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Sample records for sinocrassula indica berge

  1. [Eesti Kirjanike Liit] / Maimu Berg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berg, Maimu, 1945-

    2007-01-01

    M. Berg oli esitatud EKL-i esimehe kandidaadiks, millelt ta end taandas, kuid vastas siiski Sirbi järgmistele küsimustele: "Mida te kavatsete ette võtta eesti kirjaniku heaks ja EKLi edendamiseks? Kuidas peaks uue esimehe asjaajamine suhestuma kultuuripoliitikaga?"

  2. Azadirachta Indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    ABSTRACT. Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, ...

  3. Maipäevad Dessaus / Maimu Berg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berg, Maimu, 1945-

    1989-01-01

    Moekunstnike loomingulisest seminarist, mida juhendas professor ja vabakutseline kunstnik Bodo Müller, Dessaus Bauhausi hoones (Tallinnast osalesid Maimu Berg ja kunstnik Kristel Leedjärv); Bauhausi ajaloost

  4. Jabuticaba [Pliniajaboticaba (Vell.) Berg] skins decrease lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Jabuticaba [Plinia jaboticaba (Vell.) Berg] Skin Flour (JSF) was studied on peroxidation, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles of female rats, as well as quantification and characterization of phenolic compounds. The animals were divided into four groups of eight rats. The groups received 0 (control); 0.5; 1.5 and 3.0 ...

  5. Berg River Textiles - Cleaner Production Option Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Berg River Textiles, Mr. Juan Laubscher, and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project, Mr. Zsig Schneider and Mr. Henrik Wenzel. This team of people collected information on recipes and flow sch...... projects including milestone plans for their implementation was made. A saving potential of around 3 mill. R was identified with a pay-back period of around 0.2 years as average of the identified options. The company implemented a large number of the options right away....

  6. Graph Theory in Paris : Conference in Memory of Claude Berge

    CERN Document Server

    Fonlupt, Jean; Fouquet, Jean-Luc; Fournier, Jean-Claude; Alfonsín, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    In July 2004, a conference on graph theory was held in Paris in memory of Claude Berge, one of the pioneers of the field. The event brought together many prominent specialists on topics, such as perfect graphs and matching theory, upon which Claude Berge's work has had a major impact. This volume includes contributions to these and other topics from many of the participants.

  7. Elukiri küsis kommentaari Maimu Bergilt / Maimu Berg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berg, Maimu, 1945-

    2007-01-01

    Kommentaar ajakirjas avaldatud intervjuule : Vaino Vahing. "Inimene peab arenema surmani", nr. 2, lk. 24-30. Artiklis kommenteerib V. Vahingu memuaarides "Noor Unt" ja "Päevaraamat 1" kujutatu tõepärasust tema tollane abikaasa M. Berg

  8. Mangifera indica L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... Nucellar embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in monoembryonic and polyembryonic mango. (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. Manish Shukla, Khair Tuwair Al-Busaidi*, Ghaya Sultan Al-Blushi, Abdullah Hamed Al-. Burashdi, Hamoud Darwish Al-Hasani, Mohammed Hamed Al-Jabri and. Basem Saif AL- ...

  9. Alban Berg's Wozzeck : Revisiting a Historically Sedimented Metaphor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alban Berg's Wozzeck: Revisiting a Historically Sedimented Metaphor. Bertha Spies. Abstract. The binary opposition between music text and reader can be transformed into a dialogue when the text is allowed to "speak back". A dialogue approach helps to provide an answer to the question of two different interpretations of ...

  10. Res Publica Euroopas / Eiki Berg, Marko Mihkelson ; interv. Lauri Lugna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berg, Eiki, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Res Publica välispoliitika eksperdid Eiki Berg ja Marko Mihkelson vastavad küsimustele, mis käsitlevad Res Publica saamist Euroopa Rahvapartei (ERP) liikmeks, koostööd ERP-ga, EL-i põhiseaduslikku lepet

  11. Investigation into metal contamination of the Berg River, Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A recent decline in water quality of the Berg River, Western Cape, South Africa, has led to the investigation into the degree of metal pollution in the river system. This study was conducted over a period of one year, from May 2004 to May 2005. The nitric acid digestion technique was used to extract metals from water, ...

  12. Prospect of Milicia excelsa (Welw. C. Berg for Multi-Tree Species Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ossai Onefeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The population of most of our economically indigenous tree species in Nigeria is declining. Human activities and agricultural practices have been the ultimate contributors to this decrease. In order to ameliorate the conflict between agriculture and forestry, agroforestry was introduced. However, most of the practiced agroforestry is based on single tree species. Agroforestry practiced using single tree species have been reported to be ecologically staggered and therefore it is pertinent that phytosociology of trees with agroforestry potential is studied in order to improve the sustainability of human livelihood. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the University of Ibadan’s campus forest. The data were collected on Milicia excelsa (Welw. C. Berg by enumerating the tree species and also by identifying and enumerating the tree species associated with the subject tree (Milicia excelsa. Statistical analysis was done using percentages, Chi-square and charts. Results: A total of 49 individual Milicia excelsa were encountered in the study area. The results show 31 woody tree species associated with Milicia excelsa. Of all the associates Azadirachta indica A.Juss. happened to be the best one, having an average distance of 5.4 m to the subject tree. The sex ratio of Milicia excelsa was discovered to be approximately 1:1. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results of this research it may be concluded that Milicia excelsa has the prospect of being used in agroforestry in multi-tree species systems.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J Colin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2010-09-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N(2)-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  14. La identidad de Bufo missionum Berg, 1896 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faivovich, Julián

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Habiendo individualizado el ejemplar sobre el que Berg realizó la descripción de B. missionum, ahora es posible discutir su identidad. El ejemplar en cuestión está un poco deshidratado y oscurecido, sin embargo, en el mismo son evidentes varias características propias de B. ictericus Spix, 1824 que lo diferencian de B. rufus, como ser la presencia de cresta supratimpanica y la forma de la cabeza, ancha y triangular. Comparado con un lote de jóvenes de B. ictericus, B. missionum resulta muy similar en tamaño, proporciones y disposición de las manchas dorsales. Todas estas observaciones nos llevan a concluir que B. missionum Berg, 1894 es un sinónimo de B. ictericus Spix, 1824.

  15. Instrumentering av Bergsøysundbrua og Gjemnesundbrua

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlen, Adrian; Lystad, Tor Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gjemnessundbrua og Bergsøysundbrua på Europavei E39 i Møre og Romsdal, skal instrumenteres for identifikasjon av strukturelle og dynamiske egenskaper. Denne rapporten omhandler dokumentasjon og beskrivelse av det utførte arbeidet ved monteringen av måleutstyret. Det er også gjort analyser av de ulike konstruksjonsdelene akselerometersensorer og anemometre er montert på. Til slutt er de initielle responssignalene fra systemet behandlet, der egenfrekvenser og dempningsegenskaper til bruene blir...

  16. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  17. (baobab) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from two indigenous wild trees namely Adansonia digitata (baobab) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were analyzed. From this study, the protein contents were observed to be 24.98% and 17.99 % for baobab and tamarind respectively. These values are fairly high compared to cereals and root crops such as whole ...

  18. Centro parroquial Harksheide-Stüberg Alemania Federal

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    von Bassewitz, Horst

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The Centre of the Evangelic Lutheran Community in Harksheide-Stüberg, situated in the midst of spacious green lawns, consists of two independent constructions with a central open patio in between, where the entrances to the social gathering premises are located. The smallest building, one storey only, is designed for the kindergarten. It comprises: three meeting rooms for groups, play room, office for the director, and housing for the person in charge of the kindergarten, washrooms and kitchen. The other two-storeyed building is entirely planned for the grown-up community, containing on the ground-floor: chapel, club for retired people, meeting room and a room for games, administration department and the dúplex housing for the parson. On the top floor are distributed: library, room for religious teaching, offices and two houses - one for the sacristan and the other one for the deaconess. In the construction traditional systems and materials have been used, and whenever possible the natural surfaces have been maintained. In this manner, a pleasant contrast of textures and colours has been achieved, as well as great simplicity in the lines, in perfect harmony with the country side setting.El Centro de la Comunidad Evangélica Luterana de Harkseide-Stüberg, ubicado en un lugar rodeado de amplias praderas, está constituido por dos construcciones independientes que crean entre sí un patio central abierto, en donde se sitúan las entradas a los locales sociales. El edificio más pequeño, de una sola planta, se dedica a jardín de infancia. Consta de: tres locales para reunión de grupos, sala de juegos, un despacho para la directora y una vivienda para la encargada de la guardería, además de los servicios de cocina y aseos correspondientes. La otra edificación, desarrollada en dos alturas, se destina en su totalidad a la comunidad adulta. Se compone, en la planta baja de: capilla, club de ancianos, sala de reunión y otra de juegos

  19. Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Papaya ( Carica papaya )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyphenoloxidase and Perioxidase Activity During Open Air Ripening Storage of Pineapple ( Ananas comosus L.), Mango ( Mangifera indica ) and Papaya ( Carica papaya ) Fruits Grown in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  20. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

  1. Azadirachta indica, Vernonia amygdalina and Go

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... amygdalina have higher (p<0.05) vitamin C and riboflavin composition. Flavonoids, saponins and polyphenols were significantly predominant (p<0.05) in V. amygdalina relative to A. indica and G. latifolium, whereas alkaloids and HCN were highest (p<0.05) in A. indica. However, G. latifolium had the.

  2. Evaluation of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) derivatives for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is the most potential plant for solving the multidimensional problems of the rural people. Neem, Azadirachta indica and Persian lilac, Melia azedarach, with different formulations were tested against stalk borers on sorghum at Sirinka and Chefa in 2002/03 and 2003/04 cropping seasons.

  3. The construction of community: inscribing and prescribing multiple voices in the upper Berg River Catchment, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available construct and shape interactions, relationships and responsibilities in a very particular way. Using the Berg River and in particular the Berg River Partnership which is located in the Western Cape of South Africa as a case study, this paper examines...

  4. Johannes van den Berg, Constrained by Jesus' Love. An Inquiry into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johannes van den Berg, Constrained by Jesus' Love. An Inquiry into the Motives of the missionary Awakening in Qreat Britain in the Period between 1698 and 1815, J. H. Kok, N.V., Kampen, 1956. P.S Dreyer. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  5. The fish community of the Berg River estuary and an assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoology Department and Marine Biology Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7700. Republic of South Africa. Received I May 1993; accepted 6 October /993. Data concerning the species composition, abundance and distribution of fishes inhab~ing the Berg River estuary are presented and used to ...

  6. Feasibility and outcomes of the Berg Balance Scale in older adults with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    High incidence of falls and increased risk of fall-related injuries are seen in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) is a reliable instrument for balance assessment in the population of (older) adults with ID. The aims of this study were to assess the balance

  7. Management of human-induced salinization in the Berg River catchment (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available increasing trends in in the Berg River since the mid 1970’s. Degrading water quality limits the usability of the water in an already water stressed, semi-arid area. Natural dryland salinity (predominantly NaCl salts trapped in Proterozoic Malmesbury shale...

  8. BERG BALANCE TEST (BBT AND TIME UP AND GO TES (TUGT AS FALLS PREDICTION ON ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging process represent the natural process which cannot obtivated. It caused by biological factor that goes naturaly and continuously that influence the anatomical, biochemical and physiological change. The natural change in this aspect giving contribution of falling on elderly. The objective of this study was to compare falls prediction on elderly using Berg Balance Test and Time Up and Go Test. Method: Design used in this study was comparative study design. The population was 28 elderly. Total sample was 20 elderly enrolled by means of purposive sampling, taken according to inclusion criteria. The independent variabels were Berg Balance Test and Time Up and Go Test The dependent variabels were falls prediction, falls, and falls influence factors. Data were colected using Berg Balance Test, Time Up and Go Test and questionnaire that modify from Minnesota Safety Council  Fall Prevention Checklist.  Data were then analyzed using kruskall-wallis test and mann-withney test with level of significance α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that Berg Balance Test (BBT and Time Up and Go test (TUGT had differences falls prediction with significance level of  p=0.014. Analyze :The  dominant factors that caused of falls was gait. Time Up and Go Test (TUGT has valid prediction than Berg Balance Test (BBT it showed by difference smaller score from comparator test score. Discussion: It can be concluded that TUGT more appropriate than BBT to predict the falls insident in elderly. Further studies should be consider to used carioca activity model as falls prevention in elderly.

  9. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae, commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  10. Relationship between the Berg Balance Scale and Static Balance Test in Hemiplegic Patients with Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Makoto; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Machida, Yooichiro; Minakata, Shin

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between results of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Static Balance Test (SBT) in hemiplegic patients with stroke. [Subjects] The subjects were 39 hemiplegic patients (25 men, 14 women; mean age, 69.4 ? 11.0?years) with stroke that had occurred within the preceding 6 months and who had good understanding of verbal instructions. [Methods] The SBT consists of five posture-holding tasks (sitting, stride standing, close standing, ...

  11. Berg Balance Scale Reliability for Evaluation in Children with Spastic Diplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teimour A'sgari

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assessment of balance in children with neurological disorders is quite necessary in any rehabilitation therapy. There are various versions of balance tests for balance assessment of adults however, little has been done with regard to introducing a reliable test for evaluation of the balance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter and intrarater reliability of Berg balance scale in children with spastic diplegia. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and methodological study twenty spastic diplegia children with non probability selection participated. Children were in the range of 6-12 Yrs (Mean, SD, 7/35 &1/84 yrs, respectively. Parents were asked to sign an informed consent. Berg balance scale was tested in one session by two therapists for interrater reliability (inter-rating and repeated tests were tested for intrarater reliability (intra-rating. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC test was used for interrater (between two therapists, ICC= 0/985, P<0/001 and intra rater reliability repeated test by the same therapist, ICC= 0/994 , P<0/001 . Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of Berg balance scale is acceptable. Therefore, it could be used in clinic for the assessment of children with spastic diplegia as a reliable scale.

  12. Mercury contamination history of an estuarine floodplain reconstructed from a 210Pb-dated sediment core (Berg River, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kading, TJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury deposition histories have been scarcely documented in the southern hemisphere. A sediment core was collected from the ecologically important estuarine floodplain of the Berg River (South Africa). The authors establish the concentration of Hg...

  13. Evaluation of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the performance, Carcass characteristics and egg quality of Laying hens. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is one of the indigenous tropical plants predominant in Nigeria. It is commonly known as Neem and popularly called ...

  14. Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale to predict falls in community-dwelling adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance S...

  15. Estudo morfométrico do gênero Panstrongylus Berg, 1879 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Morphometric study of the genus Panstrongylus Berg, 1879 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Magalhães dos Santos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae is actually represented by 137 species distributed among 6 tribes and 19 genera. Within this subfamily, the genus Panstrongylus, Berg 1879, is composed by 13 species widespread in sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic habitats of Neotropical regions. These species are vectors of Chagas disease and consequently are found associated with its main hosts, such as birds and mammals. Interest in species of this genus has been increasing in the last few years. Reports of several authors indicate these Triatominae to invade and colonize houses, increasing their epidemiological significance. Morphometry was used in this study to investigate correlations among possible closely related species. We measured 224 specimens among 13 species through a set of metric variables of the head. The results indicated that the genus Panstrongylus seems to be homogeneous since 10 of the 14 species were shown to be closely related.

  16. Cactus ( Opuntia ficus indica ) extract improves endoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We reported in this paper the requirement of the extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) for regulating unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes and maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where many proteins are synthesized and sorted to ...

  17. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract improves endoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... We reported in this paper the requirement of the extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) for regulating unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes and maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle where many proteins are synthesized ...

  18. contributory pharmacological effects of azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three crude extracts from Azadirachta indica leaves were assessed on various signs and symptoms of infection in vivo and in vitro. The methanolic and diethylether extracts have significant antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory activities, while the chloroform extract did not show appreciable effect.

  19. Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum grattissimum leaf extracts in the control of yam rot. ... Fusarium oxysporium, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicilluim notatum and Aspergillus niger were isolated from the rotted yams. Both fresh and dry extracts of the leaves had significant effects ...

  20. et du neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) sur Helicoverpa armigera et les Thrips de la tomate. 8936. Boutaleb J. A., 2010. Synthèse des résultats de recherche sur l'utilisation de quelques biopesticides d'origine végétale sur les cultures.

  1. Antioxidant and fatty acid profile of gabiroba seed (Campomanesisa Xanthocarpa Berg Potencial antioxidante e perfil dos ácidos graxos de sementes de gabiroba (Campomanesisa Xanthocarpa Berg

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    Marli da Silva Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and fatty acid profile of gabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg seeds. In order to obtain the extract, the seeds were dried, crushed, and subjected to sequential extraction by maceration and percolation in a modified soxhlet extractor using solvent polarity gradient composed of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and alcohol, respectively. The extraction time was six hours. The ethanol extract showed the highest antioxidant potential, given by the EC50 value and the amount of total phenolic compounds. High amounts of unsaturated fatty acids were found in the oil studied, especially the oleic acid.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e perfil dos ácidos graxos em sementes de gabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. Para a obtenção do extrato, as sementes foram desidratadas, trituradas e submetidas à extração sequencial por percolação e maceração, em extrator de Soxleht modificado, utilizando solventes com gradiente de polaridade, constituídos respectivamente por hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila e álcool. O tempo de cada extração foi de seis horas. O extrato etanólico apresentou o maior potencial antioxidante, dado pelo valor de EC50, bem como pela quantidade de compostos fenólicos totais. No óleo estudado, destacou-se maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo o principal componente o ácido oleico.

  2. Characterisation of Indica Special Protein (ISP), a marker protein for the differentiation of Oryza sativa subspecies indica and japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Keming; Min, Chao; Xia, Hengchuan; Yang, Yanhua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Keping

    2014-04-29

    Based on both morphological and physiological traits, Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) can be classified into two distinct subspecies, indica and japonica. To better understand the differences between the two subspecies, a proteomic approach was used to profile proteins present in the yellow seedling stage of 10 indica and 10 japonica rice varieties. We report the discovery of a new protein, Indica Special Protein (ISP), which was only detected in yellow seedlings of indica varieties, and was absent from japonica varieties. Hence, ISP may represent a key gene for the differentiation of indica and japonica subspecies.

  3. Characterisation of Indica Special Protein (ISP, a Marker Protein for the Differentiation of Oryza sativa Subspecies indica and japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on both morphological and physiological traits, Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. can be classified into two distinct subspecies, indica and japonica. To better understand the differences between the two subspecies, a proteomic approach was used to profile proteins present in the yellow seedling stage of 10 indica and 10 japonica rice varieties. We report the discovery of a new protein, Indica Special Protein (ISP, which was only detected in yellow seedlings of indica varieties, and was absent from japonica varieties. Hence, ISP may represent a key gene for the differentiation of indica and japonica subspecies.

  4. Antioxidant and fatty acid profile of gabiroba seed (Campomanesisa Xanthocarpa Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli da Silva Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and fatty acid profile of gabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg seeds. In order to obtain the extract, the seeds were dried, crushed, and subjected to sequential extraction by maceration and percolation in a modified soxhlet extractor using solvent polarity gradient composed of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and alcohol, respectively. The extraction time was six hours. The ethanol extract showed the highest antioxidant potential, given by the EC50 value and the amount of total phenolic compounds. High amounts of unsaturated fatty acids were found in the oil studied, especially the oleic acid.

  5. Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale to predict falls in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores was used to investigate a predictive model for fall risk. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted for each, to determine the cut-off for optimal levels of sensitivity and specificity. [Results] The overall prediction success rate was 89.7%; the total Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores were significant in predicting fall risk. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that a cut-off score of 40 out of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.67), and a cut-off score of 22 out of 40 on the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.85) and specificity (0.65) in predicting faller status. [Conclusion] The Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales can predict fall risk, when used for independently-functioning community-dwelling older adults.

  6. New natural products from Siphoneugena densiflora Berg (Myrtaceae) and their chemotaxonomic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Margareth B.C.; Silva, Fernando C. da; Vieira, Paulo C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: marejor@uol.com.br

    2006-03-15

    Siphoneugena Berg (Myrtaceae) is a small eugenioid genus segregated from Eugenia by Berg. The phytochemical survey of Siphoneugena densiflora was carried out in order to find secondary metabolites which may be considered as chemotaxonomic characters and help to distinguish between the two genera. Five novel hydrolyzable tannins were isolated from the methanolic extract of root bark and were characterized as ellagic acid 4-O-{alpha}-L-2-O- and its isomer 4-O-{alpha}-L-3-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, siphoneugenin, that supports a new aglycone with a dibenzo-1,4-dioxin structure, 3,4'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-{beta}-D-6-O- and 4-O-{beta}- D-3,6-diacetyl glucopyranoside, accompanied by ellagic acid 4-O-{alpha}-L-4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, eschweilenol C, sitosterol, daucosterol, rhamnose, casuarinin, castalagin, ellagic, gallic and syringic acids. From methanolic extract of leaves, in addition to the well known compounds quercetin, quercitrin, guiajaverin, reynoutrin, chebuloside II, terminolic, madecassic and asiatic acids, lupeol, {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, a new pentacyclic triterpene was isolated and named as {beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-2{alpha},3{beta},6{beta}-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-ate. Structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence, along with the comparison of the data reported in the literature. (author)

  7. Raissa L. Berg's contributions to the study of phenotypic integration, with a professional biographical sketch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Jeffrey K; Lande, Russell

    2014-08-19

    Raissa L. Berg had a remarkable career in many respects and an impact on the study of phenotypic integration that continues to increase over 50 years after the publication of her seminal paper in that area. She was born and lived most of her life in Russia, with most of her research focused on measuring spontaneous mutation rates in Drosophila. She was forced to abandon this work during the height of Lysenko's power in Russia, so she turned temporarily to the study of correlation patterns in plants; ironically, this work has had a more enduring impact than her main body of research. She showed that floral and vegetative traits become decoupled into separate correlation 'pleiades' in plants with specialized pollinators, but floral and vegetative traits remain correlated in plants that have less specialized pollination. Unfortunately, her plant work is often mis-cited as providing evidence for increased correlations among floral traits due to selection by pollinators for functional integration, a point she never made and one that is not supported by her data. Still, many studies of correlation pleiades have been conducted in plants, with the results mostly supporting Berg's hypothesis, although more studies on species with generalized pollination are needed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. New natural products from Siphoneugena densiflora Berg (Myrtaceae and their chemotaxonomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallo Margareth B. C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Siphoneugena Berg (Myrtaceae is a small eugenioid genus segregated from Eugenia by Berg. The phytochemical survey of Siphoneugena densiflora was carried out in order to find secondary metabolites which may be considered as chemotaxonomic characters and help to distinguish between the two genera. Five novel hydrolysable tannins were isolated from the methanolic extract of root bark and were characterized as ellagic acid 4-O-alpha-L-2"-O- and its isomer 4-O-alpha-L-3"-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, siphoneugenin, that supports a new aglycone with a dibenzo-1,4-dioxin structure, 3,4'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-beta-D-6"-O- and 4-O-beta-D-3",6"-diacetylglucopyranoside, accompanied by ellagic acid 4-O-alpha-L-4"-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside, eschweilenol C, sitosterol, daucosterol, rhamnose, casuarinin, castalagin, ellagic, gallic and syringic acids. From methanolic extract of leaves, in addition to the well known compounds quercetin, quercitrin, guiajaverin, reynoutrin, chebuloside II, terminolic, madecassic and asiatic acids, lupeol, alpha- and beta-amyrin, a new pentacyclic triterpene was isolated and named as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2alpha,3beta,6beta-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-ate. Structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence, along with the comparison of the data reported in the literature.

  9. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word “Tamar-I-hind,” meaning date of India. Its name “Amlika” in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood. PMID:22096321

  10. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood.

  11. Fruit and seed biometry of cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg = Biometria de fruto e semente de cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cambuí tree (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg is native to Brazil and its fruits are harvested by extraction for fresh consumption in the state of Sergipe (Brazil. Because of the regional importance of the species, this work aims to characterize the cambuí fruits and seeds. The fruits were harvested mature from native trees in the Reserva do Caju Experimental Field, on Itaporanga d’Ajuda (Sergipe, Brazil, belonging to Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros. Two hundred fruits and seeds were biometrically analyzed. In addition, we evaluated the fruit, pulp, and seed color based on RHS Color Chart. Two different skin colors were found: 1. yellow [orange - red (group 32A] with yellow pulp [yellow - orange (group 17A]; and 2. purple [violet -blue (group 93A] with red pulp [red - purple (group 60A]. The seeds have only one color, green [yellow-green (group 152A] with dark stripes [Brown (group 200C]. The fruits mean diameter was 9.23 mm.fruit-1, and average width 8.50 mm.fruit-1. The seeds mean diameter was 5.34 mm.seed-1, mean width 6.52 mm.seed-1 and thickness 5.08 mm.seed-1. The cambuí is a little red fruit. The biometry had a high variability as expected, because it is a native species without any type of management.=Resumo - O cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg é nativo do Brasil e os frutos são colhidos por extrativismo para consumo in natura no estado de Sergipe (Brasil. Por causa da importância regional da espécie, objetivou-se com este trabalho caracterizar os frutos e sementes de cambuí. Os frutos foram colhidos maduros provenientes de plantas nativas do Campo Experimental Reserva do Caju, no município de Itaporanga d’Ajuda (Sergipe, Brasil pertencente a Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros. Foram analisados 200 frutos e sementes biometricamente. Além disso, caracterizou-se a cor da fruta, da polpa, e da semente com base na cartela de cores RHS. Foram identificados duas cores diferentes para a fruta: 1. de cor amarela [laranja - vermelho (grupo32A

  12. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  13. Antioxidant activity and profile fatty acids of jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora berg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Neuza; Bruna Jorge Bertanha; Moreno Luzia, Debora Maria

    2011-01-01

    Numerous natural compounds found in fruits, grains and vegetables have antioxidant activity. This work aimed to characterize jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora berg) by proximate composition, antioxidant activity and fatty acids profile of their extracted oil. To obtain the extract, the dehydrated and triturated seeds were extracted with ethyl alcohol for 30 min, at a proportion of 1:3 of seeds: ethyl alcohol, under continuous agitation, at room temperature. Afterwards, the mixture was filtered and the supernatant dehydrated at 40 Celsius degrade aiming to determine, by direct weighing, the extracts dry matter yield. According to the results, the jabuticaba seeds are an important source of total carbohydrates, and also presented relevant antioxidant activity. In the jabuticaba seeds oil, a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids stood out, with linoleic and α-linolenic being the main component, essentials fatty acids.

  14. Breaking Seed Dormancy in Tamarind ( Tamarindus Indica ) A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica). Seeds were sown in poly pots under normal environmental condition for germination. Thirty (30) seeds of T. indica (one seed per pot) with ten replicates each were used.

  15. Antibacterial properties of Mangifera indica on Staphylococcus aureus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica stem bark extracts was determined using disk diffusion, agar and broth dilution methods. In disk diffusion method, inhibition zone sizes were used to determine the susceptibility of S. aureus to the extracts. The results showed that the stem-bark extracts of M. indica have antimicrobial ...

  16. from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf powder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for the removal of textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of dye on A. indica was found to be dependent on contact time, dye concentration and amount of adsorbent. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of ...

  17. The effect of aqueous extract of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, ...

  18. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of ...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20601475

  20. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  1. Different Aluminum Tolerance among Indica, Japonica and Hybrid Rice Varieties

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    Shu Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum (Al tolerance among different rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties, including indica, japonica and their hybrids. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties. The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties. Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus 373 and 9311 (awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The Al tolerance of most progenies from japonica × indica or indica × japonica crosses was constantly consistent with indica parents. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 (japonica, Yangdao 6 (indica and Wuyunjing 7 (japonica were studied. Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7. Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7.

  2. Piriformospora indica: Potential and Significance in Plant Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Gill, Ritu; Trivedi, Dipesh K.; Anjum, Naser A.; Sharma, Krishna K.; Ansari, Mohammed W.; Ansari, Abid A.; Johri, Atul K.; Prasad, Ram; Pereira, Eduarda; Varma, Ajit; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its exceptional ability to efficiently promote plant growth, protection and stress tolerance, a mycorrhiza like endophytic Agaricomycetes fungus Piriformospora indica has received a great attention over the last few decades. P. indica is an axenically cultiviable fungus which exhibits its versatility for colonizing/hosting a broad range of plant species through directly manipulating plant hormone-signaling pathway during the course of mutualism. P. indica-root colonization leads to a better plant performance in all respect, including enhanced root proliferation by indole-3-acetic acid production which in turn results into better nutrient-acquisition and subsequently to improved crop growth and productivity. Additionally, P. indica can induce both local and systemic resistance to fungal and viral plant diseases through signal transduction. P. indica-mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. Therefore, P. indica can biotize micropropagated plantlets and also help these plants to overcome transplantation shock. Nevertheless, it can also be involved in a more complex symbiotic relationship, such as tripartite symbiosis and can enhance population dynamic of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In brief, P. indica can be utilized as a plant promoter, bio-fertilizer, bioprotector, bioregulator, and biotization agent. The outcome of the recent literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of mechanisms underlying P. indica-crop plant mutual relationship. Together, the discussion will be functional to comprehend the usefulness of crop plant-P. indica association in both achieving new insights into crop protection/improvement as well as in sustainable agriculture production. PMID:27047458

  3. Phytotoxic potential of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, E; Pontes, F C; Pereira, V C; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J

    2016-06-01

    The loss of leaves by plant species found in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) is an energetically expensive process due to adverse environmental conditions and predation by herbivory. The mature leaves have adaptations which minimize these events. However, the young individuals lack these structures and produce high leaf concentrations of secondary metabolites as a form of protection. These compounds can be used in bioprospection of natural herbicides. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles (Triticum aestivum L.) and evaluate the potential phytotoxic of ethyl acetate extract on germination, growth and cell size of metaxylem of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seedlings. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the elongation of wheat coleoptiles at all concentrations; however, the most promising results were observed in coleoptile fragments treated with the ethyl acetate extract. This treatment changed the mean germination time and the synchrony of sesame seeds, inhibited the growth of shoots and roots, reduced the dry weight of seedlings, led to abnormalities in the seedlings and reduced the length of the metaxylem cells in the sesame seedlings. These results demonstrated the phytotoxic potential of young leaf extracts of B. salicifolius and the high phytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate extract in the initial development of S. indicum.

  4. Conservation of Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg seeds in different packaging and at varied temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at evaluating the effects of different packaging and varied storage temperatures on the germination potential of seeds of Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. The seeds were packaged in glass, aluminum foil and plastic containers, or maintained inside intact fruits at 5, 10 and 15 ºC during 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. After these periods the seeds were sown in Germitest® germination paper and maintained in incubation chambers at 25 ºC under constant white light for 42 days. Seed moisture contents were evaluated both before and after storage, as well as germination percentages, germination speed index, root and aerial portion of seedlings lengths, and total dry weights. All possible combinations of packing materials, temperatures and storage times were tested, with four repetitions of 25 seeds for each treatment. C. adamantium seeds showed initial water contents of 31.5%. Glass and aluminum packaging were efficient at maintaining the water content of the seeds, and provided greater germination speed index than the other packaging materials. Germination percentages, seedlings lengths and dry weights did not vary among the different temperatures tested. C. adamantium seeds can be stored for up to 21 days at temperatures between 5 and 15 ºC without altering their physiological quality. In terms of cost-benefit efficiencies, these seeds can be stored without significant damage for 21 days while still inside the fruits at temperatures of 5, 10 or 15 ºC.

  5. Responsiveness of the Berg Balance Scale in patients early after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saso, Adam; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Gunnes, Mari; Askim, Torunn

    2016-05-01

    The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) has previously shown good measurement properties. However, its ability to detect important change in patients early after stroke is still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the minimal important change (MIC) and its relation to the minimal detectable change (MDC) for BBS in patients early after stroke. This prospective follow-up study included patients within the first 2 weeks after onset of stroke. The BBS, Barthel Index, and Scandinavian Stroke Scale were obtained at inclusion and 1 month later. At the follow-up assessment, the Patient Global Impression of Change was obtained. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the cut-off value for the MIC. Fifty-two patients (mean age of 78.7, SD 8.5 years) were included. All measures showed a significant improvement from baseline to follow-up. The ROC analysis identified a MIC of ≥6 BBS points, while the MDC was 5.97 BBS points at the 80% confidence level. This study shows that a change of 6 BBS point or more can be considered an important change for patients in the sub-acute phase after stroke, which also represents an 80% probability of exceeding the measurement error. A total of 80% of unchanged patients would display random fluctuations within the bounds of MDC80, while 20% of unchanged patients would exceed MDC80.

  6. Phytotoxic potential of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Habermann

    Full Text Available Abstract The loss of leaves by plant species found in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna is an energetically expensive process due to adverse environmental conditions and predation by herbivory. The mature leaves have adaptations which minimize these events. However, the young individuals lack these structures and produce high leaf concentrations of secondary metabolites as a form of protection. These compounds can be used in bioprospection of natural herbicides. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles (Triticum aestivum L. and evaluate the potential phytotoxic of ethyl acetate extract on germination, growth and cell size of metaxylem of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. seedlings. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the elongation of wheat coleoptiles at all concentrations; however, the most promising results were observed in coleoptile fragments treated with the ethyl acetate extract. This treatment changed the mean germination time and the synchrony of sesame seeds, inhibited the growth of shoots and roots, reduced the dry weight of seedlings, led to abnormalities in the seedlings and reduced the length of the metaxylem cells in the sesame seedlings. These results demonstrated the phytotoxic potential of young leaf extracts of B. salicifolius and the high phytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate extract in the initial development of S. indicum.

  7. Seedling emergence of an array of Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O. Berg, under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaila Ressel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seedling emergence of an array of Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O. Berg, under different conditions. Campomanesia adamantium are shrubs with berries that are yellow when ripe, with sweet, aromatic and juicy pulp. The fruits are very appreciated by the Midwestern Brazilian population because, beyond the economic potential, gabirobeiras have important ecological and medicinal applications. The few reports concerning methods of C. adamantium propagation demonstrate varied responses of the germination process, and variation sometimes occurs for seeds planted under similar conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inluence of different substrates and seed pulp extraction methods on seedling emergence of C. adamantium. Seeds were collected from a single individual. The experiment tested four methods of seed pulp extraction: a Control: seeds sown with pulp, b seeds whose pulp was mechanically removed by friction using fine sawdust, c seeds whose pulp was removed by washing in running water; d seeds with pulp soaked for 24 h. Four different substrates per pulp extraction type were then used for planting: 1 Vermiculite; 2 Plantmax ®; 3 Tri-Mix ®, 4 washed medium-grain sand. Sand was the substrate that produced the best result for seedling emergence, however there were no significant differences in seedling emergence between seed processing methods. The presence of seed pulp did not impact percent seedling emergence, nor did it affect average time or speed of seedling emergence.

  8. Influence of drying temperature on the chemical constituents of jaboticaba (Plinia Jaboticaba (Vell. Berg skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de C. Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaboticaba is a fruit native to Brazil. Its skin represents up to 43% of the fruit and contains high levels of fiber, minerals and phenolic compounds. The use of the skin waste adds value to the fruit. However, one of the drawbacks of skin storage is the high water content, which requires drying processes to preserve the skin without leading to the loss of nutrients and antioxidants. The influence of different drying temperatures on the levels of nutrients and antioxidants was investigated. Jaboticaba (Plinia jaboticaba (Vell. Berg, genotype Sabará skins were lyophilized or dried at three temperatures (30, 45, and 60ºC, using food dryers. The skins were then ground, stored (protected from light and subjected to analysis of proximate composition, vitamin C, phytate, polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. The drying process had little effect on the proximate composition of the flour, presenting significant difference only for crude protein, fiber and non-nitrogenous extract. The greatest preservation of chemical constituents occurs in the lyophilized jaboticaba skins. Among the drying temperatures tested, however, the skins dried at 45 and60°C had more highly preserved nutritional substances and antioxidants.

  9. Association between Berg Balance, Physiological Profile Assessment and Physical Activity, Physical Function and Body Composition: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, D J; Berry, H L; Waddington, G; Anson, J

    2016-01-01

    Falls are of great concern to older adults and costly to the health system. In addition the relationship between falls risk and falls risk predictor characteristics is complex. This study aimed to explore the relationship between two objective fall-risk measures tools, the Physiological Profile Assessment and the Berg Balance Scale and to determine how an individual's sex, level of physical function, health-related and body composition characteristics impact these objective falls risk measures. A cross-sectional, observational study. 245 community-dwelling older adults (M age=68.12 years, SD=6.21; 69.8% female). Participants were assessed for falls-risk (Physiological Profile Assessment and the Berg Balance Scale), physical activity, physical functional and body composition characteristics. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine bivariate relationships and hierarchical multiple linear regression modelling was used to estimate the contribution of each predictor in explaining variance in falls-risk. In females, there was a weak association between the two objective falls-risk measures (r =-0.17 p falls in the previous 12 months explained 6% of variance in Physiological Profile Assessment scores, with bone density of the lumbar spine contributing a further 1%. In males and females, variance in the Berg Balance Scale showed that age (25%) and physical function (16% for females, 28% for males) contributed significantly to the explaining variance in the falls-risk measure. Sex differences are apparent and as such males and females should be assessed (and potentially treated) differently with regards to falls risk. Results indicate that both falls risk assessment tools measure aspects of balance but are not interchangeable. The Berg Balance Scale may be more discriminative in older, less functioning adults and the Physiological Profile Assessment is more useful in assessing falls risk in females.

  10. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  11. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  12. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC50: 22.42 mg/l was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC50: 55.65 mg/l in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  13. Dodecafonismo y sociedad de entreguerras. El reflejo del conflicto social en el Wozzeck de Alban berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA MUÑOZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Si se puede afirmar que la creación artística manifiesta no sólo la situación histórico-espiritual de cada época sino, a la par, sus procesos de conflicto y de cambio, así será precisamente en el período de entreguerras cuando se desarrolle una peculiar y característica correspondencia entre los cambios económicos y políticos y la nueva creación musical formal y temática. El Dodecafonismo al romper con el modelo tonal tradicional e introducir la disonancia no va a representar simplemente una transformación estética cuanto que, por primera vez, las tensiones de la Sociedad de Masas van a cobrar una dimensión artística en la temática operística del siglo XX. En este sentido, la nueva sensibilidad estético-musical expresará el "asalto a la razón" que se está paulatinamente llevando a cabo en la Alemania de Weimar y, especialmente, será la ópera Wozzeck, de Alban Berg, la que mejor refleje la pérdida de identidad de una sociedad que se está relacionando instrumentalmente en la forma de lo que Weber definió como "jaula de hierro". De este modo, las nuevas Sociologías del Arte y de la Cultura contemporáneas vuelven a la crítica cultural desde una perspectiva en la que el análisis de las estructuras estéticas, tanto literarias como musicales, deben ser investigadas como procesos en los que se revelan las contradicciones y antagonismos de cada etapa histórica.

  14. Developing a short form of the Berg Balance Scale for people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Yeh; Chien, Chi-Wen; Hsueh, I-Ping; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2006-02-01

    To improve the utility of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the aim of this study was to develop a short form of the BBS (SFBBS) that was psychometrically similar (including test reliability, validity, and responsiveness) to the original BBS for people with stroke. A total of 226 subjects with stroke participated in this prospective study at 14 days after their stroke; 167 of these subjects also were examined at 90 days after their stroke. The BBS, Barthel Index, and Fugl-Meyer Motor Test were administered at these 2 time points. By reducing the number of tested items by more than half the number of items in the original BBS (ie, making 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-item tests) and simplifying the scoring system of the original BBS (ie, collapsing the 5-level scale into a 3-level scale [BBS-3P]), we generated a total of 8 SFBBSs. The distributions of scores for all 8 SFBBSs were acceptable but featured notable floor effects. The 4-item BBS, 5-item BBS, 5-item BBS-3P, and 7-item BBS-3P demonstrated good reliability. The subjects' scores on the 6-item BBS, 6-item BBS-3P, 7-item BBS, and 7-item BBS-3P showed excellent agreement with those on the original BBS. The 6-item BBS-3P and 7-item BBS-3P exhibited great responsiveness. Only the 7-item BBS-3P demonstrated both satisfactory and psychometric properties similar to those of the original BBS. The 7-item BBS-3P was found to be psychometrically similar to the original BBS. The 7-item BBS-3P, compared with the original BBS, is simpler and faster to complete in either a clinical or a research setting and is recommended.

  15. Antifungal Quinoline Alkaloids from Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretton, Sylvian; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Azzollini, Antonio; Favre-Godal, Quentin; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Voinesco, Francine; Michellod, Emilie; Sanglard, Dominique; Gindro, Katia; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Cuendet, Muriel; Christen, Philippe

    2016-02-26

    Chemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Waltheria indica led to the isolation and characterization of five polyhydroxymethoxyflavonoids, namely, oxyanin A (1), vitexicarpin (3), chrysosplenol E (4), flindulatin (5), 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6), and six quinolone alkaloids, waltheriones M-Q (2, 7, 8, 10, 11) and 5(R)-vanessine (9). Among these, compounds 2, 7, 8, 10, and 11 have not yet been described in the literature. Their chemical structures were established by means of spectroscopic data interpretation including (1)H and (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY NMR experiments and UV, IR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of the compounds were established by ECD. The isolated constituents and 10 additional quinoline alkaloids previously isolated from the roots of the plant were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and 10 compounds (7, 9, 11-16, 18, 21) showed growth inhibitory activity on both planktonic cells and biofilms (MIC ≤ 32 μg/mL). Their spectrum of activity against other pathogenic Candida species and their cytotoxicity against human HeLa cells were also determined. In addition, the cytological effect of the antifungal isolated compounds on the ultrastructure of C. albicans was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.M.

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  17. Black workers, typhoid fever and the construction of the Berg River – Saldanha military water pipeline, 1942 – 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieutenant Colonel GE (Deon Visser

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available War creates a huge need for labour to support the war efforts of the belligerent parties. In South Africa tens of thousands of ‘non-white’ workers were mobilised during the Second World War to satisfy the Union Defence Force’s (UDF’s labour needs at home and abroad. This article, firstly, outlines the role of ‘non-white people’, particularly black Africans, in the UDF with special reference to those employed within the Union of South Africa. Secondly, it briefly delineates typhoid fever as an historical thorn in the flesh of military forces up to the early 20th century. It then looks briefly into the incidence of and perceptions on typhoid fever as a killer disease in South Africa on the eve of the Second World War. Against that background, the article investigates the employment of black workers on the construction of the Berg River-Saldanha Bay military water pipeline and the UDF’s response to the threat and subsequent outbreak of typhoid fever amongst the workers at the Berg River intake site in 1943. The article concludes that the public health authorities and UDF were aware of the threat of typhoid fever with regard to the Berg River water scheme, but did not take sufficient precautionary measures, which could have had serious repercussions for the Allied war effort. This incident should serve as a warning to the South African National Defence Force when deploying on peace support operations on the African continent where typhoid fever remains a serious threat next to Hiv/Aids.

  18. Data on cell viability of human lung fibroblasts treated with polyphenols-rich extract from Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloni, Caroline; Silva Santos, Luciana Fernandes; Martínez, Luana Soares; Salvador, Mirian

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba (Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel) is a Brazilian native berry, which presents high levels of polyphenols. Here we provide data related to the effects of the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba on the cell viability, mitochondrial complex I (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/CoQ oxidoreductase) activity and ATP biosynthesis of human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) treated with amiodarone. The data presented in this article demonstrate that the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba was able to reduce cell death as well as the decrease in complex I activity and ATP biosynthesis caused by amiodarone in MRC-5 cells. PMID:26870757

  19. Actividad antioxidante y perfil de ácidos grasos de las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg)

    OpenAIRE

    Neuza Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg) en cuanto a su composición proximal y potencial antioxidante y evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite extraído de las mismas. Para la obtención del extracto, las semillas deshidratadas y trituradas fueron extraídas con alcohol etílico por 30 minutos, en la proporción de 1:3 de semillas:alcohol etílico, bajo agitación continua, a temperatura ambiente. Seguidamente, la mezcla fue filtrad...

  20. ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE Y PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS DE LAS SEMILLAS DE JABUTICABA (Myrciaria cauliflora BERG)

    OpenAIRE

    NEUZA JORGE; BRUNA JORGE BERTANHA; DÉBORA MARIA MORENO LUZIA

    2011-01-01

    Múltiples compuestos naturales encontrados en frutas, cereales y vegetales presentan actividad antioxidante. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las semillas de jabuticaba ( Myrciaria cauliflora Berg) en cuanto a su composición proximal y potencial antioxidante, y evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite extraído de las mismas. Para la obtención del extracto, las semillas deshidratadas y trituradas fueron extraídas con alcohol etílico por 30 minutos, en la proporción de 1:3 de...

  1. Actividad antioxidante y perfil de ácidos grasos de las semillas de jabuticaba (myrciaria cauliflora berg)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Neuza

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg) en cuanto a su composición proximal y potencial antioxidante y evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite extraído de las mismas. Para la obtención del extracto, las semillas deshidratadas y trituradas fueron extraídas con alcohol etílico por 30 minutos, en la proporción de 1:3 de semillas:alcohol etílico, bajo agitación continua, a temperatura ambiente. Seguidamente, la mezcla fue filtrad...

  2. Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Kumar, V; Prakash, O M

    2011-10-01

    To study detail microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica (D. indica) leaf. Fresh leaf sample and dried power of the leaf were studied macroscopically and microscopically. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of plant material was done. Other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were also performed. The detail microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, unicellular trichome, xylem fibres, calcium oxalate crystals, vascular bundles, etc. Leaf constants such as stomatal number, stomatal index, vein-islet number and veinlet termination numbers were also measured. Physiochemical parameters such as ash values, loss on drying, extractive values, percentage of foreign matters, swelling index, etc. were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. The microscopic and physiochemical analysis of the D. indica leaf is useful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.

  3. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Laxit; Joshi, Viraj

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. against cardiac stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX). Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg of M. indica leaf extract (MILE) in alone and interactive groups for 21 days. Apart from the normal and MILE control groups, all the groups were subjected to DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity for 21 days and effects of different treatments were analyzed by changes in serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidant levels, electrocardiographic parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological evaluation. Results: The MILE treated group showed decrease in serum biomarker enzyme levels and increase in tissue antioxidants levels. Compared to DOX control group, MILE treated animals showed improvement in lipid profile, electrocardiographic parameters, histological score, and mortality. Conclusion: These findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by DOX. PMID:28894627

  4. Evaluation and physiotherapeutic intervention in older with deficit balance through the Scale of Berg and Wii Balance Board platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Secchi Batista

    Full Text Available Introduction The aging process causes structural and functional changes in the organism. Among these changes, the systems responsible for controlling the balance are also affected, especially in women. This study aims to perform an assessment and physiotherapy intervention in elderly with balance deficits through Berg scale and platform Wii Balance Board. Materials and methods The study was longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention. Held in the city of Passo Fundo, RS - Brazil. Participants were 38 elderly women who had a deficit balance. The instruments used to collect data was a questionnaire to identify, assess balance across the Berg Balance Scale and an intervention program with six games via the Wii Balance Board™ platform. To statistically analyze the effects before and after the intervention were used Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation, with a significance level of p = 0.05. Results In the present study, we observed a statistically significant improvement in the balance of elderly compared before and after intervention, moreover, the six games played also showed statistical significance when comparing the first and twentieth session, highlighting the games Tightrope Walk Table Tilt, Deep Breathing and Soccer Heading. Conclusion The evaluation and balance training with the platform Wii Balance Board were able to provide significant results for the elderly, besides, the game has the potential to treat the health, well-being and functional capacity of older people through the visual representation the game in real time.

  5. Herbert Berg dan Verifikasi Otentisitas Hadis Dalam Kitab Tafsir Jami’ al-Bayan fi Tafsir Al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayis Mukholik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to know hadith critical method by west scholars towards hadiths in the Al-Qur’an interpretation book. This article discusses about the main idea of Herbert Berg in Hadith Studies. As the orientalist, he conducts a research of Hadith Authenticity found in the interpretation book. It makes him different from common orientalist that conduct research in Law Hadiths critical. He started his project by criticizing the book of Tafsir Jami’ al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an by At-Tabari and the hadiths collected by Ibnu Abbas. Berg declared himself as middle ground. This category had an objective perspective as a hadith researcher compared to skeptic and sanguine groups. He used a comprehensive standard in examining the text of hadith based on five principles: Haggadic, Halakhic, Masoretic, Rhetorical, Allegoric. Those five principles created twelve methodology frameworks borrowed from the Wansbrough analysis tool and added  by the theory of Simple Gloss, Quranic Loci and Non Exegetical. The aim is to test the consistency of hadith in the historical line. He tested through sanad and matan of hadith and his theory description is summarized from his book "The Development of Exegesis in Early Islam: The Debate over the Authenticity of the Muslim Literature of the Formative Period.

  6. Tolerancia de plantas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret a la salinidad por NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fánor Ernesto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Los efectos de la salinidad por NaCl sobre la producción y la distribución de la biomasa, la toma de agua y el área foliar total fueron investigados en plantas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret cultivadas en materas con suelo bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante ocho meses. Los tratamientos con la sal comenzaron 60 d después del transplante. El NaCl fue agregado en diferentes concentraciones: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 mM de NaCl en el suelo. Estas concentraciones correspondieron a conductividades eléctricas de 2,8; 4,6; 6,1; 8,4 y 11,1 dS· m-1, respectivamente. Para evitar el choque osmótico, el tratamiento salino fue impuesto progresivamente, aumentando la concentración de sal cada semana hasta alcanzar la

  7. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without ...

  8. Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis of japonica x indica recombinant inbred lines and characterization of major fragrance gene by microsatellite markers. ... At some SSR loci, new/recombinant alleles were observed, which indicate the active recombination between genomes of two rice varieties and can be used for linkage mapping once ...

  9. Dough Rising Ability of Tamarindus Indica, Citrus Limon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    Flowers are red to yellow with a dark center containing short peduncles. The flowers have both male and female organs. Seedpods are enclosed in their red, fleshy calyces which are commonly used for making food and tea. 6 . The current study sets to determine dough rising ability of ;. Tamarindus Indica, Citrus limon and.

  10. 10406 EFFICACY OF CACTUS PEAR (Opuntia ficus-indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bdu

    Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) serves as a source of food, feed, as well as a means of additional income to the people in northern Ethiopia. The species has different varieties with varied rate of productivity and palatability. This study was conducted to assess the food and feed value of the Cactus Pear varieties in ...

  11. Evaluation Of Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica ) Seed Meal As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding study was conducted to assess the value of Tamarind, Tamarindus indica seed meal as dietary carbohydrate in the diets of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Tamarind seeds were used to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 % substitution levels for treatments 1 to 6. Growth trial was conducted in outdoor ...

  12. Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Seed Oils On Alloxan-Induced Diabetes In New Zealand White Rabbits. ... The data suggests that the whole neem seed oil and the acidic portion of the neem seed oil could be of benefit in controlling the blood sugar in subjects presenting with ...

  13. Performance of broiler chickens fed neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...

  14. potential use of mangifera indica seed kernel and citrus aurantiifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    *Corresponding author tel: + 234 – 803 – 823 – 1628, currently a doctoral student at the Department of Civil. Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, GHANA. POTENTIAL USE OF MANGIFERA INDICA SEED KERNEL AND CITRUS. AURANTIIFOLIA SEED IN WATER DISINFECTION.

  15. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. juss) seedling growth as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), specifically, Glomus moseae and cow dung on the growth of Neem (Azadiracchta indica, A. Juss) seedlings was investigated at the forestry quarters, Lagos Street, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The study included three treatments: the cow dung, mycorrhizal treatments ...

  16. Transient expression of β-glucuronidase gene in indica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    glucuronidase gene into embryogenic callus cultures of indica rice variety Basmati 370 (Minhas et al., 1996) and suspension cells of Pusa Basmati 1 (Jain et al., 1996) have been reported. The objectives of the present study were to optimize the parameters of Biolistic™ PDS-. 1000/He driven particle delivery system for co-.

  17. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total ...

  18. Effect of lyophilized Azadirachta indica leaf powder on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of lyophilized A. indica leaf extract (125, 250 and 375 mg in suspension of 1 mL Propylene Glycol, respectively / kg body weight) on androgen-dependent biochemical parameters such as cholesterol and glycogen in the testis, total protein, total free sugar, enzymes ...

  19. Colour behaviour on mango (Mangifera indica) slices self stabilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Colour behaviour on mango (Mangifera indica) slices self stabilized in glass jars by hurdle technology during storage. José Armando Ulloa1*, Héctor Escalona2 and Lourdes Díaz2. 1Centro de Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura, ...

  20. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Psidium guajava L. (Guava) and Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) grown in Trikania around the industrial area, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The differences in the bioaccumulation of the ...

  1. Indica rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

  2. EFFECTS OF EDTA ON LEA indica) SEEDLINGS REPLANTE ECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. This research investigates the effects of E indica) seedlings grown in hydroponic sol collected from the garden of the Departme. Science and Technology Wudil, replanted in and EDTA. All plants grown in treated hydro time varied highly significantly (Pr < 0.00 values of treated hydroponics were signific.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn | Doughari | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Tamarindus indica is a plant that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cold, fever, stomach disorder, diarrhea and jaundice and as skin cleanser. To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of the plant, the antimicrobial activities of extracts of the stem bark and leaves were evaluated against some ...

  4. Turbidity removal from surface water using Tamarindus indica crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. This paper ... treatment. Laboratory analysis was carried out on high turbidity raw water samples (i.e. 478 NTU) using T. indica CPE of concentrations ranging from 500 to 3000 mg/L as natural coagulant, using jar tests.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the fruit extracts of Coccinia indica | Shaheen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactive compounds of fruits of Coccinia indica were investigated for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. The aqueous extracts did not show much significant activity, while the organic extracts (petroleum ether and methanol) showed the highest activity against the test bacteria. The activity was more ...

  6. Effect of Neem Extracts (Azadirachta indica) on Bacteria Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To isolate and characterize bacteria from adult human oral cavity. ii. To test the effect of different neem extracts on the bacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sample Collection. Samples of four parts of Azadirachta indica i.e. Bark,. Leaves seeds and fruits were collected from shelter belts around Usmanu Danfodiyo ...

  7. Heavy metal contents of Azidirachta indica collected from Akungba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the recovery test and the reproducibility of the method were found satisfactory to validate the experimental protocol. Concentration of heavy metals in plant samples. The concentration (mean ± SD) in ppm of Cd, Co, Fe,. Pb and Zn in the roots, stems and leaves of Azidirachta indica are respectively presented in ...

  8. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  9. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi: Neem) ofMeliaceae a large evergreen tree with spreading crown and brownish bark is either pLanted or se(f-sown. Leaves are compound and the LeafLets are somewhat oblique with toothed margin. Flowers are small and white and borne on branched ...

  10. Adsorption characteristics of mango ( magnifera indica ) seed shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption characteristics of mango (Magnifera indica) seed shell activated carbon for phenol rem-oval from wastewater were examined by experimental single stage batch operation. Contact time, stirring rate, adsorbent dose, pH, initial phenol concentration, carbon particle size and impregnation ratio of ZnCl2 to the seed ...

  11. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango (Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit that requires specialized postharvest handling to extend its storage life. The study was undertaken at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) to evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on ...

  12. Genetic diversity of Tamarindus indica populations: Any clues on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarindus indica is a domesticated species of high economic value for the Sahel region. Despite this importance, very few data is available on its diversity as well as its structure leading to controversial discussions on its origin. Thus it is questionable whether the knowledge of its genetic diversity and organisation may ...

  13. mediated transformation in two indica rice ( Oryza Sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying binary vector pCAMBIA 1301 was used for transformation in two economically important highly recalcitrant indica rice cultivars HKR-46 and HKR-126. High concentrations of acetosyringone in the agrobacterium culture and co-cultivation medium proved to be ...

  14. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  15. Physical and strength properties of Azadirachta indica , (a. Juss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 160 test samples were used from three trees randomly selected from the study area. Preparations of test samples, actual testing and determination of different properties were carried out following standard methods. All strength property values were adjusted to 12% moisture content. Results showed A. indica to ...

  16. Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaves Extract on Growth Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mangifera indica leaves extracts on growth response of Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated for 42 days. 5 diets at approximately 40% crude protein containing varying levels of the extracts at 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% were formulated. These were fed to fingerlings of O. niloticus (mean weight, 5.25 – 6.05g) that were ...

  17. Seed germination and growth of Eleucine indica and Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three experiments were conducted in a glasshouse and a laboratory to provide information on the effect of glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) on, seed germination, seedling emergence and growth of goosegrass (Eleucine indica (L.) Gaertn) and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla Linn), Glyphosate sprayed ...

  18. Toxic effects of neem products ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment and comparative analysis of the properties of aqueous extracts of seed kernel of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) was carried out on Aedes aegypti larvae. The aim of this work was to evaluate lethal effects of neem products (1% Suneem, formulated neem oil and neem powder) on A. aegypti larvae. Assays ...

  19. Study on the acaricidal effects of Azadirachta indica and Phytolacca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the acaricidal effects of Azadirachta indica and Phytolacca dodecandra on Amblyomma ticks in. Ethiopia. Tamirat Siyoum1*, A. K. Basu2, Getachew Tilahun2, and Bersisa Kumsa3. 1Ethiopian instituteof Agricultural research, Holeta Agricultural Research Center, P. o. box 31, Tel. no. +25121010744, Fax. no.

  20. Larvaecidal effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito was investigated. Exposure of the larvae to undiluted extracts of seed oil, leaf and bark for 12 hours led to 100, 98, and 48% mortality, respectively. Dilution of these extracts also resulted in mortality of the larvae.

  1. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. Juss) fruit yield determination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined fruit yield of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in the guinea savanna of Nigeria at Makurdi. Fifteen mature neem trees which had no overlapping canopies and had not been previously pruned were purposively selected out of 207 stands growing at the study site. All ripped fruits felling from the ...

  2. (BST) and some bioassays using Neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Wild custard-apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and ...

  3. Assessment of the insecticidal potency of neem ( Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potency of aqueous and methanolic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernel, in inhibiting and disrupting development of Anopheles mosquito was assessed in the laboratory. Different concentrations of aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested on eggs, larvae and pupae. Both extracts were found ...

  4. Mangifera indica Leave Extracts as Organic Inhibitors on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition efficiency and adsorption characteristics of alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins extracts of Mangifera indica leaves in controlling corrosion of Zinc sheet in 5 M hydrogentetraoxosulphate (VI) acid solution has been evaluated by gasometric method. The formulation consisting of 2 g/L of extract offers 96.2%, 85.3% ...

  5. Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagarlamudi, Sankar; G, Rosaiah; Kurapati, Ravi Kumar; Pinnamaneni, Rajasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Mango (>Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indica (100% similarity to the ITS sequences of Mangifera indica). This sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession no. GQ927757. Abbreviations AFLP - Amplified fragment length polymorphism , cpDNA - Chloroplast DNA, DDGE - Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA - Deoxyribo nucleic acid, EDTA - Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, HCl - Hydrochloric acid, ISSR - Inter simple sequence repeats, ITS - Internal transcribed spacer, MATAB - Methyl Ammonium Bromide, Na2SO3 - Sodium sulphite, NaCl - Sodium chloride, NCBI - National Centre for Biotechnology Information, PCR - Polymerase chain reaction, PEG - Polyethylene glycol, RAPD - Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, trnL-F - Transfer RNA genes start codon- termination codon. PMID:21423885

  6. Effects of Mangifera indica and Casuarina equistifolia extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean survival time (mst) and haematocrit was determined following treatment of Plasmodium berghei infected mice with Casuarina equistifolia and Mangifera indica (leaf) extracts during established infection and repository test procedures. The survival time was significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent compared to the ...

  7. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and ...

  8. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  9. Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica L. seeds against some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Mangifera indica L. seeds was done against 41 clinically isolated and 20 standard bacterial strains. Clinical bacterial strains were isolated from different specimens like blood, urine, catheter, stool and pus. Antibacterial activity was done by agar disc diffusion method at two different ...

  10. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English: Ashoka; Hindi: Asok) ofCaesalpilliaceae is a medium sized extremely ornamental evergreen tree with numerous spreading and drooping branches, compound leaves and orange-yellow flowers in clusters. Fruits are black, leathery pods with compressed seeds.

  11. Investigation On Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Aristolochia Indica Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure. Materials and Methods: ...

  12. Production Scenarios of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) in Harari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production Scenarios of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) in Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia. ... T Bezu, K Woldetsadik, K Woldetsadik, T Tana, T Tana ... Input shortage (water, fertilizer and pesticide), lack of improved technologies, pests (especially fruit fly and anthracnose), postharvest loss and poor marketing were the ...

  13. Effects of Dietary Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) Leaf Extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract (NLE) on egg production, egg quality characteristics and blood indices of laying hens were investigated. Dry matter content of fresh neem leaves was determined and used to determine the quantity of the fresh leaves to be extracted to correspond with the required ...

  14. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit that requires specialized postharvest handling to extend its storage life. The study was undertaken at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) to evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on ...

  15. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Extracts: A Supplement for Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger . Three different concentrations of neem seed extracts were prepared 10%, 20% and 50%.

  16. Physico-Chemical Stability Studies of Neem (Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    present study, neem oil had been extracted from the ripe seed of Azadirachta indica (A. juss) plant. The oil was ... stability is not a problem for neem oil in a vanishing cream base formulation. Keywords: Neem oil, Stability, Shelf life, ... The containers were covered with filter paper and the solvent was allowed to evaporate.

  17. High frequency plant regeneration from desiccated calli of indica rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and reproducible protocol is required to achieve high frequency transformation from transformed calli. We report here high frequency plant regeneration from mature seed derived embryogenic calli of two recalcitrant indica rice cultivars HKR-46 and HKR-126 after partial desiccation treatment. Embryogenic and ...

  18. Biosynthesis of Yttrium oxide nanoparticles using Acalypha indica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the synthesis of Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles was carried out from Acalypha indica leaf extract. The synthesized ... Then the extract was filtered through ordinary filter paper and through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The fil- trate was collected and it was kept in a refrigerator at 4. ◦. C for further experiments.

  19. Vitamina C em "cabeludinha" (Myrciaria glomerata Berg Vitamin C content in fruits of Myrciaria glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soubihe Sobrinho

    1955-01-01

    " é a fonte mais rica de vitamina C entre as mirtáceas nacionais e de tôdas as frutas brasileiras. Comparando-se a "cabeludinha" com outras frutas exóticas, ricas em ácido ascórbico, nota-se que somente a cereja das Antilhas (Malpighia spp. lhe leva vantagem.The studies on the vitamin C content in fruits of Myrciaria glomerata Berg, reported in this paper were complementary to the breeding work on fruit plantas of Myrtacex, carried out cooperatively by the Seção de Frutas Tropicais, Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, and Seção de Genética, E.S.A. "Luiz de Queiroz", Piracicaba. The ascorbic acid content was determined in the blend obtained by running the pitted fruits in a blendor for 2 minutes in presence of a 0.4 per cent oxalic acid protecting solution. The quantitative determinations were made with an EEL portable colorimeter. The total vitamin C content in fresh fruits from trees exposed to full sunlight were as follows (in mg/100 g : tree n.° 1, 2,417 ; tree n.° 2, 2,389 ; tree n.° 3, 2,322. Assays made with fruits at different stages of maturity gave the following results : green fruits, 2,716 ; full developed fruits, 2,391 ; ripe fruits, 2,417. Green fruits had thus a higher vitamin C content than either partially or completely ripe fruits ; the difference between the last two types was not significant. Different parts of the fruit that were assayed separately had the following vitamin C content (mg/100 g : peel, 2,482 ; pulp (without seed, 3,018. The pulp which is the edible part of the fruit is thus richer than the peel. Vitamin C determinations in ripe fresh fruits from four shaded trees gave the following results (mg/100 g : tree n.° 1, 717.28 ; tree n.° 2, 838.66 ; tree n.° 3, 560.83 ; tree n.° 4, 713.38. Fruits produced on shaded trees are therefore poorer in ascorbic acid than those from trees exposed to full sunlight. The variations between trees in the shaded group may be ascribed to genetic origin. Myrciaria glomerata fruits have the

  20. Balance Assessment in Deaf Children and Teenagers Prior to and Post Capoeira Practice through the Berg Balance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rubianne

    2017-12-01

    Hearing loss changes the functionality and body structure a disability that limits activity and restricts the participation of the individual in situations of daily life. It is believed that capoeira can help people with visual disabilities to minimize these deficits. BSE is a low specificity scale that evaluates objectively and functionally aspects of balance and risk of falls in the elderly and children, including the effect of environment on balance function. The objective of the research is to analyze deaf children and adolescents prior to and post-practice of capoeira using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Quantitative, clinical and observational studies. Twenty five deaf children between 10 and 16 years old of both genders were assessed. BBS was applied in two stages: before starting capoeira and after 6 months of training. The one-hour classes were held once a week for quantitative evaluation purposes. The subjects were divided and evaluated in two groups (10-13 years old and 14-16 years old). There was a significant statistical difference in BBS scores. The general group and the group of 10-13 years old (p = 0.0251) showed an increase in scores after practicing capoeira (p = 0.0039). There were no statistically significant differences in the group from 14 to 16 years of age (p = 0.0504). Using the Berg Balance Scale, it was possible to observe an improvement in the balance of the group of children and adolescents who practiced capoeira, and consequently, a decrease in the risk of falling.

  1. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  2. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF LEAVES OF MORUS INDICA

    OpenAIRE

    Pethakamsetty Lakshmi; Seru Ganapaty; K. Mary Bharathi

    2013-01-01

    Mulberry belongs to the genus Morus of the family Moraceae. It is an economically important plant being used for sericulture. Studies have been reported on the chemical composition and nutritional potentials of some mulberry species worldwide. In the present study the chemical examination of Morus indica leaves on conventional extraction and various chromatographic methods, led to the isolation of five compounds- β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, β-sitosterol, salvigenin, cirisimaritin and quer...

  3. Cancer chemopreventive activity of compounds isolated from Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteillier, Aymeric; Cretton, Sylvian; Ciclet, Olivier; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Christen, Philippe; Cuendet, Muriel

    2017-05-05

    Waltheria indica L. is traditionally used in several countries against inflammatory related diseases and cancer, mainly as a decoction of the aerial parts. The transcription factor NF-κB is known to induce tumor promotion and progression and is considered a major player in inflammation-driven cancers. Therefore, inhibitors of this pathway possess cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. This study aimed first to confirm the use of Waltheria indica as a traditional anti-inflammatory remedy by assessing the NF-κB inhibitory activity and then to identify the major bioactive compounds. The isolated compounds were also tested for their QR inducing property, a complementary strategy in cancer chemoprevention able to target tumor initiation. Finally, the relevance of in vitro results was examined by investigating the occurrence of the active compounds in traditional preparations. Compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts using flash chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. NF-κB inhibitory activity of pure compounds from Waltheria indica was assessed using a luciferase reporter assay in HEK293 cells. Their QR inducing activity was also assessed in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Twenty-nine compounds, of which 5 are new, were obtained from the dichloromethane extract and tested for their cancer chemoprevention activity. Eleven compounds inhibited NF-κB and/or induced QR in the low to mid µM range. Chrysosplenol E (20) was active in both tests. Two of the most potent NF-κB inhibitors, waltherione A (4) and waltherione C (5), as well as 20 were found in the traditional decoction, in which 4 and 5 were major compounds. The presence of potent NF-κB inhibitors and QR inducing compounds in the decoction of the aerial parts of Waltheria indica supports its traditional use in inflammatory-related diseases and cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Usages therapeutiques traditionnels de Flacourtia indica (Burm f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certains les utilisent même dans le cadre de complément alimentaire. Aussi, les feuilles de F. indica sont-elles servies au bétail pour les engraisser. Mots clés : Investigations, plantes médicinales, complément alimentaire. Benin has a rich and diversified collection of flora utilised in treatment of malaria and diseases ...

  5. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem, margosa. Meliaceae. Mahogany family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Parrotta; A. N. Chaturvedi

    1994-01-01

    AzadirachJa indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem in English and Hindi and margosa and paraiso de India in Spanish, is a medium-sized to large tree characterized by its short, straight bole, furrowed, dark-brown to gray bark. and dense, rounded crown of pinnate leaves. Native to south Asia, neem is widely planted and naturalized in semiarid areas throughout Asia and...

  6. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B. J.; Harisha, C. R.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  7. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  8. Perbandingan Aktivitas Antioksidan Campuran Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica dan C.asiatica terhadap Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemas R Notariza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radikal bebas, dalam kadar rendah atau menengah, mempunyai peran fisiologis bagi kehidupan sel tubuh. Pada konsentrasi tinggi, radikal-bebas dapat memicu stres oksidatif yang menjadi dasar patogenesis berbagai penyakit. Suplai antioksidan eksogen dibutuhkan untuk membantu kinerja antioksidan endogen dalam menangkal stres oksidatif. Ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica masing-masing diketahui memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica terhadap ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica. Kombinasi ekstrak diharapkan mampu meningkatkan aktivitas antioksidan yang dihasilkan dan menurunkan dosis yang digunakan. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak diukur dengan metode spektrofotometri melalui uji DPPH. Kandungan fitokimia ekstrak juga diuji secara kualitatif. Hasil uji kualitatif menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica maupun campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica positif mengandung fitokimia berupa flavonoid dan steroid. Hasil pengukuran aktivitas antioksidan menunjukkan bahwa Vitamin C yang menjadi kontrol positif menunjukkan nilai EC50 sebesar 0,012 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica adalah 13,68 mg/mL, sedangkan nilai EC50 campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica adalah 39,65 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 yang lebih kecil mengindikasikan aktivitas antioksidan yang lebih tinggi. Dengan demikian, aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica.   Kata kunci: Acalypha indica; aktivitas antioksidan; Centella asiatica Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) use and conservation in Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebifa-Othieno, Esther; Mugisha, Antony; Nyeko, Philip; Kabasa, John David

    2017-01-21

    Tamarindus indica L is one of the indigenous fruit tree species that traditionally contributes to food security and ecosystem stability in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that the indigenous people of Eastern Uganda have used T. indica for generations and developed practices that promote its conservation and therefore we expected that they possess an elaborate indigenous knowledge (IK) system and that most of them have planted the species. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of IK, attitudes and practices on the use and conservation of T. indica. A cross sectional survey was conducted in two districts purposively selected from the T. indica natural range. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi-structured interviews and observation were used to collect data. Data was processed using qualitative analytical methods. Tamarindus indica was highly valued by the majority of the population. Tamarindus indica was used for food, medicinal, cultural, social, environmental amelioration and income generation purposes. The population possessed a high level of IK about T. indica evidenced by 18 categories of uses and multiple modes of use. Fruit pulp was the most commonly used tamarind product. Relative frequency of citation of the different uses provides insight into usage levels and IK possessed. The communities' food and medicinal uses concurred with scientific reports of health benefits of consuming T. indica. Approximately half of respondents had T. indica on their compounds or homegardens (53%). Fifty two percent of the tamarind population was self-propagated, 45% were planted while the propagation history for the remaining 3% was not known. Constraints towards planting T. indica included limited land, long maturation period and low monetary value. Fifty three percent of those who were growing T. indica did not carry out any silvicultural practices. The majority of T. indica encountered (87%) was intercropped with other crops or trees

  10. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica. PMID:22536394

  11. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Parvizi, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran. Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from individual specimens, such as some taxonomic features and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that had previously proven useful for the taxonomy of rodents. Wild rodents were caught using live wooden and wire traps. The specimens were identified morphologically using external criteria and molecularly by sequencing of Cyt b gene and phylogenetic analyses. Forty one T. indica were collected and identified morphologically in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Two morphotypes of T. indica were found and classified but sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial Cyt b gene did not support any subspecies between two morphotypes of T. indica. Because all 21 sequences of both morphotypes of T. indica had no variation with only one common and novel haplotype (GenBank accession No KP001566). This is the first time that T. indica was characterized molecularly in Iran. There is no molecular evidence for T. indica morphotypes or subspecies, and so a population genetics approach using several polymorphic genes might be employed using species-specific molecular markers. In addition, more specimens of T. indica species in large geographical locations should be tested.

  13. Estimation of genetic diversity in a natural population of cambui tree (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg) using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, J G S; Nascimento, A L S; Costa, T S; de Almeida, T M B; Rabbani, A R C; Silva, A V C

    2016-10-05

    Cambui (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg) is a native species from Brazil, which belongs to the family Myrtaceae. Molecular characterization is one of the most used tools for the study of the biotechnological potential of species because the diversity level between individuals can be inferred. Analysis of genetic diversity is fundamental to the direction of the strategies necessary to form and maintain a germplasm. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity in a natural population of cambui using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. The natural population, which provided the plant material, is found at the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage of Caju, which belongs to the experimental field of Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, in the municipality of Itaporanga d'Ajuda, SE, Brazil. Young leaves of each individual were collected for DNA extraction and analysis of PCR-ISSR. Thirty primers were tested and the top 10 were selected. The use of these primers resulted in 71 fragments with 98.3% polymorphism. Similarity of individuals ranged between 0.30 and 0.92. The most similar individuals were C13 and C17 and the most distant were C1 and C41. Through UPGMA, six distinct groups were identified. This information may be used for conservation of these genetic resources, germplasm exchange, creation of germplasm bank and in future studies with this species.

  14. Validation of the Brazilian version of the Clinical Gait and Balance Scale and comparison with the Berg Balance Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Almeida Oliveira Baggio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To validate the Clinical Gait and Balance Scale (GABS for a Brazilian population of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD and to compare it to the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Methods One hundred and seven PD patients were evaluated by shortened UPDRS motor scale (sUPDRSm, Hoehn and Yahr (HY, Schwab and England scale (SE, Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I, Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q, BBS and GABS. Results The internal consistency of the GABS was 0.94, the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability were 0.94 and 0.98 respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was 0.72, with a sensitivity of 0.75 and specificity of 0.6, to discriminate patients with a history of falls in the last twelve months, for a cut-off score of 13 points. Conclusions Our study shows that the Brazilian version of the GABS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess gait and balance in PD.

  15. The activities-specific balance confidence scale and berg balance scale: Reliability and validity in Arabic-speaking vestibular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghwiri, Alia A; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Al-Momani, Murad O; Whitney, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Persons with vestibular disorders are susceptible to imbalance. The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) have been validated in persons with vestibular disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Arabic versions of ABC and BBS among Arabic-speaking persons with vestibular disorders in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the A-ABC and A-BBS were administered to a convenience sample of 82 persons with vestibular disorders (age = 43 ± 14), (56% female). The test-retest reliability of the A-ABC item and total score as well as the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the A-BBS total score reflected high agreement. Significant and large correlations were found between the A-ABC and the A-BBS (r= 0.54, PABC and the Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory (A-DHI) (r= -0.76, PABC and the A-BBS demonstrated good reliability and validity and can be utilized with Arabic-speaking persons with vestibular disorders.

  16. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÁRGELLA S. CARNEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many essential oils (EOs of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal bacteria and antioxidant properties. Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (pêra-do-cerrado, in Portuguese is a species of Myrtaceae with restricted distribution in the Cerrado. The essential oils were extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours and chemically characterized by GC-MS. The major compounds were α-copaene (10.6 % found in oil from leaves in natura, β-bisabolene (17.4 % in the essential oil from dry leaves and α-(E-bergamotene (29.9 % in oil from flowers. The antioxidant activity of essential oils showed similarities in both methods under analysis (DPPH and ABTS˙+ and the results suggested moderate to high antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, using the microdilution method. MIC values below 400 µg/mL were obtained against Streptococcus salivarius (200 µg/mL, S. mutans (50 µg/mL, S. mitis (200 µg/mL and Prevotella nigrescens (50 µg/mL. This is the first report of the chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of E. klotzschiana. These results suggest that E. klotzschiana, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.

  17. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Nárgella S; Alves, Cassia C F; Alves, José M; Egea, Mariana B; Martins, Carlos H G; Silva, Thayná S; Bretanha, Lizandra C; Balleste, Maira P; Micke, Gustavo A; Silveira, Eduardo V; Miranda, Mayker L D

    2017-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal bacteria and antioxidant properties. Eugenia klotzschiana Berg (pêra-do-cerrado, in Portuguese) is a species of Myrtaceae with restricted distribution in the Cerrado. The essential oils were extracted through the hydrodistillation technique using a modified Clevenger apparatus (2 hours) and chemically characterized by GC-MS. The major compounds were α-copaene (10.6 %) found in oil from leaves in natura, β-bisabolene (17.4 %) in the essential oil from dry leaves and α-(E)-bergamotene (29.9 %) in oil from flowers. The antioxidant activity of essential oils showed similarities in both methods under analysis (DPPH and ABTS˙+) and the results suggested moderate to high antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), using the microdilution method. MIC values below 400 µg/mL were obtained against Streptococcus salivarius (200 µg/mL), S. mutans (50 µg/mL), S. mitis (200 µg/mL) and Prevotella nigrescens (50 µg/mL). This is the first report of the chemical composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of E. klotzschiana. These results suggest that E. klotzschiana, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest.

  18. Columbia River wildlife mitigation habitat evaluation procedures report: Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County pygmy rabbit projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, P.R.; Ratassepp, J.; Berger, M.; Judd, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites

  19. SKRINING FITOKIMIA DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI in vitro EKSTRAK HEKSANA-PETROLEUM ETER Artemisia cina Berg. ex Poljakov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B.E Kristiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this reserch were to determine the antibacterial activity of hexane-petroleum ether (1 : 1 v/v extract of Artemisia cinaBerg. ex Poljakov on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and its compounds. The design of the research was using completely Randomized Design in five concentration of extract that were 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, dan 200 mg/ml with four repliceted. Ethanol 60% was used as negative control and tetracycline as positive control. There were three steps of research. First step was extracted the plant using soxhlet method with hexane-petroleum ether (1:1 v/v. Second step was determined the antibacterial activity of hexane-petroleum ether (1:1 v/v extract in various concentration of that extracts on E. Coli and S. aureus using agar diffusion method. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and was used to determined the significan different of diameter of inhibition between the treatments. Thirdsteps was phytochemical analysis of extract. The highest antibactrial activity on E. Coli was at 100 mg/ml whereas on S. Aureus at 150 mg/ml. That extract was contained flavonoid, alkaloid, essential oils, saponin, sterol, tritepene, hydrolized tannin, and coumarin.

  20. Phylogenomic relationship of feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O.Berg) Burret) with other Myrtaceae based on complete chloroplast genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lilian de Oliveira; Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Stefenon, Valdir Marcos; Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio de; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2017-04-01

    Given their distribution, importance, and richness, Myrtaceae species comprise a model system for studying the evolution of tropical plant diversity. In addition, chloroplast (cp) genome sequencing is an efficient tool for phylogenetic relationship studies. Feijoa [Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret; CN: pineapple-guava] is a Myrtaceae species that occurs naturally in southern Brazil and northern Uruguay. Feijoa is known for its exquisite perfume and flavorful fruits, pharmacological properties, ornamental value and increasing economic relevance. In the present work, we reported the complete cp genome of feijoa. The feijoa cp genome is a circular molecule of 159,370 bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a Large Single Copy region (LSC 88,028 bp) and a Small Single Copy region (SSC 18,598 bp) separated by Inverted Repeat regions (IRs 26,372 bp). The genome structure, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to those of typical angiosperm cp genomes. When compared to other cp genome sequences of Myrtaceae, feijoa showed closest relationship with pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.). Furthermore, a comparison of pitanga synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates revealed extremely low values. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses produced phylogenomic trees identical in topology. These trees supported monophyly of three Myrtoideae clades.

  1. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  2. Actividad antioxidante y perfil de ácidos grasos de las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las semillas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Berg en cuanto a su composición proximal y potencial antioxidante y evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos en el aceite extraído de las mismas. Para la obtención del extracto, las semillas deshidratadas y trituradas fueron extraídas con alcohol etílico por 30 minutos, en la proporción de 1:3 de semillas:alcohol etílico, bajo agitación continua, a temperatura ambiente. Seguidamente, la mezcla fue filtrada y el sobrenadante fue deshidratado a 40oC con la finalidad de determinar, por pesaje directo, el rendimiento en materia seca del extracto. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, las semillas de jabuticaba mostraron ser una importante fuente de carbohidratos totales, además presentaron una relevante actividad antioxidante. El aceite de jabuticaba presentó porcentaje significativa de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, con predominancia del ácido linoleico y α-linolénico, ácidos grasos esenciales.

  3. Post-stroke motor and functional evaluations: a clinical correlation using Fugl-Meyer assessment scale, Berg balance scale and Barthel index

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Roberta de; Cacho,Enio Walker Azevedo; Borges,Guilherme

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Sequels deriving from this event may lead to motor disability and from mild to severe deficits. In order to better classify sensory-motor dysfunction, balance and ability to perform activities of daily living, quantitative and qualitative evaluation scales have been used. Objective: To correlate the scales Fugl-Meyer assessment scale, Berg balance scale and Barthel index. Twenty subjects with sequel after a single, unilateral strok...

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R M; Dutra, T S; Simionatto, E; Ré, N; Kassuya, C A L; Cardoso, C A L

    2017-03-16

    Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M. indica varieties, espada (EOMIL1) and coração de boi (EOMIL2), and confirm their anti-inflammatory properties. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two essential oils from the leaves. Paw edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw model, while leukocyte migration was analyzed using the pleurisy model. At oral doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, the essential oils significantly reduced edema formation and the increase in MPO activity induced by carrageenan in rat paws. For a dose of 300 mg/kg EOMIL1, 62 ± 8% inhibition of edema was observed, while EOMIL2 led to 51 ± 7% inhibition of edema. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the inhibition was 54 ± 9% for EOMIL1 and 37 ± 7% for EOMIL2. EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 significantly reduced MPO activity at doses of 100 mg/kg (47 ± 5 and 23 ± 8%, respectively) and 300 mg/kg (50 ± 9 and 31 ± 7%, respectively). In the pleurisy model, inhibitions were also observed for EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 in the leukocyte migration test. The results of the present study show that essential oils from M. indica differ in chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  5. Neem (Azadirachta indica): prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-07-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  6. Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica linn 1753 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium to Potassium ratio (Na/K) was 0.1 and 0.09 while Calcium to Phosphorus ratio (Ca/P) was 0.39-1.24, with calorie values of 2 10.90 and 122.41 kcal/100g for whole seeds and seed nuts respectively. The length of pod (LOP) was 7.30 ± 1.31 cm (n=50), breadth of pod (BOP) was 3.05 ± 1.20 cm. T. indica seed nuts ...

  7. Photooxygenation of Nimonol, a Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kasinath

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Nimonol (1, a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae, upon photolysis undergoes both Diels-Alder and ene reactions with singlet oxygen at different sites leading to 14,15,20,21-diepoxy-23-nimonolactone (3, along with nimonolide (4, which have been well-characterised. The novelty of the reported reactions lies in hitherto unreported formation of an α-epoxide in the ring D in tetranortriterpenoids. The photoproduct 4 exhibited antifeedancy comparable to that of azadirachtin-A, the most potent antifeedant constituent isolated from neem.

  8. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatawiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-1 0 C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  9. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado; Ariadna Lafourcade Prada; Julio César Escalona Arranz; Antonio Iraizoz Colarte

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen ...

  10. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  11. Post-stroke motor and functional evaluations: a clinical correlation using Fugl-Meyer assessment scale, Berg balance scale and Barthel index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Roberta; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Borges, Guilherme

    2006-09-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Sequels deriving from this event may lead to motor disability and from mild to severe deficits. In order to better classify sensory-motor dysfunction, balance and ability to perform activities of daily living, quantitative and qualitative evaluation scales have been used. To correlate the scales Fugl-Meyer assessment scale, Berg balance scale and Barthel index. Twenty subjects with sequel after a single, unilateral stroke in chronic phase (>6 months post ictus) were evaluated for about one hour. Barthel scale was statistically related to the total motor score of Fugl-Meyer assessment (r=0.597, p=0.005). The lower limb section at Fugl-Meyer had positive correlation with Berg scale (r=0.653, p=0.002) and with the balance section of Fugl-Meyer own scale (r=0.449, p=0.047). Both balance scales were correlated one with other (r=0.555, p=0.011). Statistical divergence appeared when Barthel's Index was correlated with Berg's Scale (r=0.425, p=0.062), and it is not statistically significant. The use of both quantitative and qualitative scales was shown to be a good measuring instrument for the classification of the general clinical performance of the patient, especially when positively related joint evaluations are applied.

  12. Walking ability in patients with glioblastoma: prognostic value of the Berg Balance Scale and the 10 meter walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljehult, Monique Mesot; Buus, Lise; Liljehult, Jacob; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh

    2017-11-01

    Primary brain tumors frequently cause considerable functional impairments and the survival time when diagnosed with glioblastoma is 14.6 months. The aim of this study was to examine if baseline postural control and walking ability in patients with glioblastoma could predict long term walking ability and 1 year mortality. Data were gathered from prospective recordings in a brain cancer database supplemented by retrospective review of electronic patient records. We included 109 patients with glioblastoma, 47 women and 62 men with mean age 65 years. At admission 84 patients were tested with Berg Balance Scale and 57 were tested with 10 meter walk test. Binary logistic regression analysis showed no statistical significance in favour of the 10 meter walk test. Berg Balance Scale showed an ability to predict walking ability 4-8 months after admission. The risk of dying within a year was 6.9 times higher in patients who lost their ability to walk within 4-8 months of the first admission. This study showed that Berg Balance Scale has some ability to predict the loss of walking ability 4-8 months after admission. This could be an important indicator pin pointing patients most in need of more intensive specialized neurorehabilitation efforts early in the disease course.

  13. Conservation of Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg seeds in different packaging and at varied temperatures Conservação de sementes de Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg em diferentes embalagens e temperaturas

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    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at evaluating the effects of different packaging and varied storage temperatures on the germination potential of seeds of Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. The seeds were packaged in glass, aluminum foil and plastic containers, or maintained inside intact fruits at 5, 10 and 15 ºC during 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. After these periods the seeds were sown in Germitest® germination paper and maintained in incubation chambers at 25 ºC under constant white light for 42 days. Seed moisture contents were evaluated both before and after storage, as well as germination percentages, germination speed index, root and aerial portion of seedlings lengths, and total dry weights. All possible combinations of packing materials, temperatures and storage times were tested, with four repetitions of 25 seeds for each treatment. C. adamantium seeds showed initial water contents of 31.5%. Glass and aluminum packaging were efficient at maintaining the water content of the seeds, and provided greater germination speed index than the other packaging materials. Germination percentages, seedlings lengths and dry weights did not vary among the different temperatures tested. C. adamantium seeds can be stored for up to 21 days at temperatures between 5 and 15 ºC without altering their physiological quality. In terms of cost-benefit efficiencies, these seeds can be stored without significant damage for 21 days while still inside the fruits at temperatures of 5, 10 or 15 ºC.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes embalagens e temperaturas durante o armazenamento sobre o potencial de germinação das sementes de Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. As sementes foram mantidas em embalagens de vidro, papel de alumínio, plástico e no interior do fruto, nas temperaturas de 5, 10 e 15 ºC, durante zero, sete, quatorze e 21 dias. Após esse período, as sementes foram semeadas em rolo de papel Germitest® e mantidas em B.O.D. a 25 º

  14. Polissacarídeos extraídos da gabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg: propriedades químicas e perfil reológico Polysaccharide isolated from gabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg: chemical properties and rheology profile

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    Marli da S. Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg (Myrtaceae é uma frutífera nativa brasileira, com ampla distribuição natural na região Sul. Embora apresente frutificação abundante, produza frutos com características sensoriais e nutricionais atrativas, esses não são coletados e se perdem nos campos. Neste trabalho, a polpa do fruto sem semente (1500 g foi triturada em etanol / água na proporção de 1:4 (v/v, refluxada por 15 minutos em temperatura de ebulição. O resíduo obtido foi submetido a extrações sequenciais. As extrações foram otimizadas utilizando um planejamento fatorial 2², tendo como variáveis a concentração do ácido cítrico (0,5 e 5% e a temperatura (50 e 100 ºC. Os polissacarídeos provenientes de diferentes extrações foram caracterizados quanto à composição química e perfil reológico. Os altos teores de ácidos urônicos, arabinose e galactose detectados em todas as frações, indicam que estas são constituídas por polissacarídeos pécticos. Os polissacarídeos extraídos da polpa da gabiroba apresentaram um comportamento pseudoplástico. Todas as frações apresentaram como característica resistência frente às variações de temperatura. Quando submetidas a ciclos de aquecimento e posterior resfriamento estes géis retornam à sua estrutura original.The Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg (Myrtaceae is a Brazilian native fruit, widely abundant in the Southern region. Despite their large fructification, in addition to nutritional and attractive sensory characteristics, these fruits are not collected, being lost in the fields. In this work, the fruit pulp without seed (1500 g was crushed in ethanol/water at a ratio of 1:4 (v/v, refluxed for 15 minutes at boiling temperature. The residue obtained was subjected to sequential extractions. The extractions were optimized using a factorial design 2², with the concentration of citric acid (0.5 and 5% and temperature (50 and 100 ºC as variables. The polysaccharides were

  15. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L. Preformulation of tablets from Tamarindus indica L.

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    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen interacciones que afecten el color, el olor ni la concentración de polifenoles en las mezclas binarias extracto blando de tamarindo-excipientes a 30 ºC, y a temperaturas mayores se reduce la cantidad de polifenoles en las mezclas. La formulación preliminar número tres produce tabletas de calidad tecnológica y resulta adecuada para los subsecuentes estudios de formulación y optimización de tabletas de tamarindo.A pre-formulation study for tablet preparation using soft extract from Tamarindus indica L. leaves was conducted. Possible interactions in binary mixtures of Tamarindus indica L. soft extract and selected excipients in a 1:3 ratio, which may affect the amount of polyphenols in the mixture at 30°, 45° and 60 °C temperatures, were analyzed. Three preliminary tablet formulations were designed and then the quality of granules and tables were researched in all the cases. It was concluded that there were no interactions affecting the color, the smell and the polyphenol concentration in the evaluated binary mixtures at 30°. At higher temperatures, the amount of polyphenols decreased. Pre-formulation number 3 yielded the best technological quality in tablet production and thus can be used for future formulation and optimization studies of Tamarind tables.

  16. Effect of the ethanol extract of Waltheria indica on parasitaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of Waltheria indica on parasitaemia as well as glucose level of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Waltheria indica dose and time dependently inhibited parasitaemia and extended the life span of the treated rats from 8.5 days ...

  17. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L. Preformulation of tablets from Tamarindus indica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado; Ariadna Lafourcade Prada; Julio César Escalona Arranz; Antonio Iraizoz Colarte

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen ...

  18. FLUORIDE SORPTION USING MORRINGA INDICA-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON

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    G. Karthikeyan, S. Siva Ilango

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption experiments using activated carbon prepared from Morringa Indica bark were conducted to remove fluoride from aqueous solution. A minimum contact time of 25 min was required for optimum fluoride removal. The influence of adsorbent, dose, pH, co-ions (cations and anions on fluoride removal by the activated carbon has been experimentally verified. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at 30 C, 40 C and 50 C. The kinetics of adsorption and adsorption isotherms at different temperatures were studied. The fluoride adsorption obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and followed a pseudo first order kinetic model. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the fluoride adsorption by Morringa Indica is an endothermic process indicating an increase in sorption rate at higher temperatures. The negative values of G indicate the spontaneity of adsorption. SEM and XRD studies confirmed the surface morphological characteristics of the adsorbent and the deposition of fluoride on the surface of the material.

  19. Antimalarial compounds from the aerial parts of Flacourtia indica (Flacourtiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaou, Ali Mohamed; Mahiou-Leddet, Valérie; Canlet, Cécile; Debrauwer, Laurent; Hutter, Sébastien; Laget, Michèle; Faure, