the change in microstructural constituents in the course of the process of sintering was observed with an optical microscope. It has been found that there is a considerable change in conductivity due to sintering as well as a change in the activation energy for conduction. Also the porosity is noticeably changed. A marked affect of the nature of counter ions on the electric conductivity is shown

  9. Rapid laser sintering of metal nano-particles inks.

    Ermak, Oleg; Zenou, Michael; Toker, Gil Bernstein; Ankri, Jonathan; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-09-23

    Fast sintering is of importance in additive metallization processes and especially on sensitive substrates. This work explores the mechanisms which set limits to the laser sintering rate of metal nano-particle inks. A comparison of sintering behavior of three different ink compositions with laser exposure times from micro-seconds to seconds reveals the dominant factor to be the organic content (OC) in the ink. With a low OC silver ink, of 2% only, sintering time falls below 100 μs with resistivity <×4 bulk silver. Still shorter exposure times result in line delamination and deformation with a similar outcome when the OC is increased.

  10. Uranium dioxide sintering Kinetics and mechanisms under controlled oxygen potentials

    Freitas, C.T. de.

    1980-06-01

    The initial, intermediate, and final sintering stages of uranium dioxide were investigated as a function of stoichiometry and temperature by following the kinetics of the sintering reaction. Stoichiometry was controlled by means of the oxygen potential of the sintering atmosphere, which was measured continuously by solid-state oxygen sensors. Included in the kinetic study were microspheres originated from UO 2 gels and UO 2 pellets produced by isostatic pressing ceramic grade powders. The microspheres sintering behavior was examined using hot-stage microscopy and a specially designed high-temperature, controlled atmosphere furnace. This same furnace was employed as part of an optical dilatometer, which was utilized in the UO 2 pellet sintering investigations. For controlling the deviations from stoichiometry during heat treatment, the oxygen partial pressure in the sintering atmosphere was varied by passing the gas through a Cu-Ti-Cu oxygen trap. The trap temperature determined the oxygen partial pressure of the outflowing mixture. Dry hydrogen was also used in some of the UO sub(2+x) sintering experiments. The determination of diametrial shrinkages and sintering indices was made utilizing high-speed microcinematography and ultra-microbalance techniques. It was observed that the oxygen potential has a substantial influence on the kinetics of the three sintering stages. The control of the sintering atmosphere oxygen partial pressure led to very fast densification of UO sub(2+x). Values in the interval 95.0 to 99.5% of theoretical density were reached in less than one minute. Uranium volume diffusion is the dominant mechanism in the initial and intermediate sintering stages. For the final stage, uranium grain boundary diffusion was found to be the main sintering mechanism. (Author) [pt

  11. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...... position was measured on the polymer μ-parts to evaluate filling behavior of the polymer melt flowing through μ-features. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were evaluated to correlate the process parameter levels influence on the selected responses. Results showed...... that the injection speed in one of the most influencing process parameters on the μIM process and on the μ-parts filling....

  12. Monitoring Sintering Burn-Through Point Using Infrared Thermography

    Francisco G. Bulnes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sintering is a complex industrial process that applies heat to fine particles of iron ore and other materials to produce sinter, a solidified porous material used in blast furnaces. The sintering process needs to be carefully adjusted, so that the combustion zone reaches the bottom of the material just before the discharge end. This is known as the burnthrough point. Many different parameters need to be finely tuned, including the speed and the quantities of the materials mixed. However, in order to achieve good results, sintering control requires precise feedback to adjust these parameters. This work presents a sensor to monitor the sintering burn-through point based on infrared thermography. The proposed procedure is based on the acquisition of infrared images at the end of the sintering process. At this position, infrared images contain the cross-section temperatures of the mixture. The objective of this work is to process this information to extract relevant features about the sintering process. The proposed procedure is based on four steps: key frame detection, region of interest detection, segmentation and feature extraction. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is very robust and reliable, providing features that can be used effectively to control the sintering process.

  13. Morphological analysis and modelling of sintering and of sintered materials

    Jernot, Jean-Paul

    1982-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of solid phase sintering of metallic powders, and aims at describing as precisely as possible the different involved matter transport mechanisms, first by using a thermodynamic approach to sintering. Sintering diagrams are also used to determine prevailing mechanisms. The microstructure of sintered materials has been studied by using image quantitative analysis, thus by using a morphological approach to sintering. Morphological parameters allow, on the one hand, the evolution of powders during sintering to be followed, and, on the other hand, sintered products to be correctly characterised. Moreover, the author reports the study of the evolution of some physical properties of sintered materials with respect to their microstructure parameters. This leads to the development of a modelling of the behaviour of these materials [fr

  14. Investigation of the sintering of barytocalcite with BaCO{sub 3} as a secondary phase for immobilizing carbon-14

    Massoni, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.massoni@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Le Gallet, Sophie [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. Alain Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of a secondary phase (BaCO{sub 3}) on the sintering of synthetic barytocalcite has been investigated. It was found that this phase impacts the sintering positively by lowering the sintering activation energy from 230 to 160 kJ mol{sup −1}, by increasing the shrinkage rate and by reaching higher densities. However, BaCO{sub 3,} originally dispersed in the powder, was segregated by diffusion during sintering with a large part of it being located at the grain boundaries. The dense pellet is made of both phases barytocalcite and BaCO{sub 3}, what should be avoided to give the best leaching resistance. Thus the BaCO{sub 3} presence should be limited as much as possible by controlling the reactants stoichiometry during the synthesis. - Highlights: • Lowers the sintering activation energy from 230 to 160 kJ mol{sup −1}. • Changes the sintering process from volume diffusion to grain boundary diffusion. • Increases the shrinkage rate and allows to reach higher densities of the pellet.

  15. Electro sinter forging of titanium disks

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    by measuring the electrical resistance during the sintering process [5], since low electrical resistance corresponds to high density. It is, however, necessary to be aware that increased temperature, on the other hand, increases the resistance. SEM micrographs and Computed Tomography (CT) are carried out......Electro sinter forging (ESF) is a new sintering process based on the principle of electrical Joule heating. In the present work, middle frequency direct current (MFDC) was flowing through the powder compact, which was under mechanical pressure. The main parameters are the high electrical current......, up to 10 kA, and the low voltage, 1-2 V, resulting in heat generation in the powder. Figure 1 shows the experimental setup. The punches were made of a conductive material; namely a copper alloy. The die, which has to be electrically insulating, was made of alumina. The ESF process takes 3-4s...

  16. Sintering of uranium dioxide pellets (UO2) in an oxidizing atmosphere (C O2)

    Santos, G.R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This work consists in the study of the sintering process of U O 2 pellets in an oxidizing atmosphere. Sintering tests were performed in an CO 2 atmosphere and the influence of temperature and time on the pellets density and microstructure were verified. The results obtained were compared to those from the conventional sintering process and its efficiency was confirmed. (author)

  17. Influence of various manufacturing parameters on some characteristics of UO2 powders and their sintering behaviour

    Mintz, M.H.; Vaknin, Sh.; Kremener, A.; Hadari, Z.

    1977-02-01

    Various parameters in the process of manufacturing uranium dioxide are examined and their influence on the characteristics and sintering behaviour of the powders obtained established. In addition some correlations between the powder aggregates microstructure and their adhesion properties and sintering behaviour are indicated. Shrinkage during the sintering process is also discussed

  18. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm). PMID:26806215

  19. Densification of LSGM electrolytes using activated microwave sintering

    Kesapragada, S. V.; Bhaduri, S. B.; Bhaduri, S.; Singh, P.

    Lanthanum gallate doped with alkaline rare earths (LSGM) powders were densified using an activated microwave sintering process for developing a dense stable electrolyte layer for applications in intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Due to heat generation in situ, the process of sintering gets activated with faster kinetics compared to a conventional sintering process. The effect of various microwave process parameters on the microstructure and phase formation was studied. The sintered pellets were characterized using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis (SEM-EDAX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The density of LSGM pellets microwave sintered at 1350 °C for 20 min is greater than 95% theoretical density with a fine grained microstructure (˜2-3 μm) and without the presence of other phase(s).

  20. Sintering of Synroc D

    Robinson, G.

    1982-01-01

    Sintering has been investigated as a method for the mineralization and densification of high-level nuclear defense waste powder. Studies have been conducted on Synroc D composite powder LS04. Optimal densification has been found to be highly dependent on the characteristics of the starting material. Powder subjected to milling, which was believed to reduce the level of agglomeration and possibly particle size, was found to densify better than powder not subjected to this milling. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical could be achieved for samples sintered at 1150 to 1200 0 C. Mineralogy was found to be as expected for Synroc D for samples sintered in a CO 2 /CO atmosphere where the Fe +2 /Fe +3 ratio was maintained at 1.0 to 5.75. In a more oxidizing, pure CO 2 atmosphere a new phase, not previously identified in Synroc D, was found

  1. Sintering of composite

    Bordia, R.K.; Scherer, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Several constitutive laws have been used in the literature to predict the response of sintering bodies under external and internal stress fields. These analyses are based on the assumptions of linear and isotropic behavior. The authors provide a critical examination of these equations and show that some of the available constitutive laws predict a negative Poisson's ratio. These laws have been used to analyze sintering of ceramic matrix composites with rigid inclusions and predict large values of the internal stresses and significant retardation of the densification of composites. Since a negative value of Poisson's ratio has never been observed in sinter - forging experiments, the authors conclude that either the stresses are small (as predicted by the constitutive laws with positive Poisson's ratio) or the basic assumption of linearity and isotropy used in all the analyses is incorrect. Finally, the authors discuss some phenomena that could be important in understanding the densification of ceramic matrix composites

  2. Combustion of fuels with low sintering temperature

    Dalin, D

    1950-08-16

    A furnace for the combustion of low sintering temperature fuel consists of a vertical fuel shaft arranged to be charged from above and supplied with combustion air from below and containing a system of tube coils extending through the fuel bed and serving the circulation of a heat-absorbing fluid, such as water or steam. The tube-coil system has portions of different heat-absorbing capacity which are so related to the intensity of combustion in the zones of the fuel shaft in which they are located as to keep all parts of the fuel charge below sintering temperature.

  3. Study on the Ingredient Proportions and After-Treatment of Laser Sintering Walnut Shell Composites

    Yueqiang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate resource shortage, reduce the cost of materials consumption and the pollution of agricultural and forestry waste, walnut shell composites (WSPC consisting of walnut shell as additive and copolyester hot melt adhesive (Co-PES as binder was developed as the feedstock of selective laser sintering (SLS. WSPC parts with different ingredient proportions were fabricated by SLS and processed through after-treatment technology. The density, mechanical properties and surface quality of WSPC parts before and after post processing were analyzed via formula method, mechanical test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Results show that, when the volume fraction of the walnut shell powder in the WSPC reaches the maximum (40%, sintered WSPC parts have the smallest warping deformation and the highest dimension precision, although the surface quality, density, and mechanical properties are low. However, performing permeating resin as the after-treatment technology could considerably increase the tensile, bending and impact strength by 496%, 464%, and 516%, respectively.

  4. An 8-year evaluation of sintered ceramic and glass ceramic inlays processed by the Cerec CAD/CAM system

    Pallesen, U.; Dijken van, J.W.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Cerec CAD/CAM inlays processed of two industrially made machinable ceramics during an 8-yr follow-up period. Each of 16 patients received two similar ceramic inlays. Half the number of the inlays were made of a feldspathic (Vita Mark II) and the other...... of a glass ceramic (Dicor MGC) block. The inlays were luted with a dual resin composite and evaluated clinically using modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 8 months, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8 yr, and indirectly using models. At baseline, 84% of the inlays were estimated as optimal and 16% as acceptable. Postoperative...... sensitivity was reported by one patient for 8 months. Of the 32 inlays evaluated during the 8 yr, 3 failed due to fracture of the material. No secondary caries was found adjacent to the inlays. No significant differences in the clinical performance were found between inlays made of the two ceramics. It can...

  5. Integrated analysis of oxide nuclear fuel sintering

    Baranov, V.; Kuzmin, R.; Tenishev, A.; Timoshin, I.; Khlunov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Petrov, I.

    2011-01-01

    Dilatometric and thermal-gravimetric investigations have been carried out for the sintering process of oxide nuclear fuel in gaseous Ar - 8% H 2 atmosphere at temperatures up to 1600 0 C. The pressed compacts were fabricated under real production conditions of the OAO MSZ with application of two different technologies, so called 'dry' and 'wet' technologies. Effects of the grain size growth after the heating to different temperatures were observed. In order to investigate the effects produced by rate of heating on properties of sintered fuel pellets, the heating rates were varied from 1 to 8 0 C per minute. Time of isothermal overexposure at maximal temperature (1600 0 C) was about 8 hours. Real production conditions were imitated. The results showed that the sintering process of the fuel pellets produced by two technologies differs. The samples sintered under different heating rates were studied with application of scanning electronic microscopy analysis for determination of mean grain size. A simulation of heating profile for industrial furnaces was performed to reduce the beam cycles and estimate the effects of variation of the isothermal overexposure temperatures. Based on this data, an optimization of the sintering conditions was performed in operations terms of OAO MSZ. (authors)

  6. Microwave sintering of nano size powder β-TCP bioceramics

    Mirhadi B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nano sized beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP powder was conventional sintered (CS and microwave sintered (MW, in order to obtain dense β-TCP ceramics. In this work the effect of microwave sintering conditions on the microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties of materials based on tricalcium phosphate (TCP was investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopyand XRD(X-ray diffraction and then compared with conventional sintered samples. Nano-size β-TCP powders with average grain size of 80 nm were prepared by the wet chemical precipitation method with calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. The precipitation process employed was also found to be suitable for the production of submicrometre β-TCP powder in situ. The β-TCP samples microwave (MW sintered for 15 min at 1100°C, with average grain size of 3μm, showed better densification, higher density and certainly higher hardness than samples conventionally sintered for 2 h at the same temperature. By comparing sintered and MW sintered β-TCP samples, it was concluded that MW sintered β-TCP samples have superior mechanical properties.

  7. HAp physical investigation - the effect of sintering temperature

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Idris Besar; Rusnah Mustaffa; Cik Rohaida Che Hak

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the effect of sintering temperature on the physical properties of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp). In this study, the HAp was prepared using polymeric sponge techniques with different binder concentration. The sintering process was carried out in air for temperature ranging from 1200 degree C to 1600 degree C. Different physical properties namely density and porosity were observed at different sintering temperatures. The HAp prepared with higher PVP binder showed a slightly decreased in apparent density with increasing sintering temperature, while those HAp prepared with lower PVP showed a slightly increase in apparent density with increasing sintering temperature. The total porosity was found to be approximately constant in the whole sintering temperature range. However, closed porosity decreases with increasing sintering temperature for HAp prepared by lower binder concentration. On the other hand, the HAp prepared by higher binder concentration HAp showed increasing closed porosity with increasing sintering temperature. Other features such as the influence of sintering temperatures on grain and strut also be presented in this paper. (Author)

  8. Direct metal laser sintering: a digitised metal casting technology.

    Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-12-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  9. Direct Metal Laser Sintering: A Digitised Metal Casting Technology

    Venkatesh, K. Vijay; Nandini, V. Vidyashree

    2013-01-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  10. CALCIUM OXIDE SINTERING IN ATMOSPHERES CONTAINING WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE

    The paper gives results of measurements of the effects of water vapor and CO2 on the sintering rate of nascent CaO, as a function of partial pressure and temperature using CaO prepared by rapid decomposition of CaCO3 and CA(OH)2. Each gas strongly catalyzed the sintering process ...

  11. Successive self-propagating sintering process using carbonaceous materials: A novel low-cost remediation approach for dioxin-contaminated solids

    Zhao, Long, E-mail: zhaolong@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Hou, Hong, E-mail: houhong@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Tengfei; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A SSPSP using carbonaceous materials for removing dioxin pollutants was developed. • Removal and degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were higher than those of PCDD/Fs. • Compositions of PCDD/Fs were dependent on the available precursors in raw materials. • Dechlorination of O{sub 8}CDD and formation pathways of PCDFs were deduced. • Dioxin levels in the effluent gas complied with the International emission limit. - Abstract: The disposal of dioxin-contaminated solids was studied using a novel successive self-propagating sintering process (SSPSP) incorporating a carbonaceous material. Among the five types of carbonaceous materials investigated, Charcoal B displayed optimum adsorbent properties and was selected as the best thermal source in the current remediation approach based on economical efficiency aspects. The feasibility of this proposed approach, removal efficiencies, and congener compositions of dioxins were examined using two types of dioxin-contaminated solids (Fugan sediment and Toyo soil) that displayed different characteristics including the initial concentrations of dioxins. The removal efficiencies of DL-PCBs (“dioxin-like” polychlorinated biphenyls) were higher than those of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans), achieving 99.9 and 92% removal in the Fugan sediment and Toyo soil, respectively. In contrast, the degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were lower (i.e., 89.3 and 88.8%, respectively). The initial concentrations of dioxins, available precursors, and properties of the solids strongly influenced the congener compositions and removal efficiencies of dioxins. Furthermore, the dechlorination reaction pathways of high-chlorinated PCDDs and potential regeneration pathways of PCDFs from PCBs were deduced using isotope labeling. The proposed novel low-cost remediation approach for the removal of dioxins from solids is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  12. A Transient Liquid Phase Sintering Bonding Process Using Nickel-Tin Mixed Powder for the New Generation of High-Temperature Power Devices

    Feng, Hongliang; Huang, Jihua; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Shaokun; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shuhai

    2017-07-01

    A transient liquid phase sintering (TLPS) bonding process, Ni-Sn TLPS bonding was developed for the new generation of power semiconductor packaging. A model Ni/Ni-Sn/Ni sandwiched structure was assembled by using 30Ni-70Sn mixed powder as the reactive system. The results show that the bonding layer is composed of Ni3Sn4 and residual fine Ni particles with a small amount of Ni3Sn2 at 340°C for 240 min, which has a heat-resistant temperature higher than 790°C. The microstructural evolution and thermal characteristic of the bonding layer for various times at 300°C and 340°C were also studied, respectively. This reveals that, after isothermally holding for 240 min at 300°C and for 180 min at 340°C, Sn has been completely transformed into Ni-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and the bonding layer is mainly composed of Ni3Sn4 and residual Ni particles. The analysis result for the mechanical properties of the joint shows that the hardness of the bonding layer at 340°C for 240 min is uniform and that the average value reaches 3.66 GPa, which is close to that of the Ni3Sn4 block material. The shear test shows that, as the holding time increases from 60 min to 180 min at 340°C, because of the existence of Sn, the disparity of shear strength between room temperature and 350°C is large. But when the holding time is 180 min or longer, Sn has been completely transformed into Ni-Sn IMCs. Their performances are very similar whether at room temperature or 350°C.

  13. Successive self-propagating sintering process using carbonaceous materials: A novel low-cost remediation approach for dioxin-contaminated solids

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Zhu, Tengfei; Li, Fasheng; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A SSPSP using carbonaceous materials for removing dioxin pollutants was developed. • Removal and degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were higher than those of PCDD/Fs. • Compositions of PCDD/Fs were dependent on the available precursors in raw materials. • Dechlorination of O_8CDD and formation pathways of PCDFs were deduced. • Dioxin levels in the effluent gas complied with the International emission limit. - Abstract: The disposal of dioxin-contaminated solids was studied using a novel successive self-propagating sintering process (SSPSP) incorporating a carbonaceous material. Among the five types of carbonaceous materials investigated, Charcoal B displayed optimum adsorbent properties and was selected as the best thermal source in the current remediation approach based on economical efficiency aspects. The feasibility of this proposed approach, removal efficiencies, and congener compositions of dioxins were examined using two types of dioxin-contaminated solids (Fugan sediment and Toyo soil) that displayed different characteristics including the initial concentrations of dioxins. The removal efficiencies of DL-PCBs (“dioxin-like” polychlorinated biphenyls) were higher than those of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans), achieving 99.9 and 92% removal in the Fugan sediment and Toyo soil, respectively. In contrast, the degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were lower (i.e., 89.3 and 88.8%, respectively). The initial concentrations of dioxins, available precursors, and properties of the solids strongly influenced the congener compositions and removal efficiencies of dioxins. Furthermore, the dechlorination reaction pathways of high-chlorinated PCDDs and potential regeneration pathways of PCDFs from PCBs were deduced using isotope labeling. The proposed novel low-cost remediation approach for the removal of dioxins from solids is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  14. Effects of surrounding powder in sintering process on the properties of Sb and Mn- doped barium-strontium titanate PTCR ceramics

    Pornsuda Bomlai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of surrounding powder used during sintering of Sb and Mn doped bariumstrontium titanate (BST ceramics were studied. The ceramic samples were prepared by a conventional mixed-oxide method and placed on different powders during sintering. Phase formation, microstructure and PTCR behavior of the samples were then observed. Microstructures and PTCR behavior varied with the type of surrounding powder, whereas the crystal structure did not change. The surrounding powder has more effects on the shape of the grain than on the size. The grain size of samples was in the range of 5-20 μm. The most uniform grain size and the highest increase of the ratio of ρmax/ρRT were found to be about 106 for samples which had been sintered on Sb-doped BST powder. This value was an order of magnitude greater than for samples sintered on a powder of the equivalent composition to that of the sample pellet.

  15. Cleaning Process Development for Metallic Additively Manufactured Parts

    Tramel, Terri L.; Welker, Roger; Lowery, Niki; Mitchell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing of metallic components for aerospace applications offers many advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques. As a new technology, many aspects of its widespread utilization remain open to investigation. Among these are the cleaning processes that can be used for post finishing of parts and measurements to verify effectiveness of the cleaning processes. Many cleaning and drying processes and measurement methods that have been used for parts manufactured using conventional techniques are candidates that may be considered for cleaning and verification of additively manufactured parts. Among these are vapor degreasing, ultrasonic immersion and spray cleaning, followed by hot air drying, vacuum baking and solvent displacement drying. Differences in porosity, density, and surface finish of additively manufactured versus conventionally manufactured parts may introduce new considerations in the selection of cleaning and drying processes or the method used to verify their effectiveness. This presentation will review the relative strengths and weaknesses of different candidate cleaning and drying processes as they may apply to additively manufactured metal parts for aerospace applications. An ultrasonic cleaning technique for exploring the cleanability of parts will be presented along with an example using additively manufactured Inconel 718 test specimens to illustrate its use. The data analysis shows that this ultrasonic cleaning approach results in a well-behaved ultrasonic cleaning/extraction behavior. That is, it does not show signs of accelerated cavitation erosion of the base material, which was later confirmed by neutron imaging. In addition, the analysis indicated that complete cleaning would be achieved by ultrasonic immersion cleaning at approximately 5 minutes, which was verified by subsequent cleaning of additional parts.

  16. Surface quality and microstructure of low-vacuum sintered orthodontic bracket 17-4 PH stainless steel fabricated by MIM process

    Suharno, Bambang; Suharno, Lingga Pradinda; Saputro, Hantoro Restucondro; Irawan, Bambang; Prasetyadi, Tjokro; Ferdian, Deni; Supriyadi, Sugeng

    2018-02-01

    Surface roughness and microstructure play important role on orthodontic bracket quality. Therefore, orthodontic brackets need to have smooth surface roughness to reduce the friction and bacterial adhesion. Microstructure of orthodontic brackets also determine the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. There are two methods to produce orthodontic bracket, investment casting and metal injection molding. The purpose of this study is to observe the surface roughness and microstructure of orthodontic bracket which were made from two different fabrication methods. To produce orthodontic bracket with metal injection molding method, 17-4 PH stainless steel feedstock was injected to the orthodontic bracket mold using injection molding machine. After injection, the binder was eliminated with solvent and thermal debinding. Solvent debinding process was conducted with hexane at 50 °C on magnetic stirrer for 1.5 hours. Thermal debinding process was conducted at 510 °C with 0.5 °C/min heat rate and 120 min holding time. Hereafter, sintering process were performed with vacuum tube furnace at 1360 °C with heat rate 5 °C/min and 90 min holding time in low vacuum atmosphere. To produce orthodontic bracket with investment casting method, the wax was injected into the mold then the wax pattern was arranged into the tree form. The tree form was then dipped into ceramic slurry and allowed to harden, the ceramic slurry has a thickness in the region of 10 mm. The ceramic mold was then heated at a temperature of over than 1100°C to strengthen the ceramic mold and to remove the remaining wax. After that, the molten 17-4 PH stainless steel was poured into the ceramic mold at a temperature of over 1600°C. The natural cooling process was carried out at temperature of 25°C, after which the ceramic mold was broken away. Then, the orthodontic bracket was cut from the tree form. The results show that the orthodontic bracket which were made with investment casting fabrication

  17. Characterization of PLA parts made with AM process

    Spina, Roberto; Cavalcante, Bruno; Lavecchia, Fulvio

    2018-05-01

    The main objective of the presented work is to evaluate the thermal behavior of Poly-lactic acid (PLA) parts made with a Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process. By using a robust framework for the testing sequence of PLA parts, with the aim of establishing a standard testing cycle for the optimization of the part performance and quality. The research involves study the materials before and after 3D printing. Two biodegradable PLA polymers are investigated, characterized by different colors (one black and the other transparent). The study starts with the examination of each polymeric material and measurements of its main thermal properties.

  18. Fabrication and testing of the sintered ceramic UO{sub 2} fuel - I - III, Part III - testing of sintered uranium dioxide properties dependent on the fabrication procedure; Izrada i ispitivanje keramickog goriva na bazi UO{sub 2}- I-III, III Deo - Ispitivanje osobina sinterovanog urandioksida u zavisnosti od procesa dobijanja

    Novakovic, M; Ristic, M M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za termotehniku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    The objective of this task was testing the influence of some parameters on the properties of sintered UO{sub 2}. The influence of parameters tested were as follows: adhesives; pressure in the pressing procedure; temperature of sintering of the UO{sub 2} powder. Other parameters were chosen according to the theoretical study. Sintering was done in argon atmosphere. Characterization of the UO{sub 2} powder was performed meaning determining the needed chemical, physical and physico-chemical properties. Some new methods were developed within this task: SET method for measuring the specific surfaces, DTA, TGA, high-temperature torsion.

  19. Effect of sintering condition on the grain growth of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped UO{sub 2} pellets

    Oh, Jang Soo; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Dong Joo; Kim, Jong Hun; Yang, Jae Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped UO{sub 2} pellets were fabricated by two-step sintering process. The grain growth of pellet is related to dwell time in a hydrogen atmosphere during sintering process. A large grain pellet can minimize fission gas release and deform easily at an elevated temperature. So, the recent development of nuclear fuel pellet materials is mainly focused on the large grain pellets. The various methods of fabrication processes for large grain UO{sub 2} pellets have been investigated extensively. Those parameters include the additives, sintering temperature, sintering time, sintering atmosphere, and so on. Cr-doped UO{sub 2} pellet is one of the promising candidates for PCI remedy. It was shown that the grain size and softness of UO{sub 2} pellets could be enhanced by doping Cr or Cr compound in UO{sub 2}. Various in-pile test results revealed that the PCI properties were enhanced considerably [4]. In the sintering process of Cr-doped UO{sub 2} pellet, it was known that tight adjusting of sintering atmosphere is most important to achieve large grain pellet. The relevant research revealed that the doped Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} became liquid phase in optimized oxygen potential and that liquid phase promoted the grain growth. Recently, KAERI has shown that grain size of Cr-doped UO{sub 2} pellet could be more enlarged by adjusting process parameters. In this paper, we introduced a sintering process which can form a liquid phase for a large grain growth in Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped UO{sub 2} pellet. The study on the effect of dwell time in H{sub 2} atmosphere during sintering process on the grain structure of sintered pellet is also a part of this work. In order to obtain large grain in pellet, it is important to increase amount of Cr that can form a liquid phase for grain growth by increasing dwell time in a hydrogen atmosphere during sintering process.

  20. Sintered cobalt-rare earth intermetallic product

    Benz, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing novel sintered cobalt--rare earth intermetallic products which can be magnetized to form permanent magnets having stable improved magnetic properties. A cobalt--rare earth metal alloy is formed having a composition which at sintering temperature falls outside the composition covered by the single Co 5 R intermetallic phase on the rare earth richer side. The alloy contains a major amount of the Co 5 R intermetallic phase and a second solid CoR phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase. The specific cobalt and rare earth metal content of the alloy is substantially the same as that desired in the sintered product. The alloy, in particulate form, is pressed into compacts and sintered to the desired density. The sintered product is comprised of a major amount of the Co 5 R solid intermetallic phase and up to about 35 percent of the product of the second solid CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase

  1. Sintering unalloyed titanium in DC electrical abnormal glow discharge

    Allan Seeber

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy is widely used in the manufacture of components that have complex geometry. The good dimensional control, reduction in manufacturing steps and operating costs which has favored the use of this technique for manufacturing of titanium alloys components. However, the high affinity of this material with oxygen hinders strongly the sintering process. For this, the sintering associated with plasma technology can be considered an alternative technique for the processing of this material. The strict control of sintering atmosphere performed at low pressures and the reactive species present in the plasma environment can help to improve the sintering of this material. The results presented in this paper show a good correlation between the parameters used for the compaction of the samples and the microstructure develop during the plasma sintering of samples. The microstructure of the plasma assisted samples is also affected by the particular configuration used in the plasma reactor.

  2. High sintering resistance of size-selected platinum cluster catalysts by suppressed ostwald ripening

    Wettergren, Kristina; Schweinberger, Florian F.; Deiana, Davide

    2014-01-01

    on different supports exhibit remarkable intrinsic sintering resistance even under reaction conditions. The observed stability is related to suppression of Ostwald ripening by elimination of its main driving force via size-selection. This study thus constitutes a general blueprint for the rational design...... of sintering resistant catalyst systems and for efficient experimental strategies to determine sintering mechanisms. Moreover, this is the first systematic experimental investigation of sintering processes in nanoparticle systems with an initially perfectly monomodal size distribution under ambient conditions....

  3. Gasification reactivity and ash sintering behaviour of biomass feedstocks

    Moilanen, A.; Nasrullah, M.

    2011-12-15

    Char gasification reactivity and ash sintering properties of forestry biomass feedstocks selected for large-scale gasification process was characterised. The study was divided into two parts: (1) Internal variation of the reactivity and the ash sintering of feedstocks. (2) Measurement of kinetic parameters of char gasification reactions to be used in the modelling of a gasifier. The tests were carried out in gases relevant to pressurized oxygen gasification, i.e. steam and carbon dioxide, as well as their mixtures with the product gases H{sub 2} and CO. The work was based on experimental measurements using pressurized thermobalance. In the tests, the temperatures were below 1000 deg C, and the pressure range was between 1 and 20 bar. In the first part, it was tested the effect of growing location, storage, plant parts and debarking method. The following biomass types were tested: spruce bark, pine bark, aspen bark, birch bark, forestry residue, bark feedstock mixture, stump chips and hemp. Thick pine bark had the lowest reactivity (instantaneous reaction rate 14%/min) and hemp the highest (250%/min); all other biomasses laid between these values. There was practically no difference in the reactivities among the spruce barks collected from the different locations. For pine bark, the differences were greater, but they were probably due to the thickness of the bark rather than to the growth location. For the spruce barks, the instantaneous reaction rate measured at 90% fuel conversion was 100%/min, for pine barks it varied between 14 and 75%/min. During storage, quite large local differences in reactivity seem to develop. Stump had significantly lower reactivity compared with the others. No clear difference in the reactivity was observed between barks obtained with the wet and dry debarking, but, the sintering of the ash was more enhanced for the bark from dry debarking. Char gasification rate could not be modelled in the gas mixture of H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2

  4. Predicting sintering deformation of ceramic film constrained by rigid substrate using anisotropic constitutive law

    Li Fan; Pan Jingzhe; Guillon, Olivier; Cocks, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Sintering of ceramic films on a solid substrate is an important technology for fabricating a range of products, including solid oxide fuel cells, micro-electronic PZT films and protective coatings. There is clear evidence that the constrained sintering process is anisotropic in nature. This paper presents a study of the constrained sintering deformation using an anisotropic constitutive law. The state of the material is described using the sintering strains rather than the relative density. In the limiting case of free sintering, the constitutive law reduces to a conventional isotropic constitutive law. The anisotropic constitutive law is used to calculate sintering deformation of a constrained film bonded to a rigid substrate and the compressive stress required in a sinter-forging experiment to achieve zero lateral shrinkage. The results are compared with experimental data in the literature. It is shown that the anisotropic constitutive law can capture the behaviour of the materials observed in the sintering experiments.

  5. Sintering with a chemical reaction as applied to uranium monocarbide

    Accary, A.; Caillat, R.

    1960-01-01

    The present paper provides a survey of different investigations whose aim was the preparation and fabrication of uranium monocarbide for nuclear use. If a chemical reaction takes place in the sample during the sintering operation, it may be expected that the atom rearrangements involved in this reaction should favour the sintering process and thereby lower the temperature needed to yield a body of a given density. With this hypothesis in mind, the following methods have been studied: - Sintering of U-C mixtures; - Sintering of UO 2 -C mixtures; - Hot pressing of U-C mixtures; - Extrusion of U-C mixtures. To generalize our result, it could be said that a chemical reaction does not lead to high densification, if one depends on a simple contact between discrete particles. On the contrary, a chemical reaction can help sintering if, as our hot pressing experiments shows, the densification can be achieved prior to the reaction. (author) [fr

  6. Strengthening mechanisms in a high-strength bulk nanostructured Cu–Zn–Al alloy processed via cryomilling and spark plasma sintering

    Wen, Haiming; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    A bulk nanostructured alloy with the nominal composition Cu–30Zn–0.8Al wt.% (commercial designation brass 260) was fabricated by cryomilling of brass powders and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) of the cryomilled powders, yielding a compressive yield strength of 950 MPa, which is significantly higher than the yield strength of commercial brass 260 alloys (∼200–400 MPa). Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that cryomilling results in an average grain diameter of 26 nm and a high density of deformation twins. Nearly fully dense bulk samples were obtained after SPS of cryomilled powders, with average grain diameter 110 nm. After SPS, 10 vol.% of twins is retained with average twin thickness 30 nm. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography studies demonstrate that the distribution of Al is highly inhomogeneous in the sintered bulk samples, and Al-containing precipitates including Al(Cu,Zn)–O–N, Al–O–N and Al–N are distributed in the matrix. The precipitates have an average diameter of 1.7 nm and a volume fraction of 0.39%. Quantitative calculations were performed for different strengthening contributions in the sintered bulk samples, including grain boundary, twin boundary, precipitate, dislocation and solid-solution strengthening. Results from the analyses demonstrate that precipitate and grain boundary strengthening are the dominant strengthening mechanisms, and the calculated overall yield strength is in reasonable agreement with the experimentally determined compressive yield strength

  7. Up-cycling waste glass to minimal water adsorption/absorption lightweight aggregate by rapid low temperature sintering: optimization by dual process-mixture response surface methodology.

    Velis, Costas A; Franco-Salinas, Claudia; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Najorka, Jens; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Mixed color waste glass extracted from municipal solid waste is either not recycled, in which case it is an environmental and financial liability, or it is used in relatively low value applications such as normal weight aggregate. Here, we report on converting it into a novel glass-ceramic lightweight aggregate (LWA), potentially suitable for high added value applications in structural concrete (upcycling). The artificial LWA particles were formed by rapidly sintering (shrinkage during sintering, density and water adsorption/absorption. The diametrical expansion could be effectively modeled via the RSM and controlled to meet a wide range of specifications; here we optimized for LWA structural concrete. The optimally designed LWA is sintered in comparatively low temperatures (825-835 °C), thus potentially saving costs and lowering emissions; it had exceptionally low water adsorption/absorption (6.1-7.2% w/wd; optimization target: 1.5-7.5% w/wd); while remaining substantially lightweight (density: 1.24-1.28 g.cm(-3); target: 0.9-1.3 g.cm(-3)). This is a considerable advancement for designing effective environmentally friendly lightweight concrete constructions, and boosting resource efficiency of waste glass flows.

  8. Kinetics of UO{sub 2} sintering; Kinetika sinterovanja UO{sub 2}

    Ristic, M M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Laboratorija za reaktorske materijale, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-10-15

    Detailed conclusions related to the UO{sub 2} sintering can be drawn from investigating the kinetics of the sintering process. This report gives an thorough analysis of the the data concerned with sintering available in the literature taking into account the Jander and Arrhenius laws. This analysis completes the study of influence of the O/U ratio and the atmosphere on the sintering. Results presented are fundamentals of future theoretical and experimental work related to characterisation of the UO{sub 2} sintering process.

  9. Influence of sintering atmospheres on the aluminium sintering characteristics

    Mintzer, S.; Bermudez Belkys, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the aluminium powder (Al) cool compacted (at 95% from theoretical density) which was sintered at 903 K during 4 hours at different atmospheres; oxidizing (air), inert Argon (Ar), Nitrogen (N) and high vacuum. The results obtained show: a) porosity measurements; greater porosity when sintering in Ar and air. b) Metallographic and Scanning observations: many fine pores (< 1 μm) and pore lines distributed at random, at air sintering and greater pores distributed preferentially near the surface, in Ar and N atmospheres. c) Dimensional changes: tendency to contraction of the samples at N and vacuum sintering and expansion in Ar or air. d) Mechanical properties: greater strength and fluence stresses at air and N sintering. The analysis of the results is performed considering sintering modes in presence of an oxide layer and dropped inert gases. (Author)

  10. Critical issues and future directions in sintering science

    Brook, R.J.; Tuan, W.H.; Xue, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of available powders and the emphasis on direct microstructural observation have continued to improve the value of sintering studies for the processing of ceramics. Future concerns will relate to mechanisms for the correction of microstructural inhomogeneity so that pressureless processing of composites can be reliably achieved and to more systematic exploitation of dopants (sintering additives). These themes are illustrated using examples from the processing of alumina composites and doped barium titanate compositions

  11. Ecologically safe process for sulfo-aluminizing of steel parts

    Plyatsuk L. D.

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present technical solution refers to the field of electrophysical and electrochemical processing of parts, in particular, to the electroerosion alloying (EEA of the surfaces of steel parts with aluminum (aluminizing and sulfur (sulfidizing, and it can be used to treat the surfaces of heat-treated steel parts in order to increase their hardness, wear resistance, to prevent frictional seizure and improve the resistance to atmospheric corrosion. When aluminizing steel parts with the use of the method of electroerosion alloying (EEA by aluminum electrode at discharge energy Wp = 0.52–6.8 J and productivity of 1.0–3.0 cm2 / min, before the EEA process by an aluminum electrode, to the surface of the part to be aluminized, there is applied a consistency substance containing sulfur and aluminum powder, and thereafter, not having waited for drying of the consistency substance, the process of aluminizing by the EEL method with an aluminum electrode is carried out, and the consistency substance should have the aluminum powder content of not more than 56 %. There have been carried out metallographic and durametric analyses of the features of the surface layers made of carbon steels after simultaneous aluminizing and sulfidizing them by the EEA method. It is shown that the structure of the layer consists of three portions, namely, a “white” layer, a diffusion zone and a base metal. Such qualitative surface layer parameters as thickness, “white” layer and transition zone microhardness values, and also roughness increase with increasing discharge energy. The “white” layer continuity for all the investigated discharge energies of Wp = 0.52, 2.60 and 6.80 J is 100 %.

  12. Which Parts of a Clinical Process EPR Needs Special Configuration

    Barlach, Anders; Simonsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Subject: Which parts of an electronic patient record (EPR) can initially form a stable standard solution to be used by all clinicians? And which parts of an EPR can we predict needs initial as well as on-going re-configuration to meet the needs from diverse medical specialties. Purpose: To analyze...... which screen types in a clinical process that can be standard configured and which are subject to initial as well as on-going re-configuration. Methods and results: A pilot-project implementing a fully functional clinical process EPR was configured and used at a neurological ward, replacing all paper...... records 24/7. The analysis characterizes the different types of screens, a total of 243 included in the EPR solution. All screens have been extracted from the application and analyzed for changes – in total 222 changes. Discussion and conclusion: Most screens (87%) are very stable. Few (13%) are subjected...

  13. Integrated Modeling of Process, Structures and Performance in Cast Parts

    Kotas, Petr

    This thesis deals with numerical simulations of gravity sand casting processes for the production of large steel parts. The entire manufacturing process is numerically modeled and evaluated, taking into consideration mould filling, solidification, solid state cooling and the subsequent stress build...... and to defects occurrence. In other words, it is desired to eliminate all of the potential casting defects and at the same time to maximize the casting yield. The numerical optimization algorithm then takes these objectives and searches for a set of the investigated process, design or material parameters e.......g. chill design, riser design, gating system design, etc., which would satisfy these objectives the most. The first step in the numerical casting process simulation is to analyze mould filling where the emphasis is put on the gating system design. There are still a lot of foundry specialists who ignore...

  14. Study on process of laser cladded nuclear valve parts

    Zhang Chunliang

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and performances of the Co-base alloy coatings that are formed by laser cladding, plasma spurt welding and arc surfacing on the nuclear valve-sealing surface have been studied and compared. The combination costs of laser cladding, plasma spurt welding and arc, surfacing have been analyzed and compared. The results showed that the laser cladding processing has the advantages of high efficiency, low energy cost, a little machining allowance, high rate of finished products and low combination cost, compared with plasma spurt welding processing and arc surfacing processing. The laser cladding technology can improve the qualities of nuclear valve parts and increase their service life. Therefore, the laser cladding processing is a new technology with developing potential

  15. Heavy lon Reactions The Elementary Processes, Parts I and II

    Broglia, Ricardo A

    2004-01-01

    Combining elastic and inelastic processes with transfer reactions, this two-part volume explores how these events affect heavy ion collisions. Special attention is given to processes involving the transfer of two nucleons, which are specific for probing pairing correlations in nuclei. This novel treatment provides, together with the description of surface vibration and rotations, a unified picture of heavy ion reactions in terms of the elementary modes of nuclear excitation. Heavy Ion Reactions is essential reading for beginning graduate students as well as experienced researchers.

  16. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part II

    Vladimír Plos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article follows on the Part I, where the basic processes on uncontrolled aerodromes were introduced. The uncontrolled aerodromes face with the growing traffic and from that result the higher workload on AFIS officer. This means a higher potential for dangerous situations.The article describes some models of sub-processes and creates several safety indicators related to the operation at uncontrolled aerodromes. Thanks to monitoring and evaluation of safety indicators can be adopted targeted safety measures and thus increase safety on small uncontrolled aerodromes.

  17. Sintering uranium oxide using a preheating step

    Jensen, N.J.; Nivas, Y.; Packard, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide or uranium oxide with one or more additives are heated in a kiln in a process having a preheating step, a sintering step, a reduction step, and a cooling step in a controlled atmosphere. The process is practiced to give a range of temperature and atmosphere conditions for obtaining optimum fluoride removal from the compacted pellets along with optimum sintering in a single process. The preheating step of this process is conducted in a temperature range of about 600 0 to about 900 0 C and the pellets are held for at least twenty min, and preferably about 60 min, in an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 10 to about 75 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The sintering step is conducted at a temperature in the range of about 900 0 C to 1500 0 C in the presence of an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 0.5 to about 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The reduction step reduces the oxygen to metal ratio of the pellets to a range of about 1.98 to 2.10:1 and this is accomplished by gradually cooling the pellets for about 30 to about 120 min from the temperature of the sintering step to about 1100 0 C in an atmosphere of about 10 to 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. Thereafter the pellets are cooled to about 100 0 C under a protective atmosphere, and in one preferred practice the same atmosphere used in the reduction step is used in the cooling step. The preheating, sintering and reduction steps may also be conducted with their respective atmospheres having an initial additional component of water vapor and the water vapor can comprise up to about 20 vol %

  18. Selective laser sintering: A qualitative and objective approach

    Kumar, Sanjay

    2003-10-01

    This article presents an overview of selective laser sintering (SLS) work as reported in various journals and proceedings. Selective laser sintering was first done mainly on polymers and nylon to create prototypes for audio-visual help and fit-to-form tests. Gradually it was expanded to include metals and alloys to manufacture functional prototypes and develop rapid tooling. The growth gained momentum with the entry of commercial entities such as DTM Corporation and EOS GmbH Electro Optical Systems. Computational modeling has been used to understand the SLS process, optimize the process parameters, and enhance the efficiency of the sintering machine.

  19. Improving NASICON Sinterability through Crystallization under High-Frequency Electrical Fields

    Lisenker, Ilya; Stoldt, Conrad R., E-mail: stoldt@colorado.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The effect of high-frequency (HF) electric fields on the crystallization and sintering rates of a lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP) ion conducting ceramic was investigated. LAGP with the nominal composition Li{sub 1.5}Al{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 1.5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} was crystallized and sintered, both conventionally and under effect of electrical field. Electrical field application, of 300 V/cm at 1 MHz, produced up to a 40% improvement in sintering rate of LAGP that was crystallized and sintered under the HF field. Heat sink effect of the electrodes appears to arrest thermal runaway and subsequent flash behavior. Sintered pellets were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, TEM, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to compare conventionally and field-sintered processes. The as-sintered structure appears largely unaffected by the field as the sintering curves tend to converge beyond initial stages of sintering. Differences in densities and microstructure after 1 h of sintering were minor with measured sintering strains of 31 vs. 26% with and without field, respectively. Ionic conductivity of the sintered pellets was evaluated, and no deterioration due to the use of HF field was noted, though capacitance of grain boundaries due to secondary phases was significantly increased.

