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Sample records for sintering electrical properties

  1. Sintering and electrical properties of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrago, Diego Pereira; Sousa, Vania Caldas de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LABIOMAT/PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Biomateriais], Email: dptarrago@gmail.com; Moreno Buriel, Berta; Chinarro Martini, Eva; Jurado Egea, Jose Ramon [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICV/CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LAPEC/PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Minas, Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Pesquisa em Corrosao

    2010-07-01

    Lanthanum strontium manganites (LSM) are potential materials for cathode applications in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their good catalytic activity, chemical stability and compatibility with electrolyte materials in high temperatures. The sinterability of single phase La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Mn{sub O3} (x=0.18) perovskite powders and the electrical properties of the resulting samples are analyzed in this study. Using a heating microscope, the powders were pressed and sintered at different pressures and temperatures, resulting in an open porosity of 33.36% when compacted at 125 MPa and sintered at 1200 degree C. Top and cross-section s canning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed interconnected pores in the sintered body and, hence, a suitable microstructure for the application. The activation energy for conductance was 0.04 eV and the tested LSM bulk started to exhibit adequate electrical properties at about 500 degree C. (author)

  2. Effect of sintering temperature on structural and electrical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    vity measurement. The crystallinity and surface morphology of the samples improved with sintering tempera- ture. Further, the electrical conductivity measurement indicated that the conduction mechanism is mainly ionic. The conductivity of samples sintered at 1673 K and 1773 K at 800°C are of the order of 0⋅1 S-cm. –1.

  3. Effects of sintering temperature on electrical properties of sheep enamel hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumludag, F.; Gunduz, O.; Kılıc, O.; Kılıc, B.; Ekren, N.; Kalkandelen, C.; Oktar, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Bioceramics, especially calcium phosphate based bioceramics, whose examples are hydroxyapatite, and calcium phosphate powders have been widely used in the biomedical engineering applications. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most promising biomaterials, which are derived from natural sources, chemical method, animal like dental enamel and corals. The influence of sintering temperature on the electrical properties (i.e. DC conductivity, AC conductivity) of samples of sintered sheep enamel (SSSE) was studied in air and in vacuum ambient at room temperature. The sheep enamel were sintered at varying temperatures between 1000°C and 1300°C. DC conductivity results revealed that while dc conductivity of the SSSE decreases with increasing the sintering temperature in air ambient the values increased with increasing the sintering temperature in vacuum ambient. AC conductivity measurements were performed in the frequency range of 40 Hz - 105 Hz. The results showed that ac conductivity values decrease with increasing the sintering temperature.

  4. Sintering and electrical properties of PZT/Pt dual-phase composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, N.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Verweij, H.

    2001-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate–platinum dual phase composites, which have been shown to exhibit a very interesting electric field dependence of the dielectric constant, were prepared. The sintering properties and microstructure were analyzed. No chemical reaction between PZT and Pt was found in the

  5. Silver Oxalate Ink with Low Sintering Temperature and Good Electrical Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wendong; Wang, Changhai; Arrighi, Valeria

    2018-02-01

    Favorable conductivity at low temperature is desirable for flexible electronics technology, where formulation of a suitable ink material is very critical. In this paper, a type of silver organic decomposable ink (10 wt.% silver content) was formulated by using as-prepared silver oxalate and butylamine, producing silver films with good uniformity and conductivity on a polyimide substrate after sintering below 130°C (15.72 μΩ cm) and even at 100°C (36.29 μΩ cm). Silver oxalate powder with good properties and an appropriate solid amine complex with lower decomposition temperature were synthesized, both differing from those reported in the literature. The influence of the factors on the electrical properties of the produced silver films such as sintering temperature and time was studied in detail and the relationship between them was demonstrated.

  6. Effects of sintering temperature on structural and electrical transport properties of zinc ferrites prepared by sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis-ur-Rehman, M.; Malik, M.A.; Ahmad, I.; Nasir, S.; Mubeen, M.; Abdullah, A.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sintering temperature on the structural and electrical transport properties of nanocrystalline zinc ferrites are reported. The zinc ferrites were prepared by WOWS sol-gel synthesis route. The prepared sample was sintered at temperatures 500 deg. C, 700 deg. C and 900 deg. C respectively for 2 h. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique was used to describe the structural properties. The crystallite size, lattice parameters and porosity of samples were measured from the analysis of XRD data. The average crystallite size for each sample was measured using the Scherrer formula by considering the most intense (3 1 1) peak. The dielectric constant (e), dielectric loss tangent (tan theta ) and AC electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline Zn ferrites are investigated as a function of frequency and sintering temperature. All the electrical properties are explained in accordance with MaxwellWagner model and Koops phenomenological theory. (author)

  7. Electrical and microstructural properties of microwave sintered SnO{sub 2}-based varistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, P.S.; Oliveira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, J.S.; Rangel, J.H.G., E-mail: periclesft@ifma.edu.br, E-mail: marcelo@ifma.edu.br, E-mail: jomar@ifma.edu.br, E-mail: hiltonrangel@ifma.edu.br [IFMA-DAQ- PPGEM, S. Luis, MA (Brazil); Longo, E., E-mail: elson@iq.unesp.br [CMDMC, LIEC, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Sousa, V.C. de, E-mail: vania.sousa@ufrgs.br [DEMAT, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    An investigation was made of the microstructural and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2} -based varistors microwave sintered at 1200 deg C, applying a heating rate of 120 deg C/min and treatment times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min. The system used in this study was (98.95-X)%SnO{sub 2}.1.0%CoO.0.05%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.X%Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, where X corresponds to 0.05 and 0.065 mol%. Sintering was carried out in a domestic microwave oven (2.45 GHz) fitted for lab use. Silicon carbide was placed in a refractory vessel to form a heating chamber surrounding the sample holder. The pellets were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, direct current measurements and impedance spectroscopy. The parameters of density, medium grain size, coefficient of nonlinearity, breakdown electrical field, leakage current, and height and width of the potential barrier were analyzed. (author)

  8. Effect of porosity on thermal and electrical properties of polycrystalline bulk ZrN prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Jun; Kurosaki, Ken; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Two kinds of polycrystalline zirconium nitride (ZrN) pellets were prepared by a spark plasma sintering (SPS). Thermal and electrical properties were measured from room temperature to 1473 and 1000 K, respectively. Thermal expansion is almost independent of porosity. On the other hand, electrical and thermal conductivities systematically decreased with increasing porosity. Porosity dependences of electrical and thermal conductivities are studied through the Maxwell-Eucken's equation

  9. The effect of temperature on the electrical properties of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during electrical sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung-Jae

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the thermal behavior of ink-jet-printed nanoparticle ink during electrical sintering was demonstrated. The ink consisting of silver nanoparticles approximately 50 nm in size and 34 wt% was used. Constant currents of 0.11, 0.22, and 0.31 A were applied to Joule-heat the inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles. During the sintering process, in-situ voltage and current measurements were taken to calculate the heat source and thermal conductivity. In order to estimate the temperature during the electrical sintering process, numerical modeling of the two-dimensional heat conduction equation was adopted. Thermal conductivity was obtained from the in-situ electrical conductivity measurement and coupled to the numerical model using the Wiedemann Franz law. From these numerical modeling results, the relationship between the specific resistance of the ink and the temperature was determined. During the electrical sintering process, the specific resistance of the ink was strongly related to the sintering temperature. The specific resistance of the ink decreases as the process temperature rises.

  10. Influence of the sintering temperature on the magnetic and electric properties of NiFe2O4 ferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luis Zabotto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the structural, microstructural, electric and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite samples prepared through the solid state reaction. It was observed that an increase in the sintering temperature produces a higher cation concentration in the A site when compared to the B site. The assessment of magnetic properties showed that an increase in grain size leads to a decrease in the coercive fields verging on superparamagnetic values, while the saturation magnetization increases up to 46.5 Am².kg-1 for samples sintered at 1200 ºC. The dc electric resistivity behavior of samples was attributed to the increase in the cross-sectional area of grains as well as the different oxidation states and distribution of cations amongst the lattice sites of the spinel structure.

  11. Effects of Additives and Sintering Time on the Microstructure of Ni-Zn Ferrite and Its Electrical and Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Hajalilou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the relationship between the microstructure of Ni-Zn ferrite and its electrical and magnetic properties in the presence and absence of as small amounts as 0.12% of 0.4CaO + 0.8SiO2 over different sintering times. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed a single spinel phase formation in all the samples. The results indicate that grain growth occurred by increasing sintering time from 15 to 270 min in the two types of samples prepared in this study although it was greatly impeded by the additive oxides. Moreover, the oxides increase the resistivity of the ferrite and decrease its zinc loss. Magnetic properties such as induction magnetization (BS and saturation magnetization (MS decreased in the presence of the additives while its coercivity (HC increased. Finally, the density of the samples was observed to increase with increasing sintering time in both types of the samples but with a higher value in the samples with no additives.

  12. Optical, structural and electrical properties of nanosized zinc oxide sintered films for photovoltaic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide films have been deposited on ultra-clean glass substrates by screenprinting method followed by sintering process. Optimum conditions for preparing good quality screen-printed films have been found. The optical band gap of the films has been studied using reflection spectra in wavelength range 325-600 nm by using double beam spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature, single phase exhibiting wurtzite (hexagonal structure with strong preferential orientation of grains along the (101 direction. Surface morphology of films has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. The electrical resistivity of the films was measured in vacuum by two probe technique. PACS: 78.20.Ci; 78.50.Ge; 78.66.-w; 78.66.Hf.

  13. Numerical simulation of electric field assisted sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Brandon A.

    A fully coupled thermal-electric-sintering finite element model was developed and implemented to explore electric field assisted sintering techniques (FAST). FAST is a single step processing operation for producing bulk materials from powders, in which the powder is heated by the application of electric current under pressure. This process differs from other powder processing techniques such as hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and traditional press and sinter operations where the powder or compact is heated externally, in that the powder is heated directly as a result of internal Joule heating (for conductive powders) and/or by direct conduction from the die and punches. The overall result is much more efficient heating which allows heating rates of >1000°C/min to be achieved which is desirable for sintering bulk nanocrystalline and other novel high performance materials. Previous modeling efforts on FAST have only considered the thermal-electric aspect of the problem and have neglected densification. In addition to the introduction of a sintering model, a detailed thermal-electric study of process parameters was carried out in order to identify key system variables and quantify their effect on the overall system response and subsequent thermal history of a consolidated sample. This analysis was compared to empirical data from a parallel experimental study and shown to satisfactorily predict the observed trends. This model was then integrated with a phenomenologically based sintering model to capture the densification of the sample. This fully coupled model was used to predict densification kinetics under FAST like conditions and examine the evolution of material properties as the sample transitions from a loose powder to a fully dense compact and the resulting effect on the electrical and thermal fields within the compact. This model was also used to explore the effect of non-uniform thermal, electrical, stress and density fields on the final geometry and local

  14. Spark plasma versus conventional sintering in the electrical properties of Nasicon-type materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pérez-Estébanez, Marta; Isasi-Marín, J.; Rivera-Calzada, A.; León, C.; Nygren, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 651, December (2015), s. 636-642 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : electrode materials * ionic conduction * sintering Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925838815308227

  15. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of Sn-substituted Ni-Zn ferrites synthesized by double sintering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M.A. [Department of Physics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh); Uddin, M.M., E-mail: mohi@cuet.ac.bd [Department of Physics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh); Khan, M.N.I. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Chowdhury, F.U.-Z. [Department of Physics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (CUET), Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh); Haque, S.M. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2017-02-15

    The Sn-substituted Ni-Zn ferrites, (0.0≤x≤0.30), have been synthesized by the standard double sintering technique from the oxide nanopowders of Ni, Zn, Fe and Sn. The structural and electrical properties have been investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DC resistivity and dielectric measurements. From XRD data, the single cubic spinel phase has been confirmed for x≤0.1, whereas for x>0.1 an extra intermediate phase has been detected along with the cubic spinel phase of Ni-Zn ferrite. The grain size is increased due to Sn substitution in Ni-Zn ferrites. DC resistivity as a function of temperature has been measured by two probe method. The semiconducting nature has been found operative in the samples. The DC resistivity was found to decrease whilst the dielectric constant increased with increasing Sn content in Ni-Zn ferrites. The unusual behavior of the dielectric loss factor of the ferrites was explained by the Rezlescu model. The electrical relaxation of the ferrites has been studied in terms of electric modulus formalism and the time for dielectric relaxation was calculated. The contribution of grain resistance has been studied from the Cole-Cole plot. The suitability to use the as prepared samples in the miniaturized memory devices based capacitive components or energy storage principles are confirmed from the values of dielectric constant. - Highlights: • Sn-substituted Ni-Zn ferrites with cubic spinel structure have been synthesized. • a{sub th} is calculated and well compared with a{sub expt}. • Dielectric unusual behavior has been successfully explained by the Rezlescu model. • Long τ (ns) is determined, can be utilized for memory and spintronics devices.

  16. Effect of milling parameters on sinterability, mechanical and electrical properties of Cu-4 wt.% ZrO{sub 2} nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, Mohammed A., E-mail: mtahanrc@gmail.com [Solid-State Physics Department, National Research Centre, El-Buhooth St., 12622, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Nassar, Amira H. [Solid-State Physics Department, National Research Centre, El-Buhooth St., 12622, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Zawrah, M.F. [Ceramics Department, National Research Centre, El-Buhooth St., 12622, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    Mechanical alloying was used to produce Cu matrix nanocomposite reinforced by 4 wt.% ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different milling time up to 16 h and ball-to-powder ratios (BPRs) up to 40:1. The milled nanocomposite powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To study the sinterability, the milled powders were cold pressed and sintered at 800 °C for 1 h in argon atmosphere. In order to investigate the relative density and microstructures of the sintered nanocomposites, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were employed. The electrical and mechanical properties of the sintered nanocomposites were also examined. The results revealed that a uniform distribution of ZrO{sub 2} reinforcement in Cu matrix was successfully obtained and the agglomeration, crystal and particle sizes were decreased after either milling times and/or BPRs. The results also pointed out that the relative density, microhardness, compressive strength and electrical conductivity of the sintered nanocomposite samples were increased with the increasing of milling time and/or BPRs while apparent porosity was decreased. The maximum values of microhardness, compressive strength and electrical conductivity were 872 MPa, 304 MPa and 45.9% IACS, respectively for the milled sample for 16 h and BRP 40:1. - Highlights: • Cu-4 wt.% ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different parameter by mechanical alloying. • The increased milling times and/or BPRs led to a decrease in the particle size. • Microhardness is increased with increasing ball-to-powder weight ratios. • Compressive strength is increased with increasing milling time. • Electrical conductivity of the samples was increasing with increase milling time.

  17. Effect of sintering temperature on electrical and microstructure properties of hot pressed Cu-TiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islak S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Cu-TiC composites were successfully produced using hot pressing method. Cu-TiC powder mixtures were hot-pressed for 4 min at 600, 700 and 800°C under an applied pressure of 50 MPa. Phase composition and microstructure of the composites hot pressed at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and optic microscope techniques. Microstructure studies revealed that TiC particles were distributed uniformly in the Cu matrix. With the increasing sintering temperature, hardness of composites changed between 64.5 HV0.1 and 85.2 HV0.1. The highest electrical conductivity for Cu-10 wt.% TiC composites was obtained for the sintering temperature of 800°C, with approximately 68.1% IACS.

  18. Biomechanical properties of composite compact-porous titanium produced by electric discharge sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minko, D.; Belyavin, K.; Sheleg, V.

    2017-07-01

    The main disadvantage of currently used endosteal implants is their unsatisfactory biostable performance. Under action of functional stress caused by flaws of the design or lower mechanical characteristics the areas of stresses extreme concentration exceeding strength limits of bone tissue appears in the bone surrounding the implant that leads to the tearing away the implant. The problem of specific pressure lowering on the bone and uniform distribution of stress is solved by two ways: the increase of the implant area and the search of implant materials with optimum biomechanical properties. Porous materials of spherical titanium powders have adjustable pore size and large unit surface area, as well as possess high biologic compatibility with living tissue. This allows reduction of the rejection reaction due to a more even stress distribution around the functioning implant. Clinical results show that such implants have more stable physical and chemical properties.

  19. Effect of ZrO2 on the sintering behavior, strength and high-frequency dielectric properties of electrical ceramic porcelain insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Mehta, Niraj; Sahu, Praveen Kumar; Ershad, Md; Saxena, Vipul; Pyare, Ram; Ranjan Majhi, Manas

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of ZrO2 on the sintering, strength and dielectric behavior of electrical ceramic porcelain insulator with substituting alumina content by zirconia (in weight percentage from 0% to 30%) is investigated. The different composition of samples containing different zirconia (ZrO2) contents of 0, 10, 20, and 30 wt% are prepared using the uniaxial pressure technique applying 160 MPa pressure. Further, the prepared samples are also analyzed for sintering temperatures (1350 °C), and effects are observed on mechanical and electric properties of porcelain insulator. Different characterizations such as Dilatometer, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis/thermo gravimetric analysis were used to evaluate the thermal, phase detection, micro structural and weight loss changes by increasing concentration of ZrO2 on base porcelain composition. At 1350 °C, for the composition having 20 wt% ZrO2 with 10 wt% alumina, the maximum density was observed 2.81 g cm-3 with a porosity of 2.23%. The highest tensile strength of 41 ± 3 MPa is observed for the same sample composition. The minimum value of thermal expansion coefficient is found to be in the range of 10-6 for the sample with 30 wt% ZrO2 content sintered at 1350 °C compared to other prepared samples. Similarly, the highest dielectric value (5.1-4.4) having dielectric loss (0.08-0.12) is achieved for the sample with 30 wt% ZrO2 content sintered at 1350 °C in the frequency range of 4-20 GHz at room temperature. According to the mechanical properties, the composition having 20 wt% ZrO2 on base ceramic porcelain composition has enormous potential to serve as a high strength refractory material. For dielectric properties, the composition having 30 wt% ZrO2 is more suitable for the electrical application.

  20. Effects of Gd on the magnetic, electric and structural properties of BiFeO3 nanstructures synthesized by co-precipitation followed by microwave sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, S.; Shokrollahi, H.; Basiri, M. H.

    2015-02-01

    The ultrafine of Bi1-xGdxFeO3 with x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. These powders were defined by the X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were measured by an inductance-capacitance-resistance (LCR) meter. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that increasing the asymmetry and decreasing the second phases occur by increasing the amount of gadolinium. A phase transformation began from the rhombohedral phase to the orthorhombic one by adding gadolinium in about x=0.15. Gd-doping improved the magnetic properties because the cycloid spins were distorted by adding Gd instead of Bi. Furthermore, the dielectric properties were improved as a result of the reduction in Fe2+ and oxygen vacancies. The microwave sintering method was used to densify the compact pellets for electrical tests. FESEM images showed that microwave sintering leads to the enhancement of ferroelectric properties due to the high densities of the sintered pellets and the prevention of grain growth.

  1. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  2. Effect of sintering conditions on the electrical properties of Ni{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}La{sub 0.05}Fe{sub 1.95}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A.; Ateia, E.; Salah, L.M.; El-Gamal, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2004-10-01

    Ferrite samples having the general formula Ni{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}La{sub 0.05}Fe{sub 1.95}O{sub 4} were prepared using the standard ceramic method. The effect of sintering temperature, heating rate, and sintering time on the structural and the electrical properties was studied. The data show that electrical conductivity ln {sigma} as well as dielectric constant {epsilon}' are highly dependent on both Zn content x and the sintering conditions. The data obtained show that 1250 C is a critical sintering temperature. At this sintering temperature the grain growth is increased as the formation of spinel structure reaches its maximum value, and the volume diffusion is predominant. The critical heating rate is 4 C/min where the full reaction and maximum densification occur simultaneously. The effect of sintering time was also studied at a constant heating rate of 4 C/min and sintering temperature of 1250 C. All the data obtained are nearly constant and begin to increase after 83 h. SEM and electrical properties confirmed the results obtained. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Mechanical properties of simultaneously synthesized and consolidated carbon nanofiber (CNF)-dispersed SiC composites by pulsed electric-current pressure sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Ken; Hara, Hiroaki; Kato, Masaki

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) dispersed β-SiC composites with the addition of 0.2 mass% boron and 2.0 mass% carbon as sintering aids have been synthesized and consolidated simultaneously from mixtures of Si, amorphous C and B powders and CNF by pulsed electric-current pressure sintering (PECPS). Synthesis and consolidation process, which were observed from their expansion and shrinkage curves during PECPS, have been examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy for the powder compacts. CNF/SiC composites sintered at 1800 deg. C for 10 min under 40 MPa in a vacuum have ∼96.0% of theoretical density and homogeneous structures consisting of ∼4.0 μm grains. A 10 vol% CNF/SiC composite exhibited excellent mechanical properties: a bending strength of ∼720 MPa, a Vickers hardness of ∼26.0 GPa, and a fracture toughness of ∼5.5 MPa m 1/2 . High-temperature bending strength of ∼890 MPa at 1200 deg. C in air was attained with the same nanocomposites

  4. Effect of sintering atmosphere on the electrical and optical properties of (ZnO)1-x(MnO2)x NTCR ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoxing; Xu Guoyue

    2009-01-01

    Nominal composition of (ZnO) 1-x (MnO 2 ) x (0.005≤x≤0.2) ceramics have been prepared by the standard solid-state reaction method in three different sintering atmospheres: Ar, air, and reductive atmosphere. The effect of sintering atmosphere on the electron spin resonance (ESR), negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (NTCR), and photoluminescence (PL) properties of (ZnO) 1-x (MnO 2 ) x ceramics has been investigated in detail. The results demonstrate that the sintering atmosphere has significant effects on the ESR signals of (ZnO) 1-x (MnO 2 ) x ; the NTCR of the samples sintered in air is larger than those sintering in Ar and reductive atmosphere; the deep-level PL related to oxygen vacancy increases when sintered in the reductive atmosphere.

  5. Consolidation of metallic hollow spheres by electric sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V.; Tatarinov, A.; Lapkovsky, V.

    2017-07-01

    This paper considers peculiarities of the technology of production of structures from metallic hollow spheres (MHS) using magnetic fields and electric sintering. In these studies, the raw material was MHS obtained by burning of polystyrene balls coated by carbon steel. MHS had an outer diameter of 3-5 mm and a steel wall thickness of 70-120 microns. Pulsed current generators were used for electric sintering of MHS to obtain different spatial structures. Since MHS have small strength, the compressive pressure during sintering should be minimal. To improve the adhesion strength and reduce the required energy for sintering, hollow spheres were coated with copper by ion-plasma sputtering in vacuum. The coating thickness was 10-15 microns. The ferromagnetic properties of MHS allowed using of magnet fields for orientation of the spheres in the structures, as well as using of perforated tapes acting as orienting magnetic cores. Ultrasonic testing of MHS structures has been tried using through propagation of ultrasound in low kilohertz frequency range. Sensitivity of the propagation parameters to water filling of inter-spheres space and sintering temperature was demonstrated.

  6. Research of physical and mechanical properties of electric steel, providing for the grate bars of the roasting and sintering machines improved operational stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Давидович Учитель

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The grate bars of the conveyor roasting and sintering machines work in severe, aggressive dust and gaseous medium, under cyclic modes «heating-cooling», as well as under the load of iron ore agglomerates what results in bending stress in the body of the grate bar. Consequently, electric steel grate bar must be resistant to chemical and erosion processes, high cyclically changing temperature and have high mechanical properties. The paper discusses the conditions of the grate bars of conveyor roasting and sintering machines wear, depending on the adopted loading schemes. The materials to be processed can be loaded directly from the hopper (direct download or through the use of a feeder (drum-type feeder, roller, etc.. A simplified method to predict the grate bars surface wear on the strength of a number of assumptions has been developed: normal reaction of the pallet surface to the impact of the batch is assumed constant, equal to the maximum of its value when the pallet is in horizontal position; a layer of the batch moves as a rigid body; surface batch layer sliding velocity as related to the pallet surface is taken medium during the relative motion of the layer and equal to the linear velocity of the pallets; the side faces of the grate bars wear is related to related to the surface wear by linear dependence. The dependence of the wear on the friction forces and the steel wear resistance coefficient has been found out

  7. The Effect of MnO2 Content and Sintering Atmosphere on The Electrical Properties of Iron Titanium Oxide NTC Thermistors using Yarosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiendartun; Gustaman Syarif, Dani

    2017-02-01

    The effect of MnO2 content and sintering atmosphere on the characteristics of Fe2TiO5 ceramics for Negative Thermal Coefficient (NTC) thermistors by using Fe2O3 derived from yarosite has been studied. The ceramics were produced by pressing a homogeneous mixture of Fe2O3, TiO2 and MnO2 (0-2.0 w/o) powders in appropriate proportions to produce Fe2TiO5 based ceramics and sintering the pressed powder at 1100-1200°C for 3 hours in air, O2 and N2 gas. Electrical characterization was done by measuring electrical resistivity of the sintered ceramics at various temperatures from 30°C to 200°C. Microstructure and structural analyses were also carried out by using an scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD data showed that the pellets crystallize in orthorhombic. The presence of second phase could not be identified from the XRD analyses. The SEM images showed that the grain size of pellet ceramics increase with increasing of MnO2 addition, and the grains size of the ceramic sintered in oxygen gas is smaller than sintered in nitrogen gas. Electrical data showed that the value of room temperature resistance (RRT) tend to decrease with respect to the increasing of MnO2 addition and the pellet ceramics sintered in oxygen gas had the largest thermistor constant (B), activation energy (Ea), sensitivity (α) and room temperature resistance (RRT), compared to the sintered in nitrogen gas. From the electrical characteristics data, it was known that the electrical characteristics of the Fe2TiO5 pellet ceramics followed the NTC characteristic. The fabricated Fe2TiO5 ceramics have thermistor constants (B = 2207-7145K). This can be applied as temperature sensor, and will fulfill the market requirement.

  8. Novel iron oxide-silica coreshell powders compacted by using pulsed electric current sintering: optical and magnetic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahmed, N.; Heczko, Oleg; Maki, R.; Söderberg, O.; Haimi, E.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 11 (2012), s. 2981-2988 ISSN 0955-2219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : sintering * SiO 2 * ferrites * grain growth * transparent Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.360, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955221912001240

  9. Sintered soft magnetic materials. Properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. A.; Calero, J. A.; Dougan, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    A comparison is presented of the characteristics and production requirements of a variety of materials used to produce sintered soft magnetic parts. These include pure iron, phosphorous-iron, silicon-iron, nickel-iron, and cobalt-iron, together with new coated materials based on encapsulated iron powders. In these bonded materials an organic and/or inorganic insulator is used to coat the metallic powder particles giving a magnetic composite. The suitability of the different materials for use in both direct and alternating current applications is reviewed, and examples are provided of their application in both the automotive and other sectors. The results of a comparative study of motors using stators and rotors based on both conventional laminated materials and the insulated iron powders are presented, in which the new materials show advantages of reduced hysteresis losses at high frequencies, and isotropy of magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the applications of these materials in electrical motors requires the modification of existing designs.

  10. SiC/C composites prepared from wood-based carbons by pulse current sintering with SiO2 : Electrical and thermal properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Furuno, T; Imamura, Y

    2004-01-01

    A powder mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 was sintered into a SiC/C composite. The heat treatment temperatures were 1400-1800 degreesC, the SiO2 concentration 0, 10, 30 and 50 wt.% with respect to the dry weight of wood charcoal. The microstructure, electrical resistance and thermal conductivity were

  11. Pulse electric current sintering of cubic boron nitride/tungsten carbide–cobalt (cBN/WC–Co) composites: Effect of cBN particle size and volume fraction on their microstructure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo, E-mail: xiaoboking@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); Qin, Yi [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); Jin, Feng [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); Yang, Jian-Feng, E-mail: yang155@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); Ishizaki, Kozo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Cubic boron nitride/tungsten carbide–cobalt (cBN/WC–Co) composites were fabricated by pulse electric current sintering (PECS), using Ni–P as sintering additives to promote low temperature densification. The effect of cBN particle size and volume fraction on the densification, microstructure and mechanical properties of WC–Co composites was investigated. There was no phase transformation from cBN to hBN (hexagonal BN) with low-hardness due to low sintering temperature (1100–1200 °C) and short sintering time. Smaller cBN particle led to lower sinter-ability of the composites due to its high specific surface area. The 30 vol% 10–14 µm cBN/WC–Co composite (P14V30) exhibited high hardness (18.3 GPa, 1200 °C) and high fracture toughness (15.6 MP·m{sup 1/2}, 1000 °C). The high hardness resulted from the homogeneously dispersed cBN particles, which had a good bonding with the WC matrix. Increased fracture toughness was mainly attributed to crack deflection or bridging and pullout of cBN grains.

  12. Investigation of microstructural evolution and electrical properties for Ni-Sn transient liquid-phase sintering bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong-Liang; Huang, Ji-Hua; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Shao-Kun; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Shu-Hai

    2017-11-01

    Ni/Ni-Sn/Ni sandwiched simulated package structures were successfully bonded under low temperature and low pressure by Ni-Sn transient liquid-phase sintering bonding. The results show that, after isothermally holding for 240 min at 300 °C and 180 min at 340 °C, Sn was completely transformed into Ni3Sn4 intermetallic compounds. When the Ni3Sn4 phases around Ni particles were pressed together, the porosity of the bonding layer increased, which obviously differed from the normal sintering densification process. With further analysis of this phenomenon, it was found that large volume shrinkage (14.94% at 340 °C) occurred when Ni reacted with Sn to form Ni3Sn4, which caused void formation. A mechanistic model of the microstructural evolution in the bonding layer was proposed. Meanwhile, the resistivity of the bonding layer was measured and analyzed by using the four-probe method; the microstructural evolution was well reflected by the resistivity of the bonding layer. The relationship between the resistivity and microstructure was also discussed in detail.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. The electric conductivity of some forms of sintered synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susic, M.; Petrovic, V.; Ristic, M.; Petranovic, N.

    1978-01-01

    Some forms of synthetic zeolites were sintered and their electric conductivity was measured. The conductivity was observed in correlation with the conductivity of non-sintered pressed samples. Also the change in microstructural constituents in the course of the process of sintering was observed with an optical microscope. It has been found that there is a considerable change in conductivity due to sintering as well as a change in the activation energy for conduction. Also the porosity is noticeably changed. A marked affect of the nature of counter ions on the electric conductivity is shown

  14. Influence of Sintering Temperature on Pore Structure and Electrical properties of Technologically Modified MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Klym

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Technologically modified spinel ceramics are prepared from Al2O3 and 4MgCO3×Mg(OH2×5H2O powders at 1200, 1300 and 1400 oC. The influence of sintering temperature on porous structure and exploitation properties of obtained humidity-sensitive MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied. It is shown that increasing of preparing temperature from 1200 to 1400 oC result in transformation of pore size distribution in ceramics from tri- to bi-modal including the open macro- and mesopores with sizes from tem to hundreds nm and nanopores until to a few nm. The studied ceramic elements with electrical resistances ~ 10-2-102 MОhm are high humidity sensitive in the region of 30-95 % with minimal hysteresis in adsorption-desorption cycles. It is established that increasing of humidity sensitivity in ceramics are related to achievement near to optimum pore size distribution and quantity of pores in the all regions. Prolonged degradation transformation in ceramics at higher temperature and relative humidity result in lose sensitivity up to 40-50 %.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5189

  15. Titanium Powder Sintering in a Graphite Furnace and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Changzhou Yu; Peng Cao; Mark Ian Jones

    2017-01-01

    Recent accreditation of titanium powder products for commercial aircraft applications marks a milestone in titanium powder metallurgy. Currently, powder metallurgical titanium production primarily relies on vacuum sintering. This work reported on the feasibility of powder sintering in a non-vacuum furnace and the tensile properties of the as-sintered Ti. Specifically, we investigated atmospheric sintering of commercially pure (C.P.) titanium in a graphite furnace backfilled with argon and stu...

  16. THERMAL AND ELECTRIC FIELDS AT SPARK PLASMA SINTERING OF THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bulat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Improvement of thermoelectric figure of merit is connected with the usage of nanostructured thermoelectric materials fabricated from powders by the spark plasma sintering (SPS method. Preservation of powder nanostructure during sintering is possible at optimum temperature modes of thermoelectrics fabrication. The choice of these modes becomes complicated because of anisotropic properties of semiconductor thermoelectric materials. The decision of the given problem by sintering process simulation demands the competent approach to the problem formulation, a correct specification of thermoelectric properties, the properties of materials forming working installation, and also corrects boundary conditions. The paper deals with the efficient model for sintering of thermoelectrics. Methods. Sintering process of the bismuth telluride thermoelectric material by means of SPS-511S installation is considered. Temperature dependences of electric and thermal conductivities of bismuth telluride, and also temperature dependences of installation elements materials are taken into account. It is shown that temperature distribution in the sample can be defined within the limits of a stationary problem. The simulation is carried out in the software product Comsol Multiphysics. Boundary conditions include convective heat exchange and also radiation under Stefan-Boltzmann law. Results. Computer simulation of electric and thermal processes at spark plasma sintering is carried out. Temperature and electric potential distributions in a sample are obtained at the sintering conditions. Determinative role of graphite compression mould in formation of the temperature field in samples is shown. The influence of geometrical sizes of a graphite compression mould on sintering conditions of nanostructured thermoelectrics is analyzed. Practical importance. The optimum sizes of a cylindrical compression mould for fabrication of volume homogeneous samples based on

  17. Structure and electrical properties of Mn-modified Pb((Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.20 (Zr0.50Ti0.50)0.80)O3 ceramics sintered in a protective powder atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y.D.; Cui, B.; Zhu, M.K.; Wang, H.; Wang, B.; Yan, H.; Tian, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of PbO atmosphere on structure and electrical properties of Mn-modified Pb((Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.20 (Zr 0.50 Ti 0.50 ) 0.80 )O 3 ceramics were investigated. Specimens were prepared with and without a PbZrO 3 protective ambient, by columbite two-stage process in a temperature region from 1050 to 1200 deg. C. The results indicated that PbZrO 3 powder is favored to the liquid-state sintering process of specimens in PbO vapor pressure equilibrium. The specimens sintered with PbZrO 3 powder showed the homogenous and intergranular microstructure; whereas, the specimens sintered without PbZrO 3 powder demonstrated the inhomogenous and transgranular microstructure. Without protective PbZrO 3 powder, the flow of PbO from the compact to the exterior resulted in the formation of amorphous phase in grain boundaries, which deteriorated the electric properties seriously. By the use of PbO protective atmosphere, the excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties (Q m = 1160, tan δ = 0.004, K p =0.54) were obtained at 1100 deg. C for 2 h

  18. Electric Field-Assisted Pressureless Sintering of Ceramic Protonic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muccillo, R.; Esposito, Vincenzo; Zanetti De Florio, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    -5 A the electric current pulse amplitude. The sintering experiments were carried out in ambient atmosphere with the pellets positioned inside a vertical dilatometer furnace with Pt-Ir electrodes connected either to a power supply for applying the electric field or to an impedance analyzer for collecting [-Z''(ω) x......Gadolinium, yttrium and samarium-doped barium cerate (BCGd, BCY and BCSm, respectively) polycrystalline green pellets were submitted to electric field-assisted pressureless sintering experiments isothermally in the temperature range 800-1200oC under 100-200 V cm-1 electric fields, limiting to 1...... of the electrical conductivity of flash sintered specimens. Joule heating is assumed to be the primary effect of the electric current pulse through the specimens. Improved grain-to-grain contact and the removal of depleted chemical species due to Joule heating at the space charge region are proposed, respectively...

  19. Electric Field-Assisted Pressureless Sintering of Ceramic Protonic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muccillo, R.; Esposito, Vincenzo; de Florio, D. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Gadolinium, yttrium and samarium-doped barium cerate pressed pellets were submitted to flash sintering experiments isothermally in the temperature range 800-1300oC under 200 V cm-1 electric field. The pellets were positioned inside a dilatometer furnace with Pt-Ir electrodes connected either...... to a power supply or to an impedance analyzer to evaluate the bulk and the grain boundary contributions to the electrical resistivity. Near full density was achieved in the sintered samples. The combined results of dilatometry and impedance measurements in conventionally and flash sintered specimens show...... substantial improvement of the electrical conductivity. Joule heating is assumed to be the primary effect for sintering. Improved grain-to-grain contact and the removal of depleted chemical species due to Joule heating at the space charge region are proposed, respectively, as the reasons for the decrease...

  20. Effect of Sintering on the Properties of γ-Brass (Cu5Zn8) Nanoparticles Produced by the Electric Arc Discharge Method and the Thermal Conductivity of γ-Brass Oil-Based Nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbod, Mansoor; Mohammadian, Alireza; Ranjbar, Khalil; Kouhpeymani Asl, Razieh

    2016-03-01

    Cu5Zn8 nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 21 nm were produced using the electric arc discharge method at 1 atm pressure Ar and 300 A arc current. The effect of sintering on the properties of Cu5Zn8 nanoparticle pellets prepared by pressing nanopowders under 750 MPa pressure was studied. Particles grew uniformly when sintered at 1013 K (740 °C), as opposed to those samples that were unsintered, resulting in a reduction of pores and an increase in density of about 21 pct. The electrical resistivity and hardness of the samples were also highly reduced. The results showed that the cooling rate can affect the properties of the sintered samples. The oil-based nanofluids with 0.2 to 3 wt pct of Cu5Zn8 nanoparticles were prepared, and it was found that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with an increase in the weight percent of nanoparticles up to 1 pct and decreased afterward. The highest increase in thermal conductivity of 6 pct was measured compared to the base fluid.

  1. Electrical discharge machining studies on reactive sintered FeAl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    MS received 7 November 2005. Abstract. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) studies on reactive sintered FeAl were carried out with differ- ... electric breakdown process spreads at an explosive rate, resulting in the formation of a .... of cutting fluid takes place which would give out a car- bon residue. The visual black layer ...

  2. Titanium Powder Sintering in a Graphite Furnace and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhou Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent accreditation of titanium powder products for commercial aircraft applications marks a milestone in titanium powder metallurgy. Currently, powder metallurgical titanium production primarily relies on vacuum sintering. This work reported on the feasibility of powder sintering in a non-vacuum furnace and the tensile properties of the as-sintered Ti. Specifically, we investigated atmospheric sintering of commercially pure (C.P. titanium in a graphite furnace backfilled with argon and studied the effects of common contaminants (C, O, N on sintering densification of titanium. It is found that on the surface of the as-sintered titanium, a severely contaminated porous scale was formed and identified as titanium oxycarbonitride. Despite the porous surface, the sintered density in the sample interiors increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. Tensile specimens cut from different positions within a large sintered cylinder reveal different tensile properties, strongly dependent on the impurity level mainly carbon and oxygen. Depending on where the specimen is taken from the sintered compact, ultimate tensile strength varied from 300 to 580 MPa. An average tensile elongation of 5% to 7% was observed. Largely depending on the interstitial contents, the fracture modes from typical brittle intergranular fracture to typical ductile fracture.

  3. Synthesis, Sintering, and Electrical Properties of BaCe0.9−xZrxY0.1O3−δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, S.; Caboche, G.; Estournes, C.

    2008-01-01

    BaCe0.9-xZrxY0.1O3-delta powders were synthesized by a solid-state reaction. Different contents of cerium and zirconium were studied. Pellets were sintered using either conventional sintering in air at 1700 degrees C or the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. The density of the samples sinter......, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited....

  4. Synthesis, Sintering, and Electrical Properties of BaCe0.9−xZrxY0.1O3−δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ricote

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BaCe0.9−xZrxY0.1O3−δ powders were synthesized by a solid-state reaction. Different contents of cerium and zirconium were studied. Pellets were sintered using either conventional sintering in air at 1700∘C or the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS technique. The density of the samples sintered by SPS is much higher than by conventional sintering. Higher values of ionic conductivity were obtained for the SPS sample.

  5. Electrical discharge machining studies on reactive sintered FeAl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) studies on reactive sintered FeAl were carried out with different process parameters. The metal removal rate and tool removal rate were found to increase with the applied pulse on-time. The surface roughness of machined surface also changed with the applied pulse on-time.

  6. Synthesis and electrical field-assisted sintering behaviour of yttria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and electrical field-assisted sintering behaviour of yttria-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 nanopowders by polyacrylamide gel method. XINGHUA SU. ∗. , BENPAN WANG, JIE ZHOU and HAOYU SUN. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710061, China. MS received 5 May 2015; ...

  7. Synthesis and electrical field-assisted sintering behaviour of yttria ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 3YSZ nanopowders with mean particle size of 12 nm can be densified in 1 h at 800 ∘ C, by the application of a d.c. electrical field. Under a constant d.c. electrical field, the current density through the specimen of 3YSZ rose rapidly when the temperature increased to a certain value. In the sintering process, the current ...

  8. Effect of sintering temperature on structural and electrical properties of gadolinium doped ceria (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadhav, L. D.; Pawar, S. H.; Chourashiya, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Gadolinium doped ceria oxide is one of the promising materials as an electrolyte for IT-SOFCs. Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (GDC10) powder was prepared by solid state reaction and sintered at 1473 K, 1573 K, 1673 K and 1773 K All samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph and d.......c. conductivity measurement. The crystallinity and surface morphology of the samples improved with sintering temperature. Further, the electrical conductivity measurement indicated that the conduction mechanism is mainly ionic. The conductivity of samples sintered at 1673 K and 1773 K at 800°C are of the order...

  9. Sintering and electrical properties of Ce{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prekajski, M., E-mail: prekajski@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, Material Science Laboratory, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia); Stojmenović, M. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, Material Science Laboratory, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia); Radojković, A.; Branković, G. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1a, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Oraon, H.; Subasri, R. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), Balapur, Hyderabad 500 005 (India); Matović, B. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, Material Science Laboratory, University of Belgrade, PO Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} (x = 0.1–0.5) powders were conventional and microwave sintered. • Conventional sintering requires much higher temperatures for densification. • The highest ionic conductivity was obtained for the Ce{sub 0.80}Bi{sub 0.20}O{sub 2−δ} sample. - Abstract: Solid solution Ce{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} nanopowders with the composition of x = 0.1–0.5 were synthesized by using Self Propagating Room Temperature procedure (SPRT). The results obtained by XRPD show that synthesized samples were single-phase solid solution at room temperature. Powders were densified by using Conventional (CS) and Microwave (MS) Sintering techniques at different temperatures, in an air atmosphere for 1 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and complex impedance method measurements were carried out on sintered samples. Maximum achieved density was for sample with Ce{sub 0.80}Bi{sub 0.20}O{sub 2−δ} composition for both applied sintering techniques. The highest conductivity was obtained for the ceramic composition Ce{sub 0.80}Bi{sub 0.20}O{sub 2−δ} sintered by microwave technique at 700 °C.

  10. Corrosion Properties of Sintered and Wrought Stainless Seel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Troels; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1997-01-01

    The corrosion properties of a range of stainless steels produced by powder metallurgy (PM) are compared with wrought AISI304 and AISI316 Steel. Characterisation of the passivation properties in 0.5M H2SO4 and pittingresistance in 0.3% chloride solution by polarisation show properties...... of the sintered PM150 that are comparable or better than those of wrought 316 steel depending on the applied sintering technique....

  11. The Effect of Ga2Se3 Doping Ratios on Structure, Composition, and Electrical Properties of CuIn0.5Ga0.5Se2 Absorber Formed by Thermal Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chalcopyrite compounds of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS absorber were fabricated by using binary-particle (Cu2Se, In2Se3, and Ga2Se3 precursors with thermal sintering method. The binary-particle ink was firstly prepared by milling technology and then printed onto a soda lime glass substrate, which was baked at a low temperature to remove solvents and form a dry precursor. Following milling, the average particle size of agglomerated CIGS powder is smaller than 1.1 μm. Crystallographic, stoichiometric, and electrical properties of precursor CIGS films with various doping amounts of Ga2Se3 had been widely investigated by using thermal sintering in a nonvacuum environment without selenization. Analytical results reveal that the CIGS absorption layer prepared with a Ga2Se3 doping ratio of 3 has a chalcopyrite structure and favorable composition. The mole ratio of Cu : In : Ga : Se of this sample was 1.03 : 0.49 : 0.54 : 1.94, and related ratios of Ga/(In + Ga and Cu/(In + Ga were 0.52 and 0.99, respectively. The resistivity and carrier concentration were 3.77 ohm-cm and 1.15 E  +  18 cm-3.

  12. Profound Understanding of Effect of Transition Metal Dopant, Sintering Temperature, and pO2 on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Proton Conducting BaCe0.9Sm0.1O3-δ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Hala T; Hassan, Azfar; Leeson, Ryan; Eloui, Sherif M; Fitzpatrick, Martin; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    2016-01-19

    This study reports the effect of transition metal (TM) substitution on the electrical and optical properties of BaCe0.9Sm0.1O3-δ (BCS). Concentrations of 5-10 mol % of each of Fe and Co have been doped for the B-site of BCS by citric acid autocombustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction has revealed the formation of an orthorhombic perovskite-type structure. FTIR confirmed a distortion in the lattice upon TM-doping in BCS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of 1400 °C sintered samples have manifested a higher densification in BaCe0.8Sm0.1Co0.1O3-δ (BCSC10) with a grain size ∼11 μm compared to the parent compound BCS (∼2 μm). Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis showed a water uptake in case of BaCe0.85Sm0.1Co0.05O3-δ (BCSC5), while BaCe0.85Sm0.1Fe0.05O3-δ (BCSF5) did not show a noteworthy uptake of water. TG has also proved that the incorporation of Fe and Co in BCS did not improve the chemical stability in CO2 at elevated temperature. The band gap estimated using Kubelka-Munk model based on the diffuse reflectance data was found to be the lowest for BCSC5 (2.47 eV). However, it increases upon lowering oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which was interpreted by a band structure modifications. Among the samples investigated, BCSC10 sintered at 1400 °C showed the highest electrical conductivity of 0.02 S cm(-1) in air at 600 °C, while its proton mobility appears to be negligible under the investigated humidity atmosphere.

  13. Effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.P.; Liu, W.Q.; Huang, Y.L.; Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2014-01-01

    Sintered NdFeB-based permanent magnets were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and a conventional method to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties. The experimental results showed that sintered NdFeB magnet prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS NdFeB) possesses a better mechanical properties compared to the conventionally sintered one, of which the maximum value of bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively. The effects of sintering temperature on bending strength and Vickers hardness were investigated. It was shown that the bending strength firstly increases to the maximum value and then decreases with the increase of sintering temperature in a certain range. The investigations of microstructures and mechanical properties indicated that the unique sintering mechanism in the SPS process is responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of SPS NdFeB. Furthermore, the relations between the mechanical properties and relevant microstructure have been analyzed based on the experimental fact. - Highlights: • Studied the sintering temperature effect on strengthening mechanism of NdFeB magnet firstly. • It showed that sintering temperature may effectively affect the mechanical properties. • The maximum bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively

  14. Effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.P., E-mail: wgp@jxnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Communication Electronics, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Huang, Y.L.; Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Sintered NdFeB-based permanent magnets were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and a conventional method to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties. The experimental results showed that sintered NdFeB magnet prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS NdFeB) possesses a better mechanical properties compared to the conventionally sintered one, of which the maximum value of bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively. The effects of sintering temperature on bending strength and Vickers hardness were investigated. It was shown that the bending strength firstly increases to the maximum value and then decreases with the increase of sintering temperature in a certain range. The investigations of microstructures and mechanical properties indicated that the unique sintering mechanism in the SPS process is responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of SPS NdFeB. Furthermore, the relations between the mechanical properties and relevant microstructure have been analyzed based on the experimental fact. - Highlights: • Studied the sintering temperature effect on strengthening mechanism of NdFeB magnet firstly. • It showed that sintering temperature may effectively affect the mechanical properties. • The maximum bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively.

  15. Sintering Behavior, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties: A Comparison among Pressureless Sintered Ultra-Refractory Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Silvestroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly fully dense carbides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum were obtained by pressureless sintering at 1950°C with the addition of 5–20 vol% of MoSi2. Increasing the amount of sintering aid, the final density increased too, thanks to the formation of small amounts of liquid phase constituted by M-Mo-Si-O-C, where M is either Zr, Hf, or Ta. The matrices of the composites obtained with the standard procedure showed faceted squared grains; when an ultrasonication step was introduced in the powder treatment, the grains were more rounded and no exaggerated grains growth occurred. Other secondary phases observed in the microstructure were SiC and mixed silicides of the transition metals. Among the three carbides prepared by pressurless sintering, TaC-based composites had the highest mechanical properties at room temperature (strength 590 MPa, Young's modulus 480 GPa, toughness 3.8 MPa·m1/2. HfC-based materials showed the highest sinterability (in terms of final density versus amount of sintering aid and the highest high-temperature strength (300 MPa at 1500  °C.

  16. Electric field-assisted sintering of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien Bich

    consistent during varied heating rate (50--400ºC/min) and varied pressure application (25--90 MPa) studies. While in vitro cytocompatibility studies using MG63 osteoblast-like cells demonstrated the biocompatibility of the FAST-processed specimens, bioactivity was sensitive to processing parameters. Since extensive dehydroxylation reduces the surface charge of the sintered materials, apatite deposition during simulated body fluid immersion only occurred when dehydroxylation was mild---i.e., on specimens sintered at low temperatures (800--900ºC) or for short periods. Microstructural investigations revealed that HA sintered at temperatures above 900ºC under an applied electric field contained nanometric residual pores in grain interiors, as well as micron-sized dehydroxylation-related pores at grain boundaries and grain boundary junctions. These larger pores were responsible for the increasing embrittlement of specimens sintered at higher temperatures. Although grain size dependence could not be found in the 60--100 nm grain size range, fracture toughness (KIC = 1.92 MPa√m, maximum) increased with decreasing sintering temperature. Results from the suite of investigations conducted demonstrate that biocompatible and bioactive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with enhanced mechanical properties can be efficiently manufactured by field-assisted sintering under controlled processing conditions.

  17. Structural, magnetic, elastic, dielectric and electrical properties of hot-press sintered Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.5) spinel ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Yadav, Raghvendra; Kuřitka, Ivo; Havlica, Jaromir; Hnatko, Miroslav; Alexander, Cigáň; Masilko, Jiri; Kalina, Lukas; Hajdúchová, Miroslava; Rusnak, Jaroslav; Enev, Vojtěch

    2018-02-01

    In this article, Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0 and 0.5) disc-shaped pellets were formed by hot-press sintering of nanoparticles at temperature 925 °C for 10 min in vacuum atmosphere under 30 MPa mechanical pressure. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the formation of spinel cubic ferrite structure of hot-press sintered spinel ferrite Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0 and 0.5) samples. The scanning electron microscopy image indicated that the growth and densification of smaller ferrite nanoparticles were higher than larger ferrite nanoparticles. Magnetic properties of sintered samples were investigated by the superconducting quantum interface device (SQUID) magnetometer at room temperature. The hot press sintered Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0 and 0.5) pellet samples exhibited magnetic properties dependent on the grain size of spinel ferrite particles. The maximum saturation magnetization 82.47 emu/g was obtained for Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 hot press sintered sample of ball-milled ferrite particles. Further, the impact of grain size and density of sample on hardness, dielectric property and ac conductivity of hot-press sintered samples was investigated. In addition, the longitudinal wave velocity (Vl), transverse wave velocity (Vt), mean elastic wave velocity (Vm), bulk modulus (B), rigidity modulus (G), Young's modulus (E), Poisson ratio (σ) and Debye temperature (θD) were calculated. The elastic moduli of hot press sintered ferrite samples were corrected to zero porosity using Hosselman and Fulrath model.

  18. Basic characteristics of Australian iron ore concentrate and its effects on sinter properties during the high-limonite sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-hui; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Xue, Xun; Wang, Guang-wei; Kang, Qing-feng

    2017-09-01

    The basic characteristics of Australian iron ore concentrate (Ore-A) and its effects on sinter properties during a high-limonite sintering process were studied using micro-sinter and sinter pot methods. The results show that the Ore-A exhibits good granulation properties, strong liquid flow capability, high bonding phase strength and crystal strength, but poor assimilability. With increasing Ore-A ratio, the tumbler index and the reduction index (RI) of the sinter first increase and then decrease, whereas the softening interval (Δ T) and the softening start temperature ( T 10%) of the sinter exhibit the opposite behavior; the reduction degradation index (RDI+3.15) of the sinter increases linearly, but the sinter yield exhibits no obvious effects. With increasing Ore-A ratio, the distribution and crystallization of the minerals are improved, the main bonding phase first changes from silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) to kirschsteinite, silicate, and SFCA and then transforms to 2CaO·SiO2 and SFCA. Given the utilization of Ore-A and the improvement of the sinter properties, the Ore-A ratio in the high-limonite sintering process is suggested to be controlled at approximately 6wt%.

  19. Comparative Study of Structural, Electrical, and Magnetic Behaviour of Ni-Cu-Zn Nanoferrites Sintered by Microwave and Conventional Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Thangjam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni0.8-xCuxZn0.2Fe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by citrate precursor method. These nanoparticles were then given heat treatment using microwave and conventional sintering techniques. Various characterizations using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, LCR meter, and B-H loop tracer were carried out on the sintered specimens. The XRD spectra of these ferrites confirmed the formation of spinel structure. The average crystallite size calculated using Scherrer’s formula was found to be in the nanometer range, its value varying from 33 nm to 39 nm. Microwave sintered samples exhibited superior electrical and magnetic behaviour over their conventionally sintered counterparts. Feasibility of low temperature synthesis and promising properties will render these ferrites suitable for multilayer chip inductor applications.

  20. The Study of Microwave and Electric Hybrid Sintering Process of AZO Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the microwave sintering of ZnO by 3D modelling. A large-size Al-doped ZnO (AZO green ceramic compact was prepared by slurry casting. Through studying the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of the green compact, a relative density of up to 98.1% could be obtained by starting microwave heating at 1200°C and increasing the power 20 min later to 4 kW for an AZO ceramic target measuring 120 × 240 × 12 mm. The resistivity of AZO targets sintered with microwave assistance was investigated. The energy consumption of sintering could be greatly reduced by this heating method. Until now, few studies have been reported on the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of large-size AZO ceramic targets. This research can aid in developing sintering technology for large-size high-quality oxide ceramic targets.

  1. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS: a review of patents 1906–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Grasso, Yoshio Sakka and Giovanni Maizza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020 who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents, the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents. A subset of 119 (out of 642 ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS. The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  2. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    The electric current activated/assisted sintering ( ECAS ) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECAS ed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals . The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time ( fast and ultrafast ECAS ). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni

    2009-10-01

    The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature.

  4. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of spark plasma sintered alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheb Nouari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report temperature-dependent thermal properties of alumina powder and bulk alumina consolidated by spark plasma sintering method. The properties were measured between room temperature and 250ºC using a thermal constants analyzer. Alumina powder had very low thermal properties due to the presence of large pores and absence of bonding between its particles. Fully dense alumina with a relative density of 99.6 % was obtained at a sintering temperature of 1400°C and a holding time of 10 min. Thermal properties were found to mainly dependent on density. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of the fully dense alumina were 34.44 W/mK, 7.62 mm2s-1, and 1.22 J/gK, respectively, at room temperature. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity decreased while specific heat increased with the increase in temperature from room temperature to 250ºC.

  5. Effective elastic properties of sintered materials with branched cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedelinski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The aim of work is analysis of sintered materials with branched cracks growing from the voids situated at corners of fibers. The material is modelled as a two-dimensional linear-elastic structure using the boundary element method (BEM). The materials without voids and with voids having different shapes are considered. The influence of lengths of cracks and shapes of voids on stress intensity factors (SIF) and effective elastic properties (the Young modulus and the Poisson ratio) are studied. The overall properties of the sintered materials are determined by considering the representative volume element (RVE) with large number of branched cracks. The sensitivity of effective elastic properties on boundary conditions imposed on the RVE is studied.

  6. Sintering analysis of 8YSZ electrolyte correlated to the electrical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiane Abrantes da; Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Paulo Emilio Valadao de, E-mail: pmiranda@labh2.coppe.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departmento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms associated with densification and sintering of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), a main solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte, enables the improvement of its microstructure. The present work that has the objective to study the sintering and densification processes of polycrystalline nanostructured 8% mol YSZ (8YSZ), correlating the microstructural development with the electrical performance of the material. The sintering behaviors of nanocrystalline 8YSZ powders obtained by two different chemical synthesis techniques (glycine-nitrate combustion process and Pechini method) were studied based on sintering dilatometer method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used in the microstructural characterization. Full-densified 8YSZ (98.8%) were obtained and it was found that the samples obtained by the Pechini's method showed a higher densification degree in the final stage of sintering and resulted in ceramics with higher final relative density and better electrical behavior. (author)

  7. Adjustment of Part Properties for an Elastomeric Laser Sintering Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, A.; Ünlü, T.

