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Sample records for sintenisii hub mor

  1. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Symphytum sylvaticum Boiss. subsp. sepulcrale. (Boiss.& Bal.) Greuter & Burdetvar. sepulcrale and Symphytum aintabicum Hub.- Mor. & Wickens

    OpenAIRE

    KURUCU, Semra; KARTAL, Murat

    2002-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Echimidine-N-oxide) was isolated from Symphytum sylvaticum Boiss. subsp. sepulcrale (Boiss. & Bal.) Greuter & Burdet var. sepulcrale and pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Echimidine) was isolated from Symphytum aintabicum Hub. - Mor. & Wickens. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on IR, EIMS, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis and also on 2D NMR (COSY, HMBC, HMQC) experiments.

  2. Morphological, Anatomical and Palynological Studies on Endemic Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub. -Mor. (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, anatomical, palynological and seed micromorphological properties of an endemic plant Matthiola anchoniifolia Hub.-Mor. are recorded for the first time. A description and descriptive illustrations of the species are given based on the collected specimens for morphological study. Seed surface of M. anchoniifolia is examined by scanning electron microscope. The seed of M. anchoniifolia was compressed, brownish in colour and the cells of testa were nearly 60-80 μm in diameter and ranged from isodiametric, tetragonal or pentagonal. The anticlinal walls were straight or weakly curved while the outer periclinal walls were concave to flat with smooth surface. In anatomical study, cross sections of root, stem and stem leaf are examined. The root had secondary structure. Periderm consists of 5-8 layers of cells for phellem. Cortex consists of 9-12 layered parenchymatic tissue under the periderm. Secondary phloem ring-shaped, 6-9 layered and consists of companion cells and grouped sieve tubes. Stem had primary structure when analyzed. It is circular with a few irregular ribs in cross section. Cortex is 8-12 layered and parenchymatous. Stoma cells are present on both epidermis. Leaf is isobilateral. There are unicellular and ramified hairs on both surface. Palisade parenchyma cells are 1-2 layered and spongy parenchyma cells are 5-12 layered. M. anchoniifolia has tricolpate pollen type, prolate pollen shape and reticulate exine ornamentation.

  3. ENDEMİK VERBASCUM BELLUM HUB. AND MOR. (SCROPHULARIACEAE TÜRÜNÜN ANATOMİK ÖZELLİKLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Küçük

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anadolu’da “Sığır kuyruğu” olarak adlandırılan Verbascum L. (Scrophulariaceae cinsi, ülkemizde 194’ü endemik olmak üzere 245 tür ile temsil edilmektedir. Çiçekleri müsilaj, uçucu yağ ve glikozitler taşır. Bazı Verbascum türleri halk arasında göğüs yumuşatıcı ve balgam söktürücü olarak, adet sancısını gidermede, yatıştırıcı, romatizma ağrılarını giderici ve hayvan yaralarını tedavi etmekte kullanılmaktadır. V. bellum Hub. Mor. türü, Akdeniz fitocoğrafik bölgesinde yetişen ve ülkemize endemik bir türdür. V. bellum “Dirmil Sığırkuyruğu” türünün anatomik yapısı ilk kez bu çalışmada verilmiş, fotoğraf ve çizimlerle desteklenmiştir.

  4. Hydrogeology of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The covering layers protect the salt in the dome. Ground water velocities are small and the chalk exhibits good retention properties for the radionuclides. As ground water velocities below 500 m are small, knowledge of hydrogeology over only a small area over the dome is necessary (1 km horizontal transport takes about 15 mill. years). Additionally if the retention properties of the chalk together with radioactive decay are taken into account, it becomes obvious that the nuclides can travel only a few metres into the chalk, before they have decayed to safe radioactive levels. Therefore it does not appear to be necessary to investigate the hydrogeology beyond a few metres from the disposal area. The hydrogeological investigations that have been carried out, although they cover only a limited area, thus give an excellent and sufficient basis for a safety evaluation for determining the suitability of the Mors salt dome for waste disposal. (EG)

  5. Innovation hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Hara, J.; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Turner, N.

    2008-01-01

    hubs that attempts to discover the causes of failure of innovation hubs through the comparison of successful and failed hubs. Success factors for innovation hubs are also discussed and suggestions are made as to lessons that can be learned from the experiences of innovation hubs."......"Whilst ‘incremental innovation' is an imperative for the short-to-medium term success of a company, there is also a need for companies to engage in innovation activity that goes beyond the incremental in order to guarantee long-term success. However, such ‘radical innovation' (RI) poses new...... of separation from the culture and routines of the mainstream organisation. Unfortunately, it would appear that many attempts to set-up innovation hubs have ended in failure within a few years; not before considerable time, effort and resource has been expended. This paper reports on a study of six innovation...

  6. Seismic evaluation of the Mors Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitz, E.

    1982-01-01

    The ''Seismic Case History'' of the Mors saltdome was already published in detail by ELSAM/ELKRAFT so only a few important points need to be mentioned here: (a) Processing and interpretation of the seismic material. (b) Stratigraphic classification of the most important seismic reflection horizons. (c) Construction of the depth sections and description of the saltdome model. (d) Investigations of the problematic salt overhang using interactive seismic modelling. (EG)

  7. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  8. Quadratic Assignment of Hubs in p-Hub Median Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin

    nodes end-point. In contrast, in traditional hub location problems it is commonly assumed that all the hub facilities share a similar characteristic and economy of scale resulted by consolidation of flow over hub edges is not directly relevant to the hub facilities being installed at both end......We introduce Generalized p-Hub Median Problem (GpHMP) that seeks to locate p hub nodes and install p distinct hub facilities/operators on the hubs while discount factor resulted by consolidation of flow on the hub links depends on the facilities/operators that are installed/operating on both hub...

  9. Virtual Campus Hub technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio

    This deliverable briefly describes which technological components have been delivered for the Virtual Campus Hub and how they can be used. A detailed discussion of the technical details of the components, how they were realized and how they fit the VCH concept can be found in deliverables D5.......4. Virtual Campus Hub Technology Evaluation Report and D6.7 The Virtual Campus Hub Concept....

  10. Hub and Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Gary Alan

    2010-01-01

    The project is for the central building of a community center used by the communities of Blacksburg and Christiansburg. The building is a space configured as a hub that uses axes to determine entering, exiting and vertical movement. The hub configuration of the building is in concentric rings around the atrium in both space and materials. As materials were brought into the building, they enhanced the strong axial configuration and emphasized the layers surrounding the central hub space of ...

  11. Joint Hub Network Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for joint hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for transhipment of goods is expensive and therefore involves considerable risks for the cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at once.

  12. Morāles intuitīvo pamatu un morālās identitātes saistība ar morālo uzvedību

    OpenAIRE

    Mālkalniete-Čelika, Ieva

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis bija noskaidrot, kā morāles intuitīvie pamati un morālā identitāte prognozē morālo uzvedību, un vai morālās identitātes internalizācijas dimensijai ir mediatora efekts starp morāles intuitīvajiem pamatiem un morālo uzvedību. Pētījumā piedalījās 237 studenti (76% sievietes, vidējais vecums M=23,11). Pētījumā tika izmantotas metodikas : Morāles intuitīvo pamatu aptauja (Moral Foundations Questionnaire: 30-Item Full version-MFQ 30; Graham, Haidt & Nosek, 2008), Morālās i...

  13. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  14. Twin Hub Network (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Twin hub network, a European Interreg IVB project, aims at making intermodal rail transport within, to and from North West Europe more competitive, in particular between seaports and inland terminals. Improving rail competitiveness enables to shift freight flows from road to rail, providing a more

  15. Molecular interactions of alcohols with zeolite BEA and MOR frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stückenschneider, Kai; Merz, Juliane; Schembecker, Gerhard

    2013-12-01

    Zeolites can adsorb small organic molecules such as alcohols from a fermentation broth. Also in the zeolite-catalyzed conversion of alcohols to biofuels, biochemicals, or gasoline, adsorption is the first step. Several studies have investigated the adsorption of alcohols in different zeolites experimentally, but computational investigations in this field have mostly been restricted to zeolite MFI. In this study, the adsorption of C1-C4 alcohols in BEA and MOR was investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Calculated adsorption geometries and the corresponding energies of the designed cluster models were comparable to periodic calculations, and the adsorption energies were in the same range as the corresponding computational and experimental values reported in the literature for zeolite MFI. Thus, BEA and MOR may be good adsorption materials for alcohols in the field of downstream processing and catalysis. Aside from the DFT calculations, adsorption isotherms were determined experimentally in this study from aqueous solutions. For BEA, the adsorption of significant amounts of alcohol from aqueous solution was observed experimentally. In contrast, MOR was loaded with only a very small amount of alcohol. Although differences were found between the affinities obtained from gas-phase DFT calculations and those observed experimentally in aqueous solution, the computational data presented here represent molecular level information on the geometries and energies of C1-C4 alcohols adsorbed in zeolites BEA and MOR. This knowledge should prove very useful in the design of zeolite materials intended for use in adsorption and catalytic processes, as it allows adsorption behavior to be predicted via judiciously designed computational models.

  16. Morphine-induced MOR-1X and ASF/SF2 Expressions Are Independent of Transcriptional Regulation: Implications for MOR-1X Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Patrick M; Sariyer, Ilker K; Langford, T Dianne; Datta, Prasun K; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-07-01

    Recently, multiple μ-opioid receptor (MOR) isoforms have been identified that originate from a single gene, OPRM1; however, both their regulation and their functional significance are poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to decipher, first, the regulation of alternatively spliced μ-opioid receptor isoforms and the spliceosome components that determine splicing specificity and, second, the signaling pathways utilized by particular isoforms both constitutively and following agonist binding. Our studies demonstrated that the expression of a particular splice variant, MOR-1X, was up-regulated by morphine, and this coincided with an increase in the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2. Structural comparison of this isoform to the prototypical variant MOR-1 revealed that the unique distal portion of the C-terminal domain contains additional phosphorylation sites, whereas functional comparison found distinct signaling differences, particularly in the ERK and p90 RSK pathways. Additionally, MOR-1X expression significantly reduced Bax expression and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, suggesting a unique functional consequence for MOR-1X specific signaling. Collectively, these findings suggest that alternative splicing of the MOR is altered by exogenous opioids, such as morphine, and that individual isoforms, such as MOR-1X, mediate unique signal transduction with distinct functional consequence. Furthermore, we have identified for the first time a potential mechanism that involves the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 through which morphine regulates splicing specificity of the MOR encoding gene, OPRM1. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Universities as Development Hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lindegaard, Klaus; Lehmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    international aid programmes to tertiary education, including research and innovation in an interplay with other research institutions and business. In the absence of such support the so-called digital divide between industrial and developing and transition countries will widen, and brain-drain and poverty...... problems will continue to grow. Universities should play a central role in such global efforts to strengthen tertiary education. Modes of operation are still deficient, but ?Universities as Development Hubs? is suggested as a concept to study further and modify to meet particular needs. In co...

  18. The Banana Genome Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D’Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world’s favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/ PMID:23707967

  19. SUN HUB – ENERGY HUB FOR OUTDOOR TABLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    on festivals where people camps for several days it can be hard to have your portable units charged. In this this work we report a solar powered hub, as an add-on to a table in the urban environment for charging mobile phones and tablets and other handheld devices through USBs, charging laptops through AC...... Sun Hubs to monitor the overall energy system and the consumption of each functionality in the table....

  20. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  1. The Virtual Campus Hub Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Monaco, Lucio

    The research infrastructure project Virtual Campus Hub (VCH) runs from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Four technical universities in Europe, who are all active in the field of sustainable energy, form the project consortium: the Technical University of Denmark, The Royal Institute...... of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final concept of Virtual Campus Hub. It gives...

  2. The Mothers on Respect (MOR index: measuring quality, safety, and human rights in childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswathi Vedam

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The MOR index is a reliable, patient-informed quality and safety indicator that can be applied across jurisdictions to assess the nature of provider-patient relationships, and access to person-centered maternity care.

  3. Framework of calculating the measures of resilience (MOR) for intermodal transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Recent catastrophic events, such as Hurricane Katrina, have accentuated the value of measures of resilience (MOR) for the response and : restoration of transportation systems following a disaster and have therefore become a topic of great concern for...

  4. Caterpillar MorElectric DOE Idle Reduction Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Bernardi

    2007-09-30

    This project titled 'Demonstration of the New MorElectric{trademark} Technology as an Idle Reduction Solution' is one of four demonstration projects awarded by the US Department of Energy in 2002. The goal of these demonstration and evaluation projects was to gather objective in-use information on the performance of available idle reduction technologies by characterizing the cost; fuel, maintenance, and engine life savings; payback; and user impressions of various systems and techniques. In brief, the Caterpillar Inc. project involved applying electrically driven accessories for cab comfort during engine-off stops and for reducing fuel consumption during on-highway operation. Caterpillar had equipped and operated five new trucks with the technology in conjunction with International Truck and Engine Corporation and COX Transfer. The most significant result of the project was a demonstrated average idle reduction of 13.8% for the 5 truck MEI fleet over the control fleet. It should be noted that the control fleet trucks were also equipped with an idle reduction device that would start and stop the main engine automatically in order to maintain cab temperature. The control fleet idle usage would have been reduced by 3858 hours over the 2 year period with the MEI system installed, or approximately 2315 gallons of fuel less (calculations assume a fuel consumption of 0.6 gallons per hour for the 13 liter engine at idle). The fuel saved will be significantly larger for higher displacement engines without idle reduction equipment such as the engine auto start/stop device used by COX Transfer. It is common for engines to consume 1.0 gallons per hour which would increase the fuel savings to approximately 1260 gallons per truck per year of typical idling (1800 hours idle/yr).

  5. Existing roles of traditional healers (mor baan) in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee; Rumbold, Bruce

    2011-06-01

    Traditional healers (mor baan) played an important role in Thai health long before the introduction of Western medicine. Although modern health professional play a key role of health care provider of Thai health care system, traditional healers and their practice still exist in most rural areas of Thailand. In this article, we address the roles and practices of traditional healers in southern Thailand. An ethnographic method was employed. This approach is the hallmark method used to describe the role and the practice of traditional healers and to grasp in-depth understanding of their everyday life. Participation observation and unstructured interview with 18 traditional healers were conducted. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. Most of the traditional healers chose their role because they were influenced by their ancestors, although a few others chose it because of individual interests and a desire to help ill people. All are trained in multiple skills, using supernatural spirits, ceremonies and natural plant products as resources for counteracting various health problems. They refer patients to modern hospitals or other healers if they cannot adequately manage illness themselves. Their service provision is flexible and based on a holistic approach that suits people's lifestyles and needs. The role of traditional healer tends not to attract the interest of younger generations, although traditional healers have contributed greatly to people's health. Their presence improves people's access to healthcare and offers an alternative to modern medicine, which often has a limited role. We conclude that the services of traditional healers should be incorporated into contemporary healthcare provision of Thai health care system.

  6. Solving Hub Network Problem Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursyid Hasan Basri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a network problem that described as follows. There are n ports that interact, and p of those will be designated as hubs. All hubs are fully interconnected. Each spoke will be allocated to only one of available hubs. Direct connection between two spokes is allowed only if they are allocated to the same hub. The latter is a distinct characteristic that differs it from pure hub-and-spoke system. In case of pure hub-and-spoke system, direct connection between two spokes is not allowed. The problem is where to locate hub ports and to which hub a spoke should be allocated so that total transportation cost is minimum. In the first model, there are some additional aspects are taken into consideration in order to achieve a better representation of the problem. The first, weekly service should be accomplished. Secondly, various vessel types should be considered. The last, a concept of inter-hub discount factor is introduced. Regarding the last aspect, it represents cost reduction factor at hub ports due to economies of scale. In practice, it is common that the cost rate for inter-hub movement is less than the cost rate for movement between hub and origin/destination. In this first model, inter-hub discount factor is assumed independent with amount of flows on inter-hub links (denoted as flow-independent discount policy. The results indicated that the patterns of enlargement of container ship size, to some degree, are similar with those in Kurokawa study. However, with regard to hub locations, the results have not represented the real practice. In the proposed model, unsatisfactory result on hub locations is addressed. One aspect that could possibly be improved to find better hub locations is inter-hub discount factor. Then inter-hub discount factor is assumed to depend on amount of inter-hub flows (denoted as flow-dependent discount policy. There are two discount functions examined in this paper. Both functions are characterized by

  7. Estimating the sustainability of hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.; Zuidberg, J.; Veldhuis, J.

    2008-01-01

    Several airports in the world are or will be confronted with capacity problems in the near future. As a result of this congestion, many airports will face a selectivity problem: which traffic segments must be accommodated and which segments are less crucial? At hub airports there is generally one

  8. HUBS: Enabling multiple value creation through collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamm, M.A.A.; Faber, N.R.; Jonker, J.

    2016-01-01

    In dit paper onderzoeken de auteurs de opkomst van coöperatieve vormen van organiseren in netwerken genaamd hubs. Hubs ontstaan ten gevolge van een behoefte in de samenleving om op een coöperatieve manier maatschappelijke doelen en meervoudige waardecreatie te realiseren. Hubs ontwikkelen zich tot

  9. PolarHub: A Global Hub for Polar Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a NSF project in developing a large-scale web crawler PolarHub to discover automatically the distributed polar dataset in the format of OGC web services (OWS) in the cyberspace. PolarHub is a machine robot; its goal is to visit as many webpages as possible to find those containing information about polar OWS, extract this information and store it into the backend data repository. This is a very challenging task given huge data volume of webpages on the Web. Three unique features was introduced in PolarHub to make it distinctive from earlier crawler solutions: (1) a multi-task, multi-user, multi-thread support to the crawling tasks; (2) an extensive use of thread pool and Data Access Object (DAO) design patterns to separate persistent data storage and business logic to achieve high extendibility of the crawler tool; (3) a pattern-matching based customizable crawling algorithm to support discovery of multi-type geospatial web services; and (4) a universal and portable client-server communication mechanism combining a server-push and client pull strategies for enhanced asynchronous processing. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the impact of crawling parameters to the overall system performance. The geographical distribution pattern of all PolarHub identified services is also demonstrated. We expect this work to make a major contribution to the field of geospatial information retrieval and geospatial interoperability, to bridge the gap between data provider and data consumer, and to accelerate polar science by enhancing the accessibility and reusability of adequate polar data.

  10. SUN HUB – ENERGY HUB FOR OUTDOOR TABLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Solar cells integrated into products are attracting more and more attention especially due to the dramatically declining cost of solar cells. Furthermore, we are getting more dependent on portable units like mobile phones, tablets and PCs which has to be charged to be of any use. Especially on fe...... Sun Hubs to monitor the overall energy system and the consumption of each functionality in the table....

  11. Optimal hub location in pipeline networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses optimization strategies and techniques for the location of natural gas marketing hubs in the North American gas pipeline network. A hub is a facility at which inbound and outbound network links meet and freight is redirected towards their destinations. Common examples of hubs used in the gas pipeline industry include gas plants, interconnects and market centers. Characteristics of the gas pipeline industry which are relevant to the optimization of transportation costs using hubs are presented. Allocation techniques for solving location-allocation problems are discussed. An outline of the research in process by the authors in the field of optimal gas hub location concludes the paper.

  12. Antinociceptive effects of morphine and naloxone in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice transfected with the MORS196A gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Pao-Luh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid analgesics such as morphine and meperidine have been used to control moderate to severe pain for many years. However, these opioids have many side effects, including the development of tolerance and dependence after long-term use, which has limited their clinical use. We previously reported that mutations in the mu-opioid receptors (MOR S196L and S196A rendered them responsive to the opioid antagonist naloxone without altering the agonist phenotype. In MORS196A knock-in mice, naloxone and naltrexone were antinociceptive but did not cause tolerance or physical dependence. In this study we delivery this mutated MOR gene into pain related pathway to confirm the possibility of in vivo transfecting MORS196A gene and using naloxone as a new analgesic agent. Methods The MOR-knockout (MOR-KO mice were used to investigate whether morphine and naloxone could show antinociceptive effects when MORS196A gene was transfected into the spinal cords of MOR-KO mice. Double-stranded adeno-associated virus type 2 (dsAAV2 was used to deliver the MORS196A-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP gene by microinjected the virus into the spinal cord (S2/S3 dorsal horn region. Tail-flick test was used to measure the antinociceptive effect of drugs. Results Morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c. and naloxone (10 mg/kg, s.c. had no antinociceptive effects in MOR-KO mice before gene transfection. However, two or three weeks after the MOR-S196A gene had been injected locally into the spinal cord of MOR-KO mice, significant antinociceptive effects could be induced by naloxone or morphine. On the other hand, only morphine but not naloxone induced significant tolerance after sub-chronic treatment. Conclusion Transfecting the MORS196A gene into the spinal cord and systemically administering naloxone in MOR-KO mice activated the exogenously delivered mutant MOR and provided antinociceptive effect without causing tolerance. Since naloxone will not activate natural

  13. Learning Graphical Models With Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kean Ming; London, Palma; Mohan, Karthik; Lee, Su-In; Fazel, Maryam; Witten, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning a high-dimensional graphical model in which there are a few hub nodes that are densely-connected to many other nodes. Many authors have studied the use of an ℓ1 penalty in order to learn a sparse graph in the high-dimensional setting. However, the ℓ1 penalty implicitly assumes that each edge is equally likely and independent of all other edges. We propose a general framework to accommodate more realistic networks with hub nodes, using a convex formulation that involves a row-column overlap norm penalty. We apply this general framework to three widely-used probabilistic graphical models: the Gaussian graphical model, the covariance graph model, and the binary Ising model. An alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm is used to solve the corresponding convex optimization problems. On synthetic data, we demonstrate that our proposed framework outperforms competitors that do not explicitly model hub nodes. We illustrate our proposal on a webpage data set and a gene expression data set. PMID:25620891

  14. Learning Graphical Models With Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kean Ming; London, Palma; Mohan, Karthik; Lee, Su-In; Fazel, Maryam; Witten, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    We consider the problem of learning a high-dimensional graphical model in which there are a few hub nodes that are densely-connected to many other nodes. Many authors have studied the use of an ℓ 1 penalty in order to learn a sparse graph in the high-dimensional setting. However, the ℓ 1 penalty implicitly assumes that each edge is equally likely and independent of all other edges. We propose a general framework to accommodate more realistic networks with hub nodes, using a convex formulation that involves a row-column overlap norm penalty. We apply this general framework to three widely-used probabilistic graphical models: the Gaussian graphical model, the covariance graph model, and the binary Ising model. An alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm is used to solve the corresponding convex optimization problems. On synthetic data, we demonstrate that our proposed framework outperforms competitors that do not explicitly model hub nodes. We illustrate our proposal on a webpage data set and a gene expression data set.

  15. Hubs in the human fetal brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marion I; Turk, Elise; Manning, Janessa H; Hect, Jasmine; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Thomason, Moriah E

    2018-02-06

    Advances in neuroimaging and network analyses have lead to discovery of highly connected regions, or hubs, in the connectional architecture of the human brain. Whether these hubs emerge in utero, has yet to be examined. The current study addresses this question and aims to determine the location of neural hubs in human fetuses. Fetal resting-state fMRI data (N = 105) was used to construct connectivity matrices for 197 discrete brain regions. We discovered that within the connectional functional organization of the human fetal brain key hubs are emerging. Consistent with prior reports in infants, visual and motor regions were identified as emerging hub areas, specifically in cerebellar areas. We also found evidence for network hubs in association cortex, including areas remarkably close to the adult fusiform facial and Wernicke areas. Functional significance of hub structure was confirmed by computationally deleting hub versus random nodes and observing that global efficiency decreased significantly more when hubs were removed (p hubs may be important for facilitating network communication, they may also form potential points of vulnerability in fetal brain development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Innovation Hub How-To

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Firms around the world are eager to replicate the successes of enterprises that have established innovation labs in California's Silicon Valley. An analysis of four leading US companies that have set up idea incubators in the Valley—Xerox, Apple, Google, and Cisco—point to eight factors for success...... disruptive over incremental innovation, and being patient. Regardless of where an innovation hub is established, the key to success lies in hiring creative, intrinsically motivated staff and then giving them the freedom to do what they do best....

  17. Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an initial high level strategy for carrying out the responsibilities of the national Maritime Domain Awareness Architecture Management Hub to deliver a standards based service...

  18. 14 CFR 398.2 - Number and designation of hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number and designation of hubs. 398.2... Number and designation of hubs. (a) What is a hub? The Department considers hubs as belonging to any one of three classifications: (1) A large hub is a place accounting for at least 1.00 percent of the...

  19. Dybe bioporers forekomst og betydning for pesticidudvaskning i moræneler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter R; Krogh, Paul H.; Hansen, Søren

    Dybe bioporers arealmæssige forekomst og betydning for pesticidudvaskningen mellem jordoverfladen og kemisk reduceret grundvandszone i moræneler I projektet blev det påvist, at sprækker i jorden i sig selv ikke er aktive transportveje med mindre, der er bioporer, såsom regnormegange og rødder, i...

  20. Hubs in the human fetal brain network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, M.I.; Turk, E.; Manning, J.H.; Hect, J.; Hernandez-Andrade⁠, E.; Hassan, S.S.; Romero, R.; van den Heuvel, M.P.

    2018-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging and network analyses have lead to discovery of highly connected regions, or hubs, in the connectional architecture of the human brain. Whether these hubs emerge as networks begin to form in utero, has yet to be examined. The current study addresses this question and aims to

  1. Logistics hubs: an integration of transport infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Logistics hubs are very well established internationally and many examples exist where these have been successfully built and implemented. This success have lead to the proliferation of such hubs and in South Africa there are many "decision makers...

  2. Virtual Campus Hub technical evaluation report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercoulen, Frank; Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio

    This report describes and discusses the technical achievements of the Virtual Campus Hub project and formulates a brief agenda for the future.......This report describes and discusses the technical achievements of the Virtual Campus Hub project and formulates a brief agenda for the future....

  3. Dynamic hubs show competitive and static hubs non-competitive regulation of their interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurv Goel

    Full Text Available Date hub proteins have 1 or 2 interaction interfaces but many interaction partners. This raises the question of whether all partner proteins compete for the interaction interface of the hub or if the cell carefully regulates aspects of this process? Here, we have used real-time rendering of protein interaction networks to analyse the interactions of all the 1 or 2 interface hubs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle. By integrating previously determined structural and gene expression data, and visually hiding the nodes (proteins and their edges (interactions during their troughs of expression, we predict when interactions of hubs and their partners are likely to exist. This revealed that 20 out of all 36 one- or two- interface hubs in the yeast interactome fell within two main groups. The first was dynamic hubs with static partners, which can be considered as 'competitive hubs'. Their interaction partners will compete for the interaction interface of the hub and the success of any interaction will be dictated by the kinetics of interaction (abundance and affinity and subcellular localisation. The second was static hubs with dynamic partners, which we term 'non-competitive hubs'. Regulatory mechanisms are finely tuned to lessen the presence and/or effects of competition between the interaction partners of the hub. It is possible that these regulatory processes may also be used by the cell for the regulation of other, non-cell cycle processes.

  4. Dynamic hubs show competitive and static hubs non-competitive regulation of their interaction partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Apurv; Wilkins, Marc R

    2012-01-01

    Date hub proteins have 1 or 2 interaction interfaces but many interaction partners. This raises the question of whether all partner proteins compete for the interaction interface of the hub or if the cell carefully regulates aspects of this process? Here, we have used real-time rendering of protein interaction networks to analyse the interactions of all the 1 or 2 interface hubs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle. By integrating previously determined structural and gene expression data, and visually hiding the nodes (proteins) and their edges (interactions) during their troughs of expression, we predict when interactions of hubs and their partners are likely to exist. This revealed that 20 out of all 36 one- or two- interface hubs in the yeast interactome fell within two main groups. The first was dynamic hubs with static partners, which can be considered as 'competitive hubs'. Their interaction partners will compete for the interaction interface of the hub and the success of any interaction will be dictated by the kinetics of interaction (abundance and affinity) and subcellular localisation. The second was static hubs with dynamic partners, which we term 'non-competitive hubs'. Regulatory mechanisms are finely tuned to lessen the presence and/or effects of competition between the interaction partners of the hub. It is possible that these regulatory processes may also be used by the cell for the regulation of other, non-cell cycle processes.

  5. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  6. Functional connectivity hubs of the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Adam; Galbusera, Alberto; Schwarz, Adam J; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in functional connectivity methods have made it possible to identify brain hubs - a set of highly connected regions serving as integrators of distributed neuronal activity. The integrative role of hub nodes makes these areas points of high vulnerability to dysfunction in brain disorders, and abnormal hub connectivity profiles have been described for several neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of analogous functional connectivity hubs in preclinical species like the mouse may provide critical insight into the elusive biological underpinnings of these connectional alterations. To spatially locate functional connectivity hubs in the mouse brain, here we applied a fully-weighted network analysis to map whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity (i.e., the functional connectome) at a high-resolution voxel-scale. Analysis of a large resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) dataset revealed the presence of six distinct functional modules related to known large-scale functional partitions of the brain, including a default-mode network (DMN). Consistent with human studies, highly-connected functional hubs were identified in several sub-regions of the DMN, including the anterior and posterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, in the thalamus, and in small foci within well-known integrative cortical structures such as the insular and temporal association cortices. According to their integrative role, the identified hubs exhibited mutual preferential interconnections. These findings highlight the presence of evolutionarily-conserved, mutually-interconnected functional hubs in the mouse brain, and may guide future investigations of the biological foundations of aberrant rsfMRI hub connectivity associated with brain pathological states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What properties characterize the hub proteins of the protein-protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    OpenAIRE

    Ekman, Diana; Light, Sara; Bj?rklund, ?sa K; Elofsson, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Background Most proteins interact with only a few other proteins while a small number of proteins (hubs) have many interaction partners. Hub proteins and non-hub proteins differ in several respects; however, understanding is not complete about what properties characterize the hubs and set them apart from proteins of low connectivity. Therefore, we have investigated what differentiates hubs from non-hubs and static hubs (party hubs) from dynamic hubs (date hubs) in the protein-protein interact...

  8. Supervised hub-detection for brain connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    A structural brain network consists of physical connections between brain regions. Brain network analysis aims to find features associated with a parameter of interest through supervised prediction models such as regression. Unsupervised preprocessing steps like clustering are often applied...... hubs are a low-dimensional representation of the network and are chosen based on predictive performance as features for a linear regression. We apply our method to the problem of finding age-related changes in structural connectivity. We compare our supervised hub-detection (SHD) to an unsupervised hub......-detection and a linear regression using the original network connections as features. The results show that the SHD is able to retain regression performance, while still finding hubs that represent the underlying variation in the population. Although here we applied the SHD to brain networks, it can be applied to any...

  9. 16 CFR 1512.12 - Requirements for wheel hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for wheel hubs. 1512.12 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.12 Requirements for wheel hubs. All bicycles (other... the frame or fork when locked. (c) Front hubs. Front hubs not equipped with lever-operated quick...

  10. Detection and Quantization of the Expression of Two mu-Opioid Receptor Splice Variants mRNA (hMOR-1A and hMOR-1O in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Long-Term Abstinent Former Opioid Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vousooghi, Pharm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The mu-Opioid receptor (MOR exerts a critical role on effects of opiodis. The objective of this study is to find a peripheral bio-marker in addiction studies through quantization of the expression of two MOR splice variants mRNA (hMOR-1A and hMOR-1O in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of long-term abstinent former opioids addicts.

    Methods

    In this case-control study, case and control people were male and divided in two groups: people who gave up addiction to opioids (case and healthy individuals without history of addiction (control. The mRNA expression in PBLs of participants was detected and measured by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using SYBR Green Dye.

    Results

    The hMOR-1A mRNA expression in PBLs of abstinent group was significantly reduced and reached to 0.33 of the control group (p<0.001. Similar results were obtained for the other splice variant with the mRNA expression of hMOR-1O in PBLs of abstinent group reaching to 0.38 of that of the control group (p < 0.001.

    Conclusion

    mRNA expression deficiency of two mu-opioid receptor splice variants, hMOR-1A and nMOR-1O, seams to be a risk factor making individuals vulnerable to drug addiction. Based on this analysis measuring the amount of mRNA expression of these two splice variants in PBLs can serve as a peripheral bio-marker for detecting people at risk.

  11. Læringscenteret - kulturens hub i havet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Møller; Erkmann, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Vi skal ikke hoppe i havet, men have en hub i havet. En hub er et forbindelsespunkt i et netværk, der forbinder netværkets mange aktører. Når en digital pakke rammer hubben i et netværk, sørger hubben for at gøre indholdet tilgængeligt for alle medlemmer af netværket. På samme måde sørger...

  12. Emerging hubs in phantom perception connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anusha; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Brain networks are small-world networks typically characterized by the presence of hubs, i.e. nodes that have significantly greater number of links in comparison to other nodes in the network. These hubs act as short cuts in the network and promote long-distance connectivity. Long-distance connections increase the efficiency of information transfer but also increase the cost of the network. Brain disorders are associated with an altered brain connectome which reflects either as a complete change in the network topology, as in, the replacement of hubs or as an alteration in the connectivity between the hubs while retaining network structure. The current study compares the network topology of binary and weighted networks in tinnitus patients and healthy controls by studying the hubs of the two networks in different oscillatory bands. The EEG of 311 tinnitus patients and 256 control subjects are recorded, pre-processed and source-localized using sLORETA. The hubs of the different binary and weighted networks are identified using different measures of network centrality. The results suggest that the tinnitus and control networks are distinct in all the frequency bands but substantially overlap in the gamma frequency band. The differences in network topology in the tinnitus and control groups in the delta, theta and the higher beta bands are driven by a change in hubs as well as network connectivity; in the alpha band by changes in hubs alone and in the gamma band by changes in network connectivity. Thus the brain seems to employ different frequency band-dependent adaptive mechanisms trying to compensate for auditory deafferentation.

  13. Emerging hubs in phantom perception connectomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain networks are small-world networks typically characterized by the presence of hubs, i.e. nodes that have significantly greater number of links in comparison to other nodes in the network. These hubs act as short cuts in the network and promote long-distance connectivity. Long-distance connections increase the efficiency of information transfer but also increase the cost of the network. Brain disorders are associated with an altered brain connectome which reflects either as a complete change in the network topology, as in, the replacement of hubs or as an alteration in the connectivity between the hubs while retaining network structure. The current study compares the network topology of binary and weighted networks in tinnitus patients and healthy controls by studying the hubs of the two networks in different oscillatory bands. The EEG of 311 tinnitus patients and 256 control subjects are recorded, pre-processed and source-localized using sLORETA. The hubs of the different binary and weighted networks are identified using different measures of network centrality. The results suggest that the tinnitus and control networks are distinct in all the frequency bands but substantially overlap in the gamma frequency band. The differences in network topology in the tinnitus and control groups in the delta, theta and the higher beta bands are driven by a change in hubs as well as network connectivity; in the alpha band by changes in hubs alone and in the gamma band by changes in network connectivity. Thus the brain seems to employ different frequency band-dependent adaptive mechanisms trying to compensate for auditory deafferentation.

  14. Parasite-Drag Measurements of Five Helicopter Rotor Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Gary B.; Harrington, Robert D.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the parasite drag of five production-type helicopter rotor hubs. Some simple fairing arrangements were attempted in an effort to reduce the hub drag. The results indicate that, within the range of the tests, changes in angle of attack, hub rotational speed, and forward speed generally had only a small effect on the equivalent flat-plate area representing parasite drag. The drag coefficients of the basic hubs, based on projected hub frontal area, increased with hub area and varied from 0.5 to 0.76 for the hubs tested.

  15. MORS Workshop - Chem-Bio WMD: Understanding the Problem, Operations Analysis Working Group, Low Spectrum Conflict Subgroup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreozzi, Gregory

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the insights developed by the Low Spectrum Conflict Subgroup of the Operations Analysis Working Group at the 30 January - 1 February 2001 Military Operations Research Society (MORS...

  16. AgI-MOR Loading Effect on the Durability of the Sandia Low Temperature Sintering GCM Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mowry, Curtis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garino, Terry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Herein, we study the durability of the Sandia Bi-Si oxide Glass Composite Material (GCM) waste form when formulated with different weight percent levels of AgI-MOR. The post-iodine exposure AgI-MOR material was provided to SNL by ORNL. Durability results for the GCM fabricated with 22 and 25% AgI-MOR indicate releases of Ag and I at the same low rates as 15% AgI-MOR GCM, and by the same mechanism. Iodine and Ag release is controlled by the low solubility of an amorphous, hydrated silver iodide, not by the surface-controlled dissolution of I2- loaded Ag-Mordenite. Based on this data, we postulate that much higher loading levels of AgIMOR are probable in this GCM waste form, and limits will govern by retention of mechanical integrity of the GCM versus the solubility of silver iodide.

  17. An Experimental Investigation of Helicopter Rotor Hub Fairing Drag Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, D. Y.; Lance, M. B.; Young, L. A.; Stroub, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    A study was done in the NASA 14- by 22-Foot Wind Tunnel at Langley Research Center on the parasite drag of different helicopter rotor hub fairings and pylons. Parametric studies of hub-fairing camber and diameter were conducted. The effect of hub fairing/pylon clearance on hub fairing/pylon mutual interference drag was examined in detail. Force and moment data are presented in tabular and graphical forms. The results indicate that hub fairings with a circular-arc upper surface and a flat lower surface yield maximum hub drag reduction; and clearance between the hub fairing and pylon induces high mutual-interference drag and diminishes the drag-reduction benefit obtained using a hub fairing with a flat lower surface. Test data show that symmetrical hub fairings with circular-arc surfaces generate 74 percent more interference drag than do cambered hub fairings with flat lower surfaces, at moderate negative angle of attack.

  18. Functional connectivity hubs in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-08-01

    Brain networks appear to have few and well localized regions with high functional connectivity density (hubs) for fast integration of neural processing, and their dysfunction could contribute to neuropsychiatric diseases. However the variability in the distribution of these brain hubs is unknown due in part to the overwhelming computational demands associated to their localization. Recently we developed a fast algorithm to map the local functional connectivity density (lFCD). Here we extend our method to map the global density (gFDC) taking advantage of parallel computing. We mapped the gFCD in the brain of 1031 subjects from the 1000 Functional Connectomes project and show that the strongest hubs are located in regions of the default mode network (DMN) and in sensory cortices, whereas subcortical regions exhibited the weakest hubs. The strongest hubs were consistently located in ventral precuneus/cingulate gyrus (previously identified by other analytical methods including lFCD) and in primary visual cortex (BA 17/18), which highlights their centrality to resting connectivity networks. In contrast and after rescaling, hubs in prefrontal regions had lower gFCD than lFCD, which suggests that their local functional connectivity (as opposed to long-range connectivity) prevails in the resting state. The power scaling of the probability distribution of gFCD hubs (as for lFCD) was consistent across research centers further corroborating the "scale-free" topology of brain networks. Within and between-subject variability for gFCD were twice than that for lFCD (20% vs. 12% and 84% vs. 34%, respectively) suggesting that gFCD is more sensitive to individual differences in functional connectivity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Hubs versus Hub-Nots: A Comparison of Various U.S. Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    One of the major impacts of deregulation is the creation of major airport hubs. Deregulation helped to create an environment where major airlines benefit by using the hub system. The purpose of this paper is to examine possible differences between hu...

  20. Using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT) in Cytoscape to Identify Contextually Relevant Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J

    2017-09-13

    Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Hubba: hub objects analyzer--a framework of interactome hubs identification for network biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Yen; Chin, Chia-Hao; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Ho, Chin-Wen; Ko, Ming-Tat

    2008-07-01

    One major task in the post-genome era is to reconstruct proteomic and genomic interacting networks using high-throughput experiment data. To identify essential nodes/hubs in these interactomes is a way to decipher the critical keys inside biochemical pathways or complex networks. These essential nodes/hubs may serve as potential drug-targets for developing novel therapy of human diseases, such as cancer or infectious disease caused by emerging pathogens. Hub Objects Analyzer (Hubba) is a web-based service for exploring important nodes in an interactome network generated from specific small- or large-scale experimental methods based on graph theory. Two characteristic analysis algorithms, Maximum Neighborhood Component (MNC) and Density of Maximum Neighborhood Component (DMNC) are developed for exploring and identifying hubs/essential nodes from interactome networks. Users can submit their own interaction data in PSI format (Proteomics Standards Initiative, version 2.5 and 1.0), tab format and tab with weight values. User will get an email notification of the calculation complete in minutes or hours, depending on the size of submitted dataset. Hubba result includes a rank given by a composite index, a manifest graph of network to show the relationship amid these hubs, and links for retrieving output files. This proposed method (DMNC || MNC) can be applied to discover some unrecognized hubs from previous dataset. For example, most of the Hubba high-ranked hubs (80% in top 10 hub list, and >70% in top 40 hub list) from the yeast protein interactome data (Y2H experiment) are reported as essential proteins. Since the analysis methods of Hubba are based on topology, it can also be used on other kinds of networks to explore the essential nodes, like networks in yeast, rat, mouse and human. The website of Hubba is freely available at http://hub.iis.sinica.edu.tw/Hubba.

  2. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).

  3. Identifying hubs in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravishankar R Vallabhajosyula

    Full Text Available In spite of the scale-free degree distribution that characterizes most protein interaction networks (PINs, it is common to define an ad hoc degree scale that defines "hub" proteins having special topological and functional significance. This raises the concern that some conclusions on the functional significance of proteins based on network properties may not be robust.In this paper we present three objective methods to define hub proteins in PINs: one is a purely topological method and two others are based on gene expression and function. By applying these methods to four distinct PINs, we examine the extent of agreement among these methods and implications of these results on network construction.We find that the methods agree well for networks that contain a balance between error-free and unbiased interactions, indicating that the hub concept is meaningful for such networks.

  4. Network hubs in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Sporns, Olaf

    2013-12-01

    Virtually all domains of cognitive function require the integration of distributed neural activity. Network analysis of human brain connectivity has consistently identified sets of regions that are critically important for enabling efficient neuronal signaling and communication. The central embedding of these candidate 'brain hubs' in anatomical networks supports their diverse functional roles across a broad range of cognitive tasks and widespread dynamic coupling within and across functional networks. The high level of centrality of brain hubs also renders them points of vulnerability that are susceptible to disconnection and dysfunction in brain disorders. Combining data from numerous empirical and computational studies, network approaches strongly suggest that brain hubs play important roles in information integration underpinning numerous aspects of complex cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Report on survey on international hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Hirobumi; Hoshino, Junko; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Okada, Sohei

    2011-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is promoting initiative to form an international hub in line with its aim to accept more researchers/engineers from all over the world. Establishment of 'the Committee for JAEA Internationalization Initiative' was planned in 2010 so as to intensify this initiative, and in February, 2010, we visited research institutions in Europe, which include European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the construction site of ITER in Cadarache, and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), with the intention to survey and learn their advanced activities and systems in regard to the International Hub, so that the committee will be able to make fruitful discussion. This report describes strategy taken in each institution for an International Hub, and the state of each institution regarding acceptance and management of overseas researchers and engineers, research environment, living environment/health and welfare, and PR activities/coexistence with the local community. (author)

  6. Pilot project concerning the establishment of a collective biomass conversion plant on the island of Mors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This pilot project comprises a feasibility study in connection with plans to establish a biomass conversion plant, on the Danish island of Mors, which would provide methane to be used as fuel, in combination with natural gas, for a cogeneration plant serving six villages. The subjects of location, organization, the transportation of biomass, the design of the biomass conversion plant, economical aspects and conditions of the use of the methane are discussed as a basis for decisions in this respect. Environmental considerations are also dealt with. (AB)

  7. Detecting functional hubs of ictogenic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubler, Frederic; Gast, Heidemarie; Abela, Eugenio; Rummel, Christian; Hauf, Martinus; Wiest, Roland; Pollo, Claudio; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative EEG (qEEG) has modified our understanding of epileptic seizures, shifting our view from the traditionally accepted hyper-synchrony paradigm toward more complex models based on re-organization of functional networks. However, qEEG measurements are so far rarely considered during the clinical decision-making process. To better understand the dynamics of intracranial EEG signals, we examine a functional network derived from the quantification of information flow between intracranial EEG signals. Using transfer entropy, we analyzed 198 seizures from 27 patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation for pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. During each seizure we considered for each network the in-, out- and total "hubs", defined respectively as the time and the EEG channels with the maximal incoming, outgoing or total (bidirectional) information flow. In the majority of cases we found that the hubs occur around the middle of seizures, and interestingly not at the beginning or end, where the most dramatic EEG signal changes are found by visual inspection. For the patients who then underwent surgery, good postoperative clinical outcome was on average associated with a higher percentage of out- or total-hubs located in the resected area (for out-hubs p = 0.01, for total-hubs p = 0.04). The location of in-hubs showed no clear predictive value. We conclude that the study of functional networks based on qEEG measurements may help to identify brain areas that are critical for seizure generation and are thus potential targets for focused therapeutic interventions.

  8. Hub Status and Indexation of Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-An Park

    2015-06-01

    This study develops two sub-indexes of port classification and capacity, and combines cases of these two sub-indexes into various types in order to find a proper port hub index. The paper demonstrates how different types of port hub index are useful measurements for evaluating outputs and inputs of container ports. In a case analysis we show that the indexes of period variables and lagged variables have more explanatory power with regard to changes of port throughputs and high correlation with inputs.

  9. Gas and LNG trading hubs, hub indexation and destination flexibility in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng; Padinjare Variam, Hari Malamakkavu

    2016-01-01

    In the East Asian gas markets, issues like gas trading hubs, hub indexed pricing, and destination flexibility are being debated. This paper examines the impact of a change in East Asia's pricing benchmark and contract flexibility on the regional and global gas markets. The paper uses the Nexant World Gas Model, a linear program with global cost minimization as the objective. To our knowledge, this study on hub competition, price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvement in East Asia will be the first in the literature and have real policy relevance. The results show that both price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvements will create an overall benefit for the world and East Asia importers, but the impacts are different among exporters and importers. However, there is no evidence of competition among different benchmark hubs and no evidence that destination restrictions cause the “Asia Premium”. It implies that removal of destination clauses has higher priority than the change to hub indexation for Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei, but both should be treated equally in China. The study also suggests that East Asian importers should cooperate among themselves and with exporters to facilitate the hub creation and contract changes in East Asia. - Highlights: •Gas trading hubs in Japan and China are not mutually exclusive. •Both price benchmark changes and contract flexibility improvements are beneficial. •The “Asian Premium” is not caused by destination restriction. •Destination flexibility is much more important than hub indexation in East Asia except China. •Hub indexation is as important as destination flexibility in China due to pipeline imports.

  10. Composite hubs for low cost gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed stress analysis was performed using NASTRAN to demonstrate theoretically the adequacy of composite hubs for low cost turbine engine applications. Composite hubs are adequate for this application from the steady state stress view point.

  11. Key Data on Music Education Hubs 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Music Education Hubs (MEHs) were created to provide access, opportunities and excellence in music education for all children and young people. A total of 123 MEHs were established and started work in 2012. The National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) carried out secondary analysis of a survey conducted by Arts Council England in Autumn…

  12. IEEE 1394 Hub With Fault Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitsch, Michael; Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin R.

    2009-01-01

    This innovation is designed to prevent a single end system communication node from negatively influencing the whole system s behavior so that the network system can still operate if an end node is faulty. Placing a hub (star) in the middle of the system prevents propagation of critical control information that other end systems would react to, like block reset messages.

  13. Hub location problems in transportation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a 4-index formulation for the uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem tailored for urban transport and liner shipping network design. This formulation is very tight and most of the tractable instances for MIP solvers are optimally solvable at the root node...

  14. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  15. Hubs and spokes in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2017-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries are involved in much more RTAs than others. Furthermore, some countries take in a position as a hub: they have trade agreements with many other countries, while their partner countries are much less involved in RTA relations. Even

  16. Twin hub network : Identificatie van kansrijke netwerken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Macharis, C.; Meers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Twin hub network gaat over de bundeling rail container stromen van en naar de zeehavens Rotterdam en Antwerpen en van kleinere zeehavens in de range Duinkerken – Amsterdam. Door de bundeling moet het mogelijk worden om grotere treinladingen en/of hogere treinfrequenties te organiseren en meer inland

  17. Hub Cities 2.0 for the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbonés Aran, Núria; Mamadouh, Virginie; van Wageningen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, cities such as Amsterdam have used the term hub city to define themselves in a global context. Hub cities are cities that play – or aspire to – a crucial role in the international and globalising economy. As such they form a hub, a ‘node’ of relevant traffic. What exactly is meant

  18. The Regional Dimension of Education Hubs: Leading and Brokering Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in the last decade in Asia and the Middle East. These ambitious policy initiatives share a common interest in cross-border higher education even though diverse rationales underpin their development. While some claim to be an international education hub, others claim to be a regional education hub or…

  19. Multiple-Localization and Hub Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Motonori; Gonja, Hideki; Koike, Ryotaro; Fukuchi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for all biological phenomena, and protein-protein interaction networks provide a global view of the interactions. The hub proteins, with many interaction partners, play vital roles in the networks. We investigated the subcellular localizations of proteins in the human network, and found that the ones localized in multiple subcellular compartments, especially the nucleus/cytoplasm proteins (NCP), the cytoplasm/cell membrane proteins (CMP), and the nucleus/cytoplasm/cell membrane proteins (NCMP), tend to be hubs. Examinations of keywords suggested that among NCP, those related to post-translational modifications and transcription functions are the major contributors to the large number of interactions. These types of proteins are characterized by a multi-domain architecture and intrinsic disorder. A survey of the typical hub proteins with prominent numbers of interaction partners in the type revealed that most are either transcription factors or co-regulators involved in signaling pathways. They translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, triggered by the phosphorylation and/or ubiquitination of intrinsically disordered regions. Among CMP and NCMP, the contributors to the numerous interactions are related to either kinase or ubiquitin ligase activity. Many of them reside on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane, and act as the upstream regulators of signaling pathways. Overall, these hub proteins function to transfer external signals to the nucleus, through the cell membrane and the cytoplasm. Our analysis suggests that multiple-localization is a crucial concept to characterize groups of hub proteins and their biological functions in cellular information processing. PMID:27285823

  20. Southwest Regional Climate Hub and California Subsidiary Hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Elias; Caiti Steele; Kris Havstad; Kerri Steenwerth; Jeanne Chambers; Helena Deswood; Amber Kerr; Albert Rango; Mark Schwartz; Peter Stine; Rachel Steele

    2015-01-01

    This report is a joint effort of the Southwest Regional Climate Hub and the California Subsidiary Hub (Sub Hub). The Southwest Regional Climate Hub covers Arizona, California, Hawai‘i and the U.S. affiliated Pacific Islands, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah and contains vast areas of western rangeland, forests, and high-value specialty crops (Figure 1). The California Sub...

  1. Rates and processes of crystallization in on-axis and off-axis MOR basaltic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Georg F.; Dulski, Peter; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Perfit, Michael R.