  20. Recursive estimation of the parts production process quality indicator

    Filipovich Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consideration is given to a mathematical representation for manufacturing of batch parts on a metal-cutting machine tool. Linear dimensions of machined parts are assumed to be the major quality indicator, deviation from these dimensions is determined by size setting of machine tool and ensemble of random factors. It is allowed to have absolutely precise pre-setting of machine tool, effects from setup level offsetting due to deformation in process equipment on the specified indicator are disregarded. Consideration is given to factors which affect the tool wear, with two definitions of tool wear being provided. Reasons for development of random error in processing, dependence of measurement results on error as well as distribution laws and some parameters of random values are provided. To evaluate deviation of size setting value in each cycle, it is proposed to apply a recursive algorithm in description of investigated dynamic discrete process in the space state. Kalman filter equations are used in description of process model by means of first-order difference equations. The algorithm of recursive estimation is implemented in the mathematical software Maple. Simulation results which prove effectiveness of algorithm application to investigate the given dynamic system are provided. Variants of algorithm application and opportunities of further research are proposed.

  1. Verification of the Skorohod-Olevsky Viscous Sintering (SOVS) Model

    Lester, Brian T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Sintering refers to a manufacturing process through which mechanically pressed bodies of ceramic (and sometimes metal) powders are heated to drive densification thereby removing the inherit porosity of green bodies. As the body densifies through the sintering process, the ensuing material flow leads to macroscopic deformations of the specimen and as such the final configuration differs form the initial. Therefore, as with any manufacturing step, there is substantial interest in understanding and being able to model the sintering process to predict deformation and residual stress. Efforts in this regard have been pursued for face seals, gear wheels, and consumer products like wash-basins. To understand the sintering process, a variety of modeling approaches have been pursued at different scales.

  2. Three-dimensional simulation of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering.

    Kirchhof, M J; Schmid, H -J; Peukert, W

    2009-08-01

    The viscous-flow sintering of different agglomerate particle morphologies is studied by three-dimensional computer simulations based on the concept of fractional volume of fluid. For a fundamental understanding of particle sintering characteristics, the neck growth kinetics in agglomerate chains and in doublets consisting of differently sized primary particles is investigated. Results show that different sintering contacts in agglomerates even during the first stages are not completely independent from each other, even though differences are small. The neck growth kinetics of differently sized primary particles is determined by the smaller one up to a size difference by a factor of approximately 2, whereas for larger size differences, the kinetics becomes faster. In particular, the agglomerate sintering kinetics is investigated for particle chains of different lengths and for different particle morphologies each having ten primary particles and nine initial sintering contacts. For agglomerate chains, the kinetics approximately can be normalized by using the radius of the fully coalesced sphere. In general, different agglomerate morphologies show equal kinetics during the first sintering stages, whereas during advanced stages, compact morphologies show significantly faster sintering progress than more open morphologies. Hence, the overall kinetics cannot be described by simply using constant morphology correction factors such as fractal dimension or mean coordination number which are used in common sintering models. However, for the first stages of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering, which are the most important for many particle processes, a sintering equation is presented. Although we use agglomerates consisting of spherical primary particles, our methodology can be applied to other aggregate geometries as well.

  3. Novel approaches for the in situ study of the sintering of nuclear oxide fuel materials and their surrogates

    Clavier, Nicolas; Nkou Bouala, Galy Ingrid; Dacheux, Nicolas; Podor, Renaud [Montpellier Univ., Bagnols sur Ceze (France). ICSM - UMR 5257 CEA/CNRS/ENSCM; Lechelle, Jacques [CEA, DNE, DEC, SESC, LLCC, St-Paul lez Durance (France); Martinez, Julien [CEA, DEN, DTEC, SECA, LFC, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2017-07-01

    Sintering is one of the key-points of the processing of ceramic materials. It is then of primary interest for the nuclear fuel cycle, in which it constitutes an important step in the fabrication of either UO{sub 2} or (U,Pu)O{sub 2} pellets used in current PWR reactors. The sintering of actinides oxides not only drives the final density and microstructure of the fuels, but also several characteristics that can impact significantly their behavior in the reactor. Dedicated tools are then needed to monitor the microstructure of such materials and forecast their evolution. In this frame, this paper presents the new potentialities offered by the use of environmental scanning electron microscope at high temperature (HT-ESEM) for the study of nuclear ceramics sintering. First, the results obtained from bulk pellets are detailed, either regarding original fundamental data at the grain level (such as grain boundaries and pores motion), or design of dedicated microstructures through the assessment of grain growth kinetics. Acquisition of sintering maps thanks to the combination of HT-ESEM observations and classical dilatometric measurements are also addressed. In a second part, observations undertaken at the 2-grain scale to monitor the first stage of sintering, dedicated to neck elaboration, are presented, and compared to the results currently provided by numerical models.

  4. Characterization of additive manufacturing processes for polymer micro parts productions using direct light processing (DLP) method

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    The process capability of additive manufacturing (AM) for direct production of miniaturized polymer components with micro features is analyzed in this work. The consideration of the minimum printable feature size and obtainable tolerances of AM process is a critical step to establish a process...... chains for the production of parts with micro scale features. A specifically designed direct light processing (DLP) AM machine suitable for precision printing has been used. A test part is designed having features with different sizes and aspect ratios in order to evaluate the DLP AM machine capability...

  5. Effect Of Compaction Pressure And Sintering Temperature On The Liquid Phase Sintering Behavior Of Al-Cu-Zn Alloy

    Lee S.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The liquid phase sintering characteristics of Al-Cu-Zn alloy were investigated with respect to various powder metallurgy processing conditions. Powders of each alloying elements were blended to form Al-6Cu-5Zn composition and compacted with pressures of 200, 400, and 600 MPa. The sintering process was performed at various temperatures of 410, 560, and 615°C in N2 gas atmosphere. Density and micro-Vickers hardness measurements were conducted at different processing stages, and transverse rupture strength of sintered materials was examined for each condition, respectively. The microstructure was characterized using optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of Zn addition on the liquid phase sintering behavior during P/M process of the Al-Cu-Zn alloy was also discussed in detail.

  6. Sintering behavior of LZSA glass-ceramics

    Oscar Rubem Klegues Montedo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The LZSA glass-ceramic system (Li2O-ZrO2-SiO2-Al2O 3 shows interesting properties, such as good chemical resistance, low thermal expansion, high abrasion resistance, and a low dielectric constant. However, in order to obtain a high performance material for specific applications, the sintering behavior must be better understood so that the porosity may be reduced and other properties improved. In this context, a sintering investigation for a specific LZSA glass-ceramic system composition was carried out. A 18.8Li2O-8.3ZrO2-64.2SiO2-8.7Al 2O3 glass was prepared by melting the solids, quenching the melt in water, and grinding the resulting solid in order to obtain a powder (3.68 μm average particle diameter. Subsequently, the glass powder was characterized (chemical analysis and determination of thermal properties and the sintering behavior was investigated using optical non-contact dilatometry measurements. The results showed that the crystallization process strongly reduced the sintering in the temperature interval from 785 to 940 °C, and a maximum thermal shrinkage of 15.4% was obtained with operating conditions of 1020 °C and 180 minutes.

  7. Laser Sintering Technology and Balling Phenomenon.

    Oyar, Perihan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the balling phenomenon which occurs typically in Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). The balling phenomenon is a typical SLS defect, and observed in laser sintered powder, significantly reduces the quality of SLS, and hinders the further development of SLS Technology. Electronic database searches were performed using Google Scholar. The keywords "laser sintering, selective laser sintering, direct metal laser melting, and balling phenomenon" were searched in title/abstract of publications, limited to December 31, 2016. The inclusion criteria were SLS, balling phenomenon, some alloys (such as Cr-Co, iron, stainless steel, and Cu-based alloys) mechanical properties, microstructure and bond strength between metal-ceramic crown, laboratory studies, full text, and in English language. A total of 100 articles were found the initial search and yielded a total of 50 studies, 30 of which did not fulfill the inclusion criteria and were therefore excluded. In addition, 20 studies were found by screening the reference list of all included publications. Finally, 40 studies were selected for this review. The method in question is regulated by powder material characteristics and the conditions of laser processing. The procedure of formation, affecting factors, and the mechanism of the balling effect are very complex.

  8. Thermodynamics and mechanisms of sintering

    Pask, J.A.

    1978-10-01

    A phenomenological overview and exploration of the thermodynamic and geometric factors play a role in the process of densification of model compact systems consisting of crystalline spheres of uniform size in regular and irregular packing that form grain boundaries at every contact point. A further assumption is the presence of isotropic surface and grain boundary energies. Although such systems are unrealistic in comparison with normal powder compacts, their potential sintering behavior can be analyzed and provided with a limiting set of behavior conditions which can be looked upon as one boundary condition. This approach is logically realistic since it is easier to understand and provide a basis for understanding the more complex real powder systems

  9. The dimensional accuracy of the sintered billets

    Чингиз Ариф оглы Алиев

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of assessing the impact of the behaviour stability of the components included in the compositions and process parameters of their production, on the dimensional accuracy of workpieces. It was found that by increasing the amount of oxide in the composition is greater compaction of the sintered billet in the process of heat treatment. This also increases the density of all components of the composition

  10. Production and processing of spinel semi-porous sintered blocks to CAD-CAM with lanthanum-glass infiltration for dental applications

    Lourenco, A.A.C.; Ogasawara, T.; Costa Neto, C.A.; Santos, F.V.C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain direct synthesis and sintering spinel by using powder mixing method for CAD-CAM ceramics manufacturing. Powders of alumina and magnesia (71.8 wt% Al2O3 and 28.2 wt% MgO) were mixed with 5 wt% of PVA and PEG binders and homogenized using ball mill (12h), then deagglomerated and submitted to uniaxial pressing into discs and plates (54 to 221.96 MPa), followed by isostatic pressing (186.03 MPa) and sintering at 1500 deg C(GrI) , 1600 C(GrII) and 1700 deg C(GrIII). Characterizations: XRD, density and four-point flexural strength and (for GrIII) elasticity modulus and Vickers microhardness. Lanthanum-glass was infiltrated into samples from all three Groups. Conclusions: (1) Plenty success for the pediatrician method; (2) Maximum density achieved for GrIII, best mechanical strength for GrII (compared to that of commercial product ), this last one being the most indicated for In-Ceram manufacturing via CAD-CAM route; (3) The flexural strength of GrI might be improved a lot after Lanthanum-glass infiltration. (author)

  11. Additive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Control

    Pedersen, David Bue

    This Ph.D dissertation,ffAdditive Manufacturing: Multi Material Processing and Part Quality Controlff, deal with Additive Manufacturing technologies which is a common name for a series of processes that are recognized by being computer controlled, highly automated, and manufacture objects...... by a layered deposition of material. Two areas of particular interest is addressed. They are rooted in two very different areas, yet is intended to fuel the same goal. To help Additive Manufacturing technologies one step closer to becoming the autonomous, digital manufacturing method of tomorrow. Vision...... systems A paradox exist in the field of Additive Manufacturing. The technologies allow for close-to unrestrained and integral geometrical freedom. Almost any geometry can be manufactured fast, e"ciently and cheap. Something that has been missing fundamental capability since the entering of the industrial...

  12. Influence of size and volume fraction of SiC particulates on properties of ex situ reinforced Al-4.5Cu-3Mg metal matrix composite prepared by direct metal laser sintering process

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Midnapore (West), Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Saha, Partha, E-mail: psaha@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Midnapore (West), Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Kishore, Shyam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Midnapore (West), Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India)

    2010-07-15

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process has a great potential to prepare metal matrix composites (MMCs) in fabrication of arbitrary shaped jobs through rapid manufacturing. In the present work, silicon carbide particulates reinforced aluminium based metal matrix composite was developed by direct metal laser sintering process. Influences of SiC particulate (SiCp) on density, porosity and microhardness of the composite were investigated. It shows that SiCp having 300 mesh size provides higher density and lower porosity because of lower clustering effect. Higher microhardness was achieved at 1200 mesh of reinforcement because of lower grain size. Microhardness increases with increase of volume fraction of SiCp and higher value was achieved at high reinforcement content of 30 vol.%. Microstructure was studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray elemental mapping. Interfacial microstructure was also investigated and cracks were found in number of cases due to difference between co-efficient of thermal expansion of matrix alloy and SiCp.

  13. Influence of size and volume fraction of SiC particulates on properties of ex situ reinforced Al-4.5Cu-3Mg metal matrix composite prepared by direct metal laser sintering process

    Ghosh, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Partha; Kishore, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process has a great potential to prepare metal matrix composites (MMCs) in fabrication of arbitrary shaped jobs through rapid manufacturing. In the present work, silicon carbide particulates reinforced aluminium based metal matrix composite was developed by direct metal laser sintering process. Influences of SiC particulate (SiCp) on density, porosity and microhardness of the composite were investigated. It shows that SiCp having 300 mesh size provides higher density and lower porosity because of lower clustering effect. Higher microhardness was achieved at 1200 mesh of reinforcement because of lower grain size. Microhardness increases with increase of volume fraction of SiCp and higher value was achieved at high reinforcement content of 30 vol.%. Microstructure was studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray elemental mapping. Interfacial microstructure was also investigated and cracks were found in number of cases due to difference between co-efficient of thermal expansion of matrix alloy and SiCp.

  14. Mechanisms of sintering

    Mohan, Ashok; Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    The basic mechanisms by which the material moves during sintering have not only held a strange fascination but are also very important in determining the properties of the end product. Kuczynski's exponent method has been subsequently refined by several schools to make it increasingly reliable. There is now a fairly good understanding of mechanisms in some of the materials. However in others the issue is complicated by their basic nature. The problems of ambiguity in criterion and that of more than one mechanism being simultaneously operative have been tackled with dexterity by Ashby for drawing sintering mechanism diagrams. The method has been modified to give Relative Contribution Diagrams (RCD). These yield additional information and have been used for analysis. The main criticism against this is that it uses a very large number of rate equations and material properties, which can communicate their inaccuracies to the diagram. A case study of UO 2 was undertaken and it has been shown quantitatively that inaccuracies in a smaller number of properties only affect the diagrams to any significant extent. (auth.)

  15. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The best condition was red mud content of 40% and sintering at 1050 °C for 2 h. ► Bricks’ weight loss was caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. ► Bricks’ sintering shrinkage depended on the sodium and iron compounds of red mud. ► Sintering can strengthen bricks and decrease leaching concentration of toxic metal. - Abstract: The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050 °C and sintering time of 2 h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards.

  16. Damage Behavior of Sintered Fiber Felts

    Nicolas Lippitz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of aircraft noise is important due to a rising number of flights and the growth of urban centers close to airports. During landing, a significant part of the noise is generated by flow around the airframe. To reduce that noise porous trailing edges are investigated. Ideally, the porous materials should to be structural materials as well. Therefore, the mechanical properties and damage behavior are of major interest. The aim of this study is to show the change of structure and the damage behavior of sintered fiber felts, which are promising materials for porous trailing edges, under tensile loading using a combination of tensile tests and three dimensional computed tomography scans. By stopping the tensile test after a defined stress or strain and scanning the sample, it is possible to correlate structural changes and the development of damage to certain features in the stress-strain curve and follow the damage process with a high spatial resolution. Finally, the correlation between material structure and mechanical behavior is demonstrated.

  17. Low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen in uranium dioxide

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B.N.; Anuradha, M.; Nageshwara Rao, P.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Ganguly, C.

    2000-01-01

    Low sintered density and density variation in sintered UO 2 were found to have been caused by non uniformity in the granule feed characteristics to the compacting press. The nitrogen impurity content of sintered UO 2 was found to be sintering furnace related and associated with low sintered density pellets. The problems of low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen could be solved by the replacement of the prevailing four punch precompaction by a single punch process; by the introduction of a vibro-sieve for the separation of fine particles from the press feed granules; by innovation in the powder feed shoe design for simultaneous and uniform dispensing of powder in all the die holes; by increasing the final compaction pressure and by modifying the gas flows and preheat temperature in the sintering furnace. (author)

  18. Improved microstructure and thermoelectric properties of iodine doped indium selenide as a function of sintering temperature

    Dhama, Pallavi; Kumar, Aparabal; Banerji, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we explored the effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure, thermal and electrical properties of iodine doped indium selenide in the temperature range 300 - 700 K. Samples were prepared by a collaborative process of vacuum melting, ball milling and spark plasma sintering at 570 K, 630 K and 690 K. Single phase samples were obtained at higher sintering temperature as InSe is stable only at lower temperature. With increasing sintering temperature, densities of the samples were found to improve with larger grain size formation. Negative values of Seebeck coefficient were observed which indicates n-type carrier transport. Seebeck coefficient increases with sintering temperature and found to be the highest for the sample sintered at 690 K. Thermal conductivity found to be lower in the samples sintered at lower temperatures. The maximum thermoelectric figure of merit found to be ˜ 1 at 700 K due to the enhanced power factor as a result of improved microstructure.

  19. Commercial development of a new process of uraniferous ore sintering by pelletizing before dump leaching (wet process) application to a very clayey ore of Nord-Aquitaine

    Videau, G.; Roche, M.

    1990-01-01

    Much of the French uranium ore contains clay of sedimentary origin or derived from the alteration of rocks of the granite type. During a dump leaching operation by a wet process, these clays reduce the percolation rates and sometimes the percolation rates are so low that the very essence of the dump leaching operation can be called in question. This problem arises particularly for the treatment of the ore of Nord-Aquitaine. The results of tests, carried out at the SEPA in Bessines, have shown that after pelletizing clayey ores with sodium silicate in the presence of sulphuric acid for the polymerization of the silicate, the percolation rates were much increased. This new method was successfully applied, from a laboratory column to a pilot dump of 500 tonnes for the very clayey ore of Nord-Aquitaine. This ore of low grade (approx. 1000 ppm of U) seems to be difficult to upgrade by any other method of treatment in the present economic context [fr

  20. Ash chemistry and sintering, verification of the mechanisms

    Hupa, M.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project four sintering mechanisms have been studied, i.e., partial melting with a viscous liquid, partial melting with a non-viscous liquid, chemical reaction sintering and solid state sintering. The work has aimed at improving the understanding of ash sintering mechanisms and quantifying their role in combustion and gasification. The work has been oriented in particular on the understanding of biomass ash behavior. The work has not directly focused on any specific technical application. However, results can also be applied on other fuels such as brown coal, petroleum coke, black liquor and different types of wastes (PDF, RDF, MSW). In one part of study the melting behavior was calculated for ten biomass ashes and compared with lab measurements of sintering tendencies. The comparison showed that the T{sub 15} temperatures, i.e. those temperatures at which the ashes contained 15 % molten phase, correlated fairly well with the temperature at which the sintering measurements detected sintering. This suggests that partial melting can be predicted fairly accurate for some ashes already with the today existing thermodynamic calculation routines. In some cases, however the melting calculations did not correlate with the detected sintering temperatures. In a second part detailed measurements on ash behavior was conducted both in a semi full scale CFB and a lab scale FBC. Ashes and deposits were collected and analyzed in several different ways. These analyses show that the ash chemistry shifts radically when the fuel is shifted. Fuels with silicate based ashes behaved totally different than those with an oxide or salt based ash. The chemistry was also affected by fuel blending. The ultimate goal has been to be able to predict the ash thermal behavior during biomass thermal conversion, using the fuel and ash elemental analyses and a few operational key parameters as the only input data. This goal has not yet today been achieved. (author)

  1. One step sintering of homogenized bauxite raw material and kinetic study

    Gao, Chang-he; Jiang, Peng; Li, Yong; Sun, Jia-lin; Zhang, Jun-jie; Yang, Huan-ying

    2016-10-01

    A one-step sintering process of bauxite raw material from direct mining was completed, and the kinetics of this process was analyzed thoroughly. The results show that the sintering kinetics of bauxite raw material exhibits the liquid-phase sintering behavior. A small portion of impurities existed in the raw material act as a liquid phase. After X-ray diffraction analyses, scanning electron microscopy observations, and kinetics calculations, sintering temperature and heating duration were determined as the two major factors contributing to the sintering process and densification of bauxite ore. An elevated heating temperature and longer duration favor the densification process. The major obstacle for the densification of bauxite material is attributed to the formation of the enclosed blowhole during liquid-phase sintering.

  2. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  3. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei

    2015-01-01

    Constrained sintering of tubular bi-layered structures is being used in the development of various technologies. Densification mismatch between the layers making the tubular bi-layer can generate stresses, which may create processing defects. An analytical model is presented to describe the densi...... and thermo-mechanical analysis. Results from the analytical model are found to agree well with finite element simulations as well as measurements from sintering experiment....

  4. Initial results of a high-power microwave sintering experiment at ORNL

    Kimrey, H.D.; White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Becher, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments have recently begun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop microwave sintering techniques suitable for large ceramic parts. Microwave sintering offers the advantages of faster heating rates, more uniform heating, and greater energy efficiency than conventional sintering techniques. We are using 28-GHz, 200-kW cw gyrotrons as the heating source. An untuned cavity is used as the applicator to eliminate geometry sensitivity in coupling efficiency

  5. Alloying behavior and deformation twinning in a CoNiFeCrAl0.6Ti0.4 high entropy alloy processed by spark plasma sintering

    Fu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Weiping; Fang, Sicong; Zhang, Dayue; Xiao, Huaqiang; Zhu, Dezhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CoNiFeCrAl 0.6 Ti 0.4 high entropy alloy has been synthesized via MA and SPS. ► Deformation twinning possibly occurred during MA or SPS. ► This alloy exhibits excellent mechanical properties. ► The fracture mechanism of this alloy is intergranular fracture and plastic fracture. -- Abstract: Inequi-atomic CoNiFeCrAl 0.6 Ti 0.4 high entropy alloy has been designed and fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). Alloying behavior, microstructure, phase evolution and mechanical properties of CoNiFeCrAl 0.6 Ti 0.4 alloy were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), as well as by an Instron testing system. During MA, a supersaturated solid solution consisting of a FCC phase and a metastable BCC phase was formed. Two FCC phases (named FCC1 and FCC2) and a new BCC phase were observed after SPS. During SPS, the metastable BCC phase transformed into the FCC2 phase and the new BCC phase. Meanwhile, the FCC1 phase was the initial FCC phase which was formed during MA. Moreover, nanoscale twins obviously presented only in partial FCC1 phase after SPS. Deformation twinning may be occurred during MA or SPS. The sintered alloy with a high relative density of 98.83% exhibits excellent comprehensive mechanical properties. The yield stress, compressive strength, compression ratio and Vickers hardness of the alloy are 2.08, 2.52 GPa, 11.5% and 573 H V , respectively. The fracture mechanism of CoNiFeCrAl 0.6 Ti 0.4 high entropy alloy is mainly performed at intergranular fracture and plastic fracture mode

  6. Spark plasma sintering of tantalum carbide

    Khaleghi, Evan; Lin, Yen-Shan; Meyers, Marc A.; Olevsky, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    A tantalum carbide powder was consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The specimens were processed under various temperature and pressure conditions and characterized in terms of relative density, grain size, rupture strength and hardness. The results are compared to hot pressing conducted under similar settings. It is shown that high densification is accompanied by substantial grain growth. Carbon nanotubes were added to mitigate grain growth; however, while increasing specimens' rupture strength and final density, they had little effect on grain growth.