    2018-03-01

    Laser sintering of polymers is gaining more and more importance within the field of small series productions. Polyamide 12 is predominantly used, although a variety of other materials are also available for the laser sintering process. For example, elastomeric, rubberlike materials offer very different part property profiles. Those make the production of flexible parts like, e.g., sealings, flexible tubes or shoe soles possible because they offer high part ductility and low hardness. At the chair for manufacturing technology, a new elastomeric laser sintering material has been developed and then commercialized by a spin-off from university. The aim of the presented study was the analysis of the new material's properties. Proof was found that Shore hardness can be modified by varying the parameter settings. Therefore, the correlation between process parameters, energy input, Shore hardness and other part properties like mechanical properties were analyzed. Based on these results, suitable parameter settings were established which lead to the possibility of producing parts with different Shore hardnesses.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, sintering and dielectric properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    The solution boils on heating and undergoes dehydration and decomposition leading to a smooth deflation and producing foam. The foam then ignites by itself ... Particulate properties of the combustion product were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Model-Hitachi H-600, Japan) operating at 200 kV.

  9. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Ag sintered alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mian; Zhang, Erlin; Zhang, Lan

    2016-05-01

    In this research, Ag element was selected as an antibacterial agent to develop an antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy by a powder metallurgy. The microstructure, phase constitution, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of the Ti-Ag sintered alloys have been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, electrochemical measurements and antibacterial test. The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the antibacterial property and mechanical property as well as the anticorrosion property have been investigated. The microstructure results have shown that Ti-Ag phase, residual pure Ag and Ti were the mainly phases in Ti-Ag(S75) sintered alloy while Ti2Ag was synthesized in Ti-Ag(S10) sintered alloy. The mechanical test indicated that Ti-Ag sintered alloy showed a much higher hardness and the compressive yield strength than cp-Ti but the mechanical properties were slightly reduced with the increase of Ag content. Electrochemical results showed that Ag powder size had a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of Ti-Ag sintered alloy. Ag content increased the corrosion resistance in a dose dependent way under a homogeneous microstructure. Antibacterial tests have demonstrated that antibacterial Ti-Ag alloy was successfully prepared. It was also shown that the Ag powder particle size and the Ag content influenced the antibacterial activity seriously. The reduction in the Ag powder size was benefit to the improvement in the antibacterial property and the Ag content has to be at least 3wt.% in order to obtain a strong and stable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The bacterial mechanism was thought to be related to the Ti2Ag and its distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of sintering temperature on optical properties and microstructure of translucent zirconia prepared by high-pressure spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Zhang, Byung-Nam Kim, Koji Morita, Hidehiro Yoshida Keijiro Hiraga and Yoshio Sakka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to characterize the effect of sintering temperature on transparency of zirconia, we have evaluated the optical properties and microstructure of translucent cubic zirconia prepared by high-pressure spark plasma sintering (SPS at 1000–1200 circleC. Color centers (oxygen vacancies with trapped electrons and residual pores were primary defects in the samples. In SPS samples, the total forward transmittance and in-line transmittance are mainly affected by color centers with a limited contribution from residual pores; in contrast, the changes in reflectance are only related to the porosity. The amounts of color centers and residual pores increase with sintering temperature that reduces the total forward and in-line transmittance of the as-sintered zirconia. Annealing in oxidizing atmosphere improves the total forward and in-line transmittance. During the annealing, the concentration of color centers decreases but the porosity increases.

  11. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti–Ag sintered alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mian [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Erlin, E-mail: zhangel@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-01

    In this research, Ag element was selected as an antibacterial agent to develop an antibacterial Ti–Ag alloy by a powder metallurgy. The microstructure, phase constitution, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of the Ti–Ag sintered alloys have been systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), compressive test, electrochemical measurements and antibacterial test. The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the antibacterial property and mechanical property as well as the anticorrosion property have been investigated. The microstructure results have shown that Ti–Ag phase, residual pure Ag and Ti were the mainly phases in Ti–Ag(S75) sintered alloy while Ti{sub 2}Ag was synthesized in Ti–Ag(S10) sintered alloy. The mechanical test indicated that Ti–Ag sintered alloy showed a much higher hardness and the compressive yield strength than cp-Ti but the mechanical properties were slightly reduced with the increase of Ag content. Electrochemical results showed that Ag powder size had a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of Ti–Ag sintered alloy. Ag content increased the corrosion resistance in a dose dependent way under a homogeneous microstructure. Antibacterial tests have demonstrated that antibacterial Ti–Ag alloy was successfully prepared. It was also shown that the Ag powder particle size and the Ag content influenced the antibacterial activity seriously. The reduction in the Ag powder size was benefit to the improvement in the antibacterial property and the Ag content has to be at least 3 wt.% in order to obtain a strong and stable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The bacterial mechanism was thought to be related to the Ti{sub 2}Ag and its distribution. - Highlights: • Ti–Ag alloy with up to 99% antibacterial rate was developed by powder metallurgy. • The effects of the Ag powder size and the Ag content on the

  12. Fabrication and properties of YBa2Cu3O7- x ceramics at different sintering temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayoonphokkharat, Poom; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda; Watcharapasorn, Anucha

    2013-07-01

    The influence of sintering temperatures on the fabrication of YBCO ceramics under normal air atmosphere was investigated in this study. YBCO ceramics were prepared by mixing starting compounds of Y2O3, BaCO3 and CuO powders, which were calcined at 850°C for 12 h. The powder was pelletized and sintered at different temperatures, from 930°C-1050°C, for 12 h. Phase identification was carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS) was used to study microstructure and chemical composition. In addition, density, Vickers hardness properties, the change of resistance and dielectric properties with temperature above T c were investigated. It was found that, at 950°C-1000°C, high-purity YBCO ceramic could be obtained. Outside this temperature range, either impurity phases were present or melting occurred. SEM images showed that grain size, which ranged from 1.5-2.5 µm, and hardness were related to density and liquid phase present in the sample. Furthermore, the sintering temperature affected oxygen content which, in turn, determined the conductive or semi-conductive behavior observed by electrical property measurement.

  13. Measurement and model on thermal properties of sintered diamond composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Tala; Garnier, Bertrand; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermal properties of sintered diamond used for grinding is studied. ► Flash method with infrared temperature measurement is used to investigate. ► Thermal conductivity increases with the amount of diamond. ► It is very sensitive to binder conductivity. ► Results agree with models assuming imperfect contact between matrix and particles. - Abstract: A prelude to the thermal management of grinding processes is measurement of the thermal properties of working materials. Indeed, tool materials must be chosen not only for their mechanical properties (abrasion performance, lifetime…) but also for thermal concerns (thermal conductivity) for efficient cooling that avoids excessive temperatures in the tool and workpiece. Sintered diamond is currently used for grinding tools since it yields higher performances and longer lifetimes than conventional materials (mineral or silicon carbide abrasives), but its thermal properties are not yet well known. Here the thermal conductivity, heat capacity and density of sintered diamond are measured as functions of the diamond content in composites and for two types of metallic binders: hard tungsten-based and soft cobalt-based binders. The measurement technique for thermal conductivity is derived from the flash method. After pulse heating, the temperature of the rear of the sample is measured with a noncontact method (infrared camera). A parameter estimation method associated with a three-layer nonstationary thermal model is used to obtain sample thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficient and absorbed energy. With the hard metallic binder, the thermal conductivity of sintered diamond increased by up to 64% for a diamond content increasing from 0 to 25%. The increase is much less for the soft binder: 35% for diamond volumes up to 25%. In addition, experimental data were found that were far below the value predicted by conventional analytical models for effective thermal conductivity. A possible explanation

  14. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties Improvement in Liquid-Phase-Sintered Hydroxyapatite by Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Duan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS as a liquid phase was introduced into hydroxyapatite (HAp to prepare bone scaffolds. The effects of the CAS content (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% on microstructure and mechanical properties of HAp ceramics were investigated. The optimal compression strength, fracture toughness and Vickers hardness reached 22.22 MPa, 1.68 MPa·m1/2 and 4.47 GPa when 3 wt% CAS was added, which were increased by 105%, 63% and 11% compared with those of HAp ceramics without CAS, respectively. The improvement of the mechanical properties was attributed to the improved densification, which was caused by the solid particle to rearrange during liquid phase sintering. Moreover, simulated body fluid (SBF study indicated the HAp ceramics could maintain the mechanical properties and form a bone-like apatite layer when they were immersed in SBF. Cell culture was used to evaluate biocompatibility of the HAp ceramics. The results demonstrated MG-63 cells adhered and spread well.

  15. Effect of sintering process parameters on the properties of 3Y-PSZ ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, H L; Chen, R S; Wang, C L; Hwang, W S; Lee, H E; Sie, Y Y; Wang, M C

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering process parameters on the properties of 3 mol% yttria partially stability zirconia (3Y-PSZ) ceramics has been investigated. The relative density of the sintered pellet rapidly increases from 70.5 to 93.6% with rose temperature from 1473 to 1573 K. In addition, the relative density only slightly increases from 94.9 to 96.6 %, when rose sintered temperature from 1573 to 1773 K. This result shows that no significant influence on the densification behavior when sintering at 1573 to 1773 K for 2 h. The Vickers hardness and toughness also increase with the sintered temperature

  16. Electrical sintering of silver nanoparticle ink studied by in-situ TEM probing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hummelgård

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticle inks are used for printed electronics, but to reach acceptable conductivity the structures need to be sintered, usually using a furnace. Recently, sintering by direct resistive heating has been demonstrated. For a microscopic understanding of this Joule heating sintering method, we studied the entire process in real time inside a transmission electron microscope equipped with a movable electrical probe. We found an onset of Joule heating induced sintering and coalescence of nanoparticles at power levels of 0.1-10 mW/μm³. In addition, a carbonization of the organic shells that stabilize the nanoparticles were found, with a conductivity of 4 10⁵ Sm⁻¹.

  17. Sintering behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties of vacuum sintered SiC/spinel nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guoqiang, E-mail: lguoqi1@lsu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States); Tavangarian, Fariborz [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Bulk SiC/spinel nanocomposite was synthesized from talc, aluminum and graphite powders. • Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of SiC/spinel nanocomposite was studied. • The obtained bulk SiC/spinel nanocomposite had a mean crystallite size of about 34 nm. - Abstract: A mixture of SiC and spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanopowder was prepared through the ball milling of talc, aluminum and graphite powder. The powder was uniaxially pressed into the form of pellets and the prepared specimens were annealed at various temperatures for different holding times. The prepared samples were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindentation test, cold crushing strength (CCS) test and Archimedes principle test. The obtained results showed that the hardness, CCS and bulk density did not follow the same trend at different temperatures due to the interaction among various parameters. The detailed investigation of microstructure, phase changes and experimental conditions revealed the mechanisms behind these behaviors. The best sample obtained after annealing at 1200 °C for 1 h in vacuum had the mean hardness of 1.6 GPa and the mean CCS of 118 MPa.

  18. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 5. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low temperature sintered quaternary piezoelectric ceramics. Jianhua Li ... Keywords. Sintering; microstructure-final; piezoelectric properties; perovskites; Jahn–Teller effect.

  19. IRON ORE SINTER PRODUCTION USING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bridi Telles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel production through Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF generates approximately 15% to 20% of Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD. This waste is considered dangerous due to the presence of metals as lead and cadmium that leach in contact with water. Because of this, the EAFD recycling becomes an alternative to diminish the costs with landfills and environmental harms caused by the waste. The iron ore sintering is a process that reuses most part of powders generated by the steelmaking. However the EAFD is not reused in this process because it contains zinc. The zinc is highly detrimental inside blast furnaces causing heavy crusts and affecting the thermodynamic equilibrium of the process. Therefore, this work studies the EAFD reuse in the iron ore sintering process to produce iron ore sinter with zinc contents between the limits established for blast furnaces.

  20. Microwave-assisted sintering of non-stoichiometric strontium bismuth niobate ceramic: Structural and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rajveer [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Atmaram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110021 (India); Luthra, Vandna [Department of Physics, Gargi College, University of Delhi, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi 110049 (India); Tandon, R.P., E-mail: ram_tandon@hotmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-11-01

    In recent years the microwave sintering has been utilized for the synthesis of materials in enhancement of the properties. In this paper strontium bismuth niobate (Sr{sub 0.8}Bi{sub 2.2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}:SBN) bulk ceramic has been synthesized by microwave reactive sintering and conventional heating techniques. A relative density of 99.6% has been achieved for microwave sintered SBN, which is higher than that of (98.81%) conventionally sintered SBN. The phase formation of SBN synthesized by both processes has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of SBN was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure was found to be more uniform in case of SBN sintered by microwave sintering. The dielectric properties of SBN were studied as a function of frequency in the temperature range of 30–500 °C. Both the samples synthesized by two different processes were found to follow Curie–Weiss law above the transition temperature. The Curie temperature was found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN. The dielectric constant and the transition temperature were observed to be higher for SBN ceramic synthesized by microwave sintering technique. The ac and dc activation energy values were also found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN as compared to conventional sintering technique.

  1. Effects of annealing conditions of electrodes on the photovoltaic properties of sintered cadmium sulfide/cadmium telluride solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.; Im, H.B.

    1990-01-01

    Polycrystalline n-CdS/p-CdTe solar cells with a commercial carbon paint on the p-CdTe layer and an In- Ag paint on the n-CdS layer were fabricated by a coating and sintering method. Electrical properties of the conducting paints and solar cell parameters of the heterojunction solar cells were investigated as a function of electrode annealing conditions. The sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells whose electrode contacts were annealed at 350 degrees C for 10 min in nitrogen showed maximum values of short-circuit current density, fill factor, and solar efficiency. Commercial carbon and silver paints can be used as electrodes to fabricate sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiency over 10%

  2. Electric-Loading Enhanced Kinetics in Oxide Ceramics: Pore Migration, Sintering and Grain Growth: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Wei [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering

    2018-02-02

    Solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells rely on solid electrolytes in which a large ionic current dominates. This project was initiated to investigate microstructural changes in such devices under electrochemical forces, because nominally insignificant processes may couple to the large ionic current to yield non-equilibrium phenomena that alter the microstructure. Our studies had focused on yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) widely used in these devices. The experiments have revealed enhanced grain growth at higher temperatures, pore and gas bubble migration at all temperatures, and the latter also lead to enhanced sintering of highly porous ceramics into fully dense ceramics at unprecedentedly low temperatures. These results have shed light on kinetic processes that fall completely outside the realm of classical ceramic processing. Other fast-oxygen oxide ceramics closely related to, and often used in conjunction with zirconia ceramics, have also be investigated, as are closely related scientific problems in zirconia ceramics. These include crystal structures, defects, diffusion kinetics, oxygen potentials, low temperature sintering, flash sintering, and coarsening theory, and all have resulted in greater clarity in scientific understanding. The knowledge is leveraged to provide new insight to electrode kinetics and near-electrode mixed conductivity and to new materials. In the following areas, our research has resulted in completely new knowledge that defines the state-of-the-art of the field. (a) Electrical current driven non-equilibrium phenomena, (b) Enhanced grain growth under electrochemically reducing conditions, (c) Development of oxygen potential polarization in electrically loaded electrolyte, (d) Low temperature sintering and grain growth, and (e) Structure, defects and cation kinetics of fluorite-structured oxides. Our research has also contributed to synthesis of new energy-relevant electrochemical materials and new understanding

  3. Influence of Europium Doping on Various Electrical Properties of Low-Temperature Sintered 0.5Ba0.90Ca0.10TiO3-0.5BaTi0.88Zr0.12O3-0.1%CuO- xEu Lead-Free Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongshang; Li, Shuiyun; Sun, Shulin; Gong, Yansheng; Li, Tiantian; Yu, Yongshang; Jing, Qiangshan

    2018-01-01

    0.5Ba0.90Ca0.10TiO3-0.5BaTi0.88Zr0.12O3-0.1%CuO- xEu (BCT-BZT-Cu- xEu; x = 0-0.90%) lead-free ceramics were sintered at 1220°C with as-synthesized nanoparticles by a modified Pechini method. The structural characteristics and electrical properties of the ceramics that were influenced by varying europium-doping were investigated. All the ceramics featured high densification (relative density: ˜ 96%). X-ray powder diffraction results indicated the samples possessed pure orthorhombic phase. The maximum relative permittivity ( ɛ r, 10869) was found at x around 0.30%. Europium ions could dope on different substitution sites in the ABO3 lattice, which evidently influenced electrical properties with various volumes of oxygen vacancy. Moreover, the formation mechanisms of oxygen vacancy and defect electron complexes were stated. The piezoelectric properties were impacted by defect electron complexes, internal stress, ionic electronegativity, etc. The optimal electrical properties, i.e., d 33 = 384 pC/N, Q m = 92, and k p = 0.36, were detected at x = 0.45%.

  4. Annealing effects on electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power of sintered PbTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.; Zhang, J.; Birkholz, U.

    1984-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and the thermoelectric power of p-type and n-type sintered polycrystalline PbTe samples are measured in the temperature range 130 K < T < 850 K in order to investigate aging phenomena caused by annealing. The annealing procedure chosen is similar to the operation conditions of thermoelectric generators with a maximum temperature of 850 K. The conductivity of p-type sodium-doped PbTe decreases significantly at temperatures below 400 K after several annealing cycles of 60 h. The thermoelectric power and the Hall coefficient, however, show no corresponding increase. The decrease of conductivity in this case can be explained by a barrier model the equivalent circuit of wich includes three temperature dependent resistors. The parameters of this model are determined by fitting the calculated conductivity to experimental data. Bromine-doped n-type PbTe shows only a slight decrease of conductivity after annealing. In the case of p-type silver-doped PbTe-SnTe-MnTe, the same annealing procedure has almost no effect on the electrical properties. (author)

  5. Structural, magnetic and electrical characterization of Cd-substituted Mg ferrites synthesized by double sintering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahir, R. [Department of Physics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh); Chowdhury, F.-U.Z, E-mail: faruque@cuet.ac.bd [Department of Physics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh); Uddin, M.M. [Department of Physics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong 4349 (Bangladesh); Hakim, M.A. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Center, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-15

    Cd-substituted Mg ferrites with compositional formula Mg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 0.1≤x≤0.6 in the steps of 0.1 have been synthesized by double sintering ceramic technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that the samples crystallize in a single phase cubic spinel structure. The lattice parameter has increased with increasing Cd content in conformity with Vegard's law. The study of scanning electron microscopy has revealed that Cd substitution has increased the particle size of the ferrites increases from ~2.2 to 9.2 µm. Some probable interpretations based on literature have been discussed. The increase in particle size with increasing of Cd content has consequently resulted in the initial permeability. The Curie temperature has decreased linearly with increasing Cd content which pointed out the weakening of A-B exchange interaction. The spectra of quality factor have showed a steady bandwidth of 0.1–8 MHz, this finding makes the ferrite system suitable for broadband pulse transformer. The variation of electrical resistivity (DC and AC) has been explained on the basis of electron hopping between Fe{sup 2+}and Fe{sup 3+}. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Cd-substituted Mg ferrites by double sintering ceramic technique. • Studies of Cd substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of Mg Ferrites. • The Curie temperature decreases linearly with increasing Cd concentration. • Due to the conduction of hopping of charge carriers DC resistivity decreases.

  6. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of Microwave Sintered Al-SiC Nanocomposites and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Himyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-metal matrix composites (AMMCs reinforced with diverse volume fraction of SiC nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave sintering process. The effects of the reinforcing SiC particles on physical, microstructure, mechanical, and electrical properties were studied. The phase, microstructural, and surface analyses of the composites were systematically conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and surface profilometer techniques, respectively. The microstructural examination revealed the homogeneous distribution of SiC particles in the Al matrix. Microhardness and compressive strength of nanocomposites were found to be increasing with the increasing volume fraction of SiC particles. Electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites decreases with increasing the SiC content.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Laser-Sintered-Nylon Diamond Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Clayton

    Additive manufacturing offers a manufacturing technique to produce complex geometry prototypes at a rapid pace and low cost. These advantages advocate additive manufacturing for the design and production of cellular structures. Cellular structures are interesting because they contain a large amount of porosity (void space of air) to manifest a lightweight structure. Designs of cellular structures generate a periodic pattern; often of complex geometry, called a lattice. There has been a significant amount of research to maximize specific stiffness of lattice structures but little to evaluate low-stiffness lattices. Low-stiffness structures benefit energy absorbance through bending of the lattice. This research seeks to assess diamond lattices as low stiffness, bending structures. The research involves PA2200 (Nylon 12) laser sintered diamond lattices with experimental compression testing and direct FEA model comparison. A correction factor is applied for a design offset of laser sintered lattices. Once applied, the experimental and FEA data agree in validating the diamond lattice as a bending-dominated structure. Diamond lattices show a 4th order relationship between stiffness and parameters of thickness and unit cell length. For density, stiffness maintains a 2nd order relationship, as predicted by bending dominated structures. The resulting stiffness can be tuned over a stiffness range of four orders of magnitude. Further research shows the results for modifying the diamond lattice and scaling stiffness and density using other materials (like metals) to expand the range of stiffness and compare diamond lattices on material property charts. Lastly, the effective Poisson's ratio varies from 0.5 to 0.4 depending on the (t/L) ratio.

  8. Properties of Carbide Ceramics from Gelcasting and Pressure-less Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Dongliang; Zhang Jingxian, E-mail: dljiang@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2011-10-29

    In this paper, the properties of carbide ceramics (SiC, and B{sub 4}C) from aqueous gelcasting and pressure-less sintering were studied systematically. The optimized sintering process was achieved via a series of experiments with effective control of grain size and microstructure for developing high performance ceramics. SiC samples can be pressure-less sintered to 98% TD with B{sub 4}C and C as the sintering additives. The samples showed excellent mechanical properties, homogeneous microstructure and improved reliability. B{sub 4}C samples can also be pressure-less sintered with the relative density around 96%. Results showed that gelcasting is a reliable process for the manufacturing of carbide ceramics with satisfied properties.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites from wood charcoal by pulse current sintering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujisawa, M; Hata, T; Bronsveld, P; Castro, [No Value; Tanaka, F; Kikuchi, H; Imamura, Y

    2005-01-01

    SiC/C composites were investigated by sintering a mix of wood charcoal and SiO2 powder (32-45 mu m) at 1400, 1600 and 1800 degrees C under N-2 atmosphere with a pulse current sintering method. Thermoelectric properties of SiC/C composites were investigated by measuring the Seebeck coefficient and

  10. Microstructure and properties of sintered mullite developed from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dense mullite aggregates with 72% Al2O3 have been synthesized by reaction sintering of two varieties of Indian bauxite and silica sol. The bauxites used are of inferior grade with different levels of accessory impurities such as Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO. The phase and microstructure development of sintered samples were ...

  11. Effects of High-Pressure High-Temperature Sintering on the Band Gap and Thermoelectric Properties of PbSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Li, Yi; Sun, Zhen-Ya

    2017-11-01

    In this study, PbSe bulk samples were prepared by a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) sintering technique, and the phase compositions, band gaps and thermoelectric properties of the samples were systematically investigated. The sintering pressure exerts a significant influence on the preferential orientation, band gap and thermoelectric properties of PbSe. With increasing pressure, the preferential orientation decreases, mainly due to the decreased crystallinity, while the band gap first decreases and then increases. The electrical conductivity and power factor decrease gradually with increasing pressure, mainly attributed to the decreased carrier concentration and mobility. Consequently, the sample prepared by 2 GPa shows the highest thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT, of 0.55 at ˜ 475 K. The ZT of the HPHT-sintered PbSe could be further improved by properly doping or optimizing the HPHT parameters. This study further demonstrates that the sintering pressure could be another degree of freedom to manipulate the band structure and thermoelectric properties of materials.

  12. Fabrication And Properties Of Silver Based Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composite Prepared By Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations of the obtained nanocomposite materials based on silver with addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The powder of carbon nanotubes content from 0.1 to 3 wt. % was produced by application of powder metallurgy methods, through mixing and high-energetic milling, and also chemical methods. Modification of carbon nanotubes included electroless deposition of silver particles on the carbon nanotube active surfaces and chemical reduction with strong reducing agent – sodium borohydride (NaBH4. The obtained powder mixtures were consolidated by SPS – Spark Plasma Sintering method. The formed composites were subjected to tests of relative density, electrical conductivity and electro-erosion properties. Detailed examinations of the structure with application of X-ray microanalysis, with consideration of carbon nanotubes distribution, were also carried out. The effect of manufacturing methods on properties of the obtained composites was observed.

  13. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Microstructure, Chemical Stability and Electrical Properties of Transition Metal or Yb-Doped BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1M0.1O3-δ (M = Fe, Ni, Co and Yb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad eMirfakhraei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite-type BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1M0.1O3-δ (M = Fe, Ni, Co and Yb (BZCY-M oxides were synthesized using the conventional solid-state reaction method at 1350-1550 oC in air in order to investigate the effect of dopants on sintering, crystal structure, chemical stability under CO2 and H2S, and electrical transport properties. The formation of the single-phase perovskite-type structure with an orthorhombic space group Imam was confirmed by Rietveld refinement using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD for the Fe, Co, Ni and Yb-doped samples. The BZCY-Co and BZCY-Ni oxides show a total electrical conductivity of 0.01 and 8 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 600 oC in wet H2 with an activation energy of 0.36 and 0.41 eV, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX revealed Ba and Co rich secondary phase at the grain-boundaries, which may explain the enhancement in the total conductivity of the BZCY-Co. However, ex-solution of Ni at higher sintering temperatures, especially at 1550 oC, decreases the total conductivity of the BZCY-Ni material. The Co and Ni dopants act as a sintering aid and form dense pellets at a lower sintering temperature of 1250 oC. The Fe, Co and Ni-doped BZCY-M samples synthesized at 1350 oC show stability in 30 ppm H2S/H2 at 800 oC, and increasing the firing temperature to 1550 oC, enhanced the chemical stability in CO2 / N2 (1: 2 at 25-900 oC. The BZCY-Co and Ni compounds with high conductivity in wet H2 could be considered as possible anodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs.

  14. Processing and Properties of Distaloy Sa Sintered Alloys with Boron and Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karwan-Baczewska J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prealloyed iron-based powders, manufactured in Höganäs Company, are used in the automotive parts industry. The properties and life time of such sintered parts depend, first of all, on their chemical composition, the production method of the prealloyed powder as well as on the technology of their consolidation and sintering. One of simpler and conventional methods aimed at increasing the density in sintered products is the process of activated sintering, performed, for example, by adding boron as elementary boron powder. Under this research project obtained were novel sintered materials, based on prealloyed and diffusion bonded powder, type: Distaloy SA, with the following chemical composition: Fe-1.75% Ni-1.5%Cu- 0.5%Mo with carbon (0.55%; 0.75% and boron (0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%. Distaloy SA samples alloyed with carbon and boron were manufactured by mixing powders in a Turbula mixer, then compressed using a hydraulic press under a pressure of 600 MPa and sintered in a tube furnace at 1473 K, for a 60 minute time, in the hydrogen atmosphere. After the sintering process, there were performed density and porosity measurements as well as hardness tests and mechanical properties were carried out, too. Eventually, analyzed was the effect of boron upon density, hardness and mechanical properties of novel sintered construction parts made from Distaloy SA powder.

  15. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Sb2/3)0·06(Ni1/2W1/2)0·02-. (Zr0·49Ti0·51)0·92]O3. Effect of the addition on sintering temperature, structure and electrical properties of ceramics was investigated. The piezoelectric ceramics was prepared by solid-state reaction. Sintering ...

  16. [The effect of sintering temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of dental zirconia toughened ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Ji-hua; Sun, Lian-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the effects of sintering temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of dental zirconia toughened ceramic (ZTC). 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia compacts were prepared by dry press method and then sintered at 1,490 degrees C, 1,530 degrees C, 1,570 degrees C and 1,610 degrees C respectively. The physical properties and bending strength were then measured. The result of the study indicated along with the rise of sintering temperature density and shrinkage of ZTC increased, but the pore structure decreased. It also showed the peak of bending strength was in 1,570 degrees C. In terms of sintering temperature and bending strength among the selected temperature, the best sintering temperature of 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia should be about 1,570 degrees C.

  17. Effect of temperature on electrical conductance of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during continuous wave laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Geon; Kim, Dong Keun; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of temperature on the specific electrical conductance of inkjet-printed ink during continuous wave laser sintering, the temperature of the sintered ink was estimated. The ink, which contained 34 wt.% silver nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm, was inkjet-printed onto a liquid crystal display glass substrate. The printed ink was irradiated with a 532 nm continuous wave laser for 60 s with various laser intensities. During laser irradiation, the in-situ electrical conductance of the sintered ink was measured to estimate the transient thermal conductivity of the ink. The electrical conductance and thermal conductivity of the ink was coupled to obtain the transient temperature by applying the Wiedemann–Franz law to a two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation. The electrical conductance of laser-sintered ink was highly dependent on the sintering temperature of the ink. - Highlights: • The in-situ electrical conductance was measured during the laser sintering process. • Wiedemann–Franz law coupled the electrical conductance with transient temperature. • The transient temperature of the laser-sintered Ag nanoparticle ink was estimated

  18. Low temperature sintering of MgCuZn ferrite and its electrical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cm was obtained for the ferrite with 12 mol% Cu at relatively low sintering temperature (910°C). The magnetic properties of the ferrites also improved by the Cu substitution. The chip inductors made of the ferrite fired at 910 C with 12 mol% Cu ...

  19. Effect of the sintering temperature and time on phase assemblage and electrical conductivity of zirconia-scandia-ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosso, R.L.; Muccillo, E.N.S.

    2012-01-01

    ZrO 2 -based solid electrolytes have been extensively studied over the last decades for application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Zirconia containing scandia and ceria solid electrolyte is a potential candidate in SOFCs operating at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 deg C). In this work, commercial ZrO 2 containing 10 mol% Sc 2 O 3 and 1 mol% CeO 2 was sintered by the conventional and two-step methods. Several sintering conditions were evaluated by varying the temperature as well as the residence time. High values of sintered density (> 98%) were obtained. A careful selection of the sintering conditions is necessary in order to obtain a single cubic phase, as revealed by X-ray diffraction results. The grain growth can be controlled in specimens sintered by the two-step method. The electrical conductivity show similar behavior for the grain component independent on the sintering method. (author)

  20. Properties and rapid sintering of a nanostructured tetragonal zirconia composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, In-Jin; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae

    2017-09-01

    4YSZ is generally used as oxygen sensors, fuel cells, thermal barrier and hip and knee joint replacements as a result of these excellent properties with its high biocompatibility, low density, good resistance against corrosion, high ionic conductivity, hard phase and melting point. However, 4YTZ with coarse grain has low resistance to wear and abrasion because of low hardness and low fracture toughness at room temperature. The fracture toughness and hardness of a 4YTZ can be improved by forming nanostructured composites and addition of a second hard phase. In this study, nanostuctured 4YTZ-graphene composites with nearly full density were achieved using high-frequency induction heated sintering for one min at a pressure of 80 MPa. The rapid consolidation and addition of graphene to 4YTZ retained the nano-scale structure of the ceramic by inhibiting grain growth. The grain size of 4YTZ was reduced remarkably by the addition of graphene and the addition of graphene to 4YTZ greatly improved the fracture toughness without decrease of hardness.

  1. Elastoplastic properties of transversely isotropic sintered metal fiber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, T.F. [School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Chen, C.Q., E-mail: chencq@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, AML, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Z.C. [School of Mechanics, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis of Industrial Equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-04-26

    Sintering of layered metal fiber sheets produces a structured, tunable, paper-like material that holds promise for thermal and biomaterial applications. Particularly promising for these areas is a material system synthesized by the sequential-overlap method, which produces a networked, transversely isotropic open cell porous material. Engineering application of these materials has been limited due in part to uncertainty about their mechanical responses. Here, we present a comprehensive structural and mechanical characterization of these materials, and define a modeling framework suitable for engineering design. X-ray tomography revealed a layered structure with an isotropic fiber distribution within each layer. In-plane uniaxial compression and tension tests revealed a linear dependence of Young's modulus and yield strength upon relative fiber density. Out-of-plane tests, however, revealed much lower Young's modulus and strength, with quartic and cubic dependence upon relative density, respectively. Fiber fracture was the dominant mode of failure for tension within the “in-plane” directions of the fiber layers, and fiber decohesion was the dominant mode of failure for tension applied in the “out-of-plane” direction, normal to the layers. Models based upon dispersions of beams predicted both in-plane and out-of-plane elastoplastic properties as a function of the relative density of fibers. These models provide a foundation for mechanical design with and optimization of these materials for a broad range of potential applications.

  2. The effect of sintering temperature on the properties of metakaolin artificial lightweight aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risdanareni, Puput; Ekaputri, Januarti Jaya; Triwulan

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the effect of sintering temperature on the properties of metakaolin artificial lightweight aggregate (ALWA). Three types of sintering temperature applied in this research are 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C, whereas ALWA without sintering treatment is used as data control. Properties of metakaolin ALWA investigated in this research are specific gravity, water absorption, physical appearance, porosity and aggregate impact value. Standard test used in this research is ASTM, AFNOR and British Standart. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that sintering temperature is greatly affect on the properties of metakaolin ALWA. Increased sintering temperatures can lead to decreased values of specific gravity, increased pore amount, increased aggregate impact value, increased water absorption values and change aggregate color to be more bright. Referring to the test results, sintering temperature not exceeding 900°C is recommended, as it provides good physical and mechanical properties to ALWA metakaolin. Further research on applying different method of sintering temperature and investigating the microstructure of ALWA metakaolin should be accomplished in order to improve the characteristic of ALWA metakaolin.

  3. Improvement of mechanical properties by additive assisted laser sintering of PEEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, M.; Bonten, C.; Eyerer, P.

    2014-01-01

    The additive assisted laser sintering was recently developed at IKT: A carbon black (CB) additive is used to adjust the polymer's laser absorption behavior with the aim to improve the interconnection of sintered powder layers. In this paper a parameter study, Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) samples were prepared with different contents of carbon black and were laser sintered with varying thermal treatment. The samples were mechanically tested and investigated by optical light and transmission electron microscopy. An influence on the morphology at the border areas of particles and intersections of laser sintered layers was found. Depending on the viscosity of the raw material and CB content, different shapes of lamellae were observed. These (trans-) crystalline or polymorph structures, respectively, influence the thermal and mechanical behavior of the virgin PEEK. Moreover, the thermal treatment during the sintering process caused an improvement of mechanical properties like tensile strength and elongation at break

  4. Preparation and properties of low cement castable sintered at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Martinović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The low cement high alumina castable (LCC studied in this paper was synthesised, cured and then treated at different sintering temperatures. Since any inhomogeneity introduced during the castable preparation can remain inside the material degrading its properties and therefore the quality during service life, particular attention was given to the processing procedure in order to produce the material with the optimum characteristics. Composition of the castable regarding particle size distribution was adjusted according to the Andreassen’s packing model. The samples were sintered at 1100, 1300 and 1600°C for three hours. Influence of the different sintering temperatures on the castable properties is discussed. Compressive and flexural strengths were determined by destructive testing method, while the water immersion method was used for determination of the bulk density and the water absorption. Changes of elastic properties and microstructure (porosity were observed by the non-destructive testing methods, ultrasonic measurements and image analysis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that sintering temperature has strong influence on the properties of the LCC. Exceptionally good properties were obtained for the sample sintered at 1600°C, but it should be highlighted that the samples treated at 1100 and 1300°C were provided with good properties, too. This should not be neglected because of the energy saving importance, in cases where the material sintered at lower temperature satisfies the application requirements.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of n-type 95%Bi2Te3–5%Bi2Se3 compounds fabricated by gas-atomization and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Seob; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gas Atomization process was used to fabricate 95%Bi 2 Te 3 –5%Bi 2 Se 3 powders. • Characterization of gas atomized powders were conducted. • SPS process was used to sinter the atomized powders at different sintering temp. • Thermoelectric properties, density and hardness of SPS-ed bulks were analyzed. -- Abstract: In this study, n-type 95%Bi 2 Te 3 –5%Bi 2 Se 3 doped with 0.04% SbI 3 thermoelectric materials was fabricated by gas-atomization and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at a temperature range of 623–723 K. The microstructure of the gas atomized powder shows spherical shape, fine particle size and homogeneously distributed grains. The density of the sintered bulk reached nearly 100% of the theoretical density, where micro Vickers Hardness was found around 54–57 Hv. The Seebeck coefficient (α) of the sintered bulk decreased while electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity (κ) increased with increasing sintering temperature to 723 K, resulting in a decrease in figure of merit. The maximum figure of merit (ZT) was 0.76, which was obtained in the sintered bulk at 623 K

  6. EFFECT OF SINTERING PROFILES ON THE PROPERTIES AND AGEING RESISTANCE OF Y-TZP CERAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Y. Tan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available Y-TZP ceramic powder was fabricated under four different sintering profiles in order to investigate the effects of conventional single-stage sintering (SSS with dwell times of 1 min and 2 h, respectively, compared with two-stage sintering (TSS, on the physical and mechanical properties of Y-TZP. Sintering was performed up to 1400oC at a ramp rate of 10oC/min. It was revealed that samples sintered via TSS yielded better properties than the SSS samples sintered at 1400oC using a dwell time of 2 h. In the hydrothermal ageing test, TSS samples did not undergo low-temperature degradation via the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation. Nevertheless, it was found by XRD analysis that Y-TZP ceramics sintered by the SSS method using a short dwell time of 1 min were effective in maintaining tetragonal phase stability after 50 h of exposure to superheated steam conditions.

  7. Electrical properties of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Solymar, L; Syms, R R A

    2014-01-01

    An informal and highly accessible writing style, a simple treatment of mathematics, and clear guide to applications have made this book a classic text in electrical and electronic engineering. Students will find it both readable and comprehensive. The fundamental ideas relevant to the understanding of the electrical properties of materials are emphasized; in addition, topics are selected in order to explain the operation of devices having applications (or possible future applications) in engineering. The mathematics, kept deliberately to a minimum, is well within the grasp of a second-year student. This is achieved by choosing the simplest model that can display the essential properties of a phenomenom, and then examining the difference between the ideal and the actual behaviour. The whole text is designed as an undergraduate course. However most individual sections are self contained and can be used as background reading in graduate courses, and for interested persons who want to explore advances in microele...

  8. Microstructure and properties of gravity sintered 316l stainless steel powder with nickel boride addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dušan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work demonstrates a procedure for synthesis of stainless steel powder by gravity sintering method. As an additive to the basic powder, NiB powder was added in the amount of 0.2 - 1.0 wt.%. Gravity sintering was done in vacuum, at the temperatures of 1100°C-1250°C, in the course of 3 - 60 min, using ceramic mould. Structural characterization was conducted by XRD, and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests with steel rings. Density and permeability were determined by standard techniques for porous samples. Gravity sintered stainless steel with NiB addition had more superior mechanical and physico-chemical properties compared to stainless steel obtained by standard powder metallurgy procedures - pressing and sintering. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172005

  9. Ice sintering timescales at the surface of Europa and implications for surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Meirion-Griffith, G.

    2017-12-01

    The planned exploration of Europa by NASA's Europa Clipper Mission and the possibility of a future Europa lander have driven the need to characterize its surface strength, roughness, porosity, thermal conductivity, and regolith depth in order to accurately interpret remote sensing data and develop appropriate spacecraft landing systems. Many processes contribute to Europa's landscape evolution, such as sputtering, mass wasting, thermal segregation, and impact gardening, driving the creation and distribution of icy regolith across the surface. While the efficacy of these processes are not well constrained, any amount of regolith emplaced at the surface will undergo subsequent processing due to sintering. Ice sintering is a form of frost metamorphism whereby contacting ice grains experience the diffusion of material into their contact region, forming a "neck" between them and densifying over time. Over long enough timescales, ice aggregates will sinter into solid material, which may contribute to the incorporation of non-ice material into Europa's subsurface and help to drive subsurface chemistry. Sintering also interacts with other processes, adding to the complexity of icy surface evolution. For example, sputtering preferentially removes larger grains and may enhance sintering rates, and changes in ice porosity may affect the response of the surface to micrometeorite impacts. Quantifying the effects of ice sintering will allow us to predict the microstructural properties of Europa's surface at spacecraft scales. To this end, we have modeled pressure-less (no overburden) sintering of spherical water-ice grains and validated the results with a laboratory experiment. We also modeled ice at the surface of Europa to obtain a first-order approximation of the sintering timescale and surface properties. Preliminary results indicate that ice grains will experience neck growth but not significant densification over Europa's surface age, suggesting that loose surface ice

  10. Optical properties of CdS sintered film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Chemical method has been used to prepare cadmium sulphide by using cadmium, hydrochloric acid and H2S. The reflection spectra of covered and uncovered sintered films of CdS have been recorded by 'Hitachi spectrophotometer' over the wavelength range 300–700 nm. The energy band gaps of these films ...

  11. Microstructure and properties of sintered mullite developed from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    purpose are clay minerals such as kaolinite, pyrophyllite, si- llimanite group ... racterized in terms of bulk density, apparent porosity, phase .... density at 1650. ◦. C. Gradual removal of open pores with an increase in sintering temperature is the reason for higher den- sification. Formation of higher amount of low density glass.

  12. Optical properties of CdS sintered film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical method has been used to prepare cadmium sulphide by using cadmium, hydrochloric acid and H2S. The reflection spectra of covered and uncovered sintered films of CdS have been recorded by 'Hitachi spectrophotometer' over the wavelength range 300–700 nm. The energy band gaps of these films have been ...

  13. Magnetic properties of sintered high energy sm-co and nd-fe-b magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talijan Nadežda M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic properties of permanent magnetic materials based on intermetallic compounds of Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B are in direct dependence on the microstructure. In the first part of this paper, having in mind the importance of the regime of sintering and heat treatment to obtain the optimal magnetic structure, yet another approach in defining the most adequate technological parameters of the sintering process for applied heat treatment conditions was made. The goal of these investigations was to use the correlation that exists between sintering conditions (temperature and time and intensity of the diffraction peak of the (111 plane of the SmCo5 phase to optimize. In the second part a brief overview of high energy magnetic materials based on Nd-Fe-B is presented with special emphasis to the current research and development of high remanent nanocomposite magnetic materials based on Nd-Fe-B alloys with a reduced Nd content. Part of experimental results gained during research of the sintering process of SmCo5 magnetic materials were realized and published earlier. The scientific meeting devoted to the 60th anniversary of Frankel’s theory of sintering was an opportunity to show once more the importance and role of sintering in optimization of the magnetic microstructure of sintered Sm Co5 magnetic materials.

  14. Microstructure and Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Aluminum Containing 1 wt.% SiC Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Kayode Aliyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The low hardness and strength of aluminum, which limits its use in many industrial applications, could be increased through the addition of nanoparticles. However, the appropriate processing method and parameters should be carefully selected in order to achieve the desired improvement in properties. In this work, aluminum was reinforced with low weight fraction (1 wt.% of SiC nanoparticles and consolidated through spark plasma sintering. The effect of processing parameters on the densification, microstructure, and properties of the processed material was investigated. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS facility was used to characterize the microstructure and analyze the reinforcement’s distribution in sintered samples. Phases present were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD. A densimeter and a digital microhardness tester were used to measure the density and hardness, respectively. Compressive tests were performed using universal testing machine. A fully dense Al-1 wt.% SiC sample was obtained. Analysis of density and hardness values showed that the influence of applied pressure was more pronounced than heating rate while the influence of sintering temperature was more significant than sintering time. Within the range of parameters used, the highest values of the characterized properties were obtained at a sintering temperature of 600 °C, sintering time of 10 min, pressure of 50 MPa, and heating rate of 200 °C/min.

  15. The evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of sintered sub-micron WC-Co powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Izan Izura; Mohd Asri Selamat; Noraizham Mohamad Diah; Talib Ria Jaafar

    2007-01-01

    A cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) is widely used for a variety of machining, cutting, drilling and other applications. The properties of this tungsten heavy alloy are sensitive to processing and degraded by residual porosity. The sequence of high end powder metallurgy process include mixing, compacting and followed by multi-atmosphere sintering of green compact were analyzed. The sub micron (<1.0 μm) and less than 10.0 μm of WC powders are sintered with a metal binder 6% Co to provide pore-free part. The powder compacts were sintered at temperatures cycle in the range of 1200 degree Celsius-1550 degree Celsius in nitrogen-based sintering atmosphere. To date, however there have been few reported studies in the literature that the best sintering was carried out via liquid phase sintering in vacuum at approximately 1500 degree Celsius. from this study we found that in order to attain high mechanical properties, a fine grain size of powder is necessary. Therefore, the attention of this work is to develop and produce wear resistant component with better properties or comparable to the commercial ones. (author)

  16. Characterization and properties of sintered WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe hard metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Song-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • WC–Ni–Fe alloy sintered at 1400 °C had the highest hardness (HRA 85.3 ± 0.5). • The optimal WC–Ni–Fe sintered alloy possessed the highest TRS value (2524.5 ± 1.0 MPa). • The fracture toughness of the sintered WC–Ni–Fe alloys is mainly provided by the Ni–Fe binders. • WC–Ni–Fe sintered alloy possessed the highest fracture toughness of K IC (15.1 MPa m 1/2 ). • The WC–Ni–Fe sintered alloy had the much better corrosion resistance in 0.15 M HCl solution. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore two different tungsten carbide binders (Co and Ni–Fe) and then impose various sintering temperature treatments. Experimental results show that the optimal sintering temperatures for WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe hard metal alloys are 1350 °C and 1400 °C for 1 h, respectively. Meanwhile, the WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe alloys undergo a well liquid-phase sintering and, thus, exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In addition, the sintered WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe alloys show that when the relative density reached 99.76% and 99.68%, the hardness was enhanced to HRA 84.4 ± 0.5 and 85.3 ± 0.5, and the TRS increased to 2471.2 ± 1.0 and 2524.5 ± 1.0 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the corrosion test results show that the WC–Ni–Fe alloy sintered at 1400 °C had the lowest corrosion current (I corr ) of 1.11 × 10 −5 A cm −2 and the highest polarization resistance (R p ) of 2464.61 Ω cm 2 in 0.15 M HCl solution. Simultaneously, the fracture toughness of K IC increased to 15.1 MPa m 1/2 . Compared with sintered WC–Co alloys, the sintered WC–Ni–Fe hard metal alloys possessed much better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties

  17. Characterization and properties of sintered WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe hard metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien, E-mail: changsh@ntut.edu.tw; Chen, Song-Ling

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • WC–Ni–Fe alloy sintered at 1400 °C had the highest hardness (HRA 85.3 ± 0.5). • The optimal WC–Ni–Fe sintered alloy possessed the highest TRS value (2524.5 ± 1.0 MPa). • The fracture toughness of the sintered WC–Ni–Fe alloys is mainly provided by the Ni–Fe binders. • WC–Ni–Fe sintered alloy possessed the highest fracture toughness of K{sub IC} (15.1 MPa m{sup 1/2}). • The WC–Ni–Fe sintered alloy had the much better corrosion resistance in 0.15 M HCl solution. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore two different tungsten carbide binders (Co and Ni–Fe) and then impose various sintering temperature treatments. Experimental results show that the optimal sintering temperatures for WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe hard metal alloys are 1350 °C and 1400 °C for 1 h, respectively. Meanwhile, the WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe alloys undergo a well liquid-phase sintering and, thus, exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In addition, the sintered WC–Co and WC–Ni–Fe alloys show that when the relative density reached 99.76% and 99.68%, the hardness was enhanced to HRA 84.4 ± 0.5 and 85.3 ± 0.5, and the TRS increased to 2471.2 ± 1.0 and 2524.5 ± 1.0 MPa, respectively. Moreover, the corrosion test results show that the WC–Ni–Fe alloy sintered at 1400 °C had the lowest corrosion current (I{sub corr}) of 1.11 × 10{sup −5} A cm{sup −2} and the highest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) of 2464.61 Ω cm{sup 2} in 0.15 M HCl solution. Simultaneously, the fracture toughness of K{sub IC} increased to 15.1 MPa m{sup 1/2}. Compared with sintered WC–Co alloys, the sintered WC–Ni–Fe hard metal alloys possessed much better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.

  18. Effects of Au and Pd Additions on Joint Strength, Electrical Resistivity, and Ion-Migration Tolerance in Low-Temperature Sintering Bonding Using Ag2O Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takeyasu; Ogura, Tomo; Hirose, Akio

    2012-09-01

    A new bonding process using an Ag2O paste consisting of Ag2O particles mixed with a triethylene glycol reducing agent has been proposed as an alternative joining approach for microsoldering in electronics assembly, which currently uses Pb-rich, high-temperature solders. Ag nanoparticles were formed at approximately 130°C to 160°C through a reduction process, sintered to one another immediately, and bonded to a metal substrate. An Au-coated Cu specimen was successfully bonded using the Ag2O paste. The resulting joint exhibited superior strength compared with joints fabricated using conventional Pb-rich solders. To improve ion-migration tolerance, the Ag2O paste was mixed with Au and Pd microparticles to form sintered Ag-Au and Ag-Pd layers, respectively. The additions of Au and Pd improved the ion-migration tolerance of the joint. Regarding the mechanical properties of the joints, addition of secondary Au and Pd both resulted in decreased joint strength. To match the joint strength of conventional Pb-10Sn solder, the mixing ratios of Au and Pd were estimated to be limited to 16 vol.% and 7 vol.%, respectively. The electrical resistivities of the sintered layers consisting of 16 vol.% Au and 7 vol.% Pd were lower than that of Pb-10Sn solder. Thus, the additive fractions of Au and Pd to the Ag2O paste should be less than 16 vol.% and 7 vol.%, respectively, to avoid compromising the mechanical and electrical properties of the sintered layer relative to those of contemporary Pb-10Sn solder. Following the addition of Au and Pd to the paste, the ion-migration tolerances of the sintered layers were approximately 3 and 2 times higher than that of pure Ag, respectively. Thus, the addition of Au was found to improve the ion-migration tolerance of the sintered Ag layer more effectively and with less sacrifice of the mechanical and electrical properties of the sintered layer than the addition of Pd.

  19. Comparative studies on mechanical properties of WC-Co composites sintered by SPS and conventional techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristinskiy Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS is an extremely fast solidification technique for compounds that are difficult to sinter within the material group metals, ceramics, or composites thereof, SPS uses a uniaxial pressure and a very rapid heating cycle to consolidate these materials. With SPS the main benefit is the ability to control the WC grain size due to the short sintering times at high temperature. Additionally, its allows to avoid negative reactions between WC and cobalt and to minimize the formation of undesirable phases in sintered composites. The WC-6wt.% Co cermet prepared by SPS processing achieves the enhanced mechanical properties with the hardness of 18.3 GPa and the fracture toughness of 15.5 MPa·m1/2 in comparison to standard reference tungsten carbide/cobalt material.

  20. Fabrication of Bi2223 bulks with high critical current properties sintered in Ag tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuaki, E-mail: ytakeda@g.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Motoki, Takanori [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakashima, Takayoshi; Kagiyama, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. 1-1-3 Shimaya, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0024 (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication conditions of Bi2223 bulks was reconsidered in terms of high J{sub c}. • Pressure of uniaxial pressing and heat treatment conditions were investigated. • The best sample showed higher J{sub c} than that of practically used Bi2223 bulks. - Abstract: Randomly grain oriented Bi2223 sintered bulks are one of the representative superconducting materials having weak-link problem due to very short coherence length particularly along the c-axis, resulting in poor intergrain J{sub c} properties. In our previous studies, sintering and/or post-annealing under moderately reducing atmospheres were found to be effective for improving grain coupling in Bi2223 sintered bulks. Further optimizations of the synthesis process for Bi2223 sintered bulks were attempted in the present study to enhance their intergrain J{sub c}. Effects of applied pressure of uniaxial pressing and sintering conditions on microstructure and superconducting properties have been systematically investigated. The best sample showed intergrain J{sub c} of 2.0 kA cm{sup −2} at 77 K and 8.2 kA cm{sup −2} at 20 K, while its relative density was low ∼65%. These values are quite high as for a randomly oriented sintered bulk of cuprate superconductors.

  1. Processing and properties of mechanically alloyed sintered steels with hard inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsfeld, C.

    1991-10-01

    The aim of this work was the development of mechanically alloyed sintered steels with inert hard inclusions and their characterisation concerning the mechanical properties and the sliding wear behaviour. For this material concept the hard materials NbC, TiC, TiN and Al 2 O 3 were chosen with volume contents upto 20%. Mechanical alloying of the raw powders is a necessary prerequisit for an extreme fine and homogeneous microstructure and good mechanical and wear properties. Through a connecting powder annealing a conventional powder metallurgical processing with cold pressing and sintering is possible. For the consolidation pressureless liquid phase sintering initiated through phosphorus contents of 0,6% is suitable. Because of the strong hampering of grain growth through the included hard particles sintering densities upto 99% TD are possible with extreme fine microstructures. The mechanical properties can be varied in wide ranges. So tensile strengths of 1150 MPa, elongations at fracture of 17%, hardness of over 800 HV and fatigue strengths of 370 MPa have been reached. Throughout HIP or sinter forging the mechanical properties can be improved furthermore. (orig.) [de

  2. Effects of forming temperature and sintering rate to the final properties of FeCuAl powder compacts formed through uniaxial die compaction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Sopyan, I.; Rahman, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental investigation on the effects of forming temperature and sintering schedule to the final characteristics of FeCuAl powder mass formed at different temperature and sintered at different schedule. A lab-scale uni-axial die compaction rig was designed and fabricated which enabled the compaction of powder mass at room temperature as well as elevated temperature. Iron (Fe) powder ASC 100.29 was mechanically mixed with other elemental powders, namely copper (Cu), and aluminum (Al) for 60 minutes and compacted at three different temperature, i.e., 30°C, 150°C, and 200°C by applying 425 MPa of simultaneous downward and upward axial loading to generate green compacts. The as-pressed samples were inspected visually and the defect-free green compacts were subsequently sintered in an argon gas fired furnace at 800°C for 60 min at three different heating/cooling rates, i.e., 5, 10, and 15°C/min, respectively. The sintered samples were then characterised for their physical, electrical, and mechanical properties. The microstructures of the sintered samples were also analysed. The results revealed that a forming temperature of 150°C and a sintering rate of 10°C/min could produce a product with better characteristics.

  3. Influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the sintering and functional properties of an ultra-fine grained 316L stainless steel obtained from ball-milled powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C., E-mail: clement.keller@insa-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Tabalaiev, K.; Marnier, G. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Noudem, J. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Sauvage, X. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6634, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, Avenue de l' Université, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Hug, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie des Matériaux, CNRS-UMR 6508, Université de Caen, ENSICAEN, 7 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2016-05-17

    In this work, 316L samples with submicrometric grain size were sintered by spark plasma sintering. To this aim, 316L powder was first ball-milled with different conditions to obtain nanostructured powder. The process control agent quantity and milling time were varied to check their influence on the crystallite size of milled powder. Samples were then sintered by spark plasma sintering using different sets of sintering parameters (temperature, dwell time and pressure). For each sample, grain size and density were systematically measured in order to investigate the influence of the sintering process on these two key microstructure parameters. Results show that suitable ball-milling and subsequent sintering can be employed to obtain austenitic stainless steel samples with grain sizes in the nanometer range with porosity lower than 3%. However, ball-milling and subsequent sintering enhance chromium carbides formation at the sample surface in addition to intragranular and intergranular oxides in the sample as revealed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that using Boron nitride together with graphite foils to protect the mold from powder welding prevent such carbide formation. For mechanical properties, results show that the grain size refinement strongly increases the hardness of the samples without deviation from Hall-Petch relationship despite the oxides formation. For corrosion resistance, grain sizes lower than a few micrometers involve a strong decrease in the pitting potential and a strong increase in passivation current. As a consequence, spark plasma sintering can be considered as a promising tool for ultra-fine grained austenitic stainless steel.

  4. Formation and properties of two-phase bulk metallic glasses by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoqiang, E-mail: xiegq@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Akihisa [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: > Two-phase bulk metallic glasses with high strength and good soft magnetic properties as well as satisfying large-size requirements were produced by spark plasma sintering. > Effects of sintering temperature on thermal stability, microstructure, mechanical and magnetic properties were investigated. > Densified samples were obtained by the spark plasma sintering at above 773 K. - Abstract: Using a mixture of the gas-atomized Ni{sub 52.5}Nb{sub 10}Zr{sub 15}Ti{sub 15}Pt{sub 7.5} and Fe{sub 73}Si{sub 7}B{sub 17}Nb{sub 3} glassy alloy powders, we produced the two-phase bulk metallic glass (BMG) with high strength and good soft magnetic properties as well as satisfying large-size requirements by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Two kinds of glassy particulates were homogeneously dispersed each other. With an increase in sintering temperature, density of the produced samples increased, and densified samples were obtained by the SPS process at above 773 K. Good bonding state among the Ni- and Fe-based glassy particulates was achieved.

  5. Al2O3-TiC Composite Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering Process: Evaluation of Mechanical and Tribological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Chaubey, A. K.; Bathula, Sivaiah; Prashanth, K. G.; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-03-01

    Al2O3-10TiC composites were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the composite reveal homogeneous distribution of the fine TiC particles in the matrix. The samples were produced with different sintering temperature, and it shows that the hardness and density gradually increases with increasing sintering temperature. Abrasion wear test result reveals that the composite sintered at 1500 °C shows high abrasion resistance (wt. loss 0.016 g) and the lowest abrasion resistance was observed for the composite sample sintered at 1100 °C (wt. loss 1.459 g). The profilometry surface roughness study shows that sample sintered at 1100 °C shows maximum roughness ( R a = 6.53 µm) compared to the sample sintered at 1500 °C ( R a = 0.66 µm) corroborating the abrasion wear test results.

  6. Al2O3-TiC Composite Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering Process: Evaluation of Mechanical and Tribological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Chaubey, A. K.; Bathula, Sivaiah; Prashanth, K. G.; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Al2O3-10TiC composites were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the composite reveal homogeneous distribution of the fine TiC particles in the matrix. The samples were produced with different sintering temperature, and it shows that the hardness and density gradually increases with increasing sintering temperature. Abrasion wear test result reveals that the composite sintered at 1500 °C shows high abrasion resistance (wt. loss 0.016 g) and the lowest abrasion resistance was observed for the composite sample sintered at 1100 °C (wt. loss 1.459 g). The profilometry surface roughness study shows that sample sintered at 1100 °C shows maximum roughness (R a = 6.53 µm) compared to the sample sintered at 1500 °C (R a = 0.66 µm) corroborating the abrasion wear test results.

  7. The microwave effects on the properties of alumina at high frequencies of microwave sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudiana, I. Nyoman, E-mail: sudiana75@yahoo.com; Ngkoimani, La Ode; Usman, Ida [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Halu Oleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu, Kendari 93232 (Indonesia); Mitsudo, Seitaro; Sako, Katsuhide; Inagaki, Shunsuke [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan); Aripin, H. [Center for Material Processing and Renewable Energy, Faculty of Learning Teacher and Education Science, Siliwangi University, Jl. Siliwangi 24 Tasikmalaya 46115, West Java (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Microwave sintering of materials has attracted much research interest because of its significant advantages (e.g. reduced sintering temperatures and soaking times) over the conventional heating. Most researchers compared processes that occurred during the microwave and conventional heating at the same temperature and time. The enhancements found in the former method are indicated as a 'non-thermal effect' which is usually used for explaining the phenomena in microwave processing. Numerous recent studies have been focused on the effect to elucidate the microwave interaction mechanism with materials. Moreover, recent progress on microwave sources such as gyrotrons has opened the possibility for processing materials by using a higher microwave frequency. Therefore, the technology is expected to exhibit a stronger non-thermal effect. This paper presents results from a series of experiments to study the non-thermal effect on microwave sintered alumina. Sintering by using a wide rage of microwave frequencies up to 300 GHz as well as a conventional furnace was carried out. The linear shrinkages of samples for each sintering method were measured. Pores and grains taken from scanning electron microstructure (SEM) images of cut surfaces were also examined. The results of a comparative study of the shrinkages and microstructure evolutions of the sintered samples under annealing in microwave heating systems and in an electric furnace were analyzed. A notably different behavior of the shrinkages and microstructures of alumina after being annealed was found. The results suggested that microwave radiations provided an additional force for mass transports. The results also indicated that the sintering process depended on microwave frequencies.

  8. The microwave effects on the properties of alumina at high frequencies of microwave sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiana, I. Nyoman; Ngkoimani, La Ode; Usman, Ida; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Sako, Katsuhide; Inagaki, Shunsuke; Aripin, H.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave sintering of materials has attracted much research interest because of its significant advantages (e.g. reduced sintering temperatures and soaking times) over the conventional heating. Most researchers compared processes that occurred during the microwave and conventional heating at the same temperature and time. The enhancements found in the former method are indicated as a 'non-thermal effect' which is usually used for explaining the phenomena in microwave processing. Numerous recent studies have been focused on the effect to elucidate the microwave interaction mechanism with materials. Moreover, recent progress on microwave sources such as gyrotrons has opened the possibility for processing materials by using a higher microwave frequency. Therefore, the technology is expected to exhibit a stronger non-thermal effect. This paper presents results from a series of experiments to study the non-thermal effect on microwave sintered alumina. Sintering by using a wide rage of microwave frequencies up to 300 GHz as well as a conventional furnace was carried out. The linear shrinkages of samples for each sintering method were measured. Pores and grains taken from scanning electron microstructure (SEM) images of cut surfaces were also examined. The results of a comparative study of the shrinkages and microstructure evolutions of the sintered samples under annealing in microwave heating systems and in an electric furnace were analyzed. A notably different behavior of the shrinkages and microstructures of alumina after being annealed was found. The results suggested that microwave radiations provided an additional force for mass transports. The results also indicated that the sintering process depended on microwave frequencies.

  9. A study of pressureless microwave sintering, microwave-assisted hot press sintering and conventional hot pressing on properties of aluminium/alumina nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinzadeh, Reza; Safavi, Seyed Mohsen; Karimzadeh, Fathallah [Isfahan University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Bulk Al/4wt-%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared by consolidating nanocomposite powders using pressureless microwave sintering, microwave-assisted hot press sintering and conventional hot pressing techniques. Microstructural observations revealed that the microwave-assisted hot press sintering at different sintering temperatures of 400.deg.C and 500.deg.C resulted in more densification and smaller grain size for Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite as compared with the conventional hot pressing. Moreover, the application of pressure in microwave sintering process led to more densification and grain growth. Mechanical properties resulting from microhardness and nanoindentation tests were also compared between three-method processed samples. It was found that the microwave-assisted hot-pressed sample exhibited higher hardness and elastic modulus in comparison with microwave-sintered and conventional hot-pressed samples. The improvement in the mechanical properties can be ascribed to lower porosity of microwave-assisted hot-pressed sample.

  10. Electrical properties of molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraud, A.

    1968-01-01

    This literature survey summarizes the electrical properties of molecular crystals: molecular crystal structure, transport and excitation mechanisms of charge-carriers, and differences compared to inorganic semi-conductors. The main results concerning the electrical conductivity of the most-studied molecular crystals are presented, together with the optical and photo-electrical properties of these crystals. Finally the different types of electrical measurements used are reviewed, as well as the limits of each method. (author) [fr

  11. Interface structure and properties of CNTs/Cu composites fabricated by electroless deposition and spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Hu, Zheng-Yang; Song, Qi; Yin, Shi-Pan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricated a novel copper matrix composites reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using electroless deposition (ED) and spark plasma sintering technique. Microstructure, mechanical, electric conductivity, and thermal properties of the CNTs/Cu composites were investigated. The results show that a favorable interface containing C–O and O–Cu bond was formed between CNTs and matrix when the CNTs were coated with nano-Cu by ED method. Thus, we accomplished the uniformly dispersed CNTs in the CNTs/Cu powders and compacted composites, which eventually leads to the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the CNTs/Cu composites in the macro-scale environment. However, the interface structure can hinder the movement of carriers and free electrons and increase the interface thermal resistance, which leads to modest decrease of electrical and thermal conductivity of the CNTs/Cu composites.

  12. Sintering and annealing effects on ZnO microstructure and thermoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Bøjesen, Espen D.; Borup, Kasper A.; Christensen, Sebastian; Christensen, Mogens; Iversen, Bo B.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different thermal treatments on zinc oxide has been investigated regarding the thermal diffusivity and structural properties of doped and undoped samples. ZnO powders having various grain sizes and morphologies, with or without aluminum doping, have been prepared under different temperatures by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructural properties and thermal diffusivities of the prepared samples have been measured before and after annealing treatments in air at 800 °C. In undoped samples, the crystallite sizes increased after the annealing treatments, while it was retained in the Al-doped samples. The thermal diffusivities, microstrain and degree of preferred orientation were affected by the SPS temperature and the annealing; however, the general trends were retained after the annealing treatments. Lower maximum temperature yielded a lower degree of preferred orientation, less microstrain, higher density of grain boundaries, lower thermal diffusivities and, for Al-doped samples, lower electrical conductivity and a difference in zT-values from 0.2 to 0.3 at 800 °C. Calculations of the wavelengths and mean free paths of the phonons that contribute to the main part of the thermal conductivity have been conducted and reveal that nanostructures <12 nm are required to lower the thermal conductivity by quantum confinement

  13. Effects of Sintering on the Thermal and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasco-Novelo, C.; May-Crespo, J.; Ramírez-Rincón, J. A.; Forero-Sandoval, I. Y.; Rodríguez-Gattorno, G.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2018-02-01

    Microstructure and composition are factors determining heat transfer in ZnO ceramic materials, which define the performance of the material after Joule heating, generated by electron transport. In this study, photothermal radiometry was applied to investigate the influence of the sintering temperature, ranging from 800 {°}C to 1300 {°}C, by measuring the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity at room temperature, of commercial and sol-gel ZnO pellets. Our results show that the values of these thermal properties for both types of ZnO increase when the sintering temperature increases, displaying maximum energy dissipation at 1200 {°}C. Additionally, the role of the sintering temperature on the optical properties was also analyzed using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and from these data the optical band-gap was obtained.

  14. Hard magnetic property and δM(H) plot for sintered NdFeB magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, R.W.; Zhang, D.H.; Li, W.; Li, X.M.; Zhang, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The hard magnetic properties and the interactions between the grains for sintered Nd 16 Fe 73 Co 5 B 6 magnets are investigated by using δM(H) plot technique. The results show that the δM(H) plot of NdFeB sintered magnet can explain the effects of the microstructure (size, shape and orientation of the grains) and the intergrain interactions on the hard magnetic properties of the magnet. However, the value of δM(H) is positive when the applied field is not strong enough, which means that the common δM(H) plot theory is not completely consistent with the sintered NdFeB magnet

  15. Pressureless sintering and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abden, M J; Afroze, J D; Alam, M S; Bahadur, N M

    2016-10-01

    This work aims to study the optimum sintering conditions of hydroxyapatite/functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (HA/f-MWCNT) composite with improved mechanical properties for bone implant applications using a pressureless sintering technique. The carboxyl functional group (COOH) introduced by the acid treatment on the MWCNT surface by which HA molecules are grafted onto the surface of functionalized MWCNT with strong interfacial bonding. The composite exhibits a lower hemolytic rate of 1.27%. The flexible nature of f-MWCNT makes them bend and attached to the HA grains, indicates that f-MWCNT bear significant stress by sharing a portion of the load and it leads to improve their mechanical properties. The maximum Vickers hardness of 3.6GPa is obtained for the HA/f-MWCNT composite sintered at 1100°C, whereas the highest compressive strength of 481.7MPa and fracture toughness of 2.38MPa.m(1/2) achieved after sintering at 1150°C. This study demonstrated that HA/f-MWCNT composite create suitable structures by vacuum pressureless sintering technique to satisfy the mechanical requirements for bone tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis, sintering properties and thermal conductivity of uranium carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, R.A.M.

    1978-01-01

    An introduction to the applications and chemistry of uranium carbonitrides is given including the potential use as a nuclear fuel. The powder synthesis of UC, UN and mixtures of UC and UN by a cyclic process is described. The correlation between the composition ratio UN/(UC+UN) in the final product and the parameters of the process is only determined qualitatively. Batch synthesis of a powder does not lead to an increase of the content of metallic impurities and oxygen. The impurity level is determined by that of the starting uranium metal and the thermal conductivity of the sintered compacts of uranium carbonitrides are determined via the measurement of the thermal diffusivity at 1100-1700 K. (Auth.)

  17. Sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of Cr3C2–NiCr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Cr3C2–NiCr cermets are used as metal cutting tools due to their relatively high hardness and low sin- tering temperatures. In this study, a powder mixture consisting of 75 wt% Cr3C2–25 wt% NiCr was sintered at four different temperatures and characterized for its microstructure and mechanical properties.

  18. Preparation and properties of porous Ti–10Mo alloy by selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Fangxia; He, Xinbo; Lu, Xin; Cao, Shunli; Qu, Xuanhui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, porous Ti–10Mo alloy was prepared from a mixture of titanium, molybdenum and epoxy resin powders by selective laser sintering preforming, debinding and sintering at 1200 °C under a pure argon atmosphere. The influence of sintering process on the porous, microstructural and mechanical properties of the porous alloy was discussed. The results indicate that the pore characteristic parameters and mechanical properties mainly depend on the holding time at 1200 °C, except that the maximum strain keeps at about 45%. The matrix microstructure is dominated by α phase with a small quantity of β phase at room temperature. As the holding time lengthens from 2 to 6 h, the average pore size and the porosity decrease from 180 to 50 μm and from 70 to 40%, respectively. Meanwhile, the Young's modulus and the compressive yield strength increase in the ranges of 10–20 GPa and 180–260 MPa, respectively. Both the porous structure and the mechanical properties of the porous Ti–10Mo alloy can be adjusted to match with those of natural bone. - Highlights: ► Porous Ti–10Mo alloy was fabricated by selective laser sintering technology. ► The pore size and porosity can be controlled by different holding time at 1200 °C. ► The matrix microstructure consists of major α and minor β at room temperature. ► The mechanical properties can be regulated by adjusting porosity (or density)

  19. Effect of hot densification on tribotechnical properties of sintered (Al-12Si)-40Sn alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, N. M.; Skorentsev, A. L.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes the effect of hot densification on mechanical and tribotechnical properties of sintered samples of (Al-12Si)-40Sn composition. It proves that such treatment increases the strength and ductility of the studied materials and makes higher their wear resistant under dry friction against a steel counterbody.

  20. The effects of sintering behavior on piezoelectric properties of porous PZT ceramics for hydrophone application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Tao; Dong Xianlin; Chen Heng; Wang Yonglin

    2006-01-01

    Porous lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics were fabricated by adding polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and the effects of sintering behavior on their microstructure and piezoelectric properties were investigated. The porosity of PZT ceramics decreased with an increase in the sintering temperature at a fixed PMMA addition. The dielectric constant (ε), longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) and hydrostatic figures of merit (d h g h ) of 34% porous PZT ceramics increased with an increase in sintering temperature from 1050 to 1300 deg. C. When sintered at 1300 deg. C, longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient of 34% porous PZT ceramic was very close to that of 95% dense PZT ceramics, while the hydrostatic figures of merit of 34% porous PZT ceramics is about fifteen times more than that of 95% dense PZT ceramics. Compared with PZT-polymer composites, the dielectric constant of 34% porous PZT sintered at 1300 deg. C is much higher, which can be more efficient to resist the interference in receiving sensitivities caused by loading effect of the cable

  1. Comparison of properties in silicon nitrides sintered with oxide and organometallic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxem, W.; Saruhan, B.

    1994-01-01

    An homogeneous introduction of sintering additives to silicon nitride powder compacts is of great importance in the fabrication of high strength silicon nitride ceramics. Inhomogenities and impurities brought into the compacts with addition of sintering additives may influence the microstructure and phase development and subsequently degrade the mechanical properties and reliability of silicon nitride ceramics. Sintering additives in the system of Sm 2 O 3 + Al 2 O 3 as metaloxides and nitrates are introduced to two different kinds of α-silicon nitride powder. Thereby, a more homogeneous distribution of additives through an intimate mixing is aimed. Advantages of this type of processing of silicon nitride powders against conventional method are discussed. The contribution of powder characteristics in determination of these factors are displayed. (orig.)

  2. Impact of absorptivity and wavelength on the optical properties of aggregates with sintering necks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yujia; Huang, Yong; He, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we constructed sintered aggregates based on the particle superposition model and apply the ball-necking factor η to characterize the sintering degree. The impact of the absorptivity characterized by the complex refractive index m and the wavelength of the incident light λ on the optical properties of aggregates with different η were compared and investigated. The results indicate that for different m and λ, the light scattering characteristics exhibit regular changes in the values, the peak locations and the size trends. Further, the deviation of 1 - S22/S11 caused by various η is noteworthy and considerable so that it can be used as a probe sensor parameter in the detection of the sintered aggregates configuration.

  3. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Structural and Morphological Properties of Europium (III Oxide Doped Willemite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fatin Syamimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Willemite- (Zn2SiO4- based glass ceramics doped with various amounts of europium oxide (Eu2O3 were prepared by solid state melting and quenching method. Effect of sintering temperature (600–1000°C on structural and morphological properties of the doped samples was investigated. Phase composition, phase evolution, functional groups, and microstructure analysis were, respectively, characterized using X-ray diffractometer (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray. XRD analysis detected the presence of rhombohedral crystalline phase in the doped samples sintered at different temperatures. FE-SEM and bulk density results confirmed that doping of the willemite with Eu2O3 effectively enhanced densification. The microstructural analysis of the doped samples showed that the average grain size increased with the increase of sintering temperature.

  4. The porosity effect on properties of sintered materials as their conductivity and Youngs modulus of elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondracek, G.; Thuemmler, F.

    1979-01-01

    A set of equations derived demonstrates quantitatively the influence of closed pores on the conductivity as well as on Youngsmodulus of elasticity of sintered materials. There are three microstructural parameters following from the theoretical derivation controlling the porosity effect on the properties, which are the total porosity, the form factor and the orientation factor of the pores. By quantitative microstructure analysis these factors become available providing together with the equations the tool - to calculate the conductivity and Youngs modulus of elasticity from microstructural quantities of sintered materials thus substituting direct property measurements by quantitative microstructure analysis if desired - to endeaver technologically optimum microstructures to obtain theoretically predicted special property values and to precalculate property alterations by microstructure variations ('taylor-made-materials') - to supplement the conventional microstructural quality control by calculated property data. (orig.) [de

  5. Electric field assisted sintering to improve the performance of nanostructured dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeifar, Mohsen; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Fathollahi, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we report the application of electric field assisted sintering (EFAS) procedure in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The EFAS process improved DSSC performance by enhancing optical and electrical characteristics simultaneously. The EFAS procedure is shown to be capable of reducing the TiO2 nanoparticle aggregation leading to the higher surface area for dye molecules adsorbates. Lower nanoparticle aggregation can be evidently observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy imaging. By applying an external electric field, the current density and conversion efficiency improved significantly about 30% and 45%, respectively. UV-Visible spectra of the desorbed dye molecules on the porous nanoparticles bedding confirm a higher amount of dye loading in the presence of an external electric field. Correspondingly, comprehensive J-V characteristics modeling reveals the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient by EFAS process. The proposed method can be applied to improve the efficiency of the mesostructured hybrid perovskite solar cells, photodetectors, and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, as well as reduction of the surface area loss in all porous media.

  6. Effect of sintering time and temperature on properties of high pressure assisted WC/Co hard metal composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M.M.; Gomes, U.U.; Oliveira, M.P.; Filgueira, M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: WC/Co is widely used as cutting tools, because has a unique combination of high strength, hardness, toughness, and moderate stiffness, especially with fine grained WC and finely distributed cobalt. WC/Co powder mixture sinters by different methods such as vacuum sintering, microwave sintering and SPS. High pressure high temperature (HPHT) sintering is a proposed method that can results in better distribution of cobalt and avoid undesirable phases by using high pressure, high temperature and very low sintering time. In this study, a powder mixture of WC- 10 wt% Co was sintered by HPHT at 1500 to 1900 deg C under a pressure of 7.7 GPa for 2 and 3 minutes. Microstructural/structural analyses were performed by SEM/EDS and XRD. Hardness was also done to obtain the effect of sintering parameters. It was found that increasing sintering time in HPHT sintering method at a constant temperature can improve properties of WC/Co hard metal. It was also realized that both sintering temperature and time have effect on hardness and density. (author)

  7. Improvement of the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB permant magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, F.; Rozendaal, E.; Sagawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    A correlation between sintered NdFeB process, microstructure of the products at each step of the process and magnetic properties has been established. To increase (BH) max of sintered NdFeB magnets, the total rare-earth content in the alloy has to be decreased and to keep coercivity as high as possible, the unavoidable oxygen pick-up has to be substantially reduced. The composition improvements tend to create a high sensitivity to form abnormal grain growth which can potentially occur during the sintering operation. Special attention has been given to characterising, understanding the mechanisms and solving this defect which could affect the magnetic properties. In addition, the composition and each step of the process have been optimised to improve magnetic properties, thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the NdFeB permanent magnets. These collaborative studies have resulted in a significant improvement of both remanence and coercivity of the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets, covering a wide coercivity range from 800 to 2500 kA/m (10 to 35 kOe) with respective associated energy products of 400 to 270 kJ/m3 (52 to 35 MGOe). (orig.)

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of pressureless sintered B4C- C composite using phenolic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikravan, A.; Baharvandi, H. R.; Jebelli, F. B.; Abdizadeh, H.; Ehsani, N.

    2007-10-01

    Boron carbide is an extremely promising material for a variety of applications that require high hardness and good wear resistance. However, due to the very high sintering temperatures which are required for B4C densification, wide spread use of that is limited. Various solutions have been studied to modifying densification behavior of B4C. Pressureless sintering in the presence of different additives has been tried by researchers. The effect of additives such as TiB2, SiC, Al, B, ZrO2, talc and Si have been evaluated. It was shown that the densification and mechanical properties may be improved with sintering aids. The Effects of phenolic resin additive on the microstructure and mechanical properties of B4C were explained in this study. Experimental composition was batched corresponding from 0 to 10 wt% of the additive. All samples were sintered for 60 minutes at 2150°C. The heating and cooling rates were 10°C/min for all samples. It was found that below 7.5 wt% of phenolic resin additive, the density increased with additive increasing and above that, decreased by phenolic resin addition. Mechanical properties such as fracture toughness, strength and hardness increased as a result of densification enhancement.

  9. The impact of sintering temperature on structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of zinc titanate nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, P.; Murugu thiruvalluvan, T. M. V.; Arivanandhan, M.; Jayakumari, T.; Anandan, P.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of sintering temperature and Ti:Zn ratio of precursor solutions on the structural, morphological and thermoelectric properties of Zinc titanate (TZO) nanocrystals have been investigated. TZO nanocrystals were synthesized by changing the molar ratio of precursors of Zn and Ti sources by sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were sintered at different temperatures and the formation of multi phases of TZO were analysed by x-ray diffraction studies. The morphological properties and composition of TZO samples were studied by FESEM, TEM and XPS analysis. The thermoelectric properties of the TZO have been studied by measuring the Seebeck coefficient of the materials at various temperature. It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient of TZO sample increases with increasing Zn content in the sample especially at high temperature.

  10. Comparative Evaluations and Microstructure: Mechanical Property Relations of Sintered Silicon Carbide Consolidated by Various Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, Prasenjit; Chatterjee, Arya; Majumdar, Bhaskar; Saha, Bhaskar Prasad; Mitra, Rahul

    2018-04-01

    A comparative evaluation between pressureless or self-sintered silicon carbide (SSiC), hot-pressed silicon carbide (HP-SiC), and spark plasma-sintered silicon carbide (SPS-SiC) has been carried out with emphasis on examination of their microstructures and mechanical properties. The effect of sample dimensions on density and properties of SPS-SiC has been also examined. Elastic modulus, flexural strength, and fracture toughness measured by indentation or testing of single-edge notched beam specimens have been found to follow the following trend, HP-SiC > SSiC > SPS-SiC. The SPS-SiC samples have shown size-dependent densification and mechanical properties, with the smaller sample exhibiting superior properties. The mechanical properties of sintered SiC samples appear to be influenced by relative density, grain size, and morphology, as well as the existence of intergranular glassy phase. Studies of fracture surface morphologies have revealed the mechanism of failure to be transgranular in SSiC or HP-SiC, and intergranular in case of SPS-SiC, indicating the dominating influence of grain size and α-SiC formation with high aspect ratio.

  11. Sintering behaviour and microwave dielectric properties of a new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Information Engineering, Guilin University of Aerospace Technology, Guilin 541004, PR China; School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, PR China; College of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, ...

  12. Researches Regarding the Influence of Cu Content on Static and Dynamic Properties of Sintered Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu BRÂNDUŞAN

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of iron powder in sintered steels subjected to variable loadings was confined because of their low fatigue resistance and the fact that this kind of loading is unknown for the users. Lately, a lot of effort was made to determine the fatigue behaviour and to identify new methods for improving these properties.In this paper are analyse the behaviour of elaborate materials from iron powder, DWP 200.28 with cooper addition, pressed at 600 MPa and sintered at 1120°C for 30 minutes in endogas. The cooper is add to improve the mechanical characteristics, by forming some favourable microstructures and more round pores from the material macrostructure. For this materials tensile resistance, elongation, Young modulus and the number of cycles until failure are analysed. We find that the cooper add say in a different way these properties.

  13. End Uses Mechanical Properties Settled By The Modified Sintering Conditions Of The Metal Injection Molding Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marray, Tarek; Jaccquet, Philippe; Moinard-Checot, Delphine; Fabre, Agnes; Barrallier, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Most common mechanical applications require parts with specific properties as hard faced features. It is well known that treating parts under suitable atmospheres may improve hardness and strength yield of steels. Heat treatment process and more particularly thermo-chemical diffusion processes (such as carburizing or its variation: carbonitriding) can be performed to reach the industrial hardness profile requirements. In this work, a low-alloyed steel feedstock based on water soluble binder system is submitted to the MIM process steps (including injection molding, debinding and sintering). As-sintered parts are then treated under a low pressure carbonitriding treatment. This contribution focuses on preliminary results such as microstructural analyses and mechanical properties which are established at each stage of the process to determine and monitor changes.

  14. Effect of High Speed Sintering on the Properties of Zirconia Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-22

    purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical properties and translucency of CEREC Zirconia (Dentsply Sirona) sintered using the CEREC...Beam-shaped specimens were designed using an Omnicam (Version 4.4.4; Dentsply Sirona) and milled from CAD /CAM blocks using a MCXL milling unit...zirconia were also compared to a lithium- disilicate material, IPS e.max CAD (lvoclar Vivadent). IPS e.max CAD beams were crystallized in the CEREC

  15. Mechanical properties of molybdenum alloyed liquid phase-sintered tungsten-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P.B.; German, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tungsten-based composites are fabricated from mixed elemental powders using liquid phase sintering, usually with a nickel-iron matrix. During sintering, the tungsten undergoes grain growth, leading to microstructure coarsening that lowers strength but increases ductility. Often the desire is to increase strength at the sacrifice of ductility, and historically, this has been performed by postsintering deformation. There has been considerable research on alloying to adjust the as-sintered mechanical properties to match those of swaged alloys. Prior reports cover many additions, seemingly including much of the periodic table. Unfortunately, many of the modified alloys proved disappointing, largely due to degraded strength at the tungsten-matrix interface. Of these modified alloys, the molybdenum-containing systems exhibit a promising combination of properties, cost, and processing ease. For example, the 82W-8Mo-7Ni-3Fe alloy gives a yield strength that is 34% higher than the equivalent 90W-7Ni-3Fe alloy (from 535 to 715 MPa) but with a 33% decrease in fracture elongation (from 30 to 20% elongation). This article reports on experiments geared to promoting improved properties in the W-Mo-Ni-Fe alloys. However, unlike the prior research which maintained a constant Ni + Fe content and varied the W:Mo ratio, this study considers the Mo:(Ni + Fe) ratio effect for 82, 90, and 93 wt pct W

  16. Powder injection molding of Stellite 6 powder: Sintering, microstructural and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gülsoy, H. Özkan [Marmara University, Technology Faculty, Metall. and Mater. Eng., 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Özgün, Özgür, E-mail: oozgun@bingol.edu.tr [Bingol University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Mechanical Eng. Dep., 12000 Bingol (Turkey); Bilketay, Sezer [Marmara University, Technology Faculty, Metall. and Mater. Eng., 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to produce Co-based Stellite 6 superalloy components by using the method of Powder Injection Molding (PIM) and to characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of the produced components. The experimental studies were started through the formation of feedstock by mixing Stellite 6 powder with a multicomponent binder system. Prepared feedstock was formed by utilizing powder injection molding technique. Then the molded samples were subjected to the solvent and thermal debinding processes. Different sintering cycles were applied to the raw components for the purpose of determining the optimum sintering conditions. The densities of the sintered components were determined in accordance with the Archimedes' principle. The microstructural characterization was performed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analyses, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness measurement and tensile test were conducted in order to determine the mechanical properties. The results illustrated that the injection molded Stellite 6 components were composed of fine and equiaxed grains, plenty of carbide precipitates exhibiting homogenous distribution throughout the microstructure formed at the grain boundaries and thus the mechanical properties were considerably high.

  17. Powder injection molding of Stellite 6 powder: Sintering, microstructural and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gülsoy, H. Özkan; Özgün, Özgür; Bilketay, Sezer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce Co-based Stellite 6 superalloy components by using the method of Powder Injection Molding (PIM) and to characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of the produced components. The experimental studies were started through the formation of feedstock by mixing Stellite 6 powder with a multicomponent binder system. Prepared feedstock was formed by utilizing powder injection molding technique. Then the molded samples were subjected to the solvent and thermal debinding processes. Different sintering cycles were applied to the raw components for the purpose of determining the optimum sintering conditions. The densities of the sintered components were determined in accordance with the Archimedes' principle. The microstructural characterization was performed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analyses, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Hardness measurement and tensile test were conducted in order to determine the mechanical properties. The results illustrated that the injection molded Stellite 6 components were composed of fine and equiaxed grains, plenty of carbide precipitates exhibiting homogenous distribution throughout the microstructure formed at the grain boundaries and thus the mechanical properties were considerably high.

  18. Effects of varied porosity on the physic-mechanical properties of sintered ceramic from Ifon clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of saw dust admixture on the physic-mechanical properties of sintered clay bonded carbonized palm kernel shell ceramic was investigated. Composite mixtures of powdered carbonized palm kernel shell and clay from Ifon deposit were produced using equal amount of clay and carbonized palm kernel shell. These were then mixed with varied amount of saw dust (0%, 5% and 10% in a ball mill for 6 hours. From this standard sample specimens were produced using uniaxial compression after mixing each mixture with 10% moisture of clay contents. The compressed samples were sintered at 9500C and soaked for one hour. The sintered samples were characterized for various physic-mechanical properties using state of the art equipment’s. The fired samples were also characterized using ultra-high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (UHR-FEGSEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX. It was observed that the apparent porosity and water absorption of the clay bonded carbonized palm kernel shell ceramic increased with increased amount of saw dust admixture, cold crushing strength, Young’ modulus of elasticity and absorbed energy of the sample reduced with increased amount of saw dust admixture. It was concluded that the sample with 0% saw dust admixture is judged to possess optimum physic-mechanical properties.

  19. Sintering behaviour and microwave dielectric properties of a new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    427Nd0.182)TiO3; SmAlO3; microwave dielectric properties; oxygen octahedral distortion. 1. Introduction. The proliferation of commercial wireless technologies, such as cellular phones, global positioning systems and satellite broadcasting, has ...

  20. Mechanical Properties of Composites with Titanium Diboride Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulima I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure and mechanical properties of the 316L steel composite reinforced with TiB2 phase were examined. The test materials were obtained by SPS technique from powders. From testing of the mechanical properties it follows that the optimum temperature for the fabrication of 316Lsteel-TiB2 composites by SPS is 1100°C. Studies have also proved that the critical content of TiB2 phase in steel matrix should not exceed 6vol%. Above this level, the plastic properties of the composite become unstable and strongly dependent on the time of sintering.

  1. Nanostructured Al-ZrAl{sub 3} materials consolidated via spark plasma sintering: Evaluation of their mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, C.; Belzunce, F.J.; Betegon, C. [Escuela Politecnica de Ingenieria (University of Oviedo), Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Goyos, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN-CSIC-UNIOVI-PA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Universidad de Oviedo-Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Diaz, L.A., E-mail: la.diaz@cinn.es [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN-CSIC-UNIOVI-PA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Universidad de Oviedo-Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain); Torrecillas, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN-CSIC-UNIOVI-PA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Universidad de Oviedo-Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, Llanera (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A surface modification of aluminium powders was carried out by means of a colloidal process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These powders were consolidated and sintered by spark plasma sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regarding the dwell time at the sintering temperature (625 Degree-Sign C), ZrAl{sub 3} intermetallic crystallizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical behaviour of this reinforcement was evaluated by Small Punch Test. - Abstract: Aluminium based nanostructured materials with additions of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 wt.% of zirconium have been produced and sintered using the spark plasma sintering technique in order to promote the nucleation of ZrAl{sub 3} platelets. The mechanical behaviour of all these nanocomposites was determined by means of the Small Punch Test. Zirconium additions significantly decrease the mechanical properties of these products when sintering time at the sintering temperature (625 Degree-Sign C) is short (3 min). Nevertheless, when the sintering time increases to 1 h (intermetallic crystallization), the zirconium additions show the expected effect: the stiffness and the yield strength increase while ductility and toughness decrease. The maximum load increases until a 0.5 wt.% Zr is attained and suddenly drops when the Zr content surpasses 1 wt.%.

  2. Sintering behavior and mechanical properties of a metal injection molded Ti–Nb binary alloy as biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dapeng, E-mail: dpzhao@hotmail.com [College of Biology, Hunan University, 410082 Changsha (China); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Chang, Keke [RWTH Aachen University, Materials Chemistry, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Ebel, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Nie, Hemin [College of Biology, Hunan University, 410082 Changsha (China); Willumeit, Regine; Pyczak, Florian [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The sintering of the MIM Ti–Nb alloy consists of three steps. • The Nb particles act as diffusion barriers during sintering. • The TiC{sub x} only precipitate in the cooling step during sintering. • The TiC{sub x} hardly influence the sintering process of MIM Ti–Nb alloy. • The MIM Ti–Nb alloy exhibits high strength, low Young’s modulus but poor ductility. - Abstract: Sintering behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties of a Ti–16Nb alloy processed by metal injection molding (MIM) technology using elemental powders were investigated in this work by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that from 700 °C to 1500 °C the homogenization and densification process of MIM Ti–16Nb alloy consisted of three steps, i.e., Ti-diffusion-controlled step, Ti–Nb-diffusion step and matrix-diffusion step. Titanium carbide formation was observed in the samples sintered at 1300 °C and 1500 °C, but not in the ones sintered at 900 °C and 1100 °C. The MIM Ti–16Nb specimens sintered at 1500 °C exhibited a good combination of high tensile strength and low Young’s modulus. However, the titanium carbide particles led to poor ductility.

  3. Forming of titanium and titanium alloy miniature-cylinders by electrical-field activated powder sintering and forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkipli Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As demands on miniature products increase significantly, a rapid process and production system for high-throughput, highly flexible and cost-efficient volume production of miniaturised components made from a wide range of materials is needed. A novel and electrical-field-activated sintering and forming process shows the potential to produce solid parts from powder material without any binder. Using titanium (Ti and titanium alloy (90Ti10Sn powder material, several processing parameters have been investigated, such as pressure, heating rate, heating temperature and holding time, which helped to contribute to the optimum result. In this study, using graphite dies, graphite punches and tungsten carbide punches, solid samples were produced, having a cylinder shape of Ø4.00 mm × 4.00 mm. Several properties of the solid Ti and 90Ti10Sn samples, such as density, hardness and the microstructures, were examined, and these showed that good results have been obtained.

  4. [Determination of major expansion properties of refractory die material compatible with slip casting core of sintered titanium powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y; Kuang, X; Liao, Y; Wang, H

    1999-02-01

    To determinate major expansion properties of refractory die material. The setting expansion ratio of refractory die material for slip casting core of sintered titanium powder at room temperature was performed, as well as thermal expansion ratio from room temperature to 800 degrees C. The maximum setting expansion ratio in 2 hours reached 0.3407%; The final setting expansion ratio in 24 hours was 0.3117%; The mean thermal expansion coefficient was mainly in range of 8 x 10(-6)-11 x 10(-6)/degree C; The expansion property seemed very stable after sintering repeatedly and the small shrinkage after sintering could be compensated with the die spacer and setting expansion. The expansion properties of the refractory die material that we synthesized can fulfil the application requirements of slip casting core of sintered titanium powder.

  5. Properties of sintered glass-ceramics prepared from plasma vitrified air pollution control residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roether, J A; Daniel, D J; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D E; Cheeseman, C R; Boccaccini, A R

    2010-01-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues, obtained from a major UK energy from waste (EfW) plant, processing municipal solid waste, have been blended with silica and alumina and melted using DC plasma arc technology. The glass produced was crushed, milled, uni-axially pressed and sintered at temperatures between 750 and 1150 degrees C, and the glass-ceramics formed were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical properties assessed included Vickers's hardness, flexural strength, Young's modulus and thermal shock resistance. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 950 degrees C. This produced a glass-ceramic with high density (approximately 2.58 g/cm(3)), minimum water absorption (approximately 2%) and relatively high mechanical strength (approximately 81+/-4 MPa). Thermal shock testing showed that 950 degrees C sintered samples could withstand a 700 degrees C quench in water without micro-cracking. The research demonstrates that glass-ceramics can be readily formed from DC plasma treated APC residues and that these have comparable properties to marble and porcelain. This novel approach represents a technically and commercially viable treatment option for APC residues that allow the beneficial reuse of this problematic waste.

  6. Sintering Bonding Process with Ag Nanoparticle Paste and Joint Properties in High Temperature Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag nanoparticle paste is prepared based on the polyol method and subsequent concentration by centrifuging. The sintering bonding process using Ag nanoparticle paste at different bonding pressures is studied. The joint strengths are increased as the bonding pressure increases from 0 MPa to 7.5 MPa. This is due to the fact that the higher assistant bonding pressure is beneficial to the growth of neck size between the adjacent particles and forms denser sintered Ag layers. The joint strength bonded under 10 MPa is lower than that bonded under 7.5 MPa, which may be due to the residue of organic component in the sintered Ag layer. The joint properties bonded with Ag nanoparticle paste in high temperature environment are evaluated by heat treatments at temperatures ranges of 200–350°C for 50 hours. The results show that the mechanical properties of joint with Ag nanoparticle paste are better than the joint with Pb95Sn5 solder after storage at high temperatures.

  7. Magnetic microstructure and magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.L., E-mail: hyl1019_lin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Wang, Y.; Hou, Y.H.; Wang, Y.L.; Wu, Y.; Ma, S.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tian, Y.; Xia, W.X. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong2014@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique using melt-spun ribbons as starting materials. A distinct two-zone structure with coarse grain zone and fine grain zone was formed in the SPSed magnets. Multi-domain particle in coarse grain zone and exchange interaction domain for fine grain zone were observed. Intergranular non-magnetic phase was favorable to improve the coercivity due to the enhancement of domain wall pinning effects and increased exchange-decouple. The remanent polarization of 0.83 T, coercivity of 1516 kA/m, and maximum energy product of 118 kJ/m{sup 3} are obtained for an isotropic magnet. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering technique. • Multi-domain particle and exchange interaction domain were observed. • Magnetic microstructure and their relation to the properties were investigated.

  8. Microstructure and thermal properties of Cu-SiC composite materials depending on the sintering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper investigates the relationship between the microstructure and thermal properties of copper-silicon carbide composites obtained through hot pressing (HP and spark plasma sintering (SPS techniques. The microstructural analysis showed a better densification in the case of composites sintered in the SPS process. TEM investigations revealed the presence of silicon in the area of metallic matrix in the region close to metal-ceramic boundary. It is the product of silicon dissolving process in copper occurring at an elevated temperature. The Cu-SiC interface is significantly defected in composites obtained through the hot pressing method, which has a major influence on the thermal conductivity of materials.

  9. Electric arc furnace dust utilization in iron ore sintering: influence of particle size; Utilizacao da poeira de aciaria eletrica na sinterizacao de minerio de ferro: influencia da granulometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telles, V.B.; Junca, E.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Espinosa, D.C.R.; Tenorio, J.A.S., E-mail: victor_bridit@hotmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the utilization of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) generated in steelmaking by electric arc furnace (EAF) as raw material in iron ore sintering. The waste was characterized by size, chemical composition and X-ray diffraction. The physical characterization showed that 90% of the particles have a size less then 1,78 {mu}m and the material have the tendency to agglomerate. The waste were submitted to a pre-agglomeration prior to its incorporation in the sinter. The influence on the addition of the waste with different granulometry in the iron or sinter production were analyzed by sinter characterization and sintering parameters. (author)

  10. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S., E-mail: fisica.cch@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM/CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, L.C.E. da; Buso, S.J., E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  11. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  12. Sintered porous silicon. Physical properties and applications for layer-transfer silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.K.

    2007-07-16

    This work focusses on the characterisation of sintered porous silicon and on the development of monocrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells from the Porous Silicon Process (PSI process). For the fabrication of these solar cells, a thin silicon film is epitaxially grown on a monocrystalline silicon growth substrate, that features a layer of porous silicon (PS) at the surface. Due to the thermal activation during the epitaxial growth process, the PS layer reconfigurates and mechanically weakens, which later permits the transfer of the thin-film device to a second carrier substrate. When separating the epitaxial film from the growth substrate, a residual layer of sintered porous silicon (SPS) remains attached to the rear side of the device. So far, the physical properties of this layer and its impact on the performance of PSI solar cells have been poorly investigated. This thesis aims at a comprehensive determination of the physical properties of sintered porous silicon, in particular, its thermal, optical and electrical properties. For the thermal characterisation of the fragile free standing SPS films, a contactless measurement technique based on lock-in thermography is developed and experimentally verified. This analysis identifies a third order power law dependence of the thermal conductivity of SPS on the porosity, in agreement with the predictions of the Looyenga model. Phonon scattering at the pore walls, which is known to drastically reduce the thermal conductivity of as-prepared PS, is also present in the sintered state. The obtained results reveal that, in the case of SPS, this effect is less pronounced, due to the increased structure size of the sintered material compared to the as-prepared state. The effective refractive index of SPS complies with the predictions of effective medium models, whereas Mie's theory successfully describes light scattering by the spherical pores in SPS. An analysis of the measured scattering coefficient shows that the

  13. Effect of sintering temperature on structural and electrical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Xia C R and Liu M L 2001b For GNP, provisional patent appli- cation filed. Xia C R, Chen F L and Liu M L 2001 Electrochem. Solid-State. Lett. 4 A52. Zha S, Fu Q, Lang Y, Xia C and Meng G 2001a Mater. Lett. 47 351. Zha S, Xia C, Fang X, Wang H, Peng D and Meng G 2001b Ce- ram. Int. 27 649. Zha S W, Fu Q X, Lang Y, ...

  14. The Influence of Spark Plasma Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and the Thermoelectric Properties of Al, Ga dually-doped ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo

    2012-01-01

    Al, Ga dually-doped ZnO was prepared by spark plasma sintering with different sintering temperatures. The microstructural evolution and thermoelectric properties of the samples were investigated in detail. The samples with a sintering temperature above 1223K obtained higher relative densities...

  15. The effect of lanthanum boride on the sintering, sintered microstructure and mechanical properties of titanium and titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.F.; Luo, S.D.; Qian, M.

    2014-01-01

    An addition of ≤0.5 wt% lanthanum boride (LaB 6 ) to powder metallurgy commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti), Ti–6Al–4V and Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al (all in wt%) resulted in improved sintered density, substantial microstructural refinement, and noticeably increased tensile elongation. The addition of LaB 6 led to scavenging of both oxygen (O) and chlorine (Cl) from the titanium powder during sintering, evidenced by the formation of La 2 O 3 and LaCl x O y . The pinning effect of La 2 O 3 , LaCl x O y and TiB inhibited prior-β grain growth and resulted in subsequent smaller α-laths. The formation of nearly equiaxed α-Ti phase is partially attributed to the nucleation effect of α-Ti on TiB. The improved sintered density was caused by B from LaB 6 rather than La, while excessive formation of La 2 O 3 and TiB with an addition of >0.5 wt% LaB 6 resulted in a noticeable decrease in sintered density. The improved tensile elongation with an addition of ≤0.5 wt% LaB 6 was mainly attributed to the scavenging of oxygen by LaB 6 , partially assisted by the improved sintered density. However, an addition of >0.5 wt% LaB 6 led to the formation of large La 2 O 3 aggregates and more brittle TiB whiskers and therefore decreased tensile elongation. Balanced scavenging of O is thus important. The optimal addition of LaB 6 was 0.5 wt% but this may change depending on the powder size of the LaB 6 to be used

  16. Influences of spark plasma sintering temperature on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of (Sr0.95Gd0.05)TiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang-Liang; Qin, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Yong-Fei; Liu, Quan-Zhen

    2015-06-01

    (Sr0.95Gd0.05)TiO3 (SGTO) ceramics are successfully prepared via spark plasma sintering (SPS) respectively at 1548, 1648, and 1748 K by using submicron-sized SGTO powders synthesized from a sol-gel method. The densities, microstructures, and thermoelectric properties of the SGTO ceramics are studied. Though the Seebeck coefficient shows no obvious difference in the case that SPS temperatures range from 1548 K to 1648 K, the electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity increase remarkably due to the increase in grain size and density. The sample has a density higher than 98% theoretical density as the sintering temperature increases up to 1648 K and shows average grain sizes increasing from ˜ 0.7 μm to 7 μm until 1748 K. As a result, the maximum of the dimensionless figure of merit of ˜ 0.24 is achieved at ˜ 1000 K for the samples sintered at 1648 K and 1748 K, which was ˜ 71% larger than that (0.14 at ˜ 1000 K) for the sample sintered at 1548 K due to the enhancement of the power factor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174292, 51101150, and 11374306).

  17. Effect of sintering temperature on the electromechanical properties of 0.945Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.055BaZrO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Jamil Ur; Hussain, Ali; Maqbool, Adnan; Malik, Rizwan Ahmed; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Myong Ho

    2015-04-01

    In this work, lead-free 0.945B0.5N0.5TiO3-0.055BaZrO3 (BNT-BZ) ceramics were synthesized by using conventional solid-state reaction method and the effect of different sintering temperatures (1145-1200 °C) on its structure and electromechanical properties were investigated. XRD patterns revealed single a phase-perovskite structure for all samples sintered at different temperatures. An optimum sintering temperature enhanced densification, promoted grain growth, and improve the dielectric and piezoelectric properties. However, at low (1145 °C) and high (1200 °C) sintering temperatures, the BNT-BZ ceramics showed inferior electromechanical properties. BNT-BZ ceramics sintered at an optimum temperature (1175 °C) showed an enhanced strain (0.39%) response at an applied electric field of 7 kV/mm with a high dynamic piezoelectric coefficient ( d 33* = 557 pm/V). These results can be attributed to the high density of the BNT-BZ ceramics sintered at 1175 °C.

  18. The Influence of Spark Plasma Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Al,Ga Dual-Doped ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo

    2013-01-01

    ZnO dual-doped with Al and Ga was prepared by spark plasma sintering using different sintering temperatures. The microstructural evolution and thermoelectric properties of the samples were investigated in detail. The samples obtained with sintering temperature above 1223 K had higher relative den...... of ZnO particles and microstructure evolution at different sintering temperatures were investigated by simulation of the self-Joule-heating effect of the individual particles....

  19. Properties of millimetre wave sintered and oxygenated YBa2Cu3Ox bulk material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyar, C.

    1999-12-01

    High temperature superconductors are ceramic materials whose properties strongly depend on the techniques used for their production. The successful use of microwaves for the sintering of other oxidic ceramics suggests the examination of the advantages and disadvantages of that production technique for superconductors. For this purpose pellets of commercially available YBa 2 Cu 3 O x powder from the Solvay company were pressed and sintered by millimetre wave heating (30 GHz, generated in a gyrotron). In various experiments the sintering temperatures were varied between 920 C and 990 C, and the holding times between 15 min and 240 min. The densities of the pellets were measured by the Archimedes method and the material structure was examined with an optical microscope. A strong densification from 86 to 93% of theoretical density could be observed within 30 min at a holding temperature of 960 C. With sintering temperatures above 960 C no significant increase in density occurred. At 950 C, only minor grain growth could be observed, which increased up to 960 C temperature. At higher temperatures a mixture of small grains and crystallites of about 150 μm size established itself. CuO already present in the original powder started to melt along the grain boundaries where it acts as a limiting factor for grain growth. With millimetre wave sintering the same material densities could be achieved in less than one third of the time needed for conventional sintering processes. In addition the effects of millimetre wave heating on the oxygen diffusion in YBCO were investigated with several pairs of identical samples. The pairs were deoxygenated and subsequently oxygenated in an atmosphere of pure O 2 in a conventional tube furnace and by millimetre wave heating respectively. To compare the oxygen concentration of the samples, their specific surface resistance at room temperature, which correlates with the oxygen content, was measured in a cylindrical copper resonator with

  20. Effect of sintering on crystallization and structural properties of soda lime silica glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Mohd Hafiz Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sintering temperatures on crystallization and structural of the soda lime silica (SLS glass was reported. Elemental weight composition of the SLS glass powder was identified through Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF analysis while the thermal behavior of the glass was determined using Differential thermal analysis (DTA technique. Archimedes’ method and direct geometric measurement were respectively used to determine bulk density and linear shrinkage of the glass samples. Crystallisation behavior of the samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and chemical bonds present in the samples were measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Results showed an increase in the density and linear shrinkage of the samples as a function of the sintering temperature. The XRD analysis revealed the formation of α-quartz (SiO2 and a minor amount of devitrite phases in the samples and these were further verified through the detection of chemical bonds by FTIR after sintering at 800ºC. The properties of the glass-ceramics can be explained on the basis of crystal chemistry which indicated that the alkali ions formed as carriers in the random network structure and can be recommended for the manufacture of glass fiber or toughened glass-ceramic insulators.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanoparticles decorated mesoporous sintered activated carbon with antibacterial and adsorptive properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxia; Xiao, Kaijun, E-mail: fekjxiao@scut.edu.cn; He, Tinglin; Zhu, Liang, E-mail: zhuliang@scut.edu.cn

    2015-10-25

    In this study, the sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) immobilized on the sintered activated carbon (Ag/SAC) were synthesized by the ultrasonic-assisted impregnation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption. SEM showed that the AgNPs were well embedded in the SAC and immersion time had an important influence on final morphologies of AgNPs. Longer immersing duration caused significant aggregation of the AgNPs. The XRD data revealed that the successful synthesis of AgNPs on the SAC and immobilizing AgNPs on sintered active carbon did not change the crystalline degree of SAC. Texture characteristics were determined by analysis of the N{sub 2}/77 K isotherms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ag/SAC against Escherichia coli (DH5α) and Staphyloccocus aureus (ATCC 29213) was evaluated by a broth dilution method. MICs such as 5 mg/L (against E. coli) and 10 mg/L (against S. aureus) suggest that Ag/SAC have predominant antibacterial activity compared to active carbon. - Highlights: • Sintered active carbon (SAC) was coated with Ag via a facile approach. • The Ag/SAC exhibit good adsorption properties and excellent antibacterial effects. • The Ag/SAC was durable and stable in the application of water purification.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanoparticles decorated mesoporous sintered activated carbon with antibacterial and adsorptive properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxia; Xiao, Kaijun; He, Tinglin; Zhu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) immobilized on the sintered activated carbon (Ag/SAC) were synthesized by the ultrasonic-assisted impregnation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption. SEM showed that the AgNPs were well embedded in the SAC and immersion time had an important influence on final morphologies of AgNPs. Longer immersing duration caused significant aggregation of the AgNPs. The XRD data revealed that the successful synthesis of AgNPs on the SAC and immobilizing AgNPs on sintered active carbon did not change the crystalline degree of SAC. Texture characteristics were determined by analysis of the N 2 /77 K isotherms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ag/SAC against Escherichia coli (DH5α) and Staphyloccocus aureus (ATCC 29213) was evaluated by a broth dilution method. MICs such as 5 mg/L (against E. coli) and 10 mg/L (against S. aureus) suggest that Ag/SAC have predominant antibacterial activity compared to active carbon. - Highlights: • Sintered active carbon (SAC) was coated with Ag via a facile approach. • The Ag/SAC exhibit good adsorption properties and excellent antibacterial effects. • The Ag/SAC was durable and stable in the application of water purification

  3. Laser sintering of nano 13-93 glass scaffolds: Microstructure, mechanical properties and bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only bioactive material that can bond with both hard tissues and soft tissues, bioactive glass has become much important in the field of tissue engineering. 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds were fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS. It was focused on the effects of laser sintering on microstructure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The experimental results showed that the sintered layer gradually became dense with the laser power increasing and then some defects occurred, such as macroscopic caves. The optimum compressive strength and fracture toughness were 21.43±0.87 MPa and 1.14±0.09 MPa.m1/2, respectively. In vitro bioactivity showed that there was the bone-like apatite layer on the surface of the scaffolds after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF, which was further evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Moreover, cell culture study showed MG-63 cells adhered and spread well on the scaffolds, and proliferated with increasing time in cell culture. These indicated excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility of nano 13-93 glass scaffolds.

  4. [Study on friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramics processed by microwave and conventional sintering methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoxin, Hu; Ying, Yang; Yuemei, Jiang; Wenjing, Xia

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the wear of an antagonist and friction and wear properties of dental zirconia ceramic that was subjected to microwave and conventional sintering methods. Ten specimens were fabricated from Lava brand zirconia and randomly assigned to microwave and conventional sintering groups. A profile tester for surface roughness was used to measure roughness of the specimens. Wear test was performed, and steatite ceramic was used as antagonist. Friction coefficient curves were recorded, and wear volume were calculated. Finally, optical microscope was used to observe the surface morphology of zirconia and steatite ceramics. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microstructure of zirconia. Wear volumes of microwave and conventionally sintered zirconia were (6.940±1.382)×10⁻², (7.952±1.815) ×10⁻² mm³, respectively. Moreover, wear volumes of antagonist after sintering by the considered methods were (14.189±4.745)×10⁻², (15.813±3.481)×10⁻² mm³, correspondingly. Statistically significant difference was not observed in the wear resistance of zirconia and wear volume of steatite ceramic upon exposure to two kinds of sintering methods. Optical microscopy showed that ploughed surfaces were apparent in zirconia. The wear surface of steatite ceramic against had craze, accompanied by plough. Scanning electron microscopy showed that zirconia was sintered compactly when subjected to both conventional sintering and microwave methods, whereas grains of zirconia sintered by microwave alone were smaller and more uniform. Two kinds of sintering methods are successfully used to produce dental zirconia ceramics with similar friction and wear properties.
.

  5. Structural and superconducting properties of PIT processed sintered MgB{sub 2}/Fe wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balamurugan, S.; Nakamura, T.; Osamura, K.; Muta, I.; Hoshino, T

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2}/Fe wires that are produced by different sintering conditions. Good quality MgB{sub 2}/Fe wires are fabricated by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method using commercially available MgB{sub 2} powder at ambient pressure. In order to check the annealing effect, the different pieces of the as-rolled wires are sintered at 1323 K for 0.30-1.20 ks. XRD data confirms that they are hexagonal MgB{sub 2} structure. All the sintered samples show higher T{sub c} values in the range of 38.2-38.4 K with high J{sub c} than the as-rolled sample. No significant change in T{sub c} is seen among the annealed samples. On the other hand, the annealed samples show significant change in the J{sub c} values as well as in micro-structural features due to variable sintering time. On annealing at 1323 K for 0.60 ks, we obtain the best quality sample with a J{sub c} of 372 A/mm{sup 2} at 33.1 K in self-field with a maximum T{sub c} of 38.4 K. Among the annealed samples, 1.20 ks sample shows lower J{sub c}. Longer annealing time reduced J{sub c}, indicating a possible interfacial reaction between the Fe sheath and the MgB{sub 2} core.

  6. The effect of impurities elements on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) MIM sintered part properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. Azmirruddin; Jabir, M.; Johari, N.; Ibrahim, R.; Hamidi, N.

    2017-12-01

    The titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) compact were fabricated by Metal Injection Molding (MIM). However, the real challenge of MIM processing for titanium alloy is its affinity to be contaminated by interstitial light elements such as oxygen and carbon which could degrade the mechanical properties of sintered titanium alloy such as its tensile strength and ductility. The sintering temperature effect on carbon and oxygen content that affects its physical and mechanical properties of the sintered titanium alloy was studied. The titanium MIM brown specimen was sintered at four different sintering temperatures which are 1100 °C, 1150 °C, 1200 °C and 1250 °C for 4 hours under furnace control atmosphere. The experimental result indicated that the specimen which has been made from 100% gas atomized powder have a relative density of 92.2 % - 97.6 %, the range of porosity percent around 2.38 %-3.84 %. Ultimate tensile strength of 873.11 MPa - 1007.19 MPa and ductility percent in range of 1.89 %-3.46 %. The titanium alloy MIM specimen which was sintered at 1150 °C contained 0.145 % of carbon and 0.143 % of oxygen possess the highest value of density and tensile strength, with value of 4.344 gcm-3 and 1007.2 MPa respectively. Meanwhile, the titanium alloy MIM specimen which was sintered at 1200 °C contains 0.130 % of carbon and 0.127 % of oxygen, has the highest percentage of ductility with 3.46 %. The carbon content level increased as the sintering temperature increased due to decomposition of high molecule weight of residue binder system which could not be eliminated during solvent extraction debinding process and sintered at low temperature. Contrarily, the oxygen content level indicates a decrease as the sintering temperature increased. Briefly, the sintering temperature could influence the physical and mechanical properties of titanium alloy MIM sintered specimen as it influences the oxygen and carbon content level in the alloys.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sintered Ti Binary alloys for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz Atay, H.; Haro Rodriguez, M.; Amigo Mata, A.; Vicente Escuder, V.; Amigo Borras, V.