    2012-12-01

    Residence times of olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and xenocrysts in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basaltic melts have been studied since the mid 1980s using geospeedometric techniques (i.e. using diffusion of major and trace elements) in order to constrain the processes of melt ascent and differentiation in this important magmatic setting. Residence times range from a few hours to several years, but potential links between these timescales and specific tectonomagmatic variables such as spreading rate and relative locations of eruption site and ridge axis have remained elusive. Here we demonstrate how incomplete chemical diffusion of Sr within plagioclase crystals from MOR basalts erupted in on- and off-axis settings on a number of ridges with variable spreading rates provide geospeedometric constraints. We combine electron probe microanalytical crystal maps with detailed laser ablation profiles of almost 70 plagioclase crystals from the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 9-10°N, the intermediate spreading Gorda and Juan de Fuca (JdF) ridges, and the ultraslow spreading Gakkel ridge to calculate crystal residence times. These range from a few days to several months. The scarcity of residence times exceeding years corroborates previous data indicating that most of the growth of plagioclase phenocrysts occurs within the conduit at the onset of and during eruption on the sea floor, and extends this result to the fast-spreading EPR. Further, statistical analysis is employed to show for the first time that residence times are systematically longer at slower spreading rates, in off-axis samples, and samples sourced from laterally distal axial melt lenses. Plagioclase textures and residence time variations appear to be linked to differences in the dynamics of late-stage, pre-eruptive magma storage and ascent in the different tectonomagmatic settings investigated. In the future, geospeedometric work on MOR samples will be required to assess if the effect of spreading

  2. A State Cyber Hub Operations Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    all National Guard equities are considered, represented, and factored into all Cyber Hub decisions .) V. TIMELINE: Effective on date of signature...Analyses (IDA) under contract HQ0034-14-D-0001, Task BK-5-3889, “Creating an Affordable Strategy for Policy Issuance and Buying Power for the DoD CIO...structures and organizations. The framework presented in this document is the culmination of discussions and decisions regarding state cyber

  3. Controlling powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) with potassium bicarbonate and risk of phytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic currant growing effective control measures are needed,

  4. Hydroconversion of n-hexane using Pt/H-MOR and Pt/H-BEA catalysts with various Pt contents and bimetallic PtPd/H-MOR, PtPd/H-BEA, PtIr/H-MOR and PtIr/H-BEA catalysts with various secondary metal contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-Gheit, A.K.; Abdel-Hamid, S.M.; Awadallah, A.E. [Process Development Div., Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-03-01

    Monometallic catalysts containing 0.35 up to 0.50 wt%Pt on H-MOR or H-BEA zeolites, as well as bimetallic catalysts containing Pd or Ir of 0.05 up to 0.20-0.25 wt% combined with a fixed Pt content of 0.35 wt% also supported on H-MOR or H-BEA were prepared and tested for n-hexane hydroconversion in a hydrogen flow using pulsed reactor system. The reaction products were gas chromatographically analysed and the catalysts were characterised for acid sites strength distribution via ammonia temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and for metal(s) dispersion in the support via pulsed hydrogen chemisorption. Increased Pt content in either zeolites decreased its dispersion. The addition of Pd to Pt increased the metals dispersion in both zeolites up to a certain content, whereas Ir addition, principally, decreased dispersion. Maximum isohexanes production behaved parallel to the metals dispersion in the PtPd containing catalysts (structure sensitive). Hydrocracking was more active on the H-MOR supported catalysts, compared to those supported on H-BEA due to higher acid sites number and strength in the former zeolite. Benzene production via dehydrocyclisation of n-hexane was relatively more active on the H-BEA containing catalysts than on those containing H-MOR, due to the less effective diffusion resistance in the BEA channels. (orig.)

  5. Sundby Mors mellem dynamik og tradition. Opposition mod Steen Buscks disputats Et landbosamfund i opbrud. Sundby Mors 1660-1800, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Opposition to Steen Busck’s Doctoral Thesis A Rural Community Breaking Up. Tradition and Modernization in Sundby Parish on the Island of Mors during the Period 1660-1800, vol. 1-2, Aarhus, 2011. A central feature of Steen Busck’s dissertation is the concept of a “traditional” rural community, which not until late in the period embarks seriously on a “modernization”, which to the author is synonymous with the introduction of capitalism. The present opposition will discuss this theory, taking as its point of departure a number of concrete manifestations of it in Steen  Busck’s book. The emphasis is on the economic side, which also, when all is said and done, is the mainstay of Busck’s theory. Steen Busck attempts to demonstrate that the economy was relatively stagnant and oriented towards self-sufficiency, and that the market economy only penetrated slowly. The opposition discusses various indications of how agriculture developed during the period, and it is argued that there was a larger degree of development than is assumed by Busck. Simultaneously, the balance between self-sufficiency and market economy is discussed, including some of the farmers’ budgets that Busck has constructed. The opponent argues that production was fairly evenly organized for self-sufficiency and for the market, and he draws attention to the enterprising cattle-dealers who have been found by Steen Busck but to whom he ascribes no decisive importance. The last part of the opposition deals with the relationship between the landed estates, the property market and the power of the state. Here it is argued that Sundby was an atypical parish as far as the estate structure was concerned, since it was dominated by scattered farms which frequently changed hands, being sold from one landed estate to another. This implies that Steen Busck’s theory of the property market helping to destroy the estate as an institution and paving the way for agricultural reforms

  6. Extension of Goldstein's circulation function for optimal rotors with hub

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic interaction or interference between rotor blades and hub body is usually very complicated, but some useful simplifications can be made by considering the hub with an infinite cylinder. Various attempts to find the optimum distribution of circulation by the lifting vortex lines...... method have been previously proposed to describe the blade interaction with the hub modeled by the infinite cylinder. In this case, the ideal distribution of bound circulation on the rotor blades is such that the shed vortex system in the hub-area is a set of helicoidal vortex sheets moving uniformly...... as if rigid, exactly as in the case where there is no influence of the streamtube deformations by the central hub-body. In the present investigation, we consider a more specific problem of the rotor-hub interaction where the initial flow streamtubes and the rotor slipstream submitted strong deformations...

  7. Mantle properties and the MOR process: a new and versatile model for mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles

    2014-05-01

    Introduction. First I summarize the reasons why a radical departure from the current MOR model is now essential. I then outline the new model and its apparent versatility, not only in providing the observed contrasting spreading-rate-dependent characteristics but also some of the other common features of the MOR system which warrant clearer explanation. Ophiolites have been thought to provide on-land guidance but turn out to be a non-mid-ocean variant, outside the scope of this presentation. Seismic anisotropy and mantle mobility. Ever since the 1969 discovery [1] of seismic anisotropy in the uppermost oceanic mantle, this has been attributed to the shearing of olivine in a convectively driven MOR-divergent flow beneath the flanks. This would imply a high degree of rheological mobility of this mantle, but new constraints on its rheological properties and dynamical behaviour have come from two directions and need to be taken into account in forming a model. 1. Contrary to the seismologists' rule-book, the oceanic seismological Low Velocity Zone (LVZ) is no longer to be thought of as mobile, because the presence of interstitial melt strips out the water-weakening of the mineral structure [2, 3]. So we require a substitute for the divergent-flow model for MORs which, we find, also has other, apparently unrecognized, dynamical inconsistencies. One of these [4] is that there are in the record many rapid changes of spreading rate and direction, and ridge jumps. This cannot happen with a process driven by slow-to-change body forces, such as thermal convection. 2. My work on the global dynamic pattern for the past 150Ma (I will show examples) has shown [4 - 7] that the tectospheres of cratons must extend to very close to the bottom of the upper mantle (660km). The metasomatism of kimberlite xenoliths from >180km depth suggests that the reason for this downwards extent of 'keels' is the same as [3]. Phase changes. Another geodynamically important property apparently

  8. Experimental Investigation of a Helicopter Rotor Hub Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David

    The rotor hub system is by far the largest contributor to helicopter parasite drag and a barrier to increasing helicopter forward-flight speed and range. Additionally, the hub sheds undesirable vibration- and instability-inducing unsteady flow over the empennage. The challenges associated with rotor hub flows are discussed, including bluff body drag, interactional aerodynamics, and the effect of the turbulent hub wake on the helicopter empennage. This study was conducted in three phases to quantify model-scale rotor hub flows in water tunnels at The Pennsylvania State University Applied research lab. The first phase investigated scaling and component interaction effects on a 1:17 scale rotor hub model in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Effects of Reynolds number, advance ratio, and hub geometry configuration on the drag and wake shed from the rotor hub were quantified using load cell measurements and particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The second phase focused on flow visualization and measurement on a rotor hub and rotor hub/pylon geometry in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Stereo PIV was conducted in a cross plane downstream of the hub and flow visualization was conducted using oil paint and fluorescent dye. The third phase concentrated on high accuracy load measurement and prediction up to full-scale Reynolds number on a 1:4.25 scale model in the 48-inch diameter water tunnel. Measurements include 6 degree of freedom loads on the hub and two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry in the wake. Finally, results and conclusions are discussed, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  9. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  10. Are protein hubs faster folders? Exploration based on Escherichia coli proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Rui; Cheng, Jun-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Pan; Chu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2016-12-01

    Protein hubs in protein-protein interaction network are especially important due to their central roles in the entire network. Despite of their importance, the folding kinetics of hub proteins in comparison with non-hubs is still unknown. In this work, the folding rates for protein hubs and non-hubs were predicted and compared for the interactome of Escherichia coli K12, and the results showed that hub proteins fold faster than non-hub proteins. A possible explanation might be that protein hubs have more and fast-folding structural conformations than non-hubs, which leads to the notion of "hub of hubs" in the protein conformation space. It was found that the sequence and structure features relevant to protein folding rates are also different between hub and non-hub proteins. Moreover, the interacting proteins tend to have similar folding rates. These results gave insightful implications for understanding the interplay between the mechanisms of protein folding and interaction.

  11. Association between functional connectivity hubs and brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-09-01

    Functional networks are usually accessed with "resting-state" functional magnetic resonance imaging using preselected "seeds" regions. Frequently, however, the selection of the seed locations is arbitrary. Recently, we proposed local functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), an ultrafast data-driven to locate highly connected brain regions (functional hubs). Here, we used the functional hubs obtained from local FCDM to determine the functional networks of the resting state in 979 healthy subjects without a priori hypotheses on seed locations. In addition, we computed the global functional connectivity hubs. Seven networks covering 80% of the gray matter volume were identified. Four major cortical hubs (ventral precuneus/posterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex, cuneus, and postcentral gyrus) were linked to 4 cortical networks (default mode, dorsal attention, visual, and somatosensory). Three subcortical networks were associated to the major subcortical hubs (cerebellum, thalamus, and amygdala). The networks differed in their resting activity and topology. The higher coupling and overlap of subcortical networks was associated to higher contribution of short-range functional connectivity in thalamus and cerebellum. Whereas cortical local FCD hubs were also hubs of long-range connectivity, which corroborates the key role of cortical hubs in network architecture, subcortical hubs had minimal long-range connectivity. The significant variability among functional networks may underlie their sensitivity/resilience to neuropathology.

  12. An Introduction to Version Control Using GitHub Desktop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel van Strien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson you will be introduced to the basics of version control, understand why it is useful and implement basic version control for a plain text document using GitHub Desktop. By the end of this lesson you should understand: * what version control is and why it can be useful * the differences between Git and GitHub * how to implement version control using ‘GitHub Desktop,’ a Graphical User Interface for GitHub * be aware of other resources that will help you implement version control in your academic writing

  13. Numerical study of hub taper angle on podded propeller performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.F.; Veitch, B.; Bose, N.; Liu, P.

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the majority of podded propulsion systems are of the pulling type, because this type provides better hydrodynamic efficiency than the pushing type. There are several possible explanations for the better overall performance of a puller type podded propulsor. One is related to the difference in hub shape. Puller and pusher propellers have opposite hub taper angles, hence different hub and blade root shape. These differences cause changes in the flow condition and possibly influence the overall performance. The current study focuses on the variation in performance of pusher and puller propellers with the same blade sections, but different hub taper angles. A hyperboloidal low order source doublet steady/unsteady time domain panel method code was modified and used to evaluate effects of hub taper angle on the open water propulsive performance of some fixed pitch screw propellers used in podded propulsion systems. The modified code was first validated against measurements of two model propellers in terms of average propulsive performance and good agreement was found. Major findings include significant effects of hub taper angle on propulsive performance of tapered hub propellers and noticeable effects of hub taper angle on sectional pressure distributions of tapered hub propeller blades. (author)

  14. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for solving the reliable multiple allocation hub location problem under hub disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Chaharsooghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem (HLP is one of the strategic planning problems encountered in different contexts such as supply chain management, passenger and cargo transportation industries, and telecommunications. In this paper, we consider a reliable uncapacitated multiple allocation hub location problem under hub disruptions. It is assumed that every open hub facility can fail during its use and in such a case, the customers originally assigned to that hub, are either reassigned to other operational hubs or they do not receive service in which case a penalty must be paid. The problem is modeled as two-stage stochastic program and a metaheuristic algorithm based on the adaptive large neighborhood search (ALNS is proposed. Extensive computational experiments based on the CAB and TR data sets are conducted. Results show the high efficiency of the proposed solution method.

  15. Review of research on AFPM hub motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo DAI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of new energy vehicles is an important way to promote the sustainable development of automobile industry, and it is also the key measure to solve the problems of energy and environment. As an important type of new energy vehicles, electric vehicles will play an important role in the future competition in the automotive industry, especially in the field of electric vehicle driven by wheel. With the advantages of compact structure, high power density, low working noise and good heat dissipation performance, the AFPM motor has gradually become the preferred object of the hub driving device. Based on the statement of the technical development and research status about AFPM motor, this paper mainly analyzes the engineering application and technical problems of AFPM motor in hub drive, especially the matching of AFPM motor with other systems and the problem of heat dissipation at high load conditions, and looks forward to the key role in the future development of the automotive industry. This paper will play a certain reference and guiding role in the application of AFPM motor in the field of new energy vehicles.

  16. Analysis of the taphonomic processes of Morín Cave. The first results of a necessary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José YRAVEDRA SAINZ DE LOS TERREROS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Morín Cave is an important site used as a referential model in many works in regards to the Upper and Middle Paleolithic in the north of Spain. We offer in this report the study of a great part of its faunal record. We show that the water was an important element in its formation. The hidraulic action has influenced too on skeletal parts bias that appears in some levels. The carnivores, as show their tooth marks, would be important in the bone accumulation as well. Finally, we report that both cut and percussion marks in bones of many taxons belonging from different levels point out that the human being was the main responsible in the ungulates accumulation of Morín Cave.

  17. The mu-opioid receptor agonist/noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (MOR-NRI) concept in analgesia: the case of tapentadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzschentke, Thomas M; Christoph, Thomas; Kögel, Babette Y

    2014-04-01

    Tapentadol is a novel, centrally-acting analgesic drug, with an analgesic efficacy comparable to that of strong opioids such as oxycodone and morphine. Its high efficacy has been demonstrated in a range of animal models of acute and chronic, nociceptive, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain as well as in clinical studies with moderate to severe pain arising from a number of different etiologies. At the same time, a favorable gastrointestinal tolerability has been demonstrated in rodents and humans, and advantages over morphine regarding tolerance development and physical dependence were shown in animal studies. Furthermore, a low level of abuse and diversion is beginning to emerge from first post-marketing data. Tapentadol acts as a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI). Both mechanisms of action have been shown to contribute to the analgesic activity of tapentadol and to produce analgesia in a synergistic manner, such that relatively moderate activity at the two target sites (MOR and noradrenaline reuptake transporter) is sufficient to produce strong analgesic effects. It has been suggested that tapentadol is the first representative of a proposed new class of analgesics, MOR-NRI. This review presents the evidence that has led to this suggestion, and outlines how the pharmacology of tapentadol can explain its broad analgesic activity profile and high analgesic potency as well as its favorable tolerability.

  18. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  19. Education Hubs: A Fad, a Brand, an Innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen significant changes in all aspects of internationalization but most dramatically in the area of education and research moving across national borders. The most recent developments are education hubs. The term "education hub" is being used by countries who are trying to build a critical mass of local and foreign…

  20. Topographic hub maps of the human structural neocortical network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.J.; van Cappellen van Walsum, Anne-Marie; Norris, David Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Hubs within the neocortical structural network determined by graph theoretical analysis play a crucial role in brain function. We mapped neocortical hubs topographically, using a sample population of 63 young adults. Subjects were imaged with high resolution structural and diffusion weighted

  1. Topographic hub maps of the human structural neocortical network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.H.J.; Cappellen van Walsum, A.M. van; Norris, D.G.

    2013-01-01

    Hubs within the neocortical structural network determined by graph theoretical analysis play a crucial role in brain function. We mapped neocortical hubs topographically, using a sample population of 63 young adults. Subjects were imaged with high resolution structural and diffusion weighted

  2. Groen Gas Hubs en leidingen die er maar niet komen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Maurits; Hoppe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In het artikel "Ruimte voor Groen Gas" is de opkomst van Groen Hubs in de praktijk van het openbaar bestuur beschreven. Een Groen Gas Hub is een vorm van biogasinfrastructuur waarbij het uit één of meerdere bronnen komende biogas wordt getransporteerd naar (i) locatie(s) waar het biogas wordt

  3. West African Research and Training Hub on Environmental and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help establish a West African Global Environmental and Occupational Health (GEO Health) Hub in environmental and occupational health. It will aim to enhance regional capacity and leadership for world-class research, training, and innovation to address national and regional health priorities. The hub will ...

  4. Development of Europe's gas hubs: Implications for East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas trading hubs have been initially developed in the US in 1980s, UK in 1990s, more recently in European in the 2000s and mulled in East Asia now. Due to its freshness and diversification in nationality, governance and culture, the European hub experience can offer valuable lessons for East Asia. This paper seeks to advance understanding of gas hub development in Europe and provide lessons for East Asia. The European experience highlights that market liberalization and transition of gas pricing mechanism are necessary in creating the competitive markets that are needed for functional gas hubs. Political will and regulations further safeguard the competition environment needed for hub development. Natural factors, such as significant domestic production and culture could have a significant impact on the hub development and transition of pricing mechanism. In East Asia, the path to gas trading hubs might be more difficult than in Europe but a growing market creates an opportunity to start new terms with new contracts. Nevertheless, East Asian needs to work hard to development its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs.

  5. Climate programs update: USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub update

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM OVERVIEW: The overarching goal of the USDA SW Climate Hub is to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in addressing the effects of climate change including prolonged drought, increased insect outbreaks and severe wildfires. In the first year of operations, the SW Climate Hub (est. Februa...

  6. The East African Resilience Innovation Hub | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The East African Resilience Innovation Hub. By 2025, poverty will primarily be centred in low-income, conflict and violence-affected African states. This project will invest in an East Africa research hub that will help resolve priority policy challenges related to violence, disaster, and conflict. Poverty, conflict, and development ...

  7. International Education Hubs: Collaboration for Competitiveness and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of education hubs, a recent phenomenon in international higher education. Three models of hubs are examined in relation to the forces, risks, and opportunities of globalization and how local and international collaborations are essential for both global competitiveness and sustainability.

  8. A versatile framework for cooperative hub network development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Borm, P.; Dullaert, W.; Hamers, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework for cooperative hub network development. Building a joint physical hub for the transshipment of goods is expensive and, therefore, involves considerable risks for cooperating companies. In a practical setting, it is unlikely that an entire network will be built at

  9. Phased arrays: inline flow line hub inspection using phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, J.G.P.; Chougrani, K.; Rundberg, H.; Oldenziel, G.; Deleye, X.; Martina, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of the inspection of flow line hubs using the phased array technique was investigated to determine the surface area of the seal area degraded by corrosion. A clean model of the hub was simulated to gain insight into the geometrical echoes and to determine the area covered by the

  10. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  11. Evidence for hubs in human functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jonathan D; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Petersen, Steven E

    2013-08-21

    Hubs integrate and distribute information in powerful ways due to the number and positioning of their contacts in a network. Several resting-state functional connectivity MRI reports have implicated regions of the default mode system as brain hubs; we demonstrate that previous degree-based approaches to hub identification may have identified portions of large brain systems rather than critical nodes of brain networks. We utilize two methods to identify hub-like brain regions: (1) finding network nodes that participate in multiple subnetworks of the brain, and (2) finding spatial locations in which several systems are represented within a small volume. These methods converge on a distributed set of regions that differ from previous reports on hubs. This work identifies regions that support multiple systems, leading to spatially constrained predictions about brain function that may be tested in terms of lesions, evoked responses, and dynamic patterns of activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR signalling network: adding new regulatory players in plant stem cell maintenance and cell polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermiani, Monica; Begheldo, Maura; Nonis, Alessandro; Palme, Klaus; Mizzi, Luca; Morandini, Piero; Nonis, Alberto; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The RAM/MOR signalling network of eukaryotes is a conserved regulatory module involved in co-ordination of stem cell maintenance, cell differentiation and polarity establishment. To date, no such signalling network has been identified in plants. Methods Genes encoding the bona fide core components of the RAM/MOR pathway were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) by sequence similarity searches conducted with the known components from other species. The transcriptional network(s) of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR signalling pathway were identified by running in-depth in silico analyses for genes co-regulated with the core components. In situ hybridization was used to confirm tissue-specific expression of selected RAM/MOR genes. Key Results Co-expression data suggested that the arabidopsis RAM/MOR pathway may include genes involved in floral transition, by co-operating with chromatin remodelling and mRNA processing/post-transcriptional gene silencing factors, and genes involved in the regulation of pollen tube polar growth. The RAM/MOR pathway may act upstream of the ROP1 machinery, affecting pollen tube polar growth, based on the co-expression of its components with ROP-GEFs. In silico tissue-specific co-expression data and in situ hybridization experiments suggest that different components of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR are expressed in the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem and may be involved in the fine-tuning of stem cell maintenance and cell differentiation. Conclusions The arabidopsis RAM/MOR pathway may be part of the signalling cascade that converges in pollen tube polarized growth and in fine-tuning stem cell maintenance, differentiation and organ polarity. PMID:26078466

  13. The Mothers on Respect (MOR) index: measuring quality, safety, and human rights in childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, Saraswathi; Stoll, Kathrin; Rubashkin, Nicholas; Martin, Kelsey; Miller-Vedam, Zoe; Hayes-Klein, Hermine; Jolicoeur, Ganga

    2017-12-01

    Abuse of human rights in childbirth are documented in low, middle and high resource countries. A systematic review across 34 countries by the WHO Research Group on the Treatment of Women During Childbirth concluded that there is no consensus at a global level on how disrespectful maternity care is measured. In British Columbia, a community-led participatory action research team developed a survey tool that assesses women's experiences with maternity care, including disrespect and discrimination. A cross-sectional survey was completed by women of childbearing age from diverse communities across British Columbia. Several items (31/130) assessed characteristics of their communication with care providers. We assessed the psychometric properties of two versions of a scale (7 and 14 items), among women who described experiences with a single maternity provider ( n =2514 experiences among 1672 women). We also calculated the proportion and selected characteristics of women who scored in the bottom 10th percentile (those who experienced the least respectful care). To demonstrate replicability, we report psychometric results separately for three samples of women (S1 and S2) ( n =2271), (S3, n =1613). Analysis of item-to-total correlations and factor loadings indicated a single construct 14-item scale, which we named the Mothers on Respect index (MORi). Items in MORi assess the nature of respectful patient-provider interactions and their impact on a person's sense of comfort, behavior, and perceptions of racism or discrimination. The scale exhibited good internal consistency reliability. MORi- scores among these samples differed by socio-demographic profile, health status, experience with interventions and mode of birth, planned and actual place of birth, and type of provider. The MOR index is a reliable, patient-informed quality and safety indicator that can be applied across jurisdictions to assess the nature of provider-patient relationships, and access to person

  14. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs....... This is particularly relevant with offshore facilities, which represent a significant portion of new wind farms being constructed. Furthermore, a novel aspect to this study is the presentation of a verification methodology that takes into account wind at different heights where turbines operate. The increasing number...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...

  15. Hub exchange operations in intermodal hub-and spoke networks : A performance comparison of rail-rail exchange facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontekoning, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of hub-and-spoke networks in intermodal transport is suggested as one of the potential solutions for helping to increase the intermodal market share. Traditionally, trains are shunted at hubs; this is a time-consuming process. Since the early 1990s a new type of intermodal

  16. Hubs with network motifs organize modularity dynamically in the protein-protein interaction network of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangxu; Zhang, Shihua; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Chen, Luonan

    2007-11-21

    It has been recognized that modular organization pervades biological complexity. Based on network analysis, 'party hubs' and 'date hubs' were proposed to understand the basic principle of module organization of biomolecular networks. However, recent study on hubs has suggested that there is no clear evidence for coexistence of 'party hubs' and 'date hubs'. Thus, an open question has been raised as to whether or not 'party hubs' and 'date hubs' truly exist in yeast interactome. In contrast to previous studies focusing on the partners of a hub or the individual proteins around the hub, our work aims to study the network motifs of a hub or interactions among individual proteins including the hub and its neighbors. Depending on the relationship between a hub's network motifs and protein complexes, we define two new types of hubs, 'motif party hubs' and 'motif date hubs', which have the same characteristics as the original 'party hubs' and 'date hubs' respectively. The network motifs of these two types of hubs display significantly different features in spatial distribution (or cellular localizations), co-expression in microarray data, controlling topological structure of network, and organizing modularity. By virtue of network motifs, we basically solved the open question about 'party hubs' and 'date hubs' which was raised by previous studies. Specifically, at the level of network motifs instead of individual proteins, we found two types of hubs, motif party hubs (mPHs) and motif date hubs (mDHs), whose network motifs display distinct characteristics on biological functions. In addition, in this paper we studied network motifs from a different viewpoint. That is, we show that a network motif should not be merely considered as an interaction pattern but be considered as an essential function unit in organizing modules of networks.

  17. Hub and pylon fairing integration for helicopter drag reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. M.; Mort, R. W.; Squires, P. K.; Young, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of testing hub and pylon fairings mounted on a one-fifth scale helicopter with the goal of reducing parasite drag are presented. Lift, drag, and pitching moment, as well as side force and yawing moment, were measured. The primary objective of the test was to validate the drag reduction capability of integrated hub and pylon configurations in the aerodynamic environment produced by a rotating hub in forward flight. In addition to the baseline helicopter without fairings, three hub fairings and three pylon fairings were tested in various combinations. The three hub fairings tested reflect two different conceptual design approaches to implementing an integrated fairing configuration on an actual aircraft. The design philosophy is discussed in detail and comparisons are made between the wind tunnel models and potential full-scale prototypes. The data show that model drag can be reduced by as much as 20.8 percent by combining a small hub fairing with circular arc upper and flat lower surfaces and a nontapered 34-percent thick pylon fairing. Aerodynamic effects caused by the fairings, which may have a significant impact on static longitudinal and directional stability, were observed. The results support previous research which showed that the greatest reduction in model drag is achieved if the hub and pylon fairings are integrated with minimum gap between the two.

  18. Integrated technology rotor/flight research rotor hub concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, P. G. C.

    1983-01-01

    Two variations of the helicopter bearingless main rotor hub concept are proposed as bases for further development in the preliminary design phase of the Integrated Technology Rotor/Flight Research Rotor (ITR/FRR) program. This selection was the result of an evaluation of three bearingless hub concepts and two articulated hub concepts with elastomeric bearings. The characteristics of each concept were evaluated by means of simplified methodology. These characteristics included the assessment of stability, vulnerability, weight, drag, cost, stiffness, fatigue life, maintainability, and reliability.

  19. Flow Merging and Hub Route Optimization in Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerui Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal hub routing problem of merged tasks in collaborative transportation. This problem allows all carriers’ transportation tasks to reach the destinations optionally passing through 0, 1, or 2 hubs within limited distance, while a cost discount on arcs in the hub route could be acquired after paying fixed charges. The problem arises in the application of logistics, postal services, airline transportation, and so forth. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer programming model, and provide two heuristic approaches, respectively, based on Lagrangian relaxation and Benders decomposition. Computational experiments show that the algorithms work well.

  20. The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Andreas; Koch, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and threats which arise when turning origin/destination airports into hubs. The analysis focuses on market development trends, competitive structures, especially in the light of airline network strategies and the growing rivalry between airports, and finally the potential financial impacts for the airport, including both investment efforts and the financial results from hub operations. We argue that in most cases a decision against converting a traditional origin/destination airport into a major transfer point is preferable to the transformation into a hub.

  1. Idea Hubs as Nexus of Collective Creativity in Digital Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciriello, Raffaele; Richter, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Digital innovation radically transforms the nature of corporate innovation practices, implying a growing need for deeper understanding its origins and outcomes. In this paper, we conceptualize the focal points of social networking in digital innovation as idea hubs. We focus our analysis...... on instances of idea hubs in two multinational European software companies, where we conducted a case study over a two-year period, and collected data in form of interviews, digital documents, and participant observations. In doing so, we identify a set of social networking practices in which idea hubs serve...... of digital artifacts individuals can choose from, offline interaction still plays a major role in facilitating digital innovation....

  2. Atmospheric extinction in solar tower plants: the Absorption and Broadband Correction for MOR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrieder, N.; Wilbert, S.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Emde, C.; Gasteiger, J.; Mayer, B.; Polo, J.

    2015-05-01

    Losses of reflected Direct Normal Irradiance due to atmospheric extinction in concentrating solar tower plants can vary significantly with site and time. The losses of the direct normal irradiance between the heliostat field and receiver in a solar tower plant are mainly caused by atmospheric scattering and absorption by aerosol and water vapor concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer. Due to a high aerosol particle number, radiation losses can be significantly larger in desert environments compared to the standard atmospheric conditions which are usually considered in raytracing or plant optimization tools. Information about on-site atmospheric extinction is only rarely available. To measure these radiation losses, two different commercially available instruments were tested and more than 19 months of measurements were collected at the Plataforma Solar de Almería and compared. Both instruments are primarily used to determine the meteorological optical range (MOR). The Vaisala FS11 scatterometer is based on a monochromatic near-infrared light source emission and measures the strength of scattering processes in a small air volume mainly caused by aerosol particles. The Optec LPV4 long-path visibility transmissometer determines the monochromatic attenuation between a light-emitting diode (LED) light source at 532 nm and a receiver and therefore also accounts for absorption processes. As the broadband solar attenuation is of interest for solar resource assessment for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), a correction procedure for these two instruments is developed and tested. This procedure includes a spectral correction of both instruments from monochromatic to broadband attenuation. That means the attenuation is corrected for the actual, time-dependent by the collector reflected solar spectrum. Further, an absorption correction for the Vaisala FS11 scatterometer is implemented. To optimize the Absorption and Broadband Correction (ABC) procedure, additional

  3. Morphometric analysis of early Eocene Corbisema skeletons (Silicoflagellata) in Mors, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hideto; Jordan, Richard W.; Nishiwaki, Niichi; Nishida, Shiro

    2018-02-01

    A two-dimensional morphometric programme, recently designed to measure fossil skeletons of the silicoflagellate genus Corbisema, was used to investigate specimens of the C. apiculata-C. triacantha complex found in a sample from the Fur Formation on the island of Mors, Jutland, Denmark. The semi-automated programme measured the lengths of the basal sides and radial spines, the basal side curvature, and the location of the pikes (if present) from a photographic database (N = 469). As a result, two distinct morphological groups were revealed based on their radial spine length : basal side length ratio and the presence or absence of pikes: group A (ratio of 1 : 1.3, no pikes) and group B, with the latter subdivided into B1 (ratio of 1 : 7, with pikes) and B2 (ratio of 1 : 6, no pikes). Group A (C. triacantha sensu lato) possesses a small basal ring with relatively straight basal sides and long radial spines, while group B has a large basal ring with curved basal sides and short radial spines. In B1 specimens (C. apiculata sensu stricto) the pikes are positioned 0 to 1 µm away from the junction point of the strut and basal ring. This would suggest that B1 double skeletons are likely to be in the Star-of-David configuration, while A and B2 double skeletons (which lack pikes) are likely to be in the corner-to-corner configuration. Compared with the previously published biometric studies of extant Stephanocha (Stephanocha speculum complex in the Southern Ocean and S. medianoctisol in the Arctic Ocean), the results are somewhat different: although C. triacantha sensu lato (group A) is similar to the modern species of Stephanocha, the latter have smaller basal ring diameters, whereas specimens of C. apiculata sensu lato (types B1 and B2) have large basal rings. If their cell diameters are calculated, B1 is the largest, with S. speculum being the smallest - about half the size of B1. This could suggest that the relationship between radial spine length and mean basal ring

  4. Lugares de la memoria, lugares de la ausencia en la poesía de Fabio Morábito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Fernandez Adechedera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes interpreting Fabio Morábito’s poetry taking into account its autobiographical features. The author´s biography places him in a geographical and linguistic displacement through Egypt, Italy and Mexico. Thereby, we analyze some poems that allow us to identify the presence of a personal memory referred to specific scenes of his childhood in Milan and his house moving to Mexico City. Such scenes settle the distinctive aspect of Morabito’s discursive identity, marked by uprooting, mobility and loss, essential topics of his poetry.

  5. Interaction and localization diversities of global and local hubs in human protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, M; Nagarajaram, H A

    2016-08-16

    Hubs, the highly connected nodes in protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs), are associated with several characteristic properties and are known to perform vital roles in cells. We defined two classes of hubs, global (housekeeping) and local (tissue-specific) hubs. These two categories of hubs are distinct from each other with respect to their abundance, structure and function. However, how distinct are the spatial expression pattern and other characteristics of their interacting partners is still not known. Our investigations revealed that the partners of the local hubs compared with those of global hubs are conserved across the tissues in which they are expressed. Partners of local hubs show diverse subcellular localizations as compared with the partners of global hubs. We examined the nature of interacting domains in both categories of hubs and found that they are promiscuous in global hubs but not so in local hubs. Deletion of some of the local and global hubs has an impact on the characteristic path length of the network indicating that those hubs are inter-modular in nature. Our present study has, therefore, shed further light on the characteristic features of the local and global hubs in human PPIN. This knowledge of different topological aspects of hubs with regard to their types and subtypes is essential as it helps in better understanding of roles of hub proteins in various cellular processes under various conditions including those caused by host-pathogen interactions and therefore useful in prioritizing targets for drug design and repositioning.

  6. Landsbyens anatomi. En retrogressiv analyse af agrarstrukturen i landsbyen Sundby på Mors med udgangspunkt i opposition ved forsvaret af Steen Buscks disputats: Et landbosamfund i opbrud. Sundby Mors 1600-1800, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Erik Frandsen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Opposition to Steen Busck’s Doctoral Thesis A Rural Community Breaking Up. Tradition and Modernization in Sundby Parish on the Island of Mors during the Period 1660-1800, vol. 1-2, Aarhus, 2011 The present article is an extended version of Karl-Erik Frandsen’s opposition to Steen Busck’s doctoral thesis A Rural Community Breaking Up. Tradition and Modernization in Sundby Parish on the Island of Mors during the Period 1660-1800, vol. 1-2, Aarhus, 2011. Initially, a retrospective analysis is carried out. Taking as its point of departure the enclosure map of 1782, and combining it with the village land register of 1683, the analysis reconstructs the agrarian structures of Sundby in 1683. On this foundation it is subsequently possible to render it convincing that during the Middle Ages Sundby consisted of three large farms, which were later parcelled out into embryonic villages and which at least from 1662 and until the enclosure in 1782 consisted of approx. 30 farms in a complex open-field system. It is obvious that the distribution of land in the outlying fields in 1782 was carried out on the basis of the affiliation of the farms to the three  embryonic villages.

  7. DigitalHub: A Repository Focused on the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilik, Violeta; Hebal, Piotr; Olson, Anton; Wishnetsky, Susan; Pastva, Joelen; Kubilius, Ramune; Shank, Jonathan; Gutzman, Karen; Chung, Margarita; Holmes, Kristi

    2018-01-01

    The DigitalHub scholarly repository was developed and launched at the Galter Health Sciences Library for the Feinberg School of Medicine and the greater Northwestern Medicine community. The repository was designed to allow scholars the ability to create, share, and preserve a range of citable digital outputs. This article traces the evolution of DigitalHub's development and engagement activities, highlighting project challenges, innovations, success stories, and the team-based approach that was employed to successfully achieve project goals.

  8. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  9. Dissociated multimodal hubs and seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douw, Linda; DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; Liu, Hesheng; Reinsberger, Claus; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-04-01

    Brain connectivity at rest is altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), particularly in "hub" areas such as the posterior default mode network (DMN). Although both functional and anatomical connectivity are disturbed in TLE, the relationships between measures as well as to seizure frequency remain unclear. We aim to clarify these associations using connectivity measures specifically sensitive to hubs. Connectivity between 1000 cortical surface parcels was determined in 49 TLE patients and 23 controls with diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two types of hub connectivity were investigated across multiple brain modules (the DMN, motor system, etcetera): (1) within-module connectivity (a measure of local importance that assesses a parcel's communication level within its own subnetwork) and (2) between-module connectivity (a measure that assesses connections across multiple modules). In TLE patients, there was lower overall functional integrity of the DMN as well as an increase in posterior hub connections with other modules. Anatomical between-module connectivity was globally decreased. Higher DMN disintegration (DD) coincided with higher anatomical between-module connectivity, whereas both were associated with increased seizure frequency. DD related to seizure frequency through mediating effects of anatomical connectivity, but seizure frequency also correlated with anatomical connectivity through DD, indicating a complex interaction between multimodal networks and symptoms. We provide evidence for dissociated anatomical and functional hub connectivity in TLE. Moreover, shifts in functional hub connections from within to outside the DMN, an overall loss of integrative anatomical communication, and the interaction between the two increase seizure frequency.

  10. Atmospheric extinction in solar tower plants: absorption and broadband correction for MOR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrieder, N.; Wilbert, S.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Emde, C.; Gasteiger, J.; Mayer, B.; Polo, J.

    2015-08-01

    Losses of reflected Direct Normal Irradiance due to atmospheric extinction in concentrated solar tower plants can vary significantly with site and time. The losses of the direct normal irradiance between the heliostat field and receiver in a solar tower plant are mainly caused by atmospheric scattering and absorption by aerosol and water vapor concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer. Due to a high aerosol particle number, radiation losses can be significantly larger in desert environments compared to the standard atmospheric conditions which are usually considered in ray-tracing or plant optimization tools. Information about on-site atmospheric extinction is only rarely available. To measure these radiation losses, two different commercially available instruments were tested, and more than 19 months of measurements were collected and compared at the Plataforma Solar de Almería. Both instruments are primarily used to determine the meteorological optical range (MOR). The Vaisala FS11 scatterometer is based on a monochromatic near-infrared light source emission and measures the strength of scattering processes in a small air volume mainly caused by aerosol particles. The Optec LPV4 long-path visibility transmissometer determines the monochromatic attenuation between a light-emitting diode (LED) light source at 532 nm and a receiver and therefore also accounts for absorption processes. As the broadband solar attenuation is of interest for solar resource assessment for concentrated solar power (CSP), a correction procedure for these two instruments is developed and tested. This procedure includes a spectral correction of both instruments from monochromatic to broadband attenuation. That means the attenuation is corrected for the time-dependent solar spectrum which is reflected by the collector. Further, an absorption correction for the Vaisala FS11 scatterometer is implemented. To optimize the absorption and broadband correction (ABC) procedure, additional

  11. Atmospheric extinction in solar tower plants: absorption and broadband correction for MOR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanrieder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Losses of reflected Direct Normal Irradiance due to atmospheric extinction in concentrated solar tower plants can vary significantly with site and time. The losses of the direct normal irradiance between the heliostat field and receiver in a solar tower plant are mainly caused by atmospheric scattering and absorption by aerosol and water vapor concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer. Due to a high aerosol particle number, radiation losses can be significantly larger in desert environments compared to the standard atmospheric conditions which are usually considered in ray-tracing or plant optimization tools. Information about on-site atmospheric extinction is only rarely available. To measure these radiation losses, two different commercially available instruments were tested, and more than 19 months of measurements were collected and compared at the Plataforma Solar de Almería. Both instruments are primarily used to determine the meteorological optical range (MOR. The Vaisala FS11 scatterometer is based on a monochromatic near-infrared light source emission and measures the strength of scattering processes in a small air volume mainly caused by aerosol particles. The Optec LPV4 long-path visibility transmissometer determines the monochromatic attenuation between a light-emitting diode (LED light source at 532 nm and a receiver and therefore also accounts for absorption processes. As the broadband solar attenuation is of interest for solar resource assessment for concentrated solar power (CSP, a correction procedure for these two instruments is developed and tested. This procedure includes a spectral correction of both instruments from monochromatic to broadband attenuation. That means the attenuation is corrected for the time-dependent solar spectrum which is reflected by the collector. Further, an absorption correction for the Vaisala FS11 scatterometer is implemented. To optimize the absorption and broadband correction (ABC procedure

  12. Developing a feasible neighbourhood search for solving hub location problem in a communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmawati, Fibri; Mawengkang, Herman; Buulolo, F.; Mardiningsih

    2018-01-01

    The hub location with single assignment is the problem of locating hubs and assigning the terminal nodes to hubs in order to minimize the cost of hub installation and the cost of routing the traffic in the network. There may also be capacity restrictions on the amount of traffic that can transit by hubs. This paper discusses how to model the polyhedral properties of the problems and develop a feasible neighbourhood search method to solve the model.

  13. La frontera fortificada de Júcaro a Morón (Cuba. De su estricta espacialidad a su permeabilidad social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Álvarez Pereira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende realizar un acercamiento a la realidad espacial y la vida cotidiana en el histórico sistema defensivo conocido comúnmente por la historiografía cubana como la Trocha militar de Júcaro a Morón, con el fin de reflexionar sobre su integración como espacio de «frontera» dentro del encuadre teórico-militar de su contexto histórico. Expondremos cómo el propio espacio influido por el conflicto es capaz de configurar las actividades intergrupales y sus ámbitos, así como la identidad de sus actores modificando directamente su permeabilidad. This article aims to make an approach to spatial reality and everyday life in the historic defense system commonly known by the Cuban historiography as the military Trocha from Júcaro to Morón, in order to reflect on their space integration as «frontier» in the theoretical framing of military historical context. Referring as space itself influenced by the conflict set is capable of intergroup activities and areas, as well as the identity of the actors directly modifying its permeability.

  14. MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, in the treatment of patients with moderate rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Frank; Tak, Paul P; Ostergaard, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety, tolerability and signs of efficacy of MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients with active, moderate RA were enrolled in a randomised...... placebo and MOR103 0.3, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively). Treatment emergent adverse events (AEs) in the MOR103 groups were mild or moderate in intensity and generally reported at frequencies similar to those in the placebo group. The most common AE was nasopharyngitis. In two cases, AEs were classified...... with active RA. The data support further investigation of this monoclonal antibody to GM-CSF in RA patients and potentially in those with other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01023256....

  15. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks : Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  16. Understanding gene essentiality by finely characterizing hubs in the yeast protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kaifang; Sheng, Huanye; Ma, Xiaotu

    2010-10-08

    The centrality-lethality rule, i.e., high-degree proteins or hubs tend to be more essential than low-degree proteins in the yeast protein interaction network, reveals that a protein's central position indicates its important function, but whether and why hubs tend to be more essential have been heavily debated. Here, we integrated gene expression and functional module data to classify hubs into four types: non-co-expressed non-co-cluster hubs, non-co-expressed co-cluster hubs, co-expressed non-co-cluster hubs and co-expressed co-cluster hubs. We found that all the four hub types are more essential than non-hubs, but they also show different enrichments in essential proteins. Non-co-expressed non-co-cluster hubs play key role in organizing different modules formed by the other three hub types, but they are less important to the survival of the yeast cell. Among the four hub types, co-expressed co-cluster hubs, which likely correspond to the core components of stable protein complexes, are the most essential. These results demonstrated that our classification of hubs into four types could better improve the understanding of gene essentiality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wave Transformation for International Hub Port Planning (Transformasi Gelombang untuk Perencanaan Pelabuhan Hub Internasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Nugroho Sugianto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia sehingga peran pelabuhan sangat vital dalam pembangunan ekonomi. Pelabuhan bukan hanya sekedar sebagai pelengkap infrastruktur, melainkan harus direncanakan dan dikelola dengan baik serta memperhatikan fenomena dinamika perairan laut seperti pola gelombang laut. Data gelombang laut menjadi faktor penting dalam perencanaan tata letak dan tipe bangunan pantai karena dipengaruhi oleh tinggi gelombang signifikan, tunggang pasang surut dan transformasi gelombang. Penelitian ini mengalisis karaketristrik dan bentuk transformasi gelombang untuk perencanaan Pelabuhan Hub Internasional, sebagai studi kasus adalah pelabuhan di Kuala Tanjung, Kabupaten Batu Bara. Pelabuhan di Kuala Tanjung merupakan salah satu dari 2 pelabuhan hub internasional yang direncanakan akan dibangun oleh pemerintah Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode kuantitatif yang dilakukan dengan perhitungan statistik dan pemodelan matematik dengan modul hydrodinamic dan spectral wave untuk mengetahui arah penjalaran dan transformasi gelombang. Hasil dari data ECMWF selama 1999–Juni 2014, diketahui tinggi gelombang signifikan (Hs maksimum mencapai 1,69 m dan periode maksimum 8 detik. Karakteristik gelombang termasuk klasifikasi gelombang laut transisi dengan nilai d.L-1 berkisar anrata 0,27–0,48 dan berdasarkan periodenya diklasifikasikan sebagai gelombang gravitasi.Transformasi gelombang terjadi akibat pendangkalan dengan koefesian pendangkalan Ks 0,93–0,98 dan proses refraksi gelombang dengan koefesien Kr 0,97–0,99. Tinggi gelombang pecah Hb sebesar 1,24 meter dengan kedalaman gelombang pecah db sebesar 1,82 meter. Efektifitas desain bangunan terminal di Pelabuhan Kuala Tanjung secara keseluruhan untuk sepanjang musim sebesar 79,8% atau dapat dikatakan cukup efektif dalam meredam gelombang. Kata kunci: transformasi gelombang, tinggi dan periode gelombang, pelabuhan Indonesia is one of the largest

  18. Disrupted Brain Network Hubs in Subtype-Specific Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Dan; He, Yong; Ma, Hui-Zi; Feng, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The topological organization of brain functional networks is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the altered patterns of functional network hubs in different subtypes of PD are not completely understood. 3T resting-state functional MRI and voxel-based graph-theory analysis were employed to systematically investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of whole-brain networks. We enrolled 31 patients with PD (12 tremor dominant [TD] and 19 with postural instability/gait difficulty [PIGD]) and 22 matched healthy controls. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks were constructed by measuring the temporal correlations of each pair of brain voxels. Functional connectivity strength was calculated to explore the brain network hubs. We found that both the TD and PIGD subtypes had comprehensive disrupted regions. These mainly involved the basal ganglia, cerebellum, superior temporal gyrus, pre- and postcentral gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, insula, and parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, the PIGD subgroup had more disrupted hubs in the cerebellum than the TD subgroup. These disruptions of hub connectivity were not correlated with the HY stage or disease duration. Our results emphasize the subtype-specific PD-related degeneration of brain hubs, providing novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of connectivity dysfunction in different PD subgroups. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Flow Structures within a Helicopter Rotor Hub Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Reich, David; Schmitz, Sven

    2015-11-01

    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48'' Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. The measurement suite included total hub drag and wake velocity measurements (LDV, PIV, stereo-PIV) at three downstream locations. The main objective was to understand the spatiotemporal evolution of the unsteady wake between the rotor hub and the nominal location of the empennage (tail). Initial analysis of the data revealed prominent two- and four-per-revolution fluid structures linked to geometric hub features persisting into the wake far-field. In addition, a six-per-revolution fluid structure was observed in the far-field, which is unexpected due to the lack of any hub feature with the corresponding symmetry. This suggests a nonlinear interaction is occurring within the wake to generate these structures. This presentation will provide an overview of the experimental data and analysis with particular emphasis on these six-per-revolution structures.

  20. Sci-Hub provides access to nearly all scholarly literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Daniel S; Romero, Ariel Rodriguez; Levernier, Jacob G; Munro, Thomas Anthony; McLaughlin, Stephen Reid; Greshake Tzovaras, Bastian; Greene, Casey S

    2018-03-01

    The website Sci-Hub enables users to download PDF versions of scholarly articles, including many articles that are paywalled at their journal's site. Sci-Hub has grown rapidly since its creation in 2011, but the extent of its coverage has been unclear. Here we report that, as of March 2017, Sci-Hub's database contains 68.9% of the 81.6 million scholarly articles registered with Crossref and 85.1% of articles published in toll access journals. We find that coverage varies by discipline and publisher, and that Sci-Hub preferentially covers popular, paywalled content. For toll access articles, we find that Sci-Hub provides greater coverage than the University of Pennsylvania, a major research university in the United States. Green open access to toll access articles via licit services, on the other hand, remains quite limited. Our interactive browser at https://greenelab.github.io/scihub">https://greenelab.github.io/scihub allows users to explore these findings in more detail. For the first time, nearly all scholarly literature is available gratis to anyone with an Internet connection, suggesting the toll access business model may become unsustainable. © 2018, Himmelstein et al.

  1. Equine infectious anaemia in urban area horses of Monte Mor municipality, Campinas metropolitan area, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Antonio Cutolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA is a chronic viral disease, caused by a Lentivirus from Retroviridae family. It is primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors during bloodfeeding. It is an infectious, incurable and difficult to control disease, being considered an important obstacle to horse breeding in Brazil. As part of the municipal equine health program of Monte Mor county, a total of 64 animals were evaluated through serology for the presence of antibodies against EIA virus, using agar gel immunodiffusion test. Three animals were serologically reagent resulting in a local occurrence of 4.7%. Due to the significant use of horses as working and recreational animals in urban areas, it is mandatory that public authorities set up policies of responsible ownership and zoonoses control involving equine populations, aiming both animal welfare improvement and human health protection.

  2. Microfluidic hubs, systems, and methods for interface fluidic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Michael S; Claudnic, Mark R; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L

    2015-01-27

    Embodiments of microfluidic hubs and systems are described that may be used to connect fluidic modules. A space between surfaces may be set by fixtures described herein. In some examples a fixture may set substrate-to-substrate spacing based on a distance between registration surfaces on which the respective substrates rest. Fluidic interfaces are described, including examples where fluid conduits (e.g. capillaries) extend into the fixture to the space between surfaces. Droplets of fluid may be introduced to and/or removed from microfluidic hubs described herein, and fluid actuators may be used to move droplets within the space between surfaces. Continuous flow modules may be integrated with the hubs in some examples.

  3. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Daniel E; Gerstl, Stephan S A; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James E

    2017-01-01

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for samples sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes prior to analysis. Atom probe tomography is a rapidly expanding technique for three-dimensional structural and chemical analysis, but commercial instruments remain limited to loading specimens under ambient conditions. In this study, we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic or room-temperature transfer of specimens under atmospheric or vacuum pressure conditions between an atom probe and other instruments or reaction chambers. The utility of the environmental transfer hub is demonstrated through the acquisition of previously unavailable mass spectral analysis of an intact organic molecule made possible via controlled cryogenic transfer into the atom probe using the hub. The ability to prepare and transfer specimens in precise environments promises a means to access new science across many disciplines from untainted samples and allow downstream time-resolved in situ atom probe studies.

  4. FEM analysis of hollow hub forming in rolling extrusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bartnicki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of numerical calculations of rolling extrusion process of a hollow hub. As the flanges manufacturing at both sides of the product is required, in the analyzed process of rolling extrusion, a rear bumper was implemented as additional tool limiting axial metal flow. Numerical calculations of the hub forming process were conducted basing on finite element method, applying software Deform3D and Simufact in conditions of three dimensional state of strain. The obtained satisfactory results show that it is possible to conduct the further research works of experimental character, with the application of a modernized aggregate for the rolling extrusion process PO-2.

  5. Robust Energy Hub Management Using Information Gap Decision Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust optimization framework for energy hub management. It is well known that the operation of energy systems can be negatively affected by uncertain parameters, such as stochastic load demand or generation. In this regard, it is of high significance to propose efficient...... tools in order to deal with uncertainties and to provide reliable operating conditions. On a broader scale, an energy hub includes diverse energy sources for supplying both electrical load and heating/cooling demands with stochastic behaviors. Therefore, this paper utilizes the Information Decision Gap...