  7. Multiphysics modeling of selective laser sintering/melting

    Ganeriwala, Rishi Kumar

    A significant percentage of total global employment is due to the manufacturing industry. However, manufacturing also accounts for nearly 20% of total energy usage in the United States according to the EIA. In fact, manufacturing accounted for 90% of industrial energy consumption and 84% of industry carbon dioxide emissions in 2002. Clearly, advances in manufacturing technology and efficiency are necessary to curb emissions and help society as a whole. Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to a relatively recent group of manufacturing technologies whereby one can 3D print parts, which has the potential to significantly reduce waste, reconfigure the supply chain, and generally disrupt the whole manufacturing industry. Selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM) is one type of AM technology with the distinct advantage of being able to 3D print metals and rapidly produce net shape parts with complicated geometries. In SLS/SLM parts are built up layer-by-layer out of powder particles, which are selectively sintered/melted via a laser. However, in order to produce defect-free parts of sufficient strength, the process parameters (laser power, scan speed, layer thickness, powder size, etc.) must be carefully optimized. Obviously, these process parameters will vary depending on material, part geometry, and desired final part characteristics. Running experiments to optimize these parameters is costly, energy intensive, and extremely material specific. Thus a computational model of this process would be highly valuable. In this work a three dimensional, reduced order, coupled discrete element - finite difference model is presented for simulating the deposition and subsequent laser heating of a layer of powder particles sitting on top of a substrate. Validation is provided and parameter studies are conducted showing the ability of this model to help determine appropriate process parameters and an optimal powder size distribution for a given material. Next, thermal stresses upon

  8. Production of pure sintered alumina

    Rocha, J.C. da; Huebner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing the sintering parameters, the strength of a large number of alumina samples was determined which were produced under widely varying sintering conditions and with different amounts of MgO content. The strength as a function of sintering time or temperature was found to go through a maximum. With increasing time, this maximum is shifted to lower temperatures, and with decreasing temperature to longer times. Data pairs of sintering times and temperatures which yeld the strength maximum were determined. The value of the strength at the maximum remains unchanged. The strength is high (= 400 MN/m 2 , at a grain size of 3 um and a porosity of 2 per cent) and comparable to foreign aluminas produced for commercial purposes, or even higher. The increase in the sintering time from 1 h to 16 h permits a reduction of the sintering temperature from 1600 to 1450 0 C without losing strength. The practical importance of this fact for a production of sintered alumina on a large scale is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting of Powder Produced by Granulation-Sintering-Deoxygenation Method

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Z. Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Commercial spherical Ti powders for additive manufacturing applications are produced today by melt-atomization methods at relatively high costs. A meltless production method, called granulation-sintering-deoxygenation (GSD), was developed recently to produce spherical Ti alloy powder at a significantly reduced cost. In this new process, fine hydrogenated Ti particles are agglomerated to form spherical granules, which are then sintered to dense spherical particles. After sintering, the solid fully dense spherical Ti alloy particles are deoxygenated using novel low-temperature deoxygenation processes with either Mg or Ca. This technical communication presents results of 3D printing using GSD powder and the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. The results showed that tensile properties of parts fabricated from spherical GSD Ti-6Al-4V powder by SLM are comparable with typical mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V. The characteristics of 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V from GSD powder are also compared with that of commercial materials.

  10. Zone refining of sintered, microwave-derived YBCO superconductors

    Warrier, K.G.K.; Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Post-sintering treatments such as zone melting under thermal gradient has been conducted on sintered YBCO tape cast films. YBCO precursor powder was derived through decomposition of a mixture of nitrates of cations in a microwave oven for ∼4 min. The resulting powder was characterized and made into thin sheets by tape casting and then sintered at 945 C for 5 h. The sintered tapes were subjected to repeated zone refining operations at relatively high speeds of ∼30 mm/h. A microstructure having uniformly oriented grains in the a-b plane throughout the bulk of the sample was obtained by three repeated zone refining operations. Details of precursor preparation, microwave processing and its advantages, zone refining conditions, and microstructural features are presented in this paper

  11. Quartz crystal reinforced quartz glass by spark plasma sintering

    Torikai, D.; Barazani, B.; Ono, E.; Santos, M.F.M.; Suzuki, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Spark Plasma Sintering presents fast processing time when compared to conventional sintering techniques. This allows to control the grain growth during sintering as well as the diffusion rate of a multi-material compounds, and make possible obtainment of functionally graded materials and nanostructured compounds. Powders of high purity silica glass and crystalline silica were sintered in a SPS equipment at temperatures around 1350° C, i.e., above the softening temperature of silica glass and below the melting temperature of quartz crystal. As a result, glass ceramics with pure silica glass matrix reinforced with crystalline alpha-quartz grains were fabricated at almost any desired range of composition, as well as controlled size of the crystalline reinforcement. X-ray diffraction and density measurements showed the possibility to manufacture a well controlled density and crystallinity glass-ceramic materials. (author)

  12. Grain-growth law during Stage 1 sintering of materials

    He Zeming; Ma, J.

    2002-01-01

    This work investigates the grain-growth behaviour of powder compact during Stage 1 sintering (<90{%} theoretical density). It is widely accepted that grain size is an important state variable in the constitutive modelling in material sintering. However, it is noted that all the existing grain-growth laws proposed in the literature do not incorporate the effect of externally applied stress independently. In this work, a grain-growth law with externally applied stress as a variable was proposed. Alumina powders were forge-sintered at different applied stresses to examine the proposed grain-growth relationship. The proposed grain-growth law was then applied to model the grain-growth process on the sinter forging of tool steel. It is shown that the present proposed grain-growth law provides a good description on the experimental results. (author)

  13. Two-step flash light sintering of copper nanoparticle ink to remove substrate warping

    Ryu, Chung-Hyeon; Joo, Sung-Jun [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: kima@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • We performed the two-step flash light sintering for copper nanoparticle ink to remove substrate warping. • 12 J/cm{sup 2} of preheating and 7 J/cm{sup 2} of main sintering energies were determined as optimum conditions to sinter the copper nanoparticle ink. • The resistivity of two-step sintered copper nanoparticle ink was 3.81 μΩ cm with 5B adhesion level, 2.3 times greater than that of bulk copper. • The two-step sintered case showed a high conductivity without any substrate warping. - Abstract: A two-step flash light sintering process was devised to reduce the warping of polymer substrates during the sintering of copper nanoparticle ink. To determine the optimum sintering conditions of the copper nanoparticle ink, the flash light irradiation conditions (pulse power, pulse number, on-time, and off-time) were varied and optimized. In order to monitor the flash light sintering process, in situ resistance and temperature monitoring of copper nanoink were conducted during the flash light sintering process. Also, a transient heat transfer analysis was performed by using the finite-element program ABAQUS to predict the temperature changes of copper nanoink and polymer substrate. The microstructures of the sintered copper nanoink films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, an X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the crystal phase change of the sintered copper nanoparticles. The resulting two-step flash light sintered copper nanoink films exhibited a low resistivity (3.81 μΩ cm, 2.3 times of that of bulk copper) and 5B level of adhesion strength without warping of the polymer substrate.

  14. Mechanohydrogen processing as an element of hydrogen process of production of titanium alloy parts

    Egorova, Yu.B.; Il'in, A.A.; Levochkin, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The regularities of the effect of hydrogen on cutting machinability of titanium alloys are generalized. The main principles of mechanohydrogen treatment are founded. The effectiveness of titanium alloys machining with the use of reversible hydrogen alloying depends on hydrogen content, hydrogen pickup temperature and cutting modes. High-performance technological processes of manufacturing parts and constructions made of titanium alloys are proposed [ru

  15. Nano or micro grained alumina powder? A choose before sintering

    Román, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different wet routes have been used to synthesize alumina powders in order to compare the characteristics of the final product and its behaviour during sintering. The Homogeneous Precipitation (HP gives rise to nanoparticulated powders of about 2 nm. However, such particles quickly aggregate and grow with calcination temperature. The Polymerized Organic-Inorganic Synthesis (POI produces homogeneous particle size powders (about 1 micron after resin charring. The characterization of the powder surface is the basis of an efficient process control. Particle characterization parameters (morphology, crystallinity and degree of aggregation are characterized by different techniques, such as DTA/TG, IR, XRD, SEM and TEM, and compared between these synthesis methods. The results show the evolution from the amorphous to the corundum alumina phase for both processes and their ability for sintering, as well discuses the beneficial of nanoparticles obtained by HP during sintering.

    Se han utilizado dos diferentes síntesis por vía húmeda para la preparación de polvos de alúmina con el fin de comparar las características de los productos finales y su comportamiento durante la sinterización. La Precipitación Homogénea (HP da lugar a polvos nanoparticulados de unos 2nm. Se observa sin embargo, como estas partículas se agregan rápidamente y crecen con la temperatura de calcinación. La Síntesis por Polimerización Orgánica-Inorgánica (POI produce polvos de tamaño de partícula homogéneo (en torno a 1 micra después de la descomposión de la resina. La caracterización de la superficie de los polvos es la base de un control eficiente del proceso. Los parámetros de caracterización de las partículas obtenidas (morfología, cristalinidad y grado de agregación se obtienen por diferentes técnicas como DTA/TG, IR, XRD, SEM y TEM, y se comparan entre estos métodos de síntesis. Los resultados muestran la evolución desde el amorfo a la fase

  16. Sinterability and microstructure evolution during sintering of ferrous powder mixtures

    Kétner Bendo Demétrio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on ferrous powder metallurgy and presents some results of a development of a suitable masteralloy for use as an additive to iron powder for the production of sintered steels. The masteralloy was produced by melting a powder mixture containing approximately Fe + 20% Ni + 20% Mn + 20% Si + 1% C (wt%, in order to obtain a cast billet that was converted into fine powder by crushing and milling. It was observed presence of SiC in the masteralloy after melting that is undesirable in the alloy. Si element should be introduced by using ferrosilicon. Sintered alloys with distinct contents of alloying elements were prepared by mixing the masteralloy powder to plain iron powder. Samples were produced by die compaction of the powder mixtures and sintering at 1200 °C in a differential dilatometer in order to record their linear dimensional behaviour during heating up and isothermal sintering, aiming at studying the sinterability of the compacts. Microstructure development during sintering was studied by SEM, XRD and microprobe analyses.

  17. Microwave-assisted sintering of non-stoichiometric strontium bismuth niobate ceramic: Structural and dielectric properties

    Singh, Rajveer [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Atmaram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110021 (India); Luthra, Vandna [Department of Physics, Gargi College, University of Delhi, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi 110049 (India); Tandon, R.P., E-mail: ram_tandon@hotmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-11-01

    In recent years the microwave sintering has been utilized for the synthesis of materials in enhancement of the properties. In this paper strontium bismuth niobate (Sr{sub 0.8}Bi{sub 2.2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}:SBN) bulk ceramic has been synthesized by microwave reactive sintering and conventional heating techniques. A relative density of 99.6% has been achieved for microwave sintered SBN, which is higher than that of (98.81%) conventionally sintered SBN. The phase formation of SBN synthesized by both processes has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of SBN was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure was found to be more uniform in case of SBN sintered by microwave sintering. The dielectric properties of SBN were studied as a function of frequency in the temperature range of 30–500 °C. Both the samples synthesized by two different processes were found to follow Curie–Weiss law above the transition temperature. The Curie temperature was found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN. The dielectric constant and the transition temperature were observed to be higher for SBN ceramic synthesized by microwave sintering technique. The ac and dc activation energy values were also found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN as compared to conventional sintering technique.

  18. Photoacoustic spectroscopy investigation of sintered zinc-tin-oxide ceramics

    Ivetić Tamara B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the changes that occurred in differently activated ZnO-SnO2 and sintered samples were investigated using photoacoustic spectroscopy. ZnO and SnO2 powders, mixed in the molar ratio 2:1, were mechanically activated in a planetary ball mill for 10-160 min. The mixtures were pres­sed and isothermally sintered at 1300°C for two hours. X-ray diffraction analysis of the obtained sintered samples was performed in order to investigate changes of the phase composition and confirmed only the presence of a pure zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4 phase in all the sintered samples as a result of the solid state reaction and reaction sintering between the starting ZnO and SnO2 powders. The microstructure of the sintered sam­ples was examined by scanning electron microscopy and showed that mechanical activation leads to the formation of a structure with reduced particle size which accelerates spinel formation. Grain growth of the spinel phase slows down the densification process and together with the agglomerates formed during mechanical activation causes the appearance of a porous microstructure. The photoacoustic (PA phase and amplitude spectra of the sintered samples were recorded as a function of the chopped frequency of the laser beam used (red laser with a power of 25 mW, λ=632 nm in a thermal-transmission detection configuration. PA experimental data were analyzed using the Rosenzweig-Gersho thermal-piston model, which enabled determination of the thermal diffusivity, ZT (m2s-1, diffusion coefficient of the minority free carriers D (m2s-1 and the optical absorption coefficient (m-1. The detected differences of the measured thermal-electrical properties of the obtained Zn2SnO4 ceramics indicate changes in the material induced by the different preparation procedure of the starting powders before the sintering process.

  19. Designing a Tool System for Lowering Friction during the Ejection of In-Die Sintered Micro Gears

    Emanuele Cannella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous improvements in micro-forging technologies generally involve process, material, and tool design. The field assisted sintering technique (FAST is a process that makes possible the manufacture of near-net-shape components in a closed-die setup. However, the final part quality is affected by the influence of friction during the ejection phase, caused by radial expansion of the compacted and sintered powder. This paper presents the development of a pre-stressed tool system for the manufacture of micro gears made of aluminum. By using the hot isostatic pressing (HIP sintering process and different combinations of process parameters, the designed tool system was compared to a similar tool system designed without a pre-stressing strategy. The comparison between the two tool systems was based on the ejection force and part fidelity. The ejection force was measured during the tests, while the part fidelity was documented using an optical microscope and computed tomography in order to obtain a multi-scale characterization. The results showed that the use of pre-stress reduced the porosity in the gear by 40% and improved the dimensional fidelity by more than 75% compared to gears produced without pre-stress.

  20. Thermoelectric Coolers with Sintered Silver Interconnects

    Kähler, Julian; Stranz, Andrej; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication and performance of a sintered Peltier cooler (SPC) based on bismuth telluride with sintered silver interconnects are described. Miniature SPC modules with a footprint of 20 mm2 were assembled using pick-and-place pressure-assisted silver sintering at low pressure (5.5 N/mm2) and moderate temperature (250°C to 270°C). A modified flip-chip bonder combined with screen/stencil printing for paste transfer was used for the pick-and-place process, enabling high positioning accuracy, easy handling of the tiny bismuth telluride pellets, and immediate visual process control. A specific contact resistance of (1.4 ± 0.1) × 10-5 Ω cm2 was found, which is in the range of values reported for high-temperature solder interconnects of bismuth telluride pellets. The realized SPCs were evaluated from room temperature to 300°C, considerably outperforming the operating temperature range of standard commercial Peltier coolers. Temperature cycling capability was investigated from 100°C to 235°C over more than 200 h, i.e., 850 cycles, during which no degradation of module resistance or cooling performance occurred.

  1. Lanthanide (Nd, Gd) compounds with garnet and monazite structures. Powders synthesis by “wet” chemistry to sintering ceramics by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Potanina, Ekaterina, E-mail: ekaterina.potanina@list.ru [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, National Research University, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, BLDG 2, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Golovkina, Ludmila, E-mail: golovkina_lyudmila@mail.ru [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, National Research University, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, BLDG 2, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Orlova, Albina, E-mail: albina.orlova@inbox.ru [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, National Research University, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, BLDG 2, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nokhrin, Aleksey, E-mail: nokhrin@nifti.unn.ru [Research Institute of Physics and Technology, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, National Research University, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, BLDG 3, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Boldin, Maksim, E-mail: boldin@nifti.unn.ru [Research Institute of Physics and Technology, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, National Research University, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, BLDG 3, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Sakharov, Nikita, E-mail: nvsaharov@nifti.unn.ru [Research Institute of Physics and Technology, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, National Research University, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, BLDG 3, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Complex oxide Y{sub 2.5}Nd{sub 0.5}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} with garnet structure and phosphates NdPO{sub 4} and GdPO{sub 4} with monazite structure were obtained by using precipitation methods. Ceramics Y{sub 2.5}Nd{sub 0.5}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} and NdPO{sub 4} were processed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Relative density more 98%, sintering time did not exceed 8 min, sintering temperature 1330–1390 °C. Leaching rates of elements from ceramics were 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} g/(cm{sup 2} d). The process of ceramics sintering has two-stage character: the first step of sintering-compaction process is related to the plastic flow of the material, the second step–to the process of grain boundary diffusion and grain growth. - Highlights: • Powders were obtained by precipitation (sol–gel) method. • Ceramics were sintering by Spark Plasma Sintering method (ρ{sub rel} > 98%); shrinkage time does not exceed 8 min. • The process of ceramics sintering has two-stage character.

  2. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density.

  3. Process maps for plasma spray. Part II: Deposition and properties

    XIANGYANG, JIANG; MATEJICEK, JIRI; KULKARNI, ANAND; HERMAN, HERBERT; SAMPATH, SANJAY; GILMORE, DELWYN L.; NEISER A, RICHARD Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of the study is the fundamental understanding of the plasma-particle interaction, droplet/substrate interaction, deposit formation dynamics and microstructure development as well as the deposit property. The outcome is science-based relationships, which can be used to link processing to performance. Molybdenum splats and coatings produced at 3 plasma conditions and three substrate temperatures were characterized. It was found that there is a strong mechanical/thermal interaction between droplet and substrate, which builds up the coatings/substrate adhesion. Hardness, thermal conductivity, and modulus increase, while oxygen content and porosity decrease with increasing particle velocity. Increasing deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by deposition temperature, although not significant by particle energy within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high deposition temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in wear tests. Possible mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context of relational maps which are under development

  4. Effects of recording time and residue on dose-response by LiMgPO4: Tb, B ceramic disc synthesized via improved sintering process

    Kong, Xirui; Fu, Zhilong; Que, Huiying; Fan, Yanwei; Chen, Zhaoyang; He, Chengfa

    2018-05-01

    The LiMgPO4: Tb, B ceramic disc is successfully synthesized via improved sintering method which enables the disc sample to have two flat and smooth surfaces. It is worth mentioning that the OSL signal intensity of LiMgPO4: Tb, B disc attenuates much faster than that of commercial Al2O3: C. It costs only 1 s to reduce the intensity to 10%, but the Al2O3:C needs more than 40 s to finish it. Some essential OSL properties related to the dose detection method of this sample also have been systematically investigated. Although the dose-response cure would have better linearity with longer recording time, extended recording time (≥6 s) will not make any contribution to the linearity of the curve. If the bleaching time is more than 35 s, the residue created by previous detection (high dose of 10 Gy) would do almost no influence (with a positive deviation lower than 5.59%) on next lower-dose detection (0.1 Gy). The material would reach its service life when the total-ionizing dose runs up to 30 k Gy. Therefore, the LiMgPO4: Tb, B ceramic material is a potential candidate for real-time dose monitoring with optical fiber telemetering technology.

  5. An evaluation of the processing conditions, structure, and properties (biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy) of sintered strontium-zinc-silicate glass ceramics.

    Looney, Mark; Shea, Helen O'; Gunn, Lynda; Crowley, Dolores; Boyd, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    The use of artificial bone grafts has increased in order to satisfy a growing demand for bone replacement materials. Initial mechanical stability of synthetic bone grafts is very advantageous for certain clinical applications. Coupled with the advantage of mechanical strength, a material with inherent antibacterial properties would be very beneficial. A series of strontium-doped zinc silicate (Ca-Sr-Na-Zn-Si) glass ceramics have been characterized in terms of their crystalline structure, biaxial flexural strength and antibacterial efficacy based on the identification of optimum sintering conditions. All three glass ceramics, namely, BT110, BT111, and BT112 were found to be fully crystalline, with BT111 and BT112 comprising of biocompatible crystalline phases. The biaxial flexural strengths of the three glass ceramics ranged from 70 to 149 MPa and were shown to be superior to those of clinically established ceramics in dry conditions and following incubation in simulated physiological conditions. The bacteriostatic effect for each glass ceramic was also established, where BT112 showed an inhibitory effect against three of the most common bacteria found at implantation sites, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of the evaluation suggest that the materials studied offer advantages over current clinical materials and indicate the potential suitability of the glass ceramics as therapeutic bone grafts.

  6. Processing of a novel nano-structured ferritic steel via spark plasma sintering and investigation of its mechanical and microstructural characteristics

    Pasebani, Somayeh; Charit, Indrajit; Wu, Yaqiao; Burns, Jatuporn; Allahar, Kerry N.; Butt, Darryl P.; Cole, James I.

    2015-01-01

    Nano-structured ferritic steels (NFSs) with 12-14 wt% Cr have attracted widespread interest for potential high temperature structural and fuel cladding applications in advanced nuclear reactors. They have excellent high temperature mechanical properties and high resistance to radiation-induced damage. The properties of the NFSs depend on the composition that mainly consists of Cr, Ti, W or Mo, and Y 2 O 3 as alloying constituents. In this study, a novel nano-structured ferritic steel (Fe-14Cr-1Ti-0.3Mo-0.5La 2 O 3 , wt%) termed as 14LMT was developed via high energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering. Vickers microhardness values were measured. Microstructural studies of the developed NFSs were performed by EBSD and TEM, which revealed a bimodal grain size distribution. A significant number density of nano-precipitates was observed in the microstructure. The diameter of the precipitates varied between 2-70 nm and the morphology from the spherical to faceted shape. The Cr-La-Ti-O-enriched nano-clusters were identified by APT studies. (authors)

  7. Developing Characterization Procedures for Qualifying both Novel Selective Laser Sintering Polymer Powders and Recycled Powders

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an additive technique which is showing great promise over conventional manufacturing techniques. SLS requires certain key material properties for a polymer powder to be successfully processed into an end-use part, and therefore limited selection of materials are available. Furthermore, there has been evidence of a powder’s quality deteriorating following each SLS processing cycle. The current investigation serves to build a path forward in identifying new SLS powder materials by developing characterization procedures for identifying key material properties as well as for detecting changes in a powder’s quality. Thermogravimetric analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and bulk density measurements were investigated.

  8. Coarsening-densification transition temperature in sintering of uranium dioxide

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Narasimha Murty, B.; Chakraborthy, K.P.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Ganguly, C.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of coarsening-densification transition temperature (CDTT) has been proposed to explain the experimental observations of the study of sintering undoped uranium dioxide and niobia-doped uranium dioxide powder compacts in argon atmosphere in a laboratory tubular furnace. The general method for deducing CDTT for a given material under the prevailing conditions of sintering and the likely variables that influence the CDTT are described. Though the present work is specific in nature for uranium dioxide sintering in argon atmosphere, the concept of CDTT is fairly general and must be applicable to sintering of any material and has immense potential to offer advantages in designing and/or optimizing the profile of a sintering furnace, in the diagnosis of the fault in the process conditions of sintering, and so on. The problems of viewing the effect of heating rate only in terms of densification are brought out in the light of observing the undesirable phenomena of coring and bloating and causes were identified and remedial measures suggested

  9. Microwave Sintering of Ceramic Materials for Industrial Application Final Report CRADA No. TC-1116-95

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tandon, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Callis, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The goal of this project was to develop the commercial capability in the US to sinter alumina oxide ceramic parts for the semiconductor manufacturing equipment industry. We planned to use the millimeter microwave (30 GHz) sintering system first developed by IAP in Russia.

  10. Spark plasma sintering of SiC and ZrC

    Guillard, F.; Galy, J. [CEMES-CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig BP94347 31055 Toulouse Cx 4 (France); Allemand, A. [CEA Saclay, DRT/DTEN/S3ME/LTMEx, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    Spark plasma sintering a relative new technique allows sintering material powders in a reduced time compared to formal process of densification. In order to analyse densification mechanisms and to compare with hot isostatic pressing technique, pellets of silicon carbide and zirconium carbide were sintered by HIP and by SPS from 1750 to 1950 deg. C, with different pressures (50 to 75 MPa) and various holding times (0 to 10 min). Their densities were determined and their microstructures were SEM analysed. (authors)

  11. The effect of various sintering temperature on used refractory towards its physical properties

    Sudibyo; Wulandari, Y. R.; Amin, M.; Azhar

    2018-01-01

    The used magnesia refractory from the kiln of cement industry was successfully recycled to new refractory using Kaolin as an adhesive. In this work, the temperatures of sintering were varied from 1000°C to 1500°C. The result shows that the increment temperature effects in sintering process will enhance refractory physical properties such as bulk density, cold crushing strength or pressure strength and thermal conductivity. Meanwhile, the porosity was decreased as the increase of the sintering temperature.

  12. Effects of sintering process, pH and temperature on chemical durability of Ce{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4} ceramics

    Ma, Jiyan; Teng, Yuancheng, E-mail: tyc239@163.com; Huang, Yi; Wu, Lang; Zhang, Kuibao; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2015-10-15

    The Ce{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4} ceramics with high relative density of 99% and small average grain size of 0.15 μm were prepared by hot-pressing at 1150 °C for 2 h. The effects of sintering process, pH values and temperature on the chemical durability of the ceramics were investigated. The results show that normalized elemental leaching rates of Pr (LR{sub Pr}) and Ce (LR{sub Ce}) of the hot-pressed ceramics are slightly lower than that of the ceramics sintered at 1500 °C for 4 h by normal pressure. The LR{sub Pr} and LR{sub Ce} reach the highest values (∼10{sup −3} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}) when pH = 3, while the LR{sub Pr} and LR{sub Ce} have the lowest values (∼10{sup −7} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}) when pH = 7. The surface of the ceramic in pH = 3 leachate appears serious corrosion with plenty of pores. The precipitation of low-soluble was formed on sample surface during leaching tests at pH = 9 and 11. - Highlights: • The Ce{sub 0.5}Pr{sub 0.5}PO{sub 4} ceramics with high relative density of 99% and small average grain size of 0.15 µm were prepared by hot-pressing at 1150 ºC for 2 h. • The normalized elemental leaching rates of Pr (LR{sub Pr}) and Ce (LR{sub Ce}) of the hot-pressed ceramics are slightly lower than that of the ceramics sintered at 1500 ºC for 4 h by normal pressure. • The LR{sub Pr} and LR{sub Ce} reach the highest values (∼10{sup −3} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}) when pH = 3, while the LR{sub Pr} and LR{sub Ce} have the lowest values (∼10{sup −7} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}) when pH = 7.

  13. Sintered stabilized zirconia microstructure and conductivity

    Bernard, Herve.

    1981-04-01

    The elaboration of a stabilized zirconia powder which sinters at 1300 0 C and the influence of the sintered polycristal microstructure on its ionic conductivity have been studied. Among three investigated powder preparation processes, coprecipitation in an ammoniacal solution was chosen. After sintering at 1300 0 C, the pellet density was higher than 93% of the theoretical density. It even approached up to 98% TD with addition of less than 0,5 mole % Al 2 O 3 to the initial powder. The overall electrolyte conductivity and the inter and intragranular contributions have been determined by complex impedance spectroscopy. ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 solid solution conductivity was scarcely improved by Y 2 O 3 exchange with Yb 2 O 3 or Gd 2 O 3 . This conductivity greatly increases with grain size, its improvement with decreasing porosity, which has been quantified, is less sensible. Moreover, two original properties were noticed: small amounts of Al 2 O 3 and quenching greatly enhanced the overall conductivity. At temperatures below 500 0 C, grain boundaries only insured a partial migration of conductive ions. A parallel type electrical equivalent circuit suited well with this blocking effect [fr

  14. Vitiligo: A part of a systemic autoimmune process

    Gopal KVT

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Recent clinical and animal experimental studies postulate that the pathogenetic mechanisms of vitiligo could be of systemic origin as vitiligo is associated with ocular and auditory abnormalities as well as other autoimmune disorders.Hence, we studied genetic factors, systemic associations, ocular and auditory abnormalities of vitiligo. Methods: The study group included 150 new cases of various types of vitiligo. One hundred age- and sex-matched nonvitiligo cases were included as controls in the study. A complete family history was taken for all patients. Examination was carried out taking note of the type of vitiligo and approximate percentage of body surface involved. All relevant laboratory investigations, a thorough audiological examination including pure tone audiometry and a complete ophthalmologic examination were carried out in all patients and controls. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi square test. Results: Fifty-four vitiligo patients (36% had a family history of vitiligo. Anemia was present in 30 (20% vitiligo patients but only in five (5% controls, a difference that was statistically significant (c2 = 15.8, P < 0.001. Diabetes mellitus was present in 24 (16% vitiligo patients and only 2 (2% of controls (Chi square, c2 = 12.4, P < 0.001. Hypothyroidism and alopecia areata were present in 18 (12% and 11 (7.4% vitiligo patients respectively and none of the controls. Hypoacusis was seen in 30 (20% vitiligo patients and two (2% controls (c2 = 8.19, P < 0.005. Twenty-four vitiligo patients (16% and five controls (5% had specific ocular abnormalities like uveitis, iris and retinal pigmentary abnormalities (c2 = 7.39, P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates statistically significant clinical evidence confirming that vitiligo is a part of systemic autoimmune process.

  15. Spark Plasma Sintering of Ultracapacitors

    Hill, Curtis W. [CK Technologies, Camirillo, CA (United States); Boatner, Lynn A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tucker, Dennis [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kolopus, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, Zhongyang [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A solid-state ultracapacitor module to replace standard electrochemical batteries would achieve major performance gains and mass/volume reduction. This report summarizes a project to evaluate an alternative sintering process to produce a solid-state ultracapacitor to overcome the limitations of both the electrochemical batteries presently in use on spacecraft and of currently available electrochemical ultracapacitors. It will provide a robust energy storage device with higher reliability, wider working temperature range, longer lifetime, and less weight and volume than electrochemical batteries. As modern electronics decrease in size, more efficient and robust remote power is needed. Current state-of-the-art rechargeable batteries cannot be rapidly charged, contain harmful chemicals, and suffer from early wear-out mechanisms. Solid-state ultracapacitors are recyclable energy storage devices that offer the promise of higher power and a greater number of charge/discharge cycles than current rechargeable batteries. In addition, the theoretical energy density when compared to current electrochemical batteries indicates that a significant weight savings is possible. This is a project to develop a very high density solid-state ultracapacitor with giant permittivity and acceptable dielectric loss to overcome the energy-density barrier such that it will be a suitable replacement for batteries.

  16. Analysis of Laser Sintering Technology

    Vladislav Markovič

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new, high-tech development and customization is one ofthe most important factors in promoting the country‘s economicgrowth indicators. The economic downturn in the industryrequires technology and equipment using a minimumof raw materials and providing maximum performance. Thisstatement perfectly describes the innovative, forward-looking,cost-effective laser powder sintering (SLS technology. Here,thanks to the latest engineering achievements, product surfacesare modified and improved, they gain new characteristics. SLSis viable in automobile, engineering, construction, aerospace,aircraft, printing, medical and other areas.In order to create a product which meets the standards andtechnical documentation it is necessary to use and ensure highquality of raw materials, high-end equipment, qualified personnel,the working environment with proper climatic conditions, ergonomics,etc. But all of these, the quality of the product becomesthe decisive indicators meaningless if know how to properly selectthe laser processing operation. Scanning speed, beam power,pulse frequency, protective gases, powder layer thickness – allof them are the physical and mechanical characteristics of thechange in a small range changes the quality of the product of thefuture, the field of application and performance characteristics.

  17. Sintering and annealing effects on undoped yttria transparent ceramics

    Letue, Laetitia; Petit, Johan, E-mail: johan.petit@onera.fr; Ritti, Marie-Hélène; Lalanne, Sylvie; Landais, Stéphane

    2017-06-15

    Transparent yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) ceramics were processed by several densifications steps without any doping species. The green bodies were obtained by the aqueous way and sintered at high temperature under vacuum and then under high pressure. We studied the effects of different sintering cycles and air annealing at different steps of the process on the density and the grain growth. We also focused on the reaction between yttria ceramics and BN-coated graphite crucible which occurs during HIP. We noted that a low heating rate and two annealing steps are necessary to improve our samples’ transparency. - Highlights: • The quality of transparent ceramics is compared with the tested process parameters. • Air annealing is critical when using a carbon environment in the process. • Intra-granular pores, and so the final transparency, are directly linked to the sintering heating rates.

  18. Fracture toughness of yttria-stabilized zirconia sintered in conventional and microwave ovens.

    Marinis, Aristotelis; Aquilino, Steven A; Lund, Peter S; Gratton, David G; Stanford, Clark M; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Qian, Fang

    2013-03-01

    The fabrication of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) dental prosthetic substructures requires an extended sintering process (8 to 10 hours) in a conventional oven. Microwave sintering is a shorter process (2 hours) than conventional sintering. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture toughness of 3 mol % Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sintered in a conventional or microwave oven. Partially sintered ZrO2 specimens from 3 manufacturers, KaVo, Lava 3M, and Crystal HS were milled (KaVo Everest engine) and randomly divided into 2 groups: conventional sintering and microwave sintering (n=16 per group). The specimens were sintered according to the manufacturers' recommendations and stored in artificial saliva for 10 days. Fracture toughness was determined by using a 4-point bend test, and load to fracture was recorded. Mean fracture toughness for each material was calculated. A 2-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey HDS post hoc test was used to assess the significance of sintering and material effects on fracture toughness, including an interaction between the 2 factors (α=.05). The 2-way ANOVA suggested a significant main effect for ZrO2 manufacturer (P.05). The main effect of the sintering process (Conventional [5.30 MPa·m(1/2) ±1.00] or Microwave [5.36 MPa·m(1/2) ±0.92]) was not significant (P=.76), and there was no interaction between sintering and ZrO2 manufacturer (P=.91). Based on the results of this study, no statistically significant difference was observed in the fracture toughness of ZrO2 sintered in microwave or conventional ovens. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics Of The Porous Body Sintered By Nano-Sized Fe-Cr-Al Alloy Powder

    Lee Su-In

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Porous metal with uniform honeycomb structure was successfully produced by sintering using Fe-Cr-Al nano powder, which was prepared by the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE in ethanol. Its process consisted of the several steps; 1 coating on the surface of polyurethane sponge with the liquid droplets generated from the ethanol-based slurry where the Fe-Cr-Al nano powders were uniformly dispersed, 2 heat treatment of debinding to remove the polyurethane sponge and 3 sintering of the porous green body formed by Fe-Cr-Al nano powders. The strut thickness of porous Fe-Cr-Al was increased by the increase of spraying times in ESP step. Also, The shrinkages and the oxidation resistance of the sintered porous body was increased with increase of sintering temperature. The optimal sintering temperature was shown to 1450°C in views to maximize the oxidation resistance and sinterability.

  20. Study on Sintering Mechanism of Stainless Steel Fiber Felts by X-ray Computed Tomography

    Jun Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure evolution of Fe-17 wt. % Cr-12 wt. % Ni-2 wt. % Mo stainless steel fiber felts during the fast sintering process was investigated by the synchrotron radiation X-ray computed tomography technique. The equation of dynamics of stable inter-fiber neck growth was established for the first time based on the geometry model of sintering joints of two fibers and Kucsynski’s two-sphere model. The specific evolutions of different kinds of sintering joints were observed in the three-dimensional images. The sintering mechanisms during sintering were proposed as plastic flow and grain boundary diffusion, the former leading to a quick growth of sintering joints.

  1. The physical chemistry and materials science behind sinter-resistant catalysts.

    Dai, Yunqian; Lu, Ping; Cao, Zhenming; Campbell, Charles T; Xia, Younan

    2018-06-18

    Catalyst sintering, a main cause of the loss of catalytic activity and/or selectivity at high reaction temperatures, is a major concern and grand challenge in the general area of heterogeneous catalysis. Although all heterogeneous catalysts are inevitably subjected to sintering during their operation, the immediate and drastic consequences can be mitigated by carefully engineering the catalytic particles and their interactions with the supports. In this tutorial review, we highlight recent progress in understanding the physical chemistry and materials science involved in sintering, including the discussion of advanced techniques, such as in situ microscopy and spectroscopy, for investigating the sintering process and its rate. We also discuss strategies for the design and rational fabrication of sinter-resistant catalysts. Finally, we showcase recent success in improving the thermal stability and thus sinter resistance of supported catalytic systems.

  2. Laser Surface Treatment of Sintered Alumina

    Hagemann, R.; Noelke, C.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.

    Sintered alumina ceramics are used as refractory materials for industrial aluminum furnaces. In this environment the ceramic surface is in permanent contact with molten aluminum resulting in deposition of oxidic material on its surface. Consequently, a lower volume capacity as well as thermal efficiency of the furnaces follows. To reduce oxidic adherence of the ceramic material, two laser-based surface treatment processes were investigated: a powder- based single-step laser cladding and a laser surface remelting. Main objective is to achieve an improved surface quality of the ceramic material considering the industrial requirements as a high process speed.

  3. Parts, Materials, and Processes Control Program for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    2015-05-21

    cycle cost ; and 4. Improve procurement and test of small quantities of parts and materials that meet system requirements. This document supersedes...the reliability of program PMP to reduce PMP failures at all levels of assembly and test 3. Reduce program lifecycle cost 4. Improve procurement and...part shall be procured in single lots directly from the manufacturer or its authorized franchised distributor. The contractor shall be able to

  4. Sintering of MSW fly ash for reuse as a concrete aggregate.

    Mangialardi, T

    2001-10-12

    The sintering process of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash was investigated in order to manufacture sintered products for reuse as concrete aggregates. Four types of fly ash resulting from different Italian MSW incineration plants were tested in this study. A modification of the chemical composition of MSW fly ash--through a preliminary four-stage washing treatment of this material with water--was attempted to improve the chemical and mechanical characteristics of sintered products.The sintering treatment of untreated or washed fly ash was performed on cylindrical compact specimens (15 mm in diameter and 20mm in height) at different compact pressures, sintering temperatures and times.The sintering process of untreated MSW fly ashes proved to be ineffective for manufacturing sintered products for reuse as a construction material, because of the adverse chemical characteristics of these fly ashes in terms of sulfate, chloride, and vitrifying oxide contents.A preliminary washing treatment of MSW fly ash with water greatly improved the chemical and mechanical characteristics of sintered products and, for all the types of fly ash tested, the sintered products satisfied the Italian requirements for normal weight aggregates for use in concretes having a specified strength not greater than 12 and 15N/mm(2), when measured on cylindrical and cubic specimens, respectively.A compact pressure of 28 N/mm(2), a sintering temperature of 1140 degrees C, and a sintering time of 60 min were the best operating conditions for manufacturing sintered products of washed MSW fly ash.

  5. Preparation of silicon carbide/carbon fiber composites through high-temperature spark plasma sintering

    Ehsan Ghasali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the potentials of spark plasma sintering (SPS integrated with high temperature process that can enable sintering of SiC/Cf composites without any sintering aids. The random distribution of carbon fibers was obtained through mixing composite components in ethanol by using a shaker mill for 10 min. The corresponding sintering process was carried out at 1900 and 2200 °C with 50 MPa pressure applied at maximum temperature. The results showed that 89 ± 0.9 and 97 ± 0.8% of the theoretical density can be obtained for sintering temperatures of 1900 and 2200 °C, respectively. The densification curves were plotted to monitor sintering behavior with punch displacement changes. The appropriate bonding between SiC particles and carbon fibers was detected using FE-SEM for sample which was sintered at 2200 °C. The clear maximum in hardness (2992 ± 33 Vickers, bending strength (427 ± 26 MPa and fracture toughness (4.2 ± 0.3 MPa m1/2 were identified for sample sintered at 2200 °C. XRD investigations supposed that SiC and carbon were the only crystalline phases in both sintered samples.

  6. FDTD simulation of microwave sintering of ceramics in multimode cavities

    Iskander, M.F.; Smith, R.L.; Andrade, A.O.M.; Walsh, L.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Kimrey, H. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-05-01

    At present, various aspects of the sintering process such as preparation of sample sizes and shapes, types of insulations, and the desirability of including a process stimulus such as SiC rods are considered forms of art and highly dependent on human expertise. The simulation of realistic sintering experiments in a multimode cavity may provide an improved understanding of critical parameters involved and allow for the development of guidelines towards the optimization of the sintering process. In this paper, the authors utilize the FDTD technique to model various geometrical arrangements and material compatibility aspects in multimode microwave cavities and to simulate realistic sintering experiments. The FDTD procedure starts with the simulation of a field distribution in multimode microwave cavities that resembles a set of measured data using liquid crystal sheets. Also included in the simulation is the waveguide feed as well as a ceramic loading plate placed at the base of the cavity. The FDTD simulation thus provides realistic representation of a typical sintering experiment. Aspects that have been successfully simulated include the effects of various types of insulation, the role of SiC rods on the uniformity of the resulting microwave fields, and the possible shielding effects that may result from excessive use of SiC. These results as well as others showing the electromagnetic fields and power-deposition patterns in multiple ceramic samples are presented.

  7. 14 CFR 21.305 - Approval of materials, parts, processes, and appliances.

    2010-01-01

    ..., and appliances. 21.305 Section 21.305 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., Parts, Processes, and Appliances § 21.305 Approval of materials, parts, processes, and appliances. Whenever a material, part, process, or appliance is required to be approved under this chapter, it may be...

  8. A method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, a nano-imprint process, or an extrusion process

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a tool part for an injection molding process, a hot embossing process, nano-imprint process or an extrusion process. First, there is provided a master structure (10) with a surface area comprising nanometre-sized protrusions (11...

  9. Structured settlement annuities, part 1: overview and the underwriting process.

    Schmidt, C J; Singer, R B

    2000-01-01

    Structured settlement underwriting is the underwriting of medically impaired lives for the purchase of an annuity to fund the settlement. Other than risk assessment, structured settlement (SS) underwriting has little in common with traditional life insurance underwriting. Most noteworthy of these differences is the relative lack of actuarial data on which to base decisions about mortality and the necessity for prospective thinking about risk assessment. The purpose of this paper is to provide a foundation for understanding the structured settlement business and to contrast the underwriting of structured settlements with that of traditional life insurance. This is the first part of a two-part article on SS annuities. Part 2 deals with the mortality experience in SS annuitants and the life-table methodology used to calculate life expectancy for annuitants at increased mortality risk.

  10. Solid state synthesis and sintering of monazite-type ceramics: application to minor actinides conditioning

    Bregiroux, D.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the French law of 1991 concerning the nuclear waste management, several studies are undertaken to develop specific crystalline conditioning matrices. Monazite, a rare earth (TR 3+ ) orthophosphate with a general formula TR 3+ PO 4 , is a natural mineral containing significant amount of thorium and uranium. Monazite has been proposed as a host matrix for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) specific conditioning, thanks to its high resistance to self irradiation and its low solubility. Its is now of prime importance to check the conservation of these properties on synthesized materials, which implies to master all the stages of the elaboration process, from the powder synthesis to the sintering of controlled microstructure pellets. This work can be divided into two main parts: The first part deals with the synthesis by high temperature solid state route of TR 3+ PO 4 powders (with TR 3+ = La 3+ to Gd 3+ , Pu 3+ and Am 3+ ). The chemical reactions occurring during the firing of starting reagents are described in the case of monazite with only one or several cations. From these results, a protocol of synthesis is described. The incorporation of tetravalent cations (Ce 4+ , U 4+ , Pu 4+ ) in the monazite structure was also studied. The second part of the present work deals with the elaboration of controlled density and microstructure monazite pellets and their related mechanical and thermal properties. The study of crushing and sintering is presented. For the first time, experimental results are confronted with theoretical models in order to deduce the densification and grain growth mechanisms. By the comprehension of the various physicochemical phenomena occurring during the various stages of the monazite pellets elaboration process (powder synthesis, crushing, sintering...), this work allowed the development of a protocol of elaboration of controlled microstructure monazite TR 3+ PO 4 pellets. The determination of some mechanical and thermal

  11. Sintering diagrams of UO2

    Mohan, A.; Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    Ashby's method (see Acta Met., vol. 22, p. 275, 1974) of constructing sintering diagrams has been modified to obtain contribution diagrams directly from the computer. The interplay of sintering variables and mechanisms are studied and the factors that affect the participation of mechanisms in UO 2 are determined. By studying the physical properties, it emerges that the order of inaccuracies is small in most cases and do not affect the diagrams. On the other hand, even a 10% error in activation energies, which is quite plausible, would make a significant difference to the diagram. The main criticism of Ashby's approach is that the numerous properties and equations used, communicate their inaccuracies to the diagrams and make them unreliable. The present study has considerably reduced the number of factors that need to be refined to make the sintering diagrams more meaningful. (Auth.)

  12. Rapsodie first core manufacture. 1. part: processing plant

    Masselot, Y.; Bataller, S.; Ganivet, M.; Guillet, H.; Robillard, A.; Stosskopf, F.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. A detailed study of manufacturing processes(pellets, pins, fissile sub-assemblies), the associated testings (raw materials, processed pellets and pins, sub-assemblies before delivery), manufacturing facilities and improvements for a second campaign are described. (author) [fr

  13. Contribution to the densification study of silicon and zirconium carbides by an innovating process: the Spark Plasma Sintering; Contribution a l'etude de la densification des carbures de silicium et de zirconium par un procede innovant: le spark plasma sintering

    Allemand, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DMN/SRMA/LTMEx), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guillard, F.; Galy, J. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES-CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the CPR ISMIR, the works presented here take up the results of the thesis of F. Guillard defended on december 2006. This thesis has dealt with the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique and more particularly have been studied: 1)the {beta}SiC and ZrC sintering 2)the modelling of ZrC sintering by the SPS technique and 3)the studies of the carbides/oxides interfaces carried out by SPS. Concerning the {beta}SiC and ZrC sintering: the two carbides have been sintered between 1450 and 1950 C with times periods of 10 minutes and pressures between 50 and 150 MPa. These experiments have shown that the way to apply the pressure is of major importance. Moreover, 92% of densification can be reached after 5 minutes in 1850 C for SiC. For ZrC, 95% of densification is reached as soon as 5 minutes in 1750 C. Different correlations between grains size, density and the way to apply pressure are presented. For the SPS modelling of ZrC, two existing models, taking into account the diffusion laws, are used to try to model the SPS. The results are presented and discussed. At last, the SPS allows to make interfaces starting from powders or materials previously sintered. The SiC/ZrC and ZrO{sub 2}/SiC interfaces have been studied. A microstructural study is presented as well as a technique which allows the assembling with no cracks of SiC and ZrC. (O.M.)

  14. Phosphorus containing sintered alloys (review)

    Muchnik, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus additives are considered for their effect on the properties of sintered alloys of different applications: structural, antifriction, friction, magnetic, hard, superhard, heavy etc. Data are presented on compositions and properties of phosphorus-containing materials produced by the powder metallurgy method. Phosphorus is shown to be an effective activator of sintering in some cases. When its concentration in the material is optimal it imparts the material such properties as strength, viscosity, hardness, wear resistance. Problems concerning powder metallurgy of amorphous phosphorus-containing alloys are reported

  15. Kinetics of sintering of uranium dioxide

    Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of sintering of UO 2 powders derived from ADU route and calcined at different temperatures was studied. The activation energy for sintering was found to depend on the calcination temperature, the density chosen and the sintering temperature range. The motive force for sintering is the excess free energy in the particle system. This exists in the powder compact in the form of surface energy and the excess lattice energy due to defects. The defects which can be eliminated at the operating temperature are responsible for the mobility and hence sintering. This concept of the motive force for sintering has been used to explain the difference in the activation energies observed in the present study. This would also explain phenomena such as attainment of limiting density, presence of optimum sintering temperature and the influence of calcination treatments on the sintering behaviour of powders. (author)

  16. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part I

    Vladimír Plos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the processes that take place at the beginning of each duty of dispatcher at uncontrolled aerodromes.Thanks to modeling and analysis of these processes, there is a possible to find critical ones and implement precise targeted safety measures.

  17. Processing arrangements for constructing representations of parts of bodies

    Watson, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method is described for processing the data signals obtained during computerised tomography. The technique is an extension of the back projection method, but in the present embodiment is applied to fan shaped X-ray beams. Block diagrammatic circuits are given and algorithms are presented to describe the signal processing in terms of matrix manipulation. (U.K.)

  18. Residual stress in TI6AL4V objects produced by direct metal laser sintering

    Van Zyl, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct Metal Laser Sintering produces 3D objects using a layer-by- layer method in which powder is deposited in thin layers. Laser beam scans over the powder fusing powder particles as well as the previous layer. High-concentration of laser energy input leads to high thermal gradients which induce residual stress within the as- built parts. Ti6Al4V (ELI samples have been manufactured by EOSINT M280 system at prescribed by EOS process-parameters. Residual stresses were measured by XRD method. Microstructure, values and directions of principal stresses inTi6Al4V DMLS samples were analysed.

  19. Binding Mechanisms in Selective Laser Sintering and Selective Laser Melting

    Kruth, J.P.; Mercelis, P.; Van Vaerenbergh, J.; van Vaerenbergh, J.; Froyen, L.; Rombouts, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper provides an overview of the different binding mechanisms in selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM), thus improving the understanding of these processes. Design/methodology/approach – A classification of SLS/SLM processes was developed, based on the

  20. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part II. Feedback and Occlusion Effect Reduction Strategies, Laser Shell Manufacturing Processes, and Other Signal Processing Technologies

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This is the second part of a review on the challenges and recent developments in hearing aids. Feedback and the occlusion effect pose great challenges in hearing aid design and usage. Yet, conventional solutions to feedback and the occlusion effect often create a dilemma: the solution to one often leads to the other. This review discusses the advanced signal processing strategies to reduce feedback and some new approaches to reduce the occlusion effect. Specifically, the causes of three types of feedback (acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic) are discussed. The strategies currently used to reduce acoustic feedback (i.e., adaptive feedback reduction algorithms using adaptive gain reduction, notch filtering, and phase cancellation strategies) and the design of new receivers that are built to reduce mechanical and electromagnetic feedback are explained. In addition, various new strategies (i.e., redesigned sound delivery devices and receiver-in-the-ear-canal hearing aid configuration) to reduce the occlusion effect are reviewed. Many manufacturers have recently adopted laser shell-manufacturing technologies to overcome problems associated with manufacturing custom hearing aid shells. The mechanisms of selected laser sintering and stereo lithographic apparatus and the properties of custom shells produced by these two processes are reviewed. Further, various new developments in hearing aid transducers, telecoils, channel-free amplification, open-platform programming options, rechargeable hearing aids, ear-level frequency modulated (FM) receivers, wireless Bluetooth FM systems, and wireless programming options are briefly explained and discussed. Finally, the applications of advanced hearing aid technologies to enhance other devices such as cochlear implants, hearing protectors, and cellular phones are discussed. PMID:15735871

  1. Open-Source Selective Laser Sintering (OpenSLS) of Nylon and Biocompatible Polycaprolactone.

    Kinstlinger, Ian S; Bastian, Andreas; Paulsen, Samantha J; Hwang, Daniel H; Ta, Anderson H; Yalacki, David R; Schmidt, Tim; Miller, Jordan S

    2016-01-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is an additive manufacturing process that uses a laser to fuse powdered starting materials into solid 3D structures. Despite the potential for fabrication of complex, high-resolution structures with SLS using diverse starting materials (including biomaterials), prohibitive costs of commercial SLS systems have hindered the wide adoption of this technology in the scientific community. Here, we developed a low-cost, open-source SLS system (OpenSLS) and demonstrated its capacity to fabricate structures in nylon with sub-millimeter features and overhanging regions. Subsequently, we demonstrated fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL) into macroporous structures such as a diamond lattice. Widespread interest in using PCL for bone tissue engineering suggests that PCL lattices are relevant model scaffold geometries for engineering bone. SLS of materials with large powder grain size (~500 μm) leads to part surfaces with high roughness, so we further introduced a simple vapor-smoothing technique to reduce the surface roughness of sintered PCL structures which further improves their elastic modulus and yield stress. Vapor-smoothed PCL can also be used for sacrificial templating of perfusable fluidic networks within orthogonal materials such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) silicone. Finally, we demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells were able to adhere, survive, and differentiate down an osteogenic lineage on sintered and smoothed PCL surfaces, suggesting that OpenSLS has the potential to produce PCL scaffolds useful for cell studies. OpenSLS provides the scientific community with an accessible platform for the study of laser sintering and the fabrication of complex geometries in diverse materials.

  2. Enhanced pressureless bonding by Tin Doped Silver Paste at low sintering temperature

    Yang, Cheng-Xiang [School of Material Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech (United States); Li, Xin, E-mail: xinli@tju.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Lu, Guo-Quan [School of Material Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech (United States); Mei, Yun-Hui [School of Material Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-13

    The nanosilver sintering die-attach technique has been a promising alternative for wide band gap semiconductors. However, it is less preferable in industry because of its high sintering temperature. Recently research has been initiated to develop transient liquid phase sintering (TLPS) solder paste for use in electronics packaging. In this article, in order to lower the sintering temperature of nanosilver paste, we develop a novel tin (up to 10 wt%) doped silver paste (TDSP) and a sintering profile with the highest processing temperature of 235 °C based on TLPS. Sintered TDSP is Ag/Ag{sub 3}Sn/Ag–Sn solid solution composites. The composites have a microstructure of Ag matrix grains reinforced by Ag{sub 3}Sn and Ag–Sn solid solution within the matrix grains. And this microstructure endows the sintered Ag+4%Sn with a pressureless bonding strength of 23 MPa. The improved mechanical properties of sintered TDSP are attributed to second-phase strengthening and solid solution strengthening mechanisms. However, the overmuch formation of brittle Ag{sub 3}Sn phase is the main reason resulting in sharp decrease of bonding strength when the Sn content over 5 wt%. The new TDSP technology is expected to be applicable to a wide range of power semiconductors devices, such as organic devices and printed circuit boards. Furthermore, it provides new strategies for low-temperature sintering.

  3. Effect of Ca-Fe oxides additives on NOx reduction in iron ore sintering

    Zhi-yuan Yu; Xiao-hui Fan; Min Gan; Xu-ling Chen

    2017-01-01

    As the emission control regulations get stricter, the NOx reduction in the sintering process becomes an important environmental concern owing to its role in the formation of photochemical smog and acid rain. The NOx emissions from the sintering machine account for 48% of total amount from the iron and steel industry.Thus, it is essential to reduce NOx emissions from the sintering machine, for the achievement of clean production of sinter.Ca-Fe oxides, serving as the main binding phase in the sinter, are therefore used as additives into the sintering mixture to reduce NOx emissions.The results show that the NOx re-duction ratio achieves 27.76% with 8% Ca-Fe oxides additives since the Ca-Fe oxides can advance the ig-nition and inhibit the nitrogen oxidation compared with the conventional condition.Meanwhile, the exist-ence of Ca-Fe oxides was beneficial to the sinter quality since they were typical low melting point com-pounds.The optimal mass fraction of Ca-Fe oxides additives should be less than 8% since the permeability of sintering bed was significantly decreased with a further increase of the Ca-Fe oxides fines, inhibiting the mineralization reaction of sintering mixture.Additionally, the appropriate particle size can be obtained when mixing an equal amount of Ca-Fe oxides additives of -0.5 mm and 0.5-3.0 mm in size.

  4. Influence of Coke Ratio on the Sintering Behavior of High-Chromium Vanadium-Titanium Magnetite

    Songtao Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High-chromium vanadium and titanium magnetite (HCVTM sinter has poor properties. The coke ratio has an important effect on the behavior of HCVTM sintering as it affects the mineral phases in the high-chromium vanadium and titanium sinter (HCVTS via changing the sintering temperature and atmosphere. In this work, the sintering behavior of HCVTM mixed with varying coke ratios was investigated through sintering pot tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD, gas chromatographic analysis, and mineral phase analysis. The results show that, with the increase of the coke ratio from 4.0% to 6.0%, leading to the increase of the combustion ratio of the flue gas, the vertical sintering rate and sinter productivity decrease. Meanwhile, with the change of the coke ratio, the content of magnetite, silicate, and perovskite increase, while the hematite and calcium ferrite decrease. In addition, the tumble strength and reduction ability of HCVTS decrease, and its degradation strength increase. It was found that the appropriate coke ratio for the sintering process was 5.0 wt %.

  5. Direct laser sintered WC-10Co/Cu nanocomposites

    Gu, Dongdong; Shen, Yifu

    2008-04-01

    In the present work, the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to prepare the WC-Co/Cu nanocomposites in bulk form. The WC reinforcing nanoparticles were added in the form of WC-10 wt.% Co composite powder. The microstructural features and mechanical properties of the laser-sintered sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), and nanoindentation tester. It showed that the original nanometric nature of the WC reinforcing particulates was well retained without appreciable grain growth after laser processing. A homogeneous distribution of the WC reinforcing nanoparticles with a coherent particulate/matrix interfacial bonding was obtained in the laser-sintered structure. The 94.3% dense nanocomposites have a dynamic nanohardness of 3.47 GPa and a reduced elastic modulus of 613.42 GPa.

  6. Direct laser sintered WC-10Co/Cu nanocomposites

    Gu Dongdong [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016 (China)], E-mail: dongdonggu@nuaa.edu.cn; Shen Yifu [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2008-04-30

    In the present work, the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to prepare the WC-Co/Cu nanocomposites in bulk form. The WC reinforcing nanoparticles were added in the form of WC-10 wt.% Co composite powder. The microstructural features and mechanical properties of the laser-sintered sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), and nanoindentation tester. It showed that the original nanometric nature of the WC reinforcing particulates was well retained without appreciable grain growth after laser processing. A homogeneous distribution of the WC reinforcing nanoparticles with a coherent particulate/matrix interfacial bonding was obtained in the laser-sintered structure. The 94.3% dense nanocomposites have a dynamic nanohardness of 3.47 GPa and a reduced elastic modulus of 613.42 GPa.

  7. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for HEPA filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to assume trouble-free operation. Subsequent pilot-scale testing was performed with fly ash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 volume percent water vapor in the gas stream

  8. Final flotation waste kinetics of sintering at different heating regimes

    Cocić Mira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the copper extraction, especially during the process of flotation enrichment and the pyrometallurgical processing, the waste materials that represent huge polluters of environment are being generated. In order to examine the application of Final flotation waste (FFW in the manufacturing of new materials from the glass-ceramic group phase and mineral composition were examined as well as thermal properties. FFW kinetics of sintering has been tested at different dyamics (1°C/min, 29°C/min and 43°C/min, in order to find the optimum conditions for sintering with a minimum amount of energy and time consumption. The samples were examined using: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence analysis, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy and thermal microscopy. The best results for the production of glass ceramic materials were obtained during the sintering at heating regime of 29°C/min. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176010

  9. Direct laser sintered WC-10Co/Cu nanocomposites

    Gu Dongdong; Shen Yifu

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to prepare the WC-Co/Cu nanocomposites in bulk form. The WC reinforcing nanoparticles were added in the form of WC-10 wt.% Co composite powder. The microstructural features and mechanical properties of the laser-sintered sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), and nanoindentation tester. It showed that the original nanometric nature of the WC reinforcing particulates was well retained without appreciable grain growth after laser processing. A homogeneous distribution of the WC reinforcing nanoparticles with a coherent particulate/matrix interfacial bonding was obtained in the laser-sintered structure. The 94.3% dense nanocomposites have a dynamic nanohardness of 3.47 GPa and a reduced elastic modulus of 613.42 GPa

  10. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream

  11. Improvement of mechanical properties of zirconia-toughened alumina by sinter forging

    He, Y.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    ZTA powder with a composition of 85 wt% alumina/15 wt% zirconia was prepared by a gel precipitation method. Sinter forging was performed with this powder to enhance the mechanical properties of ZTA materials. The influence of processing flaws on mechanical properties of sinter forged materials and

  12. Multi-scale modeling of shape distortions during sintering of bi-layers

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Bjørk, Rasmus; Olevsky, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    on kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model of sintering. During the sintering process the shrinkage rate is calculated from the kMC model. With the help of computational homogenization, the effective viscosity of the powder compact is also estimated from a boundary value problem defined on the microstructures...

  13. Sintering of nano crystalline α silicon carbide by doping with boron ...

    Sinterable nano silicon carbide powders of mean particle size (37 nm) were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type alpha silicon carbide having mean particle size of 0.39 m (390 nm). Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of boron carbide of 0.5 wt% together ...

  14. Phenomenological model of sintering of oxide nuclear fuel with doping admixtures

    Baranov, V. G.; Devyatko, Yu. N.; Tenishev, A. V.; Khomyakov, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    It is shown that a change in the linear dimension of compacted UO2 in the sintering process is associated with its plastic yielding under the action of the forces of residual stress and capillary forces. From the curves of sintering of a fuel with doping admixtures in various gaseous media, its rate of creep is reduced.

  15. The study of Ashby-type sintering diagrams for uranium dioxide

    Georgeoni, P.

    1980-01-01

    Computer modelling of binary and ternary Ashby-type sintering diagrams for stoechiometric and hyperstoechiometric uranium dioxide (in the range O/U = 2, 0-2, 10). Material data and mass transfer equations, selected from the literature, were used. Sintering isochronous curves were calculated and traced as well. Improvement of a modern dilatometric method by reading and processing experimental curves on a computer and by determining for them a criterion of proximity to the theoretical model equation. It was possible: to develop a reliable method of determination for the dominant mechanism, diffusion coefficient and real process activation energy; to draw up the real sintering diagram; to understand the quantitative and qualitative changes occuring during the actual sintering process of UO 2 , concerning massing and modification of pore shape; to recommend the technological parameters of the thermal regime concerning the elimination of lubricant and binder additives in order to obtain high quality sintered tablets. (author)

  16. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and the world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge trademark level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs

  17. Dosimetry as an integral part of radiation processing

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    Different connections between high-dose dosimetry and radiation processing are discussed. Radiation processing cannot be performed without proper dosimetry. Accurate high dose and high dose rate dosimetry exhibits several aspects: first of all it is the preservation of the quality of the product, then fulfillment of legal aspects and last but not the least the safety of processing. Further, seldom discussed topics are as follow: dosimetric problems occurring with double-side EB irradiations, discussed in connection with the deposition of electric charge during electron beam irradiation. Although dosimetry for basic research and for medical purposes are treated here only shortly, some conclusions reached from these fields are considered in dosimetry for radiation processing. High-dose dosimetry of radiation has become a separate field, with many papers published every year, but applied dosimetric projects are usually initiated by a necessity of particular application. (author)

  18. Defense Waste Processing Facility -- Radioactive operations -- Part 3 -- Remote operations

    Barnes, W.M.; Kerley, W.D.; Hughes, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, South Carolina is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly three years of non-radioactive testing, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. Radioactive glass is poured from the joule heated melter into the stainless steel canisters. The canisters are then temporarily sealed, decontaminated, resistance welded for final closure, and transported to an interim storage facility. All of these operations are conducted remotely with equipment specially designed for these processes. This paper reviews canister processing during the first nine months of radioactive operations at DWPF. The fundamental design consideration for DWPF remote canister processing and handling equipment are discussed as well as interim canister storage

  19. ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS SIMULATOR ASP-SIM, PART-1 ...

    LUCY

    The design of activated process is usually done manually; this is often difficult and susceptible to errors ... Table 1: Typical domestic wastewater characterization parameters for CMAS design. ..... g = 9.81: molarmass = 28.97: zb = 500: za = 0: r.

  20. Examining Mechanical Strength Characteristics of Selective Inhibition Sintered HDPE Specimens Using RSM and Desirability Approach

    Rajamani, D.; Esakki, Balasubramanian

    2017-09-01

    Selective inhibition sintering (SIS) is a powder based additive manufacturing (AM) technique to produce functional parts with an inexpensive system compared with other AM processes. Mechanical properties of SIS fabricated parts are of high dependence on various process parameters importantly layer thickness, heat energy, heater feedrate, and printer feedrate. In this paper, examining the influence of these process parameters on evaluating mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is carried out. The test specimens are fabricated using high density polyethylene (HDPE) and mathematical models are developed to correlate the control factors to the respective experimental design response. Further, optimal SIS process parameters are determined using desirability approach to enhance the mechanical properties of HDPE specimens. Optimization studies reveal that, combination of high heat energy, low layer thickness, medium heater feedrate and printer feedrate yielded superior mechanical strength characteristics.

  1. Quality prediction modeling for sintered ores based on mechanism models of sintering and extreme learning machine based error compensation

    Tiebin, Wu; Yunlian, Liu; Xinjun, Li; Yi, Yu; Bin, Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Aiming at the difficulty in quality prediction of sintered ores, a hybrid prediction model is established based on mechanism models of sintering and time-weighted error compensation on the basis of the extreme learning machine (ELM). At first, mechanism models of drum index, total iron, and alkalinity are constructed according to the chemical reaction mechanism and conservation of matter in the sintering process. As the process is simplified in the mechanism models, these models are not able to describe high nonlinearity. Therefore, errors are inevitable. For this reason, the time-weighted ELM based error compensation model is established. Simulation results verify that the hybrid model has a high accuracy and can meet the requirement for industrial applications.

  2. Interim report on task 1.2: near equilibrium processing requirements - attrition milling part 1 of 2 to Lawrence Livermore National for contract b345772

    Stewart, M W A; Vance, E R; Day, R A; Eddowes, T; Moricca, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of Task 1.2 has only partly been achieved as the work on Pu/U-formulations and to a significant degree on Th/U-formulations has been performed under grinding/blending conditions that did not replicate plant-like fabrication processes, particularly in the case with the small glovebox attritor. Nevertheless the results do show that actinide-rich particles, not present in specimens made via the alkoxide-route (equilibrium conditions), occur when the grinding process is not efficient enough to ensure that high-fired PuO 2 , ThO 2 and UO 2 particles are below a critical size. Our current perception is that the critical size for specimens sintered at 1350 C for 4 hours is about 5 (micro)m in diameter. The critical size is difficult to estimate, as it is equal to the starting diameter of actinide oxides just visible within brannerite regions. Our larger scale attritor experiments as well as experience with wet and dry ball milling suggests that acceptable mineralogy and microstructure can be obtained by dry milling via attritor and ball mills. This is provided that appropriate attention is paid to the size and density of the grinding media, grinding additives that reduce caking of the powder, and in the case of attritors the grinding speed and pot setup. The ideal products for sintering are free flowing granules of ∼ 100 (micro)m containing constituents ground to about 1 (micro)m to ensure homogeneity and equilibrium mineralogy

  3. SINTERING OF NASCENT CALCIUM OXIDE

    The paper discusses the measurement of the sintering rate of CaO in a nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures of 700-1100 C. CaO prepared from ultrapure CaCO3 was compared with an impure CaO derived from limestone. Both materials yielded an initial surface area of 104 sq m/g. The rat...

  4. Solvent/non-solvent sintering: a novel route to create porous microsphere scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

    Brown, Justin L; Nair, Lakshmi S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-08-01

    Solvent/non-solvent sintering creates porous polymeric microsphere scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering purposes with control over the resulting porosity, average pore diameter, and mechanical properties. Five different biodegradable biocompatible polyphosphazenes exhibiting glass transition temperatures from -8 to 41 degrees C and poly (lactide-co-glycolide), (PLAGA) a degradable polymer used in a number of biomedical settings, were examined to study the versatility of the process and benchmark the process to heat sintering. Parameters such as: solvent/non-solvent sintering solution composition and submersion time effect the sintering process. PLAGA microsphere scaffolds fabricated with solvent/non-solvent sintering exhibited an interconnected porosity and pore size of 31.9% and 179.1 mum, respectively which was analogous to that of conventional heat sintered PLAGA microsphere scaffolds. Biodegradable polyphosphazene microsphere scaffolds exhibited a maximum interconnected porosity of 37.6% and a maximum compressive modulus of 94.3 MPa. Solvent/non-solvent sintering is an effective strategy for sintering polymeric microspheres, with a broad spectrum of glass transition temperatures, under ambient conditions making it an excellent fabrication route for developing tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery vehicles. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Studies on formability of sintered aluminum composites during hot deformation using strain hardening parameters

    Sumesh Narayan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Formability is the limit to which a material can be deformed before failure and is upmost importance in powder metallurgy (PM forming process. This is because the presence of porosity in the PM part after the sintering process. In this study two key strain hardening parameters are used to study the workability behavior or determining the failure zone. This can be used for design of PM parts and most importantly the die design as repressing needs to be employed before pores appear as cracks on the free surface. It is nearly impossible to produce defect free parts if this failure occurs. The hot formability behavior of aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC's that is, Al-4TiC, Al-4WC, Al-4Fe3C and Al-4Mo2C (by weight percentage are presented in this paper.

  6. Development of industry processes simulators. Part III (Continuous casting)

    Ramirez, A.; Morales, R.; Morales, A. J.; Ramos, A.; Solorio, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work written for illustrating the use of Monte Carlo methods and generating of random number in combination with the information of the simulation system of thermal behaviour described previously in order to reproduce in a computer the solidification process of the steel and simulate the formation of strictures of casting step by step. (Author). 12 refs

  7. Sonar waveforms for reverberation rejection, Part IV: Adaptive processing.

    IJsselmuide, S.P. van; Deruaz, L.; Been, R.; Doisy, Y.; Beerens, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    For littoral ASW, reverberation is a big problem and rejection of reverberation is of utmost importance. The influence of the transmitted signal on the signal to reverberation ratio has been presented in three preceding papers. In this paper, the influence of improved signal processing on the

  8. Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

  9. Writing for publication Part II--The writing process.

    Clarke, L K

    1999-01-01

    You have selected a topic, gathered resources, and identified your target audience. The next step is to begin to write and organize your ideas. Initiating the actual writing process can be intimidating, especially for a novice author. This portion of the writing for publication series focuses on helping the writer to organize ideas and get started.

  10. Effect of Power Characteristics on the Densification of Sintered Alumina

    Al-Sarraj, Z.S.A.; Noor, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of particle size distribution, soaking time and sintering temperatures on the densification behaviors of α-Al 2 O 3 was investigated. Two different average particle sizes of 36 and 45μ were examined as a variable to analyze the difference in density, radial and axial shrinkage, densification, and microstructure developments. Conventional powder technology route was used to prepare disc-shaped green pellets sintered at 1200-1600 0 C for different periods. Density measurements for both green and sintered compacts allow for the refinement of processing parameters to obtain dense sintered bodies. Compacts with particle size of 36 μm were noticed to attain higher relative densities as compared with those of 45μm. Densification parameter (ΔP) calculations clearly reveals the presence of definite temperatures and times in which limited densification retardation occurred, which permits the suggesting of suitable sintering schemes for this material. Scanning electron micrographs analysis revealed a pore structure assist the observed behaviours for the different schemes. (author)

  11. Assessment of polyphase sintered iron-cobalt-iron boride cermets

    Nowacki, J.; Pieczonka, T.

    2004-01-01

    Sintering of iron, cobalt and boron powders has been analysed. As a result iron-iron boride, Fe-Fe 2 B and iron/cobalt boride with a slight admixture of molybdenum, Fe - Co - (FeMoCo) 2 B cermets have been produced. Iron was introduced to the mixture as the Astalloy Mo Hoeganaes grade powder. Elemental amorphous boron powder was used, and formation of borides occurred both during heating and isothermal sintering periods causing dimensional changes of the sintered body. Dilatometry was chosen to control basic phenomena taking place during multiphase sintering of investigated systems. The microstructure and phase constituents of sintered compacts were controlled as well. The cermets produced were substituted to: metallographic tests, X-ray analysis, measurements of hardness and of microhardness, and of wear in the process of sliding dry friction. Cermets are made up of two phases; hard grains of iron - cobalt boride, (FeCo) 2 B (1800 HV) constituting the reinforcement and a relatively soft and plastic eutectic mixture Fe 2 B - Co (400-500 HV) constituting the matrix. (author)

  12. The pressureless sintering and mechanical properties of AlON ceramic

    Zhang, N., E-mail: zhangning5832@163.com [Key Lab. of Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Liaoning Province, Shenyang University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110044 (China); Liang, B.; Wang, X.Y.; Kan, H.M.; Zhu, K.W. [Key Lab. of Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Liaoning Province, Shenyang University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110044 (China); Zhao, X.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China)

    2011-07-25

    Highlights: {yields} A one-step pressureless sintering process was proposed, which is simple and viable. {yields} Cheap and easily available {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and aluminum powders were chosen as raw materials substituting for expensive AlN ultrafine powders. {yields} The sintering temperature of AlON ceramic was reduced by 50 deg. C and the flexural strength was enhanced by 29.4%. - Abstract: Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) ceramic was synthesized by one-step pressureless sintering technology using low cost and easily available {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and aluminum powders as raw materials. The sintering temperature was reduced because aluminum powders were nitridized into high activity AlN under the flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The curves of thermal analysis, microstructure and atomic distribution were investigated. The influence of sintering temperatures on phase composition, sintering densification and flexural strength was also explored. The experimental results showed that {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and aluminum powders were acceptable substitutes for more expensive AlN ultrafine powders. Under the optimum sintering process at 1750 deg. C for 2 h, the sintered density and flexural strength of AlON ceramic were higher, 3.62 g/cm{sup 3} and 321 MPa, respectively. The sintering temperature was decreased by 50 deg. C because newly formed high activity AlN in situ reacted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into Al{sub 23}O{sub 27}N{sub 5}, enhancing flexural strength by 29.4%. However, the sintering temperature could not be too high because grain growth and displacement of oxygen atoms from AlON ceramics by nitrogen atoms caused a decline in sintering densification and flexural strength.

  13. Investigation of Magnetic Pulse Deformation of Powder Parts

    Kolbe, M.; Mironov, V.; Shishkin, A.; Zemchenkov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Current article covers basics of powder compaction by electromagnetic impulse field and research results of sintered Fe powder part deformation process. This work is a joint research carried out by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and the Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau (Germany).

  14. Melt-Pool Temperature and Size Measurement During Direct Laser Sintering

    List, III, Frederick Alyious [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carver, Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gockel, Joy E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Additive manufacturing has demonstrated the ability to fabricate complex geometries and components not possible with conventional casting and machining. In many cases, industry has demonstrated the ability to fabricate complex geometries with improved efficiency and performance. However, qualification and certification of processes is challenging, leaving companies to focus on certification of material though design allowable based approaches. This significantly reduces the business case for additive manufacturing. Therefore, real time monitoring of the melt pool can be used to detect the development of flaws, such as porosity or un-sintered powder and aid in the certification process. Characteristics of the melt pool in the Direct Laser Sintering (DLS) process is also of great interest to modelers who are developing simulation models needed to improve and perfect the DLS process. Such models could provide a means to rapidly develop the optimum processing parameters for new alloy powders and optimize processing parameters for specific part geometries. Stratonics’ ThermaViz system will be integrated with the Renishaw DLS system in order to demonstrate its ability to measure melt pool size, shape and temperature. These results will be compared with data from an existing IR camera to determine the best approach for the determination of these critical parameters.

  15. Supercritical Production of Nanoparticles - Part I: The SSEC Process - Part II: Characterization of Nanopartic

    Jensen, Henrik

    with the crystallite size. Therefore special interest is being devoted to investigating these changes by developing new synthesis and characterizing methods. Wet chemical and gas phase syntheses are among the number of synthesis techniques that have been developed for nanoparticle formation. The sol-gel technique...... is the most broadly applied wet chemical process and it can be used for the production of nanosized materials in the formof particles or coatings for a wide range of materials. However, conventional sol-gel techniques have a number of drawbacks. The process maintains long reaction times and requires post....... The work presented in this thesis addresses the problems related to the conventional sol-gel techniques by using supercritical CO2 as the reaction media. Supercritical fluids exhibit gas like mass transfer properties and liquid like densities which are both particularly attractive to the sol-gel process...

  16. Patterning of PMMA microfluidic parts using screen printing process

    Ahari Kaleibar, Aminreza; Rahbar, Mona; Haiducu, Marius; Parameswaran, Ash M.

    2010-02-01

    An inexpensive and rapid micro-fabrication process for producing PMMA microfluidic components has been presented. Our proposed technique takes advantages of commercially available economical technologies such as the silk screen printing and UV patterning of PMMA substrates to produce the microfluidic components. As a demonstration of our proposed technique, we had utilized a homemade deep-UV source, λ=254nm, a silk screen mask made using a local screen-printing shop and Isopropyl alcohol - water mixture (IPA-water) as developer to quickly define the microfluidic patterns. The prototyped devices were successfully bonded, sealed, and the device functionality tested and demonstrated. The screen printing based technique can produce microfluidic channels as small as 50 micrometers quite easily, making this technique the most cost-effective, fairly high precision and at the same time an ultra economical plastic microfluidic components fabrication process reported to date.

  17. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.

    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering of a powder compact is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element (FE) method for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response...... to the stress field as well as the FE calculation of the stress field from the microstructural evolution is discussed. The sintering behavior of two powder compacts constrained by a rigid substrate is simulated and compared to free sintering of the same samples. Constrained sintering result in a larger number...

  18. Defense Waste Processing Facility radioactive operations -- Part 2, Glass making

    Carter, J.T.; Rueter, K.J.; Ray, J.W.; Hodoh, O.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction period and nearly 3 year non-radioactive test program, the DWPF began radioactive operations in March, 1996. The results of the first 8 months of radioactive operations are presented. Topics include facility production from waste preparation batching to canister filling

  19. Densification and Grain Growth during Early-stage Sintering of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ in Reducing Atmosphere

    He, Zeming; Yuan, Hao; Glasscock, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the processes of densification and grain growth of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ (CGO10) during sintering in reducing atmosphere. Sintering variables were experimentally characterized and analyzed using defect chemistry and sintering constitutive laws. Based on the achieved...

  20. Modeling Macroscopic Shape Distortions during Sintering of Multi-layers

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye

    as to help achieve defect free multi-layer components. The initial thickness ratio between the layers making the multi-layer has also significant effect on the extent of camber evolution depending on the material systems. During sintering of tubular bi-layer structures, tangential (hoop) stresses are very...... large compared to radial stresses. The maximum value of hoop stress, which can generate processing defects such as cracks and coating peel-offs, occurs at the beginning of the sintering cycle. Unlike most of the models defining material properties based on porosity and grain size only, the multi...... (firing). However, unintended features like shape instabilities of samples, cracks or delamination of layers may arise during sintering of multi-layer composites. Among these defects, macroscopic shape distortions in the samples can cause problems in the assembly or performance of the final component...

  1. Tool design and materials for electro sinter forging (ESF)

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    ) process, the main requirement is the electrical current passing through the electrical conducting powder. To obtain this, a closed-die setup with electrical insulating properties was used. Furthermore, the alignment between the compacting punch and die needed to be ensured by pre-aligning or alternatively...... by using an alignment system. The present work is focused on the designing phase of a tool for the electro sinter forging of a disc, made from titanium powder. By applying a pre-alignment system, the setup resulted suitable for this application. A tool design for sintering rings is also showed....

  2. Sintering of Kernel UO2 for High Temperature Reactor Fuel

    Sukarsono; Dwi-Heru-Sucahyo; Hidayati; Evi-Hertiviana; Bambang-Sugeng

    2000-01-01

    Sintering investigation of UO 2 gel has been done. The gel was preparedthrough two ways. The first, gel was produced using PVA as additive agent.The second gel was produced using HMTA and Urea as additive agent. From thepreparation of gel, the PVA method better than the urea - HMTA method,because was not necessary the cold temperature for sol preparation and alsowas not necessary the hot temperature for gelation process. After nextprocessing, the sintered gel of gel through PVA, also better than HMTAprocess. (author)

  3. Sintering of uranium oxide of high specific surface area

    Bel, Alain; Francois, Bernard; Delmas, Roger; Caillat, Roger

    1959-01-01

    The extent to which a uranium oxide powder deriving from ammonium uranate or uranium peroxide lends itself to the sintering process depends largely on its specific surface area. When this is greater than 5 m 2 / g there is an optimum temperature for sintering in hydrogen. This temperature becomes less as the specific area of the powder is greater. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 1045-1047, sitting of 21 September 1959 [fr

  4. A novel method to fabricate TiAl intermetallic alloy 3D parts using additive manufacturing

    J.J.S. Dilip

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the feasibility of fabricating porous 3D parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy directly from Ti–6Al–4V and Al powders. This approach uses a binder jetting additive manufacturing process followed by reactive sintering. The results demonstrate that the present approach is successful for realizing parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of direct metal laser sintered TI-6AL-4V

    Becker, Thorsten Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a selective laser melting (SLM manufacturing process that can produce near net shape parts from metallic powders. A range of materials are suitable for SLM; they include various metals such as titanium, steel, aluminium, and cobalt-chrome alloys. This paper forms part of a research drive that aims to evaluate the material performance of the SLM-manufactured metals. It presents DMLS-produced Ti-6Al-4V, a titanium alloy often used in biomedical and aerospace applications. This paper also studies the effect of several heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V processed by SLM. It reports the achievable mechanical properties of the alloy, including quasi-static, crack growth behaviour, density and porosity distribution, and post-processing using various heat-treatment conditions.

  6. All part of the process[3D plant modelling

    Snieckus, D.

    2002-12-01

    The second coming of EPIC contracts, a renewed emphasis on life-of-field costs for offshore developments, and the deepwater FPSO market's fast approaching construction boom are together demanding fresh thinking - and software systems - from 3D plant modelling and information specialists. Based on its own calculations, Intergraph's Process, Power and Offshore (PPO) division states that it holds down some 35-40% of the market for 3D plant modelling and information management in the offshore oil and gas industry. This article reviews their success, how they have to preserve their hard won share of the market, due to the changeable nature of that market, marked recently by the fundamental shifts in EPIC contract structure, life-of-field costs focuses, and, not least, the rise of FPSO-driven production concepts. Intergraph PPO's integrated product portfolio, which brings together plant design modelling systems and plant information management systems, was founded on its SmartPlant Foundation data warehouse hub. It has maintained its project data integrity o some of the largest and most complex offshore developments, including Phillips Petroleum's Bayu-Undan and Statoil Asgard fields. Some 70% of Intergraph PPO's clients have been contractors, and while the company aims to continue to build on the strength of these relationships, it also recognises that growing its client base of owner-operators will create some 'real synergies' in the process.

  7. Stress-dislocation interaction mechanism in low-temperature thermo-compression sintering of Ag NPs

    Wang, Fuliang; Tang, Zikai; He, Hu

    2018-04-01

    The sintering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has been widely studied in the field of nanotechnology, and low-temperature sintering has become the industry standard. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD) model was established to study the sintering behaviour of silver NPs during low-temperature thermo-compression. Primarily, we studied the sintering process, in which the ratio of neck radius to particle radius (x/r) changes. Under a uniaxial pressure, the maximum ratio in the temperature range 420-425 K was 1. According to the change of x/r, the process can be broken down into three stages: the neck-formation stage, neck-growth stage, and neck-stability stage. In addition, the relationship between potential energy, internal stress, and dislocation density during sintering is discussed. The results showed that cycling internal stress played an important role in sintering. Under the uniaxial pressure, the stress-dislocation interaction was found to be the major mechanism for thermo-compression sintering because the plastic deformation product dislocation intensified the diffusion of atoms. Also, the displacement vector, the mean square displacement, and the changing crystal structure during sintering were studied.

  8. Stress-dislocation interaction mechanism in low-temperature thermo-compression sintering of Ag NPs

    Fuliang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of metal nanoparticles (NPs has been widely studied in the field of nanotechnology, and low-temperature sintering has become the industry standard. In this study, a molecular dynamics (MD model was established to study the sintering behaviour of silver NPs during low-temperature thermo-compression. Primarily, we studied the sintering process, in which the ratio of neck radius to particle radius (x/r changes. Under a uniaxial pressure, the maximum ratio in the temperature range 420–425 K was 1. According to the change of x/r, the process can be broken down into three stages: the neck-formation stage, neck-growth stage, and neck-stability stage. In addition, the relationship between potential energy, internal stress, and dislocation density during sintering is discussed. The results showed that cycling internal stress played an important role in sintering. Under the uniaxial pressure, the stress-dislocation interaction was found to be the major mechanism for thermo-compression sintering because the plastic deformation product dislocation intensified the diffusion of atoms. Also, the displacement vector, the mean square displacement, and the changing crystal structure during sintering were studied.

  9. Study on the sintered characteristics and properties of nanostructured WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co hard metal alloys

    Chang, Shih-Hsien, E-mail: changsh@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ming-Hung [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuo-Tsung [Department of Auto-Mechanics, National Kangshan Agricultural Industrial Senior High School, Kaohsiung 82049, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, four different vacuum sintering temperatures (1250 °C, 1300 °C, 1350 °C and 1400 °C) were studied to determine the optimal process parameters of nano WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co sintered hard metal alloys. Experimental results showed that the optimal sintering temperatures for nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co alloys were 1300 °C and 1350 °C for 1 h, respectively. The sintered nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co hard metal alloys showed a good contiguity of 0.44 and 0.42; hardness was enhanced to HRA 90.83 and 90.92; the transverse rupture strength (TRS) increased to 2567.97 and 2860.08 MPa; and K{sub IC} was 16.23 and 12.33 MPa√m, respectively. Although the nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys possessed a slightly lower TRS value, they exhibited superior fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) and hardness similar to that of the nano WC–Co material. Significantly, nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys could be sintered at a lower temperature and still retained their excellent mechanical properties. - Graphical abstract: The following figure shows the fracture morphology of the WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co specimens by means of high-magnification SEM after the K{sub IC} tests. Fig. a shows that numerous binder phases (Fe–Ni–Co) existed in the crack areas, which resisted the penetration and extension of the cracks. Due to the bridging effect of the binder phase, the stress concentration of the crack tip will be resolved through plastic deformation; thus, the cracks did not continue to extend. Once the deformation reaches a critical value, the crack propagation occurs. Meanwhile, the binder phase can link together the two crack faces through the bridging process. Although parts of the cracked areas also showed the bridging effect in the WC–Co specimens, as shown by the arrows (Fig. b), the crack propagation path was not obviously affected. This result corresponds to the tortuosity phenomenon. Consequently, the bridging process

  10. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    Otani, C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.

    1987-01-01

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 2400 0 C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  11. Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions for enhanced sintering quality in rapid manufacturing

    Bai, John G; Creehan, Kevin D; Kuhn, Howard A

    2007-01-01

    Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions were prepared by dispersing 30 nm silver particles into a water-based binder system to enhance the sintering quality in rapid manufacturing. During three-dimensional printing (3DP), the nanosilver suspensions were inkjet printed onto repetitively spread microsilver powder for selective joining. Since the nanosilver particles in the suspensions can be sintered at relatively low temperatures to bond the neighbouring microsilver powder, they were used to provide the continuous bonding strength of the manufacturing parts during the heat-up procedure of the sintering operation. Comparative study shows that the silver parts printed using the nanosilver suspension were significantly enhanced in sintering quality than those printed using the binder system, especially when the silver parts had thin or small features with high aspect ratios

  12. THE EFFECT OFCARBON NANOTUBES ON THE SINTERING BEHAVIOR OF ZIRCONIA BASED MATERIALS

    A. M. Zahedi; H. R. Rezaie; J. Javadpour

    2015-01-01

    Different volume fractions (1.3, 2.6, and 7.6 Vol.%) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were dispersed within 8Y-TZP nanopowders. Mixed powder specimens were subsequently processed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and effects of CNTs on the sintering process of 8Y-TZP/CNT composites was studied. Maintenance of CNTs through the SPS process was confirmed using TEM and Raman Spectroscopy. Studies on the sintering profile of zirconia-CNT composites (Z-xC composites) could, to some extent, clarify the effe...

  13. Optimization of pulsed current GTAW process parameters for sintered hot forged AISI 4135 P/M steel welds by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abundant improvements have occurred in materials handling, especially in metal joining. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) is one of the consequential fusion techniques. In this work, PCGTAW of AISI 4135 steel engendered through powder metallurgy (P/M) has been executed, and the process parameters have been highlighted applying Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. The results show that the peak current (Ip), gas flow rate (GFR), welding speed (WS) and base current (Ib) are the critical constraints in strong determinant of the Tensile strength (TS) as well as percentage of elongation (% Elong) of the joint. The practical impact of applying Genetic algorithm (GA) and Simulated annealing (SA) to PCGTAW process has been authenticated by means of calculating the deviation between predicted and experimental welding process parameters

  14. Optimization of pulsed current GTAW process parameters for sintered hot forged AISI 4135 P/M steel welds by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S. [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Abundant improvements have occurred in materials handling, especially in metal joining. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) is one of the consequential fusion techniques. In this work, PCGTAW of AISI 4135 steel engendered through powder metallurgy (P/M) has been executed, and the process parameters have been highlighted applying Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. The results show that the peak current (Ip), gas flow rate (GFR), welding speed (WS) and base current (Ib) are the critical constraints in strong determinant of the Tensile strength (TS) as well as percentage of elongation (% Elong) of the joint. The practical impact of applying Genetic algorithm (GA) and Simulated annealing (SA) to PCGTAW process has been authenticated by means of calculating the deviation between predicted and experimental welding process parameters.

  15. On the microstructure analysis of FSW joints of aluminium components made via direct metal laser sintering

    Scherillo, Fabio; Astarita, Antonello; di Martino, Daniela; Contaldi, Vincenzo; di Matteo, Luca; di Petta, Paolo; Casarin, Renzo; Squillace, Antonino; Langella, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), applied to metal industry, is a family of processes that allow complex shape components to be realized from raw materials in the form of powders. The compaction of the powders can be achieved by local melting of the powder bed or by solid state sintering. Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing process in which a focalized laser beam is the heat source that allows the powders to be compacted. By DMLS it is possible to realize complex shape components. One of the limits of DMLS, as for every additive layer manufacturing techniques, is the unfeasibility to realize large dimension parts. Due to this limit the study of joining process of parts made via ALM is of great interest. One of the most promising options is the Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a solid state welding technique that has been proven to be very effective in the welding of metals difficult to weld, above all aluminium alloys. Since FSW is a solid-state technique, the microstructure of the various zone of the weld bead depends not only by the process itself but also by the parent microstruct ure of the parts to be welded. Furthermore, parts made of aluminium alloy via DMLS have a particular microstructure that is the result of repeated severe thermal cycles. In the present work the authors, starting from the description of the parent microstructure of parts made of AlSi10Mg aluminium alloy, study the microstructure evolution occurred within the joint made by Friction Stir Welding, analysing in details the microstructure of the main well recognized zone of the weld bead. The structure of the parent material is characterized by the presence of melting pools with a very fine microstructure. In the joint the recrystallization, the grain refinement and, above all, the redistribution of intermetallic phases occurs, resulting in an homogenization of the microstructure and in an increase of micro hardness.

  16. Bonding evolution with sintering temperature in low alloyed steels with chromium

    Fuentes-Pacheco L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, high performance PM steels for automotive applications follow a processing route that comprises die compaction of water-atomized powder, followed by sintering and secondary treatments, and finishing operations. This study examines Cr-alloyed sintered steels with two level of alloying. In chromium-alloyed steels, the surface oxide on the powder is of critical importance for developing the bonding between the particles during sintering. Reduction of this oxide depends mainly on three factors: temperature, dew point of the atmosphere, and carbothermic reduction provided by the added graphite. The transformation of the initial surface oxide evolves sequence as temperature increases during sintering, depending on the oxide composition. Carbothermic reduction is supposed to be the controlling mechanism, even when sintering in hydrogen-containing atmospheres. The effect of carbothermic reduction can be monitored by investigating the behavior of the specimens under tensile testing, and studying the resultant fracture surfaces.

  17. Superior sinterability of nano-crystalline gadolinium doped ceria powders synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Hari Prasad, D.; Kim, H.-R.; Park, J.-S.; Son, J.-W.; Kim, B.-K.; Lee, H.-W.; Lee, J.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced sintering temperature of doped ceria can greatly simplify the fabrication process of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) by utilizing the co-firing of all cell components with a single step. In the present study, nano-crystalline gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) powders of high sinterability at lower sintering temperature has been synthesized by co-precipitation at room temperature. The successful synthesis of nano-crystalline GDC was confirmed by XRD, TEM and Raman spectroscopy analysis. Dilatometry studies showed that GDC prepared by this method can be fully densified (97% relative density) at a sintering temperature of 950 o C which is fairly lower than ever before. It has also been found that the sintered samples have a higher ionic conductivity of 1.64 x 10 -2 S cm -1 at 600 o C which is suitable for the intermediate temperature SOFC application.

  18. Influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the sintering and functional properties of an ultra-fine grained 316L stainless steel obtained from ball-milled powder

    Keller, C., E-mail: clement.keller@insa-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Tabalaiev, K.; Marnier, G. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Noudem, J. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Sauvage, X. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hug, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2016-05-17

    In this work, 316L samples with submicrometric grain size were sintered by spark plasma sintering. To this aim, 316L powder was first ball-milled with different conditions to obtain nanostructured powder. The process control agent quantity and milling time were varied to check their influence on the crystallite size of milled powder. Samples were then sintered by spark plasma sintering using different sets of sintering parameters (temperature, dwell time and pressure). For each sample, grain size and density were systematically measured in order to investigate the influence of the sintering process on these two key microstructure parameters. Results show that suitable ball-milling and subsequent sintering can be employed to obtain austenitic stainless steel samples with grain sizes in the nanometer range with porosity lower than 3%. However, ball-milling and subsequent sintering enhance chromium carbides formation at the sample surface in addition to intragranular and intergranular oxides in the sample as revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that using Boron nitride together with graphite foils to protect the mold from powder welding prevent such carbide formation. For mechanical properties, results show that the grain size refinement strongly increases the hardness of the samples without deviation from Hall-Petch relationship despite the oxides formation. For corrosion resistance, grain sizes lower than a few micrometers involve a strong decrease in the pitting potential and a strong increase in passivation current. As a consequence, spark plasma sintering can be considered as a promising tool for ultra-fine grained austenitic stainless steel.

  19. Energy-Saving Sintering of Electrically Conductive Powders by Modified Pulsed Electric Current Heating Using an Electrically Nonconductive Die

    Ito, Mikio; Kawahara, Kenta; Araki, Keita

    2014-04-01

    Sintering of Cu and thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 was tried using a modified pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) process, where an electrically nonconductive die was used instead of a conventional graphite die. The pulsed electric current flowed through graphite punches and sample powder, which caused the Joule heating of the powder compact itself, resulting in sintering under smaller power consumption. Especially for the Ca3Co4O9 powder, densification during sintering was also accelerated by this modified PECS process.

  20. Effect of recycling blast furnace flue dust as pellets on the sintering performance

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Iron and Steel Company generates a great amount of blast furnace flue dust. The recovery of metals and carbon from this flue dust becomes a very important demand due to the increase of the price of coke breeze and the decrease of the primary source of metals. At the same time, it make the environment more safe by decreasing pollution. Introducing these dust fines in the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus, this study aims at investigating the production of pellets resulting from these fines, using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of iron ore. The sintering experiments were performed using flue dust as pellets as a substitute of coke breeze. The results revealed that, sintering properties such as inter strength increases with using the flue dust pellets, while productivity of both the sinter machine and sinter machine at blast furnace yard decreases. Also the vertical velocity of the sinter machine and the weight loss during the reduction of produced the sinter by hydrogen decrease.

  1. Consolidation of copper and aluminium powders by spark plasma sintering

    Saiprasad, M.; Atchayakumar, R.; Thiruppathi, K.; Raghuraman, S.

    2016-09-01

    Processing in the powder metallurgy route has emerged as an economical process for the production of near net shaped components with a wide range of desired mechanical properties suitable for various applications of industrial needs. This research work was conducted with an objective of studying the improvisation of density and hardness of Copper-Aluminium alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering. Cu-Al alloy with a composition of 95% copper and 5% aluminium was prepared by SPS process. SPS is a low voltage, DC pulse current activated, pressure-assisted sintering, which enables sintering at lower temperatures and shorter durations. The combination offered by Cu-Al alloy of high strength and high corrosion resistance results their applications under a wide variety of conditions. The density and hardness of the prepared sample were measured by conducting appropriate tests. Apparently, the values of hardness and density of the specimen prepared by SPS seemed to be better than that of conventional sintering. The experimental procedure, testing methodologies and analysis are presented.

  2. Excursions at the places of mining and processing ore resources in Slovakia. The second part

    Jesenak, K.

    2011-01-01

    The second part of this text-book brings a complex and comprehensive view on the places of mining and processing of ore resources in the Slovak Republic. Environmental impact of mining and processing of the ores is also presented.

  3. Evaluation of polymer micro parts produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Micro manufacturing scale feature production by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes for the direct production of miniaturized polymer components is analysed in this work. The study characterizes the AM processes for polymer micro parts productions using the vat photopolymerization method...

  4. Structural comparison of sintering products made of "TiC + Ti" composite powders and "Ti + C" powder mixtures

    Krinitcyn, Maksim G.; Pribytkov, Gennadii A.; Korosteleva, Elena N.; Firsina, Irina A.; Baranovskii, Anton V.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, powder composite materials comprised of TiC and Ti with different ratios are processed by sintering of Ti and C powder mixtures and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in "Ti+C" system followed by sintering. The microstructure and porosity of obtained composites are investigated and discussed. The dependence of porosity on sintering time is explained theoretically. Optimal regimes that enable to obtain the most homogeneous structure with the least porosity are described.

  5. Study of the changes of uranium dioxide properties resulting from sintering; Izucavanje procesa sinterovanja urandioksida sa gledista promene karakteristicnih osobina

    Ristic, M M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Laboratorija za reaktorske materijale, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-12-15

    Uranium dioxide powder used for studying the sintering process having grain size 63 {mu}. Sintering was performed in the temperature interval from 1000 - 1300 deg C in argon atmosphere. The O/U ratio of the used uranium dioxide was 2.07. Densities obtained by sintering under the mentioned conditions were not higher than 91% TG (theoretical density). This showed that the mentioned conditions were optimal, but the uranium dioxide obtained could be used for studying the radiation damage of fuel.

  6. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  7. Final Report on Initial Samples Supplied by LLNL for Task 3.3 Binder Burnout and Sintering Schedule Optimisation

    Walls, P

    1999-01-04

    Sixteen of the twenty-one samples have been investigated using the scanning laser dilatometer. This includes all three types of samples with different preparation routes and organic content. Cracks were observed in all samples, even those only heated to 300 C. It was concluded that the cracking was occurring in the early part of the heat treatment before the samples reached 300 C. Increase in the rate of dilation of the samples occurred above 170 C which coincided with the decomposition of the binder/wax additives as determined by differential thermal analysis. A comparison was made with SYNROC C material (Powder Run 143), samples of which had been CIPed and green machined to a similar diameter and thickness as the 089mm SRTC pucks. These samples contained neither binder nor other organic processing aids and had been kept in the same desiccator as the SRTC samples. The CIPed Synroc C samples sintered to high density with zero cracks. As the cracks made up only a small contribution to the change in diameter of the sample compared to the sintering shrinkage, useful information could still be gained from the runs. The sintering curves showed that there was much greater shrinkage of the Type III samples containing only the 5% PEG binder compared to the Type I which contained polyolefin wax as processing aid. Slight changes in gradient of the sintering curve were observed, however, due to the masking effect of the cracking, full analysis of the sintering kinetics cannot be conducted. Even heating the samples to 300 C at 1.0 or 0.5 C/min could not prevent crack formation. This indicated that heating rate was not the critical parameter causing cracking of the samples. Sectioning of green bodies revealed the inhomogeneous nature of the binder/lubricant distribution in the samples. Increased homogeneity would reduce the amount of binder/lubricant required, which should in turn, reduce the degree of cracking observed during heating to the binder burnout temperature. A

  8. Study of sintering on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy system

    Annur, Dhyah; Lestari, Franciska P.; Erryani, Aprilia; Kartika, Ika

    2018-05-01

    Magnesium and its alloy have gained a lot of interest to be used in biomedical application due to its biodegradable and biocompatible properties. In this study, sintering process in powder metallurgy was chosen to fabricatenonporous Mg-6Zn-1Ca (in wt%) alloy and porous Mg-6Zn-1Ca-10 Carbamide alloy. For creating porous alloy, carbamide (CO(NH2)2 was added to alloy system as the space holder to create porous structure material. Effect of the space holder addition and sintering temperature on porosity, phase formation, mechanical properties, and corrosion properties was observed. Sintering process was done in a tube furnace under Argon atmosphere in for 5 hours. The heat treatment was done in two steps; heated up at 250 °C for 4 hours to decompose spacer particle, followed by heated up at 580 °C or 630 °C for 5 hours. The porous structure of the resulted alloys was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), while the phase formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Mechanical properties were examined using compression testing. From this study, increasing sintering temperature up to 630 °C reduced the mechanical properties of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy.

  9. Physical chemistry and modelling of the sintering of actinide oxides

    Lechelle, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a synthesis of the work I have carried out or to which I have numerically contributed to from 1996 up to 2012 in the Department of Plutonium Uranium and minor Actinides in Cadarache CEA Center. Their main goal is the study and the modeling of the sintering process of nuclear fuels which is the unifying thread of this document. Both in order to take into account the physical and chemical features of the actinide bearing oxide material and in order to combine the different transport phenomena leading to sintering, a sub-granular scale model is under development. Extension to a varying chemical composition as well as exchanges with the gaseous phase are foreseen. A simulation on a larger scale (pellet scale) is ongoing in the framework of a PhD thesis. Validation means have been tested with (U,Pu)O 2 material on the scale of the pellet (Small Angle Neutron Diffusion), on the scale of powder granules (X-Ray High Resolution Micro-Tomography) and with CeO 2 at the 'Institut de Chimie Separative' in Marcoule on a single crystal scale (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope). The required microstructure homogeneity for nuclear fuels has led to a campaign of experimental studies about the role of Cr 2 O 3 as a sintering aid. Whole of these studies improve our understanding of fuel sintering and hence leads to an improved mastering of this process. (author) [fr

  10. Constrained Sintering in Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Lee, Hae-Weon; Park, Mansoo; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Hyoungchul; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Byung-Kook

    2016-08-09

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are inevitably affected by the tensile stress field imposed by the rigid substrate during constrained sintering, which strongly affects microstructural evolution and flaw generation in the fabrication process and subsequent operation. In the case of sintering a composite cathode, one component acts as a continuous matrix phase while the other acts as a dispersed phase depending upon the initial composition and packing structure. The clustering of dispersed particles in the matrix has significant effects on the final microstructure, and strong rigidity of the clusters covering the entire cathode volume is desirable to obtain stable pore structure. The local constraints developed around the dispersed particles and their clusters effectively suppress generation of major process flaws, and microstructural features such as triple phase boundary and porosity could be readily controlled by adjusting the content and size of the dispersed particles. However, in the fabrication of the dense electrolyte layer via the chemical solution deposition route using slow-sintering nanoparticles dispersed in a sol matrix, the rigidity of the cluster should be minimized for the fine matrix to continuously densify, and special care should be taken in selecting the size of the dispersed particles to optimize the thermodynamic stability criteria of the grain size and film thickness. The principles of constrained sintering presented in this paper could be used as basic guidelines for realizing the ideal microstructure of SOFCs.

  11. Constrained Sintering in Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Lee, Hae-Weon; Park, Mansoo; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Hyoungchul; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Byung-Kook

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are inevitably affected by the tensile stress field imposed by the rigid substrate during constrained sintering, which strongly affects microstructural evolution and flaw generation in the fabrication process and subsequent operation. In the case of sintering a composite cathode, one component acts as a continuous matrix phase while the other acts as a dispersed phase depending upon the initial composition and packing structure. The clustering of dispersed particles in the matrix has significant effects on the final microstructure, and strong rigidity of the clusters covering the entire cathode volume is desirable to obtain stable pore structure. The local constraints developed around the dispersed particles and their clusters effectively suppress generation of major process flaws, and microstructural features such as triple phase boundary and porosity could be readily controlled by adjusting the content and size of the dispersed particles. However, in the fabrication of the dense electrolyte layer via the chemical solution deposition route using slow-sintering nanoparticles dispersed in a sol matrix, the rigidity of the cluster should be minimized for the fine matrix to continuously densify, and special care should be taken in selecting the size of the dispersed particles to optimize the thermodynamic stability criteria of the grain size and film thickness. The principles of constrained sintering presented in this paper could be used as basic guidelines for realizing the ideal microstructure of SOFCs. PMID:28773795

  12. The creation of process redesigns by selecting, transforming and replacing process parts

    Netjes, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2008-01-01

    For companies to sustain competitive advantages, it is required to redesign and improve business processes continuously by monitoring and analyzing process enactment results. Furthermore, organizational structures must be redesigned according to the changes in business processes. However, there are

  13. Influence of sintering time on distribution of alloying elements composition in Zircaloy pellet

    Sigit; Muchlis B; Widjaksana; Eric, J.; Suryana, RA; Gunawan

    1996-01-01

    Influence of sintering time on distribution of alloying elements composition in zircaloy pellet has been studied. Zircaloy pellets were obtained by pressing of Zr, Fe, Cr and Sn powders mixture in adequate composition of zircaloy-4, than the green pellets were sintered at 1100 o C for 1 - 3 hours. The alloying elements (Fe, Cr and Sn) composition in zircaloy pellets as sintering product were determined by Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analyser (SEM-EDAX). The experiments showed that there was an accumulation of Sn in a site of the zircaloy green pellet of 17.46 %, but after sintering process, the Sn was distributed everywhere. The influence of sintering time up to 1 hour showed a decreasing Sn composition from 9 % to 2 % which then relatively constant, while for Fe and Cr its decreasing was relatively small, i.e. : 1.86 % to 0.6 % and 1.04 % to 0.17 % respectively. The sintering process revealed no clear grain boundaries and powder homogenization did not complete. Observation on metallographic photos showed that this condition was in initial stage of sintering process where there was a complex phenomenon i.e.: no powder homogenization in green pellet or initial heating rate was extremely quick

  14. Contribution to the study of the sintering of ex-carbonyl iron in the α and γ phases using the micro-fractographic technique

    Oxley Gaborit de Montjou, M.Th.

    1966-01-01

    The micro-fractographic study of the sintering of ex-carbonyl iron has shown or confirmed a number of phenomena of which the principal are as followed: Sintering in the a phase: -) existence of two stages of sintering differentiated by the type of rupture (inter or trans-crystalline); -) marked influence of the content of oxygen in the atmosphere and in the initial compressed sample on the speed of sintering; -) formation of striations on the grain-boundary surfaces and on the inner surface of pores caused by the presence of oxygen. Sintering in the γ phase: -) a pronounced decrease in the speed of sintering: the grains in the initial powder remain in the granular state within the final α crystal in the iron sintered in the lower γ range even after several hours of sintering; -) this granular structure can be eliminated by intermediate compression thus enabling the sintering process to proceed. A considerable decrease in the speed of sintering if the A 3 point is passed one or more times in the α range sintering. A high speed sintering if the treatment in the γ range is carried out at or above 1300 C. The results of this study agree with micrographic investigation as well as with dilatometric measurements and known auto-diffusion coefficients. (author) [fr

  15. Production of sintered alumina from powder; optimization of the sinterized parameters for the maximum mechanical resistence

    Rocha, J.C. da.

    1981-02-01

    Pure, sinterized alumina and the optimization of the parameters of sinterization in order to obtain the highest mechanical resistence are discussed. Test materials are sinterized from a fine powder of pure alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), α phase, at different temperatures and times, in air. The microstructures are analysed concerning porosity and grain size. Depending on the temperature or the time of sinterization, there is a maximum for the mechanical resistence. (A.R.H.) [pt

  16. Becoming a Lunari or Taiyo expert: learned attention to parts drives holistic processing of faces.

    Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Faces are processed holistically, but the locus of holistic processing remains unclear. We created two novel races of faces (Lunaris and Taiyos) to study how experience with face parts influences holistic processing. In Experiment 1, subjects individuated Lunaris wherein the top, bottom, or both face halves contained diagnostic information. Subjects who learned to attend to face parts exhibited no holistic processing. This suggests that individuation only leads to holistic processing when the whole face is attended. In Experiment 2, subjects individuated both Lunaris and Taiyos, with diagnostic information in complementary face halves of the two races. Holistic processing was measured with composites made of either diagnostic or nondiagnostic face parts. Holistic processing was only observed for composites made from diagnostic face parts, demonstrating that holistic processing can occur for diagnostic face parts that were never seen together. These results suggest that holistic processing is an expression of learned attention to diagnostic face parts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Microwave sintering of Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate

    Fujii, S., E-mail: fujii.s.ap@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8522 (Japan); Department of Information and Communication System Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Okinawa College, Nago, Okinawa 905-2192 (Japan); Kawamura, S.; Maitani, M. M.; Suzuki, E.; Wada, Y. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8522 (Japan); Mochizuki, D. [Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research, Center for Energy and Environmental Science, Shinshu University, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate were subjected to microwave sintering by use of a single-mode waveguide applicator. A two-step sintering process was employed. First, at low conductivities of the film, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum electric field and subjected to microwave irradiation. Second, when the conductivity of the film increased, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum magnetic field and again subjected to microwave irradiation. The microwave sintering process was completed within 1.5 min, which is significantly lower than the time required for the oven heating process. The resulting conductivity of the film, albeit only 30% of that of the bulk material, was seven times that of a film annealed at the same temperature in a furnace. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles underwent both grain necking and grain growth during microwave sintering. In addition, this sintering process was equivalent to the oven heating process performed at a 50 °C higher annealing temperature. An electromagnetic wave simulation and a heat transfer simulation of the microwave sintering process were performed to gain a thorough understanding of the process.

  18. Microwave sintering of Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate

    S. Fujii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate were subjected to microwave sintering by use of a single-mode waveguide applicator. A two-step sintering process was employed. First, at low conductivities of the film, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum electric field and subjected to microwave irradiation. Second, when the conductivity of the film increased, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum magnetic field and again subjected to microwave irradiation. The microwave sintering process was completed within 1.5 min, which is significantly lower than the time required for the oven heating process. The resulting conductivity of the film, albeit only 30% of that of the bulk material, was seven times that of a film annealed at the same temperature in a furnace. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles underwent both grain necking and grain growth during microwave sintering. In addition, this sintering process was equivalent to the oven heating process performed at a 50 °C higher annealing temperature. An electromagnetic wave simulation and a heat transfer simulation of the microwave sintering process were performed to gain a thorough understanding of the process.

  19. Microwave synthesis and sintering characteristics of CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12

    CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) was synthesized and sintered by microwave processing at 2.45 GHz, 1.1 kW. The optimum calcination temperature using microwave heating was determined to be 950°C for 20 min to obtain cubic CCTO powders. The microwave processed powders were sintered to 94% density at 1000°C/60 min.

  20. Data on the densification during sintering of binder jet printed samples made from water- and gas-atomized alloy 625 powders

    Amir Mostafaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Binder jet printing (BJP is a metal additive manufacturing method that manufactures parts with complex geometry by depositing powder layer-by-layer, selectively joining particles in each layer with a polymeric binder and finally curing the binder. After the printing process, the parts still in the powder bed must be sintered to achieve full densification (A. Mostafaei, Y. Behnamian, Y.L. Krimer, E.L. Stevens, J.L. Luo, M. Chmielus, 2016; A. Mostafaei, E. Stevens, E. Hughes, S. Biery, C. Hilla, M. Chmielus, 2016; A. Mostafaei, Y. Behnamian, Y.L. Krimer, E.L. Stevens, J.L. Luo, M. Chmielus, 2016 [1–3]. The collected data presents the characterization of the as-received gas- and water-atomized alloy 625 powders, BJP processing parameters and density of the sintered samples. The effect of sintering temperatures on the microstructure and the relative density of binder jet printed parts made from differently atomized nickel-based superalloy 625 powders are briefly compared in this paper. Detailed data can be found in the original published papers by authors in (A. Mostafaei, J. Toman, E.L. Stevens, E.T. Hughes, Y.L. Krimer, M. Chmielus, 2017 [4].