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials have shown rapid growth in the field of elderly population demands with the prolongation of human life. One of those biomaterials, titanium, has excellent properties and biocompatibility though it may cause weakening in the structures due to its higher stiffness. In this study, powder metallurgy process was used to produce Ti-Cr, Ti-Mo and Ti-Cu metal alloys to overcome this problem. Metal powders were mixed by mechanical alloying. After pressing and sintering, alloys structures were investigated. Characterizations were carried out by size analyzer, SEM-EDX, optical microscope and three points bending test. (Author)

  8. Electrical transport and thermoelectric properties of boron carbide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirihara, Kazuhiro; Mukaida, Masakazu; Shimizu, Yoshiki

    2017-04-01

    The electrical transport and thermoelectric property of boron carbide nanowires synthesized by a carbothermal method are reported. It is demonstrated that the nanowires achieve a higher Seebeck coefficient and power factor than those of the bulk samples. The conduction mechanism of the nanowires at low temperatures below 300 K is different from that of the sintered-polycrystalline and single-crystal bulk samples. In a temperature range of 200-450 K, there is a crossover between electrical conduction by variable-range hopping and phonon-assisted hopping. The inhomogeneous carbon concentration and planar defects, such as twins and stacking faults, in the nanowires are thought to modify the bonding nature and electronic structure of the boron carbide crystal substantially, causing differences in the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. The effect of boundary scattering of phonon at nanostructured surface on the thermal conductivity reduction is discussed.

  9. Effect of sintering temperature on physical properties & hardness of CoCrMo alloys fabricated by metal injection moulding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhwan Abdullah, Ahmad; Aidah Nabihah Dandang, Nur; Zalikha Khalil, Nur; Harun, Wan Sharuzi Wan

    2017-10-01

    Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) process is one of the Powder Metallurgy manufacturing techniques utilised to produce Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum (CoCrMo) compacts. The objective of this study is to determine physical properties and hardness of CoCrMo alloy compact sintered at three different sintering temperature at the similar soaking time. At the beginning, sample were fabricated by using Injection Moulding machine. Cobalt Chrome Molybdenum (CoCrMo) metal powder was selected for this study. A morphological study was conducted using optical microscope (OM) and micro-Vickers hardness testing. From the result obtained, it shows upward trend either on the hardness or physical properties of the samples. CoCrMo sintered compact become harder and volume of pores on surface become less due to the increase on sintering temperature. However, effect of increasing sintering temperature shows significant shrinkage of the sample, beginning losses in dimensional accuracy. It is discovered that a little change in sintering temperature gives significant impact on the microstructure, physical, mechanical of the alloy.

  10. Effect of the variation-temperature-sintering on microstructure and superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.Y.; Watanabe, K.; Yi, D.; Chen, H.; Nagata, A.

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes fabricated in the variation-temperature-sintering process during high magnetic fields were investigated. The flat tapes 0.6 mm in thickness and 3 mm in width set on the an isolite holder were sintered in following conditions for 120 h in 10 T magnetic fields in air: (1) isothermal-temperature-sintering at 835 deg. C, (2) variation-temperature-sintering from 840 to 835 deg. C, (3) variation-temperature-sintering from 845 to 835 deg. C, (4) variation-temperature-sintering from 850 to 835 deg. C, (5) variation-temperature- sintering from 835 to 840 deg. C. The results show that the tapes variation-temperature-sintered from high temperature to low temperature show stronger c-axis alignment of the Bi-2223 phase and higher J c value than that isothermal-temperature-sintered and variation-temperature-sintered from low temperature to high temperature. However, the starting temperature (above 850 deg. C) of the variation-temperature-sintering from high temperature to low temperature is too high, the proportion of Bi-2223 phase decreases largely. The tape variation-temperature-sintered from 845 to 835 deg. C in a 10 T magnetic fields shows a strong c-axis alignment of the Bi-2223 phase, a high proportion of Bi-2223 phase, and the highest J c value.

  11. Influence of different naf concentration on the mechanical and morphological properties on sintered β-TCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, L.; Cardoso, H.A.I.; Zavaglia, C.A.C.; Motisuke, M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the bioceramics, [beta]-tricalcium phosphate, β-TCP, is currently used in biomedical applications due to its in vivo reabsorption and chemical composition, important for bone formation and repair. Researchers showed that the addition of sodium fluoride (NaF) up to 2wt.% increases β-TCP mechanical properties without altering its biocompatibility and bioactivity. In this work, the effect of different NaF concentrations (2wt.% to 5wt.%) on β-TCP properties was studied. The samples were sintered at 1250 deg C during four hours. Afterwards, it were determined its mechanical resistance, density, morphology and chemical composition as a function of NaF content. The results showed that the presence of NaF does not lead to an increase on the mechanical properties. This fact is probably related to the formation of a mixture of TCP, apatite and sodium and calcium phosphates; and a visible increase on samples' density.(author)

  12. Oxidation Characterization of Hafnium-Based Ceramics Fabricated by Hot Pressing and Electric Field-Assisted Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, Matt; Johnson, Sylvia; Marschall, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Ceramic borides, such as hafnium diboride (HfB2) and zirconium diboride (ZrB2), are members of a family of materials with extremely high melting temperatures referred to as Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs). UHTCs constitute a class of promising materials for use in high temperature applications, such as sharp leading edges on future-generation hypersonic flight vehicles, because of their high melting points. The controlled development of microstructure has become important to the processing of UHTCs, with the prospect of improving their mechanical and thermal properties. The improved oxidation resistance of HfB2 has also become important if this material is to be successfully used at temperatures above 2000 C. Furthermore, the use of UHTCs on the leading edges of vehicles traveling at hypersonic speeds will mean exposure to a mixed oxidation environment comprised of both molecular and atomic oxygen. The current study has investigated the high-temperature oxidation behavior of HfB2-based materials in a pure O2 environment, as well as in environments containing different levels of dissociated oxygen (O/O2). Materials were processed by two techniques: conventional hot pressing (HP) and electric field-assisted sintering (FAS). Their oxidation behavior was evaluated in both a tube furnace at 1250 C for 3 hours and in a simulated re-entry environment in the Advanced Heating Facility (AHF) arcjet at NASA Ames Research Center, during a 10-minute exposure to a cold wall heat flux of 250W/sq cm and stagnation pressure of 0.1-0.2 atm. The microstructure of the different materials was characterized before and after oxidation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrical properties of phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogus-Milankovic, A; Santic, A; Reis, S T; Day, D E

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

  15. Microstructure and magnetic properties of low-temperature sintered CoTi-substituted barium ferrite for LTCC application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daming; Liu Yingli; Li Yuanxun; Zhong Wenguo; Zhang Huaiwu

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the influences of the BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) (BCB) additive on sintering behavior, structure and magnetic properties of iron deficient M-type barium ferrite Ba(CoTi) x Fe 11.8-2x O 19 (BaM) have been investigated. It is found that the maximum sintered densities of BaM change from 86% to 94% as the BCB content varies from 1 to 4 wt%. Single-phase BaM can be detected by the XRD analysis in the sample with 3 wt% BCB sintered at 900 deg. C, and the microstructure is hexagonal platelets with few intragranular pores. This is attributed to the formation of the BCB liquid phase. Meanwhile, the experimental results illuminate that the CoTi ions prefer to occupy the 4f2 and 2b sites and the magnetic properties depend on the amount of CoTi-substitution. In addition, the chemical compatibility between BaM and silver paste is also investigated; it can be seen that BaM is co-fired well with the silver paste and no other second phase is observed. Especially, the 3 wt% BCB-added Ba(CoTi) 0.9 Fe 11 O 19 sintered at 900 deg. C has good properties with the sintered density of 4.9 g/cm 3 , saturation magnetization of 49.7 emu/g and coercivity of 656.6 Oe. These results indicate that it is cost effective in the production of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) multilayer devices. - Research highlights: → Systematic investigation on the ion substitution and low-temperature sintering of barium ferrite. → BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) is first successfully used to lower the sintering temperature of barium ferrite. → Densification of BaFe 12 O 19 was speeded up by the BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) liquid phase.

  16. Indentation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Tungsten/Chromium co-Doped Bismuth Titanate Ceramics Sintered at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shaoxiong; Xu, Jiageng; Chen, Yu; Tan, Zhi; Nie, Rui; Wang, Qingyuan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2018-03-27

    A sort of tungsten/chromium(W/Cr) co-doped bismuth titanate (BIT) ceramics (Bi₄Ti 2.95 W 0.05 O 12.05 + 0.2 wt % Cr₂O₃, abbreviate to BTWC) are ordinarily sintered between 1050 and 1150 °C, and the indentation behavior and mechanical properties of ceramics sintered at different temperatures have been investigated by both nanoindentation and microindentation technology. Firstly, more or less Bi₂Ti₂O₇ grains as the second phase were found in BTWC ceramics, and the grain size of ceramics increased with increase of sintering temperatures. A nanoindentation test for BTWC ceramics reveals that the testing hardness of ceramics decreased with increase of sintering temperatures, which could be explained by the Hall-Petch equation, and the true hardness could be calculated according to the pressure-state-response (PSR) model considering the indentation size effect, where the value of hardness depends on the magnitude of load. While, under the application of microsized Vickers, the sample sintered at a lower temperature (1050 °C) gained four linearly propagating cracks, however, they were observed to shorten in the sample sintered at a higher temperature (1125 °C). Moreover, both the crack deflection and the crack branching existed in the latter. The hardness and the fracture toughness of BTWC ceramics presented a contrary variational tendency with increase of sintering temperatures. A high sintering tends to get a lower hardness and a higher fracture toughness, which could be attributed to the easier plastic deformation and the stronger crack inhibition of coarse grains, respectively, as well as the toughening effect coming from the second phase.

  17. Magnetic and structural properties of spark plasma sintered nanocrystalline NdFeB-powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, H., E-mail: holger.wuest@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 10 60 50, 70049 Stuttgart (Germany); Bommer, L., E-mail: lars.bommer@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 10 60 50, 70049 Stuttgart (Germany); Weissgaerber, T., E-mail: thomas.weissgaerber@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Branch Lab Dresden, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Kieback, B., E-mail: bernd.kieback@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Branch Lab Dresden, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institute for Materials Science, Helmholtzstraße 7, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Near-stoichiometric NdFeB melt-spun ribbons have been subjected to spark plasma sintering varying the process temperature T{sub SPS} and pressure p{sub SPS} between 600 and 800 °C and 50–300 MPa, respectively. Produced bulk magnets were analyzed regarding microstructure and magnetic properties. For all samples the intrinsic coercivity H{sub c,J} gradually decreases with increasing sintering temperature and pressure, while residual induction B{sub r} increases simultaneously with sample density. Densities close to the theoretical limit were achieved for p{sub SPS}≥90 MPa and T{sub SPS}≥650 °C. With increasing T{sub SPS} precipitations of Nd-rich and Fe-rich phases have been observed as a result of a decomposition of the hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase. Under optimum sintering conditions of p{sub SPS}=300 MPa and T{sub SPS}=650 °C high-density bulk magnets with H{sub c,J}=652 kA/m, B{sub r}=0.86 T and (BH){sub max}=106 kJ/m{sup 3} have been produced. - Highlights: • Consolidation close to the theoretical density for p{sub SPS}≥90 MPa and T{sub SPS}≥650 °C. • Highest (BH){sub max} of 106 kJ/m{sup 3} for p{sub SPS}=300 MPa and T{sub SPS}=650 °C with 98% theo. • H{sub c,J} gradually decreases with increasing T{sub SPS}, while B{sub r} increases simultaneously with. • With increasing T{sub SPS}, Nd- and Fe-rich precipitations are observed. • Reduction in t{sub SPS} is economic but does not increase (BH){sub max} significantly.

  18. Structure and Properties of VT6 Alloy Obtained by Layered Selective Sintering of a Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresov, A. D.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Petrikova, E. A.; Koval, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper is focused on a clarification and analysis of the regularities of formation of the structure and properties of samples of the titanium-based alloy VT6, obtained by methods of conventional metallurgy and formed by layered selective electron-beam sintering in vacuum (using the Arcam A2X (3D printer) system (Arcam, Sweden)) of VT6 titanium powder with particle size 40-100 μm. Additional modification of the samples was realized by irradiating the surface with an intense pulsed electron beam (15 keV, 45 J/cm2, 200 μs, 10 pulses, 0.3 s-1, 3.5·10-2 Pa). It is shown that the action of a pulsed electron beam on the surface of samples formed by layered selective electron-beam sintering leads to a significant reduction in the porosity of the surface layer of the material and formation in the surface layer of a polycrystalline structure (grain size 15-60 μm) with a substructure in the form of crystallization cells (cell size 0.5-1.2 μm). Electron-beam processing of samples prepared by methods of conventional metallurgy for the indicated electron-beam parameters leads to the formation in the surface layer of a polycrystalline structure (grain size 50-800 μm) with a laminar intragrain substructure. Mechanical tests, performed by stretching flat samples, showed that the highest combination of mechanical strength and plasticity is possessed by samples obtained by layered selective electron-beam sintering with subsequent irradiation by an intense pulsed electron beam.

  19. Effect of sintering temperatures on the in vitro bioactivity, molecular structure and mechanical properties of titanium/carbonated hydroxyapatite nanobiocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youness, Rasha A.; Taha, Mohammed A.; Ibrahim, Medhat A.

    2017-12-01

    Titanium-containing carbonated hydroxyapatite (Ti-CHA) nanocomposite powders, with different CHA contents, have been prepared using high-energy ball milling method. The effect of sintering temperatures, 900, 1100 and 1300 °C on molecular structure and microstructure of these samples were examined by XRD; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Furthermore, their mechanical properties including hardness, longitudinal modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured by ultrasonic non-destructive technique. Moreover, bioactivity of sintered samples at different firing temperatures was assessed by immersing them in simulated body fluid at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 7 days and then, analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results pointed out that increasing sintering temperature up to 1100 °C caused significant increases in densities and mechanical properties of these nanocomposite samples. However, further increase of firing temperature to 1300 °C was responsible for complete CHA decomposition and the resultant α-tricalcium (α-TCP) phase greatly affected these properties. On the contrary, better bioactivity was observed for sintered samples at 900 °C only. However, increase of sintering temperature of these samples up to 1300 °C led to severe decrease in their bioactivity due to the formation of highly soluble α-TCP phase.

  20. Mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Fe-Cr compacts strengthened by nanodispersed yttria particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany); Heintze, Cornelia [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany). Institute of Safty Research; Bergner, Frank [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Weissgaerber, Thomas [Frauenhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden (Germany). Branch Lab Powder Metallurgy and Composite Materials; Frauenhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Dresden (Germany). Department of High Performance Sintered Materials

    2010-07-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of high-Cr steels is a well-recognized way to extend the application window including nuclear applications for this class of materials. The experimental investigation of model alloys of less complexity is important in order to separate individual influence factors and to understand the irradiation behaviour. The present work is devoted to the mechanical properties of ODS Fe-9wt%Cr alloys produced by means of spark plasma sintering. The range of material conditions covers contents of nanodispersed yttria of 0 (reference), 0.3 wt%, and 0.6 wt% as well as variations of the milling time. Results obtained for the density, elastic properties, hardness, tensile behaviour, and brittle-ductile transition are reported, and the effect of ODS content and PM process parameters is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of direct metal laser sintered TI-6AL-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Thorsten Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS is a selective laser melting (SLM manufacturing process that can produce near net shape parts from metallic powders. A range of materials are suitable for SLM; they include various metals such as titanium, steel, aluminium, and cobalt-chrome alloys. This paper forms part of a research drive that aims to evaluate the material performance of the SLM-manufactured metals. It presents DMLS-produced Ti-6Al-4V, a titanium alloy often used in biomedical and aerospace applications. This paper also studies the effect of several heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V processed by SLM. It reports the achievable mechanical properties of the alloy, including quasi-static, crack growth behaviour, density and porosity distribution, and post-processing using various heat-treatment conditions.

  2. Simultaneous synthesis and consolidation of chromium carbides (Cr3C2, Cr7C3 and Cr23C6) by pulsed electric-current pressure sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Ken; Mitani, Kenichi; Yoshinaka, Masaru; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    Chromium carbides (Cr 3 C 2 , Cr 7 C 3 and Cr 23 C 6 ) have been synthesized and consolidated simultaneously from mixtures of Cr and amorphous carbon powders by pulsed electric-current pressure sintering (PECPS). Dense ceramics thus obtained were composed of chromium carbides with a small amount of Cr 2 O 3 , which originates from a trace amount of oxygen adsorbed on the as-received starting Cr powder. Synthesis and consolidation processes, which were observed from their shrinkage curves during PECPS, have been examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy for the powder compacts. Cr 3 C 2 ceramics sintered at 1300 deg. C for 10 min under 30 MPa have a 98.9% of theoretical density and fine structures with a 3.6 μm grain size. They exhibit excellent mechanical properties: a bending strength σ b of 690 MPa, a Vickers hardness H v of 18.9 GPa and a fracture toughness K IC of 7.1 MPa m 1/2

  3. Milling properties of low temperature sintered zirconia blocks for dental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ting-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Hsiang; Chen, Ker-Kong; Wang, Moo-Chin; Lee, Huey-Er

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the milling properties of different yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) block materials by applying a dental computer numerical control (CNC) milling center. Low temperature sintering zirconia block denoted by KMUZ (experimental) with two commercial zirconia blocks for T block made in Taiwan and a G block made in Germany were compared for the milling properties. Seventy-two specimens were milled using the same CNC milling center, and properties were evaluated by measuring the weight loss (g), milling time (s), margin integrity (%) and broken diameter (μm). The crystalline phases contents were identified by X-ray diffraction and the microstructures of the sintering specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The mean milling time of G and KMUZ were significantly shorter than T (P<0.05). The KMUZ samples exhibited the least weight loss among the three kinds of blocks (P<0.05). The percentages of marginal integrity after milling were high in G and KMUZ but low in T (P<0.05). The mean broken diameters were from 90μm to 120μm. The phase transformation of t-ZrO 2 (KMUZ: 7.4%, G: 5.9%, T: 3.2%) to m-ZrO 2 when facing the milling pressure in ZrO 2 blocks was observed by XRD. The result of TEM microstructure of KMUZ revealed that Y and Si were soluble in grain boundaries. The results show that the milling properties of KMUZ were better than one commercial T and near the G. The hindered grain growth, as a result of the Y 3+ content in the grain boundaries, also plays a role in promoting the abnormal grain growth of 3Y-TZP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Low temperature sintering of MgCuZn ferrite and its electrical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The chip inductors made of the ferrite fired at 910 C with 12 mol% Cu exhibited higher d.c. resistance. From these studies it is concluded that the good quality chip inductor can be obtained using the MgCuZn ferrites. Keywords. Low temperature sintering; MgCuZn ferrite; shrinkage; resistivity; permeability; quality factor. 1.

  5. Mechanical properties of fine-grained sintered molybdenum alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takida, T.; Kurishita, H.; Mabuchi, M.; Igarashi, T.; Doi, Y.; Nagae, T.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the low-temperature toughness and room- and high-temperature strengths of molybdenum (Mo), sintered Mo alloys with fine grains and fine, dispersed particles were fabricated by hot isostatic pressing of spark plasma sintering with mechanically alloyed powder of Mo and 0.8 mol % ZrC or TaC (designated ZRC08 and TAC08). The fabricated Mo alloys showed no significant grain growth even after annealing at 2470 K for 3.6 ks due to the pinning effect of the particles against grain boundary migration. For the Mo alloys the impact three-point bending test was performed at 270 to 470 K and at 5 m s -1 and the static tensile test at 300 to 1970 K and at 4.2 x 10 - % to 8.3 x 10-2 s -1 . The fabricated alloys exhibited lower ductile-to brittle transition temperatures and higher tensile strengths up to 1770 K than fully recrystallized pure Mo. In particular, TAC08 was superior in low-temperature toughness and ZRC08 was superior in room- and high-temperature strengths. Furthermore, ZRC08 showed a large elongation of 551 % at 1770 K. These excellent mechanical properties of the fabricated Mo alloys are attributable to the fine-grained microstructure and grain-boundary strengthening by the fine particles. (author)

  6. Pressureless sintering and gas flux properties of porous ceramic membranes for gas applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Obada

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of kaolin based ceramic membranes using styrofoam (STY and sawdust (SD as pore formers have been prepared by mechano-chemical synthesis using pressureless sintering technique with porogen content between (0–20 wt% by die pressing. Pellets were fired at 1150 °C and soaking time of 4 h. The membranes cast as circular disks were subjected to characterization studies to evaluate the effect of the sintering temperature and pore former content on porosity, density, water absorption and mechanical strength. Obtained membranes show effective porosity with maximum at about 43 and 47% respectively for membranes formulated with styrofoam and sawdust porogens but with a slightly low mechanical strength that does not exceed 19 MPa. The resultant ceramic bodies show a fine porous structure which is mainly caused by the volatilization of the porogens. The fabricated membrane exhibited high N2 gas flux, hence, these membranes can be considered as efficient for potential application for gas separation by reason of the results shown in the gas flux tests. Keywords: Porosity, Pore formers, Kaolin, Physico-mechanical properties, Gas separation, Gas flux

  7. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Bi5Ti3FeO15 Ceramics Prepared by Sintering, Mechanical Activation and Edamm Process. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jartych E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different methods were used to obtain Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics, i.e. solid-state sintering, mechanical activation (MA with subsequent thermal treatment, and electrical discharge assisted mechanical milling (EDAMM. The structure and magnetic properties of produced Bi5Ti3FeO15 samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The purest Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics was obtained by standard solid-state sintering method. Mechanical milling methods are attractive because the Bi5Ti3FeO15 compound may be formed at lower temperature or without subsequent thermal treatment. In the case of EDAMM process also the time of processing is significantly shorter in comparison with solid-state sintering method. As revealed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, at room temperature the Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics produced by various methods is in paramagnetic state.

  8. Effects of particle size and forming pressure on pore properties of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal by pressureless sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Uk; Yi, Yujeong; Lee, Minjeong; Kim, Byoung-Kee

    2017-03-01

    With increased hydrogen consumption in ammonia production, refining and synthesis, fuel cells and vehicle industries, development of the material components related to hydrogen production is becoming an important factor in industry growth. Porous metals for fabrication of hydrogen are commonly known for their relative excellence in terms of large area, lightness, lower heat capacity, high toughness, and permeability. Fe-Cr-Al alloys not only have high corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and chemical stability but also ductility, excellent mechanical properties. In order to control powder size and sintering temperature effects of Fe-Cr-Al porous metal fabrication, Fe-Cr-Al powder was classified into 25-35 μm, 35-45 μm, 45-75 μm using an auto shaking sieve machine and then classified Fe-Cr-Al powders were pressed into disk shapes using a uniaxial press machine and CIP. The pelletized Fe-Cr-Al specimens were sintered at various temperatures in high vacuum. Properties such as pore size, porosity, and air permeability were evaluated using perm-porosimetry. Microstructure and phase changes were observed with SEM and XRD. Porosity and relative density were proportionated to increasing sintering temperature. With sufficient sintering at increasing temperatures, the pore size is expected to be gradually reduced. Porosity decreased with increasing sintering temperature and gradually increased necking of the powder.

  9. Microwave Sintering of Bi2Te3- and PbTe-Based Alloys: Structure and Thermoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguin-Zavala, J.; Vasilevskiy, D.; Turenne, S.; Masut, R. A.

    2013-07-01

    Microwave sintering is well known as an expeditious process in applications involving ceramics and biomaterials. For powders in the nanometer range, rapid microwave heating could reduce material exposure to elevated temperatures, thus preserving nanostructures in the resulting materials. To investigate the potential of this technique for thermoelectric (TE) materials, we have prepared samples of bismuth-telluride- and lead-telluride-based alloys from powders, for both materials, having sizes of partially agglomerated particles distributed from 0.15 μm to 7 μm. Sintering of the cold-pressed powders was carried out in a microwave furnace for 900 s at temperatures in the range of 583 K to 623 K for bismuth telluride and 793 K to 813 K for lead telluride specimens. For optimized sintering times and temperatures, the samples obtained showed relative densities of almost 95%. Scanning electron microscopy shows some residual porosity and a reduction of grain size, up to a factor of 5 for PbTe, compared with optimized hot-extruded specimens. For bismuth telluride samples, the TE performance in the range of 300 K to 460 K is poor, which is attributed to the arbitrary texture obtained from cold pressing of a highly anisotropic alloy prior to its sintering. In contrast, PbTe exhibits isotropic properties, hence deficiency of texturing is not expected to have a negative impact on its TE properties. Harman measurements show a value of ZT = 0.42 at 617 K for PbTe p-type sintered samples, which is comparable to hot-extruded alloys from similar powders. The present work demonstrates that microwave sintering is a promising alternative to other powder consolidation techniques for polycrystalline materials exhibiting isotropic TE properties.

  10. Combined effects of additive elements on the magnetic properties of Fe-Nd-B sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.; Kaszuwara, W.

    1996-01-01

    Combined effects of additional elements on the magnetic properties of sintered Fe-Nd-B magnets were studied for two systems: containing both Al or Co and Al and Mo, respectively. It was found that the magnets containing Al and Co exhibit substantially higher coercivities than those with additions of only Al or Co. The improved coercivity for the alloys containing Al and Co, when compared with the quaternary alloys, we attribute to a reduced proportion of the soft magnetic inclusions in the grain boundary area. The investigation of combined effects of Al and Mo additions on the magnetic properties revealed that although both Al and Mo when added separately enhance the properties, their combined effect brought about deterioration of the coercivity. X-ray microanalysis detected Mo, Fe, Nd and Al rich inclusions, existence of which was considered to be the reason for a poor magnetic decoupling of the hard magnetic grains and drop of the coercivity. The magnetic, properties were discussed in the light of phase constitution and their possible influence on the magnetization reversal. Three dimensional diagrams of the magnetic properties versus composition were composed. (author)

  11. The influence of electrocorundum granulation on the properties of sintered Cu/electrocorundum composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strojny-Nędza A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper/alumina composites are extensively used in automotive and aerospace industry for products that are subjected to severe thermal and mechanical loadings, such as rocket thrusters and components of aircraft engines. These materials are well-known for their good frictional wear resistance, good resistance to thermal fatigue, high thermal conductivity and high specific heat. In this paper, the sintering process of copper/electrocorundum composites reinforced by electrocorundum particles with diameters of 3 or 180 μm and 1, 3, 5 vol.% content is presented. The effects of different particle sizes of the ceramic reinforcement on the microstructure, physical, mechanical, tribological and thermal properties of the fabricated composites are discussed.

  12. Mechanical and magnetic properties of semi-Heusler/light-metal composites consolidated by spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koller, M.; Chráska, Tomáš; Cinert, Jakub; Heczko, Oleg; Kopeček, Jaromír; Landa, Michal; Mušálek, Radek; Rameš, Michal; Seiner, Hanuš; Stráský, J.; Janeček, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, July (2017), s. 351-357 ISSN 0264-1275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : Metal–metal composites * Spark plasma sintering * Light metals * Ferromagnetic alloys * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials; JI - Composite Materials (FZU-D); JI - Composite Materials (UT-L) OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics; Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics (FZU-D); Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics (UT-L) Impact factor: 4.364, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264127517303842?via%3Dih

  13. Modeling a material from packing, through sintering and to the final microstructural properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    and magnetism known as the magnetocaloric effect. We present a 3-dimensional time-dependent numerical model that spatially resolves samples down to the grain size, and includes the demagnetizing field, chemical inhomogeneity realized as a spatial variation of Curie temperature across the sample, local...... hysteresis and heat transfer. We can thus model how particle size, packing, sintering and chemical inhomogeneity affect the observed properties of magnetocaloric samples. For example, we show that even a modest distribution in Curie temperature (TC) across the sample results in a significant broadening...... and lowering of the total entropy change of the sample around TC. We discuss how clustering of grains with similar values of TC across the sample influences the results....

  14. Investigation into the Properties of Sintered Ceramics from Dysna Clay and Non-Plastics Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Pranckevičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycling mineral wool spinning waste represents a rather serious problem. The results of the present research show that the suggested sintering ceramics out of low melting illite clay and mineral wool spinning waste is a promising way for solving the problem of mineral wool waste utilization. The conducted research into the properties of this compound has shown that by introducing 20% of waste into low melting clay allows producing ceramic materials possessing the following parameters: value of absorption is equal to 2,2%, density – 2169 kg/m3.The data of dilatometric investigation have demonstrated that adding 20 % of MVCF component leads to reducing length from 2,8% to 1,4% at the temperature of 1070 ºC. Article in Lithuanian

  15. Electrical and optical properties of NdAlO3 synthesized by an optimized combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, Midhun; Nair, V. Manikantan; Wariar, P.R.S.; Padmasree, K.P.; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystals of neodymium aluminate (NdAlO 3 ) are synthesized using an optimized single step auto-ignition citrate complex combustion process. The combustion product was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Ultraviolet–visible reflection spectroscopy. The combustion product is single phase and composed of aggregates of nanocrystals of sizes in the range 20–40 nm. The NdAlO 3 crystallized in rhombohedral perovskite structure with lattice parameters a = 5.3223 Å and c = 12.9292 Å. The absorption spectrum of the NdAlO 3 nanocrystals shows characteristic absorption bands of the Nd atom. The polycrystalline fluffy combustion product is sintered to high density (∼ 97%) at ∼ 1450 °C for 4 h and the microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of the sintered product were studied using dielectric measurements. The sintered NdAlO 3 has a dielectric constant (ε r ) and a dielectric loss (tan δ) of 21.9 and ∼ 10 −3 at 5 MHz, respectively. - Highlights: • NdAlO 3 nanocrystals were synthesized through a citrate combustion process. • The nanocrystals were sintered to ∼ 97% of theoretical density. • The materials were characterized using a number of analytical techniques. • Nanostructured NdAlO 3 showed crystal field splitting of Nd ions. • Dielectric properties of the sintered NdAlO 3 ceramics were studied

  16. Functional properties of coated by chemical vapour deposition sintered tool materials investigated with use of tribological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mikuła

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to present the results of investigations into the structure and properties of sintered carbides with deposited wear resistant coatings after a tribological test carried out with the method of combined examination of abrasion wear resistance and edge fracture resistance.

  17. Enhanced Photoluminescent Properties and Crystalline Morphology of LiBaPO4:Tm3+ Phosphor through Microwave Sintering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Lin Lai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the photoluminescent properties and crystalline morphology of blue emitting LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ phosphors with various concentrations (x = 0.005–0.030 of Tm3+ ions were synthesized by microwave sintering. For comparison, the LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ powders sintered at the same sintering condition but in a conventional furnace were also investigated. LiBaPO4 without second phase was formed no matter which furnace was used. More uniform grain size distributions are obtained by microwave sintering. When the concentration of Tm3+ ion was x = 0.015, the luminescence intensity reached a maximum value, and then decreased with the increases of the Tm3+ concentration due to concentration quenching effect. The microwave sintering significantly enhanced the emission intensity of LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ phosphors. Additionally, the d-d interaction is the key mechanism of concentration quenching for LiBaPO4:Tm3+. The chromaticity (x, y for all LiBa1−xPO4:xTm3+ phosphors are located at (0.16, 0.05, which will be classified as a blue region.

  18. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  19. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  20. Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Low-Cost Light-Weight Proppant Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K. Y.; Wang, H. J.; Zhou, Y.; Wu, Y. Q.; Li, G. M.; Tian, Y. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the low-cost light-weight proppant ceramics were prepared with the solid wastes of coal gangue as the raw materials, and the effect of sintering temperature on the apparent porosity, bulk density, bending strength, microstructure and phase composition were investigated. The results showed that the ceramics, sintered at 1350°C, has the best performance with the bending strength of 85MPa, bulk density of 2.7 g/cm3 and apparent porosity of 18%. These properties of ceramics were very close to that of the bauxite-sintered, and thus the gangue were very probably selected for the preparation of proppants that involved in the exploitation of coalbed methane.

  1. Sintering, structure, and mechanical properties of nanophase SiC: A molecular-dynamics and neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Alok; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Omeltchenko, Andrey; Tsuruta, Kenji; Vashishta, Priya; Loong, Chun-Keung; Winterer, Markus; Klein, Sylke

    2000-01-01

    Structure, mechanical properties, and sintering of nanostructured SiC (n-SiC) are investigated with neutron scattering and molecular-dynamics (MD) techniques. Both MD and the experiment indicate the onset of sintering around 1500 K. During sintering, the pores shrink while maintaining their morphology: the fractal dimension is ∼2 and the surface roughness exponent is ∼0.45. Structural analyses reveal that interfacial regions in n-SiC are disordered with nearly the same number of three- and fourfold coordinated Si atoms. The elastic moduli scale with the density as ∼ρ μ , where μ=3.4±0.1. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  2. Microstructure-electrical properties relation of zirconia based ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Fabio Coral

    2001-01-01

    The electrical properties of zirconia based ceramic composites were studied by impedance spectroscopy. Three materials were prepared with different relative compositions of the conducting and insulating phases: (ZrO 2 :8 mol% Y 2 ) 3 ) + MgO, (ZrO 2 :8 mol% Y 2 O 3 ) + Y 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 + 8 mol% Y 2 O 3 . All specimens were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy for microstructural characterization and for correlation of microstructural aspects with electrical properties. For (ZrO 2 :8 mol% Y 2 O 3 ) + MgO the main results show that the dependence of the different (microstructural constituents) contributions to the electrical resistivity on the magnesia content follows two stages: one below and another above the solubility limit of magnesia in Yttria-stabilized zirconia. The same dependence is found for the lattice parameter determined by X-ray diffraction measurements. The impedance diagrams of the composites have been resolved allowing the identification of contributions due to the presence of each microstructural constituent in both stages. Magnesia as a second phase is found to inhibit grain growth in Yttria-stabilized zirconia and the solubility limit for magnesia in the zirconia matrix is around 10 mol%. For (ZrO 2 :8 mol% Y 2 O 3 ) + Y 2 O 3 the main results show that: Yttria is present as a second phase for 1350 deg C /0.1 h sintering; the addition of 2 mol% of Yttria does not modify significantly the electrical properties; the solubility limit for Yttria is around 2 mol% according to electrical measurements. Similarly to magnesia, Yttria inhibits grain growth on Yttria-stabilized zirconia. The general effective medium theory was used to analyze the percolation of the insulating phase; the percolation threshold is different if one considers separately the total, bulk and grain boundary contributions to the electrical conductivity: 32.0, 38.5 and 27.8 vol% for total, intra and intergranular contributions, respectively. The increase of

  3. Effects of BaCu(B2O5) addition on sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of Ba5Nb4O15–BaWO4 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Rui-Long; Su Hua; Tang Xiao-Li; Jing Yu-Lan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) (BCB) addition on the microstructure, phase formation, and microwave dielectric properties of Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 −BaWO 4 ceramic are investigated. As a sintering aid, BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) ceramic could effectively lower the sintering temperature of Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 −BaWO 4 ceramic from 1100 °C to 950 °C due to the liquid-phase effect. Meanwhile, BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) addition effectively improves the densification of Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 −BaWO 4 ceramic and significantly influences the microwave dielectric properties. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 and BaWO 4 coexist with no crystal phase of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) in the sintered ceramics. The Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 −BaWO 4 ceramics with 1.0 wt% BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) sintered at 950 °C for 2 h presents good microwave dielectric properties of ε r = 19.0, high Q×f of 33802 GHz and low τ f of 2.5 ppm/°C. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Effect of Nb doping on sintering and dielectric properties of PZT ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of piezoelectric ceramics such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT in different applications became possible with the development of donor or acceptor dopants. Therefore, studies on the effect of dopants on the properties of PZT ceramics are highly demanded. In this study undoped and 2.4 mol% Nb-doped PZT (PZTN powders were successfully obtained by a solid-state reaction and calcination at 850 °C for 2 h. Crystallinity and phase formation of the prepared powders were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD. In order to study morphology of powders, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was performed. The crystalline PZT and Nb-doped PZT powders were pelleted into discs and sintered at 1100, 1150 and 1200 °C, with a heating rate of 10 °C/min, and holding time of 1–6 h to find the optimum combination of temperature and time to produce high density ceramics. Microstructural characterization was conducted on the fractured ceramic surfaces using SEM. Density measurements showed that maximal density of 95% of the theoretical density was achieved after sintering of PZT and PZTN ceramics at 1200 °C for 2 h and 4 h, respectively. However, the results of dielectric measurements showed that PZTN ceramics have higher relative permittivity (εr ∼17960 with lower Curie temperature (∼358 °C relative to PZT (εr = 16000 at ∼363 °C as a result of fine PZTN structure as well as presence of vacancies. In addition, dielectric loss (at 1 kHz of PZT and PZTN ceramics with 95% theoretical density was 0.0087 and 0.02, respectively. The higher dielectric loss in PZTN was due to easier domain wall motions in PZTN ceramics.

  5. Influence of the added oxide power on the magnetic property of the iron-chromium magnetic sintered alloy in alternating field; FeCr kei shoketsu jisei gokin no koryu jiki tokusei ni oyobosu sakabutsu funmatsu tenka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Kanazawa, H. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Kawamura, M.; Kono, T.; Kusaka, K. [Daido Steel Co., Nagoya (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    This paper describes effects of addition of mixed oxide powder on the magnetic properties of low carbon Fe-13Cr-0.8Si sintered alloy. The mixed powder composed of SiO2, CaO, and Al2O3 was added. It was found that the magnetic characteristics of specimens in direct magnetic field degraded with addition of oxide powder. However, they were improved with rising the sintering temperature. On the other hand, the amplitude relative permeability of specimens in alternating magnetic field was higher in the case of 0.1 to 0.2% addition of oxide powder than no addition one. The relative permeability showed a change of increase and then decrease with rising the sintering temperature. However, it was found that the proportion of the decrease in relative permeability at the higher sintering temperature was restrained by addition of the oxide powder. These phenomena were discussed in relation to sintered density, porosity, and electrical resistivity. 8 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Sulfur doping effect on microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Sui, Yan-li; Chen, Cun-guang; Ye, Si-Yang; Li, Ping; Guo, Zhi-meng; Paley, Vladislay; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of sulfur (S) doping on microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets were studied. With 0.2 wt% S doping, the melting point of the Nd-rich eutectic phases decreased from 1038 K to 1021 K. Clear and continuous grain boundary phases were also formed with smaller grain size. The average grain size was 7.83 μm, which was approximately 1.3 μm smaller than that of the undoped magnets. The coercivity enhancement was attributed to boundary microstructure modification and grain size optimization. The coercivity of the 0.2 wt% S-doped magnets increased from 15.54 kOe to 16.67 kOe, with slight changes of the remanence and the maximum magnetic energy production. The magnetic properties of the overdoped magnets deteriorated, due to the reduction in density and decrease of the volume fraction of the main phase. Globular S precipitates in the Nd-rich triple junctions were hexagonal Nd2O2S phase and tetragonal NdS2 phase. S addition allows reducing Dy usage in magnets with comparable magnetic properties.

  7. Sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of Cr3C2–NiCr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the densification were remarkably promoted by the liquid phase formation at 1350. ◦. C. The densities as high as 97% of the theoretical density have been achieved by liquid phase sintering through the solution–reprecipitation and grain. Figure 1. XRD pattern of powder mixture and cermet samples sintered at four.

  8. Sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of Cr3C2–NiCr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highest relative density obtained was 97% when sintered at 1350 °C. As the relative density increased, elastic modulus, transverse rupture strength, fracture toughness and hardness of the samples reached to a maximum of 314 GPa, 810 MPa, 10.4 MPa.m1/2 and 11.3 GPa, respectively. However, sintering at 1400 °C ...

  9. Magnetic properties of liquid-phase-assisted sintered MnZn ferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drofenik Miha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available MnZn ferrites were sintered in the presence of a Bi2O3-SiO2 - rich liquid phase. The microstructure of MnZn-ferrite samples that contained various amounts of liquid phase during sintering was investigated. The results revealed that microstructure development and final magnetic permeability depend essentially on the amount of liquid phase present during sintering. The solution-reprecipitation (S-R process in MnZn ferrites starts when a continuous liquid-phase film is formed during grain growth. The status of the microstructure developed during solid-state sintering prior to the formation of the critical liquid-phase film is essential for the final microstructure developed during liquid-phase-assisted sintering.

  10. Microstructure and magnetic properties of low-temperature sintered CoTi-substituted barium ferrite for LTCC application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daming; Liu, Yingli; Li, Yuanxun; Zhong, Wenguo; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2011-11-01

    In this article, the influences of the BaCu(B 2O 5) (BCB) additive on sintering behavior, structure and magnetic properties of iron deficient M-type barium ferrite Ba(CoTi) xFe 11.8-2 xO 19 (BaM) have been investigated. It is found that the maximum sintered densities of BaM change from 86% to 94% as the BCB content varies from 1 to 4 wt%. Single-phase BaM can be detected by the XRD analysis in the sample with 3 wt% BCB sintered at 900 °C, and the microstructure is hexagonal platelets with few intragranular pores. This is attributed to the formation of the BCB liquid phase. Meanwhile, the experimental results illuminate that the CoTi ions prefer to occupy the 4f2 and 2b sites and the magnetic properties depend on the amount of CoTi-substitution. In addition, the chemical compatibility between BaM and silver paste is also investigated; it can be seen that BaM is co-fired well with the silver paste and no other second phase is observed. Especially, the 3 wt% BCB-added Ba(CoTi) 0.9Fe 11O 19 sintered at 900 °C has good properties with the sintered density of 4.9 g/cm 3, saturation magnetization of 49.7 emu/g and coercivity of 656.6 Oe. These results indicate that it is cost effective in the production of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) multilayer devices.

  11. The effect of sintering temperature on electrical characteristics of Fe2TiO5/Nb2O5 ceramics for NTC thermistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiendartun, Risdiana, Fitrilawati, Siregar, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    A study on the fabrication of Iron Titanium Oxide (Fe2TiO5) ceramics for negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors has been carried out, in order to know the effect of sintering temperature on the electrical characteristic of 1.0 % mole Nb2O5 doped Fe2TiO5 ceramics.These ceramics were made by mixing commercial powders of Fe2O3, TiO2 and Nb2O5 with proportional composition to produce Fe2TiO5 based ceramic. The raw pellet was sintered at 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C temperature for 2 hours in air. Analysis of the microstructure and crystal structure were performed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. XRD spectra showed that the crystal structure of all ceramics of Fe2TiO5 made at various sintering temperatures are orthorhombic. The SEM images showed that the grain size of pellet ceramics increase with increasing sintering temperatures. From electrical resistances data that was measured at temperature 30-300 °C, it is found that the value of thermistor constant (B), activation energy (Ea), thermistor sensitivity (α) and room temperature resistance (RRT) decreases with respect to the increasing of sintering temperature. The fabricated Fe2TiO5 ceramics have thermistor constants (B = 6394-6959 K). This can be applied as temperature sensor, and will fulfill the market requirement.

  12. Effect of sintering temperature on micro structural and impedance spectroscopic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Davuluri; Ramesh, K. V.; Sastry, C. V. S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Ni-Zn nanoferrite Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 is prepared by citrate gel auto combustion method and sintered at various temperatures 800, 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. The room temperature x-ray diffraction conforms that the single phase spinel structure is formed. Crystallite size and density were increased with increasing of sintering temperature. From Raman spectroscopy all sintered samples are single phase with cubic spinel structure belong to Fd3m space group. From surface morphology studies it is clearly observed that the particle size increased with increasing of sintering temperature. Impedance spectroscopy revel that increasing of conductivity is due to grain resistance is decreased with increasing of sintering temperature. Cole-Cole plots are studied from impedance data. The electrical modulus analysis shows that non-Debye nature of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite.

  13. Influences of Laser Spot Welding on Magnetic Property of a Sintered NdFeB Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding has been considered as a promising method to join sintered NdFeB permanent magnets thanks to its high precision and productivity. However, the influences of laser welding on the magnetic property of NdFeB are still not clear. In the present paper, the effects of laser power on the remanence (Br were experimentally investigated in laser spot welding of a NdFeB magnet (N48H. Results show that the Br decreased with the increase of laser power. For the same welding parameters, the Br of magnets, that were magnetized before welding, were much lower than that of magnets that were magnetized after welding. The decrease in Br of magnets after laser welding resulted from the changes in microstructures and, in turn, the deterioration of magnetic properties in the nugget and the heat affected zone (HAZ in a laser weld. It is recommended that the dimensions of nuggets and HAZ in laser welds of a NdFeB permanent magnet should be as small as possible, and the magnets should be welded before being magnetized in order to achieve a better magnetic performance in practical engineering applications.

  14. Fabrication and properties of dense ex situ magnesium diboride bulk material synthesized using spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancer, C E J; Todd, R I; Grovenor, C R M [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Prabhakaran, D [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Basoglu, M; Yanmaz, E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Yan, H; Reece, M, E-mail: claire.dancer@linacre.oxon.or [Department of Materials, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    High density ex situ magnesium diboride bulks were synthesized from commercial MgB{sub 2} powder using spark plasma sintering under a range of applied uniaxial pressures between 16 and 80 MPa. The microstructure was characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, polarized optical microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements, and density measurements using the Archimedes method. By combining these data with those for other bulk samples we have developed a correlation curve for the hardness and density for magnesium diboride for relative densities of 60-100%. The superconducting properties were determined using magnetization measurements. Comparison to samples of significantly higher porosity indicates a positive correlation between magnetization critical current density and bulk density for magnesium diboride bulks up to around 90% density. Above this level other microstructural processes such as grain growth begin to influence the critical current density, suggesting that full elimination of porosity is not necessary to obtain high critical current density. We conclude that the best superconducting properties are likely to be obtained with a combination of small grain size and minimal porosity.

  15. Microstructure and magnetic properties of low-temperature sintered CoTi-substituted barium ferrite for LTCC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Daming [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu Yingli, E-mail: chendaming1986@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li Yuanxun; Zhong Wenguo; Zhang Huaiwu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2011-11-15

    In this article, the influences of the BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) (BCB) additive on sintering behavior, structure and magnetic properties of iron deficient M-type barium ferrite Ba(CoTi){sub x}Fe{sub 11.8-2x}O{sub 19} (BaM) have been investigated. It is found that the maximum sintered densities of BaM change from 86% to 94% as the BCB content varies from 1 to 4 wt%. Single-phase BaM can be detected by the XRD analysis in the sample with 3 wt% BCB sintered at 900 deg. C, and the microstructure is hexagonal platelets with few intragranular pores. This is attributed to the formation of the BCB liquid phase. Meanwhile, the experimental results illuminate that the CoTi ions prefer to occupy the 4f2 and 2b sites and the magnetic properties depend on the amount of CoTi-substitution. In addition, the chemical compatibility between BaM and silver paste is also investigated; it can be seen that BaM is co-fired well with the silver paste and no other second phase is observed. Especially, the 3 wt% BCB-added Ba(CoTi){sub 0.9}Fe{sub 11}O{sub 19} sintered at 900 deg. C has good properties with the sintered density of 4.9 g/cm{sup 3}, saturation magnetization of 49.7 emu/g and coercivity of 656.6 Oe. These results indicate that it is cost effective in the production of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) multilayer devices. - Research Highlights: > Systematic investigation on the ion substitution and low-temperature sintering of barium ferrite. > BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is first successfully used to lower the sintering temperature of barium ferrite. > Densification of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was speeded up by the BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) liquid phase.

  16. The investigation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of ordered alominide-iron (boron) nanostructures produced by mechanical alloying and sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, S.; Akbari, Gh.; Janghorban, K.; Ghaffari, M.

    In this study, mechanical alloying (MA) of Fe-50Al, Fe-49.5Al-1B, and Fe-47.5Al-5B (at.%) alloy powders and mechanical properties of sintered products of the as-milled powders were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the addition of B caused more crystallite refinement compared to the B-free powders. To consider the sintering and ordering behaviors of the parts produced from cold compaction of the powders milled for 80 h, sintering was conducted at various temperatures. It was found that the sintering temperature has no meaningful effect on the long-range order parameter. The transformation of the disordered solid solution developed by MA to ordered Fe-Al- (B) intermetallics was a consequence of sintering. Also, the nano-scale structure of the samples was retained even after sintering. The microhardness of pore-free zones of the nanostructured specimens decreased by increasing the sintering temperature. Moreover, the sintering temperature has no effect on the compressive yield stress. However, the fracture strain increased by increasing the sintering temperature. The samples containing 1 at.% B showed more strain to fracture compared with the B-free and 5 at.% B samples.

  17. Effect of Sintering Atmosphere and Solution Treatment on Density, Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Duplex Stainless Steels Developed from Pre-alloyed Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Arun Prasad; Mahendran, Sudhahar; Ramajayam, Mariappan; Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Chinnaraj, Raj Kumar

    2017-10-01

    In this research, Powder Metallurgy (P/M) of Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) of different compositions were prepared through pre-alloyed powders and elemental powders with and without addition of copper. The powder mix was developed by pot mill for 12 h to obtain the homogeneous mixture of pre-alloyed powder with elemental compositions. Cylindrical green compacts with the dimensions of 30 mm diameter and 12 mm height were compacted through universal testing machine at a pressure level of 560 ± 10 MPa. These green compacts were sintered at 1350 °C for 2 h in hydrogen and argon atmospheres. Some of the sintered stainless steel preforms were solution treated at 1050 °C followed by water quenching. The sintered as well as solution treated samples were analysed by metallography examination, Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of mechanical properties. Ferrite content of sintered and solution treated DSS were measured by Fischer Ferritoscope. It is inferred that the hydrogen sintered DSS depicted better density (94% theoretical density) and tensile strength (695 MPa) than the argon sintered steels. Similarly the microstructure of solution treated DSS revealed existence of more volume of ferrite grains than its sintered condition. Solution treated hydrogen sintered DSS A (50 wt% 316L + 50 wt% 430L) exhibited higher tensile strength of 716 MPa and elongation of 17%, which are 10-13% increment than the sintered stainless steels.

  18. Processing and characterization of a carbon black-filled electrically conductive Nylon-12 nanocomposite produced by selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athreya, Siddharth Ram; Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki; Das, Suman

    2010-01-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS), a layered manufacturing technique was explored to process an electrically conductive polymer nanocomposite made of Nylon-12 reinforced with 4 wt% of carbon black. SLS process parameters were optimized in order to maximize the flexural modulus. The porosity and morphology were studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystalline state was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical conductivity was determined using the four probe technique. Results indicate that carbon black-filled Nylon-12 nanocomposites can be successfully made by SLS. Maximum flexural modulus values of 1750 MPa and 1450 MPa were achieved for the neat polymer and the nanocomposite, respectively. A reduction in the flexural modulus of the nanocomposite is likely due to the formation of a segregated structure in the nanocomposite and a weak polymer-filler interface. The optimized neat polymer and the nanocomposites had average densities of around 97% and 96% relative to full density, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite was approximately 1 x 10 -4 S/cm, which is five orders of magnitude higher than that of the neat polymer processed by SLS, and indicates that the onset of percolation behavior occurs below the 4 wt% loading of carbon black.

  19. A methodology to investigate the intrinsic effect of the pulsed electric current during the spark plasma sintering of electrically conductive powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mario Locci, Alberto Cincotti, Sara Todde, Roberto Orrù and Giacomo Cao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel methodology is proposed for investigating the effect of the pulsed electric current during the spark plasma sintering (SPS of electrically conductive powders without potential misinterpretation of experimental results. First, ensemble configurations (geometry, size and material of the powder sample, die, plunger and spacers are identified where the electric current is forced to flow only through either the sample or the die, so that the sample is heated either through the Joule effect or by thermal conduction, respectively. These ensemble configurations are selected using a recently proposed mathematical model of an SPS apparatus, which, once suitably modified, makes it possible to carry out detailed electrical and thermal analysis. Next, SPS experiments are conducted using the ensemble configurations theoretically identified. Using aluminum powders as a case study, we find that the temporal profiles of sample shrinkage, which indicate densification behavior, as well as the final density of the sample are clearly different when the electric current flows only through the sample or through the die containing it, whereas the temperature cycle and mechanical load are the same in both cases.

  20. Thermal Mechanical Processing Effects on Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of the Sintered Ti-22Al-25Nb Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanxin; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhang, Dalin

    2016-03-11

    This work illustrates the effect of thermal mechanical processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti-22Al-25Nb alloy prepared by reactive sintering with element powders, consisting of O, B2 and Ti₃Al phases. Tensile and plane strain fracture toughness tests were carried out at room temperature to understand the mechanical behavior of the alloys and its correlation with the microstructural features characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the increased tensile strength (from 340 to 500 MPa) and elongation (from 3.6% to 4.2%) is due to the presence of lamellar O/B2 colony and needle-like O phase in B2 matrix in the as-processed Ti-22Al-25Nb alloys, as compared to the coarse lath O adjacent to B2 in the sintered alloys. Changes in morphologies of O phase improve the fracture toughness ( K IC ) of the sintered alloys from 7 to 15 MPa·m -1/2 . Additionally, the fracture mechanism shifts from cleavage fracture in the as-sintered alloys to quasi-cleavage fracture in the as-processed alloys.

  1. The Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Wood Plastic Composites by Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood-plastic composites (WPCs made by selective laser sintering (SLS approach of 3D printing offer many advantages over single polymer materials, such as low cost, sustainability, and better sintering accuracy. However, WPCs made via SLS are too weak to have widespread applications. In order to increase the mechanical properties of WPCs, a novel type of WPCs containing 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNT, 14 wt % wood fibers, 86 wt % polyether sulfone (PES was manufactured via SLS. The experimental results showed that the addition of small amount of CNTs can significantly increase the mechanical properties of the wood/PES composite material. The tensile strength, bending strength, and elasticity modulus were 76.3%, 227.9%, and 128.7% higher with 0.1 wt % CNTs than those without CNTs. The mechanical properties of specimens first increased and then decreased with the addition of CNTs. The SEM results of the specimens’ fracture morphology indicate that the preferable bonding interfaces between wood flour grains and PES grains were achieved by adding CNTs to the composites. There are two reasons why the composites possessed superior mechanical properties: CNTs facilitate the laser sintering process of WPCs due to their thermal conductivities, and CNTs directly reinforce WPCs.

  2. Micromagnetic simulation of the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujisaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the micromagnetic simulation study about the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets. A multigrain object with a large number of meshes is introduced to analyze such anisotropic grain boundaries and the simulation is performed by combining the finite element method and the parallel computing. When the grain boundary phase parallel to the c-plane is less ferromagnetic the process of the magnetization reversal changes and the coercivity of the multigrain object increases. The simulations with various magnetic properties of the grain boundary phases are executed to search for the way to enhance the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets.

  3. Phase evolution and dielectric properties of MgTi2O5 ceramic sintered with lithium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyunho; Shin, Hee-Kyun; Jung, Hyun Suk; Cho, Seo-Yong; Hong, Kug Sun

    2005-01-01

    Phase evolution, densification, and dielectric properties of MgTi 2 O 5 dielectric ceramic, sintered with lithium borosilicate (LBS) glass, were studied. Reaction between LBS glass and MgTi 2 O 5 was significant in forming secondary phases such as TiO 2 and (Mg,Ti) 2 (BO 3 )O. The glass addition was not necessarily deleterious to the dielectric properties due to the formation of TiO 2 : permittivity increased and temperature coefficient of resonance frequency could be tuned to zero with the addition of LBS glass, although the inevitable glass-induced decrease of quality factor was not retarded by the formation of TiO 2 . The sintered specimen with 10 wt% LBS fired at 950 deg. C for 2 h showed permittivity of 19.3, quality factor of 6800 GHz, and τ f of -16 ppm/ deg. C

  4. Shape distortion and thermo-mechanical properties of dense SOFC components from green tape to sintered body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Esposito, Vincenzo; Ni, De Wei

    . The characterization of thermo-mechanical properties, such as viscoelasticity, enables a prediction of microstructural stability of SOFCs. Tape-cast bi-layer structures for CGO/YSZ and CGO/ScYSZ was studied during the thermal processing. Different sintering kinetics of bi-layer tape give rise to localized tensile...... stresses, which develop a camber in the final sintered body. To analyze the phenomena, shrinkage of SOFC components single layers and camber development of bi-layers were measured in-situ by optical dilatometry. In addition, a thoughtful investigation of the viscoelastic properties of individual layers...... was carried out by thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA). The results from the different techniques were found complementary and viscous behavior of the layered ceramics was verified....

  5. Fabrication of 200 mm Diameter Sintering Body of Skutterudite Thermoelectric Material by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomida, T.; Sumiyoshi, A.; Nie, G.; Ochi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kikuchi, M.; Mukaiyama, K.; Guo, J. Q.