  6. Operation analysis of integrated energy supply systems with energy hubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Андрійович Веремійчук

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the operation properties of integrated intelligent energy supply systems that provide integration of self-organizing systems of electricity and heat consumption is conducted. Possibility of using energy hub models that combine disparate generate sources of heat and electricity energy for the consumers’ demand for energy is considered. The feasibility estimation of implementing energy hubs in terms of interaction of local energy systems in Ukraine at different levels of the organizational structure of the energetics in the energy market liberalization is made

  7. [Psychometric parameters of the Hungarian version of Mothers' Object Relations Scales - Short Form (H-MORS-SF) in a large sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Ildikó; Scheuring, Noémi; Gervai, Judit; Oates, John M; Czinner, Antal

    2012-01-01

    The Mothers' Object Relations Scale (MORS) was developed by John M. Oates (Open University, Milton Keynes, UK) in the late 1990s. The MORS is an appropriate instrument for gathering parental perceptions about the child and the parent-infant relationship. The questionnaire and its short form were improved further and validated in British and Hungarian samples in the beginning of the 2000s and the questionnaire was used in several applied studies in the UK where its predictive validity was further confirmed. The development and validation phases were based on small samples. The diverse social-demographic characteristics of the For Healthy Offspring project, allowed for further testing the reliability and validity of the Hungarian short-form in a large (n=1164) sample. High internal consistency was found in the original and the imputed data obtained from parents of 0-3-year old children for both of H-MORS-SF dimensions: Invasion and Warmth. The scales had interpretable and systematic cross-correlations with measures of infant temperament (IBQ-R, ECBQ) and mental state (DS1K) of both parents. These results confirm and exceed the previous results based on small samples. Given the convincing psychometric indicators and its fast and simple usage, the H-MORS-SF can be considered as an effective preventive screening test for monitoring the developing parent-infant relationship, therefore we suggest its use for professionals working in developmental psychology, child health and social fields.

  8. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Kanne, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed,

  9. Domain distribution and intrinsic disorder in hubs in the human protein–protein interaction network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ashwini; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder and distributed surface charge have been previously identified as some of the characteristics that differentiate hubs (proteins with a large number of interactions) from non-hubs in protein–protein interaction networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in the quantity, diversity, and functional nature of Pfam domains, and their relationship with intrinsic disorder, in hubs and non-hubs. We found that proteins with a more diverse domain composition were over-represented in hubs when compared with non-hubs, with the number of interactions in hubs increasing with domain diversity. Conversely, the fraction of intrinsic disorder in hubs decreased with increasing number of ordered domains. The difference in the levels of disorder was more prominent in hubs and non-hubs with fewer domains. Functional analysis showed that hubs were enriched in kinase and adaptor domains acting primarily in signal transduction and transcription regulation, whereas non-hubs had more DNA-binding domains and were involved in catalytic activity. Consistent with the differences in the functional nature of their domains, hubs with two or more domains were more likely to connect distinct functional modules in the interaction network when compared with single domain hubs. We conclude that the availability of greater number and diversity of ordered domains, in addition to the tendency to have promiscuous domains, differentiates hubs from non-hubs and provides an additional means of achieving interaction promiscuity. Further, hubs with fewer domains use greater levels of intrinsic disorder to facilitate interaction promiscuity with the prevalence of disorder decreasing with increasing number of ordered domains. PMID:20509167

  10. Domain distribution and intrinsic disorder in hubs in the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ashwini; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-08-01

    Intrinsic disorder and distributed surface charge have been previously identified as some of the characteristics that differentiate hubs (proteins with a large number of interactions) from non-hubs in protein-protein interaction networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in the quantity, diversity, and functional nature of Pfam domains, and their relationship with intrinsic disorder, in hubs and non-hubs. We found that proteins with a more diverse domain composition were over-represented in hubs when compared with non-hubs, with the number of interactions in hubs increasing with domain diversity. Conversely, the fraction of intrinsic disorder in hubs decreased with increasing number of ordered domains. The difference in the levels of disorder was more prominent in hubs and non-hubs with fewer domains. Functional analysis showed that hubs were enriched in kinase and adaptor domains acting primarily in signal transduction and transcription regulation, whereas non-hubs had more DNA-binding domains and were involved in catalytic activity. Consistent with the differences in the functional nature of their domains, hubs with two or more domains were more likely to connect distinct functional modules in the interaction network when compared with single domain hubs. We conclude that the availability of greater number and diversity of ordered domains, in addition to the tendency to have promiscuous domains, differentiates hubs from non-hubs and provides an additional means of achieving interaction promiscuity. Further, hubs with fewer domains use greater levels of intrinsic disorder to facilitate interaction promiscuity with the prevalence of disorder decreasing with increasing number of ordered domains.

  11. Differential variation patterns between hubs and bottlenecks in human protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Erli; Hao, Yu; Sun, Ying; Lin, Kui

    2016-12-01

    The identification, description and understanding of protein-protein networks are important in cell biology and medicine, especially for the study of system biology where the focus concerns the interaction of biomolecules. Hubs and bottlenecks refer to the important proteins of a protein interaction network. Until now, very little attention has been paid to differentiate these two protein groups. By integrating human protein-protein interaction networks and human genome-wide variations across populations, we described the differences between hubs and bottlenecks in this study. Our findings showed that similar to interspecies, hubs and bottlenecks changed significantly more slowly than non-hubs and non-bottlenecks. To distinguish hubs from bottlenecks, we extracted their special members: hub-non-bottlenecks and non-hub-bottlenecks. The differences between these two groups represent what is between hubs and bottlenecks. We found that the variation rate of hubs was significantly lower than that of bottlenecks. In addition, we verified that stronger constraint is exerted on hubs than on bottlenecks. We further observed fewer non-synonymous sites on the domains of hubs than on those of bottlenecks and different molecular functions between them. Based on these results, we conclude that in recent human history, different variation patterns exist in hubs and bottlenecks in protein interaction networks. By revealing the difference between hubs and bottlenecks, our results might provide further insights in the relationship between evolution and biological structure.

  12. Composite hubs for low cost turbine engines. [stress analysis using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed stress analysis is performed using NASTRAN to demonstrate theoretically the adequacy of composite hubs for low cost turbine engine applications. The results show that composite hubs are adequate for this application from the steady state stress viewpoint.

  13. Interaction of railway and marine transport (Murmansk Transport Hub)

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov A.A.; Solov'yov A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The classification of problems of interaction between water (marine) and railway transport on the example of the Murmansk Transport Hub has been presented; some prospects for the development of technology for interaction with the logistics of transportation of general cargo in the Murmansk Commercial Seaport, Murmansk Marine Fishing Port, and oil terminals of the Kola Bay have been shown

  14. Comparative assembly hubs: Web-accessible browsers for comparative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Raney, Brian J.; Armstrong, Joel; Clawson, Hiram; Zweig, Ann; Karolchik, Donna; Kent, William James; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Researchers now have access to large volumes of genome sequences for comparative analysis, some generated by the plethora of public sequencing projects and, increasingly, from individual efforts. It is not possible, or necessarily desirable, that the public genome browsers attempt to curate all these data. Instead, a wealth of powerful tools is emerging to empower users to create their own visualizations and browsers. Results: We introduce a pipeline to easily generate collections of Web-accessible UCSC Genome Browsers interrelated by an alignment. It is intended to democratize our comparative genomic browser resources, serving the broad and growing community of evolutionary genomicists and facilitating easy public sharing via the Internet. Using the alignment, all annotations and the alignment itself can be efficiently viewed with reference to any genome in the collection, symmetrically. A new, intelligently scaled alignment display makes it simple to view all changes between the genomes at all levels of resolution, from substitutions to complex structural rearrangements, including duplications. To demonstrate this work, we create a comparative assembly hub containing 57 Escherichia coli and 9 Shigella genomes and show examples that highlight their unique biology. Availability and implementation: The source code is available as open source at: https://github.com/glennhickey/progressiveCactus The E.coli and Shigella genome hub is now a public hub listed on the UCSC browser public hubs Web page. Contact: benedict@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25138168

  15. Functional Connectivity Hubs and Networks in the Awake Marmoset Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Annabelle M; Yen, Cecil Chern-Chyi; Notardonato, Lucia; Ross, Thomas J; Volkow, Nora D; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A; Silva, Afonso C; Tomasi, Dardo

    2016-01-01

    In combination with advances in analytical methods, resting-state fMRI is allowing unprecedented access to a better understanding of the network organization of the brain. Increasing evidence suggests that this architecture may incorporate highly functionally connected nodes, or "hubs", and we have recently proposed local functional connectivity density (lFCD) mapping to identify highly-connected nodes in the human brain. Here, we imaged awake nonhuman primates to test whether, like the human brain, the marmoset brain contains FC hubs. Ten adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were acclimated to mild, comfortable restraint using individualized helmets. Following restraint training, resting BOLD data were acquired during eight consecutive 10 min scans for each subject. lFCD revealed prominent cortical and subcortical hubs of connectivity across the marmoset brain; specifically, in primary and secondary visual cortices (V1/V2), higher-order visual association areas (A19M/V6[DM]), posterior parietal and posterior cingulate areas (PGM and A23b/A31), thalamus, dorsal and ventral striatal areas (caudate, putamen, lateral septal nucleus, and anterior cingulate cortex (A24a). lFCD hubs were highly connected to widespread areas of the brain, and further revealed significant network-network interactions. These data provide a baseline platform for future investigations in a nonhuman primate model of the brain's network topology.

  16. Fatigue Analysis of Casted Hubs in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    The hub of a wind turbine rotor is excited by time-varying forces and moments from the blades caused by extemal dynamic loads such as wind loading and aeroelastic effects. The paper describes how reliability-based fatigue analysis can be made based on SN-curves and how reliability-based inspection...

  17. The Urban Food Hubs Solution: Building Capacity in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Access to affordable fresh food is an ongoing challenge for underserved urban neighborhoods across the United States. Several are designated food deserts with no access to a full-service grocery store within a one-mile radius. The Urban Food Hubs of the College of Agriculture, Urban Sustainability, and Environmental Sciences (CAUSES) of the…

  18. Native Avatars, Online Hubs, and Urban Indian Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Gabriel S.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching American Indian literature with online resources can help diverse urban Indian and multicultural students connect with American Indian cultures, histories, and Nations. This online-enriched pedagogy adopts Susan Lobo's sense of the city as an "urban hub," or activist community center, an urban area linked to reservations in which Native…

  19. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how

  20. DAVINC3I: moving towards responsive hub network designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossevoort, R.; Keizer, de M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Wenink, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch floricultural sector is generally appreciated for its world leadership; the Netherlands is the flower trading hub for the European market. There are two trends affecting this position. First, virtualisation makes trade flows relatively footloose and flexible. Moreover, it enables the use

  1. The East African Resilience Innovation Hub | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The hub will explore several research streams to examine why interventions succeed or fail, and how individuals, communities, and states can cope with and overcome conflict and violence. Researchers will also look at how to support peacemaking processes and increase disaster prevention efforts. Their work will respond ...

  2. Analysis of Sci-Hub downloads of computer science papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andročec Darko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific knowledge is disseminated by research papers. Most of the research literature is copyrighted by publishers and avail- able only through paywalls. Recently, some websites offer most of the recent content for free. One of them is the controversial website Sci-Hub that enables access to more than 47 million pirated research papers. In April 2016, Science Magazine published an article on Sci-Hub activity over the period of six months and publicly released the Sci-Hub’s server log data. The mentioned paper aggregates the view that relies on all downloads and for all fields of study, but these findings might be hiding interesting patterns within computer science. The mentioned Sci-Hub log data was used in this paper to analyse downloads of computer science papers based on DBLP’s list of computer science publications. The top downloads of computer science papers were analysed, together with the geographical location of Sci-Hub users, the most downloaded publishers, types of papers downloaded, and downloads of computer science papers per publication year. The results of this research can be used to improve legal access to the most relevant scientific repositories or journals for the computer science field.

  3. The Insula : A "Hub of Activity" in Migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsook, David; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Erpelding, Nathalie; Borra, Ronald; Linnman, Clas; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino

    2016-01-01

    The insula, a cortical hub buried within the lateral sulcus, is involved in a number of processes including goal-directed cognition, conscious awareness, autonomic regulation, interoception, and somatosensation. While some of these processes are well known in the clinical presentation of migraine

  4. Liner shipping hub network design in a competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    market share—which depends on the service time and transportation cost—by locating a predefined number of hubs at candidate ports and designing its network. While general-purpose solvers do not solve instances of even small size, an accelerated Lagrangian method combined with a primal heuristic obtains...

  5. Liner Shipping Hub Network Design in a Competitive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Nickel, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    — proportional to service time and transportation cost —by locating a predefined number of hubs at candidate ports and designing its network. While general-purpose solvers do not solve instances of even small size, an accelerated lagrangian method coupled with a primal heuristic obtains very good bounds. Our...

  6. Portable Desktop Apps with GitHub Electron

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Wouldn't it be nice if you could develop applications that work everywhere, regardless of Operating System or Platform? Even better, what if you could employ the same front-end technologies you use for your web/mobile apps? Meet GitHub Electron.

  7. Activity Dependent Degeneration Explains Hub Vulnerability in Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, W.; Mott, K.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Scheltens, P.; Stam, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Brain connectivity studies have revealed that highly connected 'hub' regions are particularly vulnerable to Alzheimer pathology: they show marked amyloid-β deposition at an early stage. Recently, excessive local neuronal activity has been shown to increase amyloid deposition. In this study we use a

  8. Domain distribution and intrinsic disorder in hubs in the human protein–protein interaction network

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Ashwini; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder and distributed surface charge have been previously identified as some of the characteristics that differentiate hubs (proteins with a large number of interactions) from non-hubs in protein–protein interaction networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in the quantity, diversity, and functional nature of Pfam domains, and their relationship with intrinsic disorder, in hubs and non-hubs. We found that proteins with a more diverse domain composition were over-re...

  9. Child Health General Practice Hubs: a service evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Taylor, Sarah; Watson, Mando; Klaber, Robert

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of an integrated child health system. Mixed methods service evaluation. Children, young people and their families registered in Child Health General Practitioner (GP) Hubs where groups of GP practices come together to form 'hubs'. Hospital paediatricians and GPs participating in joint clinics and multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings in GP practices, a component of an 'Inside-Out' change known as 'Connecting Care For Children (CC4C)'. Cases seen in clinic or discussed at MDT meetings and their follow-up needs. Hospital Episode data: outpatient and inpatient activity and A&E attendance. Patient-reported experience measures and professionals' feedback. In one hub, 39% of new patient hospital appointments were avoided altogether and a further 42% of appointments were shifted from hospital to GP practice. In addition, there was a 19% decrease in sub-specialty referrals, a 17% reduction in admissions and a 22% decrease in A&E attenders. Smaller hubs running at lower capacity in early stages of implementation had less impact on hospital activity. Patients preferred appointments at the GP practice, gained increased confidence in taking their child to the GP and all respondents said they would recommend the service to family and friends. Professionals valued the improvement in knowledge and learning and, most significantly, the development of trust and collaboration. Child Health GP Hubs increase the connections between secondary and primary care, reduce secondary care usage and receive high patient satisfaction ratings while providing learning for professionals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Characterization of binding mode of action of a blocking anti-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B monoclonal antibody, MOR8457, reveals conformational flexibility and avidity needed for PDGF-BB to bind PDGF receptor-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Jun; Mosyak, Lidia; Brooks, Jon; Cain, Michael; Carven, Gregory J; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishino, Tetsuya; Tam, May; Lavallie, Edward R; Yang, Zhiyong; Ponsel, Dirk; Rauchenberger, Robert; Arch, Robert; Pullen, Nick

    2015-03-17

    Platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is an important mitogen and cell survival factor during development. PDGF-BB binds PDGF receptor-β (PDGFRβ) to trigger receptor dimerization and tyrosine kinase activation. We present the pharmacological and biophysical characterization of a blocking PDGF-BB monoclonal antibody, MOR8457, and contrast this to PDGFRβ. MOR8457 binds to PDGF-BB with high affinity and selectivity, and prevents PDGF-BB induced cell proliferation competitively and with high potency. The structural characterization of the MOR8457-PDGF-BB complex indicates that MOR8457 binds with a 2:1 stoichiometry, but that binding of a single MOR8457 moiety is sufficient to prevent binding to PDGFRβ. Comparison of the MOR8457-PDGF-BB structure with that of the PDGFRβ-PDGF-BB complex suggested the potential reason for this was a substantial bending and twisting of PDGF-BB in the MOR8457 structure, relative to the structures of PDGF-BB alone, bound to a PDGF-BB aptamer or PDGFRβ, which makes it nonpermissive for PDGFRβ binding. These biochemical and structural data offer insights into the permissive structure of PDGF-BB needed for agonism as well as strategies for developing specific PDGF ligand antagonists.

  11. The hubs of the human connectome are generally implicated in the anatomy of brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Nicolas A; Mechelli, Andrea; Scott, Jessica; Carletti, Francesco; Fox, Peter T; McGuire, Philip; Bullmore, Edward T

    2014-08-01

    Brain networks or 'connectomes' include a minority of highly connected hub nodes that are functionally valuable, because their topological centrality supports integrative processing and adaptive behaviours. Recent studies also suggest that hubs have higher metabolic demands and longer-distance connections than other brain regions, and therefore could be considered biologically costly. Assuming that hubs thus normally combine both high topological value and high biological cost, we predicted that pathological brain lesions would be concentrated in hub regions. To test this general hypothesis, we first identified the hubs of brain anatomical networks estimated from diffusion tensor imaging data on healthy volunteers (n = 56), and showed that computational attacks targeted on hubs disproportionally degraded the efficiency of brain networks compared to random attacks. We then prepared grey matter lesion maps, based on meta-analyses of published magnetic resonance imaging data on more than 20 000 subjects and 26 different brain disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging lesions that were common across all brain disorders were more likely to be located in hubs of the normal brain connectome (P hubs (P hub-concentrated lesion distributions, although (almost completely) distinct subsets of cortical hubs were lesioned in each disorder: temporal lobe hubs specifically were associated with higher lesion probability in Alzheimer's disease, whereas in schizophrenia lesions were concentrated in both frontal and temporal cortical hubs. These results linking pathological lesions to the topological centrality of nodes in the normal diffusion tensor imaging connectome were generally replicated when hubs were defined instead by the meta-analysis of more than 1500 task-related functional neuroimaging studies of healthy volunteers to create a normative functional co-activation network. We conclude that the high cost/high value hubs of human brain networks are more likely to be anatomically

  12. Pinoy Nutrition Hub: The Philippine Experience in Addressing Moderate Malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Arlo; Fuentes, Eureka; Duque, Yvonette; Soriano, Nezer; Gomez, Marijo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: • Objective: Malnutrition is a persistent problem in the Philippines. The 2011 survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute reported that 3 out of 10 children are malnourished. Data shows 20.2% of children 0-47 months are underweight while 33.6% are stunted. This rate is higher in depressed areas in the country. PD Hearth is a time and tested effective program model to address malnutrition. But the PDH has minimum standards that need to be followed in the program implementation. However, a developing country like the Philippines has limitations in its resources and implementations. This paper aims to share the Philippine experience in addressing moderate malnutrition through a contextualized and modified PD Hearth approach. The specific objectives of this paper are: - to describe the challenges in implementing PD Hearth in the context of the Philippines; - to describe the innovations and modifications in the PD Hearth; - and, to illustrate the successful intervention of the PNH program against malnourished children in the community. • Methods: The Pinoy Nutrition Hub model is an innovation of PD Hearth approach. The first step was the participatory approach evaluation of existing programs on MNCHN in the communities. The next step was for the stakeholders to identify the gaps and address them. This was followed by gathering lessons learned and good practices that arose from implementing PD Hearth. Innovations were adopted to address restrictions and maximize learning in its implementation. The contextualized approach was called Pinoy Nutrition Hub (PNH). • Outcomes: - The PNH was piloted in three Area Development Programs (ADP) that represent the three island groups of the Philippines. All three ADPs reported improvement in the weight of the malnourished children enrolled in the program. Below is an illustration of the how the actual weight of children in the Visayas ADP increased. Figure 1 (Display Omitted). Average Weight of Malnourished

  13. Revisiting date and party hubs: novel approaches to role assignment in protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sumeet; Deane, Charlotte M; Porter, Mason A; Jones, Nick S

    2010-06-17

    The idea of "date" and "party" hubs has been influential in the study of protein-protein interaction networks. Date hubs display low co-expression with their partners, whilst party hubs have high co-expression. It was proposed that party hubs are local coordinators whereas date hubs are global connectors. Here, we show that the reported importance of date hubs to network connectivity can in fact be attributed to a tiny subset of them. Crucially, these few, extremely central, hubs do not display particularly low expression correlation, undermining the idea of a link between this quantity and hub function. The date/party distinction was originally motivated by an approximately bimodal distribution of hub co-expression; we show that this feature is not always robust to methodological changes. Additionally, topological properties of hubs do not in general correlate with co-expression. However, we find significant correlations between interaction centrality and the functional similarity of the interacting proteins. We suggest that thinking in terms of a date/party dichotomy for hubs in protein interaction networks is not meaningful, and it might be more useful to conceive of roles for protein-protein interactions rather than for individual proteins.

  14. Revisiting date and party hubs: novel approaches to role assignment in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Agarwal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of "date" and "party" hubs has been influential in the study of protein-protein interaction networks. Date hubs display low co-expression with their partners, whilst party hubs have high co-expression. It was proposed that party hubs are local coordinators whereas date hubs are global connectors. Here, we show that the reported importance of date hubs to network connectivity can in fact be attributed to a tiny subset of them. Crucially, these few, extremely central, hubs do not display particularly low expression correlation, undermining the idea of a link between this quantity and hub function. The date/party distinction was originally motivated by an approximately bimodal distribution of hub co-expression; we show that this feature is not always robust to methodological changes. Additionally, topological properties of hubs do not in general correlate with co-expression. However, we find significant correlations between interaction centrality and the functional similarity of the interacting proteins. We suggest that thinking in terms of a date/party dichotomy for hubs in protein interaction networks is not meaningful, and it might be more useful to conceive of roles for protein-protein interactions rather than for individual proteins.

  15. Features analysis for identification of date and party hubs in protein interaction network of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzarezaee, Mitra; Araabi, Babak N; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2010-12-19

    It has been understood that biological networks have modular organizations which are the sources of their observed complexity. Analysis of networks and motifs has shown that two types of hubs, party hubs and date hubs, are responsible for this complexity. Party hubs are local coordinators because of their high co-expressions with their partners, whereas date hubs display low co-expressions and are assumed as global connectors. However there is no mutual agreement on these concepts in related literature with different studies reporting their results on different data sets. We investigated whether there is a relation between the biological features of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins and their roles as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs, and date hubs. We propose a classifier that separates these four classes. We extracted different biological characteristics including amino acid sequences, domain contents, repeated domains, functional categories, biological processes, cellular compartments, disordered regions, and position specific scoring matrix from various sources. Several classifiers are examined and the best feature-sets based on average correct classification rate and correlation coefficients of the results are selected. We show that fusion of five feature-sets including domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, and composition pairs with two and one gaps provide the best discrimination with an average correct classification rate of 77%. We study a variety of known biological feature-sets of the proteins and show that there is a relation between domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, composition pairs with two and one gaps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins, and their roles in the protein interaction network as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs and date hubs. This study also confirms the possibility of predicting non-hubs, party hubs and date hubs

  16. Channel Bonding in Linux Ethernet Environment using Regular Switching Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-wen Hsueh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth plays an important role for quality of service in most network systems. There are many technologies developed to increase host bandwidth in a LAN environment. Most of them need special hardware support, such as switching hub that supports IEEE Link Aggregation standard. In this paper, we propose a Linux solution to increase the bandwidth between hosts with multiple network adapters connected to a regular switching hub. The approach is implemented as two Linux kernel modules in a LAN environment without modification to the hardware and operating systems on host machines. Packets are dispatched to bonding network adapters for transmission. The proposed approach is backward compatible, flexible and transparent to users and only one IP address is needed for multiple bonding network adapters. Evaluation experiments in TCP and UDP transmission are shown with bandwidth gain proportionally to the number of network adapters. It is suitable for large-scale LAN systems with high bandwidth requirement, such as clustering systems.

  17. Addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Saraiva de Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When considering hub-and-spoke networks with single allocation, the absence of alternative routes makes this kind of systems specially vulnerable to congestion effects. In order to improve the design of such networks, congestion costs must be addressed. This article deploys two different techniques for addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks: the Generalized Benders Decomposition and the Outer Approximation method. Both methods are able to solve large scale instances. Computational experiments show how the adoption of advanced solution strategies, such as Pareto-optimal cut generation on the Master Problem branch-and-bound tree, may be decisive. They also demonstrate that the solution effort is not only associated with the size of the instances, but also with their combination of the installation and congestion costs.

  18. Complexity functions for networks: Dynamical hubs and complexity clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Dmitrichev, Aleksei; Shchapin, Dmitry; Nekorkin, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    A method for studying the behavior of the elements of dynamical networks is introduced. We measure the amount of instability stored at each element according to the value of the mean complexity related to this element. Elements with close values of the mean complexity can be unified into complexity clusters; elements with the smallest values of complexities form dynamical hubs. The effectiveness of the method is manifested by its successive application to networks of coupled Lorenz systems.

  19. Location of an intermediate hub for port activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Ş.; Ştefănică, C.; Roşca, E.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.

    2015-11-01

    An intermediate hub might increase the accessibility level of ports but also hinterland and so it can be considered more than a facility with a transhipment role. These hubs might lead to the development of other transport services and enhance their role in gathering and covering economic centres within hinterlands and also getting the part of logistic facility for the ports, with effects on port utilization and its connectivity to global economy. A new location for a hub terminal leads to reduced transport distances within hinterland, with decreased transport costs and external effects, so with gains in people's life quality. Because the production and distribution systems are relatively fixed on short and medium term and the location decisions are strategic and on long term, the logistic chains activities location models have to consider the uncertainties regarding the possible future situations. In most models, production costs are considered equal, the location problem reducing itself to a problem that aims to minimize the total transport costs, meaning the transport problem. The main objective of the paper is to locate a hub terminal that links the producers of cereals that are going to be exported by naval transportation with the Romanian fluvial-maritime ports (Galaţi, Brăila). GIS environment can be used to integrate and analyse a great amount of data and has the ability of using functions as location - allocation models necessary both to private and public sector, being able to determine the optimal location for services like factories, warehouses, logistic platforms and other public services.

  20. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Gerstl, Stephan S. A.; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James. E.

    2017-05-02

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for specimens sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes. Atom Probe Tomography is an expanding technique but commercial instruments remain limited to loading under ambient conditions. Here we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic, atmospheric and vacuum transfer between an Atom Probe and other instruments containing separate chambers to allow downstream time-resolved in-situ studies.

  1. Strategies for contracting gas storage and hub services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auld, J.

    1996-01-01

    The many efficiencies that can be gained by the natural gas industry in effectively using storage, were demonstrated. The circumstances under which the natural gas industry uses storage and how Market Centres or Hub Services can be strategically used in offering companies the highest flexibility in a tough marketplace, were explained. For example, in North America, storage played an important role during the winter of 95/96, which will be remembered for its extreme cold. That year provided the first true opportunity to test the natural gas delivery system since deregulation in 1985. The fact that natural gas supplies continued to be delivered throughout the entire winter was attributed to the use of stored gas held in reserves to meet the severe demand. The companies that did well, relied on storage and also on the services offered by Hub Services which increased margins for all players in the natural gas industry. Using storage, companies can ensure that field deliveries of gas are kept constant by having storage facilities absorb the swings in market demand. The companies that learn to use storage effectively can create competitive edges over their competition and provide more value to their customers. The three main categories of hub services were also described. These are parking (interruptible storage), gas loans (stored gas can be offered to customers on a term basis for low daily rates), and title exchange (the transfer of gas between buyer and seller). The strategic use of parking, loaned gas, title exchange, direct connections, and InterHub Services can provide customers even greater benefits than are provided by storage-based services. 6 figs

  2. Idea Exchange Music Hub Hits the Right Note in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Bester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Libraries and Galleries has made many changes over the last two years, rebranding as Idea Exchange and adding 3D printers, creative spaces and many on-site events. This article focuses on one of the organization’s newest innovations, the addition of a Music Hub, and the challenges of creating a space where members can learn and collaborate musically without disturbing those around them.

  3. Matrix logistics indicators assessment of distributed transport hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Arefyev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper is devoted to the distributed transport hub substantiation and assessment. The paper  was an example of the technique and form an array of logistical factors as variables that determine this condition. Experience in organizing multimodal transport showed that the "bottleneck" of transport logistics are items of cargo handling ports, terminals, freight stations and warehouses. At the core of the solution of these problems is the problem of estimating the variables determine the Multi-purpose Hubs. The aim is to develop a method of forming the system of logistical multiplying factors determine the role of each of the types in the technologiacal process of distributed Multi-purpose Hubs. Methods: The assessment model for the formation of Distributed Transport Units  can be based on formal methods to predict the behavior of complex systems engineering complexes. Then one of the approaches to the solution of the problem may be the matrix method of technological factors. Results and conclusions: The proposed methodology of the selection and validation of logistic coefficients has the practical importance in the models development for assessing the condition and behavior of Distributed Transport.

  4. Mapping Multiplex Hubs in Human Functional Brain Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Sasai, Shuntaro; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Typical brain networks consist of many peripheral regions and a few highly central ones, i.e., hubs, playing key functional roles in cerebral inter-regional interactions. Studies have shown that networks, obtained from the analysis of specific frequency components of brain activity, present peculiar architectures with unique profiles of region centrality. However, the identification of hubs in networks built from different frequency bands simultaneously is still a challenging problem, remaining largely unexplored. Here we identify each frequency component with one layer of a multiplex network and face this challenge by exploiting the recent advances in the analysis of multiplex topologies. First, we show that each frequency band carries unique topological information, fundamental to accurately model brain functional networks. We then demonstrate that hubs in the multiplex network, in general different from those ones obtained after discarding or aggregating the measured signals as usual, provide a more accurate map of brain's most important functional regions, allowing to distinguish between healthy and schizophrenic populations better than conventional network approaches.

  5. South East Europe Hub and Spoke Air Network Reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the passenger and cargo historical traffic data analysis at the Zagreb Airport, at certain airports in the wider region and globally for a period of half a century. The war during 1990s and the disintegration of Yugoslavia had as a consequence the breakdown of air transport based on hub and spoke system with three airports as a hub: Zagreb, Belgrade and Ljubljana. During and after the war, the domestic airliner in the region and a foreign airliner implemented primarily point-to-point system. Hub airports have become origin-destination airports with mainly local passengers and insignificant ratio of transfer and transit passengers. The causes of slow passenger and cargo traffic growth at the Zagreb Airport and of passengers at certain airports in the narrow region have been analysed and the results are lower growth of air traffic at capital airports of the new countries and greater air traffic growth on the capital airports and others in the countries of a wide region comparing with the global passenger transport growth. The paper indicates the possible measures to increase the share of transfer passengers and cargo traffic at the Zagreb Airport and certain airports in the immediate region.

  6. Research dedusting efficiency of the inertial hub with adjustable parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharapov Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of construction materials every year production increases, thus increasing emissions pollutants into the atmosphere subjected to cleaning. At the enterprises of building materials production equipment becoming outdated both morally and physically exhausted their useful life. Technological design standards in the operation of purification equipment has undergone a number of changes. There are a large number of works devoted to the theory of cyclone separation. They examined calculation method and to determine the minimum size of particles is separated completely from the air stream in a cyclone. In theory, the high efficiency cyclones are relatively small separation of particles from the air stream. The experiments show that certain fractions of full capture occurs from the cyclones and out relatively large particles. Designed dust device hubs. They capture dust particles with low specific density and smaller than 5–10 microns. Rational use of hubs is achieved in the aspiration systems high performance. They are placed in front of or between the filter and the cyclone filter. Hub much reduces the amount of dust-laden air directed onto a thin cleaning. This reduces energy consumption for manufacturing as a whole, as well as, due to a possible decrease in performance fine filters, reducing their initial cost, metal consumption, maintenance costs and reduce the area occupied by them.

  7. Identification and characterization of MOR-CP, a cysteine protease induced by ozone and developmental senescence in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Passaquet, Chantal; Bethenod, Olivier; Roche, Romain; Repellin, Anne

    2014-08-01

    Among the different classes of endoproteases, cysteine proteases are consistently associated with senescence, defense signaling pathways and cellular responses to abiotic stresses. The objectives of this work were to study the effects of various concentrations of ozone on gene expression and enzymatic activity for papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs), in the leaves of maize plants grown under field conditions. Leaves from ranks 12 and 10 (cob leaf) were harvested regularly over a long-term artificial ozone fumigation experiment (50 d). Tissues were tested for transcriptional and activity changes concerning cysteine proteases, using qRT-PCR for the newly identified ozone-responsive PLCP gene (Mor-CP) and synthetic oligopeptide Boc-Val-Leu-Lys-AMC as a PLCP-specific substrate, respectively. Results showed that developmental senescence induced a significant and progressive rise in CP activity, only in the older leaves 10 and had no effect on Mor-CP gene expression levels. On the other hand, ozone dramatically enhanced Mor-CP mRNA levels and global PLCP enzymatic activity in leaves 12 and 10, particularly toward the end of the treatment. Ozone impact was more pronounced in the older leaves 10. Together, these observations concurred to conclude that ozone stress enhances natural senescence processes, such as those related to proteolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of MOR and the CI Operator Sites on the Genetic Switch of the Temperate Bacteriophage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Hammer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    . The cloned DNA fragment contained the two divergently oriented promoters, P-R and P-L, transcribing the lysogenic and lytic gene clusters; the two promoter-. proximal genes, cl and mor; and the three CI operator sites, O-R, O-L and O-D. We show that mor encodes a protein and that this protein in concert......-D) is enough to maintain a bistable system. The distantly located operator site, 01:), functions as a helper site by increasing binding of CI at O-R and O-L. In the immune state, O-D increases repression of the lytic promoter, P-L. Our results strongly support the model that a hexameric form of Cl binds...... cooperatively to the three operator sites in the immune state forming a CI-DNA loop structure. Finally, we show that in the anti-immune state, repression of the lysogenic promoter is independent of the known CI operator sites but requires the presence of both CI and MOR....

  9. Virtual Hubs for facilitating access to Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel Á.; Ernst, Julia; Brumana, Raffaella; Brauman, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014 the ENERGIC-OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". In ENERGIC-OD, Virtual Hubs are conceived as information systems supporting the full life cycle of Open Data: publishing, discovery and access. They facilitate the use of Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and data services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus, beyond a certain extent, heterogeneity is irreducible especially in interdisciplinary contexts. ENERGIC-OD Virtual Hubs address heterogeneity adopting a mediation and brokering approach: specific components (brokers) are dedicated to harmonize service interfaces, metadata and data models, enabling seamless discovery and access to heterogeneous infrastructures and datasets. As an innovation project, ENERGIC-OD will integrate several existing technologies to implement Virtual Hubs as single points of access to geospatial datasets provided by new or existing platforms and infrastructures, including INSPIRE-compliant systems and Copernicus services. ENERGIC OD will deploy a

  10. Kuramoto model simulation of neural hubs and dynamic synchrony in the human cerebral connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ruben; LaFleur, Karl J R; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Berg, Leonard H; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2015-09-02

    The topological structure of the wiring of the mammalian brain cortex plays an important role in shaping the functional dynamics of large-scale neural activity. Due to their central embedding in the network, high degree hub regions and their connections (often referred to as the 'rich club') have been hypothesized to facilitate intermodular neural communication and global integration of information by means of synchronization. Here, we examined the theoretical role of anatomical hubs and their wiring in brain dynamics. The Kuramoto model was used to simulate interaction of cortical brain areas by means of coupled phase oscillators-with anatomical connections between regions derived from diffusion weighted imaging and module assignment of brain regions based on empirically determined resting-state data. Our findings show that synchrony among hub nodes was higher than any module's intramodular synchrony (p hub nodes lead the functional modules in the process of synchronization. Furthermore, suppressing structural connectivity among hub nodes resulted in an elevated modular state (p hub-to-hub connections are critical in intermodular synchronization. Finally, perturbing the oscillatory behavior of hub nodes prevented functional modules from synchronizing, implying that synchronization of functional modules is dependent on the hub nodes' behavior. Our results converge on anatomical hubs having a leading role in intermodular synchronization and integration in the human brain.

  11. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT: A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Muetze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly connected nodes (hubs in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.   Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat.

  12. Fixed-axis electric sail deployment dynamics analysis using hub-mounted momentum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, JoAnna; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2018-03-01

    The deployment dynamics of a spin stabilized electric sail (E-sail) with a hub-mounted control actuator are investigated. Both radial and tangential deployment mechanisms are considered to take the electric sail from a post-launch stowed configuration to a fully deployed configuration. The tangential configuration assumes the multi-kilometer tethers are wound up on the exterior of the spacecraft hub, similar to yo-yo despinner configurations. The deployment speed is controlled through the hub rate. The radial deployment configuration assumes each tether is on its own spool. Here both the hub and spool rate are control variables. The sensitivity of the deployment behavior to E-sail length, maximum rate and tension parameters is investigated. A constant hub rate deployment is compared to a time varying hub rate that maintains a constant tether tension condition. The deployment time can be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by using a tension controlled deployment configuration.

  13. An Endosymbiotic Evolutionary Algorithm for the Hub Location-Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ung Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a capacitated hub location-routing problem (HLRP which combines the hub location problem and multihub vehicle routing decisions. The HLRP not only determines the locations of the capacitated p-hubs within a set of potential hubs but also deals with the routes of the vehicles to meet the demands of customers. This problem is formulated as a 0-1 mixed integer programming model with the objective of the minimum total cost including routing cost, fixed hub cost, and fixed vehicle cost. As the HLRP has impractically demanding for the large sized problems, we develop a solution method based on the endosymbiotic evolutionary algorithm (EEA which solves hub location and vehicle routing problem simultaneously. The performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through a comparative study. The experimental results show that the proposed EEA can be a viable solution method for the supply chain network planning.

  14. MorOgoro, Tanzania ! / ". . . "

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'ctive per-. '1 formance,. . -. , ~: .... 9r nerdsma.n, ~j milk~ng.feeding .and cleaning kinetic);· Total prot~in by Biuret: Albu~in bv ti"m~s.did;oestru~d(;!tection, ... chemical composition (crude protein (CP)i1nd ash on DM basis) of the major feeds for ...

  15. A Topological Description of Hubs in Amino Acid Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gaci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We represent proteins by amino acid interaction networks. This is a graph whose vertices are the proteins amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. Once we have compared this type of graphs to the general model of scale-free networks, we analyze the existence of nodes which highly interact, the hubs. We describe these nodes taking into account their position in the primary structure to study their apparition frequency in the folded proteins. Finally, we observe that their interaction level is a consequence of the general rules which govern the folding process.

  16. Nuclear pore complexes as hubs for gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Maximiliano A

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), the channels connecting the nucleus with the cytoplasm, are the largest protein structures of the nuclear envelope. In addition to their role in regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport, increasing evidence shows that these multiprotein structures play central roles in the regulation of gene activity. In light of recent discoveries, NPCs are emerging as scaffolds that mediate the regulation of specific gene sets at the nuclear periphery. The function of NPCs as genome organizers and hubs for transcriptional regulation provides additional evidence that the compartmentalization of genes and transcriptional regulators within the nuclear space is an important mechanism of gene expression regulation.

  17. The home hemodialysis hub: physical infrastructure and integrated governance structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R; Young, Bessie A; Fox, Sally J; Cleland, Calli J; Walker, Robert J; Masakane, Ikuto; Herold, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    An effective home hemodialysis program critically depends on adequate hub facilities and support functions and on transparent and accountable organizational processes. The likelihood of optimal service delivery and patient care will be enhanced by fit-for-purpose facilities and implementation of a well-considered governance structure. In this article, we describe the required accommodation and infrastructure for a home hemodialysis program and a generic organizational structure that will support both patient-facing clinical activities and business processes. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  18. Altered cortical hubs in functional brain networks in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xujing; Zhang, Jiuquan; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Heng; Li, Rong; Wang, Jian; Chen, Huafu

    2015-11-01

    Cortical hubs are highly connected nodes in functional brain networks that play vital roles in the efficient transfer of information across brain regions. Although altered functional connectivity has been found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the changing pattern in functional network hubs in ALS remains unknown. In this study, we applied a voxel-wise method to investigate the changing pattern of cortical hubs in ALS. Through resting-state fMRI, we constructed whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks by measuring the temporal correlations of each pair of brain voxels and identified hubs using the graph theory method. Specifically, a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map was derived from the data on 20 patients with ALS and 20 healthy controls. The brain regions with high FCS values were regarded as functional network hubs. Functional hubs were found mainly in the bilateral precuneus, parietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and in several visual regions and temporal areas in both groups. Within the hub regions, the ALS patients exhibited higher FCS in the prefrontal cortex compared with the healthy controls. The FCS value in the significantly abnormal hub regions was correlated with clinical variables. Results indicated the presence of altered cortical hubs in the ALS patients and could therefore shed light on the pathophysiology mechanisms underlying ALS.

  19. Dynamic modular architecture of protein-protein interaction networks beyond the dichotomy of 'date' and 'party' hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiao; Xu, Tao; Li, Yun; Wang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are dynamically organized as modules, and are typically described by hub dichotomy: 'party' hubs act as intramodule hubs and are coexpressed with their partners, yet 'date' hubs act as coordinators among modules and are incoherently expressed with their partners. However, there remains skepticism about the existence of hub dichotomy. Since different algorithms and data sets were used in previous studies to test the model of hub classification, the conclusions may be largely influenced by the potential inherent biases. In this study, we evaluated two data sets of yeast interactome, and systematically investigated the behavior of hubs from multiple perspectives including co-expression patterns, topological roles and functional classifications. Our results revealed consistency between the two data sets, confirming the presence of hub dichotomy. Furthermore, we analyzed a human interactome data set, and demonstrated that the modular architecture of the PPI networks was more complicated than hub dichotomy.

  20. De El cariño perfecto (1798 a La Serafina (1802 y 1807: las tres versiones de una novela de José Mor de Fuentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Garrosa, María Jesús

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The novel entitled La Serafina, as offered to the reading public by José Mor de Fuentes in 1807, is the third version of a work which had two previous incarnations: El cariño perfecto (1798 and La Serafina (1802. Until now only the 1807 version was known to scholarship and has provided the text on which all studies of the novel have been based. The present article reveals the discovery of copies of the two earlier editions and offers the first comparative analysis of their contents. In a complex creative process the author expanded the 33 letters of the first edition into the 69 of the second version before arriving at a definitive text comprising 145 letters. The present study analyses how, while maintaining the Basic novelistic structure of the love story of Alfonso and Serafina, Mor de Fuentes expanded not only the time scale, spatial dimensions and number of characters in his work, but also amplified the descriptive and discursive elements, in a literary re-configuration which, in addition to the composition of new letters, involved a re-working of both the plot and major narrative and stylistic features in each successive version. The discovery of the 1798 and 1802 texts for the first time allows the creative process which led to the fully elaborated 1807 version of La Serafina to be viewed in a new light, revealing the consummate skill of Mor de Fuentes in transforming a short romantic story into a social portrait of the Spain of his time.La Serafina publicada por Mor de Fuentes en 1807 es la tercera edición de una novela que tuvo dos versiones previas, El cariño perfecto (1798 y La Serafina (1802. Sólo la versión de 1807 era conocida y había sido el texto base para todos los estudios sobre la obra. El presente trabajo da cuenta del hallazgo de las dos primeras ediciones y ofrece por primera vez la descripción y análisis de sus contenidos. El poder cotejar por fin las tres ediciones de la novela permite ver las importantes

  1. Atmospheric Pb-pollution by pre-medieval mining detected in the sediments of the brackish karst lake An Loch Mor, western Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, G.; Romer, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results of geochemical investigations of lake sediments from the karst lake An Loch Mor, Aran Islands, including the first highly resolved record of atmospheric Roman Pb pollution for Ireland. The natural Pb influx into the lake is largely contributed by 3 Pb components, which differ in their isotopic composition: detrital influx of Pb from the siliciclastic input, dissolved influx of Pb released by weathering of the local limestone, and dissolved influx of seawater Pb. The balance between the 3 Pb components varies in concert with the hydrological evolution of the lake. The influx of Pb in dissolved form is estimated by geochemical mass balance assuming that the siliciclastic influx is characterised by the Pb/Al-ratio of the Late Glacial clastic sediments. It typically accounts for 50-80% of total Pb input in the Holocene sediments of An Loch Mor. The natural dissolved influxes of Pb, Sc, and Y reach a similar order of magnitude. Normalisation with Sc and Y is applied to quantify contributions from anthropogenic Pb. Based on continuous sampling of 1 cm sample slices, variations in the influx of Roman Pb could be reconstructed at a time resolution of c. 5 a. Combined geochemical and Pb isotope mass balance is used to characterise the isotopic composition of anthropogenic Pb. Distinctly enhanced influx of anthropogenic Pb occurs in the 1st and 2nd century AD and shows high variability on decadal scale. This is in contrast to central European Pb records, which document a gradual increase and decrease in ancient atmospheric pollution by Roman Pb. The reconstructed high variability in the influx of Roman Pb in An Loch Mor documents variations in the wind regime of western Europe, temporarily favouring the transport of atmospheric Pb to western Ireland

  2. SHMF: Interest Prediction Model with Social Hub Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyuan Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks, microblog has become the major social communication tool. There is a lot of valuable information such as personal preference, public opinion, and marketing in microblog. Consequently, research on user interest prediction in microblog has a positive practical significance. In fact, how to extract information associated with user interest orientation from the constantly updated blog posts is not so easy. Existing prediction approaches based on probabilistic factor analysis use blog posts published by user to predict user interest. However, these methods are not very effective for the users who post less but browse more. In this paper, we propose a new prediction model, which is called SHMF, using social hub matrix factorization. SHMF constructs the interest prediction model by combining the information of blogs posts published by both user and direct neighbors in user’s social hub. Our proposed model predicts user interest by integrating user’s historical behavior and temporal factor as well as user’s friendships, thus achieving accurate forecasts of user’s future interests. The experimental results on Sina Weibo show the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed model.

  3. In-wheel hub SRM simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Milton W., III

    Is it feasible to replace the conventional gasoline engine and subsequent drive system in a motorcycle with an electric switched reluctance motor (SRM) by placing the SRM inside the rear wheel, thereby removing the need for things such as a clutch, chain, transmission, gears and sprockets? The goal of this thesis is to study the theoretical aspect of prototyping and analyzing an in-wheel electric hub motor to replace the standard gasoline engine traditionally found on motorcycles. With the recent push for clean energy, electric vehicles are becoming more common. All currently produced electric motorcycles use conventional, prefabricated electric motors connected to the traditional sprocket and chain design. This greatly restricts the efficiency and range of these motorcycles. My design stands apart by turning the rear wheel into a SRM which uses electromagnets around a non-magnetic core to convert electrical energy into mechanical force driving the rear wheel. To my knowledge, there is currently no motorcycle designed with an in-wheel hub SRM. A three-phase SRM and a five-phase SRM will be simulated and analyzed using MATLAB with Simulink. Factors such as friction, weight, power, etc. will be taken into account in order to create a realistic simulation as if it were inside the rear wheel of a motorcycle. Since time and finances will not allow for a full scale build, a scaled model three-phase SRM will be attempted for demonstration purposes.

  4. Design and Development of an Integrated Workstation Automation Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Ghatikar, Girish; Sartor, Dale; Lanzisera, Steven

    2015-03-30

    Miscellaneous Electronic Loads (MELs) account for one third of all electricity consumption in U.S. commercial buildings, and are drivers for a significant energy use in India. Many of the MEL-specific plug-load devices are concentrated at workstations in offices. The use of intelligence, and integrated controls and communications at the workstation for an Office Automation Hub – offers the opportunity to improve both energy efficiency and occupant comfort, along with services for Smart Grid operations. Software and hardware solutions are available from a wide array of vendors for the different components, but an integrated system with interoperable communications is yet to be developed and deployed. In this study, we propose system- and component-level specifications for the Office Automation Hub, their functions, and a prioritized list for the design of a proof-of-concept system. Leveraging the strength of both the U.S. and India technology sectors, this specification serves as a guide for researchers and industry in both countries to support the development, testing, and evaluation of a prototype product. Further evaluation of such integrated technologies for performance and cost is necessary to identify the potential to reduce energy consumptions in MELs and to improve occupant comfort.

  5. Managing the cellular redox hub in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2012-02-01

    Light-driven redox chemistry is a powerful source of redox signals that has a decisive input into transcriptional control within the cell nucleus. Like photosynthetic electron transport pathways, the respiratory electron transport chain exerts a profound control over gene function, in order to balance energy (reductant and ATP) supply with demand, while preventing excessive over-reduction or over-oxidation that would be adversely affect metabolism. Photosynthetic and respiratory redox chemistries are not merely housekeeping processes but they exert a controlling influence over every aspect of plant biology, participating in the control of gene transcription and translation, post-translational modifications and the regulation of assimilatory reactions, assimilate partitioning and export. The number of processes influenced by redox controls and signals continues to increase as do the components that are recognized participants in the associated signalling pathways. A step change in our understanding of the overall importance of the cellular redox hub to plant cells has occurred in recent years as the complexity of the management of the cellular redox hub in relation to metabolic triggers and environmental cues has been elucidated. This special issue describes aspects of redox regulation and signalling at the cutting edge of current research in this dynamic and rapidly expanding field. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Moureau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Needleless connectors (NC are used on virtually all intravascular devices, providing an easy access point for infusion connection. Colonization of NC is considered the cause of 50% of postinsertion catheter-related infections. Breaks in aseptic technique, from failure to disinfect, result in contamination and subsequent biofilm formation within NC and catheters increasing the potential for infection of central and peripheral catheters. Methods. This systematic review evaluated 140 studies and 34 abstracts on NC disinfection practices, the impact of hub contamination on infection, and measures of education and compliance. Results. The greatest risk for contamination of the catheter after insertion is the NC with 33–45% contaminated, and compliance with disinfection as low as 10%. The optimal technique or disinfection time has not been identified, although scrubbing with 70% alcohol for 5–60 seconds is recommended. Studies have reported statistically significant results in infection reduction when passive alcohol disinfection caps are used (48–86% reduction. Clinical Implications. It is critical for healthcare facilities and clinicians to take responsibility for compliance with basic principles of asepsis compliance, to involve frontline staff in strategies, to facilitate education that promotes understanding of the consequences of failure, and to comply with the standard of care for hub disinfection.

  7. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  8. Regional services in a research context: USDA climate hubs in the agricultural research service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten USDA Climate Hubs were created in 2014 to develop and deliver science-based, region-specific information and technologies to better enable agricultural decision-making and management. Of these ten Hubs, half are administered by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS), an agency with historica...

  9. The Complexities and Challenges of Regional Education Hubs: Focus on Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane; Morshidi, Sirat

    2011-01-01

    The race to establish regional education hubs is a recent development in cross-border higher education. This article briefly examines the rationales and strategies used by three countries in the Middle East and three in South East Asia which are working towards positioning themselves as regional education hubs. The different approaches and…

  10. Regional services in a research context: USDA Climate Hubs in the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten USDA Climate Hubs were created in 2014 to develop and deliver science-based, region-specific information and technologies to better enable agricultural decision-making and management. Of these ten Hubs, half are administered by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS), an agency with historica...

  11. 76 FR 18753 - Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-97-000] Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 28, 2011, Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C. (Jefferson Island) submitted a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) for services provided under section 311 of the Natura...

  12. 78 FR 20314 - Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-44-000] Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 28, 2013, Jefferson Island Storage & Hub, L.L.C. filed to revise its Statement of Operating Conditions to among others, update, clarify and/or add certain provisions regarding the...

  13. Learning by doing : Designing case study research for the exploration of strategy formation in hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, N.R.; Kamm, M.A.A.; Jonker, J.; Rauter, R; Zimek, M; Kiesnere, A.L.; Baumgartner, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution sets out to develop a valid research design which accommodates the development of a theory in practice (Corbin & Strauss, 2008) about the process of strategy development in evolving territorial forms of organising called hubs. Hubs are thick, polymorph and polycentric networks

  14. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Robust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. In this context, Fréchette et al. (2013) recently explored hierarchical hubbing: a routing strategy involving a multiplicity of "hubs" connected to terminals

  15. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.K. Olver (Neil)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractRobust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. In this context, Fréchette et al. (2013) recently explored hierarchical hubbing: a routing strategy involving a multiplicity of "hubs" connected to

  16. Network performance, hub connectivity potential, and competitive position of primary airports in Asia/Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumoto, H.; Veldhuis, J.; de Wit, J.; Burghouwt, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, hub-and-spoke network configurations are more and more developed in the Asia/Pacific region. In this paper, it is argued that the measurement of network performance in hub-and-spoke systems should take into account the quantity and quality of both direct and indirect connections. The

  17. Knowledge Hub y los recursos educativos abiertos en Contaduría

    OpenAIRE

    Farías Martínez, Gabriela M.

    2013-01-01

    Desafíos de la educación superior en México; Formación académica y profesional en contaduría; Knowledge Hub como medio para compartir y construir conocimiento; Iniciativa Knowledge Hub IES Contaduría

  18. Co-Construction, Infrastructure, and Purpose: Influences on Implementation of Hub-Outlet School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three interrelated chapters that explore unique dimensions of hub-outlet school reform. This type of school reform, in which a central hub organization designs a model for instructional improvement meant to be implemented with fidelity across unique outlet school sites, has gained credibility in the crowded…

  19. A Two-Bladed Teetering Hub configuration for the DTU 10 MW RWT: loads considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Rasmussen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    frequency and the rotational forcing, the tower mode frequency is lowered with a modified tower stiffness distributions. The loads caused by the aerodynamic unbalance are instead addressed by introducing a teetering hub configuration. The load alleviation potential of the teetering hub, and the required...

  20. Hub network design for sparse travel demand within the African aviation industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ssamula, B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a study aimed at testing the cost effectiveness of designing a hub and spoke network (H&S network”) for Africa that allows airlines to reduce the costs of travel and increase connectivity. Various hub networks are designed using...

  1. Competition and coordination in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets: An industry pre-merger case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper investigates the nature of conduct that existed in the U.S. airline hub-to-hub markets prior to the recent merger wave of the legacy carriers. We explore the strategic importance of network carrier hubs in form of “spheres of influence” on airline market conduct. We also simultaneously recognize the overgrowing role played by Low Cost Carriers (LCC over the years by estimating two conduct parameters - one in markets where LCCs directly compete head-to-head with legacy carriers and the other for markets which LCCs do not serve but has presence in the hub airports or adjacent airports comprising the market endpoints. Thus our supply side framework also sheds some light on the issue of perfect contestability in airline industry. Design/methodology/approach: We estimate a structural oligopoly model for differentiated products with competitive interactions using DB1B data for first quarter of 2004. Findings: Our results imply that the nature of competition is more aggressive relative to Bertrand behavior in hub-to-hub markets and that these markets are less than perfectly contestable. Originality/value: This paper adds to the empirical literature of airline competition by enabling estimation of the actual conduct parameter assuming firm price setting behavior in presence of product differentiation. Contrary to existing literature on airline competition, a structural model enables us to systematically separate out effects of demand, cost and strategic factors on observed airline prices.

  2. Features analysis for identification of date and party hubs in protein interaction network of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araabi Babak N

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been understood that biological networks have modular organizations which are the sources of their observed complexity. Analysis of networks and motifs has shown that two types of hubs, party hubs and date hubs, are responsible for this complexity. Party hubs are local coordinators because of their high co-expressions with their partners, whereas date hubs display low co-expressions and are assumed as global connectors. However there is no mutual agreement on these concepts in related literature with different studies reporting their results on different data sets. We investigated whether there is a relation between the biological features of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins and their roles as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs, and date hubs. We propose a classifier that separates these four classes. Results We extracted different biological characteristics including amino acid sequences, domain contents, repeated domains, functional categories, biological processes, cellular compartments, disordered regions, and position specific scoring matrix from various sources. Several classifiers are examined and the best feature-sets based on average correct classification rate and correlation coefficients of the results are selected. We show that fusion of five feature-sets including domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, and composition pairs with two and one gaps provide the best discrimination with an average correct classification rate of 77%. Conclusions We study a variety of known biological feature-sets of the proteins and show that there is a relation between domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, composition pairs with two and one gaps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins, and their roles in the protein interaction network as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs and date hubs. This study also confirms the

  3. Orbital Hub: a concept for human spaceflight beyond ISS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Stephan S.; Maiwald, Volker; Philpot, Claudia; Quantius, Dominik; Romberg, Oliver; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Vrakking, Vincent; Zeidler, Conrad

    2018-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the greatest endeavour in low-Earth orbit since the beginning of the space age and the culmination of human outposts like Skylab and Mir. While a clear schedule has yet to be drafted, it is expected that ISS will cease operation in the 2020s. What could be the layout for a human outpost in LEO with lessons learnt from ISS? What are the use cases and applications of such an outpost in the future? The System Analysis Space Segment group of the German Aerospace Center investigated these and other questions and developed the Orbital Hub concept. In this paper an overview is presented of how the overall concept has been derived and its properties and layouts are described. Starting with a workshop involving the science community, the scientific requirements have been derived and Strawman payloads have been defined for use in further design activities. These design activities focused on Concurrent Engineering studies, where besides DLR employees participants from the industry and astronauts were involved. The result is an expandable concept that is composed of two main parts, the Base Platform, home for a permanent crew of up to three astronauts, and the Free Flyer, an uncrewed autonomous research platform. This modular approach provides one major advantage: the decoupling of the habitat and payload leading to increased quality of the micro-gravity environment. The former provides an environment for human physiology experiments, while the latter allows science without the perturbations caused by a crew, e.g. material experiments or Earth observation. The Free Flyer is designed to operate for up to 3 months on its own, but can dock with the space station for maintenance and experiment servicing. It also has a hybrid propulsion system, chemical and electrical, for different applications. The hub's design allows launch with just three launches, as the total mass of all the hub parts is about 60,000 kg. The main focus of the design is

  4. A Collaborative Scheduling Model for the Supply-Hub with Multiple Suppliers and Multiple Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment.

  5. A collaborative scheduling model for the supply-hub with multiple suppliers and multiple manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Lv, Fei; Guan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment.

  6. MODELS AND METHODS FOR LOGISTICS HUB LOCATION: A REVIEW TOWARDS TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Luisa dos Santos Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Logistics hubs affect the distribution patterns in transportation networks since they are flow-concentrating structures. Indeed, the efficient moving of goods throughout supply chains depends on the design of such networks. This paper presents a literature review on the logistics hub location problem, providing an outline of modeling approaches, solving techniques, and their applicability to such context. Two categories of models were identified. While multi-criteria models may seem best suited to find optimal locations, they do not allow an assessment of the impact of new hubs on goods flow and on the transportation network. On the other hand, single-criterion models, which provide location and flow allocation information, adopt network simplifications that hinder an accurate representation of the relationshipbetween origins, destinations, and hubs. In view of these limitations we propose future research directions for addressing real challenges of logistics hubs location regarding transportation networks design.

  7. A Collaborative Scheduling Model for the Supply-Hub with Multiple Suppliers and Multiple Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fei; Guan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment. PMID:24892104

  8. Hub connectivity, neuronal diversity, and gene expression in the Caenorhabditis elegans connectome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Roger; Fornito, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Studies of nervous system connectivity, in a wide variety of species and at different scales of resolution, have identified several highly conserved motifs of network organization. One such motif is a heterogeneous distribution of connectivity across neural elements, such that some elements act as highly connected and functionally important network hubs. These brain network hubs are also densely interconnected, forming a so-called rich club. Recent work in mouse has identified a distinctive transcriptional signature of neural hubs, characterized by tightly coupled expression of oxidative metabolism genes, with similar genes characterizing macroscale inter-modular hub regions of the human cortex. Here, we sought to determine whether hubs of the neuronal C. elegans connectome also show tightly coupled gene expression. Using open data on the chemical and electrical connectivity of 279 C. elegans neurons, and binary gene expression data for each neuron across 948 genes, we computed a correlated gene expression score for each pair of neurons, providing a measure of their gene expression similarity. We demonstrate that connections between hub neurons are the most similar in their gene expression while connections between nonhubs are the least similar. Genes with the greatest contribution to this effect are involved in glutamatergic and cholinergic signaling, and other communication processes. We further show that coupled expression between hub neurons cannot be explained by their neuronal subtype (i.e., sensory, motor, or interneuron), separation distance, chemically secreted neurotransmitter, birth time, pairwise lineage distance, or their topological module affiliation. Instead, this coupling is intrinsically linked to the identity of most hubs as command interneurons, a specific class of interneurons that regulates locomotion. Our results suggest that neural hubs may possess a distinctive transcriptional signature, preserved across scales and species, that is related

  9. USDA Southwest Regional Hub for Adaptation to and Mitigation of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Elias, E.; Steele, C. M.; Havstad, K.

    2014-12-01

    The USDA Southwest (SW) Climate Hub was created in February 2014 to develop risk adaptation and mitigation strategies for coping with climate change effects on agricultural productivity. There are seven regional hubs across the country with three subsidiary hubs. The SW Climate Hub Region is made up of six states: New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California and Hawaii (plus the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands). The SW Climate Hub has a subsidiary hub located in Davis, California. The Southwest region has high climatic diversity, with the lowest and highest average annual rainfall in the U.S.(6.0 cm in Death Valley, CA and 1168 cm at Mt. Waialeale, HI). There are major deserts in five of the six states, yet most of the states, with exception of Hawaii, depend upon the melting of mountain snowpacks for their surface water supply. Additionally, many of the agricultural areas of the SW Regional Hub depend upon irrigation water to maintain productivity. Scientific climate information developed by the Hub will be used for climate-smart decision making. To do this, the SW Regional Hub will rely upon existing infrastructure of the Cooperative Extension Service at Land-Grant State Universities. Extension service and USDA-NRCS personnel have existing networks to communicate with stakeholders (farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners) through meetings and workshops which have already started in the six states. Outreach through the development of a weather and climate impact modules designed for seventh grade students and their teachers will foster education of future generations of rural land managers. We will be synthesizing and evaluating existing reports, literature and information on regional climate projections, water resources, and agricultural adaptation strategies related to climate in the Southwest. The results will be organized in a spatial format and provided through the SW Hub website (http://swclimatehub.info) and peer-reviewed articles.

  10. The 'Energy-Hub-System' could be the future answer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, J.

    2005-01-01

    This Interview with Klaus Froehlich, professor for Electrical Energy Transport Systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ), presents new visionary ideas on how electrical energy could be transported in the future. Assuming that it were possible, a new, 'clean sheet' hybrid system was first developed at the Institute - i.e. working on the assumption that the present power grid did not exist. The new ideas looked at also fulfil other, more recent requirements, such as taking up power feeds from renewable energy sources such as wind power. The modelling methods used and new storage functions investigated are discussed, as are novel combinations of various interconnected energy sources in so-called 'hubs'. International co-operation with further European research centres and universities on the subject is discussed

  11. Interactions entre le métaboréflexe et le chémoréflexe durant différentes modalités d'exercice

    OpenAIRE

    Houssiere, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Le thème central de ce travail a consisté en l’étude et la mise en évidence des interactions existant entre le métaboréflexe et le chémoréflexe lors de l’exercice. L’effort physique est associé à une augmentation de la ventilation, de la fréquence cardiaque ainsi que de la pression artérielle. Ces effets sont médiés au moins en partie par l’activation du métaboréflexe musculaire, et peuvent être amplifiés par le chémoréflexe ventilatoire. Le métaboréflexe et le chémoréflexe impliquent néce...

  12. 76 FR 10328 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Vestas Nacelles America, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles, Hubs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Status; Vestas Nacelles America, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles, Hubs, Blades and Towers), Brighton, Denver...-purpose subzone at the wind turbine nacelle, hub, blade and tower manufacturing and warehousing facilities... status for activity related to the manufacturing and warehousing of wind turbine nacelles, hubs, blades...

  13. Differentially categorized structural brain hubs are involved in different microstructural, functional, and cognitive characteristics and contribute to individual identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xindi; Lin, Qixiang; Xia, Mingrui; He, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Very little is known regarding whether structural hubs of human brain networks that enable efficient information communication may be classified into different categories. Using three multimodal neuroimaging data sets, we construct individual structural brain networks and further identify hub regions based on eight widely used graph-nodal metrics, followed by comprehensive characteristics and reproducibility analyses. We show the three categories of structural hubs in the brain network, namely, aggregated, distributed, and connector hubs. Spatially, these distinct categories of hubs are primarily located in the default-mode system and additionally in the visual and limbic systems for aggregated hubs, in the frontoparietal system for distributed hubs, and in the sensorimotor and ventral attention systems for connector hubs. These categorized hubs exhibit various distinct characteristics to support their differentiated roles, involving microstructural organization, wiring costs, topological vulnerability, functional modular integration, and cognitive flexibility; moreover, these characteristics are better in the hubs than nonhubs. Finally, all three categories of hubs display high across-session spatial similarities and act as structural fingerprints with high predictive rates (100%, 100%, and 84.2%) for individual identification. Collectively, we highlight three categories of brain hubs with differential microstructural, functional and, cognitive associations, which shed light on topological mechanisms of the human connectome. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tomato histone H2B monoubiquitination enzymes SlHUB1 and SlHUB2 contribute to disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea through modulating the balance between SA- and JA/ET-mediated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yafen; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Huijuan; Hong, Yongbo; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Zhigang; Song, Fengming

    2015-10-21

    Histone H2B monoubiquitination pathway has been shown to play critical roles in regulating growth/development and stress response in Arabidopsis. In the present study, we explored the involvement of the tomato histone H2B monoubiquitination pathway in defense response against Botrytis cinerea by functional analysis of SlHUB1 and SlHUB2, orthologues of the Arabidopsis AtHUB1/AtHUB2. We used the TRV-based gene silencing system to knockdown the expression levels of SlHUB1 or SlHUB2 in tomato plants and compared the phenotype between the silenced and the control plants after infection with B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Biochemical and interaction properties of proteins were examined using in vitro histone monoubiquitination and yeast two-hybrid assays, respectively. The transcript levels of genes were analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The tomato SlHUB1 and SlHUB2 had H2B monoubiquitination E3 ligases activity in vitro and expression of SlHUB1 and SlHUB2 was induced by infection of B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 and by treatment with salicylic acid (SA) and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Silencing of either SlHUB1 or SlHUB2 in tomato plants showed increased susceptibility to B. cinerea, whereas silencing of SlHUB1 resulted in increased resistance against Pst DC3000. SlMED21, a Mediator complex subunit, interacted with SlHUB1 but silencing of SlMED21 did not affect the disease resistance to B. cinerea and Pst DC3000. The SlHUB1- and SlHUB2-silenced plants had thinner cell wall but increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased callose deposition and exhibited altered expression of the genes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and in ROS generation and scavenging system. Expression of genes in the SA-mediated signaling pathway was significantly upregulated, whereas expression of genes in the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated signaling pathway were markedly decreased in SlHUB1- and SlHUB2

  15. Hubs and authorities in the world trade network using a weighted HITS algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Deguchi

    Full Text Available We investigate the economic hubs and authorities of the world trade network (WTN from 1992 to 2012, an era of rapid economic globalization. Using a well-defined weighted hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS algorithm, we can calculate the values of the weighted HITS hub and authority for each country in a conjugate way. In the context of the WTN, authority values are large for countries with significant imports from large hub countries, and hub values are large for countries with significant exports to high-authority countries. The United States was the largest economic authority in the WTN from 1992 to 2012. The authority value of the United States has declined since 2001, and China has now become the largest hub in the WTN. At the same time, China's authority value has grown as China is transforming itself from the "factory of the world" to the "market of the world." European countries show a tendency to trade mostly within the European Union, which has decreased Europe's hub and authority values. Japan's authority value has increased slowly, while its hub value has declined. These changes are consistent with Japan's transition from being an export-driven economy in its high economic growth era in the latter half of the twentieth century to being a more mature, economically balanced nation.

  16. Scale-integrated Network Hubs of the White Matter Structural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hunki; Choi, Yong-Ho; Seo, Sang Won; Lee, Jong-Min

    2017-05-26

    The 'human connectome' concept has been proposed to significantly increase our understanding of how functional brain states emerge from their underlying structural substrates. Especially, the network hub has been considered one of the most important topological properties to interpret a network as a complex system. However, previous structural brain connectome studies have reported network hub regions based on various nodal resolutions. We hypothesized that brain network hubs should be determined considering various nodal scales in a certain range. We tested our hypothesis using the hub strength determined by the mean of the "hubness" values over a range of nodal scales. Some regions of the precuneus, superior occipital gyrus, and superior parietal gyrus in a bilaterally symmetric fashion had a relatively higher level of hub strength than other regions. These regions had a tendency of increasing contributions to local efficiency than other regions. We proposed a methodological framework to detect network hubs considering various nodal scales in a certain range. This framework might provide a benefit in the detection of important brain regions in the network.

  17. Incremental Optimization of Hub and Spoke Network for the Spokes’ Numbers and Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hub and spoke network problem is solved as part of a strategic decision making process which may have a profound effect on the future of enterprises. In view of the existing network structure, as time goes on, the number of spokes and the flow change because of different sources of uncertainty. Hence, the incremental optimization of hub and spoke network problem is considered in this paper, and the policy makers should adopt a series of strategies to cope with the change, such as setting up new hubs, adjusting the capacity level of original hubs, or closing some original hubs. The objective is to minimize the total cost, which includes the setup costs for the new hubs, the closure costs, and the adjustment costs for the original hubs as well as the flow routing costs. Two mixed-integer linear programming formulations are proposed and analyzed for this problem. China Deppon Logistics as an example is performed to present computational analysis, and we analyze the changes in the solutions driven by the number of spokes and the flow. The tests also allow an analysis to consider the effect of variation in parameters on network.

  18. Connectome hubs at resting state in children and adolescents: Reproducibility and psychopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Crossley, Nicolas; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Junior, Edson Amaro; Mcguire, Philip; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2016-08-01

    Functional brain hubs are key integrative regions in brain networks. Recently, brain hubs identified through resting-state fMRI have emerged as interesting targets to increase understanding of the relationships between large-scale functional networks and psychopathology. However, few studies have directly addressed the replicability and consistency of the hub regions identified and their association with symptoms. Here, we used the eigenvector centrality (EVC) measure obtained from graph analysis of two large, independent population-based samples of children and adolescents (7-15 years old; total N=652; 341 subjects for site 1 and 311 for site 2) to evaluate the replicability of hub identification. Subsequently, we tested the association between replicable hub regions and psychiatric symptoms. We identified a set of hubs consisting of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus (IPL/IPS). Moreover, lower EVC values in the right IPS were associated with psychiatric symptoms in both samples. Thus, low centrality of the IPS was a replicable sign of potential vulnerability to mental disorders in children. The identification of critical and replicable hubs in functional cortical networks in children and adolescents can foster understanding of the mechanisms underlying mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Connectome hubs at resting state in children and adolescents: Reproducibility and psychopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain hubs are key integrative regions in brain networks. Recently, brain hubs identified through resting-state fMRI have emerged as interesting targets to increase understanding of the relationships between large-scale functional networks and psychopathology. However, few studies have directly addressed the replicability and consistency of the hub regions identified and their association with symptoms. Here, we used the eigenvector centrality (EVC measure obtained from graph analysis of two large, independent population-based samples of children and adolescents (7–15 years old; total N = 652; 341 subjects for site 1 and 311 for site 2 to evaluate the replicability of hub identification. Subsequently, we tested the association between replicable hub regions and psychiatric symptoms. We identified a set of hubs consisting of the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus (IPL/IPS. Moreover, lower EVC values in the right IPS were associated with psychiatric symptoms in both samples. Thus, low centrality of the IPS was a replicable sign of potential vulnerability to mental disorders in children. The identification of critical and replicable hubs in functional cortical networks in children and adolescents can foster understanding of the mechanisms underlying mental disorders.

  20. A novel method to identify hub pathways of rheumatoid arthritis based on differential pathway networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi-Tong; Sun, Yong-Hua; Zong, Shi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify hub pathways of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a novel method based on differential pathway network (DPN) analysis. The present study proposed a DPN where protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was integrated with pathway‑pathway interactions. Pathway data was obtained from background PPI network and the Reactome pathway database. Subsequently, pathway interactions were extracted from the pathway data by building randomized gene‑gene interactions and a weight value was assigned to each pathway interaction using Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) to identify differential pathway interactions. Differential pathway interactions were visualized using Cytoscape to construct a DPN. Topological analysis was conducted to identify hub pathways that possessed the top 5% degree distribution of DPN. Modules of DPN were mined according to ClusterONE. A total of 855 pathways were selected to build pathway interactions. By filtrating pathway interactions of weight values >0.7, a DPN with 312 nodes and 791 edges was obtained. Topological degree analysis revealed 15 hub pathways, such as heparan sulfate/heparin‑glycosaminoglycan (HS‑GAG) degradation, HS‑GAG metabolism and keratan sulfate degradation for RA based on DPN. Furthermore, hub pathways were also important in modules, which validated the significance of hub pathways. In conclusion, the proposed method is a computationally efficient way to identify hub pathways of RA, which identified 15 hub pathways that may be potential biomarkers and provide insight to future investigation and treatment of RA.

  1. Hubs and authorities in the world trade network using a weighted HITS algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Katsuhide; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the economic hubs and authorities of the world trade network (WTN) from 1992 to 2012, an era of rapid economic globalization. Using a well-defined weighted hyperlink-induced topic search (HITS) algorithm, we can calculate the values of the weighted HITS hub and authority for each country in a conjugate way. In the context of the WTN, authority values are large for countries with significant imports from large hub countries, and hub values are large for countries with significant exports to high-authority countries. The United States was the largest economic authority in the WTN from 1992 to 2012. The authority value of the United States has declined since 2001, and China has now become the largest hub in the WTN. At the same time, China's authority value has grown as China is transforming itself from the "factory of the world" to the "market of the world." European countries show a tendency to trade mostly within the European Union, which has decreased Europe's hub and authority values. Japan's authority value has increased slowly, while its hub value has declined. These changes are consistent with Japan's transition from being an export-driven economy in its high economic growth era in the latter half of the twentieth century to being a more mature, economically balanced nation.

  2. E-hubs: the new B2B (business-to-business) marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, S; Sawhney, M

    2000-01-01

    Electronic hubs--Internet-based intermediaries that host electronic marketplaces and mediate transactions among businesses--are generating a lot of interest. Companies like Ariba, Chemdex, and Commerce One have already attained breathtaking stock market capitalizations. Venture capitalists are pouring money into more business-to-business start-ups. Even industrial stalwarts like GM and Ford are making plans to set up their own Web markets. As new entrants with new business models pour into the business-to-business space, it's increasingly difficult to make sense of the landscape. This article provides a blueprint of the e-hub arena. The authors start by looking at the two dimensions of purchasing: what businesses buy--manufacturing inputs or operating inputs--and how they buy--through systematic sourcing or spot sourcing. They classify B2B e-hubs into four categories: MRO hubs, yield managers, exchanges, and catalog hubs, and they discuss each type in detail. Drilling deeper into this B2B matrix, the authors look at how e-hubs create value--through aggregation and matching--and explain when each mechanism works best. They also examine the biases of e-hubs. Although many e-hubs are neutral--they're operated by independent third parties--some favor the buyers or sellers. The authors explain the differences and discuss the pros and cons of each position. The B2B marketplace is changing rapidly. This framework helps buyers, sellers, and market makers navigate the landscape by explaining what the different hubs do and how they add the most value.

  3. Cortical hubs revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity: mapping, assessment of stability, and relation to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Sepulcre, Jorge; Talukdar, Tanveer; Krienen, Fenna M; Liu, Hesheng; Hedden, Trey; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A

    2009-02-11

    Recent evidence suggests that some brain areas act as hubs interconnecting distinct, functionally specialized systems. These nexuses are intriguing because of their potential role in integration and also because they may augment metabolic cascades relevant to brain disease. To identify regions of high connectivity in the human cerebral cortex, we applied a computationally efficient approach to map the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity across the brain. Analysis of two separate functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets (each n = 24) demonstrated hubs throughout heteromodal areas of association cortex. Prominent hubs were located within posterior cingulate, lateral temporal, lateral parietal, and medial/lateral prefrontal cortices. Network analysis revealed that many, but not all, hubs were located within regions previously implicated as components of the default network. A third dataset (n = 12) demonstrated that the locations of hubs were present across passive and active task states, suggesting that they reflect a stable property of cortical network architecture. To obtain an accurate reference map, data were combined across 127 participants to yield a consensus estimate of cortical hubs. Using this consensus estimate, we explored whether the topography of hubs could explain the pattern of vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease (AD) because some models suggest that regions of high activity and metabolism accelerate pathology. Positron emission tomography amyloid imaging in AD (n = 10) compared with older controls (n = 29) showed high amyloid-beta deposition in the locations of cortical hubs consistent with the possibility that hubs, while acting as critical way stations for information processing, may also augment the underlying pathological cascade in AD.

  4. Global versus local hubs in human protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Manjari; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu Adimurthy

    2013-12-06

    In this study, we have constructed tissue-specific protein-protein interaction networks for 70 human tissues and have identified three types of hubs based on their expression breadths: (a) tissue-specific hubs (TSHs) (proteins that are expressed in ≤ 10 tissues and also form hubs in ≤ 10 tissues), (b) tissue-preferred hubs (TPHs) (proteins expressed in ≥ 60 tissues but are highly connected in ≤ 10 tissues), and (c) housekeeping hubs (HKHs) (proteins that are expressed in ≥ 60 tissues and also form hubs in ≥ 60 tissues). Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between TSHs and HKHs and also revealed that TPHs behave more like HKHs. TSHs are lengthier, more disordered, and also quickly evolving proteins as compared with HKHs. Despite having a similar number of binding surfaces and interacting domains, TSHs are associated with a lower degree of centrality as compared with HKHs, suggesting that TSHs are "unsaturated" with regard to their binding capability and are perhaps evolving with regard to their interactions. TSHs are less abundantly expressed as compared with HKHs and are enriched with PEST motifs, indicating their tight regulation. All of these properties of TSHs and HKHs correlate with their distinct functional roles; TSHs are involved in tissue-specific functional roles, viz., secretors, receptors, and signaling proteins, whereas HKHs are involved in core-cellular functions such as transcription, translation, and so on. Our study, therefore, brings forth a clear and distinct classification of hubs simply based on their expression breadth and further assumes significance in the light of the highly debated dichotomy of date and party hubs, which is based on the coexpression pattern of hubs with their partners.

  5. Modeling and optimization of a network of energy hubs to improve economic and emission considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroufmashat, Azadeh; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael; Sattari, Sourena; Roshandel, Ramin; Hajimiragha, Amir; Walker, Sean; Entchev, Evgueniy

    2015-01-01

    Energy hubs that incorporate a variety of energy generation and energy transformation technologies can be used to provide the energy storage needed to enable the efficient operation of a ‘smart energy network’. When these hubs are combined as a network and allowed to exchange energy, they create efficiency advantages in both financial and environmental performance. Further, the interconnectedness of the energy network design provides an added layer of reliability. In this paper, a complex network of energy hubs is modeled and optimized under different scenarios to examine both the financial viability and potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Two case studies consisting of two and three energy hubs within a network are considered. The modeling Scenarios vary according to the consideration of distributed energy systems and energy interaction between energy hubs. In the case of a network of two energy hubs, there is no significant economic or emissions benefit with only a 0.5% reduction in total cost and 3% reduction in CO 2 emission. In the case of a network of three energy hubs, there is a significant economic benefit ranging from 11% to 29%, and 11% emission reduction benefit, as well as a 13% reduction in natural gas consumption. - Highlights: • The generic form of the modified energy hub concept with network model is presented. • Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the benefits of energy hub network. • Distributed energy is shown to provide economic and environmental advantages. • Multi criteria optimization of the economic and environmental performance is done.

  6. Classification of gene expression data: A hubness-aware semi-supervised approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Krisztian

    2016-04-01

    Classification of gene expression data is the common denominator of various biomedical recognition tasks. However, obtaining class labels for large training samples may be difficult or even impossible in many cases. Therefore, semi-supervised classification techniques are required as semi-supervised classifiers take advantage of unlabeled data. Gene expression data is high-dimensional which gives rise to the phenomena known under the umbrella of the curse of dimensionality, one of its recently explored aspects being the presence of hubs or hubness for short. Therefore, hubness-aware classifiers have been developed recently, such as Naive Hubness-Bayesian k-Nearest Neighbor (NHBNN). In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised extension of NHBNN which follows the self-training schema. As one of the core components of self-training is the certainty score, we propose a new hubness-aware certainty score. We performed experiments on publicly available gene expression data. These experiments show that the proposed classifier outperforms its competitors. We investigated the impact of each of the components (classification algorithm, semi-supervised technique, hubness-aware certainty score) separately and showed that each of these components are relevant to the performance of the proposed approach. Our results imply that our approach may increase classification accuracy and reduce computational costs (i.e., runtime). Based on the promising results presented in the paper, we envision that hubness-aware techniques will be used in various other biomedical machine learning tasks. In order to accelerate this process, we made an implementation of hubness-aware machine learning techniques publicly available in the PyHubs software package (http://www.biointelligence.hu/pyhubs) implemented in Python, one of the most popular programming languages of data science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spinal-supraspinal and intrinsic μ-opioid receptor agonist-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (MOR-NRI) synergy of tapentadol in diabetic heat hyperalgesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Thomas; Schröder, Wolfgang; Tallarida, Ronald J; De Vry, Jean; Tzschentke, Thomas M

    2013-12-01

    Tapentadol is a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) with established efficacy in neuropathic pain in patients and intrinsic synergistic interaction of both mechanisms as demonstrated in rodents. In diabetic mice, we analyzed the central antihyperalgesic activity, the occurrence of site-site interaction, as well as the spinal contribution of opioid and noradrenergic mechanisms in a hotplate test. Tapentadol (0.1-3.16 µg/animal) showed full efficacy after intrathecal as well as after intracerebroventricular administration (ED50 0.42 µg/animal i.t., 0.18 µg/animal i.c.v.). Combined administration of equianalgesic doses revealed spinal-supraspinal synergy (ED50 0.053 µg/animal i.t. + i.c.v.). Morphine (0.001-10 µg/animal) also showed central efficacy and synergy (ED50 0.547 µg/animal i.t., 0.004 µg/animal i.c.v., 0.014 µg/animal i.t. + i.c.v.). Supraspinal potencies of tapentadol and morphine correlated with the 50-fold difference in their MOR affinities. In contrast, spinal potencies of both drugs were similar and correlated with their relative systemic potencies (ED50 0.27 mg/kg i.p. tapentadol, 1.1 mg/kg i.p. morphine). Spinal administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone or the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine before systemic administration of equianalgesic doses of tapentadol (1 mg/kg i.p.) or morphine (3.16 mg/kg i.p.) revealed pronounced influence on opioidergic and noradrenergic pathways for both compounds. Tapentadol was more sensitive toward both antagonists than was morphine, with median effective dose values of 0.75 and 1.72 ng/animal i.t. naloxone and 1.56 and 2.04 ng/animal i.t. yohimbine, respectively. It is suggested that the antihyperalgesic action of systemically administered tapentadol is based on opioid spinal-supraspinal synergy, as well as intrinsic spinally mediated MOR-NRI synergy.

  8. Functional cortical hubs in the eyes-closed resting human brain from an electrophysiological perspective using magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Woorim; Seol, Jaeho; Kwon, Jiyeon; Chung, Chun Kee

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear whether specific brain areas act as hubs in the eyes-closed (EC) resting state, which is an unconstrained state free from any passive or active tasks. Here, we used electrophysiological magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals to study functional cortical hubs in 88 participants. We identified several multispectral cortical hubs. Although cortical hubs vary slightly with different applied measures and frequency bands, the most consistent hubs were observed in the medial and posterior cingulate cortex, the left dorsolateral superior frontal cortex, and the left pole of the middle temporal cortex. Hubs were characterized as connector nodes integrating EC resting state functional networks. Hubs in the gamma band were more likely to include midline structures. Our results confirm the existence of multispectral cortical cores in EC resting state functional networks based on MEG and imply the existence of optimized functional networks in the resting brain.

  9. Influence of Hub Parameters on Joining Forces and Torque Transmission Output of Plastically-Joined Shaft-Hub-Connections with a Knurled Contact Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Suchý

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A knurled interference fit is a machine part connection made by a plastic joining, which includes the advantages of commonly-used shaft-hub-connections. The combination of the friction and form fit, which are responsible for torque transmission, results in a higher power density than conventional connections. In this paper, parameter gaps are bridged with the aim of enhance the design calculation of the knurled interference fit. Experimental investigations on the shaft chamfer angle (100Cr6 and hub-diameter-ratio (AlSi1MgMn were performed. The analytical approaches are developed for calculating the joining force and maximal torque capacity by accounting for experimentally investigated loss of load transmission at high hub-diameter-ratios and high shaft chamfer angles. The presented calculation approach is an accurate tool for the assessment of early machine designs of the knurled interference fit and helps to save from having to perform time-extensive tests.

  10. Dendrochronological dating of large woody debris on the example of Morávka River and Černá Opava River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rybníček

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Woody debris is an inseparable part of natural river channels. In a river ecosystem it affects the hydraulic, hydrological and morphological properties of the channel, and it is also of a biological significance. However, besides the positive effects, the woody debris can also have a negative impact, e.g. the reduction of the flow profile capacity or the destruction of waterside buildings. With the de­ve­lop­ment of log floating and timber trade, the woody debris started to be removed from the channels. Currently, within the process of stream revitalization, woody debris is being artificially placed into ri­vers. This paper deals with the possible dendrochronological dating of large woody debris (LWD and wood jams in the river channel and the riparian zone. Two sites have been chosen for the research, the Morávka River and the Černá Opava River. These sites have been chosen because of two dif­fe­rent types of riparian stands. The banks of the Morávka River are a soft wood floodplain forest (350 m ASL; the Černá Opava River has stands with nearly a hundred percent proportion of spruce (600 m ASL. The results of the research show that the species with diffuse-porous wood structure are very hard to date on the basis of Pressler borer cores. On the other hand, the sites with softwood species are easi­ly datable, especially if the trunks contain more than 40 tree-rings. At these sites it is possible to use the dendrochronological dating for the establishment of the temporal dynamics of the woody debris input in the river ecosystem.

  11. Estudio de la iglesia de San Miguel de Morón (Sevilla. Influencia de los cambios de humedad en la estabilidad del monumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios, J.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the damages that the brick walls of historical buildings show, have the origin in capillary humidity. The way to remove this capillary humidities, is frequently by the deflection of the freatic level. This method causes the desiccation of the soil where lays the foundation of the building, and when the soil is constituted of clays of high plasticity, it happens processes of retraction, that causes the differential settling of the foundation, affecting negatively to the structure of the building. To explain this fact, we describe the studies realized in the foundation of the church of San Miguel in Morón, Sevilla.

    Gran parte de los daños que sufren las fábricas de las edificaciones históricas, tienen su origen en las humedades de capilaridad. Una de las propuestas para eliminarlas es la desviación o modificación del nivel freático. Ello trae consigo la desecación del terreno de apoyo de la cimentación, al pasar de un estado saturado a otro de humedad natural En aquellos casos en los que los suelos de apoyo de la cimentación estén constituidos por arcillas de alta plasticidad se producirían procesos de retracción, cuya consecuencia podría ser la aparición de asientos diferenciales, que afectarían de forma negativa a la estructura. Para explicar este fenómeno se describe el estudio realizado en la iglesia de San Miguel de Morón de la Frontera (Sevilla.

  12. Dense Bicoid hubs accentuate binding along the morphogen gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mustafa; Reimer, Armando; Haines, Jenna E; Li, Xiao-Yong; Stadler, Michael; Garcia, Hernan; Eisen, Michael B; Darzacq, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Morphogen gradients direct the spatial patterning of developing embryos; however, the mechanisms by which these gradients are interpreted remain elusive. Here we used lattice light-sheet microscopy to perform in vivo single-molecule imaging in early Drosophila melanogaster embryos of the transcription factor Bicoid that forms a gradient and initiates patterning along the anteroposterior axis. In contrast to canonical models, we observed that Bicoid binds to DNA with a rapid off rate throughout the embryo such that its average occupancy at target loci is on-rate-dependent. We further observed Bicoid forming transient "hubs" of locally high density that facilitate binding as factor levels drop, including in the posterior, where we observed Bicoid binding despite vanishingly low protein levels. We propose that localized modulation of transcription factor on rates via clustering provides a general mechanism to facilitate binding to low-affinity targets and that this may be a prevalent feature of other developmental transcription factors. © 2017 Mir et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Hub nodes inhibit the outbreak of epidemic under voluntary vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Changsong; Small, Michael; Wang, Binghong

    2010-02-01

    It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.

  14. Proof test of hybrid shrink fits with ceramic hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M; Binz, H, E-mail: markus.wagner@iktd.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-10-29

    Advanced ceramic machine components are required in many applications because of their specific material properties like high hardness, resistance to chemicals, corrosion and wear, low specific weight etc. The most suitable shaft-hub connection to ceramics is an interference fit assembly because it is free of geometrical notches and transmission of forces takes place in a large area. Such a shrink fit is rated for endurance strength when the stress intensity factor is below the specific value K{sub I0} where no crack growth occurs. The total component suddenly fails, when the stress intensity factor exceeds the K{sub IC} value. The load to the press fit during the joining process, caused by the interference of the assembly, could be regulated by ambient conditions. In case of undetected material defects or microcracks in the ceramic and if the stress intensity is below K{sub IC}, the ceramic will not fail but a crack could grow. Thus, the joining process only seems to be a proof test. When the load during operation leads to a stress intensity that remains higher than K{sub I0} the crack grows until the whole ceramic component fails. This effect was verified in tests at the Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design.

  15. Hierarchical feedback modules and reaction hubs in cell signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Lan, Yueheng

    2015-01-01

    Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks.

  16. Hierarchical feedback modules and reaction hubs in cell signaling networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xu

    Full Text Available Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks.

  17. Hierarchical Feedback Modules and Reaction Hubs in Cell Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Lan, Yueheng

    2015-01-01

    Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks. PMID:25951347

  18. Hub nodes inhibit the outbreak of epidemic under voluntary vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haifeng; Wang Binghong; Zhang Jie; Small, Michael; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.

  19. Arc protein: a flexible hub for synaptic plasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaienko, Oleksii; Patil, Sudarshan; Eriksen, Maria Steene; Bramham, Clive R

    2017-09-07

    Mammalian excitatory synapses express diverse types of synaptic plasticity. A major challenge in neuroscience is to understand how a neuron utilizes different types of plasticity to sculpt brain development, function, and behavior. Neuronal activity-induced expression of the immediate early protein, Arc, is critical for long-term potentiation and depression of synaptic transmission, homeostatic synaptic scaling, and adaptive functions such as long-term memory formation. However, the molecular basis of Arc protein function as a regulator of synaptic plasticity and cognition remains a puzzle. Recent work on the biophysical and structural properties of Arc, its protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications have shed light on the issue. Here, we present Arc protein as a flexible, multifunctional and interactive hub. Arc interacts with specific effector proteins in neuronal compartments (dendritic spines, nuclear domains) to bidirectionally regulate synaptic strength by distinct molecular mechanisms. Arc stability, subcellular localization, and interactions are dictated by synaptic activity and post-translational modification of Arc. This functional versatility and context-dependent signaling supports a view of Arc as a highly specialized master organizer of long-term synaptic plasticity, critical for information storage and cognition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Empirical analysis on the human dynamics of blogging behavior on GitHub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Deng-Cheng; Wei, Zong-Wen; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    GitHub is a social collaborative coding platform on which software developers not only collaborate on codes but also share knowledge through blogs using GitHub Pages. In this article, we analyze the blogging behavior of software developers on GitHub Pages. The results show that both the commit number and the inter-event time of two consecutive blogging actions follow heavy-tailed distribution. We further observe a significant variety of activity among individual developers, and a strongly positive correlation between the activity and the power-law exponent of the inter-event time distribution. We also find a difference between the user behaviors of GitHub Pages and other online systems which is driven by the diversity of users and length of contents. In addition, our result shows an obvious difference between the majority of developers and elite developers in their burstiness property.

  1. Puertos, espacio y globalización: el desarrollo de hubs en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Daniel Martner Peyrelongue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los puertos hubs se presentan como el nuevo paradigma de desarrollo del transporte y el comercio marítimo internacional en la globalización. Prácticamente todos los países latinoamericanos anuncian megaproyectos para el desarrollo de puertos hubs en sus litorales, generando grandes expectativas de desarrollo regional, con un débil sustento tanto teórico como empírico. En este sentido, el presente trabajo busca contribuir a la caracterización del modelo de puertos hubs en países periféricos dentro de la economíamundo capitalista, aludiendo, en especial, al caso mexicano. Se trata de aportar elementos de análisis para reconocer, a grandes rasgos, las posibilidades del desarrollo de hubs en los litorales mexicanos, desde la perspectiva de los estudios regionales y la geografía del transporte.

  2. Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia: An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the four papers in the special issues on ‘Gas and LNG pricing and trading hub in East Asia’. The papers examine lessons and experience from European hub development, other commodity, the Japanese history on developing of futures markets and inter-fuel substitution in East Asia. The papers finds that liquid futures market is the key to formulate benchmark prices while a well-developed spot market is the foundation; political will and strong leadership are required to overcome the power of incumbents and to restructure the gas market that impede the the development of competitive markets; and East Asia needs to develop its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs even in low oil prices period and its developing market allows easier changes in new contracts than in existing ones. This hub development requires governments to go through tough domestic market reforms, including liberalization and cooperation with each other and with gas exporters.

  3. Sci-Hub: What Librarians Should Know and Do about Article Piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of journal articles has driven many researchers to turn to a new way of getting access: "pirate" article sites. Sci-Hub, the largest and best known of these sites, currently offers instant access to more than 58 million journal articles. Users attracted by the ease of use and breadth of the collection may not realize that these articles are often obtained using stolen credentials and downloading them may be illegal. This article will briefly describe Sci-Hub and how it works, the legal and ethical issues it raises, and the problems it may cause for librarians. Librarians should be aware of Sci-Hub and the ways it may change their patrons' expectations. They should also understand the risks Sci-Hub can pose to their patrons and their institutions.

  4. Design of an innovative bike brake integrated into the wheel hub

    OpenAIRE

    Crescenti, M.; Ortiz Marzo, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The public urban bike services demand more robust mechanical devices to resist misuse and vandalism. An innovative wheel hub integrated bike brake was designed making use of CAD-3D and numerical analysis tools and considering both technological and economical criteria. Unlike the other existing hub integrated bike brakes, the new design ensures an homogeneous pressure distribution on the braking pads, which maximizes its lifespan, reduces the maintenance costs and guarantees an uniform perfor...

  5. Decentralized Fuzzy P-hub Centre Problem: Extended Model and Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Mousavinia; Majid Khalili; Mohammad Shafiee

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the uncapacitated P-hub center problem in a network under decentralized management assuming time as a fuzzy variable. In this network, transport companies act independently, each company makes its route choices according to its own criteria. In this model, time is presented by triangular fuzzy number and used to calculate the fraction of users that probably choose hub routes instead of direct routes. To solve the problem, two genetic algorithms are proposed. The computation...

  6. The hub-and-spoke organization design: an avenue for serving patients well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, James K; Fortenberry, John L

    2017-07-11

    The healthcare industry is characterized by intensive, never-ending change occurring on a multitude of fronts. Success in such tumultuous environments requires healthcare providers to be proficient in myriad areas, including the manner in which they organize and deliver services. Less efficient designs drain precious resources and hamper efforts to deliver the best care possible to patients, making it imperative that optimal pathways are identified and pursued. One particular avenue that offers great potential for serving patients efficiently and effectively is known as the hub-and-spoke organization design. The hub-and-spoke organization design is a model which arranges service delivery assets into a network consisting of an anchor establishment (hub) which offers a full array of services, complemented by secondary establishments (spokes) which offer more limited service arrays, routing patients needing more intensive services to the hub for treatment. Hub-and-spoke networks afford many benefits for healthcare providers, but in order to capitalize fully, proper assembly is required. To advance awareness, knowledge, and use of the hub-and-spoke organization design, this article profiles Willis-Knighton Health System's service delivery network which has utilized the model for over three decades. Among other things, the hub-and-spoke organization design is defined, benefits are stipulated, and applications are discussed, permitting healthcare providers essential insights for the establishment and operation of these networks. The change-rich nature of the healthcare industry places a premium on incorporating advancements that permit health and medical providers to operate as optimally as possible. The hub-and-spoke organization design represents an option that, when deployed correctly, can greatly assist healthcare establishments in their quests to serve patients well.

  7. Design and Analysis of Wind Turbine Blade Hub using Aluminium Alloy AA 6061-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, S.; Jaswanthvenkatram, V.; Sai kumar, Y. J. N. V.; Sohaib, S. Md.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the design and analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade hub using different material. The hub is very crucial part of the wind turbine, which experience the loads from the blades and the loads were transmitted to the main shaft. At present wind turbine is more expensive and weights more than a million pounds, with the nacelle, rotor hub and blades accounting for most of the weight. In this work Spheroidal graphite cast iron GGG 40.3 is replaced by aluminium alloy 6061-T6 to enhance the casting properties and also to improve the strength-weight ratio. This transition of material leads to reduction in weight of the wind turbine. All the loads caused by wind and extreme loads on the blades are transferred to the hub. Considering the IEC 61400-1 standard for defining extreme loads on the hub the stress and deflection were calculated on the hub by using Finite element Analysis. Result obtained from ANSYS is compared and discussed with the existing design.

  8. Research of Hubs Location Method for Weighted Brain Network Based on NoS-FA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Zhengkui; Wang, Bin; Xue, Jie; Yang, Baojie; Liu, Hui; Xiong, Xin

    2017-01-01

    As a complex network of many interlinked brain regions, there are some central hub regions which play key roles in the structural human brain network based on T1 and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technology. Since most studies about hubs location method in the whole human brain network are mainly concerned with the local properties of each single node but not the global properties of all the directly connected nodes, a novel hubs location method based on global importance contribution evaluation index is proposed in this study. The number of streamlines (NoS) is fused with normalized fractional anisotropy (FA) for more comprehensive brain bioinformation. The brain region importance contribution matrix and information transfer efficiency value are constructed, respectively, and then by combining these two factors together we can calculate the importance value of each node and locate the hubs. Profiting from both local and global features of the nodes and the multi-information fusion of human brain biosignals, the experiment results show that this method can detect the brain hubs more accurately and reasonably compared with other methods. Furthermore, the proposed location method is used in impaired brain hubs connectivity analysis of schizophrenia patients and the results are in agreement with previous studies.

  9. CCRK is a novel signalling hub exploitable in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Myth T; Zhou, Jingying; Tang, Wenshu; Zeng, Xuezhen; Oliver, Antony W; Ward, Simon E; Cheng, Alfred S

    2018-03-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 20 (CDK20), or more commonly referred to as cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK), is the latest member of CDK family with strong linkage to human cancers. Accumulating studies have reported the consistent overexpression of CCRK in cancers arising from brain, colon, liver, lung and ovary. Such aberrant up-regulation of CCRK is clinically significant as it correlates with tumor staging, shorter patient survival and poor prognosis. Intriguingly, the signalling molecules perturbed by CCRK are divergent and cancer-specific, including the cell cycle regulators CDK2, cyclin D1, cyclin E and RB in glioblastoma, ovarian carcinoma and colorectal cancer, and KEAP1-NRF2 cytoprotective pathway in lung cancer. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), CCRK mediates virus-host interaction to promote hepatitis B virus-associated tumorigenesis. Further mechanistic analyses reveal that CCRK orchestrates a self-reinforcing circuitry comprising of AR, GSK3β, β-catenin, AKT, EZH2, and NF-κB signalling for transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Notably, EZH2 and NF-κB in this circuit have been recently shown to induce IL-6 production to facilitate tumor immune evasion. Concordantly, in a hepatoma preclinical model, ablation of Ccrk disrupts the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade via potentiation of anti-tumor T cell responses. In this review, we summarized the multifaceted tumor-intrinsic and -extrinsic functions of CCRK, which represents a novel signalling hub exploitable in cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel virtual hub approach for multisource downstream service integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Mattia; Cuca, Branka; Barazzetti, Luigi

    2016-08-01

    A large development of downstream services is expected to be stimulated starting from earth observations (EO) datasets acquired by Copernicus satellites. An important challenge connected with the availability of downstream services is the possibility for their integration in order to create innovative applications with added values for users of different categories level. At the moment, the world of geo-information (GI) is extremely heterogeneous in terms of standards and formats used, thus preventing a facilitated access and integration of downstream services. Indeed, different users and data providers have also different requirements in terms of communication protocols and technology advancement. In recent years, many important programs and initiatives have tried to address this issue even on trans-regional and international level (e.g. INSPIRE Directive, GEOSS, Eye on Earth and SEIS). However, a lack of interoperability between systems and services still exists. In order to facilitate the interaction between different downstream services, a new architectural approach (developed within the European project ENERGIC OD) is proposed in this paper. The brokering-oriented architecture introduces a new mediation layer (the Virtual Hub) which works as an intermediary to bridge the gaps linked to interoperability issues. This intermediation layer de-couples the server and the client allowing a facilitated access to multiple downstream services and also Open Data provided by national and local SDIs. In particular, in this paper an application is presented integrating four services on the topic of agriculture: (i) the service given by Space4Agri (providing services based on MODIS and Landsat data); (ii) Gicarus Lab (providing sample services based on Landsat datasets) and (iii) FRESHMON (providing sample services for water quality) and services from a several regional SDIs.

  11. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is a network disorder with altered cortical hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-05-01

    Electrophysiologic hubs within the large-scale functional networks in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) have not been investigated. We hypothesized that mTLE with HS has different resting-state network hubs in their large-scale functional networks compared to the hubs in healthy controls (HC). We also hypothesized that the hippocampus would be a functional hub in mTLE patients with HS. Resting-state functional networks, identified by using magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in the theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands, were evaluated. Networks in 44 mTLE patients with HS (left mTLE = 22; right mTLE = 22) were compared with those in 46 age-matched HC. We investigated betweenness centrality at the source-level MEG network. The main network hubs were at the pole of the left superior temporal gyrus in the beta band, the pole of the left middle temporal gyrus in the beta and gamma bands, left hippocampus in the theta and alpha bands, and right posterior cingulate gyrus in all four frequency bands in mTLE patients; all of which were different from the main network hubs in HC. Only patients with left mTLE showed profound differences from HC at the left hippocampus in the alpha band. Our analysis of resting-state MEG signals shows that altered electrophysiologic functional hubs in mTLE patients reflect pathophysiologic brain network reorganization. Because we detected network hubs in both hippocampal and extrahippocampal areas, it is probable that mTLE is a large-scale network disorder rather than a focal disorder. The hippocampus was a network hub in left mTLE but not in right mTLE patients, which may be due to intrinsic functional and structural asymmetries between left and right mTLE patients. The evaluation of cortical hubs, even in the spike-free resting-state, could be a clinical diagnostic marker of mTLE with HS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Pedicle screw "hubbing" in the immature thoracic spine: a biomechanical and micro-computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Bevevino, Adam J; Gaume, Rachel E; Purcell, Richard L; Dmitriev, Anton E; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2014-01-01

    A previous biomechanical study using adult thoracic vertebrae (both normal and osteoporotic bone density) demonstrated the deleterious effect of the pedicle screw hubbing technique. Pedicle screw "hubbing" involves seating and engaging the ventral aspect of the screw head onto the dorsal lamina cortex. This technique is postulated to provide a load-sharing effect by improving pullout resistance, as well as decreasing cephalocaudad toggling and implant loosening. We hypothesized the elastic properties of immature bone may mitigate, and perhaps enhance the purported benefits of the hubbing technique. We set out to evaluate pullout strength of fixed-head pedicle screws after hubbing versus standard insertion in the immature thoracic calf spine. Twenty-two (n=22) single-level disarticulated fresh-frozen immature calf thoracic vertebra specimens (ranging from T2 to T13) were prepared. Twelve specimens were instrumented with pedicle screws in group I (nonhubbed) and group II (hubbed) in the opposite pedicle. Cyclic loading in a cephalocaudad direction was applied for 2000 cycles at a rate of 1 Hz. Pullout testing was performed in-line with the midline of the vertebra and peak pullout strength was measured in Newtons. Ten different specimens underwent micro-computed tomography evaluation to assess for trabecular architecture and incidence of iatrogenic microfractures. Hubbed screws resulted in significantly lower pullout strength (747±197 vs. 922±112 N, P=0.01). With the hubbing technique, the dorsal cortex demonstrated plastic deformation and conformed to the screw head in 83% of cases compared with no visible plastic deformation in the control group. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated microfractures of the dorsal cortex in 10/10 for the hubbed group compared with 1/10 for the control group. This is the largest study ever performed on immature thoracic vertebra to evaluate this topic. Hubbed pedicle screws have significantly decreased pullout strength and

  13. Rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of three-dimensional hub-beams system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinyang; Lu Hao

    2007-01-01

    In the previous research of the coupling dynamics of a hub-beam system, coupling between the rotational motion of hub and the torsion deformation of beam is not taken into account since the system undergoes planar motion. Due to the small longitudinal deformation, coupling between the rotational motion of hub and the longitudinal deformation of beam is also neglected. In this paper, rigid-flexible coupling dynamics is extended to a hub-beams system with three-dimensional large overall motion. Not only coupling between the large overall motion and the bending deformation, but also coupling between the large overall motion and the torsional deformation are taken into account. In case of temperature increase, the longitudinal deformation caused by the thermal expansion is significant, such that coupling between the large overall motion and the longitudinal deformation is also investigated. Combining the characteristics of the hybrid coordinate formulation and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, the system generalized coordinates include the relative nodal displacement and the slope of each beam element with respect to the body-fixed frame of the hub, and the variables related to the spatial large overall motion of the hub and beams. Based on precise strain-displacement relation, the geometric stiffening effect is taken into account, and the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic equations are derived using velocity variational principle. Finite element method is employed for discretization. Simulation of a hub-beams system is used to show the coupling effect between the large overall motion and the torsional deformation as well as the longitudinal deformation. Furthermore, conservation of energy in case of free motion is shown to verify the formulation

  14. Disrupted nodal and hub organization account for brain network abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Koshimori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the healthy control and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with healthy controls, including the right pre-supplementary motor area, left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e. right pre-supplementary motor area and right mid-insula displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease.