    2017-05-01

    Filled skutterudite is a promising material for thermoelectric power generation because its ZT value is relatively high. However, mass production of high-performance thermoelectric materials remains a challenge. This study focused on the sintering process of thermoelectric materials. Large-diameter n-type (Yb or La, Ca, Al, Ga, In)0.8(Co, Fe)4Sb12 skutterudite sintering bodies with a small thickness were successfully produced by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. When direct current flows through the thermoelectric sintering body during the SPS pulse, the Peltier effect causes a temperature difference within the sintering body. To eliminate the Peltier effect, an electrical insulating material was inserted between the punch (electrode) and the sintering body. In this way, an n-type La-filled skutterudite sample with a diameter of 200 mm, thickness of 21 mm, and weight of 5 kg was successfully produced. The thermoelectric properties and microstructures of the sample were almost the same throughout the whole sintering body, and the dimensionless figure of merit reached 1.0 at 773 K.

  6. Sintering, microstructure and properties of WC-AISI304 powder composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, B.J. [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, C.M., E-mail: cmfernandes@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); ISEC, Mechanical Department, Engineering Institute of Coimbra, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Senos, A.M.R. [Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Total replacement of Co binder by stainless steel AISI 304 in WC based composites. ► Processing conditions for WC–stainless steel composites. ► Mechanical behavior and oxidation resistance of WC–stainless steel composites. -- Abstract: Tungsten carbide–stainless steel (AISI 304) based composites were successfully prepared by powder metallurgy routes using vacuum sintering at a maximum temperature of 1500 °C. The effects of the binder amount (between 6 and 15 wt.%) on the phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties, namely hardness and fracture toughness, were investigated. Appreciable amount of (M,W){sub 6}C up to 12 wt.% was detected, especially for the higher SS contents. However, a good compromise between toughness and hardness was observed. Besides that, improved oxidation resistance was noticed in WC–SS based composites compared with WC–Co composites. The results are discussed having in mind the correlation between chemical composition, phase composition, microstructure and mechanical behavior.

  7. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content...

  8. Impact of sintering method on certain properties of titanium dioxide nanopowder materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porozova Svetlana E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanopowder samples consolidated by method of cold uniaxial compaction at 200 MPa and conventionally sintered in air at 1300°С with isothermal tempering during 60 minutes or spark-plasma sintering at 1300°С and 30 MPа were studied using the method of light combination scattering spectroscopy (Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The samples were found to differ significantly in terms of color, density, phase composition and microstructure.

  9. Effect of microstructure changes on magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered Nd-Fe-B powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the SPS method was applied for low RE content (8,5% at. and high RE content (13,5 % at. MQ powders. The powders were sintered in a wide range of temperature, for 5 min., under pressure of 35 MPa. The low RE content grade, densified reluctantly and gained the density close to the theoretical value only for 850 °C. The coercivity decreased gradually with increasing sintering temperature. On the other hand, the densification of the higher RE content grade powder occurred much easier and the coercivity, close to the theoretical value, was achieved already at 650 °C. The coercivity of this material also decreased with increasing sintering temperature. Microstructural studies revealed that the SPS sintering process leads to partial decomposition of the Nd2Fe14B phase. The proportion of the RE-rich and iron phases increases parallel to the increasing sintering temperature. On the basis of the current results one can conclude that fabrication of high density MQ powders based magnets by the SPS method is possible, however the powders having higher RE content should be used for this purpose and the sintering temperature as low as possible, related to density, should be kept.

  10. Fabrication, Structural Characterization and Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Novel Sintered Multi-Layer Wire Mesh Porous Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Liuyang; Zhou, Zhaoyao; Yao, Bibo

    2018-01-17

    There is an increasing interest in developing porous metals or metallic foams for functional and structural applications. The study of the physical and mechanical properties of porous metals is very important and helpful for their application. In this paper, a novel sintered multilayer wire mesh porous plate material (WMPPs) with a thickness of 0.5 mm-3 mm and a porosity of 10-35% was prepared by winding, pressing, rolling, and subsequently vacuum sintering them. The pore size and total size distribution in the as-prepared samples were investigated using the bubble point method. The uniaxial tensile behavior of the WMPPs was investigated in terms of the sintering temperature, porosity, wire diameter, and manufacturing technology. The deformation process and the failure mechanism under the tensile press was also discussed based on the appearance of the fractures (SEM figures). The results indicated that the pore size and total size distribution were closely related to the raw material used and the sintering temperature. For the WMPPs prepared by the wire mesh, the pore structures were inerratic and the vast majority of pore size was less than 10 μm. On the other hand, for the WMPPs that were prepared by wire mesh and powder, the pore structures were irregular and the pore size ranged from 0 μm-50 μm. The experimental data showed that the tensile strength of WMPPs is much higher than any other porous metals or metallic foams. Higher sintering temperatures led to coarser joints between wires and resulted in higher tensile strength. The sintering temperature decreased from 1330 °C to 1130 °C and the tensile strength decreased from 296 MPa to 164 MPa. Lower porosity means that there are more metallurgical joints and metallic frameworks resisting deformation per unit volume. Therefore, lower porosities exhibit higher tensile strength. An increase of porosity from 17.14% to 32.5% led to the decrease of the tensile strength by 90 MPa. The coarser wires led to a bigger

  11. Fabrication, Structural Characterization and Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Novel Sintered Multi-Layer Wire Mesh Porous Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in developing porous metals or metallic foams for functional and structural applications. The study of the physical and mechanical properties of porous metals is very important and helpful for their application. In this paper, a novel sintered multilayer wire mesh porous plate material (WMPPs with a thickness of 0.5 mm–3 mm and a porosity of 10–35% was prepared by winding, pressing, rolling, and subsequently vacuum sintering them. The pore size and total size distribution in the as-prepared samples were investigated using the bubble point method. The uniaxial tensile behavior of the WMPPs was investigated in terms of the sintering temperature, porosity, wire diameter, and manufacturing technology. The deformation process and the failure mechanism under the tensile press was also discussed based on the appearance of the fractures (SEM figures. The results indicated that the pore size and total size distribution were closely related to the raw material used and the sintering temperature. For the WMPPs prepared by the wire mesh, the pore structures were inerratic and the vast majority of pore size was less than 10 μm. On the other hand, for the WMPPs that were prepared by wire mesh and powder, the pore structures were irregular and the pore size ranged from 0 μm–50 μm. The experimental data showed that the tensile strength of WMPPs is much higher than any other porous metals or metallic foams. Higher sintering temperatures led to coarser joints between wires and resulted in higher tensile strength. The sintering temperature decreased from 1330 °C to 1130 °C and the tensile strength decreased from 296 MPa to 164 MPa. Lower porosity means that there are more metallurgical joints and metallic frameworks resisting deformation per unit volume. Therefore, lower porosities exhibit higher tensile strength. An increase of porosity from 17.14% to 32.5% led to the decrease of the tensile strength by 90 MPa. The

  12. Mechanical properties' improvement of a tricalcium phosphate scaffold with poly-l-lactic acid in selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Defu; Zhuang, Jingyu; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2013-01-01

    To improve the mechanical properties of a scaffold fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS), a small amount (0.5–3 wt%) of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) is added to the β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder. The fracture toughness of the scaffold prepared with the mixture powder containing 1 wt% PLLA increases by 18.18% and the compressive strength increases by 4.45% compared to the scaffold prepared from the β-TCP powder. The strengthening and toughening is related to the enhancement of β-TCP sintering characteristics via introducing a transient liquid phase in SLS. Moreover, the microcracks caused by the volume expansion due to the β–α phase transformation of TCP are reduced because of the PLLA inhibition function on the phase transformation. However, PLLA additive above 1 wt% would lead to a PLLA residue which will decrease the mechanical properties. The experimental results show that PLLA is an effective sintering aid to improve the mechanical properties of a TCP scaffold. (paper)

  13. Phenomenological theory of sintering and its application to swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornyushin Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The general phenomenological theory of sintering, formulated by the author in 1998 is applied to the problem of swelling. Driving forces, caused by the presence of the evolution of heat in the volume of a sample (electric contact, hf, inductive heating or penetrating radiation, e.g., neutrons could be the sources of the heat in the bulk of a sample are considered. The influence of these driving forces on sintering, structure and properties is discussed. The role of mobile and immobile dislocations, grain boundaries, and pores is considered. Cycling and pulsing regimes of sintering are investigated.

  14. Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-TiC Metal Matrix Composite Prepared by Conventional, Microwave and Spark Plasma Sintering Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghasali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the mechanical properties and microstructure of Al-15 wt % TiC composite samples prepared by spark plasma, microwave, and conventional sintering were investigated. The sintering process was performed by the speak plasma sintering (SPS technique, microwave and conventional furnaces at 400 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C, respectively. The results showed that sintered samples by SPS have the highest relative density (99% of theoretical density, bending strength (291 ± 12 MPa, and hardness (253 ± 23 HV. The X-ray diffraction (XRD investigations showed the formation of TiO2 from the surface layer decomposition of TiC particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs demonstrated uniform distribution of reinforcement particles in all sintered samples. The SEM/EDS analysis revealed the formation of TiO2 around the porous TiC particles.

  15. Fabrication, characterization, and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Al–BN nanoparticle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestein, Konstantin L., E-mail: kosty@firestein.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Steinman, Alexander E.; Golovin, Igor S. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Cifre, Joan [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Ctra. de Valldemossa, km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Matveev, Andrei T.; Kovalskii, Andrey M. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Lebedev, Oleg I. [CRISMAT, UMR 6508, CNRS-ENSICAEN, 6Bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Shtansky, Dmitry V., E-mail: shtansky@shs.misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Golberg, Dmitri, E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp [World Premier International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA) National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050044 (Japan)

    2015-08-26

    Fabrication of high strength yet light and low cost composite materials with good mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures is a challenge that metallurgy and materials science communities are facing for many years, and no “dream material” has been developed so far. The primary goal of this study was to fabricate, characterize, and to carry out tensile tests on Al-based composite materials strengthened with commercially-available BN nanoparticles (BNNPs). The composites were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The structures of powder mixtures and composite materials, as well as their fracture surfaces, were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of BNNPs content (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, and 7.5 wt%) and holding times (5, 60, and 300 min) at 600 °C during SPS on the tensile strength was investigated. A maximum increase in strength was observed for Al-based composites with 4.5 wt% of BNNPs. The sample demonstrated a 50% increase in tensile strength compared with pristine Al. Although the tensile tests performed at 300 °C revealed that the tensile strength became 20% lower than the strength at room temperature, it was, however, still 75% higher compared with that of the pure Al at 300 °C. In addition, at 300 °C the Al–BNNPs composites demonstrated a much higher value of yield stress, about 115 MPa, which is 190% higher than that of pure Al at the same temperature. The damping properties of Al–BNNPs composites were evaluated by temperature dependent internal friction (TDIF) measurements. The obtained results are discussed based on structural analysis and the TDIF data.

  16. Special metallurgy - the electrical butt-welding by flashing of sintered magnesium-magnesium oxide composites (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleux, J.

    1963-01-01

    Electrical resistance welding has become quite important since World War II because of the need of a high yield in aeronautical production. Progress has been due in particular to the improvements made in electronically controlled apparatus making possible the automatic control of welding. For the butt-welding of sections requiring either a high production rate or a high quality weld, the flash butt-welding system has been very much developed these last few years. The use of this welding method is of great importance in the field of the bonding of oxidisable metals such as magnesium or aluminium and its alloys, because the welded joint is free from oxides. This study consists of general considerations on the flash-welding process with regard to temperature distribution in the parts during welding, and to electrical phenomena connected with flashing. Besides this general or theoretical section, we have applied the welding process to the bonding of sintered magnesium, a magnesium-magnesium oxide composite, whose use as a structural element in nuclear reactors is considered. (author) [fr

  17. Morphological analysis and modelling of sintering and of sintered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernot, Jean-Paul

    1982-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of solid phase sintering of metallic powders, and aims at describing as precisely as possible the different involved matter transport mechanisms, first by using a thermodynamic approach to sintering. Sintering diagrams are also used to determine prevailing mechanisms. The microstructure of sintered materials has been studied by using image quantitative analysis, thus by using a morphological approach to sintering. Morphological parameters allow, on the one hand, the evolution of powders during sintering to be followed, and, on the other hand, sintered products to be correctly characterised. Moreover, the author reports the study of the evolution of some physical properties of sintered materials with respect to their microstructure parameters. This leads to the development of a modelling of the behaviour of these materials [fr

  18. Structural and electrical properties of microwave processed Ag modified KNN-LS ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palei, Prakash; Kumar, Pawan; Agrawal, Dinesh K

    2012-01-01

    Microwave processing steps of 0.95[(K0.5Na0.5)0.94Ag0.06NbO3]-0.05[LiSbO3]/(KNAN-LS) lead free ferroelectric ceramics were optimized for better densification and electrical properties. Calcination temperature and time for single perovskite phase formation were optimized and found to be 850 degrees C for 60 min., respectively. Crystal structural study revealed the presence of mixed structure in the microwave processed (MWP) KNAN-LS ceramics. The sintering of the KNAN-LS ceramics was carried out at 1080 degrees C for 10 min, 20 min and 30 min, respectively, and the sample sintered for 20 min exhibited best properties.

  19. Investigation on microstructural and mechanical properties of B4C–aluminum matrix composites prepared by microwave sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghasali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available B4C reinforced aluminum composites were fabricated by microwave heating of the mixture of B4C (10, 15 and 20 wt% and aluminum powders at 650, 750, 850 and 950 °C. The effect of different amounts of B4C on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum matrix was examined. The maximum bending (238 ± 10 MPa and compressive strength (330 ± 10 MPa values were measured for composites sintered at 950 and 750 °C, respectively. The maximum hardness (112 Vickers was measured for Al–20 wt% B4C composite sintered at 850 °C. XRD investigations showed the decomposition of boron carbide and also the formation of Al3BC by heating the composites at 850 °C. SEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of reinforcement particles in Al matrix.

  20. Manufacturing of Porous Polycaprolactone Prepared with Different Particle Sizes and Infrared Laser Sintering Conditions: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Salmoria

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of Rapid Prototyping, also known as Additive Manufacturing, have prompted research into methods of manufacturing polymeric materials with controlled porosity. This paper presents the characterization of the structure and mechanical properties of porous polycaprolactone (PCL fabricated by Selective Laser Sintering (SLS using two different particle sizes and laser processing conditions. The results of this study indicated that it is possible to control the microstructure, that is, pore size and degree of porosity, of the polycaprolactone matrix using the SLS technique, by varying the particle size and laser energy density, obtaining materials suitable for different applications, scaffolds and drug delivery and fluid mechanical devices. The specimens manufactured with smaller particles and higher laser energy density showed a higher degree of sintering, flexural modulus, and fatigue resistance when compared with the other specimens.

  1. Influence of Bi2O3 on microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO-SnO2 ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Ivetić T.; Nikolić M.V.; Slankamenac M.; Živanov M.; Minić D.; Nikolić P.M.; Ristić M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of small amounts (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mol. %) of bismuth oxide on the microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO-SnO2 ceramics have been studied. Starting powders of ZnO and SnO2 were mixed in the molar ratio 2:1. After adding Bi2O3 this mixture was mechanically activated for 10 minutes in a planetary ball mill, uniaxially pressed and sintered at 1300ºC for 2h. The phase composition of the sintered samples was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and by Energy Dispersive Spectrom...

  2. Effect of post-sintering treatment on properties of Bi-based high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masayuki; Kozuka, Akira; Morishita, Ken; Nishino, Tadashi; Hattori, Takeo; Takata, Masasuke

    1989-01-01

    A new method to obtain the pure 110K phase in the system Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O was examined employing post-sintering treatment. The mixture of Bi 2 O 3 , SrCO 3 , CaCO 3 and CuO with the basic composition of Bi/Sr/Ca/Cu=2/2/1/2 was calcined. The resulting powder was soaked in ethanol containing copper acetate and calcium acetate, the amounts of which were determined to give the composition of Bi/Sr/Ca/Cu=2/2/2/3 after sintering. The resistivity was measured by the d.c. four probe method in a cryostat. The current level was maintained at 50 mA and the voltage drop was determined by averaging the values in the forward and reverse directions. The zero T c ranged from 65 to 69K for the samples after sintering, while that ranged from 69 to 71K for those with post-sintering treatment. The effect of the treatment was not drastic but significant. Modified post-sintering treatment is being examined and the results are reported in the symposium

  3. Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffolds by laser sintering: Mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fwu-Hsing, E-mail: fhliu@mail.lhu.edu.tw

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffold obtained by selective laser sintering. - Highlights: • A layer additive manufacturing technique for fabricating the bio-composites scaffolds is developed. • The slurry state biomaterials are solidified via a laser beam in a self-developed apparatus. • The osteoblast-like cells can be cultured on the scaffold. • This technology has potential for fabricating the bone scaffolds in tissue engineering. - Abstract: In this study, biomedical composite materials were employed to fabricate bone scaffolds using a self-developed rapid prototyping (RP) apparatus. The slurry formed by combining hydroxyapatite (HA), silica sol, and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) was heated by a CO{sub 2} laser. Under appropriate processing parameters, a biocomposite green body was subsequently fabricated. Its mechanical properties, including surface roughness, bending and compression strengths, volume shrinkage rate, and surface microstructure, were analyzed after heat treatment to 1200 °C, 1300 °C, and 1400 °C. The results showed that after heating the specimen to 1200 °C, its compression and bending strengths increased significantly to 43.26 MPa and 1.28 MPa, respectively; the surface roughness was 12 μm; and surface pores were of size 5–25 μm. Furthermore, the results of WST-1 and LDH assay indicate that the biocomposites showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3 fibroblast. An optical density (OD) of 1.1 was also achieved, and the specimen was suitable for the adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells (MG63). Therefore, the biocomposite bone scaffolds fabricated in this study have potential to be bone implants for developing hard tissue.

  4. Effects of Dy and Nb on the magnetic properties and corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.Q.; Wen, Y.H.; Yan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dy and Nb were added into the sintered NdFeB magnets with the aim of improving their magnetic properties and corrosion resistance. It was found that intrinsic coercivity of magnets is promoted whilst remanence is reduced as a result of Dy addition. Simultaneous addition of Dy and Nb not only gives rise to greatly improved coercivity, but also suppresses the undesirable effect of Dy on the remanence. The optimum magnetic properties were achieved when 1.0% Dy and 1.5% Nb were incorporated. Moreover, corrosion resistance of NdFeB magnets improves with the increase in the content of Dy and Nb

  5. Scanning pattern angle effect on the resulting properties of selective laser sintered monolayers of Cu-Sn-Ni powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelle, Matías; Walczak, Magdalena; Ramos-Grez, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Laser-based layer manufacturing of metals, also known as additive manufacturing, is a growing research field of academic and industrial interest. However, in the associated laser-driven processes (i.e. selective laser sintering (SLS) or melting (SLM)), optimization of some parameters has not been fully explored. This research aims at determining how the angle of laser scanning pattern (i.e. build orientation) in SLS affects the mechanical properties and structure of an individual Cu-Sn-Ni alloy metallic layer sintered in the process. Experiments consist in varying the angle of the scanning pattern (0°, 30°, 45° 60° and 90° relative to the transverse dimension of the piece), at constant scanning speed and laser beam power, producing specimens of different thicknesses. A noticeable effect of the scan angle on the mechanical strength and degree of densification of the sintered specimens is found. Thickness of the resulting monolayer correlates negatively with increasing scan angle, whereas relative density correlates positively. A minimum porosity and maximum UTS are found at the angle of 60°. It is concluded that angle of the scanning pattern angle plays a significant role in SLS of metallic monolayers.

  6. Sinter recrystalization and properties evaluation of glass-ceramic from waste glass bottle and magnesite for extended application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    As'mau Ibrahim Gebi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a bid to address environmental challenges associated with the management of waste Coca cola glass bottle, this study set out to develop glass ceramic materials using waste coca cola glass bottles and magnesite from Sakatsimta in Adamawa state. A reagent grade chrome (coloring agent were used to modify the composition of the coca cola glass bottle;  X-ray fluorescence(XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA were used to characterize raw materials, four batches GC-1= Coca cola glass frit +1%Cr2O3, GC-2=97% Coca cola glass frit+ 2% magnesite+1%Cr2O3, GC-3=95% Coca cola glass frit+ 4%magnesite+1%Cr2O3, GC-4=93%Coca cola glass frit+ 6%magnesite+ 1%Cr2O3 were formulated and prepared. Thermal Gradient Analysis (TGA results were used as a guide in selection of three temperatures (7000C, 7500C and 8000C used for the study, three particle sizes -106+75, -75+53, -53µm and 2 hr sintering time were also used, the sinter crystallization route of glass ceramic production was adopted. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, the density, porosity, hardness and flexural strength of the resulting glass ceramics were also measured. The resulting glass ceramic materials composed mainly of wollastonite, diopside and anorthite phases depending on composition as indicated by XRD and SEM, the density of the samples increased with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size. The porosity is minimal and it decreases with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size. The obtained glass ceramic materials possess appreciable hardness and flexural strength with GC-3 and GC-4 having the best combination of both properties.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCoCrAlYTa alloy processed by press and sintering route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.C., E-mail: jpereira@uc.edu.ve [Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de vera s/n, Valencia, España (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones en Mecánica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Zambrano, J.C. [Centro de Investigaciones en Mecánica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Afonso, C.R.M. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Amigó, V. [Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de vera s/n, Valencia, España (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Nickel-based superalloys such as NiCoCrAlY are widely used in high-temperature applications, such as gas turbine components in the energy and aerospace industries, due to their strength, high elastic modulus, and high-temperature oxidation resistance. However, the processing of these alloys is complex and costly, and the alloys are currently used as a bond coat in thermal barrier coatings. In this work, the effect of cold press and sintering processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCoCrAlY alloy were studied using the powder metallurgy route as a new way to obtain NiCoCrAlYTa samples from a gas atomized prealloyed powder feedstock. High mechanical strength and adequate densification up to 98% were achieved. The most suitable compaction pressure and sintering temperature were determined for NiCoCrAlYTa alloy through microstructure characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis (EDS) were performed to confirm the expected γ-Ni matrix and β-NiAl phase distribution. Additionally, the results demonstrated the unexpected presence of carbides and Ni–Y-rich zones in the microstructure due to the powder metallurgy processing parameters used. Thus, microhardness, nanoindentation and uniaxial compression tests were conducted to correlate the microstructure of the alloy samples with their mechanical properties under the different studied conditions. The results show that the compaction pressure did not significantly affect the mechanical properties of the alloy samples. In this work, the compaction pressures of 400, 700 and 1000 MPa were used. The sintering temperature of 1200 °C for NiCoCrAlYTa alloy was preferred; above this temperature, the improvement in mechanical properties is not significant due to grain coarsening, whereas a lower temperature produces a decrease in mechanical properties due to high porosity and

  8. Shape distortion and thermo-mechanical properties of SOFC components from green tape to sintering body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Ni, De Wei; Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye

    to the strain rate difference between materials, was calculated using Cai’s model. Camber (curvature) development for in situ co-firing of a bi-layer ceramic green tape has been investigated. Analysis of shape evolution from green to sintered body can be carried out by the thermo-mechanical analysis techniques....

  9. Influence of spark plasma sintering and baghdadite powder on mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khandan, A.; Karamian, E.; Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, M.; Mirmohammadi, H.; Farzadi, A.; Ozada, N.; Heidarshenas, B.; Zamani, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since hydroxyapatite-based materials have similar composition and crystallinity as natural calcified tissues, can be used for bone/tissue engineering. In the present study a novel nanocomposite based on bioceramics such as Natural Hydroxyapatite (NHA) and Baghdadite (BAG), was sintered by spark

  10. Effect of Bottom Ash and Fly Ash as a Susceptor Material on The Properties of Aluminium Based Composites Prepared by Microwave Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Muhammad Wan Nur Azrina Binti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aluminium as a single material in automotive applications is not suitable without a mixture with reinforcement materials that can support the properties at high temperature. In this study, aluminium based composite were prepared with weight percentage of SiC reinforcement, varying from 5 to 20 wt%. Aluminium powder and reinforcement materials were mixed using ball milling machine with speed of 100 rpm for 2 hours. The powder mixture were then compressed at pressure 4 tonnes with 5 minutes holding time. The compact samples were sintered using microwave sintering technique. Microwave sintering techniques in this study using two different types of susceptor materials that are bottom ash and fly ash. Sintered aluminium based composites using bottom ash susceptor material involving the sintering temperature of 526 °C for 30 minutes whereas for the samples sintered using fly ash susceptor material, involving a temperature of 523 °C for 15 minutes. From the result, the sintered samples using fly ash susceptor material, showed higher density with a value of 2.1933 g/cm3 compared to bottom ash 2.0002 g/cm3 and having the higher hardness value 72.1315 HV compared to bottom ash 50.0511HV. The using of fly ash could affect the heating rate during the sintering process which could influence the properties of aluminium based composites. In conclusion, the type of susceptor could affect the physical and mechanical properties of aluminum-based composite reinforced with silicon carbide.

  11. The low magnetic field properties of superconducting bulk yttrium barium copper oxide - Sintered versus partially melted material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, R. A.; Hojaji, H.; Barkatt, A.; Shafii, H.; Michael, K. A.; Thorpe, A. N.; Ware, M. F.; Alterescu, S.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of the low magnetic field properties of sintered (990 C) and partially melted samples (1050 C) has been performed. Changes in the microstructure produced by recrystallization from the melt result in a significant increase in flux pinning at 77 K. Low-frequency (10-100 Hz), low-ac magnetic-field (0.01-9.0 Oe) ac susceptibility data show that gross changes in the loss component accompany the observed changes in microstructure. The effects of applied dc magnetic fields (10-220 Oe) on the ac responses of these microstructures have also been probed.

  12. Sinterable powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanghi, J.S.; Kasprzyk, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of sinterable powders and methods of producing sintered products using such powders. The powders consist of (a) a particulate ceramic material, e.g. SiC, having specified particle size and surface area; (b) a carbon source material, e.g. sugar or a phenol-formaldehyde resin; and (c) a residue from a solution of H 3 BO 3 , B 2 O 3 , or mixtures of these as sintering aid. (U.K.)

  13. DC electrical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of various condensation polyimides containing surface cobalt oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Boggess, R. K.; Horning, L. S.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Doping polyimides with cobalt ion causes the room temperature direct current electrical resistivity to decrease relative to the polymer alone, the reduction being most pronounced for the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides. At a constant electrical field, resistivity for the volume, air-side and glass-side modes decreases yet further with an increase in temperature as expected for semiconductors and insulators. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides is predominantly Co3O4. The bulk resistivity of the air-side and activation energy of conduction for this surface are comparable to high purity sintered Co3O4. Charging characteristics at room temperature indicate a substantial polymer matrix contribution to both the glass-side and volume mode measurements but a negligible contribution to the air-side electrical properties. Volume electrical resistivity for similar additive levels is reduced by increasing the molecular flexibility of the host polymer.

  14. Magnetic properties and sintering characteristics of NiZn(Ag, Cu) ferrite for LTCC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.H. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.H. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Diamond Tools, Shinhan Diamond Industrial Company, Incheon 405-100 (Korea, Republic of); Choa, Y.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 425-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jina@hanyang.ac.kr

    2005-04-15

    For applying low-temperature co-fired ceramics technology to ferrite with Ag electrode, Ni{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.3} ferrite nanopowders with AgO contents of 0, 0.1 and 1 wt% were synthesized using metal nitrates. Thick films fabricated by a doctor blade method were sintered for 72 h at different temperatures (925, 900, 875, 850 deg. C). As a result, the saturation magnetization, coercivity and permeability of Ni{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.3} ferrite with AgO contents of 0.1 wt% at a sintering temperature of 875 deg. C were 4.05 kG, 4 Oe and 521, respectively, which were close to those of bulk NiZn ferrite.

  15. Large batch recycling of waste Nd–Fe–B magnets to manufacture sintered magnets with improved magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.T.; Yue, M.; Liu, W.Q.; Li, X.L.; Yi, X.F.; Huang, X.L.; Zhang, D.T.; Chen, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The waste Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets up to 500 kg per batch were recycled to manufacture anisotropic sintered magnets by combination of hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and alloying technique. Magnetic properties and thermal stability of both the waste magnets and recycled magnets were investigated. The recycled magnet exhibits magnetic properties with remanence (B r ) of 12.38 kGs, coercivity (H ci ) of 24.89 kOe, and maximum energy product [(BH) max ] of 36.51 MGOe, respectively, which restores 99.20% of B r , 105.65% of H ci , and 98.65% of (BH) max of the waste magnets, respectively. The volume fraction of Nd-rich phase in the recycled magnets is about 10.1 vol.%, which is bigger than that of the waste magnets due to the additive of Nd 3 PrFe 14 B alloy containing more rare earth. The remanence temperature coefficient (α) and coercivity temperature coefficient (β) of the recycled magnets are −0.1155%/K and −0.5099%/K in the range of 288–423 K, respectively, which are comparative to those of the waste magnets. - Highlights: • Large batch recycling of waste Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets were performed. • The recycled magnet restores 99.20% of B r , 105.65% of H ci and 98.65% of (BH) max of the magnet. • The recycled magnets bears bigger volume fraction and better distribution of Nd-rich phase. • The recycled magnets exhibit similar temperature coefficients and maximum working temperature

  16. Sintering behavior and property of bioglass modified HA-Al2O3 composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioglass modified HA-Al2O3 composites were successfully fabricated by mixing HA, synthesized by wet chemical method between precursor materials H3PO4 and Ca(OH2, with 25wt% Al2O3 and different content of bioglass (5%, 25%, 45%, 65wt% respectively, with a mole fraction of 53.9%SiO2, 22.6%Na2O, 21.8%CaO, and 1.7wt%P2O5, sintered in air at various temperatures (750-950°C for 2h. when the content of bioglass is below 45wt% in the composite, HA decomposes completely and transforms to β-TCP. The main phase in this case are β-TCP, Al2O3 and Ca3(AlO32.When the content of bioglass is above 45wt% in the composite, the decomposition of HA to β-TCP is suppressed and the main phases in this case are Al2O3 and HA, DCP□CaHPO4□ and β-TCP, which almost have the same chemical composition, forming ternary-glass phase, and have better bioactive than pure HA. It can also be found that at the certain addition of bioglass, the higher sintered temperature, the bigger volume density and flexural strength of the composite are, but when the sintered temperature reaches 950°C, they decrease. This modified HA-Al2O3 composites by calcium silicate glass have a much lower sintering temperature and decrease the production cost much.

  17. Spark Plasma Sintering of a Gas Atomized Al7075 Alloy: Microstructure and Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnárová, O.; Málek, P.; Lukáč, František; Chráska, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2016), č. článku 1004. ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15609S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : gas atomized Al7075 alloy * spark plasma sintering * microstructure * microhardness * high temperature stability Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/12/1004

  18. Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Kirana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals content as well as magnetic and electrical properties of leachate from Sarimukti, West Java were studied in an attempt to seek correlation between heavy metals content and magnetic/electrical properties. Such correlation is expected to open the way for the use of magnetic/electrical properties as proxy indicators for the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate. The number of leachate samples studied is 21; 15 were taken spatially at depth of 1 m while the remaining 6 samples were taken vertically at a particular point. Measurement results showed that the heavy metals content in the leachate has a smaller concentration, except for Fe. The correlation between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals content was found to be not so significant. The best correlation coefficient between magnetic susceptibility with heavy metals in leachate was found in Zn. Correlation between electrical conductivity and heavy metal is also not so significant, except for Zn and Cd. The use of magnetic properties as proxy indicator for heavy metals content in leachate is plausible provided that the magnetic susceptibility exceeds certain threshold value. Correlation between magnetic susceptibility, electrical conductivity and heavy metal content would be good if each quantity has a large value.

  19. Effect of sintering temperature on physical, structural and optical properties of wollastonite based glass-ceramic derived from waste soda lime silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Amer Almasri

    Full Text Available The impact of different sintering temperatures on physical, optical and structural properties of wollastonite (CaSiO3 based glass-ceramics were investigated for its potential application as a building material. Wollastonite based glass-ceramics was provided by a conventional melt-quenching method and followed by a controlled sintering process. In this work, soda lime silica glass waste was utilized as a source of silicon. The chemical composition and physical properties of glass were characterized by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF and Archimedes principle. The Archimedes measurement results show that the density increased with the increasing of sintering temperature. The generation of CaSiO3, morphology, size and crystal phase with increasing the heat-treatment temperature were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transforms infrared reflection spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The average calculated crystal size gained from XRD was found to be in the range 60 nm. The FESEM results show a uniform distribution of particles and the morphology of the wollastonite crystal is in relict shapes. The appearance of CaO, SiO2, and Ca-O-Si bands disclosed from FTIR which showed the formation of CaSiO3 crystal phase. In addition to the calculation of the energy band gap which found to be increased with increasing sintering temperature. Keywords: Soda lime silica glass, Wollastonite, Sintering, Structural properties, Optical properties

  20. Improved magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of Pr-Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by Hf addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingzheng; Lei, Weikai; Zeng, Qingwen; Quan, Qichen; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Renhui; Hu, Xianjun; He, Lunke; Qi, Zhiqi; Ju, Zhihua; Zhong, Minglong; Ma, Shengcan; Zhong, Zhenchen

    2018-05-01

    Nd2Fe14B-type permanent magnets have been widely applied in various fields such as wind power, voice coil motors, and medical instruments. The large temperature dependence of coercivity, however, limits their further applications. We have systematically investigated the magnetic properties, thermal stabilities and coercivity mechanisms of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx (x=0, 0.5) nanocrystalline magnets fabricated by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The results indicate that the influence of Hf addition is significant on magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of the (PrNd)2Fe14B-type sintered magnets. It is shown that the sample with x = 0.5 at 300 K has much higher coercivity and remanent magnetization than those counterparts without Hf. The temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets are improved significantly from -0.23 %/K, -0.57 %/K for the sample at x = 0 to -0.17 %/K, -0.49 %/K for the sample at x = 0.5 in the temperature range of 300-400 K. Furthermore, it is found out that the domain wall pinning mechanism is more likely responsible for enhancing the coercivity of the (Pr0.2Nd0.8)13Fe81-xB6Hfx magnets.

  1. Influence of Grain Growth Inhibitors and Powder Size on the Properties of Ultrafine and Nanostructured Cemented Carbides Sintered in Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aleksandrov Fabijanić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of grain growth inhibitors and powder size on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ultrafine and nanostructured cemented carbides was researched. Three different WC powders, with an addition of different type and content of grain growth inhibitors GGIs, VC and Cr3C2 and with dBET grain sizes in the range from 95 to 150 nm were selected as starting powders. Four different mixtures with 6 and 9 wt. % Co were prepared. The consolidated samples are characterized by different microstructural and mechanical properties with respect to the characteristics of starting powders. Increased sintering temperatures led to microstructural irregularities in the form of a discontinuous WC growth, carbide agglomerates and abnormal grain growth as a consequence of coalescence via grain boundary elimination. The addition of 0.45% Cr3C2 contributed to microstructure homogeneity, reduced discontinuous and continuous grain growth, and increased Vickers hardness by approximately 70 HV and fracture toughness by approximately 0.15 MN/m3/2. The reduction of the starting powder to a real nanosize of 95 nm resulted in lower densities, and significant hardness increase, with a simultaneously small increase in fracture toughness. The consolidation of real nanopowders (dBET < 100 nm solely by conventional sintering in hydrogen without isostatic pressing is not preferred.

  2. A comparison study on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of gelcast vs conventionally formed B4C sintered conventionally and by microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menchhofer, P.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Morrow, M.S.; Schechter, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The utilization of microwave energy for reaching high temperatures necessary to densify B 4 C powder is compared with conventional means of sintering by evaluating the mechanical properties after densification. Microwave energy has been shown to be an effective means for achieving high sintered densities, even though temperatures of ∼ 2,250 C are required. In this study, green preforms of B 4 C specimens were sintered by both conventional and microwave heating. This study also utilized an advanced forming method called ''Gelcasting'' developed at ORNL. Gelcasting is a fluid forming process whereby high solids suspensions of powders containing dissolved monomers are cast into a mold, then polymerized or ''gelled'' in situ. This investigation compares microstructures and mechanical properties of both Gelcast B 4 C and ''conventionally'' die-pressed B 4 C. The microstructures and final mechanical properties of B 4 C specimens are discussed

  3. Effect of the sintering method on microstructure and thermal and mechanical properties of zirconium oxophosphate ceramics Zr2O(PO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregiroux, Damien; Cedelle, Julie; Ranc, Isabelle; Barreteau, Céline; Mata Osoro, Gustavo; Wallez, Gilles

    2017-12-01

    Due to an ultra-low thermal expansion, Zr2O(PO4)2 could find many applications as a thermal shock resistant material. To this end, ceramic processing is a key step in order to reach best properties. In this work, Zr2O(PO4)2 was sintered by conventional sintering and by the spark plasma sintering technique (SPS) with and without additive. Samples made by conventional sintering with ZnO as sintering aid have a maximum relative density of around 92%. Microstructure is composed of large grains and microcracks can be observed. When doped with 5 wt. % of MgO, samples can be densified by SPS up to 99.6% of the relative density and the grain size maintained between 0.5 and 1.5 μm. Thermal conductivity and Vickers microhardness were investigated as a function of the microstructure. Best values were obtained for the ceramic doped with 5 wt.% MgO and sintered by SPS, thanks to a fine microstructure and a small amount of residual microcracks.

  4. The effect of CNT content and sintering temperature on some properties of CNT-reinforced MgAl composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islak Serkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium and its alloys are considered as an important material for modern light structures at the present time and therefore they have a wide area of usage especially in electronics, aircraft, and automotive industries. Its popularity increases further as a result of its production as a composite material. In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT reinforced MgAl matrix composite materials were produced by using the hot pressing method. While 0.25 wt%, 0.50 wt%, 0.75 wt%, and 1.00 wt% CNT were added, 450°C, 500°C, and 550°C was selected as sintering temperatures. The effect of sintering temperature and amount of CNT on some properties of the composites was examined. Microstructure and phase composition of the materials were examined by using optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The hardness of the composites was measured in Brinell. Relative densities of the materials were determined in accordance with Archimedes’ principle. A dense and slightly porous structure was obtained based on both SEM images and density measurements. XRD analyses showed that there were Mg, Mg17Al12, and MgO phases in the composites. The reason for the absence of Al in graphics was that Al formed the solid solution by being dissolved in Mg. Also, the C peak could not be determined for CNT. The hardness of the composites increased with the increasing sintering temperature and CNT addition. The highest hardness value was measured as 88.45 HB10 with the addition of 1.00 wt% CNT at 550°C. Free distribution of CNT in the matrix caused this hardness increase.

  5. Preparation and piezoelectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with pressure-less sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hongliang; Li Zhimin; Tang Fusheng; Qu Shaobo; Pei Zhibin; Zhou Wancheng

    2006-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics (K 0.5 Na 0.5 )NbO 3 (abbreviated as KNN) with the relative density of 97.6% have been synthesized by press-less sintering owing to the careful control of processing conditions. The phase structure of KNN ceramics with different sintering temperature and heating rate was analyzed. Results show that the pure perovskite phase with orthorhombic symmetry is in all ceramics specimens. The effect of heating rate and sintering temperature on microstructure and piezoelectric properties of KNN ceramics was investigated. The densification behavior and piezoelectric properties of KNN ceramics were enhanced by improving heating rate and sintering temperature. Pure KNN ceramics sintered at 1120 deg. C with heating rate of 5 deg. C/min showed optimized densification and piezoelectric properties (ρ = 4.4 g/cm 3 , d 33 = 120 pC/N -1 , k p = 0.40 and T c = 400 deg. C). The results show that KNN is a promising candidate for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

  6. Study of the sintering properties of U3O8 by dilatometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogaca Filho, N.; Gentile, E.F.; Santos, T.D.S.; Haydt, H.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two powders from different sources and with widely differing characteristics were selected for the test blocks. The characteristics of the powders and conditions of pressing were taken as parameters for comparison. The main variables affecting the kinetics of the process were then studied by dilatometry. Factors such as rate of heating, maximum temperature attained and is othermal shrimkage were studied. Examination of the structure of the sintered blocks by optical microscopy was used as an auxiliary technique. The results obtained are discussed and the conclusions drawn from them are given [pt

  7. Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Diboride–Titanium Diboride Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramic Solid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthiselva N. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs such as diborides of zirconium, hafnium tantalum and their composites are considered to be the candidate materials for thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicles due to their exceptional combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. A composite of ZrB2-TiB2 is expected to have better properties. In this study, an attempt has been made to fabricate ZrB2-TiB2 ceramics using mechanically activated elemental powders followed by reactive spark plasma sintering (RSPS at 1400 °C. Microstructure and phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and electron microscopy to understand microstructure evolution. Fracture toughness and hardness were evaluated using indentation methods. Nanoindentation was used to measure elastic modulus. Compressive strength of the composites has been reported.

  8. Properties of sintered Al2O3-Cr composites depending on the method of preparation of the powder mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous progress in modern science and industry depends on the availability of new effective devices and materials. New generation materials should be characterized by a specified combination of properties which sometimes exclude one another. Al2O3-Cr composites belong to this group of materials. This study is concerned with the effect of the method of preparation of the starting powders upon the properties of sintered Al2O3-Cr composites. The composites were produced using powder mixtures with various volumetric shares of the starting powders (from 25 to 75vol.%. The mixtures were prepared by conventional mechanical mixing in a ball-mill or by mechanical alloying in a high-energy mill of the attritor type. It has been found that with mechanically alloyed powders the Al2O3-Cr composites have better bending strength, hardness and frictional wear resistance.

  9. Preparation and characterization of mechanical properties of carbon nanotube reinforced hydroxyapatite composites consolidated by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ye; Qiang, Wenjiang; Pang, Jingqin

    2017-09-01

    Pure hydroxyapatite(HAP) and 0.5,1,2,3,5wt% carbon nanotubes(CNTs) reinforced HAP which mixed by means of magnetic stirring method were consolidated using a spark plasma sintering(SPS) technique at SPS temperature 1273K, pressure 40MPa, and holding time 5min. The mechanical properties of pure HAP and the composites, such as hardness, flexural strength, and fracture toughness were measured. It is demonstrated that 1wt% of CNTs showed the best performance, which density was 95.78%, the Vickers hardness values was 462HV, flexural strength was 69.2MPa. Enhanced strength and toughness are attributed to the pull-out of CNTs and interfacial bonding mechanism between which and HAP during crack propagation. The flexural strength of the composites with 1 to 3wt% of CNTs were at a high level. When the content of CNTs is excessive, the mechanical properties of the material, especially flexural strength, will decrease quickly.

  10. Biological and electrical properties of biosynthesized silver

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biological and electrical properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Madhulika ... Abstract. In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized biochemically at room temperature using aqueous extract of rhizome of Rheum australe plant. ... The obtained results may have potential applications as sensors.

  11. Effect of different sintering aids on thermo-mechanical properties and oxidation of SiC fibers - Reinforced ZrB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciti, D., E-mail: diletta.sciti@istec.cnr.it [ISTEC-CNR, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council, Via Granarolo 64, I-48018 Faenza (Italy); Silvestroni, L. [ISTEC-CNR, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council, Via Granarolo 64, I-48018 Faenza (Italy); Saccone, G.; Alfano, D. [CIRA, Italian Aerospace Research Center, 81043 Capua (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Reinforced zirconium diboride composites containing 15 vol% of Hi Nicalon SiC chopped fibers were hot pressed with addition of various sintering additives, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, ZrSi{sub 2} or MoSi{sub 2}. Depending on the sintering aid, different densification temperatures were set in the range 1650-1750 Degree-Sign C. Temperature and additive strongly influenced the matrix/fiber interface, which in turn had a strong impact on the mechanical properties and the oxidation behavior at 1650 Degree-Sign C. Even the workability, performed either by conventional machining or electro discharge machining, varied depending on the sintering additive and the secondary phases formed in the system. The system containing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} turned out to have the highest mechanical properties, but intermediate oxidation resistance; the composite containing ZrSi{sub 2} had the lowest sintering temperature, but displayed the worst oxidation resistance, and finally the composite containing MoSi{sub 2} showed intermediate mechanical properties, but the highest oxidation resistance and lowest degree of damage upon machining. Preliminary measurements of thermal shock resistance by the water quenching method were also carried out. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We produced SiC fibers reinforced ZrB{sub 2} using different sintering aids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sintering additives affected properties, oxidation and machinability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system containing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} had the highest mechanical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite containing MoSi{sub 2} had the highest oxidation resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZrB{sub 2}-SiC fibers have higher thermal shock resistance than ZrB{sub 2}-SiC particles.

  12. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Fe-28Al-5Cr/TiC composites produced by hot-pressing sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinghua; Yang Jun; Ma Jiqiang; Bi Qinling; Cheng Jun; Liang Yongmin; Liu Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The near fully dense Fe-28Al-5Cr/TiC composites are produced by hot-pressing sintering. → All the materials exhibit high compressive and bending strength. → Compressive strength increases but bending strength and ductility diminish with rising TiC amount in the composites. → Wear resistance significantly increases with rising TiC amount. - Abstract: The mechanical properties and microstructures of Fe-28Al-5Cr based composites reinforced with 15, 25, 35, 50 wt.% TiC ceramic particle, produced by hot-pressing sintering method, were investigated. The relative density of all the composites was up to 99%. The distribution of TiC was uniform in the composites. Results of XRD analysis showed that the composites were composed of TiC and disorder Fe 3 Al phases. All the materials exhibited very high strength of 1200-2000 MPa. The hardness and compressive strength of the composites increased obviously but compressive strain decreased gradually except 50% composite with increasing TiC content. The bending strength and deflection of the composites decreased significantly with increasing TiC content. The bending fracture surfaces of all the materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fracture mode transformed gradually from tough dimple fracture mode to brittle cleavage facets crack mode with the increase of TiC content. Wear resistance of the Fe-28Al-5Cr alloy was also significantly improved by addition of TiC.

  13. [Determination of normal temperature properties of refractory die material compatible with slip casting core of sintered titanium powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, X; Liao, Y; Chao, Y; Wang, H

    1999-05-01

    The refractory die is the precondition for developing slip casting core of sintered powder. This study is to determine the normal temperature properties of the refractory die material compatible with slip casting core. to mix the die material at five different ratios (8/1, 7.5/1, 7/1, 6.5/1, and 6/1) and measure their solidification time with self-manufactured Vicker's needle; to prepare five cylindrical specimens (phi 10 x 15 mm) in different drying time for determining their compressive strength, and then to let another five specimens fire at 1000 degrees C four times for measuring the residual compressive strength at room temperature. The setting time was 16.25 minutes (7.5/1), and the lower the powder-liquid ratio, the longer the setting time. The normal compressive strength was 25.32 MPa (drying 24 hours), while the longer the drying time, the higher the compressive strength achieved (P die material meet the demand of slip casting core of sintered powder.

  14. Effect of heating parameters on sintering behaviors and properties of mullite whisker frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zeng, D. J.; Wang, B.; Yang, J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Mullite whisker frameworks were fabricated by vapor-solid reaction with SiO2, Al2O3 and AlF3 powders as the whisker forming agent at high temperatures. The effects of heating temperature and soaking time on the weight loss, liner shrinkage, porosity, microstructure and compressive strength were investigated. The results showed that with the increasing of the sintering temperature and soaking time, the weight loss and liner shrinkage of the samples increased and the porosities decreased due to the accelerated vapor-solid reaction, resulting in strong bonding and grain growth of the mullite frameworks. The compressive strength of the samples increased with increasing the sintering temperature from 1500 to 1650 °C, and decreased with the soaking time extended to more than 5 h for 1500 °C and 2 h for 1650 °C. A maximum compressive strength of 142 MPa at a porosity of 62.3% was obtained for the mullite whisker framework heated at 1500 °C for 5 h. The enhanced strength was attributed to the strong bonding strength and fine mullite grains resulting from a relative lower heating temperature and a modest soaking time.

  15. Pressureless sintering and gas flux properties of porous ceramic membranes for gas applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obada, David O.; Dodoo-Arhin, David; Dauda, Muhammad; Anafi, Fatai O.; Ahmed, Abdulkarim S.; Ajayi, Olusegun A.

    The preparation and characterization of kaolin based ceramic membranes using styrofoam (STY) and sawdust (SD) as pore formers have been prepared by mechano-chemical synthesis using pressureless sintering technique with porogen content between (0-20) wt% by die pressing. Pellets were fired at 1150 °C and soaking time of 4 h. The membranes cast as circular disks were subjected to characterization studies to evaluate the effect of the sintering temperature and pore former content on porosity, density, water absorption and mechanical strength. Obtained membranes show effective porosity with maximum at about 43 and 47% respectively for membranes formulated with styrofoam and sawdust porogens but with a slightly low mechanical strength that does not exceed 19 MPa. The resultant ceramic bodies show a fine porous structure which is mainly caused by the volatilization of the porogens. The fabricated membrane exhibited high N2 gas flux, hence, these membranes can be considered as efficient for potential application for gas separation by reason of the results shown in the gas flux tests.

  16. Effect of CASP glass doping on sintering and dielectric properties of SBN ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guohua; Qi Bing

    2009-01-01

    16CaO-29Al 2 O 3 -34SiO 2 -13PbO-4B 2 O 3 -2ZnO-2P 2 O 5 (CASP) glass doped-Sr 0.5 Ba 0.5 Nb 2 O 6 (SBN50) ceramics have been synthesized by solid-state ceramic route. The effects of CASP glass on the firing, microstructure and dielectric characterization of SBN50 ceramics are investigated. The densities of the ceramic samples firstly increase and then slightly decrease with increasing CASP glass content. The appropriate amount of doping glass is 2%. The SBN50 ceramics doped with CASP glass can be sintered at a relatively low temperature, 1200 deg. C. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the single phase (tetragonal tungsten bronze type structure) is preserved for all the samples. The diffuse character of the ceramic system increases and the dielectric constant at phase transition temperature (T c ) markedly decreases as CASP glass content increases. Interestingly, the CASP glass addition drastically alters the microstructure of the sintered ceramics. The isotropic grains in the pure SBN50 ceramics transform to rod like grains after the addition of CASP glass. The grain size of SBN phase is found to obviously increase with increase in CASP glass doping level

  17. Sintering and dielectric properties of a technical porcelain prepared from economical natural raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasrani, S.; Harabi, A.; Barama, S.-E.; Foughali, L.; Benhassine, M. T., E-mail: souad478@yahoo.fr, E-mail: harabi52@gmail.com, E-mail: sebarama@usa.com, E-mail: foughali_lazhar@yahoo.fr, E-mail: mtb25dz@gmail.com [Ceramics Lab. Mentouri University of Constantine (Algeria); Aldhayan, D.M., E-mail: aldhayan@ksu.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Riyadh, King Saud University (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the production of a technical porcelain, for the ceramic dielectric applications by using economical natural raw materials, was investigated. The basic porcelain composition was selected consisting of 30 wt% kaolin, 45 wt% potash-feldspar and 25 wt% quartz. The obtained phases in the sintered samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, and scanning electron microscopy images. It has been confirmed by these techniques that the main crystalline phases were quartz and mullite. Dielectric measurements of technical porcelains have been carried out at 1 kHz from room temperature to 200 °C. The dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric loss tangent, and resistivity of the porcelain sample sintered at 1160 °C were 22-25, 0.32-1.80, 0.006-0.07, and 0.2-9 x 10{sup 13} Ω.cm, respectively. The value of dielectric constant was significantly high when compared to that of conventional porcelains which did not exceed generally 9. (author)

  18. Electrical properties of lithium ferrite with addition of ZrO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamonova, S. A.; Surzhikov, A. P.; Lysenko, E. N.

    2016-02-01

    The study of electrical properties of composite ceramics based on lithium ferrite LiFe5O8 with the addition of ZrO2 (1 and 2 wt%) was carried out. The samples were prepared by standard ceramic technology. Synthesis of lithium ferrite was conducted at 800°C for 120 minutes. The zirconium dioxide was added to synthesized powder by mixing in planetary ball mill, and then the composite powders were sintered at temperatures of 1100°C and 1050°C. The electrical conductivity of the samples was studied using two-probe spreading resistance method. It was found that addition of ZrO2 and an increase of its up to 2 wt% leads to increase in the activation energy and electrical resistivity.

  19. Electrical properties and temperature stability of a new kind of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanyu; Wu Jiagang; Xiao Dingquan; Zhang Bin; Wu Wenjuan; Shi Wei; Zhu Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    0.995[(K 0.50 Na 0.50 ) 0.94 Li 0.06 ]NbO 3 -0.005AETiO 3 (AE=Ca, Sr, Mg, Ba) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by normal sintering. The effects of the AETiO 3 and poling temperature on the electrical properties of the ceramics were carefully studied, and the temperature stability of the electrical properties of the ceramics was also investigated. The experimental results show that the ceramics with Li and CaTiO 3 possess the pure phase, Li and AETiO 3 improves the electrical properties of the pure (K 0.50 Na 0.50 )NbO 3 ceramics, the poling temperature near tetragonal and orthorhombic phase transition will enhance the piezoelectric properties of the ceramics and the KNLN-CT ceramics exhibit good temperature stability of electrical properties for tetragonal and orthorhombic phase transition below room temperature. The KNLN-CT ceramics exhibit relatively good properties: d 33 = 172 pC N -1 , k p = 0.43, tan δ = 0.032, ε r = 771 and T c = 465 deg. C. As a result, the KNLN-CT ceramic is promising candidate material for piezoelectric devices.

  20. Effect of sintering parameters using the central composite design method, electronic structure and physical properties of yttria-partially stabilized ZrO2 commercial ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes A.M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of sintering parameters on electronic structure and physical properties of yttria-partially stabilized ZrO2 (YPSZ commercial ceramics has been studied using the central composite design (CCD method. The CCD method allows using empirical modelling with better fitting, by considering the interaction between both factors. Different temperature ranges and sintering times for processing of YPSZ ceramics have been used in order to evaluate the grain growth, hardness and volumetric shrinkage by the CCD method. X-ray diffraction patterns and Rietveld refinement data indicate that non-sintered YPSZ ceramics exhibits two phases related to tetragonal and monoclinic structures, while the sintered YPSZ ceramics exhibits a single phase related to a tetragonal structure. Moreover, the monoclinic structure presents zirconium (Zr atoms coordinated to seven oxygen (O atoms, while in the tetragonal structure Zr atoms are coordinated to eight O atoms. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images were employed to monitor the sintering and growth process. In addition, the response surfaces obtained from calculations presented the effect of thermal and kinetic variables on the physical properties such as average grain size, volumetric shrinkage and hardness of YPSZ ceramics.

  1. Doped tricalcium phosphate bone tissue engineering scaffolds using sucrose as template and microwave sintering: enhancement of mechanical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Dongxu; Bose, Susmita

    2017-09-01

    β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a widely used biocompatible ceramic in orthopedic and dental applications. However, its osteoinductivity and mechanical properties still require improvements. In this study, porous β-TCP and MgO/ZnO-TCP scaffolds were prepared by the thermal decomposition of sucrose. Crack-free cylindrical scaffolds could only be prepared with the addition of MgO and ZnO due to their stabilization effects. Porous MgO/ZnO-TCP scaffolds with a density of 61.39±0.66%, an estimated pore size of 200μm and a compressive strength of 24.96±3.07MPa were prepared by using 25wt% sucrose after conventional sintering at 1250°C. Microwave sintering further increased the compressive strength to 37.94±6.70MPa, but it decreased the open interconnected porosity to 8.74±1.38%. In addition, the incorporation of polycaprolactone (PCL) increased 22.36±3.22% of toughness while maintaining its compressive strength at 25.45±2.21MPa. Human osteoblast cell line was seeded on scaffolds to evaluate the effects of MgO/ZnO and PCL on the biological property of β-TCP in vitro. Both MgO/ZnO and PCL improved osteoinductivity of β-TCP. PCL also decreased osteoblastic apoptosis due to its particular surface chemistry. This novel porous MgO/ZnO-TCP scaffold with PCL shows improved mechanical and biological properties, which has great potential in bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Electrical properties of Egyptian natural graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazly, O.; El-Wahidy, E.F.; Elanany, N.; Saad, N.A.

    1992-06-01

    The electrical properties of Egyptian natural graphite flakes, obtained from the graphite schists of Wadi Bent, Eastern Desert, were measured. The flakes were ground and compressed into pellets. The standard four probe dc method was used to measure the temperature dependence of the electric resistivity from room temperature down to 12 K. The transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance were measured in the low magnetic field range at temperatures 300 K, 77 K and 12 K. The transverse magnetoresistance data was used to estimate the average mobility, assuming a simple two-band model. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Relationship of electrical, magnetic, and mechanical properties to processing in high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blendell, J.E.; Chiang, C.K.; Cranmer, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The interrelation between processing, microstructure, and properties is an important factor in understanding the behavior of ceramic materials. This type of understanding will be particularly important in the development of the new high T/sub c/ superconducting ceramic oxides of the type Ba/sub 2/YCu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/. As an initial effort in understanding these relations, a number of properties have been measured for these superconducting ceramics and related to their microstructure and processing sequence. The Ba/sub 2/YCu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ ceramics were prepared by powder processing techniques, followed by dry pressing and sintering in both air and flowing oxygen at various temperatures. The sintered bodies were annealed at various temperatures and environments. Superconducting properties, such as the transition temperature and the width of the transition, were measured by both electrical conductivity and AC magnetic susceptibility; both of these properties show a strong sensitivity to annealing temperature and atmosphere. The microstructure and density were also strongly dependent on processing conditions. In this regard, compositional mapping proved to be an important technique for quantifying microstructural variations. Mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness, which will be important for the reliable use of these materials in large scale structures, were also determined

  4. Vibrational Order, Structural Properties, and Optical Gap of ZnO Nanostructures Sintered through Thermal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Londono-Calderon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of different ZnO nanostructures by the thermal decomposition of zinc acetate is reported. Morphological changes from nanorods to nanoparticles are exhibited with the increase of the decomposition temperature from 300 to 500°C. The material showed a loss in the crystalline order with the increase in the temperature, which is correlated to the loss of oxygen due to the low heating rate used. Nanoparticles have a greater vibrational freedom than nanorods which is demonstrated in the rise of the main Raman mode E 2(high during the transformation. The energy band gap of the nanostructured material is lower than the ZnO bulk material and decreases with the rise in the temperature.

  5. Microstructure, mechanical properties and superelasticity of biomedical porous NiTi alloy prepared by microwave sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J L; Bao, L Z; Liu, A H; Jin, X J; Tong, Y X; Luo, J M; Zhong, Z C; Zheng, Y F

    2015-01-01

    Porous NiTi alloys were prepared by microwave sintering using ammonium hydrogen carbonate (NH4HCO3) as the space holder agent to adjust the porosity in the range of 22-62%. The effects of porosities on the microstructure, hardness, compressive strength, bending strength, elastic modulus, phase transformation temperature and superelasticity of the porous NiTi alloys were investigated. The results showed that the porosities and average pore sizes of the porous NiTi alloys increased with increasing the contents of NH4HCO3. The porous NiTi alloys consisted of nearly single NiTi phase, with a very small amount of two secondary phases (Ni3Ti, NiTi2) when the porosities are lower than 50%. The amount of Ni3Ti and NiTi2 phases increased with further increasing of the porosity proportion. The porosities had few effects on the phase transformation temperatures of the porous NiTi alloys. By increasing the porosities, all of the hardness, compressive strength, elastic modulus, bending strength and superelasticity of the porous NiTi alloys decreased. However, the compressive strength and bending strength were higher or close to those of natural bone and the elastic modulus was close to the natural bone. The superelastic recovery strain of the trained porous NiTi alloys could reach between 3.1 and 4.7% at the pre-strain of 5%, even if the porosity was up to 62%. Moreover, partial shape memory effect was observed for all porosity levels under the experiment conditions. Therefore, the microwave sintered porous NiTi alloys could be a promising candidate for bone implant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of point defects on dosimetric properties and sintering capability of aluminia α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, Eric

    1997-01-01

    This work was devoted to the study of the influence of synthesis conditions on the thermoluminescence of aluminia α for use in ionizing radiation dosimetry. Powders are synthesized by heat treatment of pure aluminia γ or doped by impregnation technique. The studied parameters are the thermal cycle, the gas atmosphere of the furnace and the nature of the dopants (Mg 2+ , Cr 3+ , Th 4+ , Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ ). The thermoluminescence (TL) is connected with the presence of point defects. This technique consists in measuring the intensity of light emitted by a previously irradiated solid. Three TL peaks were observed. A peak around - 40 deg. C allows making evident the magnesium impurities and the oxygen vacations. The evolution of the intensity of the two peaks at 190 deg. C and 360 deg. C, is studied as a function of the oxygen partial pressure of the heat treatment and of the Mg 2+ , Cr 3+ and Th 4+ dopant concentrations. These investigations have permitted identifying the defects implied in the luminescence process of these two peaks, i.e. the aluminium vacations and the Cr 3+ ions substituted to Al 3+ . Thus aluminia powders having a high sensitivity to ionizing radiations (X rays, UV and γ radiations) have been synthesized. Utilization in dosimetry of the peaks at 190 deg. C and 360 deg. C is suggested. The reactivity of non-doped powders containing different types of point defects was analyzed by dilatometry. Thus, the influence of the atmosphere of powder preparation upon the sintering behaviour was made evident. The differences between the removal velocities are correlated with the variations in the aluminium vacancy concentrations. These results suppose that the limiting stage in sintering these powders is the Al 3+ ion diffusion

  7. Microstructure, Mechanical, and Biological Properties of Porous Poly(vinylidene fluoride Scaffolds Fabricated by Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF scaffolds were prepared by selective laser sintering. The effects of laser energy density, ranging from 0.66 to 2.16 J/mm2, on microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. At low energy density levels, PVDF particles could fuse well and the structure becomes dense with the increase of the energy density. Smoke and defects (such as holes were observed when the energy density increased above 1.56 J/mm2 which indicated decomposition of the PVDF powder. The scaffolds appeared to be light yellow and there was a reduction in tensile strength. The fabricated scaffolds were immersed into simulated body fluid for different time to evaluate biostability. In addition, MG63 cells were seeded and cultured for different days on the scaffolds. The testing results showed that the cells grew and spread well, indicating that PVDF scaffolds had good biocompatibility.

  8. Electrical properties of seafloor massive sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Giovanni; Hannington, Mark; Bairlein, Katharina; Hördt, Andreas; Jegen, Marion; Petersen, Sven; Laurila, Tea

    2016-06-01

    Seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits are increasingly seen as important marine metal resources for the future. A growing number of industrialized nations are involved in the surveying and sampling of such deposits by drilling. Drill ships are expensive and their availability can be limited; seabed drill rigs are a cost-effective alternative and more suitable for obtaining cores for resource evaluation. In order to achieve the objectives of resource evaluations, details are required of the geological, mineralogical, and physical properties of the polymetallic deposits and their host rocks. Electrical properties of the deposits and their ore minerals are distinct from their unmineralized host rocks. Therefore, the use of electrical methods to detect SMS while drilling and recovering drill cores could decrease the costs and accelerate offshore operations by limiting the amount of drilling in unmineralized material. This paper presents new data regarding the electrical properties of SMS cores that can be used in that assessment. Frequency-dependent complex electrical resistivity in the frequency range between 0.002 and 100 Hz was examined in order to potentially discriminate between different types of fresh rocks, alteration and mineralization. Forty mini-cores of SMS and unmineralized host rocks were tested in the laboratory, originating from different tectonic settings such as the intermediate-spreading ridges of the Galapagos and Axial Seamount, and the Pacmanus back-arc basin. The results indicate that there is a clear potential to distinguish between mineralized and non-mineralized samples, with some evidence that even different types of mineralization can be discriminated. This could be achieved using resistivity magnitude alone with appropriate rig-mounted electrical sensors. Exploiting the frequency-dependent behavior of resistivity might amplify the differences and further improve the rock characterization.

  9. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Cobalt Prepared Using High-Energy Ball Milling in Combination with Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2016), č. článku 391. ISSN 1996-1944 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ultrafine-grained material * cobalt * ball milling * spark plasma sintering * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/5/391/pdf

  10. Structure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Fe alloys prepared by short-term mechanical alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, J.; Vojtěch, D.; Bláhová, M.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Čížek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 75, June (2015), s. 65-75 ISSN 0261-3069 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Aluminium alloy s * Mechanical Properties * Microstructure * Mechanical alloy ing * Spark-Plasma Sintering Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 3.997, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261306915000990#

  11. Electrical and magneto transport properties of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrical and magneto transport properties of. La0.8−xCaxSr0.1Ag0.1MnO3 (x = 0.1,0.2,0.3). P SUBHASHINI1,∗, B MUNIRATHINAM2, M KRISHNAIAH1, R VENKATESH3,. D VENKATESWARLU3 and V GANESAN3. 1Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India. 2NDT/SPP, SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota ...

  12. Modification of electrical properties of topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Peter Anand

    2017-08-29

    Ion implantation or deposition can be used to modify the bulk electrical properties of topological insulators. More particularly, ion implantation or deposition can be used to compensate for the non-zero bulk conductivity due to extrinsic charge carriers. The direct implantation of deposition/annealing of dopants allows better control over carrier concentrations for the purposes of achieving low bulk conductivity. Ion implantation or deposition enables the fabrication of inhomogeneously doped structures, enabling new types of device designs.

  13. Effects of sintering atmosphere and temperature on structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nano-particles: Magnetic enhancement by a reducing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholizadeh, Ahmad, E-mail: gholizadeh@du.ac.ir; Jafari, Elahe, E-mail: ah_gh1359@yahoo.com

    2017-01-15

    In this work, effects of sintering atmosphere and temperature on structural and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared by citrate precursor method have been studied. The structural characterization of the samples by X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy is evidence for formation of a cubic structure with no presence of impurity phase. Calculated values of crystallite size and unit cell parameter show an increase with sintering temperature under different atmospheres. Variation of saturation magnetization with sintering temperature and atmosphere can be attributed to change of three factors: magnetic core size, inversion parameter and the change of Fe{sup 3+}-ion concentration due to the presence of Fe{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions. The saturation magnetization gradually grows with sintering temperature due to increase of magnetic core size and a maximum 63 emu/g was achieved at 600 °C under carbon monoxide-ambient atmosphere. - Highlights: • Different sintering atmosphere and temperature cause substantial differences in Ni{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • The saturation magnetization gradually grows. • A maximum 63 emu/g was achieved at 600 °C under a reducing atmosphere.

  14. Effects of Milling Atmosphere and Increasing Sintering Temperature on the Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline Ni0.36Zn0.64Fe2O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Hajalilou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Ni0.36Zn0.64Fe2O4 was synthesized by milling a powder mixture of Zn, NiO, and Fe2O3 in a high-energy ball mill for 30 h under three different atmospheres of air, argon, and oxygen. After sintering the 30 h milled samples at 500°C, the XRD patterns suggested the formation of a single phase of Ni-Zn ferrite. The XRD results indicated the average crystallite sizes to be 15, 14, and 16 nm, respectively, for the 30 h milled samples in air, argon, and oxygen atmospheres sintered at 500°C. From the FeSEM micrographs, the average grain sizes of the mentioned samples were 83, 75, and 105 nm, respectively, which grew to 284, 243, and 302 nm after sintering to 900°C. A density of all the samples increased while a porosity decreased by elevating sintering temperature. The parallel evolution of changes in magnetic properties, due to microstructural variations with changes in the milling atmosphere and sintering temperature in the rage of 500–900°C with 100°C increments, is also studied in this work.

  15. Sintering time effect on crystal structure and magnetic properties of Bi{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} multiferroics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ompal, E-mail: om19901990@gmail.com; Agarwal, Ashish; Sanghi, Sujata; Singh, Jogender [Department of Applied Physics Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar – 125001 (Haryana) (India)

    2016-05-06

    Effect of sintering time over the structure and magnetic properties has been studied in Bi{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} multiferroic ceramics prepared by solid state reaction technique. The structure changes with the advent mixed phase rhombohedral and orthorhombic symmetry to immaculate orthorhombic structure with sintering time from 2 to 3 hour, as revealed by means of the simulation of XRD patterns via Rietveld analysis through FullProf software. The M – H plots depict decent enhancement in magnetization with values of remnant magnetization (Mr) from 0.01868emu/g to 0.09357emu/g while the sintering time is varied from 2 to 3 hour. The metamagnetic transition may be attributed to the crumpling of the modulated spin cycloid existing inherently in the pristine compound. The presented study may have considerable impact in commercial as well as advanced electronic applications.

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting of Powder Produced by Granulation-Sintering-Deoxygenation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Z. Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Commercial spherical Ti powders for additive manufacturing applications are produced today by melt-atomization methods at relatively high costs. A meltless production method, called granulation-sintering-deoxygenation (GSD), was developed recently to produce spherical Ti alloy powder at a significantly reduced cost. In this new process, fine hydrogenated Ti particles are agglomerated to form spherical granules, which are then sintered to dense spherical particles. After sintering, the solid fully dense spherical Ti alloy particles are deoxygenated using novel low-temperature deoxygenation processes with either Mg or Ca. This technical communication presents results of 3D printing using GSD powder and the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. The results showed that tensile properties of parts fabricated from spherical GSD Ti-6Al-4V powder by SLM are comparable with typical mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V. The characteristics of 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V from GSD powder are also compared with that of commercial materials.

  17. Effect of Immersion in Simulated Body Fluid on the Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility of Sintered Fe–Mn-Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fe–Mn-based degradable biomaterials (DBMs are promising candidates for temporary implants such as cardiovascular stents and bone fixation devices. Identifying their mechanical properties and biocompatibility is essential to determine the feasibility of Fe–Mn-based alloys as DBMs. This study presents the tensile properties of two powder metallurgical processed Fe–Mn-based alloys (Fe–28Mn and Fe–28Mn-3Si, in mass percent as a function of immersion time in simulated body fluid (SBF. In addition, short-term cytotoxicity testing was performed to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of the sintered Fe–Mn-based alloys. The results reveal that an increase in immersion duration deteriorated the tensile properties of both the binary and ternary alloys. The tensile properties of the immersed alloys were severely degraded after being soaked in SBF for ≥45 days. The ion concentration in SBF released from the Fe–28Mn-3Si samples was higher than their Fe–28Mn counterparts after 7 days immersion. The preliminary cytotoxicity testing based on the immersed SBF medium after 7 days immersion suggested that both the Fe–28Mn-3Si and Fe–28Mn alloys presented a good biocompatibility in Murine fibroblast cells.

  18. Effect of nitrogen on the preparation (powder synthesis - sintering) and on the dielectric properties of 'MgAlON' spinel solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morey, O.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show the effect of nitrogen on the synthesis, the sintering and the dielectric behaviour of 'MgAlON' spinel solid solutions. 'MgAlON' solid solutions (1.1 ≤ N ≤ 4.2 %) have been prepared by solid state reactions between Al 2 O 3 , MgO and AlN at high temperature (1450 degrees Celsius) under nitrogen atmosphere and characterized by granulometric analysis, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Al 27 NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and thermoluminescence. Point defects have been revealed. They are in particular due to the nitrogen amount incorporated into the structure. The O/N substitution in the anionic lattice induces a delay to the densification when the nitrogen composition increases. The dielectric properties of these materials have been studied by two methods. The first one has a macroscopic character and is destructive. It allows to know the breakdown voltage and to calculate the dielectric rigidity of the material. The second one ('SEMM': 'Scanning Electron Microscopy Mirror') has a microscopic character and is nondestructive. Its principle is based on the charge injection with an electric beam. It gives the yield of charge trapping of the material. The good behaviour of these materials to the charge injection has been correlated to the oxygen vacancies in increasing amount with the nitrogen composition. (O.M.)

  19. Thermoelectric SnS and SnS-SnSe solid solutions prepared by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering: Anisotropic thermoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfandiyar; Wei, Tian-Ran; Li, Zhiliang; Sun, Fu-Hua; Pan, Yu; Wu, Chao-Feng; Farooq, Muhammad Umer; Tang, Huaichao; Li, Fu; Li, Bo; Li, Jing-Feng

    2017-02-27

    P-type SnS compound and SnS 1-x Se x solid solutions were prepared by mechanical alloying followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and their thermoelectric properties were then studied in different compositions (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8) along the directions parallel (//) and perpendicular (⊥) to the SPS-pressurizing direction in the temperature range 323-823 Κ. SnS compound and SnS 1-x Se x solid solutions exhibited anisotropic thermoelectric performance and showed higher power factor and thermal conductivity along the direction ⊥ than the // one. The thermal conductivity decreased with increasing contents of Se and fell to 0.36 W m -1  K -1 at 823 K for the composition SnS 0.5 Se 0.5 . With increasing selenium content (x) the formation of solid solutions substantially improved the electrical conductivity due to the increased carrier concentration. Hence, the optimized power factor and reduced thermal conductivity resulted in a maximum ZT value of 0.64 at 823 K for SnS 0.2 Se 0.8 along the parallel direction.

  20. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COMPACTION PRESSURE AND DIFFERENT SINTERING ROUTE ON K0.5NA0.5NBO₃ PHYSICAL AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Fatin Khairah Bahanurddin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline niobate known as K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN, a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic was synthesized via a solid state reaction method. The samples were compacted at different pressures (100, 200, 300 and 400 MPa and sintered using two different techniques (conventional furnace and hot isostatic pressing (HIP. The effect of compaction pressure and sintering technique on physical and dielectric properties was studied. The optimum compaction pressure (300 MPa and sintering via HIP (at 1080 °C for 30 min increased the density and grain size ( range 30 - 300 nm and improved its dielectric properties. Therefore, the combination of suitable compaction pressure and sintering technique has produced larger grain size and higher density of KNN which resulted in outstanding dielectric properties. At room temperature, excellent values of ε r (5517.35 and tan δ (0.954, recorded at 1 MHz were measured for the KNN300HIP sample with highest density (4.4885 g/cm³.

  1. Effect of CuO addition on the sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available CuO-doped CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics were synthesized via a traditional solid-state reaction method, and their sintering behavior, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. The results showed that appropriate CuO addition could accelerate the sintering process and assist the densification of CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics, which could effectively lower the densification temperature from 1250 °C to 1050 °C. However, the addition of CuO undermined the microwave dielectric properties. The optimal amount of CuO addition was found to be 0.8 wt%, and the derived CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramic sintered at 1100 °C presented good microwave dielectric properties of εr=7.27, Q×f=16,850 GHz and τf=−39.53 ppm/°C, which is much better than those of pure CaSiO3 ceramic sintered at 1340 oC (Q×f=13,109 GHz. The chemical compatibility of the above ceramic with 30 Pd/70 Ag during the cofiring process has also been investigated, and the result showed that there was no chemical reaction between palladium–silver alloys and ceramics.

  2. Low temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of Ba3Ti5Nb6O28 ceramics with BaCu(B2O5) additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huanfu; Wang Hong; Chen Yuehua; Li Kecheng; Yao Xi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) (BCB) additions on the sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of Ba 3 Ti 5 Nb 6 O 28 ceramic have been investigated using dilatometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and dielectric measurement. The pure Ba 3 Ti 5 Nb 6 O 28 ceramic shows a high sintering temperature (∼1250 deg. C) and good microwave dielectric properties as Q x f of 11,400 GHz, ε r of 37.0, τ f of -8 ppm deg. C -1 . It was found that the addition of BCB to Ba 3 Ti 5 Nb 6 O 28 could lower the sintering temperature from 1250 to 925 deg. C. The reduced sintering temperature was attributed to the BCB liquid phase. The addition of BCB also enhanced the microwave dielectric properties to Q x f of 19,191 GHz, ε r of 38.2, τ f of 12 ppm deg. C -1

  3. Structure and properties of porous TiNi(Co, Mo)-based alloy produced by the reaction sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhova, Nadezda; Yasenchuk, Yuriy; Chekalkin, Timofey; Gunther, Victor; Kim, Ji-Soon; Kang, Ji-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    Modern medical technologies have developed many new devices that can be implanted into humans to repair, assist or take the place of diseased or defective bones, arteries and even organs. The materials, especially porous ones, used for these devices have evolved steadily over the past twenty years with TiNi-based alloys replacing stainless steels and titanium. The aim of the paper is to presents results for examination of porous TiNi(Co,Mo)-based alloys intended further to be used in clinical practice. The structure and properties of porous TiNi-based alloys obtained by reaction sintering of Ti and Ni powders with additions of Co and Mo have been studied. It has been shown that alloying additions both Co and Mo inhibit the compaction of nickel powders in the initial stage of sintering. The maximum irreversible strain of porous samples under loading in the austenitic state is fixed with the Co addition, and the minimum one is fixed with the Mo addition. The Co addition leads to the fact that the martensite transformation in the TiNi phase becomes close to a one-step, and the Mo addition leads to the fact that the martensite transformation becomes more uniform. Both Co and Mo lead to an increase in the maximum accumulated strain as a result of the formation of temperature martensite. The additional increase in the maximum accumulated strain of the Ti50Ni49Co1 alloy is caused by decreased resistance of the porous Ni γ -based mass during the load.

  4. Some Electrical Properties of Wild Mango Seed ad Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... properties differ from one biomaterial to another; their electrical properties will also vary. Thus, electrical properties of biomaterial has become an important area of research in post harvest processing of some agricultural products [8,9,10]. Therefore, electrical conductivity information is useful in sorting of.

  5. Spark Plasma Sintering of a Gas Atomized Al7075 Alloy: Microstructure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Molnárová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The powder of an Al7075 alloy was prepared by gas atomization. A combination of cellular, columnar, and equiaxed dendritic-like morphology was observed in individual powder particles with continuous layers of intermetallic phases along boundaries. The cells are separated predominantly by high-angle boundaries, the areas with dendritic-like morphology usually have a similar crystallographic orientation. Spark plasma sintering resulted in a fully dense material with a microstructure similar to that of the powder material. The continuous layers of intermetallic phases are replaced by individual particles located along internal boundaries, coarse particles are formed at the surface of original powder particles. Microhardness measurements revealed both artificial and natural ageing behavior similar to that observed in ingot metallurgy material. The minimum microhardness of 81 HV, observed in the sample annealed at 300 °C, reflects the presence of coarse particles. The peak microhardness of 160 HV was observed in the sample annealed at 500 °C and then aged at room temperature. Compression tests confirmed high strength combined with sufficient plasticity. Annealing even at 500 °C does not significantly influence the distribution of grain sizes—about 45% of the area is occupied by grains with the size below 10 µm.

  6. Thermal properties and thermal shock resistance of liquid phase sintered ZrC-Mo cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landwehr, Sean E.; Hilmas, Gregory E.; Fahrenholtz, William G.; Talmy, Inna G.; Wang Hsin

    2009-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE), heat capacity, and thermal conductivity, were investigated as a function of temperature for hot pressed ZrC and liquid phase sintered ZrC-Mo cermets. The ZrC and the ZrC-Mo cermets had the same CTE at 50 deg. C (∼5.1-5.5 ppm deg. C -1 ), but the CTE of ZrC increased to ∼12.2 ppm deg. C -1 at 1000 deg. C compared to ∼7.2-8.5 ppm deg. C -1 for the ZrC-Mo cermets. Heat capacity was calculated using a rule of mixtures and previously reported thermodynamic data. Thermal diffusivity was measured with a laser flash method and was, in turn, used to calculate thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity increased linearly with increasing temperature for all compositions and was affected by solid solution formation and carbon deficiency of the carbide phases. Hot pressed ZrC had the highest thermal conductivity (∼30-37 W m -1 K -1 ). The nominally 20 and 30 vol% Mo compositions of the ZrC-Mo cermets had a lower thermal conductivity, but the thermal conductivity generally increased with increasing Mo content. Water quench thermal shock testing showed that ZrC-30 vol% Mo had a critical temperature difference of 350 deg. C, which was ∼120 deg. C higher than ZrC. This increase was due to the increased toughness of the cermet compared to ZrC.

  7. Electro sinter forging of titanium disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    Electro sinter forging (ESF) is a new sintering process based on the principle of electrical Joule heating. In the present work, middle frequency direct current (MFDC) was flowing through the powder compact, which was under mechanical pressure. The main parameters are the high electrical current,...

  8. Electrical properties of methane hydrate + sediment mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Stern, Laura A.; Weitemeyer, Karen A.; Constable, Steven; Roberts, Jeffery J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of our DOE-funded proposal to characterize gas hydrate in the Gulf of Mexico using marine electromagnetic methods, a collaboration between SIO, LLNL, and USGS with the goal of measuring the electrical properties of lab-created methane (CH4) hydrate and sediment mixtures was formed. We examined samples with known characteristics to better relate electrical properties measured in the field to specific gas hydrate concentration and distribution patterns. Here we discuss first-ever electrical conductivity (σ) measurements on unmixed CH4 hydrate (Du Frane et al., 2011): 6 x 10-5 S/m at 5 °C, which is ~5 orders of magnitude lower than seawater. This difference allows electromagnetic (EM) techniques to distinguish highly resistive gas hydrate deposits from conductive water saturated sediments in EM field surveys. More recently, we performed measurements on CH4 hydrate mixed with sediment and we also discuss those initial findings here. Our results on samples free of liquid water are important for predicting conductivity of sediments with pores highly saturated with gas hydrate, and are an essential starting point for comprehensive mixing models.

  9. Electrical properties of polycrystalline methane hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Frane, W. L.; Stern, L.A.; Weitemeyer, K.A.; Constable, S.; Pinkston, J.C.; Roberts, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) remote-sensing techniques are demonstrated to be sensitive to gas hydrate concentration and distribution and complement other resource assessment techniques, particularly seismic methods. To fully utilize EM results requires knowledge of the electrical properties of individual phases and mixing relations, yet little is known about the electrical properties of gas hydrates. We developed a pressure cell to synthesize gas hydrate while simultaneously measuring in situ frequency-dependent electrical conductivity (σ). Synthesis of methane (CH4) hydrate was verified by thermal monitoring and by post run cryogenic scanning electron microscope imaging. Impedance spectra (20 Hz to 2 MHz) were collected before and after synthesis of polycrystalline CH4 hydrate from polycrystalline ice and used to calculate σ. We determined the σ of CH4 hydrate to be 5 × 10−5 S/m at 0°C with activation energy (Ea) of 30.6 kJ/mol (−15 to 15°C). After dissociation back into ice, σ measurements of samples increased by a factor of ~4 and Ea increased by ~50%, similar to the starting ice samples.

  10. Low sintering temperature and high piezoelectric properties of Li-doped (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Zr)O3 lead-free ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Ruan, Xuezheng; Zhao, Kunyun; He, Xueqing; Zeng, Jiangtao; Li, Yongsheng; Zheng, Liaoying; Park, Chul Hong; Li, Guorong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Li-doped Ba 0.85 Ca 0.15 Ti 0.9 Zr 0.1 O 3 (BCZT) lead-free piezoceramics were prepared by the two-step synthesis and solid-state reaction method. • Their sintering temperature decreases from about 1540 °C down to about 1400 °C. • With the proper addition of Li, the densities and grain sizes of ceramics increase. • The ceramics not only have the characteristics of hard piezoceramics but also possesses the features of soft piezoceramics at low sintering temperature. - Abstract: Li-doped Ba 0.85 Ca 0.15 Ti 0.9 Zr 0.1 O 3 (BCZT) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the two-step synthesis and the solid-state reaction method. The density and grain size of ceramics sufficiently increases by Li-doped sintering aid, and their sintering temperature decreases from about 1540 °C down to about 1400 °C. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phase structure of Li-doped BCTZ ceramics is changed with the sintering temperature, which is consistent with their phase transition observed by the temperature-dependent dielectric curves. The well-poled Li-doped BCZT ceramics show a high piezoelectric constant d 33 (512 pC/N) and a planar electromechanical coupling factor k p (0.49), which have the characteristics of soft Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) piezoceramic, on the other hand, the mechanical quality factor Q m is about 190, which possesses the features of hard PZT piezoceramics. The enhanced properties of the Li-doped BCZT are explained by the combination of Li-doped effect and sintering effect on the microstructure and the phase transition around room temperature

  11. Effect of sintering temperature on physical, structural and optical properties of wollastonite based glass-ceramic derived from waste soda lime silica glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasri, Karima Amer; Sidek, Hj. Ab Aziz; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd

    The impact of different sintering temperatures on physical, optical and structural properties of wollastonite (CaSiO3) based glass-ceramics were investigated for its potential application as a building material. Wollastonite based glass-ceramics was provided by a conventional melt-quenching method and followed by a controlled sintering process. In this work, soda lime silica glass waste was utilized as a source of silicon. The chemical composition and physical properties of glass were characterized by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Archimedes principle. The Archimedes measurement results show that the density increased with the increasing of sintering temperature. The generation of CaSiO3, morphology, size and crystal phase with increasing the heat-treatment temperature were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transforms infrared reflection spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average calculated crystal size gained from XRD was found to be in the range 60 nm. The FESEM results show a uniform distribution of particles and the morphology of the wollastonite crystal is in relict shapes. The appearance of CaO, SiO2, and Ca-O-Si bands disclosed from FTIR which showed the formation of CaSiO3 crystal phase. In addition to the calculation of the energy band gap which found to be increased with increasing sintering temperature.

  12. Sintering behavior and dielectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics with glass addition for internal capacitor of LTCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, H.-I [Particulate Materials Research Center, Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsingi@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Hsi, C.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Huang, C.-C.; Fu, S.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaoshiung, Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-14

    The addition effects of ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (ZBS) glass on both the sintering behavior and dielectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3} were investigated in developing low-temperature-fired BaTiO{sub 3}-based ceramics for LTCC devices. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a dilatometer were used to examine the effect of ZBS glass on BaTiO{sub 3} densification and the chemical reaction between the glass and BaTiO{sub 3}. The results indicate that ZBS glass can be used as a sintering aid to reduce the sintering temperature of BaTiO{sub 3} from 1300 to 900 deg. C without secondary phase formation. The dielectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3} with ZBS glass sintered at 900 deg. C show a relative density of 95%, a high dielectric constant of 994, and a dielectric loss of 1.6%.

  13. Microstructure and property evolution of isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB magnets fabricated from nanocrystalline ribbons by spark plasma sintering and hot deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z W; Huang, H Y; Yu, H Y; Zhong, X C; Zeng, D C [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gao, X X; Zhu, J, E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-01-19

    Isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB magnets were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and SPS+HD (hot deformation), respectively, using melt-spun ribbons as the starting materials. Spark plasma sintered magnets sintered at low temperatures (<700 {sup 0}C) almost maintained the uniform fine grain structure inherited from rapid quenching. At higher temperatures, due to the local high-temperature field caused by the spark plasma discharge, the grain growth occurred at the initial particle surfaces and the coarse grain zones formed in the vicinity of the particle boundaries. Since the interior of the particles maintained the fine grain structure, a distinct two-zone structure was formed in the spark plasma sintered magnets. The SPS temperature and pressure have important effects on the widths of coarse and fine grain zones, as well as the grain sizes in two zones. The changes in grain structure led to variations in the magnetic properties. By employing low SPS temperature and high pressure, high-density magnets with negligible coarse grain zone and an excellent combination of magnetic properties can be obtained. An anisotropic magnet with a maximum energy product of {approx}30 MG Oe was produced by the SPS+HD process. HD at 750 {sup 0}C did not lead to obvious grain growth and the two-zone structure still existed in the hot deformed magnets. Intergranular exchange coupling was demonstrated in the spark plasma sintered magnets and was enhanced by the HD process, which reduced the coercivity. Good temperature stability was manifested by low temperature coefficients of remanence and coercivity. The results indicated that nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets without significant grain growth and with excellent properties could be obtained by SPS and HD processes.

  14. Zirconium Carbide Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering and Hot Pressing: Densification Kinetics, Grain Growth, and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialu Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS has been employed to consolidate a micron-sized zirconium carbide (ZrC powder. ZrC pellets with a variety of relative densities are obtained under different processing parameters. The densification kinetics of ZrC powders subjected to conventional hot pressing and SPS are comparatively studied by applying similar heating and loading profiles. Due to the lack of electric current assistance, the conventional hot pressing appears to impose lower strain rate sensitivity and higher activation energy values than those which correspond to the SPS processing. A finite element simulation is used to analyze the temperature evolution within the volume of ZrC specimens subjected to SPS. The control mechanism for grain growth during the final SPS stage is studied via a recently modified model, in which the grain growth rate dependence on porosity is incorporated. The constant pressure specific heat and thermal conductivity of the SPS-processed ZrC are determined to be higher than those reported for the hot-pressed ZrC and the benefits of applying SPS are indicated accordingly.

  15. Electrical properties of covalently functionalized graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Plachinda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have employed first-principle calculations to study transformation of graphene’s electronic structure under functionalization by covalent bonds with di erent atomic and molecular groups - epoxies, amines, PFPA. It is shown that this functionalization leads to an opening in the graphene’s band gap on order of tens meV, but also leads to reduction of electrical conductivity. We also discuss the influence of charge exchange between the functionalizing molecule and graphene’s conjugated electrons on electron transport properties.

  16. Study on the sintered characteristics and properties of nanostructured WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co hard metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien, E-mail: changsh@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ming-Hung [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuo-Tsung [Department of Auto-Mechanics, National Kangshan Agricultural Industrial Senior High School, Kaohsiung 82049, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, four different vacuum sintering temperatures (1250 °C, 1300 °C, 1350 °C and 1400 °C) were studied to determine the optimal process parameters of nano WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co sintered hard metal alloys. Experimental results showed that the optimal sintering temperatures for nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co alloys were 1300 °C and 1350 °C for 1 h, respectively. The sintered nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co hard metal alloys showed a good contiguity of 0.44 and 0.42; hardness was enhanced to HRA 90.83 and 90.92; the transverse rupture strength (TRS) increased to 2567.97 and 2860.08 MPa; and K{sub IC} was 16.23 and 12.33 MPa√m, respectively. Although the nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys possessed a slightly lower TRS value, they exhibited superior fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) and hardness similar to that of the nano WC–Co material. Significantly, nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys could be sintered at a lower temperature and still retained their excellent mechanical properties. - Graphical abstract: The following figure shows the fracture morphology of the WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co specimens by means of high-magnification SEM after the K{sub IC} tests. Fig. a shows that numerous binder phases (Fe–Ni–Co) existed in the crack areas, which resisted the penetration and extension of the cracks. Due to the bridging effect of the binder phase, the stress concentration of the crack tip will be resolved through plastic deformation; thus, the cracks did not continue to extend. Once the deformation reaches a critical value, the crack propagation occurs. Meanwhile, the binder phase can link together the two crack faces through the bridging process. Although parts of the cracked areas also showed the bridging effect in the WC–Co specimens, as shown by the arrows (Fig. b), the crack propagation path was not obviously affected. This result corresponds to the tortuosity phenomenon. Consequently, the bridging process

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of CNT-Reinforced AZ31 Matrix Composites Prepared Using Hot-Press Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqun; Wu, Ruizhi; Hou, Legan; Zhang, Jinghuai; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhang, Milin

    2017-11-01

    AZ31 matrix composites reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated using hot-press sintering. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites (denoted as Mg-3wt.%Al-1wt.%Zn- xwt.%CNTs, x = 0-1.5) were investigated. The results showed that the elastic modulus, yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the composites were significantly improved when compared with the matrix alloy AZ31. Of the tested composites Mg-3wt.%Al-1wt.%Zn-1.0wt.%CNTs exhibited the most favorable mechanical properties: compared with Mg-3wt.%Al-1wt.%Zn, the elastic modulus improved by 25.85%, yield strength increased by 23.48%, and tensile strength and elongation showed 19.35 and 48.23% improvement, respectively. The fracture surface of the Mg-3wt.%Al-1wt.%Zn-CNTs composites displayed features of brittle fracture, which suggests that CNTs do not markedly enhance the plasticity of AZ31.

  18. Effects of LaB{sub 6} additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a sintered and hot worked P/M Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Jia; Gabbitas, Brian, E-mail: briang@waikato.ac.nz; Yang, Fei; Raynova, Stella; Lu, Huiyang

    2016-07-25

    A trace amount of LaB{sub 6} powder was added to P/M Ti and Ti–6Al–4V alloy to improve mechanical properties and refine the microstructure. After sintering, TiB whiskers and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids had formed in the microstructure. In a CP Ti alloy, the generation of secondary phases leads to a much refined microstructure, but the alignment of TiB whiskers led to a variation in mechanical properties. Open die forging (ODF) or powder compact extrusion (PCE) was carried out on sintered Ti–6Al–4V alloy to further improve the mechanical properties. This caused severe deformation and re-alignment of the TiB whiskers. Comparing the properties of hot worked Ti–6Al–4V alloy and Ti–6Al–4V alloy with boron additions, an addition of LaB{sub 6} leads to slightly lower strength but gives significant better ductility. - Highlights: • LaB{sub 6} powder was added to sintered and hot worked Ti and Ti–6Al–4V alloy. • TiB whiskers and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids formed in the microstructure. • Different alignments of TiB{sub w} led to a variation in mechanical properties. • Hot working caused severe deformation and re-alignment of TiB{sub w}. • An addition of LaB{sub 6} is better than pure boron additions.

  19. Electrical conductivity of titanium pyrophosphate between 100 and 400 °C: effect of sintering temperature and phosphorus content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Alberto; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hallinder, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of titanium pyrophosphate is carried out, and the material is sintered at different temperatures between 370 and 970 °C. Yttrium is added during the synthesis to act as acceptor dopant, but it is mainly present in the material in secondary phases. The conductivity is studied systema...... at 300–390 °C. Slow loss of phosphorus by evaporation over time and changes in the distribution of the amorphous phase during testing are suggested as causes of conductivity degradation above 220 °C.......The synthesis of titanium pyrophosphate is carried out, and the material is sintered at different temperatures between 370 and 970 °C. Yttrium is added during the synthesis to act as acceptor dopant, but it is mainly present in the material in secondary phases. The conductivity is studied...... to an amorphous secondary phase at the grain boundaries, associated with the presence of excess phosphorus in the samples. A contribution to the conductivity by point defects in the bulk may explain the conductivity trend in dry air and the difference in conductivity between oxidizing and reducing atmospheres...

  20. Effects of sintering process on wear and mechanical behavior properties of titanium carbide/hexagonal boron nitrid/steel 316L base nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadooghi, Ali; Payganeh, Gholamhassan

    2018-02-01

    Powder metallurgy process is one of the approaches to manufacture nanocomposite samples, in which the product quality depends upon the pressure, temperature, and sintering time. In this manuscript, steel is selected as the base material together with 2% carbon-based reinforcing TiC particles, and 2% hBN particles as the self-lubricant material. The powders were mixed for 5 h in high ball milling, and compacted with two pressures of 350 and 450 MPa, sintered in the furnace for 2 and 4 h, and sintering temperatures of 1350 and 1450 °C were utilized. SEM, XRD, and EDX tests are performed to identify the nanocomposite structure, and DTA tests are carried out to specify the temperature graph of the material. Finally, hardness, wear, and bending tests are done to find the corresponding mechanical properties of the samples. As a result, the optimum process parameters, including pressure, temperature and sintering duration is achieved. Results show that adding the reinforcing particles into a steel matrix increase the hardness, as well as flexural strength of the nanocomposite product. Also, coefficient of friction shows a decreases.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Highly Alloyed FeCrMoVC Steel Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Jun, Joong-Hwan; Lee, Min-Ha; Shon, In-Jin; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we successfully fabricated highly alloyed FeCrMoVC specimens within 2 min by using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The densities of the sintered specimens were almost identical to their theoretical values. Fine (Mo, V)-rich carbides with lamellar structure were precipitated along the grain boundaries of the as-sintered specimen, whereas relatively large carbides were formed additionally in the transgranular region during the tempering treatment. Compared with the specimen produced by a conventional casting method, the FeCrMoVC specimens from SPS showed smaller grain size with finer carbides and higher hardness values.

  2. Effect of aluminum addition on electrical properties, dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of aluminum addition on electrical properties, dielectric characteristics, and its stability of (Pr, Co, Cr, Y)-added zinc oxide-based varistors. Choon-W Nahm. Electrical Properties Volume 33 Issue 3 June 2010 pp 239-245 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714, Republic of Korea ...

  3. Effect of material, process parameters, and simulated body fluids on mechanical properties of 13-93 bioactive glass porous constructs made by selective laser sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C; Hilmas, Gregory E; Velez, Mariano

    2012-09-01

    The effect of particle size distribution, binder content, processing parameters, and sintering schedule on the microstructure and mechanical properties of porous constructs was investigated. The porous constructs were produced by indirect selective laser sintering (SLS) of 13-93 bioactive glass using stearic acid as a polymeric binder. The binder content and d(50) particle size in the feedstock powders were simultaneously reduced from 22 to 12 wt% and from 20 to 11 μm, respectively, to identify the minimum binder content required for the SLS fabrication. An average particle size of ∼16 μm with a binder content of 15 wt% significantly reduced post-processing time and improved mechanical properties. Increasing the laser power and scan speed at the energy density of 1 cal/cm² maintained the feature sharpness of the parts during the fabrication of green parts and could almost double the mechanical properties of the sintered parts. Changes in the heating rates, ranging from 0.1 to 2 °C/min, during the post-processing of the fabricated "green" scaffolds showed that the heating rate significantly affects the densification and mechanical properties of the sintered scaffolds. The compressive strength of the scaffolds manufactured with the optimized parameters varied from 41 MPa, for a scaffold with a porosity of ∼50%, to 157 MPa, for a dense part. The bioactive scaffolds soaked in simulated body fluids for durations up to 6 weeks were used to evaluate the change in mechanical properties in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sintering and Electrical Characterization of La and Nb Co‐doped SrTiO3 Electrode Materials for Solid Oxide Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Agersted, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Single‐phase lanthanum and niobium co‐doped strontium titanate (Sr1–3x/2LaxTi0.9Nb0.1O3; x = 0–0.02) ceramics were prepared. Dilatometry in reducing atmosphere showed an increase in the sintering rate and sintered density with an increase in La amount. Microscopy of fractured surfaces of sintered...

  5. CdS sintered films: growth and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monika; Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, L.M.; Sharma, T.P.; Husain, M.

    2004-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide finds extensive applications in a variety of optoelectronic devices. CdS, with a band gap of 2.43 eV, is a suitable window material in heterojunction solar cells that employ CdTe, Cu 2 S or CuInSe 2 as an absorber. Polycrystalline films of CdS, thickness ∼15 μm, were grown onto chemically clean and optically plane glass substrates by sintering process. A 10 min sintering time and 500 deg. C sintering temperature were found to be optimum. As deposited films were characterized through optical, structural and electrical transport properties using optical reflection spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and I-V characteristics techniques

  6. Microstructure characteristic and excellent corrosion protection properties of sealed Zn-TiO{sub 2} composite coating for sintered NdFeB magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaokui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li Qing, E-mail: liqingd@swu.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang Shiyan; Liu Fang; Wang Shaoyin; Zhang Haixiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2010-04-09

    In this paper, a protective sealed Zn-TiO{sub 2} composite coating (SCC) was prepared on sintered NdFeB magnet by electrodeposition and sol-gel combined technique. For a comparison, unsealed Zn-TiO{sub 2} composite coating (UCC) was also studied. The surface morphologies of composite coating were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microstructure of composite coatings and structure of sealing layer were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, respectively. The anticorrosive properties of composite coatings in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The results of corrosion tests showed that due to the blocking effect of sealing layer, SCC could suppress the corrosion process by holding back the transfer or diffusion of corrosive medium, and therefore showed the excellent corrosion protection properties for sintered NdFeB magnet.

  7. Effects of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doping and sintering temperature on the dielectric properties of BaSrTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hong Wei; Chang, Chun Rui [College of Science, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei Province (China); Li, Yuan Liang [Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei Province (China); Yan, Chun Liang [Analysis and Testing Center, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei Province (China)

    2016-03-15

    Using BaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}, et al as crude materials, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dopant, Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} (BST) Ceramics of perovskite structure were prepared by solid state reaction method. We investigated the effects of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} -doping and sintering temperature on the dielectric properties of BaSrTiO{sub 3} ceramics. The experiment results show that: The amount of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} can increase the dielectric constant of the sample, with the doping amount increasing, the dielectric constant increases. The sintering temperature has also significant impact on the dielectric properties. The dielectric constant of the sample reaches its highest point at 1280 °C. (author)

  8. Magnetic properties and phase evolution of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with intergranular addition of Pr–Co alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chaoxiang; Chen, Renjie; Yin, Wenzong; Tang, Xu; Wang, Zexuan; Ju, Jinyun; Lee, Don; Yan, Aru

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties, thermal stability and phase evolution of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with intergranular addition of Pr–Co were investigated. The thermal stabilities of coercivity and remanence were simultaneously enhanced without heavy rare earth elements, resulting from the partial substitution of Pr for Nd and Co for Fe in matrix phase, respectively. After Pr–Co addition, RE-rich phase reduced and new phases containing Pr and Co, such as (NdPr) (FeCo) 2 (NdPr) 3 (FeCo) and (NdPr) 2 (FeCo) 17 phases, were formed. With the increase of Pr–Co addition amount, intrinsic coercivity firstly decreased sharply which was mainly caused by the formation of soft ferromagnetic (NdPr) (FeCo) 2 phase, and subsequently presented a remarkable recovery induced by the formation of non-magnetic (NdPr) 3 (FeCo) phase and transformation of (NdPr) (FeCo) 2 phase from ferromagnetic to non-magnetic. Due to the reduction of matrix phase proportion, the remanence decreased monotonously after the addition of Pr–Co for more than 10 wt. %. - Highlights: • The improved thermal stabilities of coercivity and remanence were obtained. • An abnormal remarkable recovery of coercivity was found. • The evolution of Co-containing phases was clarified.

  9. Magnetic properties and phase evolution of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with intergranular addition of Pr–Co alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chaoxiang [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Enginnering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Rare Earth Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Chen, Renjie, E-mail: chenrj@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Enginnering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Rare Earth Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yin, Wenzong; Tang, Xu; Wang, Zexuan; Ju, Jinyun [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Enginnering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Rare Earth Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Lee, Don [University of Dayton, Dayton OH (United States); Yan, Aru, E-mail: aruyan@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Enginnering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Rare Earth Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2016-06-15

    The magnetic properties, thermal stability and phase evolution of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with intergranular addition of Pr–Co were investigated. The thermal stabilities of coercivity and remanence were simultaneously enhanced without heavy rare earth elements, resulting from the partial substitution of Pr for Nd and Co for Fe in matrix phase, respectively. After Pr–Co addition, RE-rich phase reduced and new phases containing Pr and Co, such as (NdPr) (FeCo){sub 2} (NdPr){sub 3}(FeCo) and (NdPr){sub 2}(FeCo){sub 17} phases, were formed. With the increase of Pr–Co addition amount, intrinsic coercivity firstly decreased sharply which was mainly caused by the formation of soft ferromagnetic (NdPr) (FeCo){sub 2} phase, and subsequently presented a remarkable recovery induced by the formation of non-magnetic (NdPr){sub 3}(FeCo) phase and transformation of (NdPr) (FeCo){sub 2} phase from ferromagnetic to non-magnetic. Due to the reduction of matrix phase proportion, the remanence decreased monotonously after the addition of Pr–Co for more than 10 wt. %. - Highlights: • The improved thermal stabilities of coercivity and remanence were obtained. • An abnormal remarkable recovery of coercivity was found. • The evolution of Co-containing phases was clarified.

  10. Low temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of ZnTiNb2O8 ceramics with BaCu(B2O5) additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dongxiang; Dou Gang; Guo Mei; Gong Shuping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sintering temperature of ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramics with BCB was reduced to 950 deg. C. → The properties were dependent on densification, grain sizes and crystalline phases. → The ε r 32.56, Q x f = 20,100 GHz (f = 5.128 GHz) and τ f = -64.87 ppm/deg. C were achieved. → It represented very promising candidates as LTCC dielectric materials. - Abstract: The phases, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramics with BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) additions prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pure ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramic shows a high sintering temperature of about 1250 deg. C. However, it was found that the addition of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) lowered the sintering temperature of ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramics from above 1250 deg. C to 950 deg. C due to the BCB liquid-phase. The results showed that the microwave dielectric properties were strongly dependent on densification, crystalline phases and grain size. Addition of 3 wt% BCB in ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramics sintered at 950 deg. C afforded excellent dielectric properties of ε r = 32.56, Q x f = 20,100 GHz (f = 5.128 GHz) and τ f = -64.87 ppm/deg. C. These represent very promising candidates for LTCC dielectric materials.

  11. Study of electrical properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyacrylamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/boms/037/02/0273-0279. Keywords. PVP; PAM; conductivity; activation energy; relaxation time; electric modulus. Abstract. Electrical properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyacrylamide and their blend thin films have been investigated as ...

  12. Sintering techniques for microstructure control in ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Andrew T.

    Sintering techniques can be manipulated to enhance densification in difficult to sinter materials and to produce property enhancing microstructures. However, the interplay between materials, sintering techniques, and end properties is not fully understood in many material systems, and some fundamental aspects of sintering such as the nature of the effects of electric fields remains unknown. The processing property relationships were examined in two classes of materials; zirconium diboride ultra high temperature ceramic composites, and all solid lithium-ion battery phosphate materials. Investigation of zirconium diboride ceramics focused on the effects of zirconium carbide as a secondary or tertiary phase in ZrB2 and ZrB2 -- SiC. Addition of zirconium carbide was observed to increase flexural strength of composites up to 590MPa at 50wt% ZrC, significantly higher than the flexural strength of 380MPa observed in similarly prepared ZrB2 -- SiC. This difference was attributed to the absence of CTE mismatch induced residual stresses in the ZrB2 -- ZrC composites. A high temperature reaction between ZrB2 and TiC producing Zr1-xTixB2 -- ZrC composites was discovered and found to enhance densification while reducing the average grain size to as small as 1.4mum, lower than the starting powder size of 1.8mum. While a high flexural strength of 670MPa was observed, a strength dependence on the ZrC grain size indicative of CTE mismatch residual stresses was also seen. Finally, the oxidation and ablation resistance of ZrB2 -- ZrC -- SiC composites as a function of ZrC fraction and ZrC:SiC ratio was investigated. Above 5vol% ZrC, the oxidation and ablation resistance of the composites was significantly reduced due to ZrC oxidation, regardless of SiC content. While ZrC can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of the composite, the volume fraction must be kept low to avoid an undesirable reduction in the oxidation resistance. The influence of applied electrical fields

  13. Magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B sintered magnets produced from hydride powder and from partially and totally desorbed hydride power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, R.N.; Williams, A.J.; Abell, J.S.; Harris, I.R.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of a post-sintering heat treatment on the magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B based magnets has been studied. For particular processing conditions, annealing the Pr 16 Fe 76 B 8 magnets at 1000 deg C resulted in an increase in an increase in iHc from 14.9 to around 17.5 kOe. The magnetic properties, before and after annealing, of magnets prepared from this standard HD powder were compared with those of samples prepared from partially and totally desorbed HD powder. Sintered magnets prepared from the hydrided powder exhibit a superior intrinsic coercivity compared to that of magnets prepared from the totally desorbed powder. However, the remanence and energy product of the latter are significantly higher. The squareness factor (0.93) has been improved considerably and good overall magnetic properties (Br∼11.7 kG, (BH) max ∼35.2 MGOe and iHc∼15.2 kOe) have been achieved for the sintered magnet prepared from partially desorbed powder. (author)

  14. Engineering electrical properties of graphene: chemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Yuna; Hong, Byung Hee; Novoselov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the high performance of graphene-based devices, it is necessary to engineer the electrical properties of graphene with enhanced conductivity, controlled work function, opened or closed bandgaps, etc. This can be performed by various non-covalent chemical approaches, including molecular adsorption, substrate-induced doping, polymerization on graphene, deposition of metallic thin films or nanoparticles, etc. In addition, covalent approaches such as the substitution of carbon atoms with boron or nitrogen and the functionalization with hydrogen or fluorine are useful to tune the bandgaps more efficiently, with better uniformity and stability. In this review, representative examples of chemically engineered graphene and its device applications will be reviewed, and remaining challenges will be discussed. (topical review)

  15. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of gallium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, Lorraine Barbara

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes novel research carried out on two related topics, the electrical properties of n and p-type GaN and the use of GaN in the fabrication of UV photodetectors. The electrical properties of GaN were assessed mainly by Hall effect measurements, which play a crucial role in the determination of the concentration of shallow electrically active impurities and defects. Most of the Hall effect measurements were carried out on Si and unintentionally doped GaN layers grown on sapphire substrates using a Varian Modular Gen II MBE machine equipped with an Oxford Applied Research CARS25 RF or HD25 RF nitrogen source to supply the active nitrogen. It was necessary to consider parallel conduction in two channels to interpret the temperature dependent Hall effect characteristics of the highest purity layers. Parallel conduction was found to influence the transport properties of these layers even at room temperature and give rise to an increased compensation ratio. The impurity band was found to be located at 23 ± 7 meV below the conduction band in layers containing impurity densities less than 3.8 x 10 18 cm -3 but was found to broaden with increasing impurity content, reducing the activation energy to 5 ± 3 meV in layers containing impurity densities greater than ∼4.5 x 10 18 cm -3 . Doping studies were conducted on Mg doped GaN layers grown on sapphire substrates using the MBE and MOVPE growth techniques. The effect of the growth parameters on Mg incorporation was determined using SIMS and Hall effect measurements for the MBE samples sets. P-type conductivity was successfully demonstrated in Mg doped layers grown under nitrogen rich conditions with layer thickness greater than 0.9 μm using the CARS25 RF source. The highest hole density, p H and mobility, μ H of 9.6 x 10 17 cm -3 and 5.4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 respectively were recorded in the thickest layer grown (1.56 μm). P-type doping studies were also carried out on Mg doped GaN layers grown on GaAs (111)B

  16. Magnetic and Electric Properties of , ( Layered Perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric and magnetic properties of layered perovskites have been investigated systematically over the doping range . It was found that both Sr1.5Y0.5CoO4 and Sr1.4Y0.6CoO4 undergo ferromagnetic (FM transition around 145 K and 120 K, respectively. On the other hand, Sr1.3Y0.7CoO4 and Sr1.2Y0.8CoO4 compounds showed paramagnetic behavior over a wide range of temperatures. In addition, spin-glass transition ( was observed at 10 K for Sr1.3Y0.7CoO4. All investigated samples are semiconducting-like within the temperature range of 10–300 K. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity, , was described by two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH model at 50 K < ≤ 300 K. Comparison with other layered perovskites was discussed in this work.

  17. Electrical properties of silver and lithium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterycz, H.; Nitsch, K.; Wisniewski, K.

    2000-01-01

    Silver based superionic conductors are very interesting materials. They have high conductivity at much lower temperatures than their melting points. The possibilities of application of a thick film technology in the fabrication of a solid electrolyte sensors were investigated. In this article, an examination od electrical parameters of superionic conductor based on silver and lithium sulfates are shown in a wide range of temperatures. The measurements were made in order to define physic-chemical properties of these materials. Ag 2 SO 4 /Li 2 SO 4 solid state electrolytes could be used in the potentiometric thick film SO 2 /SO 3 sensor. Double electrode and complete three electrode sensor were made in the thick film technology. AC measurements were applied to estimate the conductance and activation energy of different solid state electrolytes. The value of activation energy is the same for all investigated compositions apart from pure lithium sulfate. The electric parameters of the presented thick film structure of galvanic cell were stable during the reported measurements. (author)

  18. Electrical and mechanical properties of crosslinked polyanilines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, O. (Technical Research Lab., Tomoegawa Paper Co., Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)); Kiyohara, O. (Technical Research Lab., Tomoegawa Paper Co., Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)); Morita, S. (Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)); Yoshino, K. (Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan))

    1993-03-22

    Crosslinked polyanilines were prepared by three different methods, and their electrical and mechanical properties were evaluated. The first method is to crosslink between the main chains of polyaniline by heating. The second is to crosslink by forming hydrogen bond between polyanilines (being a gel state) and crystallization. The last is tc crosslink at the N-position of polyanilines using isocyanate terminated 1,2-polybutadiene as a crosslinking agent. Every crosslinked polyaniline obtained form a self-standing film, and the films show increase of about ten orders of magnitude in the electric conductivity by doping and decrease in the activation energy. Especially, these tendencies are remarkable in the film prepared from the gel state (the second method). The conductivity of the film prepared from the third method is in the same level with the other films in spite of containing polybutadiene 33wt% in the film. In all films, the temperature dependence of dynamic modulus is very small. Particularly, the modulus of the film firmed from the second method is less dependent on temperature in the range of -150 C to 350 C. (orig.)

  19. Electrical and magnetic properties of new copper arylcarboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Senida; Rys, Paul; Rys, Franz S.; Sanjinez, Rosendo; Peter Straumann, Hans

    1992-02-01

    The magnetic and electrical properties of new copper arylcarboxylates are presented. Special emphasis on copper(II) terephthalate trihydrate (CuTT) is given, and the magnetic and electrical properties are correlated with the crystal structure, recently determined by us. We have obtained new conductor materials by partial reduction of CuTT. The properties of these new compounds are discussed.

  20. Synergistic Sintering of Lignite Fly Ash and Steelmaking Residues towards Sustainable Compacted Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Karayannis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of value-added ceramic materials deriving only from industrial by-products is particularly interesting from technological, economic, and environmental point of views. In this work, the synergistic sintering of ternary and binary mixtures of fly ash, steelmaking electric arc furnace dust, and ladle furnace slag for the synthesis of compacted ceramics is reported. The sintered specimens’ microstructure and mineralogical composition were characterized by SEM-EDS and XRD, respectively. Moreover, the shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption, and Vickers microhardness (HV were investigated at different sintering temperatures and raw material compositions. The characterization of the sintered compacts revealed the successful consolidation of the ceramic microstructures. According to the experimental findings, the ceramics obtained from fly ash/steel dust mixtures exhibited enhanced properties compared to the other mixtures tested. Moreover, the processing temperature affected the final properties of the produced ceramics. Specifically, a 407% HV increase for EAFD and a 2221% increase for the FA-EAFD mixture were recorded, by increasing the sintering temperature from 1050 to 1150°C. Likewise, a 972% shrinkage increase for EAFD and a 577% shrinkage increase for the FA-EAFD mixture were recorded, by increasing the sintering temperature from 1050 to 1150°C. The research results aim at shedding more light on the development of sustainable sintered ceramics from secondary industrial resources towards circular economy.

  1. Innovative processing for improved electrical steel properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrical steel grades are the normal construction material for electrical motors and transformers because of their enhanced soft magnetic properties. One of the current trends in their production aims for increasing the silicon and/or aluminum concentration (above 3 wt % to reduce magnetic losses through increased electrical resistivity. This is very difficult to realize by conventional processing, mainly because of cracking during cold rolling. An alternative production route is proposed that raises the silicon and/or aluminum concentration by surface deposition of silicon and/or aluminum on a low-Si/low-Al steel substrate, e.g. by a short immersion in a molten Al-Si bath, followed by its diffusion into the bulk during subsequent annealing. This diffusion substantially modifies the microstructural features and therefore affects the mechanical and magnetic properties. Results of research efforts to optimize this production route and to understand the mechanisms and effects of the structural changes are presented and discussed.Los aceros eléctricos se usan, normalmente, en la construcción de motores eléctricos y transformadores debido a sus suaves propiedades magnéticas. Una de las tendencias actuales es producir aceros con contenidos mayores de silicio y/o aluminio (por encima de un 3 %, en peso para reducir las pérdidas magnéticas a través del incremento de la resistividad eléctrica. Una de las desventajas de producir este tipo de aceros con altos contenidos de silicio y/o aluminio es el agrietamiento producido en el material durante el proceso de laminado en frío. Para incrementar el contenido de silicio y/o aluminio en aceros con bajos contenidos de estos elementos de aleación, se sugiere un procedimiento alternativo de producción que se basa, fundamentalmente, en depositar un recubrimiento rico en silicio y/o aluminio, en la superficie del acero. Por ejemplo, uno de los métodos utilizados es sumergir el material en una aleaci

  2. Microstructure and Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Becker, H.; Dopita, M.; Stráská, J.; Málek, P.; Vilémová, Monika; Rafaja, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2015), s. 602-605 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials (ISPMA) /13./. Prague, 31.08.2014-04.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : mechanical properties * alloy ing elements Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  3. The sintering of nitrogen ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampshire, S.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of densification with oxide additives and the role of the ..cap alpha..-BETA phase transformation is investigated in a detailed kinetic study. Selected compositions in the Si-Al-O-N system are detailed, with and without additives. Although the work is mainly concerned with the identification of the mechanisms of sintering, some property measurements on a sintered BETA-sialon are reported and the feasibility of preparing pure ..cap alpha..-sialon phases is explored.

  4. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Tae [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-In [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seil [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Jae [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116 (Korea, Republic of); Choa, Yong-Ho, E-mail: choa15@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Hydrogen thermally- and plasma- treatments are applied to reduce and sinter the inkjet-printed copper patterns at low temperature. • Plasma sintered Cu patterns have fully densified microstructure with the resistivity of 3.23 μW cm. • Cu conductive track with dense microstructure remains its electrical resistivity after 1 month. • Thermal sintered Cu patterns show a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. - Abstract: Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  5. Densification and mechanical properties of ZrO{sub 2}-CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} composites obtained by reaction sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruni, Yesica; Aglietti, Esteban [CONICET - Centro Cientifico Tecnologico (CCT) La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC); Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas; Booth, Fernando; Garrido, Liliana [CONICET - Centro Cientifico Tecnologico (CCT) La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC)

    2016-09-15

    Composites of the ZrO{sub 2}-CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system exhibit high corrosion resistance and high chemical stability, these being suitable properties for enhanced performance as refractories. In this work composites based on ZrO{sub 2}-CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} (CA{sub 2}) were developed by reaction sintering of two pure ZrO{sub 2} powders with different particle size (d{sub 50} = 0.44 μm and d{sub 50} = 8 μm) mixed with high-alumina cement. The effects of CaO to ZrO{sub 2} molar ratio, particle size of ZrO{sub 2} and sintering temperature on densification, c-ZrO{sub 2} formation, microstructure and mechanical properties (Vickers hardness, dynamic Young's modulus and compressive strength) were determined. Porosity and mean pore size of composites reduced with decreasing both particle size of ZrO{sub 2} and CaO content. The highest compression strength of ∝350 MPa and hardness of 6 GPa corresponded to dense ZrO{sub 2}-based composite with 15 vol.% CA{sub 2} sintered at 1400 C.

  6. Effect of Partial Substitution of Neodymium with Praseodymium on the Magnetic and Process Properties of Sintered Magnets of Type NdFeB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormidontov, N. A.; Dormidontov, A. G.; Lileev, A. S.; Kamynin, A. V.; Lukin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of substitution of neodymium with praseodymium in sintered magnets of type NdFeB on their magnetic and process properties in the concentration range of [Pr] = 0 - 13 wt.% is studied. The special features of milling of the alloys, sintering processes and heat treatments in the production of magnets containing praseodymium are discussed. Hysteresis characteristics of B r ≥ 1.2 T, H cJ ≥ 1200 kA/m, H cb ≥ 880 kA/m, H k ≥ 960 kA/m, and BH max ≥ 280 kJ/m3 are obtained for magnets with composition (in wt.%) 33 Nd, 10 Pr, 1.5 (Ti + Al + Cu), 1.3 B, the remainder Fe.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline high strength Al-Mg-Si (AA6061) alloy by high energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Jatinkumar Kumar; Sivaprahasam, D.; Seetharama Raju, K.; Subramanya Sarma, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al-Mg-Si based AA6061 alloy obtained by high energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering were reported. Gas atomized microcrystalline powder of AA6061 alloy was ball milled under wet condition at room temperature to obtain nanocrystalline powder with grain size of ∼30 nm. The nanocrystalline powder was consolidated to fully dense compacts by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 500 deg. C. The grain size after SPS consolidation was found to be ∼85 nm. The resultant SPS compacts exhibited microhardness of 190-200 HV 100g , compressive strength of ∼800 MPa and strain to fracture of ∼15%.

  8. Effect of BaCu(B2O5) additive on the sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of BaTi4O9 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong-Bong; Kim, Min-Han; Kim, Jae-Chul; Nahm, Sahn; Paik, Jong-Hoo; Kim, Jong-Hee

    2006-01-01

    BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) (BCB) additive was used to decrease the sintering temperature of the BaTi 4 O 9 ceramics. The amount of Ba 4 Ti 13 O 30 second phase increased with the addition of BCB, whereas that of the BaTi 4 O 9 phase decreased. The bulk density and dielectric constant (ε γ ) considerably increased with the addition of BCB. An increase in the Q-value was also observed for the BaTi 4 O 9 ceramics with a small amount of BCB. Good microwave dielectric properties with values of ε γ =32, Q x f 10800 GHz and τ f =32 ppm/degC were obtained in the BaTi 4 O 9 ceramics with 12.0 mol% of BCB sintered at 875degC for 2h. (author)

  9. Alloying Behavior and Properties of FeSiBAlNiCo x High Entropy Alloys Fabricated by Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Li, Boyu; Zhai, Sicheng; Xu, Juan; Niu, Zuozhe; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, FeSiBAlNiCo x (x = 0.2, 0.8) high-entropy alloy (HEA) powders were fabricated by mechanical alloying process, and the powders milled for 140 h were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The microstructures and properties of as-milled powders and as-sintered samples were investigated. The results reveal that the final milling products (140 h) of both sample powders present the fully amorphous structure. The increased Co contents obviously enhance the glass forming ability and thermal stability of amorphous HEA powders, which are reflected by the shorter formation time of fully amorphous phase and the higher onset crystallization temperature, respectively. According to coercivity, the as-milled FeSiBAlNiCo x (x = 0.2, 0.8) powders (140 h) are the semi-hard magnetic materials. FeSiBAlNiCo0.8 HEA powders possess the highest saturation magnetization and largest remanence ratio. The SPS-ed products of both bulk HEAs are composed of body-centered cubic solid solution, and FeSi and FeB intermetallic phases. They possess the high relative density above 97% and excellent microhardness exceeding 1150 HV. The as-sintered bulks undergo the remarkable increase in saturation magnetization compared with the as-milled state. The SPS-ed FeSiBAlNiCo0.8 HEA exhibits the soft magnetic properties. The electrochemical corrosion test is carried out in 3.5% NaCl solution. The SPS-ed FeSiBAlNiCo0.2 HEA reveals the better passivity with low passive current density, and the higher pitting resistance with wide passive region.

  10. The role of the native oxide shell on the microwave sintering of copper metal powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Morsi M.; Link, Guido; Thumm, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin oxide native layer had a critical role on microwave sintering of copper. • Explain why microwaves interact with copper powder differently than its bulk. • Abnormal expansion in copper is due to the plastic deformation and crack formation. • In-situ setup gives important insight about the microwave sintering of metals. • Microwave sintering is a promising candidate technology in powder metallurgy. - Abstract: Successful microwave sintering of several metal powders had been reported by many researchers with remarkable improvements in the materials properties and/or in the overall process. However, the concept behind microwave heating of metal powders has not been fully understood till now, as it is well known that bulk metals reflect microwaves. The progress of microwave sintering of copper metal powder compacts was investigated via combining both in-situ electrical resistivity and dilatometry measurements that give important information about microstructural changes with respect to the inter-particle electrical contacts during sintering. The sintering behavior of copper metal powders was depending on the type of the gas used, particle size, the initial green density, the soaking sintering time and the thin oxide layer on the particles surfaces. The thin copper oxide native layer (ceramics) that thermodynamically formed on the particles surfaces under normal handling and ambient environmental conditions had a very critical and important role in the microwave absorption and interaction, the sintering behavior and the microstructural changes. This finding could help to have a fundamental understanding of why MW’s interact with copper metal powder in a different way than its bulk at room temperature, i.e. why a given metal powder could be heated using microwaves while its bulk reflects it

  11. Characterizations of Rapid Sintered Nanosilver Joint for Attaching Power Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Tao Feng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sintering of nanosilver paste has been extensively studied as a lead-free die-attach solution for bonding semiconductor power chips, such as the power insulated gated bipolar transistor (IGBT. However, for the traditional method of bonding IGBT chips, an external pressure of a few MPa is reported necessary for the sintering time of ~1 h. In order to shorten the processing duration time, we developed a rapid way to sinter nanosilver paste for bonding IGBT chips in less than 5 min using pulsed current. In this way, we firstly dried as-printed paste at about 100 °C to get rid of many volatile solvents because they may result in defects or voids during the out-gassing from the paste. Then, the pre-dried paste was further heated by pulse current ranging from 1.2 kA to 2.4 kA for several seconds. The whole procedure was less than 3 min and did not require any gas protection. We could obtain robust sintered joint with shear strength of 30–35 MPa for bonding 1200-V, 25-A IGBT and superior thermal properties. Static and dynamic electrical performance of the as-bonded IGBT assemblies was also characterized to verify the feasibility of this rapid sintering method. The results indicate that the electrical performance is comparable or even partially better than that of commercial IGBT modules. The microstructure evolution of the rapid sintered joints was also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. This work may benefit the wide usage of nanosilver paste for rapid bonding IGBT chips in the future.

  12. Crystal growth, electrical and photophysical properties of Tl2S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Tl2S compound was prepared in a single crystal form using a special local technique, and the obtained crystals were analysed by X-ray diffraction. For the resultant crystals, the electrical properties (electrical conductivity and Hall effect) and steady-state photoconductivity were elucidated in this work. The electrical ...

  13. Role of sintering time, crystalline phases and symmetry in the piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-modified ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Marcos, F., E-mail: frmarcos@icv.csic.es [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Marchet, P.; Merle-Mejean, T. [SPCTS, UMR 6638 CNRS, Universite de Limoges, 123, Av. A. Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Fernandez, J.F. [Electroceramic Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-01

    Lead-free KNN-modified piezoceramics of the system (Li,Na,K)(Nb,Ta,Sb)O{sub 3} were prepared by conventional solid-state sintering. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed a perovskite phase, together with some minor secondary phase, which was assigned to K{sub 3}LiNb{sub 6}O{sub 17}, tetragonal tungsten-bronze (TTB). A structural evolution toward a pure tetragonal structure with the increasing sintering time was observed, associated with the decrease of TTB phase. A correlation between higher tetragonality and higher piezoelectric response was clearly evidenced. Contrary to the case of the LiTaO{sub 3} modified KNN, very large abnormal grains with TTB structure were not detected. As a consequence, the simultaneous modification by tantalum and antimony seems to induce during sintering a different behaviour from the one of LiTaO{sub 3} modified KNN.

  14. Relations microstructure - magnetic properties - squareness factor of PrFeB and NdFeB sintered magnets prepared with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perigo, Elio Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In this work, it has firstly been evaluated the preparation of Pr 16 Fe 76 B 8 sintered permanent magnets (% at.) by means of high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill. The influence of both milling speed and time has been verified. The best magnetic properties [J R = (1.02 ± 0.02) T, μ 0J H c = (1.42 ± 0.03) T and (BH) max = (200 ± 4) kJm -3 ] have been found for a permanent magnet prepared with the magnetic alloy milled during 75 minutes using a rotational milling speed of 200 rpm. In order to improve the remanence, the hydrogen decrepitation process time has been reduced from 60 minutes to 2 minutes. In this case, it has been obtained a sintered magnet with J R = (1.14 ± 0.02) T, μ 0J H c = (1.44 ± 0.03) T and (BH) max = (250 ± 5) kJm -3 due to the improvement of crystallographic alignment of the hard magnetic phase. During such investigation, a new methodology to quantify the parameter has been developed. Subsequently, for the first time, a quantitative correlation between the microstructure and the squareness factor in anisotropic sintered RE 16 Fe 76 B 8 (RE = Nd or Pr) magnets has been proposed. The presented expression utilizes the mean size, the mean elongation and the mean roundness of the hard magnetic grains as well as their respective standard deviations. The squareness factor can be improved with a microstructure with rounder grains and with a sharp grain size distribution. The grain size homogeneity is more important to enhance the squareness factor compared to grain shape homogeneity. Furthermore, it has also been verified that the annealing after sintering improves the grain shape homogeneity and the milling enhances the grain size homogeneity. Moreover, the effect of the temperature on the squareness factor of anisotropic sintered magnets has also been evaluated. Such parameter is mainly controlled by the sample's microstructure, in agreement with the proposed expression. Furthermore, a quantitative correlation between the maximum

  15. Recoil curve properties and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp; Kitai, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Rintaro; Natsumeda, Toshimitsu; Hoshijima, Jun

    2013-11-15

    It is examined that whether a reverse domain and magnetic domain wall exist in a lower demagnetization area than the coercive force and whether the observed demagnetization ratio curve can be explained using the alignment distribution function or not. From measurements of the recoil curve in the low demagnetization field, it was confirmed that minor demagnetization occurred in every demagnetization field and magnets of every grade of coercive force. The alignment distribution of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains was also measured by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). The alignments and the coercive force decrease ratios were calculated using these alignment distributions. These data were compared against the results obtained from magnetization measurements. From EBSD data, it was found that the alignment distributions of magnets used in this experiment were close to a Gaussian distribution. It was also found that there was no difference in the alignment distribution between magnets with Dy and without Dy, even though the coercive force decrease ratios were Dy dependent. The calculated alignments using the alignment distribution functions were close to the values of magnetization measurements. However, it was found that the calculated coercive force decrease ratios were different from the results obtained from magnetization measurement. - Highlights: • Reverse magnetic domains already exist lower magnetic field than coercive force. • Demagnetization happens not only from surface but also from inside of magnets. • Calculated alignment agrees well with that of the magnetic properties measurement. • Coercive force decrease ratio could not explain from alignment distribution. • We could not find any difference with and without Dy magnets in alignment distribution.

  16. Spark plasma sintering and mechanical properties of $ZrO_{2} (Y_{2}O_{3})-Al_{2}O_{3}$ composites

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Sheng H; Dalla Torre, S; Miyamoto, H; Miyamoto, K

    2000-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was conducted on nanocrystalline ZrO/sub 2/(Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/)-20 mol% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ powder at a heat rate of 600 degrees C/min with a short holding time. Full density was obtained at sintering temperatures >1300 degrees C. Considerable grain growth occurred relative to the initial powder particles, but smaller grain size and higher density can be obtained as compared to hot-pressing. High flexural strength and fracture toughness were also achieved for the SPS-resulted composite. (8 refs).

  17. Report on in-situ studies of flash sintering of uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raftery, Alicia Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Flash sintering is a novel type of field assisted sintering that uses an electric field and current to provide densification of materials on very short time scales. The potential for field assisted sintering techniques to be used in producing nuclear fuel is gaining recognition due to the potential economic benefits and improvements in material properties. The flash sintering behavior has so far been linked to applied and material parameters, but the underlying mechanisms active during flash sintering have yet to be identified. This report summarizes the efforts to investigate flash sintering of uranium dioxide using dilatometer studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory and two separate sets of in-situ studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s NSLS-II XPD-1 beamline. The purpose of the dilatometer studies was to understand individual parameter (applied and material) effects on the flash behavior and the purpose of the in-situ studies was to better understand the mechanisms active during flash sintering. As far as applied parameters, it was found that stoichiometry, or oxygen-to-metal ratio, has a significant effect on the flash behavior (time to flash and speed of flash). Composite systems were found to have degraded sintering behavior relative to pure UO2. The critical field studies are complete for UO2.00 and will be analyzed against an existing model for comparison. The in-situ studies showed that the strength of the field and current are directly related to the sample temperature, with temperature-driven phase changes occurring at high values. The existence of an ‘incubation time’ has been questioned, due to a continuous change in lattice parameter values from the moment that the field is applied. Some results from the in-situ experiments, which should provide evidence regarding ion migration, are still being analyzed. Some preliminary conclusions can be made from these results with regard to using field assisted sintering to

  18. Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti3SiC2-TiC composites pulse discharge sintered from Ti/Si/TiC powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Wubian; Sun Zhengming; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Du Yulei

    2009-01-01

    Ti 3 SiC 2 -TiC composites with the volume fractions of TiC from 0 to 90% were fabricated by pulse discharge sintering (PDS) technique using Ti-Si-TiC as starting powders in the sintering temperature range of 1250-1400 deg. C. Phase content and microstructure of the synthesized samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The samples sintered at 1400 deg. C are almost fully dense for all compositions with relative density higher than 98%. The phase distribution in the synthesized samples is non-uniform. The Vickers hardness increases almost linearly with the volume fraction of TiC up to a value of 20.1 ± 1.4 GPa at 90 vol.% TiC. The flexural strength increases with the volume fraction of TiC to a maximum value of 655 ± 10 MPa at 50 vol.% TiC. The relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties is discussed.

  19. Tensile Properties and Fracture Characteristics of Nanostructured Copper and Cu-SiC Nanocomposite Produced by Mechanical Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarpour, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    The presence of large grains within nanometric and ultrafine grain matrix is an effective method in order to enhance strength while keeping the high ductility of metals. For this purpose, in this research, spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate milled Cu and Cu-SiC powders. In SPS process, local sparks with high temperature between particles take place and locally lead to intense grain growth, and therefore, this method has the ability to produce bimodal grain structures in copper and copper-based composites. Microstructural and mechanical studies showed ≈ 185 and ≈ 437 nm matrix grain sizes, high tensile yield strength values of ≈ 188.4 and ≈ 296.9 MPa, and fracture strain values of 15.1 and 6.7% for sintered Cu and Cu-4 vol.% SiC nanocomposite materials, respectively. The presence of nanoparticles promoted the occurrence of static recrystallization and decreased the fraction of coarse grains in microstructure. The high tensile properties of the produced materials are attributed to fine grain size, homogenous dispersion of nanoparticles and retarded grain boundary migration during sintering.

  20. Study on the mechanical properties, microstructure and corrosion behaviors of nano-WC–Co–Ni–Fe hard materials through HIP and hot-press sintering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien, E-mail: changsh@ntut.edu.tw; Chang, Po-Yu

    2014-11-17

    This study aims to explore a series of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and hot-press sintering processes in order to examine the effects on the mechanical properties, microstructures and corrosion behaviors of micro- and nano-WC materials. The experimental results showed that the transverse rupture strength (TRS) values of micro- and nano-WC increased to 1627.3 and 1842.7 MPa after 1250 °C, 125 MPa, 100 min HIP treatments, respectively. Meanwhile, the porosity decreased slightly. The corrosion test results also showed that HIP-treated micro- and nano-WC effectively improved corrosion resistance in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. In addition, the lowest porosity (0.21%), highest hardness (91.7 HRA) and highest K{sub IC} (14.7 MPa√m) values appeared in nano-WC after 1250 °C, 15 MPa, 1 h hot-press sintering. Moreover, the hot-press sintering procedure significantly inhibited the grain growth of the tungsten carbide materials.

  1. Phosphorus containing sintered alloys (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnik, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus additives are considered for their effect on the properties of sintered alloys of different applications: structural, antifriction, friction, magnetic, hard, superhard, heavy etc. Data are presented on compositions and properties of phosphorus-containing materials produced by the powder metallurgy method. Phosphorus is shown to be an effective activator of sintering in some cases. When its concentration in the material is optimal it imparts the material such properties as strength, viscosity, hardness, wear resistance. Problems concerning powder metallurgy of amorphous phosphorus-containing alloys are reported

  2. Thermoelectric transport properties of polycrystalline titanium diselenide co-intercalated with nickel and titanium using spark plasma sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgate, Tim; Zhu, S.; Zhou, M.

    2013-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of nickel intercalated (0–5%) TiSe2 were attempted via solid-state reaction in evacuated quartz tubes followed by densification using a spark plasma sintering process. X-ray diffraction data indicated that mixed NiSe2 and TiSe2 phases were present after initial synthesis b...

  3. Influence of Sintering Temperature on Mechanical and Physical properties of Mill Scale based Bipolar Plates for PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaerudini, Deni S.; Berliana, Rina; Prakoso, Gatra B.; Insiyanda, Dita R.; Alva, Sagir

    2018-03-01

    This work concerns the utilization of mill scale, a by-product of iron and steel formed during the hot rolling of steel, as a potential material for use as bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). On the other hand, mill scale is considered a very rich in iron source having characteristic required such as for current collector in bipolar plate and would significantly contribute to lower the overall cost of PEMFC based fuel cell systems. In this study, the iron reach source of mill scale powder, after sieving of 150 mesh, was mechanically alloyed with the aluminium source containing 30 wt.% using a shaker mill for 3 h. The mixed powders were then pressed at 300 MPa and sintered at various temperatures of 400, 450 and 500 °C for 1 h under inert gas atmosphere. The structural changes of powder particles during mechanical alloying and after sintering were studied by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), microhardness measurement, and density - porosity analysis. The details of the performance variation of three different sintering conditions can be preliminary explained by the metallographic and crystallographic structure and phase analysis as well as sufficient mechanical strength of the sintered materials was presented in this report.

  4. Fabrication and scintillation properties of highly transparent Pr:LuAG ceramics using Sc,La-based isovalent sintering aids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shen, Y.; Feng, X.; Babin, Vladimir; Nikl, Martin; Vedda, A.; Moretti, F.; Dell'Orto, E.; Pan, Y.; Li, J.; Zeng, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2013), s. 5985-5990 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12185; GA AV ČR KAN300100802 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pr:LuAG transparent ceramics * isovalent sintering aids * scintillation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2013

  5. High-slope photoconductive cells based on screen-printed and sintered cadmium sulfide; the long-term stability properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franc, Jiří; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2007), s. 2205-2210 ISSN 1454-4164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photoconductive cell * cadmium sulfide * sintering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2007

  6. Multiferroic properties of microwave sintered PbFe{sub 12−x}O{sub 19−δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prathap, S. [Ceramic Composite Laboratory, Centre for Crystal Growth, SAS, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhuri, W., E-mail: madhuriw12@gmail.com [Ceramic Composite Laboratory, Centre for Crystal Growth, SAS, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); IFW, Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The effect of iron deficiency on the structural, electrical, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of nano PbFe{sub 12-x}O{sub 19-δ} (where x=0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0) hexaferrites prepared by sol-gel auto combustion and processed by microwaves are investigated. X-ray analysis confirms single phase magneto-plumbite phase formation. The surface morphology is studied from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. Further, optical properties are investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared spectra and UV–visible spectra. AC electrical conductivity is estimated as a function of temperature and frequency in the range of room temperature (RT) to 500 °C and 100 Hz to 5MHz. AC electrical conduction analysis shows that conduction is mainly due to small polaron hopping mechanism. The variation of polarization with applied electric field exhibits hysteresis loop confirming the ferroelectric nature. The initial permeability studies with varying temperature reveals that the Curie transition temperature for the present series is around 400 °C. Variation of initial permeability with frequency ranging from 100 to 5 MHz shows a constant value (except for x=0.0) opening avenues for high frequency applications. - Highlights: • The nanoPbFe{sub 12-x}O{sub 19-δ} (x=0.0, -1.0) are prepared by sol-gel auto combustion and microwave heated. • The grain size is found to be varying between 40 nm and 80nm and crystallite size 11–45 nm. • The optical band gaps are found to be varying between 1.52 and 1.89 eV. • The highest saturation polarization (P{sub s}) of all the PMF is found to be ≈75 μC/cm{sup 2}.

  7. Field assisted sintering of refractory carbide ceramics and fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Sean

    The sintering behaviors of silicon carbide (SiC) and boron carbide (B4C) based materials were investigated using an emerging sintering technology known as field assisted sintering technology (FAST), also known as spark plasma sintering (SPS) and pulse electric current sintering (PECS). Sintering by FAST utilizes high density electric current, uniaxial pressure, and relatively high heating rate compared to conventional sintering techniques. This effort investigated issues of scaling from laboratory FAST system (25 ton capacity) to industrial FAST system (250 ton capacity), as well as exploring the difference in sintering behavior of single phase B4C and SiC using FAST and conventional sintering techniques including hot-pressing (HP) and pressure-less sintering (PL). Materials were analyzed for mechanical and bulk properties, including characterization of density, hardness, fracture toughness, fracture (bend) strength, elastic modulus and microstructure. A parallel investigation was conducted in the development of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) using SiC powder impregnation of fiber compacts followed by FAST sintering. The FAST technique was used to sinter several B4C and SiC materials to near theoretical density. Preliminary efforts established optimized sintering temperatures using the smaller 25 ton laboratory unit, targeting a sample size of 40 mm diameter and 8 mm thickness. Then the same B4C and SiC materials were sintered by the larger 250 ton industrial FAST system, a HP system, and PL sintering system with a targeted dense material geometry of 4 x 4 x 0.315 inches3 (101.6 x 101.6 x 8 mm3). The resulting samples were studied to determine if the sintering dynamics and/or the resulting material properties were influenced by the sintering technique employed. This study determined that FAST sintered ceramic materials resulted in consistently higher averaged values for mechanical properties as well as smaller grain size when compared to conventionally sintered

  8. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Cu/Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}/C/MWCNTs composites prepared by vacuum hot-pressing sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaosong, Jiang, E-mail: xsjiang@yeah.net [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Liu, Wanxia; Li, Jingrui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Shao, Zhenyi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chengdu Technological University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhu, Degui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Cu/Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}/C/MWCNTs composites were prepared using vacuum hot-pressing sintering. • Dispersions of MWCNTs were prepared using 10 μg/ml gallic acid aqueous solution. • MWCNTs content has no effect on generation of TiC and Cu{sub 9}Si to effect matrix’s performance. - Abstract: Cu/Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}/C/MWCNTs composites were prepared by vacuum hot-pressing sintering. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Cu/Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}/C/MWCNTs composites with different multi-walled carbon nanotubes contents have been systematically investigated. The microstructures of the composites were examined by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, back scattered electron imaging, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer. The mechanical properties were determined from Brinell hardness and tensile tests. The results demonstrated that there was an optimum value of MWCNTs content which has an impact on microstructures and mechanical properties of Cu/Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}/C/MWCNTs composites. Based on MWCNTs content on properties and microstructure of Cu/Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}/C/MWCNTs composites, effects of MWCNTs on improvement of the composites and strengthening mechanism have been analyzed.

  9. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Tae; Lee, Young-In; Kim, Seil; Lee, Kun-Jae; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  10. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr Intermetallic Alloys Produced by Electric Current Activated Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Y.; Ozdemir, O.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Ti-48Al and Ti-48Al-2Cr (at. pct) intermetallic alloys were produced by electric current activated sintering (ECAS). In order to characterize the phase formation and microstructures of these alloys, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were used. The XRD result shows that the intermetallic alloys are composed of γ-TiAl and α 2-Ti3Al phases. The microstructure is dense with a low amount of porosity. The hot corrosion behavior of intermetallic alloys was carried out in a salt mixture of 25 wt pct K2SO4 and 75 wt pct Na2SO4 at 700 °C for 180 hours. The morphology of corroded surfaces was observed by SEM-EDS and XRD. Corrosion phases were identified as TiO2 and Al2O3. Well-adhering oxide scale was detected on the corroded sample surface at the end of 180 hours, and no spallation was observed. In addition, a parabolic curve was obtained at the weight change rate vs time.

  11. Correlation between structural, electrical and magnetic properties of GdMnO3 bulk ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samantaray, S.; Mishra, D.K.; Pradhan, S.K.; Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B.R.; Behera, Debdhyan; Rout, P.P.; Das, S.K.; Sahu, D.R.; Roul, B.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on ferroelectric properties of GdMnO 3 (GMO) bulk ceramics at room temperature prepared by the conventional solid state reaction route following slow step sintering schedule. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop as well as sharp dielectric anomaly in pure (99.999%) GMO sintered ceramics has been clearly observed. Samples sintered at 1350 °C become orthorhombic with Pbnm space group and showed frequency independent sharp dielectric anomalies at 373 K and a square type of novel ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature. Interestingly, dielectric anomalies and ferroelectric behavior were observed to be dependent upon sintering temperature of GdMnO 3 . Room temperature dielectric constant (ε r ) value at different frequencies is observed to be abnormally high. The magnetic field and temperature dependent magnetization show antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K for both 1350 °C and 1700 °C sintered GMO. Present findings showed the possibility of application of GdMnO 3 at room temperature as multifunctional materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of single-phasic polycrystalline GdMnO 3 sample by the solid state sintering route. • Observation of square type P–E hysteresis loop with higher saturation and remnant polarization. • Observation of antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K in polycrystalline GdMnO 3 . • Possibility of room temperature application of GdMnO 3 as multifunctional material

  12. Correlation between structural, electrical and magnetic properties of GdMnO{sub 3} bulk ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samantaray, S. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Mishra, D.K. [Department of Physics, Institute of Technical Education and Research, S ‘O’ A University, Bhubaneswar 751030, Odisha (India); Pradhan, S.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B.R. [Institue of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); Behera, Debdhyan [Advanced Materials Technology Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Rout, P.P.; Das, S.K. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India); Sahu, D.R. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Roul, B.K., E-mail: ims@iopb.res.in [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751013, Odisha (India)

    2013-08-15

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on ferroelectric properties of GdMnO{sub 3} (GMO) bulk ceramics at room temperature prepared by the conventional solid state reaction route following slow step sintering schedule. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop as well as sharp dielectric anomaly in pure (99.999%) GMO sintered ceramics has been clearly observed. Samples sintered at 1350 °C become orthorhombic with Pbnm space group and showed frequency independent sharp dielectric anomalies at 373 K and a square type of novel ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature. Interestingly, dielectric anomalies and ferroelectric behavior were observed to be dependent upon sintering temperature of GdMnO{sub 3}. Room temperature dielectric constant (ε{sub r}) value at different frequencies is observed to be abnormally high. The magnetic field and temperature dependent magnetization show antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K for both 1350 °C and 1700 °C sintered GMO. Present findings showed the possibility of application of GdMnO{sub 3} at room temperature as multifunctional materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of single-phasic polycrystalline GdMnO{sub 3} sample by the solid state sintering route. • Observation of square type P–E hysteresis loop with higher saturation and remnant polarization. • Observation of antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K in polycrystalline GdMnO{sub 3}. • Possibility of room temperature application of GdMnO{sub 3} as multifunctional material.

  13. Comparison between the electrical properties of polyphenylacetylene and polyaminotriazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahia Abed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrical properties of a polymer containing aromatic rings were compared with those of polyheterocyclic compound. Each segment of the polyheterocyclic compound contains three nitrogen atoms. Both polymers were prepared at the laboratory. It was found that the specific electrical conductivity of polyphenylacetylene is higher than that of polyaminotriazole. Log ρ vs. 103/T was traced for both compounds, where ρ is the specific electrical resistivity and T is the absolute temperature. Complexes of each compound with KI were prepared. The electrical properties of these complexes were studied. The microstructure of both compounds was determined by FTIR spectroscopy.

  14. Pyroelectric properties and electrical conductivity in samarium doped BiFeO 3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-06-01

    Samarium (Sm 3+) doped BiFeO 3 (BFO) ceramics were prepared by a modified solid-state-reaction method which adopted a rapid heating as well as cooling during the sintering process. The pyroelectric coefficient increased from 93 to 137 μC/m 2 K as the Sm 3+ doping level increased from 1 mol% to 8 mol%. Temperature dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient showed an abrupt decrease above 80 °C in all samples, which was associated with the increase of electrical conductivity with temperature. This electrical conduction was attributed to oxygen vacancy existing in the samples. An activation energy of ∼0.7 eV for the conduction process was found to be irrespective of the Sm 3+ doping level. On the other hand, the magnetic Néel temperature (T N) decreased with increasing Sm 3+ doping level. On the basis of our results, the effects of Sm doping level on the pyroelectric and electrical properties of the BFO were revealed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sintering and densification; new techniques: sinter forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnubst, A.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter pressure assisted sintering methods will be described. Attention will mainly be paid to sinter forging as a die-wall free uniaxial pressure sintering technique, where large creep strains are possible. Sinter forging is an effective tool to reduce sintering temperature and time and to obtain a nearly theoretically dense ceramic. In this way grain size in tetragonal zirconia ceramics can be reduced down to 100 nm. Another important phenomenon is the reduction of the number density and size of cracks and flaws resulting in higher strength and improved reliability, which is of utmost importance for engineering ceramics. The creep deformation during sinter forging causes a rearrangement of the grains resulting in a reduction of interatomic spaces between grains, while grain boundary (glassy) phases can be removed. The toughness and in some cases the wear resistance is enhanced after sinter forging as a result of the grain-boundary-morphology improvement. (orig.)

  16. The Influence of Sintering Temperature of Reactive Sintered (Ti, MoC-Ni Cermets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jõeleht

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium-molybdenum carbide nickel cermets ((Ti, MoC-Ni were produced using high energy milling and reactive sintering process. Compared to conventional TiC-NiMo cermet sintering the parameters for reactive sintered cermets vary since additional processes are present such as carbide synthesis. Therefore, it is essential to acquire information about the suitable sintering regime for reactive sintered cermets. One of the key parameters is the final sintering temperature when the liquid binder Ni forms the final matrix and vacancies inside the material are removed. The influence of the final sintering temperature is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the material are characterized by transverse rupture strength, hardness and fracture toughness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7179

  17. Structural, electrical and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline Mg-Zn ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis-ur-Rehman, M.; Malik, M.A.; Nasir, S.; Mubeen, M.; Khan, K.; Maqsood, A.

    2011-01-01

    The nanocrystalline Mg-Zn ferrites having general formula Mg/sub 1-x/Zn/sub x/Fe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0. 5) were prepared by WOWS sol-gel route. All prepared samples were sintered at 700 deg. C for 2 h. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique was used to investigate structural properties of the samples. The crystal structure was found to be spinel. The crystallite size, lattice parameters and porosity of samples were calculated by XRD data analysis as function of zinc concentration. The crystallite size for each sample was calculated using the Scherrer formula considering the most intense (3 1 1) peak and the range obtained was 34-68 nm. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and AC electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline Mg-Zn ferrites are investigated as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent increased with increase of Zn concentration. All the electrical properties are explained in accordance with Maxwell Wagner model and K/sub oops/ phenomenological theory. (author)

  18. Biological and electrical properties of biosynthesized silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Electrical characterization showed ... logy, catalysis and sensing technology.1 The scope of this paper is limited to the synthesis and ... chemicals for the synthesis protocol.2,3 Biological meth- ods of nanoparticle synthesis ...

  19. Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1994-10-01

    Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer (μM) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 μm W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 μm W powder blends; 10μm W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W

  20. Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured TiC-TiAl by the Pulsed Current Activated Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Bong-Won; Shon, In-Jin; Kim, Byung-Su; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    TiC-Co or TiC-Ni hard materials have been used for cutting tools. However, the high cost and the low hardness of Ni or Co, and the low corrosion resistance of the TiC-Ni and TiC-Co cermets have generated interest in recent years in using them as alternative binder phases. In this study, TiAl was used as a novel binder and consolidated by the pulsed current activated sintering(PCAS) method. Nanopowders of TiC and TiAl were fabricated using high energy ball milling. Highly dense TiC-TiAl hard materials with a relative density of up to 99.5% were sintered within three min by PCAS. Not only the hardness but also the fracture toughness of the TiC-10 vol%TiAl were better than those of TiC-10 vol%Ni or TiC-10 vol%Co.

  1. Effect of addition of esters of fatty acids on the microstructure and properties of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets produced by PLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, A.G., E-mail: apopov@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, Str. S. Kovalevskoy, 18, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Gaviko, V.S.; Shchegoleva, N.N.; Golovnia, O.A. [Institute of Metal Physics, Str. S. Kovalevskoy, 18, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Gorbunova, T.I. [Institute of Organic Synthesis of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Str. S. Kovalevskoy 20, Ekaterinburg 620990, Russia (Russian Federation); Hadjipanayis, G.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    High filling density of powders for production of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets by the pressless process (PLP) impedes magnetic alignment. The latter can be enhanced by reduction of friction forces between powder particles. Thus, increase in the remanence and maximum energy product of the magnets by lubrication of powder particles is studied. Esters of fatty acids have been added in toluene or acetone in the course of grinding of Nd–Fe–B alloy in a vibratory mill. Coated by a thin layer of a lubricant powders have been aligned in pulsed magnetic field. It is shown that the remanence of sintered magnets has been increased by 5–7%. Lubricant concentration should not exceed critical values, which for the lubricants used varied between 2.0 wt% (ethyl butyrate) and 0.3 wt% (ethyl laurate). Otherwise, the complicated removal of lubricant residue leads to reaction of the latter with Nd-rich grain-boundary phase in the course of sintering and results in a sharp decrease in magnetic hysteresis properties. Addition of lubricating additives allows one to produce PLP-magnets with density exceeding 7.5 g/cm{sup 3}, B{sub r}≥14 kG, H{sub c}≥9 kOe and (BH){sub max}≥45 MG Oe. - Highlights: • Application of internal lubricants in the PLP-produced magnets is studied. • The alignment degree is enhanced by addition of esters of fatty acids. • Critical concentrations of lubricants are determined. • Exceeding the critical concentration decreases magnetic properties by increasing oxygen content.

  2. Synthesis, microstructure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline MgFe2O4 particles: Effect of mixture of fuels and sintering temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osereme Ehi-Eromosele Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article reports the results of studies related to the synthesis of MgFe2O4 nanocomposite powder by solution combustion process using mixture of fuels containing urea (U and ammonium acetate (AA. The effect of mixture of fuel and sintering temperature on phase formation, structural, morphological and magnetic properties of MgFe2O4 particles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive absorption x-ray (EDAX and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. Thermodynamic modeling of the combustion reaction shows that by using a mixture of urea and ammonium acetate fuels, the adiabatic flame temperature (Tad, exothermicity and amount of gases produced during the combustion process as well as product characteristics could be controlled. The use of mixture of fuels (U and AA in the synthesis of MgFe2O4 was found to produce ferrites with finer agglomerates, higher crystallinity, higher magnetic properties and smaller crystallite sizes than when only urea was used. It was found that only samples prepared with a mixture of fuels (0.5U + 0.5AA and sintered at 900oC for 2 h produced pure ferrite spinel phase while the auto-combusted and powders sintered at 600oC for 2 h had secondary phases. Apart from giving detailed information about the structural order of the samples, Raman spectroscopy also confirmed that MgFe2O4 is a mixed spinel ferrite.

  3. Influence of sintering atmosphere on the mechanical properties of steel P / M AISI 430L; Influencia de la atmosfera de sinterizacion en las propiedades mecanicas de los aceros P/M AISI 430L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, F. J.; Martinez, C.; Costes, M. T.; Ruiz, J. M.; Garcia, L. E.; Corpas, F.

    2014-04-01

    It has studied the stainless steel powder metallurgy AISI 430L. It has compared the sintering in two different atmospheres; in vacuum, and in an atmosphere containing nitrogen. It has developed a heat treatment with the aim of improving the mechanical properties. This has been done through microstructural modification of complex nitrides of iron and chromium precipitates during the phase of sintering. Physical properties have been evaluated and are been performing a microstructural analysis for microstructure related to the increase in mechanical properties. (Author)

  4. Magnetic properties of Sm-Fe-N anisotropic magnets produced by magnetic-field-assisted spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Testuji

    2010-01-01

    Sm-Fe-N magnets were successfully produced at temperatures below 773 K by magnetic-field-assisted spark plasma sintering. The resultant magnets had high densities of 88.7-92.5%. Although partial decomposition of the Sm 2 Fe 17 N 3 phase was observed in the Sm-Fe-N magnets, the decomposition was significantly lowered by the addition of a small amount of Zn powder to the Sm-Fe-N powder. The resultant Sm-Fe-N magnets containing 5 wt.% Zn and 10 wt.% Zn exhibited higher coercivity than the Sm-Fe-N magnets. X-ray diffraction studies and magnetic measurements confirmed that the Sm-Fe-N magnets and those containing 5 wt.% Zn and 10 wt.% Zn were magnetically anisotropic. A high value of 158 kJ/m 3 was achieved for the maximum energy product when Sm-Fe-N powder containing 5 wt.% Zn was sintered at 723 K by magnetic-field-assisted spark plasma sintering.

  5. Sintering of zirconia in high-pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunrath, A.O.; Strohaecker, T.R.; Pereira, A.S.; Jornada, J.A.H. da; Piermarini, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study about the sintering of zirconia hyperfines powders in high-pressure is presented. The differents conditions effect of sintering in microstructure and in hardness and tenacity properties of zirconia samples with a very fine grain is also studied. (C.G.C.) [pt

  6. Microstructure and Electrical Properties of K0.5Na0.5NbO3-LiSbO3-BiFeO3- x %molZnO Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiayan; Wang, Hua; Xu, Jiwen; Yuan, Changlai; Zhai, Xia; Cui, Yerang

    2014-02-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics {0.996[(0.95(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-0.05LiSbO3]-0.004BiFeO3}- xmol%ZnO were prepared through a conventional ceramics sintering technique. The effect of ZnO content on structure, microstructure, and piezoelectric properties of KNN-LS-BF ceramics was investigated. The results reveal that ZnO as a sintering aid is very effective in promoting sinterability and electrical properties of the ceramics sintered at a low temperature of 1,020 °C. The ceramics show a single-perovskite structure with predominant tetragonal phase, and coexistence of orthorhombic and tetragonal phases is observed for x = 2.5-3.0. The addition of ZnO causes abnormal grain growth. A dense microstructure is also obtained at x = 2.0 because the relative density reaches up to 94.6 %. The morphotropic phase boundary and dense microstructure lead to significant enhancement of the piezoelectric properties. The ceramic with x = 1.5 exhibits optimum electrical properties as follows: d 33 = 280 pC/N, k p = 46 %, Q m = 40.8, P r = 25 μC/cm2, E c = 1.2 kV/mm, and T c = 340 °C.

  7. RELATION BETWEEN PARTICLES SIZE OF RAW MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES OF MULLITE–ZrO2 COMPOSITES PREPARED BY REACTION-SINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RAHMANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the mullite–zirconia composites were prepared by reaction-sintering of alumina and zircon powder. Besides, the slip casting method was employed for fabrication of these composites and different times of milling process were used for reducing the particles size of raw materials. Then, the effect of raw materials particles size on the properties of these composites was investigated. The physical properties, fracture toughness, flexural strength, phase composition and microstructure of these composites after firing at 1600°C were studied. The results showed that the milling time and then, particles size of raw materials have a great effect on the phase composition and properties of mullite–zirconia composites. The formation of tetragonal-zirconia is favored by reducing of particle size which, leads to increasing of the fracture toughness and flexural strength of these composites.

  8. Sintering diagrams of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, A.; Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    Ashby's method (see Acta Met., vol. 22, p. 275, 1974) of constructing sintering diagrams has been modified to obtain contribution diagrams directly from the computer. The interplay of sintering variables and mechanisms are studied and the factors that affect the participation of mechanisms in UO 2 are determined. By studying the physical properties, it emerges that the order of inaccuracies is small in most cases and do not affect the diagrams. On the other hand, even a 10% error in activation energies, which is quite plausible, would make a significant difference to the diagram. The main criticism of Ashby's approach is that the numerous properties and equations used, communicate their inaccuracies to the diagrams and make them unreliable. The present study has considerably reduced the number of factors that need to be refined to make the sintering diagrams more meaningful. (Auth.)

  9. Structural, electrical and catalytic properties of ion-implanted oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, B.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The potential application of ion implantation to modify the surfaces of ceramic materials is discussed. Changes in the chemical composition and microstructure result in important variations of the electrical and catalytic properties of oxides.

  10. Nonlinear electrical properties of Si three-terminal junction devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantao, Meng; Jie, Sun; Graczyk, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    This letter reports on the realization and characterization of silicon three-terminal junction devices made in a silicon-on-insulator wafer. Room temperature electrical measurements show that the fabricated devices exhibit pronounced nonlinear electrical properties inherent to ballistic electron...

  11. Effect of copper doping on structural, optical and electrical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEM pictures have revealed the presence of defects with spherical structure having fibre net- work. The variation of electrical conductivity is explained based on the defects present and by adopting tunneling mechanism. Keywords. Ternary semiconductor compounds; CBD method; structural properties; optical and electrical ...

  12. Study of electrical properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyacrylamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/037/02/0273-0279. Keywords. PVP; PAM; conductivity; activation energy; relaxation time; electric modulus. Abstract. Electrical properties of polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyacrylamide and their blend thin films have been investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. The films ...

  13. Nonlinear electrical properties and aging characteristics of (NiO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    )-doped Zn–Pr–Co–R (R = Y, Er) oxide-based varistors. CHOON-W NAHM. Semiconductor Ceramics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714,. Republic of Korea. MS received 19 April 2008; revised 12 August 2008. Abstract. The electrical properties and stability of the varistors, ...

  14. Effect of aluminum addition on electrical properties, dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    added zinc oxide-based varistors. CHOON-W NAHM. Department of Electrical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714, Republic of Korea. MS received 25 January 2009; revised 7 April 2009. Abstract. The electrical properties, dielectric characteristics, and its stability against d.c. accelerated aging stress of (Pr, Co, ...

  15. Measurement of Deterioration of Frying Oil Using Electrical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    羽倉, 義雄; 佐々木, 芳浩; 鈴木, 寛一

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the electrical properties of frying oil (relative dielectric constant and conductance) and its deterioration indicators (acid value, amounts of polymerized triacylglycerols and chromaticity) were examined, focusing on the changes in electrical properties that accompany deterioration. The samples of frying oil used in this experiment were collected from fried food processing sites (school, hospital and factory feeding centers) and were collected at closi...

  16. Biological and electrical properties of biosynthesized silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized biochemically at room temperature using aqueous extract of rhizome of Rheum australe plant. The as-synthesized AgNPs were further studied for their morphological, biological and electrical characterization. The morphological studies, such as scanning electron ...

  17. Effect of increasing lanthanum substitution and the sintering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Young's modulus of the microwave sintered samples (8.8–12.5 and 160–180 GPa) are higher than that for conventional sintered (8–10 and 135–155 GPa) samples. Keywords. Microwave sintering; La-substituted SBTi ceramics; mechanical properties. 1. Introduction. In recent years, bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics.

  18. Structural and optical properties of Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano ferrites: Effect of sintering temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Prashant, E-mail: prashant007thakur@gmail.com; Sharma, Rohit; Sharma, Vineet, E-mail: vineet.sharma@juiit.ac.in; Sharma, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj.sharma@juit.ac.in

    2017-06-01

    Mn-Zn ferrites have shown various remarkable applications e.g. in magnetic amplifiers, power transformers and electromagnetic interference etc. due to their high initial permeability. Mn–Zn ferrite powder (Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) has been prepared by the co-precipitation method and subsequently sintered at three different temperatures i.e. 973 K, 1173 K, 1373 K. Optical properties have been correlated with the structural properties. For structural properties X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been employed. It has been observed that there is an increase in crystallite size with sintering from 973 K to 1373 K and FTIR confirms the formation of bond between metal ion and oxygen ion at the octahedral site and tetrahedral site. A red shift has been confirmed from UV–visible absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra have been reported with an increase in sintering temperature. - Graphical abstract: Mn–Zn ferrite powder (Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) has been prepared by the co-precipitation method and subsequently sintered at three different temperatures i.e. 973 K, 1173 K, 1373 K. A red shift has been confirmed from UV–visible absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra have been reported with an increase in sintering temperature. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have been prepared by the co-precipitation method. • There is an increase in crystallite size with sintering from 973 K to 1373 K. • A red shift is found in UV–visible and PL spectra with an increase in sintering temperature.

  19. New materials through a variety of sintering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, L.; Cyboroń, J.; Cygan, S.; Laszkiewicz-Łukasik, J.; Podsiadło, M.; Novak, P.; Holovenko, Y.

    2018-03-01

    New sintering techniques make it possible to obtain materials with special properties that are impossible to obtain by conventional sintering techniques. This issue is especially important for ceramic materials for application under extreme conditions. Following the tendency to limit critical materials in manufacturing processes, the use of W, Si, B, Co, Cr should be limited, also. One of the cheapest and widely available materials is aluminum oxide, which shows differences in phase composition, grain size, hardness, strain and fracture toughness of the same type of powder, sintered via various methods. In this paper the alumina was sintered using the conventional free sintering process, microwave sintering, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), high pressure-high temperature method (HP-HT) and High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HP SPS). Phase composition analysis, by X-ray diffraction of the alumina materials sintered using various methods, was carried out. For the conventional sintering method, compacts are composed of α-Al2O3 and θ-Al2O3. For compacts sintered using SPS, microwave and HP-HT methods, χ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3 phases were additionally present. Mechanical and physical properties of the obtained materials were compared between the methods of sintering. On the basis of images from scanning electron microscope quantitative analysis was performed to determine the degree of grain growth of alumina after sintering.

  20. Novel sintered ceramic materials incorporated with EAF carbon steel slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V.; Ntampegliotis, K.; Lamprakopoulos, S.; Papapolymerou, G.; Spiliotis, X.

    2017-01-01

    In the present research, novel sintered clay-based ceramic materials containing electric arc furnace carbon steel slag (EAFC) as a useful admixture were developed and characterized. The environmentally safe management of steel industry waste by-products and their valorization as secondary resources into value-added materials towards circular economy have attracted much attention in the last years. EAF Carbon steel slag in particular, is generated during the manufacture of carbon steel. It is a solid residue mainly composed of rich-in- Fe, Ca and Si compounds. The experimental results show that the beneficial incorporation of lower percentages of EAFC up to 6%wt. into ceramics sintered at 950 °C is attained without significant variations in sintering behavior and physico-mechanical properties. Further heating up to 1100 °C strongly enhances the densification of the ceramic microstructures, thus reducing the porosity and strengthening their mechanical performance. On the other side, in terms of thermal insulation behavior as well as energy consumption savings and production cost alleviation, the optimum sintering temperature appears to be 950 °C.

  1. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and electrical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The anticorrosive property of a coating of PANI/[Co(mea)2(H2O)2Cl2] composite on mild steel coupon in 3 M HNO3 was evaluated using weight loss measurement and compared with pure polyaniline coating. The said composite has shown anticorrosive property and can thus, act as a potent dopant for enhancing corrosion ...

  3. Spark plasma sintering of hydrothermally synthesized bismuth ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Branković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3 (BFO, powder was synthesized by hydrothermal method from Bi(NO33·5 H2O and Fe(NO33·9 H2O as precursors. The synthesized powder was further sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS. The sintering conditions were optimized in order to achieve high density, minimal amount of secondary phases and improved ferroelectric and magnetic properties. The optimal structure and properties were achieved after spark plasma sintering at 630 °C for 20 min, under uniaxial pressure of 90 MPa. The composition, microstructure, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the SPS samples were characterized and compared to those of conventionally sintered ceramics obtained from the same powder. Although the samples sintered using conventional method showed slightly lower amount of secondary phases, the spark plasma sintered samples exhibited favourable microstructure and better ferroelectric properties.

  4. Petroleum electrical properties characterization; Caracterizaco de propriedades eletricas de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueti, Edson; Sens, Marcio Antonio [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ueti@cepel.br

    2006-07-01

    Presently, petroleum wells consist predominantly of heavy type petroleum, that is submitted to decantation and separation of water, through desalinisation process. If this process is not efficient, the metallic piping will be severely corroded during refining. Hence, the knowledge of petroleum electric properties is essential for optimizing the separation of water from petroleum, by indicating its humidity in laboratory testing conditions. The present work shows an experimental procedure based on disposable cells for electric characterization of liquid polymeric materials. The use of standard cells is unfeasible, due to the petroleum physical characteristics. The procedures for the evaluation of electric properties shown in this work are applied for dielectric constant values up to 200 kHz, as well as for the electric conductivity in direct current and the electrical strength in industrial frequency. (author)

  5. Selective Laser Sintering of Conductive Inks for Inkjet Printing Based on Nanoparticle Compositions with Organic Silver Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titkov, A. I.; Gadirov, R. M.; Nikonov, S. Yu.; Odod, A. V.; Solodova, T. A.; Kurtсevich, A. E.; Kopylova, T. N.; Yukhin, Yu. M.; Lyakhov, N. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Inkjet ink based on silver nanoparticles with sizes of 11.1 ± 2.4 nm has been developed. Test images are printed on a laboratory inkjet printer, followed by sintering the printed patterns with a diode laser having a wavelength of 453 nm. The structure and electrical properties of the resulting films are studied depending on the parameters of laser sintering. It is found that under optimal conditions, an electrically conductive film with a low resistivity of 12.2 μΩ· cm can be formed.

  6. Evaluating the Mechanical Properties of Tomato Based on Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghasemi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of agricultural products plays an important role in equipment design and optimizing post-harvest operations. Among the crops, tomato and its products are the major processing industries in the world and its economic importance is increasing. Considering the importance of the quality and various post harvesting uses of tomato, the evaluation of mechanical properties including rupture force and deformation and the work done to establish the rupture of two tomato cultivars (Petoearly CH and Newton were studied under penetration test based on the electrical conductivity. These properties were measured at three levels of 1, 3 and 5 days after harvesting. The evaluated mechanical properties of both cultivars were decreased by increasing the storage time. Interaction of cultivar and time were significant at the 1% level, for all mechanical parameters except the deformation failure in both cultivars. The electrical conductivity of both cultivars was decreased by increasing the storage time. Interaction of cultivar and time on the electrical conductivity of both cultivars were significant at the 1% level. Significant relationships were found at the 1% level between electrical conductivity and mechanical properties except for deformation of Petoearly CH cultivar. Among the mechanical parameters, rupture forces and rupture works of both cultivars were highly correlated with the electrical conductivity.

  7. Tailoring the Crystallographic Texture and Electrical Properties of Inkjet-printed Interconnects for Use in Microelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchois, Romain; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Inal, Karim; Dubois-Bonvalot, Béatrice; Fidalgo, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, silver nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 40 nm are studied for future applications in microelectronic devices. The enhanced diffusivity of nanoparticles is exploited to fabricate electrical interconnects at low temperature. Sintering condition has been tuned to tailor the grain size so that electrical resistivity can be lowered down to 3.4 µOhm∙cm. In this study, a {111}-textured gold thin film has been used to increase diffusion routes. The combined...

  8. Synthesising and comparing electrical properties of NTC thermistors prepared from nano powder and solid state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, N.; Ghanbari Shohany, B.; Hosseini, S. M.; Kompany, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this research, NTC thermistors with composition of NiMn 2-x Co x O 4 (x = 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6) prepared by two methods: solid state reaction and sol-gel (gel-combustion). The average particle size was monitored and structure of the calcinated powders have been investigated using x-ray diffraction and tunneling electron microscopy techniques. The average particle size was estimated to be about 65 nm with the cubic and cubic + tetragonal phases for low and high cobalt concentrations, respectively. The grain size of samples verifies with scanning electron microscopy images. Upon increasing the cobalt fraction, the grain size of samples increases from about 2μm to a few μm in size. The electrical properties of these thermistors depend on the grain size. The grain size of samples made from sol-gel is smaller than from solid state reaction under the same condition. For longer sintering time of the samples prepared by gel-combustion method, the grain size was increased then the electrical parameters of nano powder improved and we obtain better results than the samples prepared from solid state reaction.

  9. Structural and electrical properties of Cu-doped Ni-Zn nanocrystalline ferrites for MLCI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, D.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2017-11-01

    Polycrystalline Cu substituted Ni-Zn ferrites with chemical composition Ni0.5Zn0.5‑x-CuxFe2O4 (x = 0.00 to 0.25 in steps of 0.05) have been prepared by citrate gel autocombustion method. The samples for electrical properties have been sintered at 900∘C for 4 h. The X-ray diffraction patterns of all samples indicate the formation of single phase spinel cubic structure. The value of lattice parameter is decreases with increasing Cu concentration. The estimated cation distribution can be derived from X-ray diffraction intensity calculations and IR spectra. The tetrahedral and octahedral bond lengths, bond angles, cation-cation and cation-anion distances were calculated by using experimental lattice parameter and oxygen positional parameters. It is observed that Cu ions are distributed in octahedral site and subsequently Ni and Fe ions in tetrahedral site. The grain size of all samples has been calculated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. The variations in DC electrical resistivity and dielectric constant have been explained on the basis of proposed cation distribution.

  10. Correlation between structural, electrical and magnetic properties of GdMnO3 bulk ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantaray, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Pradhan, S. K.; Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B. R.; Behera, Debdhyan; Rout, P. P.; Das, S. K.; Sahu, D. R.; Roul, B. K.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on ferroelectric properties of GdMnO3 (GMO) bulk ceramics at room temperature prepared by the conventional solid state reaction route following slow step sintering schedule. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop as well as sharp dielectric anomaly in pure (99.999%) GMO sintered ceramics has been clearly observed. Samples sintered at 1350 °C become orthorhombic with Pbnm space group and showed frequency independent sharp dielectric anomalies at 373 K and a square type of novel ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature. Interestingly, dielectric anomalies and ferroelectric behavior were observed to be dependent upon sintering temperature of GdMnO3. Room temperature dielectric constant (ɛr) value at different frequencies is observed to be abnormally high. The magnetic field and temperature dependent magnetization show antiferromagnetic behavior at 40 K for both 1350 °C and 1700 °C sintered GMO. Present findings showed the possibility of application of GdMnO3 at room temperature as multifunctional materials.

  11. Investigation of structural, optical, magnetic and electrical properties of tungsten doped Nisbnd Zn nano-ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Abhilash; Bhardwaj, Sanjay; Thakur, Shyam Singh; Mattei, Jean-Luc; Queffelec, Patrick; Panina, Larissa V.; Thakur, Preeti; Thakur, Atul

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten substituted nickel-zinc ferrite nanoparticles with chemical composition of Ni0.5Zn0.5WxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 & 1.0) were successfully synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared ferrites were pre sintered at 850 °C and then annealed at 1000 °C in a muffle furnace for 3 h each. This sintered powder was inspected by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the structural, optical, and magnetic properties. XRD measurement revealed the phase purity of all the nanoferrite samples with cubic spinel structure. The estimated crystallite size by X-ray line broadening is found in the range of 49-62 nm. FTIR spectra of all the samples have observed two prominent absorption bands in the range 400-700 cm-1 arising due to tetrahedral and octahedral stretching vibrations. Vibrating sample magnetometer experiments showed that the saturation magnetizations (MS) decreased with an increase in non-magnetic tungsten ion doping. The electrical resistivity of tungsten doped Nisbnd Zn nano ferrites were examined extensively as a function of temperature. With an increase in tungsten composition, resistivity was found to decrease from 2.2 × 105 Ω cm to 1.9 × 105 Ω cm which indicates the semiconducting behavior of the ferrite samples. The activation energy also decreased from 0.0264 to 0.0221 eV at x = 0.0 to x = 1.0. These low coercive field tungsten doped Nisbnd Zn ferrites are suitable for hyperthermia and sensor applications. These observations are explained in detail on the basis of various models and theories.

  12. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.L.; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2014-01-01

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H 2 SO 4 solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H 2 SO 4 solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates

  13. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.L., E-mail: jlxu@nchu.edu.cn; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong.2006@yahoo.com.cn

    2014-04-15

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates.

  14. Optical, electrical and solid state properties of nano crystalline zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 3.20–3.70eV with a direct band gap transition. These properties make ZnS thin films find useful applications as cover plates for solar energy panels and materials in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. In addition, the films were found to exhibit switching potentials. Keywords: Electrical, Optical, Solid state properties, ...

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on optical and electrical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Gamma radiation induced changes in the optical and electrical properties of tellurium dioxide. (TeO2) thin films ... markable properties related to polarization and polariza- ... aluminium. On the top of these aluminium contacts, thin films of TeO2 of thicknesses 300, 450 and 600 nm were deposited from a molybdenum boat.

  16. Synthesis, structure and electrical properties of the thallium ruthenate pyrochlores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ryoji; Haung, Jinfan; Sleight, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    The thallium ruthenate pyrochlores, Tl 2 Ru 2 O 7-δ , were synthesized and their structures were determined by neutron diffraction measurements. The low-temperature (LT) and high-temperature (HT) phases were obtained at reaction temperatures of 500 and 900degC, respectively. Neutron diffraction measurements indicated the compositions of Tl 2 Ru 2 O 7 and Tl 2 Ru 2 O 6.71 for the HT phase and the LT phase, respectively. Electrical resistivity measurements showed metallic property for the HT phase and semiconducting property for the LT phase. The relationship between the electrical properties and the structural changes is discussed. (author)

  17. Effect of SiC Nanowhisker on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of WC-Ni Cemented Carbide Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine tungsten carbide-nickel (WC-Ni cemented carbides with varied fractions of silicon carbide (SiC nanowhisker (0–3.75 wt.% were fabricated by spark plasma sintering at 1350°C under a uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa with the assistance of vanadium carbide (VC and tantalum carbide (TaC as WC grain growth inhibitors. The effects of SiC nanowhisker on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-prepared WC-Ni cemented carbides were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that during spark plasma sintering (SPS Ni may react with the applied SiC nanowhisker, forming Ni2Si and graphite. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that, with the addition of SiC nanowhisker, the average WC grain size decreased from 400 to 350 nm. However, with the additional fractions of SiC nanowhisker, more and more Si-rich aggregates appeared. With the increase in the added fraction of SiC nanowhisker, the Vickers hardness of the samples initially increased and then decreased, reaching its maximum of about 24.9 GPa when 0.75 wt.% SiC nanowhisker was added. However, the flexural strength of the sample gradually decreased with increasing addition fraction of SiC nanowhisker.

  18. Improvement of the mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered hap bioceramics by decreasing the grain size and by adding multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Đ.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites based on HAP and oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNT and monophase HAP materials were processed by spark plasma sintering. Starting from stoichiometric nano-sized HAP powder, monophase bioceramics were obtained with a density close to the theoretical one and with an average grain size of several hundred nanometers to micron dimensions. It was shown that decreasing the sintering temperature resulted in a decrease of the grain size, which affected an increase in the fracture toughness and hardness. The fracture toughness of an HAP/ o-MWCNT bioceramic processed at 900°C for only 5 min was 30 % higher than that of monophase HAP materials obtained under the same conditions. The addition of MWCNT during SPS processing of HAP materials caused a decrease in the grain size to the nano-dimension, which was one of the reasons for the improved mechanical properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45019 i FP7-REGPOT-2009-1 NANOTECH FTM, Grant Agreement Number: 245916

  19. Effects of sintering additives on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the ion-irradiated SiCf/SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Pipit; Sharma, Amit Siddharth; Yoon, Dang-Hyok

    2018-05-01

    SiCf/SiC composites containing three different types of sintering additives viz. Sc-nitrate, Al2O3-Sc2O3, and Al2O3-Y2O3, were subjected to ion irradiation using 0.2 MeV H+ ions with a fluence of 3 × 1020 ions/m2 at room temperature. Although all composites showed volumetric swelling upon ion irradiation, SiCf/SiC with Sc-nitrate showed the smallest change followed by those with the Al2O3-Sc2O3 and Al2O3-Y2O3 additives. In particular, SiCf/SiC containing the conventional Al2O3-Y2O3 additive revealed significant microstructural changes, such as surface roughening and the formation of cracks and voids, resulting in reduced fiber pullout upon irradiation. On the other hand, the SiCf/SiC with Sc-nitrate showed the highest resistance against ion irradiation without showing any macroscopic changes in surface morphology and mechanical strength, indicating the importance of the sintering additive in NITE-based SiCf/SiC for nuclear structural applications.

  20. Synthesis, sintering and optical properties of CaMoO{sub 4}: A promising scheelite LTCC and photoluminescent material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidya, S.; Thomas, J.K. [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Kerala (India); Solomon, S. [Department of Physics, St. John' s College, Anchal, Kerala (India)

    2012-06-15

    The synthesis of nanocrystalline calcium molybdate (CaMoO{sub 4}) through an autoigniting combustion technique is reported in this paper. The structural characterization of the as-prepared nanocrystallites were done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman, and Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy and the morphological studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal that the as-prepared powder itself was phase pure with tetragonal structure and of particle size 25 nm. The sample was sintered at a relatively low temperature of 775 C to a high density of {proportional_to}95% for the first time, without the use of any sintering aid. The optical bandgap energy calculated from the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum for the as-prepared and annealed sample was 3.72 and 3.99 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence spectra of the sample showed an intense emission in the green region (528 nm). The dielectric constant and loss factor of the sample at 5 MHz was found to be 11.00 and 6.40 x 10{sup -3} at room temperature. The temperature coefficient of dielectric constant was -95.04 pp/ C. These observations reveal that nanostructured CaMoO{sub 4} is a promising scheelite low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and also an excellent luminescent material. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. The Influence of Milling and Spark Plasma Sintering on the Microstructure and Properties of the Al7075 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Molnárová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The compact samples of an Al7075 alloy were prepared by a combination of gas atomization, high energy milling, and spark plasma sintering. The predominantly cellular morphology observed in gas atomized powder particles was completely changed by mechanical milling. The continuous-like intermetallic phases present along intercellular boundaries were destroyed; nevertheless, a small amount of Mg(Zn,Cu,Al2 phase was observed also in the milled powder. Milling resulted in a severe plastic deformation of the material and led to a reduction of grain size from several µm into the nanocrystalline region. The combination of these microstructural characteristics resulted in abnormally high microhardness values exceeding 300 HV. Consolidation through spark plasma sintering (SPS resulted in bulk samples with negligible porosity. The heat exposition during SPS led to precipitation of intermetallic phases from the non-equilibrium microstructure of both gas atomized and milled powders. SPS of the milled powder resulted in a recrystallization of the severely deformed structure. An ultra-fine grained structure (grain size close to 500 nm with grains divided primarily by high-angle boundaries was formed. A simultaneous release of stored deformation energy and an increase in the grain size caused a drop of microhardness to values close to 150 HV. This value was retained even after annealing at 425 °C.

  2. Electrical and dielectric properties of ZnO and CeO{sub 2} doped ZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 6} ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Aneesh; Thomas, Jijimon K.; John, Annamma [Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015 (India); Solomon, Sam, E-mail: samdmrl@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015, India and Department of Physics, St. John' s College, Anchal, Kollam 691306 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) are the important catalyst supports, since it has acidic and basic properties. The intermediate phase zirconium titanate ZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which is a solid solution with Zr:Ti ratio 1:2 has outstanding dielectric properties. The effects of doping of ZnO and CeO{sub 2} on the dielectric and electrical properties of ZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 6} ceramic are investigated. On adding 0.5 wt% ZnO, the dielectric constant is increased but, on adding CeO{sub 2}, the dielectric constant is decreased. The bulk density of pure sample sintered at 1530 °C is 91% of theoretical density while that of the doped samples sintered at 1450 °C is more than 94% of theoretical density. Scanning electron micrographs reveal that the samples are well sintered with minimum porosity. The semicircle behavior in the Cole-Cole plots at room temperature reveals that the samples are good ionic conductor. The induced impedance is reduced for doped samples and this can be used as a material for electrolyte in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.

  3. Effect of Sintering Process on Properties and Microstructure of WC-1.0TiC-3.1TaC-4.5Co Cemented Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhong-dian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of WC-1.0TiC-3.1TaC-4.5Co cemented carbides were prepared by vacuum sintering and Sintering-HIP through traditional powder metallurgy method. Optical microscopy(OM,scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS were used to characterize the microstructures. The results show that pores and cobalt-lake can be reduced in cemented carbides by increasing sintering temperature or using Sintering-HIP. The mean size of WC cemented carbide prepared by vacuum sintering process is larger than that prepared by Sintering-HIP. Furthermore, the phenomenon of WC abnormal growth was found in the cemented carbides prepared by Sintering-HIP.

  4. Effect of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of (Bi{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang-Soon [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Heon [High Temp. Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Beomjin; Kim, Seong Keun [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Suk; Baik, Jeong Min [School of Materials and Science Engineering, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); KIST-UNIST Ulsan Center for Convergent Materials, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Jun [Center for Opto-Electronic Materials and Devices, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ik [High Temp. Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Dow-Bin; Kim, Jin-Sang [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Hyub, E-mail: shbaek77@kist.re.kr [Center for Electronic Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); KIST-UNIST Ulsan Center for Convergent Materials, UNIST, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials Science and Technology, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-05

    As a field-assisted technique, spark plasma sintering (SPS) enables densification of specimens in a very short period of time compared to other sintering techniques. For high performance thermoelectric material synthesis, SPS is widely used to fabricate nanograin-structured thermoelectric materials by rapidly densifying the nanopowders suppressing grain growth. However, the microstructural evolution behavior of thermoelectric materials by SPS, another important process during sintering, has been rarely studied. Here, we explore SPS as a tool to control the microstructure by long-time SPS. Using p-type (Bi{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} thermoelectric materials as a model system, we systematically vary SPS temperature and time to understand the correlations between SPS conditions, microstructural evolution, and the thermoelectric properties. Our results show that the relatively low eutectic temperature (∼420 °C) and the existence of volatile tellurium (Te) are critical factors to determine both microstructure and thermoelectric property. In the liquid-phase sintering regime, rapid evaporation of Te leads to a strong dependence of thermoelectric property on SPS time. On the other hand, in the solid-phase sintering regime, there is a weak dependence on SPS time. The optimum thermoelectric figure-of-merit (Z) of 2.93 × 10{sup −3}/K is achieved by SPS at 500 °C for 30 min. Our results will provide an insight on the optimization of SPS conditions for materials containing volatile elements with low eutectic temperature. - Highlights: • Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is used to synthesize the thermoelectric (Bi{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75}){sub 2}Te{sub 3}. • Liquid phase and volatile element are a key for the microstructure and thermoelectric property. • Thermoelectric figure-of-merit of 2.9 × 10{sup −3}/K is achieved at 500 °C for 30 min.

  5. Structural, dielectric and electrical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bronze structural family can be regarded (as being a deriva- tive of classical perovskite ... TB structural family. However, the complexity of TB struc- ture has provided many interesting and varieties of physical properties useful for applications. As TB is a .... characteristic peaks (which is different from those of the ingredients of ...

  6. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and electrical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    known as hybrid materials, which are the current inquisi- tion among material scientists. These hybrid systems possess varied properties and find applications in various fields like catalysis, sensors, bio-medical field (Greene et al 1975) and in corrosion study. Ethanolamines commonly known as aminoalcohols include ...

  7. FABRICATION AND STUDY OF THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Efforts have been make to combine ceramics and metals to produce composite whose properties are better than those of either of the individual components. .... firing the resistor helps in burning -out any resin type materials left in the resistor itself (Forlani and Prudenziati,. 1998). Fig. 4 shows the variation of resistance with ...

  8. Estimation of Electrical Properties of Hidden Objects Using Microwave Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steponas AŠMONTAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed excitation of a horn antenna for generating large B wideband electromagnetic pulses was used. The antenna was excited by electrical pulses with rise time of 200 ps and pulse voltage of 15 V. The spectral properties of the electromagnetic pulses were investigated using different wide band antennas and (0 – 18 GHz passband sampling oscilloscope. It was found that the signal spectra is wide and ranges from 0.3 GHz to higher than 12 GHz. Hollow cylinders made from opaque for visible light materials were used to hide other cylinders with certain electrical properties. To reveal their presence we employ the electromagnetic pulses. Transmitted through and reflected from investigated objects pulses were received by several antennas having different frequency ranges and detected to obtain needed information. The experiments show that analyzing this information leads to conclusions about the presence of the object and its electrical properties. This methodic supposedly can be employed to disclose electrical properties of objects having complex electrical properties if broadband amplifiers and digital oscilloscopes are used. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.6331

  9. Physical and electrical properties of SrTiO3 and SrZrO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Norhizatol Fashren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite type oxide strontium titanate (SrTiO3 and strontium zirconate (SrZrO3 ceramic powder has been synthesized using conventional solid state reaction method. The powders were mixed and ground undergone calcinations at 1400°C for 12 h and sintered at 1550°C for 5h. X-ray Diffraction exposes physical properties SrTiO3 which exhibit cubic phase (space group: pm-3m at room temperature meanwhile SrZrO3 has Orthorhombic phase (space group: pnma. The electrical properties such as dielectric constant (εr, dielectric loss (tan δ, and conductivity (σ were studied in variation temperature and frequency. High dielectric constant of SrTiO3 and SrZrO3 were observed at 10 kHz for both samples about 240 and 21 respectively at room temperature. The dielectric loss of SrTiO3 and SrZrO3 is very low loss value approximately 0.00076 and 0.67512 indicates very good dielectric.

  10. Models of current sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Engelke, Lukas; Winterer, Markus; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-06-01

    Densification of (semi-)conducting particle agglomerates with the help of an electrical current is much faster and more energy efficient than traditional thermal sintering or powder compression. Therefore, this method becomes more and more common among experimentalists, engineers, and in industry. The mechanisms at work at the particle scale are highly complex because of the mutual feedback between current and pore structure. This paper extends previous modelling approaches in order to study mixtures of particles of two different materials. In addition to the delivery of Joule heat throughout the sample, especially in current bottlenecks, thermoelectric effects must be taken into account. They lead to segregation or spatial correlations in the particle arrangement. Various model extensions are possible and will be discussed.

  11. Electrical and Thermal Properties of Glass Matrix-Al/sub 2/TiO/sub 5/ Composites Prepared at Low Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, L.J.; Wei, X.Y.; Wang, X.M.; LI, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the electrical and thermal properties of glass matrix composites filled with different amounts of aluminium titanate (Al/sub 2/TiO/sub 5/) powder varying from 5 to 15 wt. percent have been investigated. In order to optimize the processing route, some sintering strategies were tested. The densest specimens were obtained by less pressure of the sintering. The composites were characterized by means of SEM micrography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), dilatometry and impedance spectrometry. XRD results showed that the main crystallization phases were Wollastonite, Aluminium titanate, Rutile, and Alumina in all sintered glass matrix composites. It was also revealed that addition of 15 wt.% aluminium titanate has increased the relative density and decreased thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) (6.9*10/sup -6/degree C) and electrical conductivity (3.1*10/sup -4 Ohm.cm) in comparison with other composites. The results would be explained considering nature and concentration of the formed crystalline phases and their micro-structures. (author)

  12. The comparative study of the structural and the electrical properties of the nano spinel ferrites prepared by the soft mehanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano spinel ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Ni, Mn, Zn were obtained by soft mechanochemical synthesis in a planetary ball mill. The appropriate mixture of oxide and hydroxide powders was used as initial compounds. All of this mixture of powders was mechanically activated, uniaxial pressed and sintered at 1100°C/2h. The phase composition of the powders and sintered samples were analyzed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Morphologies were examined by SEM. In this study, the AC-conductivity and DC-resistivity of sintered samples of MFe2O4 (M= Ni, Mn, Zn ferrites were measured at different frequencies and at room temperature. The values of the electrical conductivities show an increase with increasing temperature, which indicated the semiconducting behavior of the studied ferrites. The conduction phenomenon of the investigated samples could be explained on the basis of hopping model. The complex impedance spectroscopy analysis was used to study the effect of grain and grain boundary on the electrical properties of all three obtained ferrites [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45003

  13. Yttrium oxide transparent ceramics by low-temperature microwave sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Junming; Zhong, Zhenchen; Xu, Jilin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The figure shows the SEM photos of the surfaces of the Y 2 O 3 transparent ceramic samples obtained by microwave sintering and vacuum sintering. It is clearly demonstrated that the grain distribution of the vacuum sintering sample is not uniform with the smallest and the largest particle size at about 2 μm and 15 μm respectively, while the grain distribution of microwave sintering sample is uniform with the average diameter at about 2–4 μm (the smallest reported so far) and with no abnormal growth-up or coarsening phenomenon. We have further found out that the smaller the grain size, the higher the mechanical and optical properties. Display Omitted Highlights: ► The microwave sintering temperature of the sample is lower compared with vacuum. ► The microwave sintering time of the sample is shorter compared with vacuum. ► The mechanical properties of the microwave sintering sample is improved greatly. ► The Y 2 O 3 grain of microwave sintering sample is the smallest reported so far. -- Abstract: Yttrium oxide (Y 2 O 3 ) transparent ceramics samples have been successfully fabricated by microwave sintering processing at relatively low temperatures. In comparison with the vacuum sintering processing, Y 2 O 3 transparent ceramics can be obtained by microwave sintering at lower sintering temperature and shorter sintering time, and they possess higher transmittances and mechanical properties. The technologies of low-temperature microwave sintering and the relationships of the microstructures and properties of the specified samples have been investigated in detail. We have found out that the low-temperature microwave sintering technique has its obvious advantages over the conventional methods in manufacturing yttrium oxide transparent ceramics.

  14. Nd:YAG laser irradiation effects on electrical properties of polycrystalline Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, Maheshkumar L., E-mail: mane.maheshkumar@hotmail.com [Department of physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India); Dhage, V.N.; Shirsath, Sagar E. [Department of physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India); Sundar, R.; Ranganathan, K.; Oak, S.M. [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (M.P.) (India); Jadhav, K.M. [Department of physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (M.S.) 431 004 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > Standard double sintering ceramic method. > Infrared and electrical properties of spinel ferrite. > Laser irradiation study. > Conduction mechanism. > Temperature dependence dielectric properties. - Abstract: The polycrystalline spinel structured Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} ferrite have been prepared by conventional double sintering ceramic method. The samples were palletized and irradiated by Nd:YAG laser with different laser fluencies and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and DC electrical resistivity in order to obtain phase, crystal structure and conduction mechanism in pristine and irradiated samples. The infrared spectroscopy is employed to study the local symmetry and conduction mechanism in crystalline solids before and after irradiation. The DC electrical resistivity measured by two-probe technique from room temperature to beyond Curie temperature with steps of 10 K increases after laser irradiation. Variation of dielectric properties like dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent is also measured as a function of temperature. A significant reduction in the values of dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent has been observed with the increase of laser dose.

  15. Modification of electrical properties of polymer membranes by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworecki, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Sudlitz, K.; Wasik, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the electrical properties of polymer ion irradiated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The polymer samples have been implanted with a variety of ions (O 5+ , N 4+ , Kr 9+ ) by the energy of 10 keV/q up to doses of 10 15 ions/cm 2 and then they were polarized in an electric field of 4.16x10 6 V/m at non-isothermal conditions. The electrical properties and the changes in the chemical structure of implanted membrane were measured by conductivity and discharge currents and FTIR spectra. Electrical conductivity of the membranes PET increases to 1-3 orders of magnitude after implantation and is determined by the charge transport caused by free space charge and by thermal detrapping of charge carriers. The spectra of thermally induced discharge current (TDC) shows that ion irradiated PET membranes are characterized by high ability to accumulate charge

  16. Local electronic and electrical properties of functionalized graphene nano flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutia, Arunabhiram; Sahnoun, Riadh; Deka, Ramesh C.; Zhu, Zhigang; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Miyamoto, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Based on experimental findings models of amorphous graphene related carbon materials were generated using graphene nano flakes. On the optimized structures detailed local electronic properties were investigated using density functional theory. The electrical conductivities of all these models were also estimated using an in-house program based on tight-binding method. The calculated electrical conductivity values of all the models agreed well with the trend of calculated energy gap and graphitic character.

  17. Electrical properties and granular magnetoresistance in nanomanganite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َAli Rostamnejadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research single phaseLa0.7(Sr 1-xBax0.3MnO3(x =0, 0.1 , 0.2 , 0.3 nanomanganite with crystalline size of 18-28 nm have been prepared by sol gel method. The structural properties have been studied using X-ray diffraction spectra with its Rietveld analysis and scaning electron microscope images. The magnetic and elctrical properties have been investigated by measuring the ac magnetic susceptibility and resistivity in the presence of magnetic fields in the range of 0-20 kOe. The obtained results from ac magnetic susceptibility show that the Curie temperture of the samples are above room temperture. The results of resistivity show that the metal-insulator phase transition temperture of and compounds are below room temperture. The resistivity of the samples strongly decreases and their magnetoresistance almost linearly increases by incrasing the applied magnetic field at different tempertures. The value of magnetoresistance for compound is 10 % and 14 % at 275 K and 200 K, and for compound is 13 %  and 27 % at 275 K and 100 K, respectively which are suitable for magnetic field sensing applications. The magneto-transport properties of nanomanganite are described in terms of spin dependent scattering of charge carriers from grain boundaries and their spin dependent tunneling between grains. 

  18. Corrosion properties of aluminium coatings deposited on sintered NdFeB by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Shoudong; Yang Hengxiu; Li Jinlong; Huang Feng [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China); Song Zhenlun, E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Pure Al coatings were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering to protect sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of Ar{sup +} ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) on the structure and the corrosion behaviour of Al coatings were investigated. The Al coating prepared by DC magnetron sputtering with IBAD (IBAD-Al-coating) had fewer voids than the coating without IBAD (Al-coating). The corrosion behaviour of the Al-coated NdFeB specimens was investigated by potentiodynamic polarisation, a neutral salt spray (NSS) test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The pitting corrosion of the Al coatings always began at the voids of the grain boundaries. Bombardment by the Ar{sup +} ion-beams effectively improved the corrosion resistance of the IBAD-Al-coating.

  19. Properties and Rapid Sintering of Nanostructured WC and WC-TiAl by the High Frequency Induction Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Bong-Won; Oh, Seung-Jin; Shon, In-Jin [Chonbuk National University, Junju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Su [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jin-Kook [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In the case of cemented WC, Ni or Co is added as a binder for the formation of composite structures. However, the high cost and the low hardness of Ni or Co, and the low corrosion resistance of the WC-Ni and WC-Co cermets have generated interest in alternative binder phases recently. In this study, TiAl was used as a novel binder and consolidated by the high frequency induction heated sintering (HFIHS) method. Nanopowders of WC and TiAl were made by high energy ball milling. Highly dense WC and WC-10 vol% TiAl with a relative density of up to 99% were obtained within one min by HFIHS under a pressure of 80 MPa. The addition of TiAl to WC enhanced the toughness without great decrease of hardness due to the crack deflection and nanostructured phase.

  20. Modelling the electrical properties of concrete for shielding effectiveness prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrolini, L; Reggiani, U; Ogunsola, A

    2007-01-01

    Concrete is a porous, heterogeneous material whose abundant use in numerous applications demands a detailed understanding of its electrical properties. Besides experimental measurements, material theoretical models can be useful to investigate its behaviour with respect to frequency, moisture content or other factors. These models can be used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to predict the shielding effectiveness of a concrete structure against external electromagnetic waves. This paper presents the development of a dispersive material model for concrete out of experimental measurement data to take account of the frequency dependence of concrete's electrical properties. The model is implemented into a numerical simulator and compared with the classical transmission-line approach in shielding effectiveness calculations of simple concrete walls of different moisture content. The comparative results show good agreement in all cases; a possible relation between shielding effectiveness and the electrical properties of concrete and the limits of the proposed model are discussed

  1. Modelling the electrical properties of concrete for shielding effectiveness prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrolini, L.; Reggiani, U.; Ogunsola, A.

    2007-09-01

    Concrete is a porous, heterogeneous material whose abundant use in numerous applications demands a detailed understanding of its electrical properties. Besides experimental measurements, material theoretical models can be useful to investigate its behaviour with respect to frequency, moisture content or other factors. These models can be used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to predict the shielding effectiveness of a concrete structure against external electromagnetic waves. This paper presents the development of a dispersive material model for concrete out of experimental measurement data to take account of the frequency dependence of concrete's electrical properties. The model is implemented into a numerical simulator and compared with the classical transmission-line approach in shielding effectiveness calculations of simple concrete walls of different moisture content. The comparative results show good agreement in all cases; a possible relation between shielding effectiveness and the electrical properties of concrete and the limits of the proposed model are discussed.

  2. ELECTRICAL AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF A COLLAGEN SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Štancl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on measurements of the electrical properties, the specific heat capacity and the thermal conductivity of a collagen solution (7.19% mass fraction of native bovine collagen in water. The results of our experiments show that specific electrical conductivity of collagen solution is strongly dependent on temperature. The transition region of collagen to gelatin has been observed from the measured temperature dependence of specific electrical conductivity, and has been confirmed by specific heat capacity measurements by a differential scanning calorimetry.

  3. Electric Field Structures in Thin Films: Formation and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, Andrew; Plekan, Oksana; Balog, Richard

    2014-01-01

    by combining layers of different spontelectric materials. This is demonstrated using the spontelectric materials nitrous oxide, toluene, isoprene, isopentane, and CF2Cl2. These yield a variety of tailored electric field structures, with individual layers harboring fields between 107 and 108 V/m. Fields may......A newly discovered class of molecular materials, so-called “spontelectrics”, display spontaneous electric fields. Here we show that the novel properties of spontelectrics can be used to create composite spontelectrics, illustrating how electric fields in solid films may be structured on the nanoscale...

  4. Simultaneous Synthesis and Sintering of a Nanocrystalline AlCr{sub 2}-Al2O{sub 3} Composite by Rapid Heating and Its Mechanical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Bong-Won; Lee Seok-Jae; Shon, In-Jin [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A dense nanostuctured AlCr{sub 2}-Al2O{sub 3} composite was sintered by pulsed current activated heating up to 1200 °C within 2 min from mechanically milled powders. The advantage of this process is that it allows very quick densification to near theoretical density and prohibition of grain growth in nanostructured materials. A highly dense AlCr{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite with a relative density of up to 96% was produced under application of a 80 MPa pressure and a pulsed current of 2000 A. The fracture toughness and hardness of the AlCr{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite in this study was better than those of previous studies due to the grain refinement. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy and a Vickers hardness tester.

  5. Glass additive influence on the sintering behavior, microstructure and microwave magnetic properties of Cu-Bi-Zn co-doped Co2Z ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I; Mei, Li-Then; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Wu, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Li-Bao; Yen, Fu-Su

    2011-01-01

    The Bi 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -ZnO-SiO 2 (BB35SZ) glass effects on the sintering behavior and microwave magnetic properties of Cu-Bi-Zn co-doped Co 2 Z ferrites were investigated to develop low-temperature-fired ferrites. The glass wetting characteristics on the Co 2 Z ferrite surface, X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and a dilatometer were used to examine the BB35SZ glass effect on Co 2 Z ferrite densification and the chemical reaction between the glass and Co 2 Z ferrites. The results indicate that BB35SZ glass can be used as a sintering aid to reduce the densification temperature of Co 2 Z ferrites from 1300 to 900 o C. 3(Ba 0.9 Bi 0.1 O).2(Co 0.8 Cu 0.2 O).12(Fe 1.975 Zn 0.025 O 3 ) ferrite with 2 wt% BB35SZ glass can be densified below 900 o C, exhibiting an initial permeability of 3.4. This process provides a promising candidate for multilayer chip magnetic devices for microwave applications. - Research highlights: → Bi 2 O 3 -B 2 O 3 -ZnO-SiO 2 glass can effectively wet Co 2 Z ferrites and promote Co 2 Z ferrite densification. → The excess substitution of Bi and Zn (x=0.2) and glass addition enhanced Z phase decomposition into U, W and spinel phases, which resulted in magnetic property degradation. → 3(Ba 0.9 Bi 0.1 O).2(Co 0.8 Cu 0.2 O).12(Fe 1.975 Zn 0.025 O 3 ) ferrite with 2 wt% glass can be densified at below 900 o C and exhibits an initial permeability of 3.4, which provides a promising candidate for multilayer chip magnetic devices for microwave applications.

  6. Correlation of magnetic properties with deformation in electrical steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the utilization of magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and hysteresis loops methods for the non-destructive characterization of deformed electrical steel samples. For this reason electrical steel samples were subjected to uniaxial tensile tests on elastic and plastic region of deformations. Both the MBN and hysteresis loops were measured. The results shown a strong degradation of the magnetic properties on plastically strains. This was attributed to the irreversible movement of the magnetic domain walls, due to the presence of high dislocation density. The resulting magnetic properties were further evaluated by examining the microstructure of the deformed samples by using scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Magnetic and electrical properties of ITER vacuum vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergia, K.; Apostolopoulos, G.; Gjoka, M.; Niarchos, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Ferritic steel AISI 430 is a candidate material for the lTER vacuum vessel which will be used to limit the ripple in the toroidal magnetic field. The magnetic and electrical properties and their temperature dependence in the temperature range 300 - 900 K of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steels are presented. The temperature variation of the coercive field, remanence and saturation magnetization as well as electrical resistivity and the effect of annealing on these properties is discussed. (authors)

  8. Influence of Y2O3 Addition on Crystallization, Thermal, Mechanical, and Electrical Properties of BaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 Glass-Ceramic for Ceramic Ball Grid Array Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Li, Wei; Zheng, Jingguo

    2018-01-01

    Y2O3 addition has a significant influence on the crystallization, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of BaO -Al2O3 -B2O3 -SiO2 (BABS) glass-ceramics. Semi-quantitative calculation based on x-ray diffraction demonstrated that with increasing Y2O3 content, both the crystallinity and the phase content of cristobalite gradually decreased. It is effective for the additive Y2O3 to inhibit the formation of cristobalite phase with a large coefficient of thermal expansion value. The flexural strength and the Young's modulus, thus, are remarkably increased from 140 MPa to 200 MPa and 56.5 GPa to 63.7 GPa, respectively. Also, the sintering kinetics of BABS glass-ceramics with various Y2O3 were investigated using the isothermal sintering shrinkage curve at different sintering temperatures. The sintering activation energy Q sharply decreased from 99.8 kJ/mol to 81.5 kJ/mol when 0.2% Y2O3 was added, which indicated that a small amount of Y2O3 could effectively promote the sintering procedure of BABS glass-ceramics.

  9. Irradiation effect on electrical properties of polyimide insulating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, M.Eh.; Kojkov, S.N.; Skornyakov, Yu.A.; Stepanov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on electric strength, dielectric properties and conductivity of polyimide glass varnished cloth LSN-180, suggested as electric insulation for the T-15 thermonuclear facility winding, is investigated. The effect of Co 60 source γ-radiation with 1.4 MeV quanta on the processes of electric aging of glass varnished cloth LSN-180 has been studied for the first time. It is shown that the effect of ionizing radiation results in the decrease of the glass varnished cloth lifetime. Lifetimes of preliminarily irradiated samples are 7-8 times lower, and in the case of simultaneous effect of γ-radiation and alternating electric field are approximately 20 times lower than the lifetime of initial glass varnished cloth. No decrease in the lifetime of glass varnished cloth as a result of irradiation in direct electric field was detected. Evaluation of serviceability of electric insulation intended for the operation in radiation effect zone, should be made according to the results of material resource tests inder conditions of simultaneous effect ofelectric field and radiation. No correlation between the change in short-term electric strength and service life of glass varnished cloth as a result of irradiation is observed. The absence of partial discharges in the process of electric field levelling in a sample using semiconducting coatings testifies to the good quality of impregnation by polyimide varnishes of the initial glass varnished cloth

  10. Influence of B2O3 content on sintering behaviour and dielectric properties of La2O3-B2O3-CaO/Al2O3 glass-ceramic composites for LTCC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. L.; Zhang, Y. W.; Chen, X. Y.; Mao, H. J.; Zhang, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    La2O3-B2O3-CaO glasses with different B2O3 content were synthesized by melting method to produce glass/ceramic composites in this work. XRD and DSC results revealed that the diminution of B2O3 content was beneficial to increase the crystallization tendency of glass and improve the quality of crystalline phase, while decreasing the effect of glass during sintering process as sintering aids. The choice of glass/ceramic mass ratio was also influenced by the B2O3 content of glass. Dense samples sintered at 875 ºC showed good dielectric properties which meet the requirement of LTCC applications: moderate dielectric constant (7.8-9.4) and low dielectric loss (2.0×10-3).

  11. Tunable electric properties of bilayer InSe with different interlayer distances and external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jimin; Pan, Longfei; Wang, Xiaoting; Li, Jingbo; Wei, Zhongming

    2018-03-01

    Using density functional theory we explore the band structure of bilayer Indium selenide (InSe), and we find that the van der Waals interaction has significant effects on the electric and optical properties. We then explore the tuning electronic properties by different interlayer distances and by an external vertical electric field. Our results demonstrate that the band gaps of bilayer InSe can be continuously tuned by different interlayer coupling. With decreasing interlayer distances, the tunable band gaps of bilayer decrease linearly, owing to the enhancement of the interlayer interaction. Additionally, the band structure of bilayer InSe under external vertical fields is discussed. The presence of a small external electric field can make a new spatial distribution of electron-hole pairs. A well separation based on the electrons and holes, localized in different layers can be obtained using this easy method. These properties of bilayer InSe indicates potential applications in designing new optoelectronic devices.

  12. Microstructure and frequency dependent electrical properties of lead-free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, S.; Kumari, S.; Subramanian, V.; Rout, D.

    2017-05-01

    Single phase Pb-free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ceramics are synthesized with rhombohedral structure. Cold isostatic pressing of NBT green pellets at 200 MPa ensured better sinterability that is reflected in the dense micrograph and uni-modal grain size distribution. Grain, grain boundary and space charge effect contributions towards electrical properties are distinctly observed from the impedance study at different temperature range. Frequency dependence of real Z*, Im Z* and ac conductivity studies provides useful information about relaxation and conduction mechanism.

  13. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, a large amount of this liquid. Figure 1. Bulk density and porosity as a function of sintering temperature. phase leads to the agglomeration at grain boundary. This kind of impurity agglomeration can lower the density and deteri- orate the properties of ceramics, so the appropriate amount of CuO doping is necessary.

  14. Investigation of electrical and thermal properties of carbon nanotube interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Todri-Sanial , Aida

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present themselves as a viable material for on-and off-chip interconnect material due to their unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. The electrothermal properties of CNTs, including high Young's modulus, resiliency and low thermal expansion coefficient offer great advantage for reliable and strong interconnects, and even more so for local and global on-chip interconnects. With aggressive scaling, on-chip interconnects contribute ...

  15. Conjugated electrical properties of Au nanoparticle–polyaniline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Yuki; Otsuka, Yoichi; Naitoh, Yasuhisa; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the electrical properties of a two-dimensional (2D) network consisting of multiple Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and self-doped polyaniline sulfonate (SPAN). Nonlinear current–voltage (I–V) characteristics with wide variations were observed in the networks. The temperature dependence of the I–V characteristics exhibited a short localization length, suggesting conjugated electronic properties of the AuNP–SPAN network. This result provides a new direction for network-based molecular electronic devices.

  16. Electrical properties of filled silicone rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis; Gubanski, Stanislaw M.

    2000-02-01

    Rubber materials for high-voltage outdoor applications have been studied. They were prepared as mixtures of silicone polymer with different concentrations of powdered aluminium trihydrate as a filler. The dielectric properties, icons/Journals/Common/chi" ALT="chi" ALIGN="TOP"/> *(icons/Journals/Common/omega" ALT="omega" ALIGN="TOP"/> ) = icons/Journals/Common/chi" ALT="chi" ALIGN="TOP"/> ´-iicons/Journals/Common/chi" ALT="chi" ALIGN="TOP"/> ´´, were measured at different temperatures using a low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy technique. Without any filler a classical interfacial relaxation was pronounced with dominating direct-current (dc) conduction in the losses, icons/Journals/Common/chi" ALT="chi" ALIGN="TOP"/> ´´. On increasing the concentration of filler, a low-frequency dispersion mechanism started to dominate the relaxation behaviour. On adding the filler, the dc conduction first decreased and then increased again after a certain concentration level was passed. This behaviour showed that the filler particles acted like scattering centres or traps for conduction when the concentration was low. As the concentration increased, the conductivity of the filler particles and of the interface (between the filler particles and the polymer matrix) started to dominate the conduction. Master curve shifts of the data showed an Arrhenius type of activation. The data were modelled by superposition of three different processes, Havriliak-Negami dipolar relaxation, dc conduction and low-frequency dispersion (hopping conduction) contributions, using a nonlinear least-squares fitting method.

  17. Polymer composites with graphene nanofillers: electrical properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-02-01

    Graphene with extraordinary high elastic modulus and excellent electrical conductivity has good prospects for use as the filler material for fabricating novel polymer composites designed for electrostatic discharge and EMI shielding protection, field emission, gas sensor, and fuel cell applications. Large amounts of graphene oxide (GO) can be obtained by wet chemical oxidation of graphite into a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid, sodium nitrate and potassium permanganate. Accordingly, carbon atoms in the basal plane and edges of GO are decorated with oxygenated functional groups, forming an electrical insulator. To restore electrical conductivity, chemical reduction or thermal annealing is needed to eliminate oxygenated groups of GO. However, such treatments induce internal defects and remove oxygenated atoms of GO partially. The remnant-oxygenated groups affect electrical conductivity of graphene greatly. Nevertheless, reduced graphene oxide and thermally reduced graphene oxide are sufficiently conductive to form polymer nanocomposites at very low percolation threshold. This review provides the fundamentals and state-of-the-art developments in the fabrication methods and electrical property characterizations as well as the applications of novel graphene/polymer nanocomposites. Particular attention is paid to their processing-structural-electrical property relationships.

  18. Effects of sintering atmosphere and initial particle size on sintering of gadolinia-doped ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Rafael Morgado

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the sintering atmosphere and initial particle size on the sintering of ceria containing 10 mol% gadolinia (GdO 1.5 ) were systematically investigated. The main physical parameter was the specific surface area of the initial powders. Nanometric powders with three different specific surface areas were utilized, 210 m 2 /g, 36,2 m 2 /g e 7,4 m 2 /g. The influence on the densification, and micro structural evolution were evaluated. The starting sintering temperature was verified to decrease with increasing on the specific surface area of raw powders. The densification was accelerated for the materials with smaller particle size. Sintering paths for crystallite growth were obtained. Master sintering curves for gadolinium-doped ceria were constructed for all initial powders. A computational program was developed for this purpose. The results for apparent activation energy showed noticeable dependence with specific surface area. In this work, the apparent activation energy for densification increased with the initial particle size of powders. The evolution of the particle size distributions on non isothermal sintering was investigated by WPPM method. It was verified that the grain growth controlling mechanism on gadolinia doped ceria is the pore drag for initial stage and beginning of intermediate stage. The effects of the sintering atmosphere on the stoichiometry deviation of ceria, densification, microstructure evolution, and electrical conductivity were analyzed. Inert, oxidizing, and reducing atmospheres were utilized on this work. Deviations on ceria stoichiometry were verified on the bulk materials. The deviation verified was dependent of the specific surface area and sintering atmosphere. Higher reduction potential atmospheres increase Ce 3+ bulk concentration after sintering. Accelerated grain growth and lower electrical conductivities were verified when reduction reactions are significantly present on sintering. (author)

  19. Composite Materials with Magnetically Aligned Carbon Nanoparticles Having Enhanced Electrical Properties and Methods of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G.P. (Bud) (Inventor); Salem, David R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically aligned carbon nanoparticle composites have enhanced electrical properties. The composites comprise carbon nanoparticles, a host material, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles and a surfactant. In addition to enhanced electrical properties, the composites can have enhanced mechanical and thermal properties.

  20. Optical and electrical properties of nickel xanthate thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    mid-infrared (MIR) spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These films were investigated from their structural, optical and electrical properties point of view. Uniform distribution of grains was clearly observed from the photographs taken by scanning electron microscope.

  1. Modelling the electrical properties of tissue as a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smye, S W; Evans, C J; Robinson, M P; Sleeman, B D

    2007-01-01

    Models of the electrical properties of biological tissue have been the subject of many studies. These models have sought to explain aspects of the dielectric dispersion of tissue. This paper develops a mathematical model of the complex permittivity of tissue as a function of frequency f, in the range 10 4 7 Hz, which is derived from a formulation used to describe the complex permittivity of porous media. The model introduces two parameters, porosity and percolation probability, to the description of the electrical properties of any tissue which comprises a random arrangement of cells. The complex permittivity for a plausible porosity and percolation probability distribution is calculated and compared with the published measured electrical properties of liver tissue. Broad agreement with the experimental data is noted. It is suggested that future detailed experimental measurements should be undertaken to validate the model. The model may be a more convenient method of parameterizing the electrical properties of biological tissue and subsequent measurement of these parameters in a range of tissues may yield information of biological and clinical significance

  2. Electrical properties of silver selenide thin films prepared by reactive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical properties of silver selenide thin films prepared by reactive evaporation have been studied. Samples show a polymorphic phase transition at a temperature of 403 ± 2 K. Hall effect study shows that it has a mobility of 2000 cm2V–1s–1 and carrier concentration of 1018 cm–3 at room temperature. The carriers ...

  3. Electrical and thermomechanical properties of epoxy-POSS nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boček, J.; Matějka, Libor; Mentlík, V.; Trnka, P.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), s. 861-872 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : POSS * epoxy nanocomposite * electrical/dielectrical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2011

  4. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric thin films of copper selenide have been prepared by chemical bath deposition technique at temperature below 60°C on glass substrate. The effect of nonstoichiometry on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the film was studied. The bandgap energy was observed to in-.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and electrical properties of visible-light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) attached to SEM. Electrical properties were measured using computer-controlled LCR meter analyzer (Model Agilent E4982A). 3. ..... Blake D M 2001 Bibliography of work on the photocat- alytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air. (Colorado, USA: National Renewal Energy ...

  6. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    [14] has reported the electrical transport properties of polyvinyl alcohol- selenium nanocomposite ... of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles. Cobalt Ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method using raw materials of ... constantly stirred using the magnetic stirrer until the pH level reached to 12. A specified amount.

  7. Thermal, electrical, mechanical and fluidity properties of polyester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bariş Şimşek

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... Design of experiment; electrical resistivity; polyester-reinforced concrete composites; thermal conductivity; product design. 1. Introduction. In recent years, polyesters have been widely used in resin systems to provide extraordinary mechanical [1], corrosion and water resistance properties to composite ...

  8. Optical and electrical properties of nickel xanthate thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    These films were investigated from their structural, optical and electrical properties point of view. Uniform distribution of grains was .... were measured using four point measurements technique and accordingly the resistivity was .... the probes (s) was in a few millimeters, whereas the film thickness was in nanometer scale.

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on electrical and optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have studied in detail the gamma radiation induced changes in the electrical properties of the (TeO2)0.9 (In2O3)0.1 thin films of different thicknesses, prepared by thermal evaporation in vacuum. The current–voltage characteristics for the as-deposited and exposed thin films were analysed to obtain current versus dose ...

  10. Electrical properties of vanadium oxide subject to hydrogen plasma treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pergament, Alex; Kuldin, Nik

    2008-01-01

    The effect of doping with hydrogen on the electrical properties of vanadium oxide is studied. For vanadium oxide films, subject to cold hydrogen plasma treatment, the temperature dependence of resistance with a maximum at T ~ 100 K is observed. Also, the dependence of the a.c. resistance on frequency is studied. A strategy for fabrication new superconducting materials is discussed.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on optical and electrical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    current has, however, been found to decrease with further increase in gamma radiation dose. The observed changes in both the optical and electrical properties indicate that TeO2 thin films can be used as the real time gamma radiation dosimeter up to a certain dose, a quantity that depends upon the thickness of the film.

  12. Electrical Machines Laminations Magnetic Properties: A Virtual Instrument Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Roman, Javier; Perez-Cruz, Juan; Pineda-Sanchez, Manuel; Puche-Panadero, Ruben; Roger-Folch, Jose; Riera-Guasp, Martin; Sapena-Baño, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate courses in electrical machines often include an introduction to their magnetic circuits and to the various magnetic materials used in their construction and their properties. The students must learn to be able to recognize and compare the permeability, saturation, and losses of these magnetic materials, relate each material to its…

  13. Mechanical and electrical properties of resistance welds at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S T; Kim, S H; Kim, N S; Ludwig, H

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties of resistance welds at cryogenic temperatures for the large superconducting magnet such as the superconducting MHD Dipole system for the National Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF SCMS) at the U. of Tennessee Space Institute are reported.

  14. Graphite-nanoplatelet-decorated polymer nanofiber with improved thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiefeng; Hu, Mingjun; Dong, Yucheng; Li, Robert K Y

    2013-08-28

    Graphite-nanoplatelet (GNP)-decorated polymer nanofiber composites with hierarchical structures were fabricated by the combination of electrospinning and ultrasonication. It was found that GNPs could be well attached or embedded onto the nanofibers when their size was comparable to the nanofiber diameter. X-ray diffraction results indicated that ultrasonic treatment exerted no influence on the carbon crystal layer spacing. Fourier transform infrared spectra and Raman spectroscopy revealed the existence of interfacial interaction between GNPs and polyurethane nanofibers. The prepared nanofiber composite showed enhanced thermal stability and hardness, which originated from uniform dispersion of GNPs as well as strong interaction between GNPs and the nanofibers. The electrical conductivity was significantly improved, derived from the formation of a conductive percolation network in the nanofiber composite. During ultrasonication, cavitation bubbles may be formed in liquid, and microjets and shock waves were created near the GNP surface after collapse of the bubbles. These jets, causing sintering of GNPs, pushed GNPs toward the nanofiber surface at very high speeds. When the fast-moving GNPs hit the nanofiber surface, interfacial collision between GNPs and the nanofibers occurs, the nanofiber may experience partial softening or even melting at the impact sites, and then GNPs could be uniformly anchored onto the nanofibers. This method opens a new door for harvesting GNP-based nanofiber composites with improved material properties.

  15. Solidification of HLLW into sintered ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O-Oka, K.; Ohta, T.; Masuda, S.; Tsunoda, N.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated HLLW from the PNC reprocessing plant at Tokai was solidified into sintered ceramics by normal sintering or hot-pressing with addition of some oxides. Among various ceramic products obtained so far, the most preferable was nepheline-type sintered solids formed with addition of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 to the simulated waste calcine. The solid shows advantageous properties in leach rate and mechanical strength, which suggest that the ceramic solids were prepared with additions of ZrO 2 or MnO 2 , and some of them showed good characteristics

  16. Direct Metal Laser Sintering of Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications: Microstructure, Corrosion Properties, and Mechanical Treatment of Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Brezinová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V samples have been prepared by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS with varied laser power. Some of the samples were stress-relief annealed. The microstructure of materials was investigated using a light microscopy. Columnar grains of martensite dominate in as-made microstructure. Stress-relief annealing led to the white acicular phase growth in the structure with a fishbone arrangement on the boundary of some original martensitic needles. Mechanical properties of materials were characterized through hardness measurement in two directions relating to the sample building direction. It was found that the hardness of materials increased with a laser power and values varied from 370 to 415 HV 0.3/30. After stress-relief annealing, the structure of materials being homogenized, pattern spacing dissolved and the hardness in both directions became stabilized at values of 350–370 HV 0.3/30. The laser power affects the corrosion rate of the material. The lowest corrosion rate was recorded at the maximum laser power (190 W. Heat treatment does not affect the corrosion rate remarkably, however it leads to stabilization of corrosion potential of materials Ecorr. The surface of the samples was modified by an abrasive blasting using spherical (zirblast and sharp-edged (white corundum blasting abrasives and three levels of air pressure. The abrasive blasting of sintered materials led to a decrease of the surface roughness of materials with air pressure increasing. Blasting with zirblast led to a more significant decrease of roughness parameters compared with surfaces blasted with sharp-edged white aluminum. Different shapes of abrasives caused characteristic surface morphology.

  17. Titanium carbide-carbon porous nanocomposite materials for radioactive ion beam production: processing, sintering and isotope release properties

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081922; Stora, Thierry

    2017-01-26

    The Isotope Separator OnLine (ISOL) technique is used at the ISOLDE - Isotope Separator OnLine DEvice facility at CERN, to produce radioactive ion beams for physics research. At CERN protons are accelerated to 1.4 GeV and made to collide with one of two targets located at ISOLDE facility. When the protons collide with the target material, nuclear reactions produce isotopes which are thermalized in the bulk of the target material grains. During irradiation the target is kept at high temperatures (up to 2300 °C) to promote diffusion and effusion of the produced isotopes into an ion source, to produce a radioactive ion beam. Ti-foils targets are currently used at ISOLDE to deliver beams of K, Ca and Sc, however they are operated at temperatures close to their melting point which brings target degradation, through sintering and/or melting which reduces the beam intensities over time. For the past 10 years, nanostructured target materials have been developed and have shown improved release rates of the produced i...

  18. Processing, Mechanical and Optical Properties of Additive-Free ZrC Ceramics Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Musa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, nearly fully dense monolithic ZrC samples are produced and broadly characterized from microstructural, mechanical and optical points of view. Specifically, 98% dense products are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS after 20 min dwell time at 1850 °C starting from powders preliminarily prepared by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS followed by 20 min ball milling. A prolonged mechanical treatment up to 2 h of SHS powders does not lead to appreciable benefits. Vickers hardness of the resulting samples (17.5 ± 0.4 GPa is reasonably good for monolithic ceramics, but the mechanical strength (about 250 MPa up to 1000 °C could be further improved by suitable optimization of the starting powder characteristics. The very smoothly polished ZrC specimen subjected to optical measurements displays high absorption in the visible-near infrared region and low thermal emittance at longer wavelengths. Moreover, the sample exhibits goodspectral selectivity (2.1–2.4 in the 1000–1400 K temperature range. These preliminary results suggest that ZrC ceramics produced through the two-step SHS/SPS processing route can be considered as attractive reference materials for the development of innovative solar energy absorbers.

  19. Improvement of the magnetic property, thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Beibei; Li, Xiangbin; Liang, Xiaolin [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yan, Gaolin, E-mail: gaolinyan@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Chen, Kan; Yan, Aru [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-05-01

    To improve the coercivity and thermal stability of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets simultaneously, the Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} (at%) powders with low melting point were introduced into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. Additionally, the magnetic properties, microstructure and thermal stability of the sintered magnets with different amounts of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} were investigated. By adding a small amount of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}, the coercivity was significantly increased from 12.72 to 21.75 kOe. As indicated by the microstructure analysis, a well-developed core-shell structure was formed in the magnets with the addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}. The improvement of magnetic properties could be attributed to the refined and uniform matrix phase, continuous grain boundaries and a (Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hardening shell surrounding the matrix phase grains. With the addition of 0–4 wt% Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powder, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the magnets could be improved from −0.117 to −0.108%/°C and −0.74 to −0.66%/°C in the range of 20–100 °C, respectively. Additionally, the irreversible loss of magnetic flux (hirr) decreased sharply as Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powder was added. The results of temperature-dependent magnetic properties suggest that, the thermal stability of the magnets was effectively improved with the intergranular addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy. Also, the corrosion resistance was found to be improved through small addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powders This was partly due to the stability enhancement of the (Pr, Nd)-rich intergranular phase by Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}. - Highlights: • We successfully introduced the Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. • The magnetic properties and thermal stability of the Nd-Fe-B magnets were improved. • The corrosion resistance of the Nd-Fe-B magnets were improved.

  20. Synthesis of Cu-CNTs nanocomposites via double pressing double sintering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Darabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, copper (Cu-carbon nanotubes (CNTs nanocomposites were synthesized with different weight percentages of CNTs by double pressing double sintering (DPDS method as well as conventional sintering method. A planetary ball mill was used to disperse CNTs in Cu matrix. The milled powders were first cold pressed to 450 MPa in a uniaxial stainless-steel die with cylindrical compacts (diameter: 12 mm and height: 5 mm. The effect of CNTs content and the DPDS method on the properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. The microstructure and phase analysis of Cu-CNTs nanocomposite samples were studied by FESEM and X-Ray Diffraction. The electrical conductivity of nanocomposites was measured and compared to both sintering methods. Mechanical properties of Cu-CNTs nanocomposites were characterized using bending strength and micro-hardness measurements. Enhancements of about 32% in bending strength, 31.6% in hardness and 19.5% in electrical conductivity of Cu-1 wt.% CNTs nanocomposite synthesized by DPDS method were observed as compared to Cu-1 wt.% CNTs nanocomposites fabricated under the similar condition by a conventional sintering process.