  15. Abnormal hubs of white matter networks in the frontal-parieto circuit contribute to depression discrimination via pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiaolong; Wei, Maobin; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Jianhuai; Yan, Rui; Hua, Lingling; Zhao, Ke; Yao, Zhijian; Lu, Qing

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies had explored the diagnostic and prognostic value of the structural neuroimaging data of MDD and treated the whole brain voxels, the fractional anisotropy and the structural connectivity as classification features. To our best knowledge, no study examined the potential diagnostic value of the hubs of anatomical brain networks in MDD. The purpose of the current study was to provide an exploratory examination of the potential diagnostic and prognostic values of hubs of white matter brain networks in MDD discrimination and the corresponding impaired hub pattern via a multi-pattern analysis. We constructed white matter brain networks from 29 depressions and 30 healthy controls based on diffusion tensor imaging data, calculated nodal measures and identified hubs. Using these measures as features, two types of feature architectures were established, one only included hubs (HUB) and the other contained both hubs and non hubs. The support vector machine classifiers with Gaussian radial basis kernel were used after the feature selection. Moreover, the relative contribution of the features was estimated by means of the consensus features. Our results presented that the hubs (including the bilateral dorsolateral part of superior frontal gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus) played an important role in distinguishing the depressions from healthy controls with the best accuracy of 83.05%. Moreover, most of the HUB consensus features located in the frontal-parieto circuit. These findings provided evidence that the hubs could be served as valuable potential diagnostic measure for MDD, and the hub-concentrated lesion distribution of MDD was primarily anchored within the frontal-parieto circuit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The application of design criteria for locating a hub configured supply chain for a restaurant cluster in the Stellenbosch area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B. Struwig

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Restaurants, in general, utilise numerous suppliers. Normally they deliver on different days in the week and at different times during the day, logistically not an optimum approach. Not only does the current practice cause frequent interruptions, but by segregating the food supply chain unnecessary traffic is generated. This article investigated the need for developing a third party supplier hub, the best positioning of that hub and the most economical routes to the customers. With the aim of providing non-franchised restaurants with the necessary leverage to become market leaders, the hub is planned to only service the restaurants within the vicinity of the Stellenbosch area. In such a hub-configured supply chain, the suppliers would be delivering to the proposed hub, from where once-off deliveries to all the restaurants may be made on days and/or times determined by them. In order to investigate the benefits of providing such a hub structure, a systematic implementation approach was used. The first step was to do market research in order to establish the need for such a hub. That is, the viability of the hub from a restaurant’s perspective was established. The next step entailed the investigation of the design criteria needed in determining a favourable hub location. Four possible hub locations were identified. The Clark and Wright’s savings algorithm was then used to determine the optimal hub location and the feasibility of the results was verified with the aid of a global positioning system (GPS device. The last steps followed involved the determination of an effective hub floor plan that may be utilised, possible products that can be supplied to the restaurants and the necessary assets needed to provide the hub’s service. Finally, by incorporating all these facets, a cost analysis was done to determine the hub’s profitability.

  17. Aportaciones al análisis constructivo de fábricas antiguas: La capilla de La Antigua de San Miguel en Morón (1538

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carrying out restoration works at old constructions offers a valuable opportunity for learning more about the building legacy they conceal, especially when they are the result of historical remodellings and extensions. A knowledge of the solutions that the builders adopted for stone walls, arches and vaults, of the construction logics followed and of the techniques applied provides vital clues for understanding their structural behaviour and the reasons for the discernible lesions, and for evaluating their condition correctly. During our restoration of the chapel of La Antigua adjoining the church of San Miguel in Morón, we were able to observe this legacy and confirm the importance of compiling knowledge obtained from various sources such as the graphic survey of the construction, the building sequence, geotechnical and documentary studies, and the analysis of the formal graphic control systems used to draw the plans, known as architecture treatises and manuscripts.Las obras de restauración sobre construcciones antiguas es un momento indispensable para el conocimiento del legado constructivo que permanece oculto en ellas, sobre todo cuando son resultado de reformas y ampliaciones históricas. El conocimiento de las soluciones en muros, arcos y bóvedas de piedra adoptadas por los constructores, la lógica constructiva seguida y las técnicas aplicadas, es indispensable para comprender su comportamiento estructural, las causas de las lesiones perceptibles, y proceder a su correcta evaluación. Durante la restauración de la capilla de La Antigua, adosada al templo de San Miguel en Morón, hemos podido observar este legado y confirmar hasta que punto era necesario su conocimiento interrelacionando diversas fuentes como la información obtenida mediante su levantamiento gráfico, la lectura de la secuencia constructiva, los estudios geotécnicos y documentales, así como el análisis de los sistemas gráficos de control formal que permitieron su

  18. Dimensional consistency achieved in high-performance synchronizing hubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The tolerances of parts produced for the automotive industry are so tight that any small process variation may mean that the product does not fulfill them. As dimensional tolerances decrease, the material properties of parts are expected to be improved. Depending on the dimensional and material requirements of a part, different production routes are available to find robust processes, minimizing cost and maximizing process capability. Dimensional tolerances have been reduced in recent years, and as a result, the double pressing-double sintering production via (“2P2S” has again become an accurate way to meet these increasingly narrow tolerances. In this paper, it is shown that the process parameters of the first sintering have great influence on the following production steps and the dimensions of the final parts. The roles of factors other than density and the second sintering process in defining the final dimensions of product are probed. All trials were done in a production line that produces synchronizer hubs for manual transmissions, allowing the maintenance of stable conditions and control of those parameters that are relevant for the product and process.

    Las tolerancias en componentes fabricados para la industria del automóvil son tan estrechas que cualquier modificación en las variables del proceso puede provocar que no se cumplan. Una disminución de las tolerancias dimensionales, puede significar una mejora en las propiedades de las piezas. Dependiendo de los requerimientos dimensionales y del material, distintas rutas de procesado pueden seguirse para encontrar un método de procesado robusto, que minimice costes y maximice la capacidad del proceso. En los últimos años, la tolerancia dimensional se ha ajustado gracias a métodos de procesado como el doble prensado/doble sinterizado (“2P2S”, método de gran precisión para conseguir estrechas tolerancias. En este trabajo, se muestra que los parámetros de procesado

  19. Understanding farmers' preferences for artificial insemination services provided through dairy hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, I A; Zander, K K; Bauer, S; Baltenweck, I

    2017-04-01

    Africa has a shortage of animal products but increasing demand because of population growth, urbanisation and changing consumer patterns. Attempts to boost livestock production through the use of breeding technologies such as artificial insemination (AI) have been failing in many countries because costs have escalated and success rates have been relatively low. One example is Kenya, a country with a relatively large number of cows and a dairy industry model relevant to neighbouring countries. There, an innovative dairy marketing approach (farmer-owned collective marketing systems called dairy hubs) has been implemented to enhance access to dairy markets and dairy-related services, including breeding services such as AI. So far, the rate of participation in these dairy hubs has been slow and mixed. In order to understand this phenomenon better and to inform dairy-related development activities by the Kenyan government, we investigated which characteristics of AI services, offered through the dairy hubs, farmers prefer. To do so, we applied a choice experiment (CE), a non-market valuation technique, which allowed us to identify farmers' preferences for desired characteristics should more dairy hubs be installed in the future. This is the first study to use a CE to evaluate breeding services in Kenya and the results can complement findings of studies of breeding objectives and selection criteria. The results of the CE reveal that dairy farmers prefer to have AI services offered rather than having no service. Farmers prefer AI services to be available at dairy hubs rather than provided by private agents not affiliated to the hubs, to have follow-up services for pregnancy detections, and to use sexed semen rather than conventional semen. Farmers would further like some flexibility in payment systems which include input credit, and are willing to share the costs of any AI repeats that may need to occur. These results provide evidence of a positive attitude to AI services

  20. Dynamic modular architecture of protein-protein interaction networks beyond the dichotomy of ‘date' and ‘party' hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiao; Xu, Tao; Li, Yun; Wang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are dynamically organized as modules, and are typically described by hub dichotomy: ‘party' hubs act as intramodule hubs and are coexpressed with their partners, yet ‘date' hubs act as coordinators among modules and are incoherently expressed with their partners. However, there remains skepticism about the existence of hub dichotomy. Since different algorithms and data sets were used in previous studies to test the model of hub classification, the conclusions may be largely influenced by the potential inherent biases. In this study, we evaluated two data sets of yeast interactome, and systematically investigated the behavior of hubs from multiple perspectives including co-expression patterns, topological roles and functional classifications. Our results revealed consistency between the two data sets, confirming the presence of hub dichotomy. Furthermore, we analyzed a human interactome data set, and demonstrated that the modular architecture of the PPI networks was more complicated than hub dichotomy. PMID:23603706

  1. TYPE PROJECTS HUB - AN INTERNATIONAL MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Nistor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact Hub is a global network of local spaces and communities designed to facilitate sustainable impact through collaboration. Local Impact Hubs are autonomous companies that offer co-working spaces, programming, events platforms, and communities of individuals and organizations with ideas to build a better world. Hub was established in 2005 in London with the aim of creating a space dedicated to inspire, connect and enable people to achieve a sustainable entrepreneurial idea. The idea was simple: There are a lot of people with good ideas for a "better world". What seem to be missing are places to help these people to move from intent to action and to find like-minded for a greater impact. In Romania about four years ago, first opened in Bucharest office space hubs in Romania (for entrepreneurs in technology and business where teams from different companies could collaborate. The idea to open a hub in Bucharest focused on social innovation and entrepreneurship appeared some time ago in the context in which part of the team now has worked since 2010 at the initiation and growth of a community to support social entrepreneurship. In all this diversity, there is a common mission: “we can create if we put all our innovation capacity in the common goal to create a positive impact through our work?”

  2. Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

    2011-10-07

    Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at 'invasion hubs'. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2,242,000 to 1,385,000 km(2). Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

  3. Functional Connectivity Hubs Could Serve as a Potential Biomarker in Alzheimer's Disease: A Reproducible Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiuchao; Zhu, Maohu; Cui, Yue; Yu, Chunshui; Sui, Jing; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Zhang, Zengqiang; Wang, Luning; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    Cortical hubs that link functionally specialized neural systems are crucial for cognition. Evidence suggests that the location and organization of hubs are related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, two issues remain unclear: (i) where and how hubs change in AD, and (ii) whether hubs could be a potential pre-diagnosis biomarker for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)--a prodromal phase of AD. Accordingly, we examined the functional connectivity density (FCD) in two cohorts of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans (26 AD, 27 controls; 33 AD, 21 controls) and revealed consistently vulnerable FCD hub regions in AD compared with controls: within the default mode network, short-range FCD decreases in the posterior cingulate cortex and increases in the medial prefrontal cortex; within the frontal lobe, long-range FCD increases in the medial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. Furthermore, FCD correlates with cognitive score and could distinguish MCI from controls with high accuracy (71.08% in dataset 1, 81% in dataset 2). By reflecting a robust and reproducible global shift in brain functions, FCD provides an fMRI biomarker for the underlying mechanism in AD.

  4. Disrupted cortical hubs in functional brain networks in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Yifeng; Guo, Wenbin; Li, Meiling; Wang, Wenqin; Long, Zhiliang; Meng, Yajing; Cui, Qian; Zeng, Ling; Gong, Qiyong; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2015-09-01

    The network hubs, characterized by the large number of connections to other regions, play important roles in the proper and effective transfer of information. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have aberrant functional connectivity. The changing pattern in functional network hubs in SAD, however, remains incompletely understood. Twenty SAD patients and 20 matched healthy controls were recruited. Resting-state fMRI data were obtained using a gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging sequence. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks were constructed by measuring the temporal correlations of each pair of brain voxels and then hubs were identified by using the graph theory method. Specifically, a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map was computed in each subject and the regions with higher FCS value were considered as functional network hubs. Compared with healthy controls, SAD patients showed significantly decreased FCS in the bilateral precuneus and significantly increased FCS in the right fusiform gyrus. Furthermore, a significantly negative correlation was observed between the FCS value in the precuneus and the illness duration. The present study demonstrated for the first time that disrupted cortical hubs existed in patients with SAD during resting state. These findings may provide novel insight into understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SAD. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The anatomical scaffold underlying the functional centrality of known cortical hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pasquale, Francesco; Della Penna, Stefania; Sabatini, Umberto; Caravasso Falletta, Chiara; Peran, Patrice

    2017-10-01

    Cortical hubs play a fundamental role in the functional architecture of brain connectivity at rest. However, the anatomical scaffold underlying their centrality is still under debate. Certainly, the brain function and anatomy are significantly entwined through synaptogenesis and pruning mechanisms that continuously reshape structural and functional connections. Thus, if hubs are expected to exhibit a large number of direct anatomical connections with the rest of the brain, such a dense wiring is extremely inefficient in energetic terms. In this work, we investigate these aspects on fMRI and DTI data from a set of know resting-state networks, starting from the hypothesis that to promote integration, functional, and anatomical connections link different areas at different scales or hierarchies. Thus, we focused on the role of functional hubs in this hierarchical organization of functional and anatomical architectures. We found that these regions, from a structural point of view, are first linked to each other and successively to the rest of the brain. Thus, functionally central nodes seem to show few strong anatomical connections. These findings suggest an efficient strategy of the investigated cortical hubs in exploiting few direct anatomical connections to link functional hubs among each other that eventually reach the rest of the considered nodes through local indirect tracts. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5141-5160, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optimal Expansion Co-Planning of Reconfigurable Electricity and Natural Gas Distribution Systems Incorporating Energy Hubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzheng Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a carbon-constrained world, natural gas with low emission intensity plays an important role in the energy consumption area. Energy consumers and distribution networks are linked via energy hubs. Meanwhile, reconfiguration that optimizes operational performance while maintaining a radial network topology is a worldwide technique in the electricity distribution system. To improve the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure, the expansion of electricity distribution lines and elements within energy hubs should be co-planned. In this paper, the co-planning process is modeled as a mixed integer quadratic programming problem to handle conflicting objectives simultaneously. We propose a novel model to identify the optimal co-expansion plan in terms of total cost. Operational factors including energy storages and reconfiguration are considered within the systems to serve electricity, cooling and heating loads. Reconfiguration and elements in energy hubs can avoid or defer new elements’ installation to minimize the investment cost, maintenance cost, operation cost, and interruption cost in the planning horizon. The proposed co-planning approach is verified on 3 and 12-node electricity and natural gas distribution systems coupled via energy hubs. Numerical results show the ability of our proposed expansion co-planning approach based on energy hub in meeting energy demand.

  7. nanoHUB.org: Experiences and Challenges in Software Sustainability for a Large Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Zentner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The science gateway nanoHUB.org, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF, serves a large scientific community dedicated to research and education in nanotechnology with community-contributed simulation codes as well as a vast repository of other materials such as recorded presentations, teaching materials, and workshops and courses. Nearly 330,000 users annually access over 4400 items of content on nanoHUB, including 343 simulation tools. Arguably the largest nanotechnology facility in the world, nanoHUB has led the way not only in providing open access to scientific code in the nanotechnology community, but also in lowering barriers to the use of that code, by providing a platform where developers are able to easily and quickly deploy code written in a variety of languages with user-friendly graphical user interfaces and where users can run the latest versions of codes transparently on the grid or other powerful resources without ever having to download or update code. Being a leader in open access code deployment provides nanoHUB with opportunities and challenges as it meets the current and future needs of its community. This paper discusses the experiences of nanoHUB in addressing and adapting to the changing landscape of scientific software in ways that best serve its community and meet the needs of the largest portion of its user base.

  8. DataHub - Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    DataHub addresses four areas of significant need: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactive nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc.) in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis is on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  9. DataHub: Science data management in support of interactive exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Rubin, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    The DataHub addresses four areas of significant needs: scientific visualization and analysis; science data management; interactions in a distributed, heterogeneous environment; and knowledge-based assistance for these functions. The fundamental innovation embedded within the DataHub is the integration of three technologies, viz. knowledge-based expert systems, science visualization, and science data management. This integration is based on a concept called the DataHub. With the DataHub concept, science investigators are able to apply a more complete solution to all nodes of a distributed system. Both computational nodes and interactives nodes are able to effectively and efficiently use the data services (access, retrieval, update, etc), in a distributed, interdisciplinary information system in a uniform and standard way. This allows the science investigators to concentrate on their scientific endeavors, rather than to involve themselves in the intricate technical details of the systems and tools required to accomplish their work. Thus, science investigators need not be programmers. The emphasis on the definition and prototyping of system elements with sufficient detail to enable data analysis and interpretation leading to information. The DataHub includes all the required end-to-end components and interfaces to demonstrate the complete concept.

  10. USDA Regional Climate Hubs - Partnering to bring information and tools to managers of working lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, USDA announced the location of seven Regional Hubs for Risk Adaptation and Mitigation to Climate Change (Climate Hubs) and three "Sub Hubs". The mission of these Climate Hubs is to develop and deliver science-based region-specific information and technologies to agricultural and natural resource managers that enable climate-smart decision-making and to direct land managers to USDA programs that can assist them in implementing those decisions. This mission is similar to that of Cooperative Extension and the Agricultural Experiment Stations (both of which benefit from USDA funding); therefore it is crucial that we partner with Land Grant Universities in order to achieve this mission. As USDA stands up these Climate Hubs we are working closely with USDA agencies, Land Grant Universities, other federal climate science programs, and other partners to determine how best to provide usable information and tools to farmers, ranchers and forest land managers to enable them to make climate-smart decisions.

  11. SynBioHub: A Standards-Enabled Design Repository for Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James Alastair; Myers, Chris J; Zundel, Zach; Mısırlı, Göksel; Zhang, Michael; Ofiteru, Irina Dana; Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Wipat, Anil

    2018-02-16

    The SynBioHub repository ( https://synbiohub.org ) is an open-source software project that facilitates the sharing of information about engineered biological systems. SynBioHub provides computational access for software and data integration, and a graphical user interface that enables users to search for and share designs in a Web browser. By connecting to relevant repositories (e.g., the iGEM repository, JBEI ICE, and other instances of SynBioHub), the software allows users to browse, upload, and download data in various standard formats, regardless of their location or representation. SynBioHub also provides a central reference point for other resources to link to, delivering design information in a standardized format using the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). The adoption and use of SynBioHub, a community-driven effort, has the potential to overcome the reproducibility challenge across laboratories by helping to address the current lack of information about published designs.

  12. Excitatory Neuronal Hubs Configure Multisensory Integration of Slow Waves in Association Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kuroki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Multisensory integration (MSI is a fundamental emergent property of the mammalian brain. During MSI, perceptual information encoded in patterned activity is processed in multimodal association cortex. The systems-level neuronal dynamics that coordinate MSI, however, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic hub-like network activity in the association cortex that regulates MSI. We engineered calcium reporter mouse lines based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor yellow cameleon (YC2.60 expressed in excitatory or inhibitory neurons. In medial and parietal association cortex, we observed spontaneous slow waves that self-organized into hubs defined by long-range excitatory and local inhibitory circuits. Unlike directional source/sink-like flows in sensory areas, medial/parietal excitatory and inhibitory hubs had net-zero balanced inputs. Remarkably, multisensory stimulation triggered rapid phase-locking mainly of excitatory hub activity persisting for seconds after the stimulus offset. Therefore, association cortex tends to form balanced excitatory networks that configure slow-wave phase-locking for MSI. Video Abstract: : Kuroki et al. performed cell-type-specific, wide-field FRET-based calcium imaging to visualize cortical network activity induced by multisensory inputs. They observed phase-locking of cortical slow waves in excitatory neuronal hubs in association cortical areas that may underlie multisensory integration. Keywords: wide-field calcium imaging, multisensory integration, cortical slow waves, association cortex, phase locking, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, spontaneous activity, excitatory neuron, inhibitory neuron, mouse

  13. Characterization of In3Mor, a new integron carrying VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase and sat1 gene, from Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakris, Athanassios; Ikonomidis, Alexandros; Spanakis, Nicholas; Poulou, Aggeliki; Pournaras, Spyros

    2007-04-01

    A carbapenem-resistant Morganella morganii clinical isolate that was phenotypically metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-positive was recovered from a Greek patient. The aim of the study was to analyse the structure of the integron containing the MBL gene. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing were used for identification of bla gene types and mapping of the integron carrying the MBL gene. The location of the MBL allele was investigated by mating experiments and plasmid analysis as well as by Southern blotting of the plasmid extract and gene-specific hybridization with a bla(VIM-1) probe. The strain contained In3Mor, a novel class 1 integron carrying a carbapenemase gene (bla(VIM-1)) associated with a trimethoprim (dfrA1), a streptothricin (sat1) and two aminoglycoside resistance genes (aacA7 and aadA1). Conjugation experiments failed to detect a transferable MBL determinant and plasmid DNA was not visualized. The chromosomal location of bla(VIM-1) was confirmed after hybridization of the chromosomal band with the bla(VIM-1) probe. Production of a VIM-type MBL in a M. morganii clinical isolate is documented in this study for the first time. Also, the dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 array which is typically described in the variable region of class 2 integrons consistent with that on Tn7 transposons, is originally detected herein in a class 1 integron.

  14. Identifying overlapping communities as well as hubs and outliers via nonnegative matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiao; Jin, Di; Cao, Yixin; He, Dongxiao

    2013-10-21

    Community detection is important for understanding networks. Previous studies observed that communities are not necessarily disjoint and might overlap. It is also agreed that some outlier vertices participate in no community, and some hubs in a community might take more important roles than others. Each of these facts has been independently addressed in previous work. But there is no algorithm, to our knowledge, that can identify these three structures altogether. To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel model where vertices are measured by their centrality in communities, and define the identification of overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers as an optimization problem, calculated by nonnegative matrix factorization. We test this method on various real networks, and compare it with several competing algorithms. The experimental results not only demonstrate its ability of identifying overlapping communities, hubs, and outliers, but also validate its superior performance in terms of clustering quality.

  15. Regional HIV knowledge hubs: a new approach by the health sector to transform knowledge into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Riedner, Gabriele; Weis, Peter; Kloss, Kristina; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to introduce the knowledge hub (KH) as an initiative to facilitate transformation of knowledge into practice and to highlight the activity and limitations with this new policy. The study was conducted through a review of articles; expert views in this field were sought for further information. Regional human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) KHs were developed by the World Health Organization and GTZ. A series of activities including capacity building, development of training models, technical assistance, and application of studies are provided through these hubs. However, financial limitations are the main obstacle in achieving these aims. This piece of work introduces these HIV hubs in order to help countries, particularly developing countries, provide the support needed to fight the progression of HIV.

  16. Cortical hubs form a module for multisensory integration on top of the hierarchy of cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-López, Gorka; Zhou, Changsong; Kurths, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Sensory stimuli entering the nervous system follow particular paths of processing, typically separated (segregated) from the paths of other modal information. However, sensory perception, awareness and cognition emerge from the combination of information (integration). The corticocortical networks of cats and macaque monkeys display three prominent characteristics: (i) modular organisation (facilitating the segregation), (ii) abundant alternative processing paths and (iii) the presence of highly connected hubs. Here, we study in detail the organisation and potential function of the cortical hubs by graph analysis and information theoretical methods. We find that the cortical hubs form a spatially delocalised, but topologically central module with the capacity to integrate multisensory information in a collaborative manner. With this, we resolve the underlying anatomical substrate that supports the simultaneous capacity of the cortex to segregate and to integrate multisensory information.

  17. Brain hubs in lesion models: Predicting functional network topology with lesion patterns in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Binke; Fang, Yuxing; Han, Zaizhu; Song, Luping; He, Yong; Bi, Yanchao

    2017-12-20

    Various important topological properties of healthy brain connectome have recently been identified. However, the manner in which brain lesion changes the functional network topology is unknown. We examined how critical specific brain areas are in the maintenance of network topology using multivariate support vector regression analysis on brain structural and resting-state functional imaging data in 96 patients with brain damages. Patients' cortical lesion distribution patterns could significantly predict the functional network topology and a set of regions with significant weights in the prediction models were identified as "lesion hubs". Intriguingly, we found two different types of lesion hubs, whose lesions associated with changes of network topology towards relatively different directions, being either more integrated (global) or more segregated (local), and correspond to hubs identified in healthy functional network in complex manners. Our results pose further important questions about the potential dynamics of the functional brain network after brain damage.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Heat Flow in Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Hub Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Plesner, Daniel; Walther, Jens Honore

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the heat dissipation in the hub motor of an electric two-wheeler using lumped parameter (LP), finite element (FE) and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. The motor uses external rotor permanent magnet brushless DC topology and nearly all of its losses are generated...... in the stator. The hub motor construction restricts the available conductive paths for heat dissipation from the stator to the ambient only through the shaft. In contrast to an internal rotor structure, where the stator winding losses are diffused via conduction, here convection plays a major role in loss...... dissipation. Therefore, a LP thermal model with improved convection modelling has been proposed to calculate the temperature of the components inside the hub motor. The developed model is validated with the FE thermal model and the test data. In addition, CFD tools has been used to accurately model...

  19. Virtual Campus Hub: A single sign-on system for cross-border collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Vercoulen, F.; Monaco, L.

    2013-01-01

    Four technical universities in Europe work together in the EU-funded project Virtual Campus Hub (FP7 RI-283746, www.virtualcampushub.eu) to lower the technical barriers for cross-border collaboration. Universities have many connections to the outside world (e.g. to other universities, to joint...... the applications used there. The objective of Virtual Campus Hub is to use state-of-the-art European e-Infrastructures (Géant) in combination with federated authentication to establish a single sign-on system between universities. A pilot environment, which links applications from the four partner universities...... to European e-Infrastructures relies upon the National Research and Education Networks (NRENs) which are not geared towards commercial enterprises at present. A range of applications for online teaching and collaboration has been developed as part of the Virtual Campus Hub project. These include remote...

  20. Synchronization and long-time memory in neural networks with inhibitory hubs and synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Elena; Burioni, Raffaella; di Volo, Matteo; Vezzani, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical role of inhibitory and highly connected nodes (hub) in synchronization and input processing of leaky-integrate-and-fire neural networks with short term synaptic plasticity. We take advantage of a heterogeneous mean-field approximation to encode the role of network structure and we tune the fraction of inhibitory neurons fI and their connectivity level to investigate the cooperation between hub features and inhibition. We show that, depending on fI, highly connected inhibitory nodes strongly drive the synchronization properties of the overall network through dynamical transitions from synchronous to asynchronous regimes. Furthermore, a metastable regime with long memory of external inputs emerges for a specific fraction of hub inhibitory neurons, underlining the role of inhibition and connectivity also for input processing in neural networks.

  1. MyGeoHub: A Collaborative Geospatial Research and Education Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, R.; Zhao, L.; Biehl, L. L.; Song, C. X.; Merwade, V.; Villoria, N.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific research is increasingly collaborative and globally distributed; research groups now rely on web-based scientific tools and data management systems to simplify their day-to-day collaborative workflows. However, such tools often lack seamless interfaces, requiring researchers to contend with manual data transfers, annotation and sharing. MyGeoHub is a web platform that supports out-of-the-box, seamless workflows involving data ingestion, metadata extraction, analysis, sharing and publication. MyGeoHub is built on the HUBzero cyberinfrastructure platform and adds general-purpose software building blocks (GABBs), for geospatial data management, visualization and analysis. A data management building block iData, processes geospatial files, extracting metadata for keyword and map-based search while enabling quick previews. iData is pervasive, allowing access through a web interface, scientific tools on MyGeoHub or even mobile field devices via a data service API. GABBs includes a Python map library as well as map widgets that in a few lines of code, generate complete geospatial visualization web interfaces for scientific tools. GABBs also includes powerful tools that can be used with no programming effort. The GeoBuilder tool provides an intuitive wizard for importing multi-variable, geo-located time series data (typical of sensor readings, GPS trackers) to build visualizations supporting data filtering and plotting. MyGeoHub has been used in tutorials at scientific conferences and educational activities for K-12 students. MyGeoHub is also constantly evolving; the recent addition of Jupyter and R Shiny notebook environments enable reproducible, richly interactive geospatial analyses and applications ranging from simple pre-processing to published tools. MyGeoHub is not a monolithic geospatial science gateway, instead it supports diverse needs ranging from just a feature-rich data management system, to complex scientific tools and workflows.

  2. The biomechanical effect of pedicle screw hubbing on pullout resistance in the thoracic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Haines; Dmitriev, Anton E; Lehman, Ronald A; Gaume, Rachel E; Ambati, Divya V; Kang, Daniel G; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2012-05-01

    The biomechanical fixation strength afforded by pedicle screws has been strongly correlated with bone mineral density. It has been postulated that "hubbing" the head of the pedicle screw against the dorsal laminar cortex provides a load-sharing effect, thereby limiting cephalocaudad toggling and improving the pullout resistance of the pedicle screw. To evaluate the pullout strength (POS) of monoaxial hubbed pedicle screws versus standard fixation in the thoracic spine. Biomechanical investigation. Twenty-two human cadaveric thoracic vertebrae were acquired and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanned. Osteoporotic (n = 16) and normal (n = 6) specimens were instrumented with a 5.0 × 35-mm pedicle screw on one side in a standard fashion. In the contralateral pedicle, 5.0 × 30-mm screw was inserted with hubbing of the screw into the dorsal lamina. A difference in screw length was used to achieve equivalent depth of insertion. After 2,000 cycles of cephalocaudad toggling, screws were pulled out with the tensile force oriented to the midline of the spine and peak POS measured in newtons (N). Four additional specimens were subjected to microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis to evaluate internal pedicle architecture after screw insertion. Hubbed screws resulted in significantly lower POS (290.5 ± 142.4 N) compared with standard pedicle screws (511.5 ± 242.8 N; p = .00). This finding was evident in both normal and osteoporotic vertebrae based on independent subgroup post hoc analyses (pscrews with and without fracture; however, further micro-CT analysis revealed the presence of internal fracture propagation for those specimens that did not have any external signs of failure. Hubbing pedicle screws results in significantly decreased POS compared with conventional pedicle screws. Hubbing predisposes toward iatrogenic fracture of the dorsal lamina, transverse process, or SAF during insertion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Transfer Scheme Evaluation Model for a Transportation Hub based on Vectorial Angle Cosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ya Yao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the most important node in public transport network, efficiency of a transport hub determines the entire efficiency of the whole transport network. In order to put forward effective transfer schemes, a comprehensive evaluation index system of urban transport hubs’ transfer efficiency was built, evaluation indexes were quantified, and an evaluation model of a multi-objective decision hub transfer scheme was established based on vectorial angle cosine. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on factors affecting transfer efficiency is conducted, which discusses the passenger satisfaction, transfer coordination, transfer efficiency, smoothness, economy, etc. Thus, a new solution to transfer scheme utilization was proposed.

  4. Decentralized Fuzzy P-hub Centre Problem: Extended Model and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mousavinia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the uncapacitated P-hub center problem in a network under decentralized management assuming time as a fuzzy variable. In this network, transport companies act independently, each company makes its route choices according to its own criteria. In this model, time is presented by triangular fuzzy number and used to calculate the fraction of users that probably choose hub routes instead of direct routes. To solve the problem, two genetic algorithms are proposed. The computational results compared with LINGO indicate that the proposed algorithm solves large-scale instances within promising computational time and outperforms LINGO in terms of solution quality.

  5. Electric wheel-hub motors for light city vehicles; Elektrische Radnabenmotoren fuer leichte Stadtfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Gerhard [Evomotiv GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Weber, Rolf; Leppelsack, Simon [Evomotiv GmbH, Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany); Hochberg, Ulrich [Hochschule Offenburg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau

    2010-02-15

    The engineering company Evomotiv GmbH and the University of Applied Sciences Offenburg have developed a drive concept for light city scooters since 2008. The electrical drive train's goal is the series production of the highly-integrated, non-transmission and non-ferrous wheel-hub motor. The German Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi) supports this project. The concept of this wheel-hub motor was awarded with the Bosch-Innovation prize in 2006. In 2011 Evomotiv will test the first prototypes with its cooperation partners on the track. (orig.)

  6. Japanese Forwarders’ Local Import Hub in Asia: 3PL Power and Environmental Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio MIYASHITA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate by an econometric method which countries or regions in Asia are superior import hubs for Japan based on two axes, the third party logistics (3PL business power of Japanese local forwarders and the logistical environment catch-up speed of these countries. According to the estimated results, this simple model can explain the structural changes in China's logistics based on its WTO accession and can develop Japanese forwarders’ stable import hub ranking by suggesting total optimization in the East Asian NIES (newly industrial economies and the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Countries districts by Japanese forwarders.

  7. Provincial/territorial public education and outreach hubs on climate change : evaluation of pilot phase : Manitoba public education and outreach hub : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerry, A.

    2003-01-01

    In January 2001, the Manitoba government established the pilot hub for climate change public education and outreach (PEO) in the province. The PEO is hosted by Manitoba Eco-Network, an affiliate of the Canadian Environmental Network located in Winnipeg. The aim of the PEO is to conduct public education as it relates to the environment. In addition, it aims to enhance communications between various member organizations. The main goal of the Manitoba Hub is to build awareness and empower citizens of Manitoba to act in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at the individual and community level. An evaluation of the pilot was performed, and the results published in this report. The pilot proved successful, according to stakeholder support for continuing this initiative further. Some of the recommendations to improve on the initiative included: (1) development of a new business plan for the next phase, (2) the Climate Change Connection (CCC) should continue to look for opportunities to expand beyond traditional climate change stake holders, (3) negotiations should continue between the Hub and the Province on its appropriate role with the new Climate Change/Greenhouse Gas Community Challenge, and (4) a greater role in capacity building with local groups and members, such as professional development and training opportunities; the provision of tools for others to perform outreach; and, assistance for groups with funding. The valuable lessons learned throughout the pilot phase were discussed in this document. 3 tabs

  8. USDA Midwest and Northern Forests Regional Climate Hub: Assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Midwest Regional Climate Hub covers the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin and represents one of the most extensive and intensive agricultural systems in the world. The Northern Forests Climate Sub Hub shares this footprint and represents people...

  9. An Airlift Hub-and-Spoke Location-Routing Model with Time Windows: Case Study of the CONUS-to-Korea Airlift Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, David

    1998-01-01

    .... This study develops an alternative hub-and-spoke combined location-routing integer linear programming prototype model, and uses this model to determine what advantages a hub-and-spoke system offers...

  10. LinkHub: a Semantic Web system that facilitates cross-database queries and information retrieval in proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Kei-Hoi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key abstraction in representing proteomics knowledge is the notion of unique identifiers for individual entities (e.g. proteins and the massive graph of relationships among them. These relationships are sometimes simple (e.g. synonyms but are often more complex (e.g. one-to-many relationships in protein family membership. Results We have built a software system called LinkHub using Semantic Web RDF that manages the graph of identifier relationships and allows exploration with a variety of interfaces. For efficiency, we also provide relational-database access and translation between the relational and RDF versions. LinkHub is practically useful in creating small, local hubs on common topics and then connecting these to major portals in a federated architecture; we have used LinkHub to establish such a relationship between UniProt and the North East Structural Genomics Consortium. LinkHub also facilitates queries and access to information and documents related to identifiers spread across multiple databases, acting as "connecting glue" between different identifier spaces. We demonstrate this with example queries discovering "interologs" of yeast protein interactions in the worm and exploring the relationship between gene essentiality and pseudogene content. We also show how "protein family based" retrieval of documents can be achieved. LinkHub is available at hub.gersteinlab.org and hub.nesg.org with supplement, database models and full-source code. Conclusion LinkHub leverages Semantic Web standards-based integrated data to provide novel information retrieval to identifier-related documents through relational graph queries, simplifies and manages connections to major hubs such as UniProt, and provides useful interactive and query interfaces for exploring the integrated data.

  11. Altered connectivity pattern of hubs in default-mode network with Alzheimer's disease: an Granger causality modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaoyan; Wu, Xia; Li, Rui; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li

    2011-01-01

    Evidences from normal subjects suggest that the default-mode network (DMN) has posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC) as its hubs; meanwhile, these DMN nodes are often found to be abnormally recruited in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The issues on how these hubs interact to each other, with the rest nodes of the DMN and the altered pattern of hubs with respect to AD, are still on going discussion for eventual final clarification. To address these issues, we investigated the causal influences between any pair of nodes within the DMN using Granger causality analysis and graph-theoretic methods on resting-state fMRI data of 12 young subjects, 16 old normal controls and 15 AD patients respectively. We found that: (1) PCC/MPFC/IPC, especially the PCC, showed the widest and distinctive causal effects on the DMN dynamics in young group; (2) the pattern of DMN hubs was abnormal in AD patients compared to old control: MPFC and IPC had obvious causal interaction disruption with other nodes; the PCC showed outstanding performance for it was the only region having causal relation with all other nodes significantly; (3) the altered relation between hubs and other DMN nodes held potential as a noninvasive biomarker of AD. Our study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to support the hub configuration of the DMN from the perspective of causal relationship, and reveal abnormal pattern of the DMN hubs in AD. Findings from young subjects provide additional evidence for the role of PCC/MPFC/IPC acting as hubs in the DMN. Compared to old control, MPFC and IPC lost their roles as hubs owing to the obvious causal interaction disruption, and PCC was preserved as the only hub showing significant causal relations with all other nodes.

  12. Hub-and-Spoke Student Blogging and Advantages for Classroom Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues for a particular form of student blogging as a powerful tool for generating and sustaining student engagement and conversation. After a brief discussion of pedagogical principles, "hub-and-spoke" blogging is presented as a means to facilitate a more student and discussion-centered classroom. Based upon recent research and the…

  13. Rural Enterprise Hub Supporting Rural Entrepreneurship and Innovation – Case Studies from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katonáné Kovács Judit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the tendency that the population migrate from rural to urban areas is typical world wide, the globalised economy creates new circumstances and opportunities for rural areas as well. The ‘new rural economy’ therefore needs new infrastructure to support it. The authors of the paper have a common interest in how enterprise hubs could help the development of entrepreneurship in the 21st century from two different directions, from physical and from social aspects. Building on the experience gained along enterprise hubs in cities, the hypothesis behind the study is, that creating enterprise hubs from existing buildings in rural settlements could help the development of rural entrepreneurship. To examine the hypothesis two case studies following a period of two years (enterprise hub development in Debrecen and Noszvaj were carried out. In line with other studies in this field, result shows that even well-designed physical spaces are not enough for change, and initiators, hosts or facilitators are needed, as they play an important role in focusing on the real interaction network and enabling more synergies to happen.

  14. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF INTERNATIONAL HUBS BASED ON REGIONAL AIRPORTS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belavintsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an important area of development of the civil aviation airports network and air transport route networks in the Russian Federation and is based on priority development of the largest airport hubs considering the specific characteristics of the current status and further development of internal air transport market and subsidy programs of the Russian regional aircraft.

  15. Researching Higher Education in "Asia's Global Education Hub": Trends and Issues in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Higher education studies as a field of academic research has become more developed and important in Singapore since the 1980s when the city-state placed more emphasis on reforming and restructuring its higher education sector to achieve the status of "Asia's global education hub". The past few decades witnessed a more significant growth…

  16. Focal cortical dysplasia alters electrophysiological cortical hubs in the resting-state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Jeong, Woorim; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that epilepsy patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) have different electrophysiological functional cortical hubs from those of healthy controls. Resting-state functional networks in the theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands were evaluated in 35 epilepsy patients with histopathologically verified FCD as a single pathology and in 46 age-matched healthy controls. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated the network differences between the two groups by comparing the nodal efficiency (Enodal) and betweenness centrality (BC) values at the source level. The FCD patients had significant Enodal increases in the functional cortical hubs in the left anterior, middle, and posterior cortices and the medial orbital superior frontal cortex in the beta band. The left posterior cingulate cortex showed significant BC increases in the theta, alpha, and beta bands. There was a negative correlation between Enodal and age at seizure onset. Cortical dysplasia alters whole brain functional cortical hubs compared to healthy controls. The age at seizure onset was negatively correlated with Enodal in the beta band in FCD patients. Our study for the first time investigated the functional cortical hubs and their alteration in the resting-state functional network in epilepsy patients with FCD using noninvasive MEG signals. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic network participation of functional connectivity hubs assessed by resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Alexander; Margulies, Daniel S; Lohmann, Gabriele; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Smallwood, Jonathan; Kiebel, Stefan J; Villringer, Arno

    2014-01-01

    Network studies of large-scale brain connectivity have demonstrated that highly connected areas, or "hubs," are a key feature of human functional and structural brain organization. We use resting-state functional MRI data and connectivity clustering to identify multi-network hubs and show that while hubs can belong to multiple networks their degree of integration into these different networks varies dynamically over time. The extent of the network variation was related to the connectedness of the hub. In addition, we found that these network dynamics were inversely related to positive self-generated thoughts reported by individuals and were further decreased with older age. Moreover, the left caudate varied its degree of participation between a default mode subnetwork and a limbic network. This variation was predictive of individual differences in the reports of past-related thoughts. These results support an association between ongoing thought processes and network dynamics and offer a new approach to investigate the brain dynamics underlying mental experience.

  18. Excitatory Neuronal Hubs Configure Multisensory Integration of Slow Waves in Association Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takamasa; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Iwama, Mizuho; Ando, Reiko; Michikawa, Takayuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Ohshima, Toshio; Itohara, Shigeyoshi

    2018-03-13

    Multisensory integration (MSI) is a fundamental emergent property of the mammalian brain. During MSI, perceptual information encoded in patterned activity is processed in multimodal association cortex. The systems-level neuronal dynamics that coordinate MSI, however, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic hub-like network activity in the association cortex that regulates MSI. We engineered calcium reporter mouse lines based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor yellow cameleon (YC2.60) expressed in excitatory or inhibitory neurons. In medial and parietal association cortex, we observed spontaneous slow waves that self-organized into hubs defined by long-range excitatory and local inhibitory circuits. Unlike directional source/sink-like flows in sensory areas, medial/parietal excitatory and inhibitory hubs had net-zero balanced inputs. Remarkably, multisensory stimulation triggered rapid phase-locking mainly of excitatory hub activity persisting for seconds after the stimulus offset. Therefore, association cortex tends to form balanced excitatory networks that configure slow-wave phase-locking for MSI. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Discovering overlapped protein complexes from weighted PPI networks by removing inter-module hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, A M A; Eslahchi, Ch

    2017-06-12

    Detecting known protein complexes and predicting undiscovered protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks help us to understand principles of cell organization and its functions. Nevertheless, the discovery of protein complexes based on experiment still needs to be explored. Therefore, computational methods are useful approaches to overcome the experimental limitations. Nevertheless, extraction of protein complexes from PPI network is often nontrivial. Two major constraints are large amount of noise and ignorance of occurrence time of different interactions in PPI network. In this paper, an efficient algorithm, Inter Module Hub Removal Clustering (IMHRC), is developed based on inter-module hub removal in the weighted PPI network which can detect overlapped complexes. By removing some of the inter-module hubs and module hubs, IMHRC eliminates high amount of noise in dataset and implicitly considers different occurrence time of the PPI in network. The performance of the IMHRC was evaluated on several benchmark datasets and results were compared with some of the state-of-the-art models. The protein complexes discovered with the IMHRC method show significantly better agreement with the real complexes than other current methods. Our algorithm provides an accurate and scalable method for detecting and predicting protein complexes from PPI networks.

  20. what's turning the wheel? the theological hub of song of songs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to contribute to the identification of the theological hub of Song of Songs. During an interpretive history of more than two thousand years various exegetical methods have been applied for purposes of identifying the theological message of Song of Songs. yet, none has proven itself entirely convincing ...

  1. Identifying hubs and spokes in global supply chains using redirected trade in value added

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, Arjan; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo; Veenendaal, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The increasing importance of global supply chains has prompted the use of analytical tools based on trade in value added - instead of traditional measures in gross value. We use this analytical framework to develop indicators that identify production hubs and supply spokes in global supply chains.

  2. Managing Human Capital in World Cities: The Development of Hong Kong into an Education Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ada; Maclean, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, the Hong Kong government has sought to build a regional education hub and develop an education industry. However, the rationales and intentions behind this move and the implications these have for the nurturing of local human capital and economic capacity are not always clear. This article seeks to contextualize Hong Kong's economic…

  3. Beta Cell Hubs Dictate Pancreatic Islet Responses to Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Natalie R; Mitchell, Ryan K; Haythorne, Elizabeth; Pessoa, Maria Paiva; Semplici, Francesca; Ferrer, Jorge; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Piero; Bugliani, Marco; Bosco, Domenico; Berishvili, Ekaterine; Duncanson, Philip; Watkinson, Michael; Broichhagen, Johannes; Trauner, Dirk; Rutter, Guy A; Hodson, David J

    2016-09-13

    The arrangement of β cells within islets of Langerhans is critical for insulin release through the generation of rhythmic activity. A privileged role for individual β cells in orchestrating these responses has long been suspected, but not directly demonstrated. We show here that the β cell population in situ is operationally heterogeneous. Mapping of islet functional architecture revealed the presence of hub cells with pacemaker properties, which remain stable over recording periods of 2 to 3 hr. Using a dual optogenetic/photopharmacological strategy, silencing of hubs abolished coordinated islet responses to glucose, whereas specific stimulation restored communication patterns. Hubs were metabolically adapted and targeted by both pro-inflammatory and glucolipotoxic insults to induce widespread β cell dysfunction. Thus, the islet is wired by hubs, whose failure may contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Revisiting the Notion of Hong Kong as a Regional Education Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong has tried to develop itself as a regional education hub for a decade. However, the policy is being criticized because Hong Kong has neither diversified its student population ethnically and culturally nor expanded its share in the global higher education market. This paper explores this context to examine the significance of the…

  5. Education Hubs: International, Regional and Local Dimensions of Scale and Scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Education hubs are important new developments. They represent a new generation of cross-border education activities where critical mass, co-location and connection between international, regional and local universities, students, research institutes and private industry are key. Different scales (city, zone and country) and types (student, talent,…

  6. Connectivity for Whom and for What? A Normative Dimension of Education Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Ng, Felix Sai Kit

    2016-01-01

    This argument in this study is that the descriptive dimension of the concept of education hub, which focuses on the importance of connectivity in enhancing the competiveness of a place, is inadequate in addressing the educational values in globalising higher education. Therefore, it attempts to initiate a normative dimension of education hub…

  7. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  8. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Robust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. The notion of "hierarchical hubbing" was introduced (in the narrow context of a specific robust network design question), by Olver and Shepherd [2010].

  9. A note on hierarchical hubbing for a generalization of the VPN problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.K. Olver (Neil)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractRobust network design refers to a class of optimization problems that occur when designing networks to efficiently handle variable demands. The notion of "hierarchical hubbing" was introduced (in the narrow context of a specific robust network design question), by Olver and Shepherd

  10. Lazy Updating of hubs can enable more realistic models by speeding up stochastic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Kurt; Loewe, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    To respect the nature of discrete parts in a system, stochastic simulation algorithms (SSAs) must update for each action (i) all part counts and (ii) each action's probability of occurring next and its timing. This makes it expensive to simulate biological networks with well-connected "hubs" such as ATP that affect many actions. Temperature and volume also affect many actions and may be changed significantly in small steps by the network itself during fever and cell growth, respectively. Such trends matter for evolutionary questions, as cell volume determines doubling times and fever may affect survival, both key traits for biological evolution. Yet simulations often ignore such trends and assume constant environments to avoid many costly probability updates. Such computational convenience precludes analyses of important aspects of evolution. Here we present "Lazy Updating," an add-on for SSAs designed to reduce the cost of simulating hubs. When a hub changes, Lazy Updating postpones all probability updates for reactions depending on this hub, until a threshold is crossed. Speedup is substantial if most computing time is spent on such updates. We implemented Lazy Updating for the Sorting Direct Method and it is easily integrated into other SSAs such as Gillespie's Direct Method or the Next Reaction Method. Testing on several toy models and a cellular metabolism model showed >10× faster simulations for its use-cases—with a small loss of accuracy. Thus we see Lazy Updating as a valuable tool for some special but important simulation problems that are difficult to address efficiently otherwise.

  11. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    systems (ESSs), and heating/cooling devices such as electrical heater, heat-pumps and absorption chillers. The optimal scheduling and management of the examined energy hub assets in line with electrical transactions with distribution network is modeled as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem...

  12. Positioning as Regional Hub of Higher Education: Changing Governance and Regulatory Reforms in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2008-01-01

    With strong intention to enhance the global competitiveness of their university systems, the Singapore and Malaysia governments have made attempts to develop their societies into regional hubs of education. Specifically, they have invited foreign universities to set up their campuses to offer academic programs or to establish private institutions…

  13. Towards collaborative, intermodal hub networks. A case study in the fast moving consumer goods market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, B.; Ruijgrok, C.; Tavasszy, L.

    2005-01-01

    Collaborative hub networks can provide an answer to the need to decrease logistics cost and maintain logistics service levels by shifting consolidated flows to modes that are better suited for handling large volumes (rail, barge, coastal shipping), so economies of scale can be obtained. This

  14. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were…

  15. National Geothermal Data System Hub Deployment Timeline (Appendix E-1-d)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudill, Christy [Executive Office of the State of Arizona (Arizona Geological Survey)

    2015-12-20

    Excel spreadsheet describing activity, spending, and development for the four data hubs (Arizona Geoloical Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois Geological Survey, and Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology) serving data for the National Geothermal Data System under the State Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System Project.

  16. Schools as Community Hubs: Policy Contexts, Educational Rationales, and Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Ian; Watkins, Jerry; Meredyth, Denise

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in making more effective use of schools as community hubs, both in Australia and internationally. Investment in shared facilities aims to engage parents and local communities in schooling, encourage civic participation, co-ordinate educational and community services and overcome disadvantages of location or service…

  17. Role of governance in creating a commodity hub: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Haris

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The body of work on natural gas hubs has been expanding rapidly in recent years, with most of the current work examining the creation of gas hubs focusing on either the European experience or the North American experience. In this paper, we adopt a different perspective and place the focus on experience of hub building from other international commodities. We analyse three commodities - crude oil, iron ore and coal, and draw experience on the role of governance in development of hub based prices. In particular, we propose that the role of governance is different at different stages of the pricing transition to market based pricing. Governance could play an important role at the initial stage, building the relevant soft and physical infrastructure which facilitates the reaping of first mover advantage. As the market develops, private sector players may prefer less involvement of governance, which may distort markets. With market stabilization, governance should be focused on maintaining stable rules and regulation for private sector development, as well as monitoring for further changes in global trends. To facilitate the building of a benchmark price, the public sector should adopt a long-term and overarching view on industry growth.

  18. Strategic analysis on establishing a natural gas trading hub in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Tong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the LNG importing price premium in the Asia–Pacific markets has become increasingly high, generating great effects on the economic development in China. In addition, the natural gas dependence degree is expanding continuously, making it extremely urgent to establish a natural gas trading hub in China, with the aim to ensure national energy security, to gain the pricing power, and to build the regional benchmark prices. Through a comparative analysis of internal strength/weakness and external competitiveness, we concluded that with intensively-issued supporting policies on the natural gas sector, the initiation of spot and futures markets, the rapid growth of gas production and highly-improved infrastructures, as well as Shanghai's advantageous location, China has more advantages in establishing an Asian Natural Gas Trading Hub than other counties like Singapore, Japan and Malaysia. Moreover, based on the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity and threat and the marketization process analysis, the following strategies were presented: to impel the establishment of a natural gas trading hub depending on the gas supply condition, to follow the policies to complete the gas storage system, to form regional communities by taking comparative advantages, and to reinforce the marketization reform and regulation system establishment with foreign experiences for reference. This study rationalized the necessity and practicality of establishing a natural gas trading hub in China and will help China make a proper decision and find a periodical strategic path in this sector.

  19. Branding by Proxy? : How hubs market (or not) higher education systems globally: the example of Qatar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremonini, Leon; Taylor, John; Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2017-01-01

    This chapter proposes a framework to understand if and how hubs contribute to stronger positioning of higher education system in global competition, and uses the case of Qatar to draw conclusions. Increasingly, governments around the world invest in so-called “education hubs”, which host excellent

  20. Requirements, model and prototype for a multi-utility locational and security information hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This project lays the foundation for building an exchange hub for locational and security data and risk assessment of potential excavation work. It acts primarily at 2 stages: upstream of the mark-out process, as a decision support tool to help strea...

  1. RotCFD Analysis of the AH-56 Cheyenne Hub Drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Eduardo; Bass, Tal A.; Keith, Matthew D.; Oppenheim, Rebecca T.; Runyon, Bryan T.; Veras-Alba, Belen

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate (ADD) conducted tests in the U.S. Army 7- by 10- Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center of a nonrotating 2/5th-scale AH-56 rotor hub. The objective of the tests was to determine how removing the mechanical control gyro affected the drag. Data for the lift, drag, and pitching moment were recorded for the 4-bladed rotor hub in various hardware configurations, azimuth angles, and angles of attack. Numerical simulations of a selection of the configurations and orientations were then performed, and the results were compared with the test data. To generate the simulation results, the hardware configurations were modeled using Creo and Rhinoceros 5, three-dimensional surface modeling computer-aided design (CAD) programs. The CAD model was imported into Rotorcraft Computational Fluid Dynamics (RotCFD), a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool used for analyzing rotor flow fields. RotCFD simulation results were compared with the experimental results of three hardware configurations at two azimuth angles, two angles of attack, and with and without wind tunnel walls. The results help validate RotCFD as a tool for analyzing low-drag rotor hub designs for advanced high-speed rotorcraft concepts. Future work will involve simulating additional hub geometries to reduce drag or tailor to other desired performance levels.

  2. Hub-and-Spoke or else? Free trade agreements in the 'enlarged' European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Santis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to estimate if and how the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA and the Baltic Free Trade Agreement (BFTA exerted a significant impact on intra-European trade, effectively reducing the influence of the European Association Agreements (EAs in shaping the European trade structure as a hub-and-spoke system - with the EU15 being the hub and the CEECs the spoke. This paper analyses bilateral trade flows between eight CEECs and EU-23. We estimate a gravity equation using a system GMM dynamic panel data approach. Results support the assumptions that gravity forces and "persistence effects" matter. With respect to the effect of free trade agreements, evidence is found that Free trade agreements between CEECs matter: There is evidence that the presence of intra-periphery agreements helped expand intra-periphery trade and limited the emergence of a "hub-and-spoke" relationship between CEECs and EU. This results have important policy implications for the trade strategy of "future" EU members of the Southeastern European Countries as well as of the Southern Mediterranean Countries. According to the empirical results, these countries should move towards a regional free-trade area as exemplified by the CEFTA and the BFTA to avoid "hub-and-spoke" effects.

  3. Network Competition - the Coexistence of Hub-and-Spoke and Point-to-Point Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderighi, M.; Cento, A.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper identifies conditions under which asymmetric equilibria may exist when carriers compete in designing their network configurations in a game-theoretical framework. Two carriers are assumed here, which are allowed to play three different strategies: Point-to-point (PP), hub-and-spoke (HS) or

  4. Effectiveness of Hub and Spoke Model for Dissemination of Innovative Farm Technologies to the Farming Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sriram

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hub and Spoke Model was established for dissemination of the innovative farming technologies at farmers’ doorstep. The study was conducted to measure the Effectiveness of Hub and Spoke Model for dissemination of innovative farm technologies at Tiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu. The respondents were selected by adopting purposive random sampling technique. A sample of 75 respondents from five villages of Polur block was selected for this study. The hub and spoke model was established and the knowledge gain of the subjects both at the pre and post exposure stages were collected using teacher made knowledge tests respectively. The data were collected using a well structured and pre-tested interview schedule. The data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical tools. The percentage of knowledge gained before the exposure to treatment was 40.20 per cent and after exposed it was 76.70 per cent. The mean knowledge gain is 36.50 per cent. The ‘t’ value 19.93 per cent indicates that the knowledge gained by the respondents was found to be significant at one per cent level. It was identified that there existed a significant differences in the effectiveness of the hub and spoke services in imparting knowledge.

  5. Hub and shroud fillets influence on the radial compressor stage efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syka Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes numerical simulations of an air flow in the radial compressor stage in the NUMECA CFD software. During the tasks evaluating the stepped and straight impeller seals and hub and shroud fillets influence on working characteristics and flow field was observed. Also the CFD results comparison with results from the empiric design tool and the measurement is described.

  6. PERSEUS-HUB: Interactive and Collective Exploration of Large-Scale Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphs emerge naturally in many domains, such as social science, neuroscience, transportation engineering, and more. In many cases, such graphs have millions or billions of nodes and edges, and their sizes increase daily at a fast pace. How can researchers from various domains explore large graphs interactively and efficiently to find out what is ‘important’? How can multiple researchers explore a new graph dataset collectively and “help” each other with their findings? In this article, we present Perseus-Hub, a large-scale graph mining tool that computes a set of graph properties in a distributed manner, performs ensemble, multi-view anomaly detection to highlight regions that are worth investigating, and provides users with uncluttered visualization and easy interaction with complex graph statistics. Perseus-Hub uses a Spark cluster to calculate various statistics of large-scale graphs efficiently, and aggregates the results in a summary on the master node to support interactive user exploration. In Perseus-Hub, the visualized distributions of graph statistics provide preliminary analysis to understand a graph. To perform a deeper analysis, users with little prior knowledge can leverage patterns (e.g., spikes in the power-law degree distribution marked by other users or experts. Moreover, Perseus-Hub guides users to regions of interest by highlighting anomalous nodes and helps users establish a more comprehensive understanding about the graph at hand. We demonstrate our system through the case study on real, large-scale networks.

  7. Coffee Shops, Classrooms and Conversations: public engagement and outreach in a large interdisciplinary research Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jennifer A.

    2014-05-01

    Public engagement and outreach activities are increasingly using specialist staff for co-ordination, training and support for researchers, they are also becoming expected for large investments. Here, the experience of public engagement and outreach a large, interdisciplinary Research Hub is described. dot.rural, based at the University of Aberdeen UK, is a £11.8 million Research Councils UK Rural Digital Economy Hub, funded as part of the RCUK Digital Economy Theme (2009-2015). Digital Economy research aims to realise the transformational impact of digital technologies on aspects of the environment, community life, cultural experiences, future society, and the economy. The dot.rural Hub involves 92 researchers from 12 different disciplines, including Geography, Hydrology and Ecology. Public Engagement and Outreach is embedded in the dot.rural Digital Economy Hub via an Outreach Officer. Alongside this position, public engagement and outreach activities are compulsory part of PhD student contracts. Public Engagement and Outreach activities at the dot.rural Hub involve individuals and groups in both formal and informal settings organised by dot.rural and other organisations. Activities in the realms of Education, Public Engagement, Traditional and Social Media are determined by a set of Underlying Principles designed for the Hub by the Outreach Officer. The underlying Engagement and Outreach principles match funding agency requirements and expectations alongside researcher demands and the user-led nature of Digital Economy Research. All activities include researchers alongside the Outreach Officer are research informed and embedded into specific projects that form the Hub. Successful public engagement activities have included participation in Café Scientifique series, workshops in primary and secondary schools, and online activities such as I'm a Scientist Get Me Out of Here. From how to engage 8 year olds with making hydrographs more understandable to members of

  8. Economic Impact of the Dutch Gas Hub Strategy on the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.; Bazelon, C.; Humphreys, B.; Dickson, P.

    2010-09-01

    Since the discovery of the Groningen gas field in 1959, the Netherlands has been a key player in the European gas market. The Netherlands has built up a large onshore and offshore Exploration and Production sector, it has a highly developed gas transmission and distribution network, and is a major exporter of gas to other EU Member States. The Netherlands has considerable expertise in all parts of the gas supply chain, and is a world centre for Research and development in natural gas supply and use. More recently construction has begun on terminals to allow the import of Liquid Natural Gas to the Netherlands. However, Dutch gas reserves are now in decline, and the Netherlands will become a net importer of gas around 2025. The Dutch government wishes to capitalise on the existing industry and skills and sustain the Netherlands' place in the European gas industry beyond the life of the existing gas fields. In November 2009 the Minister of Economic Affairs published a paper describing the strategy of turning the Netherlands into a 'Gas Hub' or 'gas roundabout' for north-west Europe. The Dutch government intends that the gas hub would capitalise on the existing skills and industry, increase competition and security of supply in the Dutch gas market, create employment and make a significant contribution to the Dutch economy. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation has commissioned The Brattle Group to perform an analysis of the economic impact of the gas hub concept. The study has several aims including: To analyse the current contribution of the Dutch gas sector to the economy; To assess the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats associated with the gas hub strategy; To quantify the benefits of the gas hub strategy to the Dutch economy. Note that the aim of the study is to define in more detail what a successful Dutch gas hub strategy would look like, to assess the strengths and weakness of the Dutch gas sector in achieving a

  9. Declining functional connectivity and changing hub locations in Alzheimer's disease: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Marjolein M A; Stam, Cornelis J; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; de Waal, Hanneke; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W

    2015-08-20

    EEG studies have shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have weaker functional connectivity than controls, especially in higher frequency bands. Furthermore, active regions seem more prone to AD pathology. How functional connectivity is affected in AD subgroups of disease severity and how network hubs (highly connected brain areas) change is not known. We compared AD patients with different disease severity and controls in terms of functional connections, hub strength and hub location. We studied routine 21-channel resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) of 318 AD patients (divided into tertiles based on disease severity: mild, moderate and severe AD) and 133 age-matched controls. Functional connectivity between EEG channels was estimated with the Phase Lag Index (PLI). From the PLI-based connectivity matrix, the minimum spanning tree (MST) was derived. For each node (EEG channel) in the MST, the betweenness centrality (BC) was computed, a measure to quantify the relative importance of a node within the network. Then we derived color-coded head plots based on BC values and calculated the center of mass (the exact middle had x and y values of 0). A shifting of the hub locations was defined as a shift of the center of mass on the y-axis across groups. Multivariate general linear models with PLI or BC values as dependent variables and the groups as continuous variables were used in the five conventional frequency bands. We found that functional connectivity decreases with increasing disease severity in the alpha band. All, except for posterior, regions showed increasing BC values with increasing disease severity. The center of mass shifted from posterior to more anterior regions with increasing disease severity in the higher frequency bands, indicating a loss of relative functional importance of the posterior brain regions. In conclusion, we observed decreasing functional connectivity in the posterior regions, together with a shifted hub location from

  10. When Is Hub Gene Selection Better than Standard Meta-Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, Peter; Mischel, Paul S.; Horvath, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when) hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data). Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis) and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility) in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1) Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2) finding methylation markers related to age, and (3) finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1). However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than) a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2). The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques applied to

  11. When is hub gene selection better than standard meta-analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Langfelder

    Full Text Available Since hub nodes have been found to play important roles in many networks, highly connected hub genes are expected to play an important role in biology as well. However, the empirical evidence remains ambiguous. An open question is whether (or when hub gene selection leads to more meaningful gene lists than a standard statistical analysis based on significance testing when analyzing genomic data sets (e.g., gene expression or DNA methylation data. Here we address this question for the special case when multiple genomic data sets are available. This is of great practical importance since for many research questions multiple data sets are publicly available. In this case, the data analyst can decide between a standard statistical approach (e.g., based on meta-analysis and a co-expression network analysis approach that selects intramodular hubs in consensus modules. We assess the performance of these two types of approaches according to two criteria. The first criterion evaluates the biological insights gained and is relevant in basic research. The second criterion evaluates the validation success (reproducibility in independent data sets and often applies in clinical diagnostic or prognostic applications. We compare meta-analysis with consensus network analysis based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA in three comprehensive and unbiased empirical studies: (1 Finding genes predictive of lung cancer survival, (2 finding methylation markers related to age, and (3 finding mouse genes related to total cholesterol. The results demonstrate that intramodular hub gene status with respect to consensus modules is more useful than a meta-analysis p-value when identifying biologically meaningful gene lists (reflecting criterion 1. However, standard meta-analysis methods perform as good as (if not better than a consensus network approach in terms of validation success (criterion 2. The article also reports a comparison of meta-analysis techniques

  12. iese mor- struktuur posisies soortge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-27

    Jan 27, 2006 ... globalisation that began with the televised release from prison of Nelson Mandela (v).” Introductory texts on ... into account the effects of globalization on. South African cultural production. South. African Visual Culture is ... largely on Mirzoeff's definition of visual culture, and Walter Benjamin's theories con-.

  13. iese mor- struktuur posisies soortge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-27

    Jan 27, 2006 ... oil painting to television and the Internet”. (Mizroeff, 2000: 3). As a result, approaches to enhance the understanding of the vari- ous forms of visual production became a concern across several fields beyond the art historical. Methodologies from cultural stud- ies, sociology, anthropology, and feminist.

  14. Sharing environmental models: An Approach using GitHub repositories and Web Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Christoph; Nuest, Daniel; Pross, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    The GLUES (Global Assessment of Land Use Dynamics, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Services) project established a spatial data infrastructure for scientific geospatial data and metadata (http://geoportal-glues.ufz.de), where different regional collaborative projects researching the impacts of climate and socio-economic changes on sustainable land management can share their underlying base scenarios and datasets. One goal of the project is to ease the sharing of computational models between institutions and to make them easily executable in Web-based infrastructures. In this work, we present such an approach for sharing computational models relying on GitHub repositories (http://github.com) and Web Processing Services. At first, model providers upload their model implementations to GitHub repositories in order to share them with others. The GitHub platform allows users to submit changes to the model code. The changes can be discussed and reviewed before merging them. However, while GitHub allows sharing and collaborating of model source code, it does not actually allow running these models, which requires efforts to transfer the implementation to a model execution framework. We thus have extended an existing implementation of the OGC Web Processing Service standard (http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wps), the 52°North Web Processing Service (http://52north.org/wps) platform to retrieve all model implementations from a git (http://git-scm.com) repository and add them to the collection of published geoprocesses. The current implementation is restricted to models implemented as R scripts using WPS4R annotations (Hinz et al.) and to Java algorithms using the 52°North WPS Java API. The models hence become executable through a standardized Web API by multiple clients such as desktop or browser GIS and modelling frameworks. If the model code is changed on the GitHub platform, the changes are retrieved by the service and the processes will be updated

  15. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Agler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the

  16. Microbial Hub Taxa Link Host and Abiotic Factors to Plant Microbiome Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agler, Matthew T; Ruhe, Jonas; Kroll, Samuel; Morhenn, Constanze; Kim, Sang-Tae; Weigel, Detlef; Kemen, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms have been shown to critically affect host physiology and performance, suggesting that evolution and ecology of plants and animals can only be understood in a holobiont (host and its associated organisms) context. Host-associated microbial community structures are affected by abiotic and host factors, and increased attention is given to the role of the microbiome in interactions such as pathogen inhibition. However, little is known about how these factors act on the microbial community, and especially what role microbe-microbe interaction dynamics play. We have begun to address this knowledge gap for phyllosphere microbiomes of plants by simultaneously studying three major groups of Arabidopsis thaliana symbionts (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes) using a systems biology approach. We evaluated multiple potential factors of microbial community control: we sampled various wild A. thaliana populations at different times, performed field plantings with different host genotypes, and implemented successive host colonization experiments under lab conditions where abiotic factors, host genotype, and pathogen colonization was manipulated. Our results indicate that both abiotic factors and host genotype interact to affect plant colonization by all three groups of microbes. Considering microbe-microbe interactions, however, uncovered a network of interkingdom interactions with significant contributions to community structure. As in other scale-free networks, a small number of taxa, which we call microbial "hubs," are strongly interconnected and have a severe effect on communities. By documenting these microbe-microbe interactions, we uncover an important mechanism explaining how abiotic factors and host genotypic signatures control microbial communities. In short, they act directly on "hub" microbes, which, via microbe-microbe interactions, transmit the effects to the microbial community. We analyzed two "hub" microbes (the obligate biotrophic

  17. Long-lived radionuclides in seabed of the Baltic Sea. Report of the sediment baseline study of HELCOM MORS-PRO in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Jukka Mattila, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Jakobson, E.; Herrmann, J.; Graveris, V.; Vilimaite-Silobritiene, B.; Suplinska, M.; Stepanov, A.; Luening, M.

    2007-01-01

    when considering sediment results. This report presents the results of a Sediment Baseline Study carried out by the HELCOM Project Group for Monitoring of Radioactive Substances in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM MORS-PRO) in 2000-2005. The goal of the study was to complement the knowledge and inventories of long-lived radionuclides in the seabed of the Baltic Sea by providing additional data from so-called 'white areas' lacking data, and from radionuclides that were not measured in earlier surveys. (orig.)

  18. From hub proteins to hub modules: the relationship between essentiality and centrality in the yeast interactome at different scales of organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Song

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested that hub proteins in the S. cerevisiae physical interaction network are more likely to be essential than other proteins. The proposed reasons underlying this observed relationship between topology and functioning have been subject to some controversy, with recent work suggesting that it arises due to the participation of hub proteins in essential complexes and processes. However, do these essential modules themselves have distinct network characteristics, and how do their essential proteins differ in their topological properties from their non-essential proteins? We aimed to advance our understanding of protein essentiality by analyzing proteins, complexes and processes within their broader functional context and by considering physical interactions both within and across complexes and biological processes. In agreement with the view that essentiality is a modular property, we found that the number of intracomplex or intraprocess interactions that a protein has is a better indicator of its essentiality than its overall number of interactions. Moreover, we found that within an essential complex, its essential proteins have on average more interactions, especially intracomplex interactions, than its non-essential proteins. Finally, we built a module-level interaction network and found that essential complexes and processes tend to have higher interaction degrees in this network than non-essential complexes and processes; that is, they exhibit a larger amount of functional cross-talk than their non-essential counterparts.

  19. Uma arquitetura de software para o MorFEu : apoiando a realização de arquiteturas pedagógicas em espaços virtuais colaborativos

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Júnior, Ramon Rosa Maia

    2011-01-01

    As lacunas tecnológicas no apoio às atividades colaborativas possibilitam a criação de novas propostas para atender a demanda por suporte tecnológico nas atividades a distância. Este trabalho apresenta uma arquitetura de software, baseado da proposta do MOrFEu, que favorece a criação e a organização flexível de espaços virtuais colaborativos. Entre as principais características desta arquitetura destacam-se a flexibilidade do apoio a colaboração pelas formas diferenciadas de coordenar as inte...

  20. Estrategias gerenciales y de gestión que permitan contrarrestar casos de violencia intrafamiliar en sectores vulnerables de San José de Morán parroquia de Calderón

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Alcívar, Diana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    El presente proyecto se desarrolla en el Sub Centro de Salud San José de Morán su propósito es establecer nuevas estrategias a través de la gerencia siempre alineados con las directrices del Ministerio de Salud Pública y las entidades relacionadas, para lograr que el servicio de salud prestado a la comunidad sobrepase las expectativas con el objetivo de romper las ideas negativas y la costumbre de la población frente a la violencia intrafamiliar que en la actualidad es uno de los temas que má...

  1. Design of a Gear-Shifting Control Mechanism for 8-Speed Bicycle Drive Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-An Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The multi-speed drive hub stored on the rear wheel of a bicycle is an important speed-changing device to adjust the pedaling force and driving speed. This paper proposes a feasible gear-shifting control mechanism of an 8-speed distributed-flow-type transmission mechanism. A transmission mechanism consisting of two parallel-connected transmission units and one differential unit is introduced first. Then, based on the clutching sequence table, the embodiment design of a gear-shifting control mechanism is presented to selectively control the engagement of pawl-and-ratchet clutches and slot-with-block clutches as well as govern the power-flow path. The power-flow path at each speed-stage of this 8-speed drive hub is analyzed to verify the feasibility of the proposed design.

  2. Omni directional mobile robot capable of variable foot printing based on hub type drive module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joong; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Hwi Su; Song, Jae Bok [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In recent years, an increased amount of research has been carried out on mobile robots to improve the performance of service robots. Mobile robots maximize the mobility of service robots, thus allowing them to work in different areas. However, conventional service robots have their center of mass placed high above the ground, which may cause them to fall when moving at high speed. Furthermore, hub type actuators, which are often used for mobile robots, are large and expensive. In this study, we propose a mobile robot with a hub type actuator unit and a variable footprint mechanism. The proposed variable footprint mechanism greatly improves the stability and mobility of the robot, allowing it to move freely in a narrow space and carry out various tasks. The performance of the proposed robot is verified experimentally.

  3. Nonlinear model of a rotating hub-beams structure: Equations of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warminski, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Dynamics of a rotating structure composed of a rigid hub and flexible beams is presented in the paper. A nonlinear model of a beam takes into account bending, extension and nonlinear curvature. The influence of geometric nonlinearity and nonconstant angular velocity on dynamics of the rotating structure is presented. The exact equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are derived on the basis of the Hamilton's principle. The simplification of the exact nonlinear mathematical model is proposed taking into account the second order approximation. The reduced partial differential equations of motion together with associated boundary conditions can be used to study natural or forced vibrations of a rotating structure considering constant or nonconstant angular speed of a rigid hub and an arbitrary number of flexible blades.

  4. Dysregulated signaling hubs of liver lipid metabolism reveal hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunjae; Mardinoglu, Adil; Zhang, Cheng; Lee, Doheon; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high mortality rate and early detection of HCC is crucial for the application of effective treatment strategies. HCC is typically caused by either viral hepatitis infection or by fatty liver disease. To diagnose and treat HCC it is necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. As a major cause for development of HCC is fatty liver disease, we here investigated anomalies in regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver. We applied a tailored network-based approach to identify signaling hubs associated with regulation of this part of metabolism. Using transcriptomics data of HCC patients, we identified significant dysregulated expressions of lipid-regulated genes, across many different lipid metabolic pathways. Our findings, however, show that viral hepatitis causes HCC by a distinct mechanism, less likely involving lipid anomalies. Based on our analysis we suggest signaling hub genes governing overall catabolic or anabolic pathways, as novel drug targets for treatment of HCC that involves lipid anomalies. PMID:27216817

  5. Giant hub Src and Syk tyrosine kinase thermodynamic profiles recapitulate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic scaling theory, previously applied mainly to small proteins, here analyzes quantitative evolution of the titled functional network giant hub enzymes. The broad domain structure identified homologically is confirmed hydropathically using amino acid sequences only. The most surprising results concern the evolution of the tyrosine kinase globular surface roughness from avians to mammals, which is first order, compared to the evolution within mammals from rodents to humans, which is second order. The mystery of the unique amide terminal region of proto oncogene tyrosine protein kinase is resolved by the discovery there of a rare hydroneutral septad targeting cluster, which is paralleled by an equally rare octad catalytic cluster in tyrosine kinase in humans and a few other species (cat and dog). These results, which go far towards explaining why these proteins are among the largest giant hubs in protein interaction networks, use no adjustable parameters.

  6. Omni directional mobile robot capable of variable foot printing based on hub type drive module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Joong; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Hwi Su; Song, Jae Bok

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, an increased amount of research has been carried out on mobile robots to improve the performance of service robots. Mobile robots maximize the mobility of service robots, thus allowing them to work in different areas. However, conventional service robots have their center of mass placed high above the ground, which may cause them to fall when moving at high speed. Furthermore, hub type actuators, which are often used for mobile robots, are large and expensive. In this study, we propose a mobile robot with a hub type actuator unit and a variable footprint mechanism. The proposed variable footprint mechanism greatly improves the stability and mobility of the robot, allowing it to move freely in a narrow space and carry out various tasks. The performance of the proposed robot is verified experimentally

  7. Designing Hub-and-Spoke School Bus Transportation Network: A Case Study of Wonkwang University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyuk Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of hub-and-spoke school bus transportation network design. The case study here utilizes a mathematical model that is the P-median optimization model to determine optimal hub locations. The P-median problem is a combinatorial optimization problem that includes many binary variables and constraints. The selected objective of the model is to minimize the total travel time satisfying other operational constraints. To elevate usability of decision making in the future, we implement the simulation model through the template model in spreadsheet platform. The developed model is used as a future reference to find operational directions of school bus managing policy and also tested on the case of Wonkwang University.

  8. Fast reversible learning based on neurons functioning as anisotropic multiplex hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Sheinin, Anton; Sardi, Shira; Kanter, Ido

    2017-05-01

    Neural networks are composed of neurons and synapses, which are responsible for learning in a slow adaptive dynamical process. Here we experimentally show that neurons act like independent anisotropic multiplex hubs, which relay and mute incoming signals following their input directions. Theoretically, the observed information routing enriches the computational capabilities of neurons by allowing, for instance, equalization among different information routes in the network, as well as high-frequency transmission of complex time-dependent signals constructed via several parallel routes. In addition, this kind of hubs adaptively eliminate very noisy neurons from the dynamics of the network, preventing masking of information transmission. The timescales for these features are several seconds at most, as opposed to the imprint of information by the synaptic plasticity, a process which exceeds minutes. Results open the horizon to the understanding of fast and adaptive learning realities in higher cognitive brain's functionalities.

  9. Extraversion modulates functional connectivity hubs of resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajing; Cui, Qian; Duan, Xujun; Chen, Heng; Zeng, Ling; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2017-09-01

    Personality dimension extraversion describes individual differences in social behaviour and socio-emotional functioning. The intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the brain are reportedly associated with extraversion. However, whether or not extraversion is associated with functional hubs warrants clarification. Functional hubs are involved in the rapid integration of neural processing, and their dysfunction contributes to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we employed the functional connectivity density (FCD) method for the first time to distinguish the energy-efficient hubs associated with extraversion. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 71 healthy subjects were used in the analysis. Short-range FCD was positively correlated with extraversion in the left cuneus, revealing a link between the local functional activity of this region and extraversion in risk-taking. Long-range FCD was negatively correlated with extraversion in the right superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses revealed that a decreased long-range FCD in individuals with high extraversion scores showed a low long-range functional connectivity pattern between the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. This result suggests that decreased RSFC patterns are responsible for self-esteem, self-evaluation, and inhibitory behaviour system that account for the modulation and shaping of extraversion. Overall, our results emphasize specific brain hubs, and reveal long-range functional connections in relation to extraversion, thereby providing a neurobiological basis of extraversion. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Effects of chronic and acute stimulants on brain functional connectivity hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konova, Anna B; Moeller, Scott J; Tomasi, Dardo; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2015-12-02

    The spatial distribution and strength of information processing 'hubs' are essential features of the brain׳s network topology, and may thus be particularly susceptible to neuropsychiatric disease. Despite growing evidence that drug addiction alters functioning and connectivity of discrete brain regions, little is known about whether chronic drug use is associated with abnormalities in this network-level organization, and if such abnormalities could be targeted for intervention. We used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to evaluate how chronic and acute stimulants affect brain hubs (i.e., regions with many short-range or long-range functional connections). Nineteen individuals with cocaine use disorders (CUD) and 15 healthy controls completed resting-state fMRI scans following a randomly assigned dose of methylphenidate (MPH; 20mg) or placebo. Short-range and long-range FCD maps were computed for each participant and medication condition. CUD participants had increased short-range and long-range FCD in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate/precuneus, and putamen/amygdala, which in areas of the default mode network correlated with years of use. Across participants, MPH decreased short-range FCD in the thalamus/putamen, and decreased long-range FCD in the supplementary motor area and postcentral gyrus. Increased density of short-range and long-range functional connections to default mode hubs in CUD suggests an overrepresentation of these resource-expensive hubs. While the effects of MPH on FCD were only partly overlapping with those of CUD, MPH-induced reduction in the density of short-range connections to the putamen/thalamus, a network of core relevance to habit formation and addiction, suggests that some FCD abnormalities could be targeted for intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Uncovering MicroRNA Regulatory Hubs that Modulate Plasma Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Dong-Yan; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, I-Ying; Su, Shin-Tang; Wu, Shih-Ying; Chung, Cheng-Han; Wang, Tong-Cheng; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Arthur Chun-Chieh; Lin, Kuo-I

    2015-12-11

    Using genome-wide approaches, we studied the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile during human plasma cell (PC) differentiation induced by stimulation of human blood B cells with T follicular helper cell-dependent signals. Combining the profiles of differentially expressed genes in PC differentiation with gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that a significant group of genes involved in the transcription factor (TF) activity was preferentially changed. We thus focused on studying the effects of differentially expressed miRNAs on several key TFs in PC differentiation. Cohorts of differentially expressed miRNAs cooperating as miRNA hubs were predicted and validated to modulate key TFs, including a down-regulated miRNA hub containing miR-101-3p, -125b-5p, and -223-3p contributing to induction of PRDM1 as well as an up-regulated miRNA hub containing miR-34a-5p, -148a-3p, and -183-5p suppressing BCL6, BACH2, and FOXP1. Induced expression of NF-κB and PRDM1 during PC differentiation controlled the expression of up- and down-regulated miRNA hubs, respectively. Co-expression of miR-101-3p, -125b-5p, and -223-3p in stimulated B cells showed synergistic effects on inhibition of PC formation, which can be rescued by re-introduction of PRDM1. Together, we catalogue the complex roadmap of miRNAs and their functional interplay in collaboratively directing PC differentiation.

  12. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Guo, Linghong; Dai, Xi-Jian; Wang, Qinglai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Miao, Xinjun; Gong, Honghan

    2017-01-01

    To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features. Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years) and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years) were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ) were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs. Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6), right hippocampus (BA 35, 36), and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11) and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18), and left precuneus (BA 7, 19). SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus ( R 2 =0.296, P =0.006). The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear to be disrupted by alcohol intoxication, which implicates at least three principal neural systems: including cerebellar, executive control, and visual cortex, which may further affect the normal motor behavior such as an explicit type of impaired driving behavior. These findings expand our understanding of the functional characteristics of alcohol dependence and may provide a new insight into the understanding of the dysfunction and pathophysiology of alcohol dependence.

  13. Continuous Integration for Concurrent MOOSE Framework and Application Development on GitHub

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew E. Slaughter; John W. Peterson; Derek R. Gaston; Cody J. Permann; David Andrš; Jason M. Miller

    2015-01-01

    For the past several years, Idaho National Laboratory’s MOOSE framework team has employed modern software engineering techniques (continuous integration, joint application/framework source code repos- itories, automated regression testing, etc.) in developing closed-source multiphysics simulation software (Gaston et al., 'Journal of Open Research Software' vol. 2, article e10, 2014). In March 2014, the MOOSE framework was released under an open source license on GitHub, significantly expandin...

  14. Positioning Mauritius as a Knowledge Hub in the Context of Globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Gokulsing

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge is the most valued commodity in the global economy. Since 2005, it has been proposed to develop Mauritius into a knowledge hub and a centre of higher learning, thus meeting the needs of an increasingly competitive, knowledge-based and globalised economy. Therefore, this paper provides an understanding of the higher education system in Mauritius. Secondly, it explores the interconnection between globalisation and higher education in Mauritius. Thirdly, it also focuses the challenges ...

  15. A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This complex connectivity between the drive components was found to be very difficult to model using traditional finite- element methods...components of the ARES could be accurately modeled using finite- elements , modeling the connectivity between the components was found to be significantly...ARL-RP-0592 ● Mar 2017 US Army Research Laboratory A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison by Robert P

  16. Assessing inspection sensitivity as it relates to damage tolerance in composite rotor hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk

    2001-08-01

    Increasing niche applications, growing international markets, and the emergence of advanced rotorcraft technology are expected to greatly increase the population of helicopters over the next decade. In terms of fuselage fatigue, helicopters show similar trends as fixed-wing aircraft. The highly unsteady loads experienced by rotating wings not only directly affect components in the dynamic systems but are also transferred to the fixed airframe structure. Expanded use of rotorcraft has focused attention on the use of new materials and the optimization of maintenance practices. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center (AANC) at Sandia National Labs has joined with Bell Helicopter andother agencies in the rotorcraft industry to evaluate nondestructive inspection (NDI) capabilities in light of the damage tolerance of assorted rotorcraft structure components. Currently, the program's emphasis is on composite rotor hubs. The rotorcraft industry is constantly evaluating new types of lightweight composite materials that not only enhance the safety and reliability of rotor components but also improve performance and extended operating life as well. Composite rotor hubs have led to the use of bearingless rotor systems that are less complex and require less maintenance than their predecessors. The test facility described in this paper allows the structural stability and damage tolerance of composite hubs to be evaluated using realistic flight load spectrums of centrifugal force and bending loads. NDI was integrated into the life-cycle fatigue tests in order to evaluate flaw detection sensitivity simultaneously wiht residual strength and general rotor hub peformance. This paper will describe the evolving use of damage tolerance analysis (DTA) to direct and improve rotorcraft maintenance along with the related use of nondestructive inspections to manage helicopter safety. OVeralll, the data from this project will provide information to improve the producibility, inspectability

  17. Identification of hub genes related to silicone-induced immune response in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaolu; Zhou, Yiwen; Liu, Wenhui; Li, Haizhou; Liang, Xiao; Jin, Rui; Du, Hengyu; He, Jizhou; Chai, Bangda; Duan, Ran; Li, Qingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Silicone implants are used widely in the field of plastic surgery and are used in a large population. However, their safety profile, especially the silicone-induced immune response, has been a major concern for plastic surgeons for decades. It has been hypothesized that there is a cause and effect relation between silicone and immunity, but this is controversial. The objective of the present study was to determine the hub genes and key pathways related to silicone implant–induced immune respo...

  18. A New Spin on Library Media Centers: The Hub of the School with the Help of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Linda R.

    2005-01-01

    Library media centers can evolve into technological, informational, and recreational hub of schools and can help technophobes access their many resources. A greater and better understanding of what it is exactly that library media specialists do can thus be achieved.

  19. Borrowing from behavioural science: a novel method for the analysis of indirect temporal connectivity at airport hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budde, A.; Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel empirical method that quantifies indirect temporal connectivity at airport hubs and overcomes certain limitations of existing methodology. Employing a pattern recognition algorithm, originally developed for behavioural research, we analysed schedules at Frankfurt and London

  20. The air transportation hub-and-spoke design problem: comparison between a continuous and a discrete solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guina Sotomayor Alzamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hub-and-spoke network design problem, also known as the hub location problem, aims to find the concentration points in a given network flow so that the sum of the distances of the linkages is minimized. In this work, we compare discrete solutions of this problem, given by the branch-and-cut method applied to the p-hub median model, with continuous solutions, given by the hyperbolic smoothing technique applied to a min-sum-min model. Computational experiments for particular instances of the Brazilian air transportation system, with the number of hubs varying from 2 to 8, are conducted with the support of a discretization heuristic and the Voronoi diagram.

  1. Long-term variability of wind patterns at hub-height over Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J.; Jeon, W.; Choi, Y.; Souri, A.

    2017-12-01

    Wind energy is getting more attention because of its environmentally friendly attributes. Texas is a state with significant capacity and number of wind turbines. Wind power generation is significantly affected by wind patterns, and it is important to understand this seasonal and decadal variability for long-term power generation from wind turbines. This study focused on the trends of changes in wind pattern and its strength at two hub-heights (80 m and 110 m) over 30-years (1986 to 2015). We only analyzed summer data(June to September) because of concentrated electricity usage in Texas. We extracted hub-height wind data (U and V components) from the three-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction-North American Regional Reanalysis (NCEP-NARR) and classified wind patterns properly by using nonhierarchical K-means method. Hub-height wind patterns in summer seasons of 1986 to 2015 were classified in six classes at day and seven classes at night. Mean wind speed was 4.6 ms-1 at day and 5.4 ms-1 at night, but showed large variability in time and space. We combined each cluster's frequencies and wind speed tendencies with large scale atmospheric circulation features and quantified the amount of wind power generation.

  2. Application of Sequential Quadratic Programming to Minimize Smart Active Flap Rotor Hub Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Leyland, Jane

    2014-01-01

    In an analytical study, SMART active flap rotor hub loads have been minimized using nonlinear programming constrained optimization methodology. The recently developed NLPQLP system (Schittkowski, 2010) that employs Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) as its core algorithm was embedded into a driver code (NLP10x10) specifically designed to minimize active flap rotor hub loads (Leyland, 2014). Three types of practical constraints on the flap deflections have been considered. To validate the current application, two other optimization methods have been used: i) the standard, linear unconstrained method, and ii) the nonlinear Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method with constraints. The new software code NLP10x10 has been systematically checked out. It has been verified that NLP10x10 is functioning as desired. The following are briefly covered in this paper: relevant optimization theory; implementation of the capability of minimizing a metric of all, or a subset, of the hub loads as well as the capability of using all, or a subset, of the flap harmonics; and finally, solutions for the SMART rotor. The eventual goal is to implement NLP10x10 in a real-time wind tunnel environment.

  3. Static and Dynamic DNA Loops form AP-1-Bound Activation Hubs during Macrophage Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanstiel, Douglas H; Van Bortle, Kevin; Spacek, Damek; Hess, Gaelen T; Shamim, Muhammad Saad; Machol, Ido; Love, Michael I; Aiden, Erez Lieberman; Bassik, Michael C; Snyder, Michael P

    2017-09-21

    The three-dimensional arrangement of the human genome comprises a complex network of structural and regulatory chromatin loops important for coordinating changes in transcription during human development. To better understand the mechanisms underlying context-specific 3D chromatin structure and transcription during cellular differentiation, we generated comprehensive in situ Hi-C maps of DNA loops in human monocytes and differentiated macrophages. We demonstrate that dynamic looping events are regulatory rather than structural in nature and uncover widespread coordination of dynamic enhancer activity at preformed and acquired DNA loops. Enhancer-bound loop formation and enhancer activation of preformed loops together form multi-loop activation hubs at key macrophage genes. Activation hubs connect 3.4 enhancers per promoter and exhibit a strong enrichment for activator protein 1 (AP-1)-binding events, suggesting that multi-loop activation hubs involving cell-type-specific transcription factors represent an important class of regulatory chromatin structures for the spatiotemporal control of transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preservation of structural brain network hubs is associated with less severe post-stroke aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Kocher, Madison; Nesland, Travis; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Post-stroke aphasia is typically associated with ischemic damage to cortical areas or with loss of connectivity among spared brain regions. It remains unclear whether the participation of spared brain regions as networks hubs affects the severity of aphasia. We evaluated language performance and magnetic resonance imaging from 44 participants with chronic aphasia post-stroke. The individual structural brain connectomes were constructed from diffusion tensor. Hub regions were defined in accordance with the rich club classification and studied in relation with language performance. Number of remaining left hemisphere rich club nodes was associated with aphasia, including comprehension, repetition and naming sub-scores. Importantly, among participants with relative preservation of regions of interest for language, aphasia severity was lessened if the region was not only spared, but also participated in the remaining network as a rich club node: Brodmann area (BA) 44/45 - repetition (p = 0.009), BA 39 - repetition (p = 0.045) and naming (p hubs is directly associated with aphasia severity after stroke.

  5. Mapping putative hubs in human, chimpanzee and rhesus macaque connectomes via diffusion tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longchuan; Hu, Xiaoping; Preuss, Todd M; Glasser, Matthew F; Damen, Frederick W; Qiu, Yuxuan; Rilling, James

    2013-10-15

    Mapping anatomical brain networks with graph-theoretic analysis of diffusion tractography has recently gained popularity, because of its presumed value in understanding brain function. However, this approach has seldom been used to compare brain connectomes across species, which may provide insights into brain evolution. Here, we employed a data-driven approach to compare interregional brain connections across three primate species: 1) the intensively studied rhesus macaque, 2) our closest living primate relative, the chimpanzee, and 3) humans. Specifically, we first used random parcellations and surface-based probabilistic diffusion tractography to derive the brain networks of the three species under various network densities and resolutions. We then compared the characteristics of the networks using graph-theoretic measures. In rhesus macaques, our tractography-defined hubs showed reasonable overlap with hubs previously identified using anterograde and retrograde tracer data. Across all three species, hubs were largely symmetric in the two hemispheres and were consistently identified in medial parietal, insular, retrosplenial cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, suggesting a conserved structural architecture within these regions. However, species differences were observed in the inferior parietal cortex, polar and medial prefrontal cortices. The potential significance of these interspecies differences is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Left Frontal Hub Connectivity during Memory Performance Supports Reserve in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Hartmann, Julia C; Taylor, Alexander N W; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Buerger, Katharina; Kambeitz-Ilankovic, Lana M; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Mueller, Claudia; Catak, Cihan; Janowitz, Daniel; Stahl, Robert; Dichgans, Martin; Duering, Marco; Ewers, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reserve in aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined as maintaining cognition at a relatively high level in the presence of neurodegeneration, an ability often associated with higher education among other life factors. Recent evidence suggests that higher resting-state functional connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, specifically the left frontal cortex (LFC) hub, contributes to higher reserve. Following up these previous resting-state fMRI findings, we probed memory-task related functional connectivity of the LFC hub as a neural substrate of reserve. In elderly controls (CN, n = 37) and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 17), we assessed global connectivity of the LFC hub during successful face-name association learning, using generalized psychophysiological interaction analyses. Reserve was quantified as residualized memory performance, accounted for gender and proxies of neurodegeneration (age, hippocampus atrophy, and APOE genotype). We found that greater education was associated with higher LFC-connectivity in both CN and MCI during successful memory. Furthermore, higher LFC-connectivity predicted higher residualized memory (i.e., reserve). These results suggest that higher LFC-connectivity contributes to reserve in both healthy and pathological aging.

  7. Alternative methods of estimating hub-height wind speed for small wind turbine performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziter, Brett

    Current industry standards for evaluating wind turbine power performance require erecting a meteorological mast on site to obtain reference measurements of hub-height wind speed. New considerations for small wind turbines (SWTs) offer the alternative of using an anemometer extending from a lower elevation on the turbine tower. In either case, SWT owners face questions and impracticalities when applying this standard in-situ. Alternative methods of predicting hub-height wind speed for SWT performance evaluation have been assessed experimentally using a Bergey XL.1 SWT collocated with a meteorological mast. Findings indicate that vertical extrapolation can increase the accuracy of tower-mounted anemometry for predicting hub-height wind speed. It is recommended to use concurrent wind speed measurements from anemometers at two elevations to develop site-specific wind shear parameters. Three-dimensional wind speed data from a sonic anemometer were used alongside a theoretical model to determine the optimal location for the topmost anemometer but results were inconclusive.

  8. Characteristics of steady vibration in a rotating hub-beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Caishan; Ma, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A rotating beam features a puzzling character in which its frequencies and modal shapes may vary with the hub's inertia and its rotating speed. To highlight the essential nature behind the vibration phenomena, we analyze the steady vibration of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam with a quasi-steady-state stretch. Newton's law is used to derive the equations governing the beam's elastic motion and the hub's rotation. A combination of these equations results in a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) that fully reflects the mutual interaction between the two kinds of motion. Via the Fourier series expansion within a finite interval of time, we reduce the PDE into an infinite system of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) in spatial domain. We further nondimensionalize the ODE and discretize it via a difference method. The frequencies and modal shapes of a general rotating beam are then determined numerically. For a low-speed beam where the ignorance of geometric stiffening is feasible, the beam's vibration characteristics are solved analytically. We validate our numerical method and the analytical solutions by comparing with either the past experiments or the past numerical findings reported in existing literature. Finally, systematic simulations are performed to demonstrate how the beam's eigenfrequencies vary with the hub's inertia and rotating speed.

  9. FROM PRE-OIL SETTLEMENT TO POST-OIL HUB: The Urban Transformation of Doha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wiedmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since oil production commenced in the middle of the 20th century Qatar's capital Doha witnessed a rapid urbanisation period. Today, new development strategies, which have been implemented to diversify Qatar's economy, have led to a new urban transformation process with the vision to establish Doha as hub within global networks. Economic transformation processes in Qatar have always caused new structures within its society, which in turn affected urban developments. After decades of urbanisation based on the export of oil, the introduction of a hub vision at the end of the 1990s marked a new process that has been rethinking urbanism in Qatar. Although current developments have attracted worldwide attention, there has been rather little scientific reflection as to how current urbanism in the Gulf should be understood in relation to its past and projected future. Therefore, this paper seeks to investigate the various factors impacting Doha's urban environment during economic transformation processes. Each economc transformation has had a large impact  on the structure of the city’s society as well as its built environment. The curren transformation process can still be considered at its beginning. In order to understand the impact of contemporary economic diversification strategies, the city’s past urbanisation stages and their spatial development factors had to be analysed. All in all four distinct phases of urbanism can be distinguished in the case of Doha: The pre-oil settlement, the modernisation period, the oil city and the globalised hub.

  10. Continuous Integration for Concurrent MOOSE Framework and Application Development on GitHub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Slaughter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For the past several years, Idaho National Laboratory’s MOOSE framework team has employed modern software engineering techniques (continuous integration, joint application/framework source code repos- itories, automated regression testing, etc. in developing closed-source multiphysics simulation software (Gaston et al., 'Journal of Open Research Software' vol. 2, article e10, 2014. In March 2014, the MOOSE framework was released under an open source license on GitHub, significantly expanding and diversifying the pool of current active and potential future contributors on the project. Despite this recent growth, the same philosophy of concurrent framework and application development continues to guide the project’s development roadmap. Several specific practices, including techniques for managing multiple repositories, conducting automated regression testing, and implementing a cascading build process are discussed in this short paper. Special attention is given to describing the manner in which these practices naturally synergize with the GitHub API and GitHub-specific features such as issue tracking, Pull Requests, and project forks.

  11. Identification of hub genes related to silicone-induced immune response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolu; Zhou, Yiwen; Liu, Wenhui; Li, Haizhou; Liang, Xiao; Jin, Rui; Du, Hengyu; He, Jizhou; Chai, Bangda; Duan, Ran; Li, Qingfeng

    2017-11-21

    Silicone implants are used widely in the field of plastic surgery and are used in a large population. However, their safety profile, especially the silicone-induced immune response, has been a major concern for plastic surgeons for decades. It has been hypothesized that there is a cause and effect relation between silicone and immunity, but this is controversial. The objective of the present study was to determine the hub genes and key pathways related to silicone implant-induced immune responses in a rat model. In addition to cluster and enrichment analyses, we used weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to examine the gene expression profiles in a systematic context. A total five genes ( Fes , Aif1 , Gata3 , Tlr6 , Tlr2 ) were identified as hub genes that are most likely related to the silicone-induced immune response, four of which ( Aif1 , Gata3 , Tlr6 , Tlr2 ) have been associated with autoimmunity as target genes or disease markers. The Toll-like receptor signaling pathway ( p silicone-implanted skin samples. The results indicate that silicone implants might trigger the localized immune response, as various immune reaction genes were detected after silicone implantation. The identified five hub genes will hopefully serve as novel therapeutic targets for silicone-related complications and the associated autoimmune diseases.

  12. GeoTrust Hub: A Platform For Sharing And Reproducing Geoscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, T.; Tarboton, D. G.; Goodall, J. L.; Choi, E.; Bhatt, A.; Peckham, S. D.; Foster, I.; Ton That, D. H.; Essawy, B.; Yuan, Z.; Dash, P. K.; Fils, G.; Gan, T.; Fadugba, O. I.; Saxena, A.; Valentic, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent requirements of scholarly communication emphasize the reproducibility of scientific claims. Text-based research papers are considered poor mediums to establish reproducibility. Papers must be accompanied by "research objects", aggregation of digital artifacts that together with the paper provide an authoritative record of a piece of research. We will present GeoTrust Hub (http://geotrusthub.org), a platform for creating, sharing, and reproducing reusable research objects. GeoTrust Hub provides tools for scientists to create `geounits'--reusable research objects. Geounits are self-contained, annotated, and versioned containers that describe and package computational experiments in an efficient and light-weight manner. Geounits can be shared on public repositories such as HydroShare and FigShare, and also using their respective APIs reproduced on provisioned clouds. The latter feature enables science applications to have a lifetime beyond sharing, wherein they can be independently verified and trust be established as they are repeatedly reused. Through research use cases from several geoscience laboratories across the United States, we will demonstrate how tools provided from GeoTrust Hub along with Hydroshare as its public repository for geounits is advancing the state of reproducible research in the geosciences. For each use case, we will address different computational reproducibility requirements. Our first use case will be an example of setup reproducibility which enables a scientist to set up and reproduce an output from a model with complex configuration and development environments. Our second use case will be an example of algorithm/data reproducibility, where in a shared data science model/dataset can be substituted with an alternate one to verify model output results, and finally an example of interactive reproducibility, in which an experiment is dependent on specific versions of data to produce the result. Toward this we will use software and data

  13. Brokered virtual hubs for facilitating access and use of geospatial Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Latre, Miguel; Kamali, Nargess; Brumana, Raffaella; Braumann, Stefan; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Open Data is a major trend in current information technology scenario and it is often publicised as one of the pillars of the information society in the near future. In particular, geospatial Open Data have a huge potential also for Earth Sciences, through the enablement of innovative applications and services integrating heterogeneous information. However, open does not mean usable. As it was recognized at the very beginning of the Web revolution, many different degrees of openness exist: from simple sharing in a proprietary format to advanced sharing in standard formats and including semantic information. Therefore, to fully unleash the potential of geospatial Open Data, advanced infrastructures are needed to increase the data openness degree, enhancing their usability. In October 2014, the ENERGIC OD (European NEtwork for Redistributing Geospatial Information to user Communities - Open Data) project, funded by the European Union under the Competitiveness and Innovation framework Programme (CIP), has started. In response to the EU call, the general objective of the project is to "facilitate the use of open (freely available) geographic data from different sources for the creation of innovative applications and services through the creation of Virtual Hubs". The ENERGIC OD Virtual Hubs aim to facilitate the use of geospatial Open Data by lowering and possibly removing the main barriers which hampers geo-information (GI) usage by end-users and application developers. Data and services heterogeneity is recognized as one of the major barriers to Open Data (re-)use. It imposes end-users and developers to spend a lot of effort in accessing different infrastructures and harmonizing datasets. Such heterogeneity cannot be completely removed through the adoption of standard specifications for service interfaces, metadata and data models, since different infrastructures adopt different standards to answer to specific challenges and to address specific use-cases. Thus

  14. Functional brain hubs and their test-retest reliability: a multiband resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xu-Hong; Xia, Ming-Rui; Xu, Ting; Dai, Zheng-Jia; Cao, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Hai-Jing; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng; He, Yong

    2013-12-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) has emerged as a promising neuroimaging technique used to identify global hubs of the human brain functional connectome. However, most R-fMRI studies on functional hubs mainly utilize traditional R-fMRI data with relatively low sampling rates (e.g., repetition time [TR]=2 s). R-fMRI data scanned with higher sampling rates are important for the characterization of reliable functional connectomes because they can provide temporally complementary information about functional integration among brain regions and simultaneously reduce the effects of high frequency physiological noise. Here, we employed a publicly available multiband R-fMRI dataset with a sub-second sampling rate (TR=645 ms) to identify global hubs in the human voxel-wise functional networks, and further examined their test-retest (TRT) reliability over scanning time. We showed that the functional hubs of human brain networks were mainly located at the default-mode regions (e.g., medial prefrontal and parietal cortex as well as the lateral parietal and temporal cortex) and the sensorimotor and visual cortex. These hub regions were highly anatomically distance-dependent, where short-range and long-range hubs were primarily located at the primary cortex and the multimodal association cortex, respectively. We found that most functional hubs exhibited fair to good TRT reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients. Interestingly, our analysis suggested that a 6-minute scan duration was able to reliably detect these functional hubs. Further comparison analysis revealed that these results were approximately consistent with those obtained using traditional R-fMRI scans of the same subjects with TR=2500 ms, but several regions (e.g., lateral frontal cortex, paracentral lobule and anterior temporal lobe) exhibited different TRT reliability. Finally, we showed that several regions (including the medial/lateral prefrontal cortex and lateral temporal cortex) were

  15. The FUTUREVOLC Supersite's e-Infrastructure - A multidisciplinary data hub and data service for Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sverrisson, Sverrir Th.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur F.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Arnarsson, Ólafur S.; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna Ýr; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi Th.; Hjartansson, Kristján R.

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC volanological supersite will establish a data hub and dataservice, where researchers, hazard managers and other stake holders can freely obtain access to multidisciplinary data and products on activity, unrest and eruptions at Icelandic volcanoes. The supersite is firmly founded on close interaction between the main Icelandic volcanological research and monitoring institutions, in coordination with expertise from European researchers participating in FUTUREVOLC. The hub is located at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), an institution responsible for monitoring and archiving data on all natural hazards in Iceland and, which also has a mandate as the state volcano observatory. This association will ensure a long-term sustainable data service. The data accessible at the hub include in-situ and space-based observations, products and models from all the relevant disciplines contributing to volcanological research and local as well as cross-border hazard management, i.e. Earth sciences, atmospheric science, hydrology, remote sensing and space science. Access to the data will be in compliance with the access policy of the GEO (Group on Earth Observations), providing registered users with easy and timely access to data and products of documented quality. This commitment has already led to the acceptance of FUTUREVOLC as a permanent geohazard supersite by CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), which will ensure access to additional satellite data and products on Icelandic volcanoes. To facilitate services to seismological data at the supersite hub, the IMO is reconstructing its existing data base and utilizing the SeisComp3 software to manage waveform and parameter data. The accompanying ArcLink component will be used to provide access to event data and waveforms. Access to GPS data will be provided by the GSAC web service which has been installed at the IMO through collaboration with UNAVCO. If appropriate, the format and data base

  16. Complementarity, relation-specific investment, and opportunism : explaining asymmetric governance modes in hub-and-spoke networks within the enterprise application software industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kude, Thomas; Dibbern, Jens; Heinzl, Armin

    2008-01-01

    In the enterprise application software industry, dominant system vendors (hubs) have formed strategic partnerships with small software companies (spokes), resulting in the emergence of hub-and-spoke networks. Based upon the concept of software stacks, we argue that the governance mechanisms applied by hub and spokes depend on the complementarity between hub’s and spoke’s resources. Specifically, we draw on the relational view and combine it with the resource dependence theory to develop a the...

  17. Protein interaction networks as metric spaces: a novel perspective on distribution of hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In the post-genomic era, a central and overarching question in the analysis of protein-protein interaction networks continues to be whether biological characteristics and functions of proteins such as lethality, physiological malfunctions and malignancy are intimately linked to the topological role proteins play in the network as a mathematical structure. One of the key features that have implicitly been presumed is the existence of hubs, highly connected proteins considered to play a crucial role in biological networks. We explore the structure of protein interaction networks of a number of organisms as metric spaces and show that hubs are non randomly positioned and, from a distance point of view, centrally located. Results By analysing how the human functional protein interaction network, the human signalling network, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli protein-protein interaction networks from various databases are distributed as metric spaces, we found that proteins interact radially through a central node, high degree proteins coagulate in the centre of the network, and those far away from the centre have low degree. We further found that the distribution of proteins from the centre is in some hierarchy of importance and has biological significance. Conclusions We conclude that structurally, protein interaction networks are mathematical entities that share properties between organisms but not necessarily with other networks that follow power-law. We therefore conclude that (i) if there are hubs defined by degree, they are not distributed randomly; (ii) zones closest to the centre of the network are enriched for critically important proteins and are also functionally very specialised for specific 'house keeping’ functions; (iii) proteins closest to the network centre are functionally less dispensable and may present good targets for therapy development; and (iv) network biology requires its own network theory

  18. Protein interaction networks as metric spaces: a novel perspective on distribution of hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhal, Emad; Gamieldien, Junaid; Mwambene, Eric C

    2014-01-18

    In the post-genomic era, a central and overarching question in the analysis of protein-protein interaction networks continues to be whether biological characteristics and functions of proteins such as lethality, physiological malfunctions and malignancy are intimately linked to the topological role proteins play in the network as a mathematical structure. One of the key features that have implicitly been presumed is the existence of hubs, highly connected proteins considered to play a crucial role in biological networks. We explore the structure of protein interaction networks of a number of organisms as metric spaces and show that hubs are non randomly positioned and, from a distance point of view, centrally located. By analysing how the human functional protein interaction network, the human signalling network, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli protein-protein interaction networks from various databases are distributed as metric spaces, we found that proteins interact radially through a central node, high degree proteins coagulate in the centre of the network, and those far away from the centre have low degree. We further found that the distribution of proteins from the centre is in some hierarchy of importance and has biological significance. We conclude that structurally, protein interaction networks are mathematical entities that share properties between organisms but not necessarily with other networks that follow power-law. We therefore conclude that (i) if there are hubs defined by degree, they are not distributed randomly; (ii) zones closest to the centre of the network are enriched for critically important proteins and are also functionally very specialised for specific 'house keeping' functions; (iii) proteins closest to the network centre are functionally less dispensable and may present good targets for therapy development; and (iv) network biology requires its own network theory modelled on actual biological evidence

  19. Benefits of Two Turbine Rotor Diameters and Hub Heights in the Same Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stanley, Andrew P. J. [Brigham Young University; Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2018-01-12

    Significant turbine-wake interactions greatly reduce power output in a wind farm. If different turbine hub heights and rotor diameters are included in the same wind farm, the wake interference in the farm will be reduced, resulting in a lower cost of energy (COE) than a farm with identical turbines. In this paper, we present a method to model wind farm COE in farms with hub heights and rotor diameters that vary across the wind farm. We also demonstrate how to optimize these wind farms to minimize COE. The results show that COE can be greatly reduced in wind farms with non-homogeneous turbines, especially when the turbines are spaced close together. For a unidirectional wind rose, including different turbine design in the wind farm has a similar decrease in COE to spreading the wind turbines farther apart. When the rotor diameter and hub height of the wind turbines in a farm are optimized uniformly, a COE decrease of 4% to 13% (depending on the grid spacing and wind shear exponent) is achieved compared to the baseline. When the rotor diameter and turbine heights are optimized non-uniformly, with two different diameters and heights throughout the farm, there is a COE decrease of 22% to 41% compared to the baseline. For a more spread wind rose with a dominant probability from the west, there is a COE decrease between 3% and 10% for uniformly optimized rotor diameter and height compared to the baseline. With two optimized rotor diameters and heights through the farm, a COE decrease of 3% to 19% is achieved. For a similar wind rose shifted such that the dominant wind direction is from the northwest, a COE decrease between 3% and 10% results from uniformly optimized wind turbines compared to the baseline. A COE decrease of 3% to 17% compared to the baseline occurs with two different turbines are optimized throughout the wind farm.

  20. Transfer hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontekoning, Y.; Kreuzberger, I.; Van de Graaf, A.

    2006-01-01

    Road transport systems suffer from congested roads,environmental legislation, and the threat of pay-as-you-go systems. All grist to the mill as far as the railways are concerned.Unfortunately cargo transport by rail is not exactly renowned for its flexibility and reliability, and the quality offered

  1. A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Operation System Activities in Airline Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Sanya; Chung, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Commercial aircraft undergo a significant number of maintenance and logistical activities during the turnaround operation at the departure gate. By analyzing the sequencing of these activities, more effective turnaround contingency plans may be developed for logistical and maintenance disruptions. Turnaround contingency plans are particularly important as any kind of delay in a hub based system may cascade into further delays with subsequent connections. The contingency sequencing of the maintenance and logistical turnaround activities were analyzed using a combined network and computer simulation modeling approach. Experimental analysis of both current and alternative policies provides a framework to aid in more effective tactical decision making.

  2. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  3. Revealing Long-Range Interconnected Hubs in Human Chromatin Interaction Data Using Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, R. E.; Arneodo, A.; Jensen, P.; Audit, B.

    2013-09-01

    We use graph theory to analyze chromatin interaction (Hi-C) data in the human genome. We show that a key functional feature of the genome—“master” replication origins—corresponds to DNA loci of maximal network centrality. These loci form a set of interconnected hubs both within chromosomes and between different chromosomes. Our results open the way to a fruitful use of graph theory concepts to decipher DNA structural organization in relation to genome functions such as replication and transcription. This quantitative information should prove useful to discriminate between possible polymer models of nuclear organization.

  4. Guiding Principles for Data Architecture to Support the Pathways Community HUB Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Bernard P; Redding, Sarah; Leath, Brenda A; Carter, Ernest L; Russell, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The Pathways Community HUB Model provides a unique strategy to effectively supplement health care services with social services needed to overcome barriers for those most at risk of poor health outcomes. Pathways are standardized measurement tools used to define and track health and social issues from identification through to a measurable completion point. The HUB use Pathways to coordinate agencies and service providers in the community to eliminate the inefficiencies and duplication that exist among them. Experience with the Model has brought out the need for better information technology solutions to support implementation of the Pathways themselves through decision-support tools for care coordinators and other users to track activities and outcomes, and to facilitate reporting. Here we provide a basis for discussing recommendations for such a data infrastructure by developing a conceptual model that formalizes the Pathway concept underlying current implementations. The main contribution is a set of core recommendations as a framework for developing and implementing a data architecture to support implementation of the Pathways Community HUB Model. The objective is to present a tool for communities interested in adopting the Model to learn from and to adapt in their own development and implementation efforts. Experience with the Community Health Access Project (CHAP) data base system (the core implementation of the Model) has identified several issues and remedies that have been developed to address these issues. Based on analysis of issues and remedies, we present several key features for a data architecture meeting the just mentioned recommendations. Presentation of features is followed by a practical guide to their implementation allowing an organization to consider either tailoring off-the-shelf generic systems to meet the requirements or offerings that are specialized for community-based care coordination. Looking to future extensions, we discuss the

  5. Single Allocation Hub-and-spoke Networks Design Based on Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Pingle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitated single allocation hub-and-spoke networks can be abstracted as a mixed integer linear programming model equation with three variables. Introducing an improved ant colony algorithm, which has six local search operators. Meanwhile, introducing the "Solution Pair" concept to decompose and optimize the composition of the problem, the problem can become more specific and effectively meet the premise and advantages of using ant colony algorithm. Finally, location simulation experiment is made according to Australia Post data to demonstrate this algorithm has good efficiency and stability for solving this problem.

  6. Zeebrugge as a hub for gas flows in north west Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeire, J. [Distrigaz a.s., (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    The paper relates to the Belgian gas industry, and the role of Zeebrugge as a hub for gas flows in northwestern Europe. Great emphasis and expectations are placed nowadays by the industry as well as by the authorities on the benefits to be derived from increasing the interconnections within the European gas grids and with producing facilities. The role of the Belgian Distrigaz in this connection is discussed. All studies and preparatory work are on schedule to put the required transit capacity though Belgium is in place by October 1998. 11 figs.

  7. A review of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) as a competitive South-East Asia hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardai, A. M.; Er, A. Z.; Johari, M. K.; Noor, A. A. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL) against its competitors in Southeast Asia countries. Due to the geographical and market relevance issues, several airport hubs around KUL are chosen for comparison: Changi International Airport (SIN), Suvarnabhumi International Airport (BKK) and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is used to evaluate the comparative situation between the airports in relation to changing industry and market environment. The study discovers some competitive edges for KUL. Nonetheless, the airport still has to be improved to face future challenges and it is under imminent threat of new aircraft technology.

  8. Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of a Low Power Hub Motor Using Feedforward Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşir, Mehmet; Bayır, Raif; Uyaroğlu, Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Low power hub motors are widely used in electromechanical systems such as electrical bicycles and solar vehicles due to their robustness and compact structure. Such systems driven by hub motors (in wheel motors) encounter previously defined and undefined faults under operation. It may inevitably lead to the interruption of the electromechanical system operation; hence, economic losses take place at certain times. Therefore, in order to maintain system operation sustainability, the motor should be precisely monitored and the faults are diagnosed considering various significant motor parameters. In this study, the artificial feedforward backpropagation neural network approach is proposed to real-time monitor and diagnose the faults of the hub motor by measuring seven main system parameters. So as to construct a necessary model, we trained the model, using a data set consisting of 4160 samples where each has 7 parameters, by the MATLAB environment until the best model is obtained. The results are encouraging and meaningful for the specific motor and the developed model may be applicable to other types of hub motors. The prosperous model of the whole system was embedded into Arduino Due microcontroller card and the mobile real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis system prototype for hub motor was designed and manufactured. PMID:26819590

  9. Design and Analysis of a Novel Speed-Changing Wheel Hub with an Integrated Electric Motor for Electric Bicycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an innovative electromechanical device which integrates a brushless DC (BLDC hub motor with a speed-changing wheel hub stored on the rear wheel of an electric bicycle. It combines a power source and a speed-changing mechanism to simultaneously provide functions of power generation and transmission for electric bicycles. As part of the proposed integrated device, the wheel hub consists of a basic planetary gear train providing three forward speeds including a low-speed gear, a direct drive, and a high-speed gear. Each gear is manually controlled by the shift control sleeve to selectively engage or disengage four pawl-and-ratchet clutches based on its clutching sequence table. The number of gear teeth of each gear element of the wheel hub is synthesized. The BLDC hub motor is an exterior-rotor-type permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Two-dimensional finite-element analysis (FEA software is employed to facilitate the motor design and performance analysis. An analysis of the power transmission path at each gear is provided to verify the validity of the proposed design. The results of this work are beneficial to the embodiment, design, and development of novel electromechanical devices for the power and transmission systems of electric bicycles.

  10. Analysis of 2D Torus and Hub Topologies of 100Mb/s Ethernet for the Whitney Commodity Computing Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Kevin T.; Fineberg, Samuel A.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A variety of different network technologies and topologies are currently being evaluated as part of the Whitney Project. This paper reports on the implementation and performance of a Fast Ethernet network configured in a 4x4 2D torus topology in a testbed cluster of 'commodity' Pentium Pro PCs. Several benchmarks were used for performance evaluation: an MPI point to point message passing benchmark, an MPI collective communication benchmark, and the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2.2 (NPB2). Our results show that for point to point communication on an unloaded network, the hub and 1 hop routes on the torus have about the same bandwidth and latency. However, the bandwidth decreases and the latency increases on the torus for each additional route hop. Collective communication benchmarks show that the torus provides roughly four times more aggregate bandwidth and eight times faster MPI barrier synchronizations than a hub based network for 16 processor systems. Finally, the SOAPBOX benchmarks, which simulate real-world CFD applications, generally demonstrated substantially better performance on the torus than on the hub. In the few cases the hub was faster, the difference was negligible. In total, our experimental results lead to the conclusion that for Fast Ethernet networks, the torus topology has better performance and scales better than a hub based network.

  11. Human factors related to time-dependent infection control measures: "Scrub the hub" for venous catheters and feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, Lindsay; Epstein, Elizabeth; Blackman, Amy; Jin, Li; Kaufman, David A

    2017-06-01

    The use of catheter hub decontamination protocols is a common practice to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections. However, few data exist on the most effective disinfection procedure prior to hub access accounting for human factors and time-dependent practices in real time in the clinical setting. An observational design with a multimodal intervention was used in this study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Direct observations on nurse compliance of scrub times with decontamination when accessing of venous catheter and feeding tube hubs were conducted during 3 phases: (1) baseline period prior to any interventions; (2) during an educational intervention phase; and (3) during a timer intervention period when using a timing device, either an actual timer or music button. Overall, both education and the timing device interventions increased the mean scrub time ± SD of venous catheter hubs. Mean baseline scrub times of 10 ± 5 seconds were lower compared with 23 ± 12 seconds after educational intervention (P music button use (P observed with scrub times of feeding tubes. Time-based infection control measures, such as scrubbing the hub, must be implemented with aids that qualify specific times to account for human factors, to ensure adherence to time-dependent measures aimed at decreasing nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hub nodes in the network of human Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways: Characteristics and potential as drug targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. MD Aksam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in the cross-talk between ERK1/2, ERK5, JNK, and P38 signalling pathways integrate the network of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways. Graph theory-based approach is used to construct the network of MAPK pathways, and to observe the network organisational principles. Connectivity pattern reveals rich-club among the hubs, enabling structural ordering. A positive correlation between the degree of the nodes and percentage of essential protein showed hubs are central to the network architecture and function. Furthermore, attributes like connectivity, inter/intra-pathway class, position in the pathway, protein type and subcellular localization of the essential and non-essential proteins are characterizing complex functional roles. Shared properties of 34 cancerous essential proteins lack to be drug targets. We identified the seven nodes overlapping properties of the hub, essential and causing side effects on targeting them. We exploit the strategy of cancerous, non-hub and non-essential proteins as potential drug targets and identified 4EBP1, BAD, CHOP10, GADD45, HSP27, MKP1, RNPK, MLTKa/b, cPLA2, eEF2K and elF4E. We have illustrated the implication of targeting hub nodes and proposed network-based drug targets which would cause less side effect.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of a Low Power Hub Motor Using Feedforward Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşir, Mehmet; Bayır, Raif; Uyaroğlu, Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Low power hub motors are widely used in electromechanical systems such as electrical bicycles and solar vehicles due to their robustness and compact structure. Such systems driven by hub motors (in wheel motors) encounter previously defined and undefined faults under operation. It may inevitably lead to the interruption of the electromechanical system operation; hence, economic losses take place at certain times. Therefore, in order to maintain system operation sustainability, the motor should be precisely monitored and the faults are diagnosed considering various significant motor parameters. In this study, the artificial feedforward backpropagation neural network approach is proposed to real-time monitor and diagnose the faults of the hub motor by measuring seven main system parameters. So as to construct a necessary model, we trained the model, using a data set consisting of 4160 samples where each has 7 parameters, by the MATLAB environment until the best model is obtained. The results are encouraging and meaningful for the specific motor and the developed model may be applicable to other types of hub motors. The prosperous model of the whole system was embedded into Arduino Due microcontroller card and the mobile real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis system prototype for hub motor was designed and manufactured.

  14. Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of a Low Power Hub Motor Using Feedforward Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şimşir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power hub motors are widely used in electromechanical systems such as electrical bicycles and solar vehicles due to their robustness and compact structure. Such systems driven by hub motors (in wheel motors encounter previously defined and undefined faults under operation. It may inevitably lead to the interruption of the electromechanical system operation; hence, economic losses take place at certain times. Therefore, in order to maintain system operation sustainability, the motor should be precisely monitored and the faults are diagnosed considering various significant motor parameters. In this study, the artificial feedforward backpropagation neural network approach is proposed to real-time monitor and diagnose the faults of the hub motor by measuring seven main system parameters. So as to construct a necessary model, we trained the model, using a data set consisting of 4160 samples where each has 7 parameters, by the MATLAB environment until the best model is obtained. The results are encouraging and meaningful for the specific motor and the developed model may be applicable to other types of hub motors. The prosperous model of the whole system was embedded into Arduino Due microcontroller card and the mobile real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis system prototype for hub motor was designed and manufactured.

  15. EXPANSION OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION, GRADUATE UNEMPLOYMENT AND THE KNOWLEDGE HUB IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamini Samaranayake

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the nexus between the existing university education system and graduate unemployment, and to explore the responses of successive governments to address this issue. It also examines the viability and potential of the knowledge hub as a solution to graduate unemployment. Towards this end, it argues that the solution to graduate employment lies in implementing structural changes that are concurrent to changes that are taking place at the international level in higher education. It illustrates, with the use of relevant sources, the pressing issue of graduate un- and underemployment, and identifies the mismatch between skills and requirements as a major factor contributing to intensify the crisis. It observes that strategies such as training unemployed graduates to enable them to acquire the competencies needed for the modern work place, developing systems to link them to the world of work, re-structuring the university system such that it is more concerned with quality and relevance rather than the width of knowledge imparted, and introducing job-oriented programmes could partially address this issue. It also identifies the proposal to establish a knowledge hub in Sri Lanka as constituting a long term and sustainable strategy not only to mitigate the effects of graduate un- and underemployment, but also to facilitate a lucrative source of revenue for the country.

  16. Dysregulated signaling hubs of liver lipid metabolism reveal hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunjae; Mardinoglu, Adil; Zhang, Cheng; Lee, Doheon; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-07-08

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high mortality rate and early detection of HCC is crucial for the application of effective treatment strategies. HCC is typically caused by either viral hepatitis infection or by fatty liver disease. To diagnose and treat HCC it is necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. As a major cause for development of HCC is fatty liver disease, we here investigated anomalies in regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver. We applied a tailored network-based approach to identify signaling hubs associated with regulation of this part of metabolism. Using transcriptomics data of HCC patients, we identified significant dysregulated expressions of lipid-regulated genes, across many different lipid metabolic pathways. Our findings, however, show that viral hepatitis causes HCC by a distinct mechanism, less likely involving lipid anomalies. Based on our analysis we suggest signaling hub genes governing overall catabolic or anabolic pathways, as novel drug targets for treatment of HCC that involves lipid anomalies. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Connecting myelin-related and synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia with SNP-rich gene expression hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Hedi

    2017-04-06

    Combining genome-wide mapping of SNP-rich regions in schizophrenics and gene expression data in all brain compartments across the human life span revealed that genes with promoters most frequently mutated in schizophrenia are expression hubs interacting with far more genes than the rest of the genome. We summed up the differentially methylated "expression neighbors" of genes that fall into one of 108 distinct schizophrenia-associated loci with high number of SNPs. Surprisingly, the number of expression neighbors of the genes in these loci were 35 times higher for the positively correlating genes (32 times higher for the negatively correlating ones) than for the rest of the ~16000 genes. While the genes in the 108 loci have little known impact in schizophrenia, we identified many more known schizophrenia-related important genes with a high degree of connectedness (e.g. MOBP, SYNGR1 and DGCR6), validating our approach. Both the most connected positive and negative hubs affected synapse-related genes the most, supporting the synaptic origin of schizophrenia. At least half of the top genes in both the correlating and anti-correlating categories are cancer-related, including oncogenes (RRAS and ALDOA), providing further insight into the observed inverse relationship between the two diseases.

  18. Adolescence is associated with genomically patterned consolidation of the hubs of the human brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kirstie J; Vértes, Petra E; Romero-Garcia, Rafael; Váša, František; Moutoussis, Michael; Prabhu, Gita; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Callaghan, Martina F; Wagstyl, Konrad; Rittman, Timothy; Tait, Roger; Ooi, Cinly; Suckling, John; Inkster, Becky; Fonagy, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J; Jones, Peter B; Goodyer, Ian M; Bullmore, Edward T

    2016-08-09

    How does human brain structure mature during adolescence? We used MRI to measure cortical thickness and intracortical myelination in 297 population volunteers aged 14-24 y old. We found and replicated that association cortical areas were thicker and less myelinated than primary cortical areas at 14 y. However, association cortex had faster rates of shrinkage and myelination over the course of adolescence. Age-related increases in cortical myelination were maximized approximately at the internal layer of projection neurons. Adolescent cortical myelination and shrinkage were coupled and specifically associated with a dorsoventrally patterned gene expression profile enriched for synaptic, oligodendroglial- and schizophrenia-related genes. Topologically efficient and biologically expensive hubs of the brain anatomical network had greater rates of shrinkage/myelination and were associated with overexpression of the same transcriptional profile as cortical consolidation. We conclude that normative human brain maturation involves a genetically patterned process of consolidating anatomical network hubs. We argue that developmental variation of this consolidation process may be relevant both to normal cognitive and behavioral changes and the high incidence of schizophrenia during human brain adolescence.

  19. Key hub and bottleneck genes differentiate the macrophage response to virulent and attenuated Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Killick

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is an intracellular pathogen that causes tuberculosis in cattle. Following infection, the pathogen resides and persists inside host macrophages by subverting host immune responses via a diverse range of mechanisms. Here, a high-density bovine microarray platform was used to examine the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage transcriptome response to M. bovis infection relative to infection with the attenuated vaccine strain, M. bovis Bacille Calmette–Guérin. Differentially expressed genes were identified (adjusted P-value  0.01 and interaction networks generated across an infection time course of 2, 6 and 24 h. The largest number of biological interactions was observed in the 24 h network, which exhibited scale-free network properties. The 24 h network featured a small number of key hub and bottleneck gene nodes, including IKBKE, MYC, NFKB1 and EGR1 that differentiated the macrophage response to virulent and attenuated M. bovis strains, possibly via the modulation of host cell death mechanisms. These hub and bottleneck genes represent possible targets for immunomodulation of host macrophages by virulent mycobacterial species that enable their survival within a hostile environment.

  20. Multiperiod Hierarchical Location Problem of Transit Hub in Urban Agglomeration Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid urbanization in developing countries, urban agglomeration area (UAA forms. Also, transportation demand in UAA grows rapidly and presents hierarchical feature. Therefore, it is imperative to develop models for transit hubs to guide the development of UAA and better meet the time-varying and hierarchical transportation demand. In this paper, the multiperiod hierarchical location problem of transit hub in urban agglomeration area (THUAA is studied. A hierarchical service network of THUAA with a multiflow, nested, and noncoherent structure is described. Then a multiperiod hierarchical mathematical programming model is proposed, aiming at minimizing the total demand weighted travel time. Moreover, an improved adaptive clonal selection algorithm is presented to solve the model. Both the model and algorithm are verified by the application to a real-life problem of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China. The results of different scenarios in the case show that urban population migration has a great impact on the THUAA location scheme. Sustained and appropriate urban population migration helps to reduce travel time for urban residents.

  1. Reducing Time to Science: Unidata and JupyterHub Technology Using the Jetstream Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastang, J.; Signell, R. P.; Fischer, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud computing can accelerate scientific workflows, discovery, and collaborations by reducing research and data friction. We describe the deployment of Unidata and JupyterHub technologies on the NSF-funded XSEDE Jetstream cloud. With the aid of virtual machines and Docker technology, we deploy a Unidata JupyterHub server co-located with a Local Data Manager (LDM), THREDDS data server (TDS), and RAMADDA geoscience content management system. We provide Jupyter Notebooks and the pre-built Python environments needed to run them. The notebooks can be used for instruction and as templates for scientific experimentation and discovery. We also supply a large quantity of NCEP forecast model results to allow data-proximate analysis and visualization. In addition, users can transfer data using Globus command line tools, and perform their own data-proximate analysis and visualization with Notebook technology. These data can be shared with others via a dedicated TDS server for scientific distribution and collaboration. There are many benefits of this approach. Not only is the cloud computing environment fast, reliable and scalable, but scientists can analyze, visualize, and share data using only their web browser. No local specialized desktop software or a fast internet connection is required. This environment will enable scientists to spend less time managing their software and more time doing science.

  2. Aspects of transport transit hubs construction management in coordination with object lifecycle projecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilina Nina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article involves the results of the research in the field of the initial phase in the project of the object lifecycle for urban public transportation transit hubs (TTH. The main purpose is to provide definition and justification of area parameters for spatial solution of a hub with consideration of its construction viability and sustainability of urban development. In the article there are presented the results of analytical studies of the data available in the approved Planning documentation for TTH objects listed in the short-term program of TTH construction in Moscow. The point of interest was to obtain correlations between the total area of TTH area, areas of commercial and technological use and passenger traffic value in order to define territory balance providing request from city authorities and private investors for construction project management. Also, there is presented the theoretical model as an evaluation guide that allows evaluating not only the demand of a city and its population in the development of TTH territory but also and especially the requirements for placing commercial areas inside TTH.

  3. Communication and logging hub for rapid prototyping of environmental sensors: presenting the Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.

    2017-12-01

    When desiging prototype sensors for environmental variables a critical step is a comparison campaign where the new sensor is compared to current state of the art sensors. In this step one of the headaches for researchers can be connecting their sensor to a logging or communication device. I present a simple solution: to use smartphone that scans for Bluetooth Low Energy transmissions and uploads any measurement to a data server. In this way the prototype sensor only has to transmit its measurement values over BLE, which can be done using off-the-shelf components. The sensors don't have to be physically connected to the phone, allowing for very rapid deployment of sensors in locations that have a communication hub (ie. phone) installed. The communication and logging hub consists of nothing more than a low cost Android smartphone running a dedicated app. The phone is encased in a waterproof box with a large powerbank and a solar panel. I will demonstrate this live at the Fall Meeting. By installing these phones along permanent WMO certified station locations, comparisons campaigns can use the "golden standard" from the WMO without much problems.

  4. Hexcrete Tower for Harvesting Wind Energy at Taller Hub Heights - Budget Period 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sritharan, Sri [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Interest in designing taller towers for wind energy production in the United States (U.S.) has been steadily growing. In May 2015, it was revealed that taller towers will make wind energy production a reality in all 50 states, including some states that have nearly zero renewables in their energy portfolio. Facilitating wind energy production feasibility in all 50 states will no doubt contribute to increasing the electricity produced by wind from 4.5% in 2013 to a targeted scenario of 35% by 2050 in the Wind Vision report. This project focuses on the Hexcrete tower concept developed for tall towers using High Strength Concrete (HSC) and/or Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC). Among other benefits, the Hexcrete concept overcomes transportation and logistical challenges, thus facilitating construction of towers with hub heights of 100-m (328-ft) and higher. The goal of this project is to facilitate widespread deployment of Hexcrete towers for harvesting wind energy at 120 to 140-m (394 to 459-ft) hub heights and reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of wind energy production in the U.S. The technical scope of the project includes detailed design and optimization of at least three wind turbine towers using the Hexcrete concept together with experimental validation and LCOE analyses and development of a commercialization plan.

  5. Of Hubs and Hinterlands: Cyprus as an Insular Space of Overlapping Diasporas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell King

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the metaphor of diasporic hubs and hinterlands to document and analyse the various diasporic formations that overlap and encounter each other on the divided island of Cyprus. After a review of the various ways that islands interface with migration processes and some essential historical and statistical background on Cyprus and its population, the paper considers a number of migrations/diasporas that are based on or affect the island. They include the emigration from the diasporic hub of Cyprus during the 1950s-1970s; return migration, both of the original emigrants and their descendants; the British military/colonial settlement of Cyprus; retirees and ‘lifestyle migrants’; and various categories of recent immigrants, for whom Cyprus is a diasporic hinterland. We draw both similarities and differences between migratory dynamics in the northern, Turkish Cypriot part of the island and the southern, Greek Cypriot part. In the final part of the paper we describe recent fieldwork on various spaces of inter-diasporic encounter in Cyprus.

  6. Reviewing the Justice and Security Hub Modality as Piloted in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Keane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘The Republic of Bangui’ or ‘the Republic of Monrovia’ are phrases we sometimes hear from practitioners to describe post conflict countries where very few services exist outside the capital city. This is especially the case for security – the critical public good in post conflict countries. In response to the need to bring security services closer to the citizens who often need them most, the Government of Liberia and the United Nations are piloting a new approach financed by the UN Peacebuilding Fund (PBF – the so-called ‘Justice and Security Hubs’. The donor community and the United Nations are watching closely. If this works, there is indication from UN officials that the model could potentially be replicated in other settings such as the East of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, Haiti and the northern states of South Sudan. If the hub concept is capable of being adapted and successful elsewhere, the United Nations will not only have added a new instrument to its peacekeeping toolkit but will also firmly demonstrate how the UN Peacebuilding Fund can in essence be catalytic in fostering long-term and comprehensive approaches to peacebuilding. This practice note outlines the process of developing and constructing the first hub in Liberia, which is due to be partly operational by the end of 2012, and provides a prognosis on its chances for success.

  7. Study of electrode slice forming of bicycle dynamo hub power connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dyi-Cheng; Jao, Chih-Hsuan

    2013-12-01

    Taiwan's bicycle industry has been an international reputation as bicycle kingdom, but the problem in the world makes global warming green energy rise, the development of electrode slice of hub dynamo and power output connector to bring new hope to bike industry. In this study connector power output to gather public opinion related to patent, basis of collected documents as basis for design, structural components in least drawn to power output with simple connector. Power output of this study objectives connector hope at least cost, structure strongest, highest efficiency in output performance characteristics such as use of computer-aided drawing software Solid works to establish power output connector parts of 3D model, the overall portfolio should be considered part types including assembly ideas, weather resistance, water resistance, corrosion resistance to vibration and power flow stability. Moreover the 3D model import computer-aided finite element analysis software simulation of expected the power output of the connector parts manufacturing process. A series of simulation analyses, in which the variables relied on first stage and second stage forming, were run to examine the effective stress, effective strain, press speed, and die radial load distribution when forming electrode slice of bicycle dynamo hub.

  8. Finding p-Hub Median Locations: An Empirical Study on Problems and Solution Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hub location problems have been studied by many researchers for almost 30 years, and, accordingly, various solution methods have been proposed. In this paper, we implement and evaluate several widely used methods for solving five standard hub location problems. To assess the scalability and solution qualities of these methods, three well-known datasets are used as case studies: Turkish Postal System, Australia Post, and Civil Aeronautics Board. Classical problems in small networks can be solved efficiently using CPLEX because of their low complexity. Genetic algorithms perform well for solving three types of single allocation problems, since the problem formulations can be neatly encoded with chromosomes of reasonable size. Lagrangian relaxation is the only technique that solves reliable multiple allocation problems in large networks. We believe that our work helps other researchers to get an overview on the best solution techniques for the problems investigated in our study and also stipulates further interest on cross-comparing solution techniques for more expressive problem formulations.

  9. Clique of functional hubs orchestrates population bursts in developmentally regulated neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Luccioli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been discovered that single neuron stimulation can impact network dynamics in immature and adult neuronal circuits. Here we report a novel mechanism which can explain in neuronal circuits, at an early stage of development, the peculiar role played by a few specific neurons in promoting/arresting the population activity. For this purpose, we consider a standard neuronal network model, with short-term synaptic plasticity, whose population activity is characterized by bursting behavior. The addition of developmentally inspired constraints and correlations in the distribution of the neuronal connectivities and excitabilities leads to the emergence of functional hub neurons, whose stimulation/deletion is critical for the network activity. Functional hubs form a clique, where a precise sequential activation of the neurons is essential to ignite collective events without any need for a specific topological architecture. Unsupervised time-lagged firings of supra-threshold cells, in connection with coordinated entrainments of near-threshold neurons, are the key ingredients to orchestrate population activity.

  10. Solving a multi-objective chance-constrained hub covering location problem by discrete invasive weed optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Nikokalam-Mozafar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stochastic bi-objective model for a single-allocation hub covering problem (HCP with the variable capacity and uncertainty parameters. Locating hubs can influence the performance of hub and spoke networks, as a strategic decision. The presented model optimizes two objectives minimizing the total transportation cost and the maximum transportation time from an origin to a destination simultaneously. Then, due to the NP-hardness of the multi-objective chance-constrained HCP, the presented model is solved by a well-known meta-heuristic algorithm, namely multi-objective invasive weed optimization. Additionally, the associated results are compared with a well-known multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. Furthermore, the computational results of the foregoing algorithms are reported in terms four well-known metrics, namely quality, spacing, diversification, and mean ideal distance. Finally, the conclusion is reported.

  11. WHAT IS CONTROLLING THE FRAGMENTATION IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225–0.506?: DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FRAGMENTATION IN TWIN HUBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, Gemma; Girart, Josep Miquel [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Palau, Aina [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pillai, Thushara [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Anglada, Guillem, E-mail: busquet@ice.cat [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission toward hub-N and hub-S of the infrared dark cloud G14.225–0.506 carried out with the Submillimeter Array, together with observations of the dust emission at 870 and 350 μm obtained with APEX and CSO telescopes. The large-scale dust emission of both hubs consists of a single peaked clump elongated in the direction of the associated filament. At small scales, the SMA images reveal that both hubs fragment into several dust condensations. The fragmentation level was assessed under the same conditions and we found that hub-N presents 4 fragments while hub-S is more fragmented, with 13 fragments identified. We studied the density structure by means of a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profile at 870 and 350 μm and the spectral energy distribution adopting a Plummer-like function to describe the density structure. The parameters inferred from the model are remarkably similar in both hubs, suggesting that density structure could not be responsible for determining the fragmentation level. We estimated several physical parameters, such as the level of turbulence and the magnetic field strength, and we found no significant differences between these hubs. The Jeans analysis indicates that the observed fragmentation is more consistent with thermal Jeans fragmentation compared with a scenario in which turbulent support is included. The lower fragmentation level observed in hub-N could be explained in terms of stronger UV radiation effects from a nearby H ii region, evolutionary effects, and/or stronger magnetic fields at small scales, a scenario that should be further investigated.

  12. A framework for creating an ICT knowledge hub in Zimbabwe: A holistic approach in fostering economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mahlangu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ICT knowledge hubs are important resources for a country to grow towards an innovative economy. Their growth has been viewed as a node point for techno-prenuership development and economic sustainability by many countries. The purpose of this study was to establish how Zimbabwe as a developing country should move towards the creation of an ICT knowledge hub that will promote economic growth in line with the Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (ZimAsset economic blueprint crafted in 2013. A qualitative research design was used whereby literature was conducted to establish models for ICT Knowledge hub creation while two focus group discussions were held with academia, research agents and software developers to achieve face validity and in-depth interviews were held with officials from The Ministry of ICT Postal and Courier services. The consensus was reached on the need for creating a focal point which will act as a cyber-port where ICT driven solutions can be obtained based on the industry needs. The focus group discussions settled for four components in creating an ICT knowledge hub. These are planning function, development function, management function and co-ordinating function. The research also established that the Ministry of ICT and Courier services in Zimbabwe has set up an innovation fund to encourage and reward innovation and craftsmanship in Zimbabwe mainly targeted at the youths. The government acquired the high-performance computing facility which is stationed at the University of Zimbabwe. The ICT hub should be used to facilitate access and use of this resource. Every country should therefore strive to create its own centre of innovation which enables it to gain maximum utility from its indigenous people in order to fully utilise ICTs for industry development and spearhead economic growth. The study recommends that there is need for establishing an ICT Knowledge hub in the country.

  13. Virtual Replication of IoT Hubs in the Cloud: A Flexible Approach to Smart Object Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cirani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In future years, the Internet of Things is expected to interconnect billions of highly heterogeneous devices, denoted as “smart objects”, enabling the development of innovative distributed applications. Smart objects are constrained sensor/actuator-equipped devices, in terms of computational power and available memory. In order to cope with the diverse physical connectivity technologies of smart objects, the Internet Protocol is foreseen as the common “language” for full interoperability and as a unifying factor for integration with the Internet. Large-scale platforms for interconnected devices are required to effectively manage resources provided by smart objects. In this work, we present a novel architecture for the management of large numbers of resources in a scalable, seamless, and secure way. The proposed architecture is based on a network element, denoted as IoT Hub, placed at the border of the constrained network, which implements the following functions: service discovery; border router; HTTP/Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP and CoAP/CoAP proxy; cache; and resource directory. In order to protect smart objects (which cannot, because of their constrained nature, serve a large number of concurrent requests and the IoT Hub (which serves as a gateway to the constrained network, we introduce the concept of virtual IoT Hub replica: a Cloud-based “entity” replicating all the functions of a physical IoT Hub, which external clients will query to access resources. IoT Hub replicas are constantly synchronized with the physical IoT Hub through a low-overhead protocol based on Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT. An experimental evaluation, proving the feasibility and advantages of the proposed architecture, is presented.

  14. Analysis of Food Hub Commerce and Participation Using Agent-Based Modeling: Integrating Financial and Social Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Caroline C; Stone, Richard T; Dorneich, Michael C; Gilbert, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Factors influencing long-term viability of an intermediated regional food supply network (food hub) were modeled using agent-based modeling techniques informed by interview data gathered from food hub participants. Previous analyses of food hub dynamics focused primarily on financial drivers rather than social factors and have not used mathematical models. Based on qualitative and quantitative data gathered from 22 customers and 11 vendors at a midwestern food hub, an agent-based model (ABM) was created with distinct consumer personas characterizing the range of consumer priorities. A comparison study determined if the ABM behaved differently than a model based on traditional economic assumptions. Further simulation studies assessed the effect of changes in parameters, such as producer reliability and the consumer profiles, on long-term food hub sustainability. The persona-based ABM model produced different and more resilient results than the more traditional way of modeling consumers. Reduced producer reliability significantly reduced trade; in some instances, a modest reduction in reliability threatened the sustainability of the system. Finally, a modest increase in price-driven consumers at the outset of the simulation quickly resulted in those consumers becoming a majority of the overall customer base. Results suggest that social factors, such as desire to support the community, can be more important than financial factors. An ABM of food hub dynamics, based on human factors data gathered from the field, can be a useful tool for policy decisions. Similar approaches can be used for modeling customer dynamics with other sustainable organizations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Electrical hubs: An effective way to integrate non-dispatchable renewable energy sources with minimum impact to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Nik, Vahid M.; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method introduced to optimize Electrical Hubs. • Novel dispatch based on fuzzy control and finite state machines. • Evaluating sensitivity of three performance indices for system autonomy. • Multi objective optimization considering system autonomy-cost. • Electrical Hubs can cover above 60% of the demand using wind and Solar PV. - Abstract: A paradigm change in energy system design tools, energy market, and energy policy is required to attain the target levels in renewable energy integration and in minimizing pollutant emissions in power generation. Integrating non-dispatchable renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy is vital in this context. Distributed generation has been identified as a promising method to integrate Solar PV (SPV) and wind energy into grid in recent literature. Distributed generation using grid-tied electrical hubs, which consist of Internal Combustion Generator (ICG), non-dispatchable energy sources (i.e., wind turbines and SPV panels) and energy storage for providing the electricity demand in Sri Lanka is considered in this study. A novel dispatch strategy is introduced to address the limitations in the existing methods in optimizing grid-integrated electrical hubs considering real time pricing of the electricity grid and curtailments in grid integration. Multi-objective optimization is conducted for the system design considering grid integration level and Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) as objective functions to evaluate the potential of electrical hubs to integrate SPV and wind energy. The sensitivity of grid curtailments, energy market, price of wind turbines and SPV panels on Pareto front is evaluated subsequently. Results from the Pareto analysis demonstrate the potential of electrical hubs to cover more than 60% of the annual electricity demand from SPV and wind energy considering stringent grid curtailments. Such a share from SPV and wind energy is quite significant when compared to direct grid

  16. Becoming a major hub in the distribution of wine: Hong Kong as a gate to Asian markets

    OpenAIRE

    LAU, Yui-Yip; NG, Adolf KY; GUERRERO, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the conditions of emergence of a hub in the distribution of wine. We illustrate this through a detailed discussion of wine distribution in Eastern Asia and an examination of the case of Hong Kong as an emerging regional wine hub. Indeed, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government has imposed zero import tax on wine since June 2008. Since then, the city has attracted a large volume of wine from foreign countries and established a wine bond warehouse in t...

  17. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  18. Ligt de toekomst van Schiphol in Dubai? : over de opkomst van Dubai als mega hub en hoe samenwerking met deze luchthaven de concurrentiepositie van Schiphol kan versterken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Makhloufi, Abdel; Onstein, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Schiphol dreigt in rap tempo zijn concurrentiepositie als hub te verliezen aan Dubai. Het behoud en versterking van de hub-functie van Schiphol moet een hoge prioriteit krijgen bij het kabinet, stakeholders en Metropoolregio Amsterdam. Een strategisch samenwerkingsverband met Dubai kan daarbij het

  19. A Futile Search for Values and Pedagogy? A Discursive Analysis of the Marketing Messages of Branch-Campuses in Higher Education Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karram, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Higher education has become a key strategy for the economic development of certain city-states that are positioning themselves as higher education hubs, recruiting both students and foreign providers. This article presents the findings of a research study that examined the online messages of foreign branch-campuses in education hubs (Dubai, Hong…

  20. Quality of hub-and-spoke networks; the effects of time-table co-ordination on waiting time and rescheduling time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, M.R.E.; Rietveld, P.

    2001-01-01

    Low frequencies of aircraft may have substantial negative effects on scheduling costs and waiting costs at hub airports. Appropriate timetabling of carriers will reduce these costs. In this paper we propose a measure for the quality of the co-ordination of timetables by carriers in hub airports. An

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Habitat-Specific Genes and Regulatory Hubs within the GenusNovosphingobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Roshan; Verma, Helianthous; Haider, Shazia; Bajaj, Abhay; Sood, Utkarsh; Ponnusamy, Kalaiarasan; Nagar, Shekhar; Shakarad, Mallikarjun N; Negi, Ram Krishan; Singh, Yogendra; Khurana, J P; Gilbert, Jack A; Lal, Rup

    2017-01-01

    Species belonging to the genus Novosphingobium are found in many different habitats and have been identified as metabolically versatile. Through comparative genomic analysis, we identified habitat-specific genes and regulatory hubs that could determine habitat selection for Novosphingobium spp. Genomes from 27 Novosphingobium strains isolated from diverse habitats such as rhizosphere soil, plant surfaces, heavily contaminated soils, and marine and freshwater environments were analyzed. Genome size and coding potential were widely variable, differing significantly between habitats. Phylogenetic relationships between strains were less likely to describe functional genotype similarity than the habitat from which they were isolated. In this study, strains (19 out of 27) with a recorded habitat of isolation, and at least 3 representative strains per habitat, comprised four ecological groups-rhizosphere, contaminated soil, marine, and freshwater. Sulfur acquisition and metabolism were the only core genomic traits to differ significantly in proportion between these ecological groups; for example, alkane sulfonate ( ssuABCD ) assimilation was found exclusively in all of the rhizospheric isolates. When we examined osmolytic regulation in Novosphingobium spp. through ectoine biosynthesis, which was assumed to be marine habitat specific, we found that it was also present in isolates from contaminated soil, suggesting its relevance beyond the marine system. Novosphingobium strains were also found to harbor a wide variety of mono- and dioxygenases, responsible for the metabolism of several aromatic compounds, suggesting their potential to act as degraders of a variety of xenobiotic compounds. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed β-barrel outer membrane proteins as habitat-specific hubs in each of the four habitats-freshwater (Saro_1868), marine water (PP1Y_AT17644), rhizosphere (PMI02_00367), and soil (V474_17210). These outer membrane proteins could play a key role

  2. Why primary care practices should become digital health information hubs for their patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Aaron; Nowak, Samantha

    2014-11-25

    Two interesting health care trends are currently occurring: 1) patient-facing technologies, such as personal health records, patient portals, and mobile health apps, are being adopted at rapid rates, and 2) primary care, which includes family practice, is being promoted as essential to reducing health care costs and improving health care outcomes. While these trends are notable and commendable, both remain subject to significant fragmentation and incentive misalignments, which has resulted in significant data coordination and value generation challenges. In particular, patient-facing technologies designed to increase care coordination, often fall prey to the very digital fragmentation issues they are supposed to overcome. Additionally, primary care providers are treating patients that may have considerable health information histories, but generating a single view of such multi-source data is nearly impossible. We contribute to this debate by proposing that primary care practices become digital health information hubs for their patients. Such hubs would offer health data coordination in a medically professional setting with the benefits of expert, trustworthy advice coupled with active patient engagement. We acknowledge challenges including: costs, information quality and provenance, willingness-to-share information and records, willingness-to-use (by both providers and patients), primary care scope creep, and determinations of technical and process effectiveness. Even with such potential challenges, we strongly believe that more debate is needed on this topic prior to full implementation of various health information technology incentives and reform programs currently being designed and enacted throughout the world. Ultimately, if we do not provide a meaningful way for the full spectrum of health information to be used by both providers and patients, especially early in the health care continuum, effectively improving health outcomes may remain elusive. We view

  3. Beta cell 5'-shifted isomiRs are candidate regulatory hubs in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Baran-Gale

    Full Text Available Next-generation deep sequencing of small RNAs has unveiled the complexity of the microRNA (miRNA transcriptome, which is in large part due to the diversity of miRNA sequence variants ("isomiRs". Changes to a miRNA's seed sequence (nucleotides 2-8, including shifted start positions, can redirect targeting to a dramatically different set of RNAs and alter biological function. We performed deep sequencing of small RNA from mouse insulinoma (MIN6 cells (widely used as a surrogate for the study of pancreatic beta cells and developed a bioinformatic analysis pipeline to profile isomiR diversity. Additionally, we applied the pipeline to recently published small RNA-seq data from primary human beta cells and whole islets and compared the miRNA profiles with that of MIN6. We found that: (1 the miRNA expression profile in MIN6 cells is highly correlated with those of primary human beta cells and whole islets; (2 miRNA loci can generate multiple highly expressed isomiRs with different 5'-start positions (5'-isomiRs; (3 isomiRs with shifted start positions (5'-shifted isomiRs are highly expressed, and can be as abundant as their unshifted counterparts (5'-reference miRNAs. Finally, we identified 10 beta cell miRNA families as candidate regulatory hubs in a type 2 diabetes (T2D gene network. The most significant candidate hub was miR-29, which we demonstrated regulates the mRNA levels of several genes critical to beta cell function and implicated in T2D. Three of the candidate miRNA hubs were novel 5'-shifted isomiRs: miR-375+1, miR-375-1 and miR-183-5p+1. We showed by in silico target prediction and in vitro transfection studies that both miR-375+1 and miR-375-1 are likely to target an overlapping, but distinct suite of beta cell genes compared to canonical miR-375. In summary, this study characterizes the isomiR profile in beta cells for the first time, and also highlights the potential functional relevance of 5'-shifted isomiRs to T2D.

  4. Disconnection of network hubs and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Erik D; Hellyer, Peter J; Scott, Gregory; Leech, Robert; Sharp, David J

    2015-06-01

    results were then replicated in a separate group of patients without microbleeds. The most influential graph metrics were betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality, which provide measures of the extent to which a given brain region connects other regions in the network. Reductions in betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality were particularly evident within hub regions including the cingulate cortex and caudate. Our results demonstrate that betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality are reduced within network hubs, due to the impact of traumatic axonal injury on network connections. The dominance of betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality suggests that cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury results from the disconnection of network hubs by traumatic axonal injury. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  5. Rotor hub vibration and blade loads reduction, and energy harvesting via embedded radial oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austruy, Julien

    An embedded radial absorber is investigated to control helicopter rotor hub vibration and blade loads. The absorber is modeled as a discrete mass moving in the spanwise direction within the blade. The absorber is retained in place and tuned with a spring and a damper. The radial absorber couples with lead-lag dynamic through Coriolis forces. The embedded radial absorber coupled to the helicopter is analyzed with a comprehensive rotorcraft model. The blade is modeled as an elastic beam undergoing flap bending, lag bending and elastic torsion, and a radial degree of freedom is added for the absorber. The tuning of the embedded radial absorber to a frequency close to 3/rev with no damping is shown to reduce significantly (up to 86%) the 4/rev in-plane hub forces of a 4-bladed hingeless rotor similar to a MBB BO-105 in high speed flight. The simulation shows that the absorber modifies the in-plane blade root shears to synchronize them to cancel each other in the transmission from rotating frame to fixed frame. A design of an embedded radial absorber experiment for hub vibration control is presented and it is concluded that for such high tuning frequencies as 3/rev, it is feasible to use a regular coil spring to compensate for the steady centrifugal force. Large reduction of blade lag shear (85%) and lag bending moment (71%) is achieved by tuning the embedded radial absorber close to 1/rev (also shown for a BO-105 like helicopter in high speed flight). The absorber reduces the amplitude of the lag bending moment at 1/rev, thus reducing the blade lead-lag motion and reducing the blade drag shear and lag bending moment. Finally, the use of the embedded radial absorber is investigated as a source electrical power when combined with an electromagnetic circuit. A model of the electromagnetic system is developed and validated, and an evaluation of the amount of power harvestable for different configurations is presented. The maximum power harvested was calculated to be 133

  6. On the interconnection of stable protein complexes: inter-complex hubs and their conservation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Concettina

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular entities that perform a variety of essential cellular functions. The connectivity of proteins within a complex has been widely investigated with both experimental and computational techniques. We developed a computational approach to identify and characterise proteins that play a role in interconnecting complexes. We computed a measure of inter-complex centrality, the crossroad index, based on disjoint paths connecting proteins in distinct complexes and identified inter-complex hubs as proteins with a high value of the crossroad index. We applied the approach to a set of stable complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Homo sapiens. Just as done for hubs, we evaluated the topological and biological properties of inter-complex hubs addressing the following questions. Do inter-complex hubs tend to be evolutionary conserved? What is the relation between crossroad index and essentiality? We found a good correlation between inter-complex hubs and both evolutionary conservation and essentiality.

  7. The Development of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport as a Regional Aviation Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandu, Evaristus M.; Rhoades, Dawna L.

    2006-01-01

    Air transportation plays an important role in the social and economic development of the global system and the countries that seek to participate in it. As Africa seeks to take its place in the global economy, it is increasingly looking to aviation as the primary means of connecting its people and goods with the world. It has been suggested that Africa as a continent needs to move toward a system of hubs to optimize its scarce resources. Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya, is one of the airports in the eastern region of Africa that is seeking to fill this role. This paper discusses the prospects for success and the challenges that it will need to overcome, including projections through 2020 for the growth in passenger and cargo traffic.

  8. Development of a MicroTCA Carrier Hub for CMS at HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriyev, M; Hazen, E; Wu, S X; Rohlf, J

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a Micro TCA Carrier Hub card which provides timing, control and data acquisition functions in a Micro TCA crate for HL-LHC readout electronics. This module may be mounted in the primary or redundant MCH slot in a Micro TCA crate, and distributes low-jitter LHC RF clock and encoded fast timing signals to up to 12 AMC modules. In addition, it receives buffer status signals and DAQ data at up to 600 MBytes/sec from each AMC. The prototype module is built on a commercial MCH base board with a custom mezzanine board stack. The latest Xilinx(R) Virtex(R)-6 FPGA are used to provide a clear upgrade path. Prototype modules have been developed for a CMS HCAL test beam in summer 2010. We describe the specifications of the module, its application in a Micro TCA system beyond CMS HCAL, and our experience in commissioning the module for the test beam.

  9. Development of a MicroTCA Carrier Hub for CMS at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitriyev, M; Wu, S X; Rohlf, J; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12042

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a Micro TCA Carrier Hub card which provides timing, control and data acquisition functions in a Micro TCA crate for HL-LHC readout electronics. This module may be mounted in the primary or redundant MCH slot in a Micro TCA crate, and distributes low-jitter LHC RF clock and encoded fast timing signals to up to 12 AMC modules. In addition, it receives buffer status signals and DAQ data at up to 600 MBytes/sec from each AMC. The prototype module is built on a commercial MCH base board with a custom mezzanine board stack. The latest Xilinx® Virtex®-6 FPGA are used to provide a clear upgrade path. Prototype modules have been developed for a CMS HCAL test beam in summer 2010. We describe the specifications of the module, its application in a Micro TCA system beyond CMS HCAL, and our experience in commissioning the module for the test beam

  10. Membrane contact sites, ancient and central hubs of cellular lipid logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amrita; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2017-09-01

    Membrane contact sites (MCSs) are regions where two organelles are closely apposed to facilitate molecular communication and promote a functional integration of compartmentalized cellular processes. There is growing evidence that MCSs play key roles in controlling intracellular lipid flows and distributions. Strikingly, even organelles connected by vesicular trafficking exchange lipids en bulk via lipid transfer proteins that operate at MCSs. Herein, we describe how MCSs developed into central hubs of lipid logistics during the evolution of eukaryotic cells. We then focus on how modern eukaryotes exploit MCSs to help solve a major logistical problem, namely to preserve the unique lipid mixtures of their early and late secretory organelles in the face of extensive vesicular trafficking. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Contact Sites edited by Christian Ungermann and Benoit Kornmann. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Participation of an Energy Hub in Electricity and Heat Distribution Markets: An MPEC Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Wu, Qiuwei; Wei, Wei

    2018-01-01

    and thorough mathematical tool for studying the integrated energy system from a deregulated market perspective. A mathematic program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC) model is proposed to study the strategic behaviors of a profit-driven energy hub in the electricity market and heating market under...... the background of energy system integration. In the upper level, the EH submits bids of prices and quantities to a distribution power market and a heating market; in the lower level, the two markets are cleared and energy contracts between the EH and two energy markets are determined. Network constraints...... of physical systems are explicitly represented by an optimal power flow problem and an optimal thermal flow problem. The proposed MPEC formulation is approximated by a mixed-integer linear program via performing integer disjunctions on the complementarity and slackness conditions and binary expansion...

  12. The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongs, K.; Boyer, V.; Cruise, M. A.; Freise, A.; Holynski, M.; Hughes, J.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Petrov, P.; Plant, S.; Singh, Y.; Stabrawa, A.; Paul, D. J.; Sorel, M.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Marsh, J. H.; Bowtell, R. W.; Bason, M. G.; Beardsley, R. P.; Campion, R. P.; Brookes, M. J.; Fernholz, T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Hackermuller, L.; Krüger, P.; Li, X.; Maclean, J. O.; Mellor, C. J.; Novikov, S. V.; Orucevic, F.; Rushforth, A. W.; Welch, N.; Benson, T. M.; Wildman, R. D.; Freegarde, T.; Himsworth, M.; Ruostekoski, J.; Smith, P.; Tropper, A.; Griffin, P. F.; Arnold, A. S.; Riis, E.; Hastie, J. E.; Paboeuf, D.; Parrotta, D. C.; Garraway, B. M.; Pasquazi, A.; Peccianti, M.; Hensinger, W.; Potter, E.; Nizamani, A. H.; Bostock, H.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Sinuco-Leon, G.; Hill, I. R.; Williams, R. A.; Gill, P.; Hempler, N.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Cross, T.; Kock, B. O.; Maddox, S.; John, P.

    2016-04-01

    The UK National Quantum Technology Hub in Sensors and Metrology is one of four flagship initiatives in the UK National of Quantum Technology Program. As part of a 20-year vision it translates laboratory demonstrations to deployable practical devices, with game-changing miniaturized components and prototypes that transform the state-of-the-art for quantum sensors and metrology. It brings together experts from the Universities of Birmingham, Glasgow, Nottingham, Southampton, Strathclyde and Sussex, NPL and currently links to over 15 leading international academic institutions and over 70 companies to build the supply chains and routes to market needed to bring 10-1000x improvements in sensing applications. It seeks, and is open to, additional partners for new application development and creates a point of easy open access to the facilities and supply chains that it stimulates or nurtures.

  13. Measurement of the UH-60A Hub Large Rotor Test Apparatus Control System Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufeld, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this report is to provides details of the measurement of the control system stiffness of the UH-60A rotor hub mounted on the Large Rotor Test Apparatus (UH-60A/LRTA). The UH-60A/LRTA was used in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel to complete the full-scale wind tunnel test portion of the NASA / ARMY UH-60A Airloads Program. This report describes the LRTA control system and highlights the differences between the LRTA and UH-60A aircraft. The test hardware, test setup, and test procedures are also described. Sample results are shown, including the azimuthal variation of the measured control system stiffness for three different loadings and two different dynamic actuator settings. Finally, the azimuthal stiffness is converted to fixed system values using multi-blade transformations for input to comprehensive rotorcraft prediction codes.

  14. A New Approach for Offshore Wind Farm Energy Yields Calculation with Mixed Hub Height Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for calculating the energy yields of offshore wind farm with mixed types of wind turbines is proposed. The Jensen model is selected as the base and developed to a three dimension wake model to estimate the energy yields. Since the wind turbines are with differe...... hub heights, the wind shear effect is also taken into consideration. The results show that the proposed wake model is effective in calculating the wind speed deficit. The calculation framework is applicable for energy yields calculation in offshore wind farms.......In this paper, a mathematical model for calculating the energy yields of offshore wind farm with mixed types of wind turbines is proposed. The Jensen model is selected as the base and developed to a three dimension wake model to estimate the energy yields. Since the wind turbines are with different...

  15. A Genome-Wide Association Study and Complex Network Identify Four Core Hub Genes in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zengyan; Yang, Xianyan; Deng, Xiaoya; Ma, Mingyue; Shu, Kunxian

    2017-12-19

    Bipolar disorder is a common and severe mental illness with unsolved pathophysiology. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been used to find a number of risk genes, but it is difficult for a GWAS to find genes indirectly associated with a disease. To find core hub genes, we introduce a network analysis after the GWAS was conducted. Six thousand four hundred fifty eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p sifted out from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) dataset and mapped to 2045 genes, which are then compared with the protein-protein network. One hundred twelve genes with a degree >17 were chosen as hub genes from which five significant modules and four core hub genes ( FBXL13 , WDFY2 , bFGF , and MTHFD1L ) were found. These core hub genes have not been reported to be directly associated with BD but may function by interacting with genes directly related to BD. Our method engenders new thoughts on finding genes indirectly associated with, but important for, complex diseases.

  16. A Genome-Wide Association Study and Complex Network Identify Four Core Hub Genes in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengyan Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a common and severe mental illness with unsolved pathophysiology. A genome-wide association study (GWAS has been used to find a number of risk genes, but it is difficult for a GWAS to find genes indirectly associated with a disease. To find core hub genes, we introduce a network analysis after the GWAS was conducted. Six thousand four hundred fifty eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with p < 0.01 were sifted out from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC dataset and mapped to 2045 genes, which are then compared with the protein–protein network. One hundred twelve genes with a degree >17 were chosen as hub genes from which five significant modules and four core hub genes (FBXL13, WDFY2, bFGF, and MTHFD1L were found. These core hub genes have not been reported to be directly associated with BD but may function by interacting with genes directly related to BD. Our method engenders new thoughts on finding genes indirectly associated with, but important for, complex diseases.

  17. Improving healthcare in pediatric oncology: development and testing of multiple indicators to evaluate a hub-and-spoke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Angelastro, Angela; Gianino, Paola; Bona, Gianni; Barbara, Affif; Besenzon, Luigi; Brach Del Prever, Adalberto; Pesce, Fernando; Nangeroni, Marco; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-06-06

    The hub-and-spoke is a new innovation model in healthcare that has been adopted in some countries to manage rare pathologies. We developed a set of indicators to assess current quality practices of the hub-and-spoke model adopted in the Interregional Pediatric Oncology Network in Northwest Italy and to promote patient, family, and professional healthcare empowerment. Literature and evidence-based clinical guidelines were reviewed and multiprofessional team workshops were carried out to highlight some important issues on healthcare in pediatric oncology and to translate them into a set of multiple indicators. For each indicator, specific questions were formulated and tested through a series of questionnaires completed by 80 healthcare professionals and 50 pediatric patients and their parents. The results highlighted a positive perception of healthcare delivered by the hub-and-spoke model (MHP = 156, MPat = 93, MPar = 104). Based on the participants' suggestions, some quality improvements have been implemented. This study represents the first attempt to examine this new model of pediatric oncology care through the active involvement of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Suggestions for adopting a hub-and-spoke model in pediatric oncology in other regions and countries are also highlighted.

  18. Dynamic migration intentions and the impact of socio-institutional environments: A transit migration hub in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, M.J.; Düvell, F.; Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Transit migration is generally defined by migrants having the intention to move onwards to a third country. Based on an empirical investigation in Izmir, a transit migration hub in Turkey, this paper critically discusses intentionality as a valid dimension in conceptualisations of transit migration.

  19. 75 FR 76003 - Tricor Ten Section Hub LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP09-432-000] Tricor Ten Section Hub LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Ten Section Gas... Commission) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Ten Section Gas Storage Project, in Kern...

  20. Differential evolution algorithm for multi-commodity and multi-level of service hub covering location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Setak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hub location problem involves a network of origins and destinations over which transportation takes place. There are many studies associated with finding the location of hub nodes and the allocation of demand nodes to these located hub nodes to transfer the only one kind of commodity under one level of service. However, in this study, carrying different commodity types from origin to destination under various levels of services (e.g. price, punctuality, reliability or transit time is studied. Quality of services experienced by users such as speed, convenience, comfort and security of transportation facilities and services is considered as the level of service. In each system, different kinds of commodities with various levels of services can be transmitted. The appropriate level of service that a commodity can be transmitted through is chosen by customer preferences and the specification of the commodity. So, a mixed integer programming formulation for single allocation hub covering location problem, which is based on the idea of transferring multi commodity flows under multi levels of service is presented. These two are applied concepts, multi-commodity and multi-level of service, which make the model's assumptions closer to the real world problems. In addition, a differential evolution algorithm is designed to find near-optimal solutions. The obtained solutions using differential evolution (DE algorithm (upper bound, where its parameters are tuned by response surface methodology, are compared with exact solutions and computed lower bounds by linear relaxation technique to prove the efficiency of proposed DE algorithm.

  1. In vivo visualization of connections among revised Papez circuit hubs using full q-space diffusion spectrum imaging tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng-Hu; Mao, Zhi-Qi; Cong, Fei; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Wang, Bo; Ling, Zhi-Pei; Liang, Shu-Li; Chen, Lin; Yu, Xin-Guang

    2017-08-15

    Structural connections among the hubs of the revised Papez circuit remain to be elucidated in the human brain. As the original Papez circuit failed to explain functional imaging findings, a more detailed investigation is needed to delineate connections among the circuit's key hubs. Here we acquired diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) from eight normal subjects and used data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) to elucidate connections among hubs in the retrosplenial gyrus, hippocampus, mammillary bodies, and anterior thalamic nuclei. Our results show that the ventral hippocampal commissure (VHC) was visualized in all eight individual DSI datasets, as well as in the DSI and HCP group datasets, but a strictly defined VHC was only visualized in one individual dataset. Thalamic fibers were observed to connect with both the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). The RSC was mainly responsible for direct hippocampal connections, while the PCC was not. This indicates that the RSC and PCC represent separate functional hubs in humans, as also shown by previous primate axonal tracing studies and functional magnetic resonance imaging observations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Youth-Led Community Arts Hubs: Self-Determined Learning in an Out-of-School Time (OST) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauseman, David Cameron

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from qualitative case studies of three youth-led community arts hubs, a program that is rooted in, and utilizes a self-determined learning approach. Qualitative case studies of three program sites sought to generate meaningful data that could lead to rapid ongoing program development and inform the development and…

  3. Modelling energy demand for a fleet of hydrogen-electric vehicles interacting with a clean energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, F.; Fowler, M.; Wan, D.; Maniyali, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the development of an energy demand model for a hydrogen-electric vehicle fleet and the modelling of the fleet interactions with a clean energy hub. The approach taken is to model the architecture and daily operation of every individual vehicle in the fleet. A generic architecture was developed based on understanding gained from existing detailed models used in vehicle powertrain design, with daily operation divided into two periods: charging and travelling. During the charging period, the vehicle charges its Electricity Storage System (ESS) and refills its Hydrogen Storage System (HSS), and during the travelling period, the vehicle depletes the ESS and HSS based on distance travelled. Daily travel distance is generated by a stochastic model and is considered an input to the fleet model. The modelling of a clean energy hub is also presented. The clean energy hub functions as an interface between electricity supply and the energy demand (i.e. hydrogen and electricity) of the vehicle fleet. Finally, a sample case is presented to demonstrate the use of the fleet model and its implications on clean energy hub sizing. (author)

  4. Debate over a Proposed FedEx Distribution Hub: Examining the Role of Consensus, Power and Norms of Communication Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathleen B.

    This paper examines an ongoing community debate over a proposed FedEx distribution hub to be constructed at the local airport. The essay looks to theorists, including Patsy Healey, Richard Johannesen, Daniel Kemmis, James Klumpp, and Martha Nussbaum. These theorists provide a way to view the role of consensus, power, and norms of communication…

  5. TravisTorrent : Synthesizing Travis CI and GitHub for Full-Stack Research on Continuous Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beller, M.M.; Gousios, Giorgos; Zaidman, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Integration (CI) has become a best practice of modern software development. Thanks in part to its tight integration with GitHub, Travis CI has emerged as arguably the most widely used CI platform for Open-Source Software (OSS) development. However, despite its prominent role in Software

  6. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.; Veldhuis, J.; Matsumoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger

  7. Joint Optimization of Star P-hub Median Problem and Seat Inventory Control Decisions Considering a Hybrid Routing Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tikani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of integrated capacitated hub location problem and seat inventory control considering concept and techniques of revenue management. We consider an airline company maximizes its revenue by utilizing the best network topology and providing proper booking limits for all itineraries and fare classes. The transportation system arises in the form of a star/star network and includes both hub-stop and non-stop flights. This problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic integer program with mixed-integer recourse. We solve various instances carried out from the Turkish network data set. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, we propose a hybrid optimization method, consisting of an evolutionary algorithm based on genetic algorithm and exact solution. The quality of the solutions found by the proposed meta-heuristic is compared with the original version of GA and the mathematical programming model. The results obtained by the proposed model imply that integrating hub location and seat inventory control problem would help to increase the total revenue of airline companies. Also, in the case of serving non-stop flights, the model can provide more profit by employing less number of hubs.

  8. Dynamic Migration Intentions and the Impact of Socio-Institutional Environments: A Transit Migration Hub in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, M.J.; Düvell, F.; van Eerdewijk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transit migration is generally defined by migrants having the intention to move onwards to a third country. Based on an empirical investigation in Izmir, a transit migration hub in Turkey, this paper critically discusses intentionality as a valid dimension in conceptualisations of transit migration.

  9. Optimization of Hybrid Hub-and-Spoke Network Operation for Less-Than-Truckload Freight Transportation considering Incremental Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mixed integer linear programming model (MILP for optimizing the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation for a less-than-truckload transportation service. The model aims to minimize the total operation costs (transportation cost and transfer cost, given the determined demand matrix, truck load capacity, and uncapacitated road transportation. The model also incorporates an incremental quantity discount function to solve the reversal of the total cost and the total demand. The model is applied to a real case of a Chinese transportation company engaged in nationwide freight transportation. The numerical example shows that, with uncapacitated road transportation, the total costs and the total vehicle trips of the hybrid hub-and-spoke network operation are, respectively, 8.0% and 15.3% less than those of the pure hub-and-spoke network operation, and the assumed capacity constraints in an extension model result in more target costs on the hybrid hub-and-spoke network. The two models can be used to support the decision making in network operations by transportation and logistics companies.

  10. 75 FR 12739 - Mississippi Hub, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... and injection capacity from 0.8 Bcf/d to 1.5 Bcf/d. According to MS HUB, its Project would meet the... electric motor-driven compressors; Three 4,735 HP natural gas-fired reciprocating engine compressors; Two... automatically providing you with notification of these filings, document summaries and direct links to the...

  11. Hubs of Anticorrelation in High-Resolution Resting-State Functional Connectivity Network Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Cabanban, Romeo; Crosson, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    A major focus of brain research recently has been to map the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) network architecture of the normal brain and pathology through functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the phenomenon of anticorrelations in resting-state signals between different brain regions has not been adequately examined. The preponderance of studies on resting-state fMRI (rsFMRI) have either ignored anticorrelations in rsFC networks or adopted methods in data analysis, which have rendered anticorrelations in rsFC networks uninterpretable. The few studies that have examined anticorrelations in rsFC networks using conventional methods have found anticorrelations to be weak in strength and not very reproducible across subjects. Anticorrelations in rsFC network architecture could reflect mechanisms that subserve a number of important brain processes. In this preliminary study, we examined the properties of anticorrelated rsFC networks by systematically focusing on negative cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) among rsFMRI voxel time series across the brain with graph theory-based network analysis. A number of methods were implemented to enhance the neuronal specificity of resting-state functional connections that yield negative CCs, although at the cost of decreased sensitivity. Hubs of anticorrelation were seen in a number of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Examination of the anticorrelation maps of these hubs indicated that negative CCs in rsFC network architecture highlight a number of regulatory interactions between brain networks and regions, including reciprocal modulations, suppression, inhibition, and neurofeedback.

  12. Intrinsic functional network architecture of human semantic processing: Modules and hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangwen; Lin, Qixiang; Han, Zaizhu; He, Yong; Bi, Yanchao

    2016-05-15

    Semantic processing entails the activation of widely distributed brain areas across the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. To understand the functional structure of this semantic system, we examined its intrinsic functional connectivity pattern using a database of 146 participants. Focusing on areas consistently activated during semantic processing generated from a meta-analysis of 120 neuroimaging studies (Binder et al., 2009), we found that these regions were organized into three stable modules corresponding to the default mode network (Module DMN), the left perisylvian network (Module PSN), and the left frontoparietal network (Module FPN). These three dissociable modules were integrated by multiple connector hubs-the left angular gyrus (AG) and the left superior/middle frontal gyrus linking all three modules, the left anterior temporal lobe linking Modules DMN and PSN, the left posterior portion of dorsal intraparietal sulcus (IPS) linking Modules DMN and FPN, and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) linking Modules PSN and FPN. Provincial hubs, which converge local information within each system, were also identified: the bilateral posterior cingulate cortices/precuneus, the bilateral border area of the posterior AG and the superior lateral occipital gyrus for Module DMN; the left supramarginal gyrus, the middle part of the left MTG and the left orbital inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for Module FPN; and the left triangular IFG and the left IPS for Module FPN. A neuro-functional model for semantic processing was derived based on these findings, incorporating the interactions of memory, language, and control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trade-off between Multiple Constraints Enables Simultaneous Formation of Modules and Hubs in Neural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhan; Wang, Shengjun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter , and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of , resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real networks. The discrepancy

  14. Southern Africa Regional Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siseho Mutondo, Moola

    2015-08-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi® technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realising the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilisation of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. This resource also forms the foundation for closer collaboration between SAROAD member countries. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia. A further two projects involve the collaboration of Zambia and other regional member countries in order to foster engagement with important regional astronomy facilities (e.g. SKA). SAROAD has identified the IAU’s International Year of Light and a starting point for offering regional support for IAU-endorsed global activities. SAROAD has set up a hub dedicated to regional events and activities about the International Year of Light. SAROAD has a database of regional authorities to enable contact with the region's decision makers and experts. SAROAD will hold an annual event which brings forum for astronomy for development. The creation of the database and the SAROAD Road show is a first step towards this goal. The SAROAD website has helped to advertise upcoming events for astronomy development and education; it is used to provide advice, guidance and information for astronomers in all countries in the Southern Africa. Fundraising is the primary goal for SAROAD in 2015 towards financial self-sufficiency by 2020. We report on the methods that work best

  15. Between Hub Status and Parallelism: Examining the G20-BRICS Dynamics in Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cooper

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, the G20 needs to be examined as a decentred focal point in the global system. The dominant formative image of the G20 has been that of a 21st C concert of powers. Yet, as witnessed by the ongoing dynamics of the summit process, the G20 has become fragmented. As the G20 has moved away from its apex function, it has become a nexus forum/networked focal point. Of key importance in this context is the role of the BRICS grouping of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. At the same time as this major challenger is increasingly embedded at the hub of global governance represented by the G20, it is also engaged in a diverse array of parallel initiatives. In terms of their informal modes of operation, the G20 and the BRICS share some marked similarities. As the roles of networked fora are consolidated, the diversity of activities expands to incorporate a range of state and non-state actors. However, at the same time the club culture of both the G20 and the BRICS is contested, reducing the like-mindedness associated with traditional concerts of power. The conceptual arguments developed in this paper are illustrated and reinforced by recent practices, including the Hangzhou G20 and the Goa BRICS summit. The global system is in the midst of a protracted period of discontinuity characterized by profound and intense tension between the push for a consolidated form of institutional synergy (with the G20 as the hub focal point and the pull towards potential fragmentation (with the BRICS as the core agent of change. The nature and impact of this dynamic will animate the central debate over global governance in the 21st C.

  16. A unique four-hub protein cluster associates to glioblastoma progression.

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    Pasquale Simeone

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most frequent brain tumors. Among them, glioblastomas are malignant and largely resistant to available treatments. Histopathology is the gold standard for classification and grading of brain tumors. However, brain tumor heterogeneity is remarkable and histopathology procedures for glioma classification remain unsatisfactory for predicting disease course as well as response to treatment. Proteins that tightly associate with cancer differentiation and progression, can bear important prognostic information. Here, we describe the identification of protein clusters differentially expressed in high-grade versus low-grade gliomas. Tissue samples from 25 high-grade tumors, 10 low-grade tumors and 5 normal brain cortices were analyzed by 2D-PAGE and proteomic profiling by mass spectrometry. This led to identify 48 differentially expressed protein markers between tumors and normal samples. Protein clustering by multivariate analyses (PCA and PLS-DA provided discrimination between pathological samples to an unprecedented extent, and revealed a unique network of deranged proteins. We discovered a novel glioblastoma control module centered on four major network hubs: Huntingtin, HNF4α, c-Myc and 14-3-3ζ. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and unbiased proteome-wide meta-analysis revealed altered expression of this glioblastoma control module in human glioma samples as compared with normal controls. Moreover, the four-hub network was found to cross-talk with both p53 and EGFR pathways. In summary, the findings of this study indicate the existence of a unifying signaling module controlling glioblastoma pathogenesis and malignant progression, and suggest novel targets for development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  17. Routing optimization for multi-type containerships in a hub-and-spoke network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Ji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the ship routing optimization problem in a hub-and-spoke network. A routing optimization model for multi-type containerships with time deadlines is established, and the target is to minimize the total cost, which consists of the total travelling cost, total service cost and total waiting cost. The model is set up through an improved genetic algorithm. The study data are from the Pearl River Delta region of China, which include 1 hub port and 29 feeder ports and have a population of 30 million. Result shows that when the iteration time reaches 190, the total cost comes to 521 thousand yuan near the optimal value. There are 6 routes, including 3 containerships of 100 TEU, 2 containerships of 150 TEU and 1 containership of 200 TEU. At the same time, in the single-type containerships case, there are 7 routes, and when the iteration time reaches 120, the total cost comes to 573 thousand yuan, which is close to the optimal value. Comparing the two cases, it shows that the model for multi-type containerships with time deadlines is reasonable, and the algorithm is practicable. In the last, three factors, which may affect the total cost to carry out sensitivity analysis are chosen. It shows that time deadline, containership capacity and cargo handling capacity of each port have significant influence on the total cost. It is also shown that the total cost for multi-type containerships is always less than that for the single-type containerships.

  18. CER Hub: An informatics platform for conducting comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional, heterogeneous, electronic clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Brian L; Kurtz, Stephen E; Masica, Andrew; Stevens, Victor J; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Puro, Jon E; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Au, David H; Brannon, Elissa D; Sittig, Dean F

    2015-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) requires the capture and analysis of data from disparate sources, often from a variety of institutions with diverse electronic health record (EHR) implementations. In this paper we describe the CER Hub, a web-based informatics platform for developing and conducting research studies that combine comprehensive electronic clinical data from multiple health care organizations. The CER Hub platform implements a data processing pipeline that employs informatics standards for data representation and web-based tools for developing study-specific data processing applications, providing standardized access to the patient-centric electronic health record (EHR) across organizations. The CER Hub is being used to conduct two CER studies utilizing data from six geographically distributed and demographically diverse health systems. These foundational studies address the effectiveness of medications for controlling asthma and the effectiveness of smoking cessation services delivered in primary care. The CER Hub includes four key capabilities: the ability to process and analyze both free-text and coded clinical data in the EHR; a data processing environment supported by distributed data and study governance processes; a clinical data-interchange format for facilitating standardized extraction of clinical data from EHRs; and a library of shareable clinical data processing applications. CER requires coordinated and scalable methods for extracting, aggregating, and analyzing complex, multi-institutional clinical data. By offering a range of informatics tools integrated into a framework for conducting studies using EHR data, the CER Hub provides a solution to the challenges of multi-institutional research using electronic medical record data. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Evaluating a European knowledge hub on climate change in agriculture: Are we building a better connected community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetnan, Eli Rudinow; Kipling, Richard Philip

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain food security and sustainability of production under climate change, interdisciplinary and international collaboration in research is essential. In the EU, knowledge hubs are important funding instruments for the development of an interconnected European Research Area. Here, network analysis was used to assess whether the pilot knowledge hub MACSUR has affected interdisciplinary collaboration, using co-authorship of peer reviewed articles as a measure of collaboration. The broad community of all authors identified as active in the field of agriculture and climate change was increasingly well connected over the period studied. Between knowledge hub members, changes in network parameters suggest an increase in collaborative interaction beyond that expected due to network growth, and greater than that found in the broader community. Given that interdisciplinary networks often take several years to have an impact on research outputs, these changes within the relatively new MACSUR community provide evidence that the knowledge hub structure has been effective in stimulating collaboration. However, analysis showed that knowledge hub partners were initially well-connected, suggesting that the initiative may have gathered together researchers with particular resources or inclinations towards collaborative working. Long term, consistent funding and ongoing reflection to improve networking structures may be necessary to sustain the early positive signs from MACSUR, to extend its success to a wider community of researchers, or to repeat it in less connected fields of science. Tackling complex challenges such as climate change will require research structures that can effectively support and utilise the diversity of talents beyond the already well-connected core of scientists at major research institutes. But network research shows that this core, well-connected group are vital brokers in achieving wider integration.

  20. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

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    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  1. Transport of pollutants and sediment in the area of the Wave Hub (Celtic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Huntley, David

    2010-05-01

    Ocean waves are a sustainable source of alternative energy that, if properly developed, will provide a quarter of current electricity demand and contribute to lowering the UK's reliance on fossil fuels. The UK government has given planning approval for a pilot power plant called the Wave Hub located in the eastern Celtic Sea off the Cornish north coast. The impact of a small number of devices on the physical environment is expected to be subtle outside the exclusion zone. However, such pilot projects are considered as the launching pad in the UK's ambitious programme to create a new wave energy industry. Large scale off-shore industrial activity can interact with the physical environment of the shelf sea in a two-fold manner: (i) the wave farm is affected by the waves, currents, variation in temperature and movements of sediment, and (ii) it can impact on the marine environment via a number of ways including release of dissolved and suspended matter during construction, operational and decommission stages of the project. These changes in the physical environment can then be translated into changes of the ecosystem and corresponding human activities. The Celtic Sea has a highly variable and complex thermal structure. In the spring and summer the water column becomes stratified due to solar heating of the surface layer, particularly in the areas of greater depth and/or low currents, where the turbulence is insufficient to mix the entire water column. Fronts form at the junctions of stratified and mixed water columns and these fronts generate currents which flow along the fronts. These frontal currents are subject to baroclinic instability and generate a whole set of mesoscale (i.e. comparable with the baroclinic Rossby radius) features such as eddies, filaments and mushroom currents, which are clearly seen on satellite images. Ecosystems are particularly concentrated in the vicinity of fronts so changes in frontal strength or location can have significant biological

  2. Identification of hub genes and pathways associated with bladder cancer based on co-expression network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Qing; Zhou, Chang-Kuo; Chen, Shou-Zhen; Yang, Yue; Shi, Ben-Kang

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify hub genes and signaling pathways associated with bladder cancer (BC) utilizing centrality analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened from the ArrayExpress database between normal subjects and BC patients. Co-expression networks of BC were constructed using differentially co-expressed genes and links, and hub genes were investigated by degree centrality analysis of co-expression networks in BC. The enriched signaling pathways were investigated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database analysis based on the DEGs. The hub gene expression in BC tissues was validated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. A total of 329 DEGs were screened, including 147 upregulated and 182 downregulated genes. The co-expression network constructed between BC and normal controls consisted of 182 nodes and 434 edges, and the two genes in each gene pair were differentially co-expressed genes. Centrality analysis of co-expression networks suggested that the top 5 hub genes with high degree included lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 4 (LGALS4), protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type N2 (PTPRN2), transmembrane protease, serine 11E (TMPRSS11E), tripartite motif containing 31 (TRIM31) and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3 (KCND3) . Pathway analysis revealed that the 329 DEGs were significantly enriched in 5 terms (cell cycle, DNA replication, oocyte meiosis, p53 signaling pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway). According to RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, 4/5 hub genes were significantly expressed, including LGALS4, PTPRN2, TMPRSS11E, TRIM31 ; however, KCND3 was not significantly expressed. In the present study, 5 hub genes were successfully identified ( LGALS4, PTPRN2, TMPRSS11E, TRIM31 and KCND3 ) and 5 biological pathways that may be underlying biomarkers for

  3. Os regimentos das corporações dos ofícios mecânicos: O caso do Retábulo-mor da Sé de Lamego (1506-1511 do pintor português Vasco Fernandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Salgueiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O núcleo em estudo: Retábulo-mor da Sé de Lamego (1506-1511, obra de incontestável importância histórico-artística do pintor quinhentista Vasco Fernandes, “Grão Vasco”, é um conjunto valiosamente documentado pelo seu contrato de obra, que subsistiu até à actualidade. No entanto, sabe-se que muitas vezes os dados empiricamente percepcionados ou mesmo presentes nos actos notariais relativos à feitura do retábulo, por inúmeras razões, nem sempre correspondem na íntegra à realidade. O trabalho que se segue, tem como objectivo, cruzar o conhecimento técnico e material dos suportes destas pinturas, com os dados analisados nos regimentos das corporações dos ofícios mecânicos do trabalho das madeiras: carpinteiros, carpinteiros de marcenaria, marceneiros, entalhadores (e por comparação pintores; de modo a determinar, através das metodologias de examinação dos aprendizes dos ofícios, e restantes normativas, as técnicas e materiais de execução exigidas, no contexto histórico do período Renascentista português.

  4. The Use of C-MnO2 as Hybrid Precursor Support for a Pt/C-MnxO1+x Catalyst with Enhanced Activity for the Methanol Oxidation Reaction (MOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro H.A. Monteverde Videla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Platinum (Pt nanoparticles are deposited on a hybrid support (C-MnO2 according to a polyol method. The home-made catalyst, resulted as Pt/C-MnxO1+x, is compared with two different commercial platinum based materials (Pt/C and PtRu/C. The synthesized catalyst is characterized by means of FESEM, XRD, ICP-MS, XPS and μRS analyses. MnO2 is synthesized and deposited over a commercial grade of carbon (Vulcan XC72 by facile reduction of potassium permanganate in acidic solution. Pt nanoparticles are synthesized on the hybrid support by a polyol thermal assisted method (microwave irradiation, followed by an annealing at 600 °C. The obtained catalyst displays a support constituted by a mixture of manganese oxides (Mn2O3 and Mn3O4 with a Pt loading of 19 wt. %. The electro-catalytic activity towards MOR is assessed by RDE in acid conditions (0.5 M H2SO4, evaluating the ability to oxidize methanol in 1 M concentration. The synthesized Pt/C-MnxO1+x catalyst shows good activity as well as good stability compared to the commercial Pt/C based catalyst.

  5. Probing the Effect of Six-Membered N-Heterocyclic Carbene—6-Mes—on the Synthesis, Structure and Reactivity of Me2MOR(NHC (M = Ga, In Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Cybularczyk-Cecotka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the reactivity of six membered N-heterocyclic carbene 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-ylidene (6-Mes towards dialkylgallium and dialkylindium alkoxides/aryloxides has shown that both steric hindrances and donor properties of 6-Mes significantly influence the strength of M–C6-Mes bond, as well as the formation, structure and reactivity of Me2MOR(6-Mes (M = Ga, In complexes. While the reactions of simple dimethylgallium alkoxides with 6-Mes lead to the formation of stable monomeric Me2Ga(OCH2CH2OMe(6-Mes (1 and Me2GaOMe(6-Mes complexes, the analogous Me2InOR(6-Mes are unstable and disproportionate to methylindium alkoxides and Me3In(6-Mes (2. The use of bulky alkoxide ligand—OCPh2Me or aryloxide ligand—OC6H4OMe allowed for the synthesis of stable Me2M(OCPh2Me(6-Mes (M = Ga (3 and In (4 as well as Me2M(OC6H4OMe(6-Mes (M = Ga (5 and In (6. The structures of 1–6 have been determined using both spectroscopic methods in solution and X-ray diffraction studies, which confirmed the effect of both steric hindrances and donor properties of 6-Mes on their structure and catalytic properties in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP of rac-lactide.

  6. Proposed Role for KaiC-Like ATPases as Major Signal Transduction Hubs in Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Galperin, Michael Y; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-12-05

    All organisms must adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions and accordingly have evolved diverse signal transduction systems. In bacteria, the most abundant networks are built around the two-component signal transduction systems that include histidine kinases and receiver domains. In contrast, eukaryotic signal transduction is dominated by serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinases. Both of these systems are also found in archaea, but they are not as common and diversified as their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts, suggesting the possibility that archaea have evolved other, still uncharacterized signal transduction networks. Here we propose a role for KaiC family ATPases, known to be key components of the circadian clock in cyanobacteria, in archaeal signal transduction. The KaiC family is notably expanded in most archaeal genomes, and although most of these ATPases remain poorly characterized, members of the KaiC family have been shown to control archaellum assembly and have been found to be a stable component of the gas vesicle system in Halobacteria Computational analyses described here suggest that KaiC-like ATPases and their homologues with inactivated ATPase domains are involved in many other archaeal signal transduction pathways and comprise major hubs of complex regulatory networks. We predict numerous input and output domains that are linked to KaiC-like proteins, including putative homologues of eukaryotic DEATH domains that could function as adapters in archaeal signaling networks. We further address the relationships of the archaeal family of KaiC homologues to the bona fide KaiC of cyanobacteria and implications for the existence of a KaiC-based circadian clock apparatus in archaea. IMPORTANCE Little is currently known about signal transduction pathways in Archaea Recent studies indicate that KaiC-like ATPases, known as key components of the circadian clock apparatus in cyanobacteria, are involved in the regulation of archaellum assembly and

  7. The NCAR Digital Asset Services Hub (DASH): Implementing Unified Data Discovery and Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, D.; Worley, S. J.; Hou, C. Y.; Nienhouse, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Directorate created the Data Stewardship Engineering Team (DSET) to plan and implement an integrated single entry point for uniform digital asset discovery and access across the organization in order to improve the efficiency of access, reduce the costs, and establish the foundation for interoperability with other federated systems. This effort supports new policies included in federal funding mandates, NSF data management requirements, and journal citation recommendations. An inventory during the early planning stage identified diverse asset types across the organization that included publications, datasets, metadata, models, images, and software tools and code. The NCAR Digital Asset Services Hub (DASH) is being developed and phased in this year to improve the quality of users' experiences in finding and using these assets. DASH serves to provide engagement, training, search, and support through the following four nodes (see figure). DASH MetadataDASH provides resources for creating and cataloging metadata to the NCAR Dialect, a subset of ISO 19115. NMDEdit, an editor based on a European open source application, has been configured for manual entry of NCAR metadata. CKAN, an open source data portal platform, harvests these XML records (along with records output directly from databases) from a Web Accessible Folder (WAF) on GitHub for validation. DASH SearchThe NCAR Dialect metadata drives cross-organization search and discovery through CKAN, which provides the display interface of search results. DASH search will establish interoperability by facilitating metadata sharing with other federated systems. DASH ConsultingThe DASH Data Curation & Stewardship Coordinator assists with Data Management (DM) Plan preparation and advises on Digital Object Identifiers. The coordinator arranges training sessions on the DASH metadata tools and DM planning, and provides one-on-one assistance as requested. DASH Repository

  8. Identifying the Functional Requirements for an Arizona Astronomy Data Hub (AADH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, G.; Heidorn, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomy data represent a curation challenge for information managers, as well as for astronomers. Extracting knowledge from these heterogeneous and complex datasets is particularly complicated and requires both interdisciplinary and domain expertise to accomplish true curation, with an overall goal of facilitating reproducible science through discoverability and persistence. A group of researchers and professional staff at the University of Arizona held several meetings during the spring of 2015 about astronomy data and the role of the university in curation of that data. The group decided that it was critical to obtain a broader consensus on the needs of the community. With assistance from a Start for Success grant provided by the University of Arizona Office of Research and Discovery and funding from the American Astronomical Society (AAS), a workshop was held in early July 2015, with 28 participants plus 4 organizers in attendance. Representing University researchers as well as astronomical facilities and a scholarly society, the group verified that indeed there is a problem with the long-term curation of some astronomical data not associated with major facilities, and that a repository or "data hub" with the correct functionality could facilitate research and the preservation and use of astronomy data. The workshop members also identified a set of next steps, including the identification of possible data and metadata to be included in the Hub. The participants further helped to identify additional information that must be gathered before construction of the AADH could begin, including identifying significant datasets that do not currently have sufficient preservation and dissemination infrastructure, as well as some data associated with journal publications and the broader context of the data beyond that directly published in the journals. Workshop participants recommended that a set of grant proposal should be developed that ensures community buy-in and

  9. A preliminary assessment of the potential for 'team science' in DOE Energy Innovation Hubs and Energy Frontier Research Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Craig; Ponomariov, Branco

    2011-01-01

    President Obama has called for the development of new energy technologies to address our national energy needs and restore US economic competitiveness. In response, the Department of Energy has established new R and D modalities for energy research and development designed to facilitate collaboration across disciplinary, institutional, and sectoral boundaries. In this research note, we provide a preliminary assessment of the potential for essential mechanisms for coordinated problem solving among diverse actors within two new modalities at the DOE: Energy Innovation Hubs and Energy Frontier Research Centers. - Highlights: → Energy Frontier Research Centers may lack the basic mechanisms for coordinating diverse actors. → Divergent goals across diverse actors may hinder coordination in Energy Innovation Hubs. → The implementation of these and similar energy policies require further investigation.

  10. A operação das companhias aéreas nos aeroportos hub & spoke e nas bases operacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of deregulation of air transportation and all changes that have arisen in the air transport market led to the emergence of new airport concepts, not always clear and easy to understand. Airports Hub & Spoke and operational bases, has specific characteristics to be exploited in this article through case studies that aim to highlight the differences and emphasize its importance for the airlines involved. In this article we are going to evaluate the operation of two airlines that are members of a Strategic Alliance, which operate under a Hub & Spoke network, as well as an example of a low cost airline operating to more than 50 operational bases all over Europe.

  11. Using Metaheuristic Algorithms for Solving a Hub Location Problem: Application in Passive Optical Network Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fiber-optic due to having greater bandwidth and being more efficient compared with other similar technologies, are counted as one the most important tools for data transfer. In this article, an integrated mathematical model for a three-level fiber-optic distribution network with consideration of simultaneous backbone and local access networks is presented in which the backbone network is a ring and the access networks has a star-star topology. The aim of the model is to determine the location of the central offices and splitters, how connections are made between central offices, and allocation of each demand node to a splitter or central office in a way that the wiring cost of fiber optical and concentrator installation are minimized. Moreover, each user’s desired bandwidth should be provided efficiently. Then, the proposed model is validated by GAMS software in small-sized problems, afterwards the model is solved by two meta-heuristic methods including differential evolution (DE and genetic algorithm (GA in large-scaled problems and the results of two algorithms are compared with respect to computational time and objective function obtained value. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is provided. Keyword: Fiber-optic, telecommunication network, hub-location, passive splitter, three-level network.

  12. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model For Densified Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md S. Roni; Sandra Eksioglu; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for long-haul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus in not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  13. A Multi-Objective, Hub-and-Spoke Supply Chain Design Model for Densified Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Md. S. Roni; Kara G. Cafferty; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we propose a model to design the supply chain for densified biomass. Rail is typically used for longhaul, high-volume shipment of densified biomass. This is the reason why a hub-and-spoke network structure is used to model this supply chain. The model is formulated as a multi-objective, mixed-integer programing problem under economic, environmental, and social criteria. The goal is to identify the feasibility of meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) by using biomass for production of cellulosic ethanol. The focus is not just on the costs associated with meeting these standards, but also exploring the social and environmental benefits that biomass production and processing offers by creating new jobs and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We develop an augmented ?-constraint method to find the exact Pareto solution to this optimization problem. We develop a case study using data from the Mid-West. The model identifies the number, capacity and location of biorefineries needed to make use of the biomass available in the region. The model estimates the delivery cost of cellulosic ethanol under different scenario, the number new jobs created and the GHG emission reductions in the supply chain.

  14. The G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer network (GPCR-HetNet) and its hub components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Brito, Ismel; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Di Palma, Michael; Oflijan, Julia; Skieterska, Kamila; Duchou, Jolien; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Rivera, Alicia; Guidolin, Diego; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-05-14

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) oligomerization has emerged as a vital characteristic of receptor structure. Substantial experimental evidence supports the existence of GPCR-GPCR interactions in a coordinated and cooperative manner. However, despite the current development of experimental techniques for large-scale detection of GPCR heteromers, in order to understand their connectivity it is necessary to develop novel tools to study the global heteroreceptor networks. To provide insight into the overall topology of the GPCR heteromers and identify key players, a collective interaction network was constructed. Experimental interaction data for each of the individual human GPCR protomers was obtained manually from the STRING and SCOPUS databases. The interaction data were used to build and analyze the network using Cytoscape software. The network was treated as undirected throughout the study. It is comprised of 156 nodes, 260 edges and has a scale-free topology. Connectivity analysis reveals a significant dominance of intrafamily versus interfamily connections. Most of the receptors within the network are linked to each other by a small number of edges. DRD2, OPRM, ADRB2, AA2AR, AA1R, OPRK, OPRD and GHSR are identified as hubs. In a network representation 10 modules/clusters also appear as a highly interconnected group of nodes. Information on this GPCR network can improve our understanding of molecular integration. GPCR-HetNet has been implemented in Java and is freely available at http://www.iiia.csic.es/~ismel/GPCR-Nets/index.html.

  15. Partner Country Series: Developing a Natural Gas Trading Hub in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The trading of natural gas in the Asia-Pacific region is dominated by long-term contracts in which the price of gas is indexed to that of oil. As the price of gas between Asia and other parts of the world has widened in recent years, observers have raised serious doubts about the sustainability of this pricing model. In this report, the IEA shows what it would take to create a functional, regional natural-gas trading hub in which prices reflect the local supply and demand fundamentals. The report aims to provide stakeholders with insights on the changes that are required in the Asia-Pacific natural gas sector - both downstream and upstream - to allow a competitive natural gas price to emerge. Building on OECD Europe and OECD America experiences, this report sets out to assess perspectives for these changes in the Asia-Pacific natural gas markets. It identifies obstacles and opportunities for a competitive natural gas price in the Asian economies to emerge.

  16. Cahora Bassa and Tete Province (Mozambique): A great potential for an industrial hub in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Graca, A. da

    2009-01-01

    Mozambique is host to the great Zambezi River Basin and the World Famous Cahora Bassa power plant that generates some 13,000 GWh annually. The bulk of this energy (85%) is exported but the revenue raised does not appear to have any appreciable impact on the host economy. Moreover it is estimated that a further 10% of the generated energy is lost along the 1414 km long transmission line to South Africa. So quite evidently, Mozambique would benefit more if its energy were utilized by locally based industry. This would also save on the losses that are currently incurred during regional transmission. In this paper the authors visit Tete, the Mozambican Province that hosts the Zambezi Basin. They examine its natural and human resources. They observe that its strategic location gives it easy access to regional markets. They also hold interviews with a number of administrators in the Province. Finally, they conclude that Tete is uniquely advantaged to develop into the next regional industrial hub for the Southern African region. This would also greatly add value to the local resources. To realize this dream will require, conviction supported by strong and timely political commitment as well as hard work. Current trends towards integrated regional trading blocks will provide an even easier access to potential markets and human skills pools.

  17. Distortion and residual stresses in laser beam weld shaft-hub joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschenhenke, F.; Hofmann, M.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    In laser beam welding, a serious challenge is to control the distortion during the process. Understanding the whole process chain in view of different distortion potentials applied in each processing step provides the ability to control the distortion of the welded components. Every manufacturing step induces residual stresses in the component which can be released by the heat of the welding process, while further residual stresses are introduced into the welded parts upon cooling. The laser beam sources of the new generation permit a high power welding process and high beam quality at the same time. These laser beams are capable of producing deep and narrow seams. Thus the thermal strains of the joined parts are expected to be minimized. Especially axial welded shaft-hub joints show an irregular distribution of bending deformation, which is caused by the self-influencing welding gap. This work deals with the investigation of different laser beam sources and their effect on the welding distortion in axial welded shafthub joints made of steel (20MnCr5). The aim of the work done was to achieve minimal distortion after the welding process. To characterize the influences on the distortion behaviour of the welded parts, residual stresses have been determined by neutron diffraction.

  18. Evaluating NMME Seasonal Forecast Skill for use in NASA SERVIR Hub Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Roberts, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The coupled forecasts have numerous potential applications, both national and international in scope. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in driving applications models in hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. A prerequisite for seasonal forecast use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture) is bias correction and skill assessment. Efforts to address systematic biases and multi-model combination in support of NASA SERVIR impact modeling requirements will be highlighted. Specifically, quantilequantile mapping for bias correction has been implemented for all archived NMME hindcasts. Both deterministic and probabilistic skill estimates for raw, bias-corrected, and multi-model ensemble forecasts as a function of forecast lead will be presented for temperature and precipitation. Complementing this statistical assessment will be case studies of significant events, for example, the ability of the NMME forecasts suite to anticipate the 2010/2011 drought in the Horn of Africa and its relationship to evolving SST patterns.

  19. Overview of JSPS Core-to-Core Program: Forming Research and Educational Hubs of Medical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki

    To foster medical physicists, we introduce the achievement we made since 2011 under the national research project of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Core-to-Core program; 'Forming Research and Educational Hubs of Medical Physics.' On this basis and under the JSPS program, we promoted research and educational exchange with Indiana University (IU) in USA, University of Groningen (The UG) in the Netherland and other cooperating institutions such as University of Minnesota (UM).A total of 23 students and researchers were sent. UG accepted the most among three institutions. In turn, 12 foreign researchers including post-doctor fellows came to Japan for academic seminars or educational lectures.Fifteen international seminars were held; 8 in Japan, 4 in USA, and 3 in the Netherland.Lots of achievement were made through these activities in 5 years. Total of 23 research topics at the international conferences were presented. Total of 12 articles were published in international journals.This program clearly promoted the establishment of international collaboration, and many young researchers and graduate students were exchanged and collaborated with foreign researchers.

  20. TransCanada's Alberta hub : a great market for British Columbia natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation outlined commercial gas transmission activities along TransCanada Pipelines' wholly owned regulated pipelines in western Canada, including the Alberta System and the British Columbia (BC) System. TransCanada Pipelines owns and operates 41,000 km of pipeline that transport 11.5 billion cubic feet of gas per day. TransCanada's efforts to improve Alberta System economics were described along with the services it has developed to better connect supply and improve market access. This presentation included several illustrations depicting North American gas supply and demand; frontier resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB); pipelines that accommodate northern gas; Alberta gas demand; and, Pacific gas demand; The integration of the Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) System in the energy grid of western North America was also discussed. It was determined that production from the WCSB remains stable and supply from BC will remain a key growth area for the WCSB. In addition, enhancements to the Alberta Hub, facilitated by TransCanada's Nova Inventory Transfer, will provides a great market for BC gas. figs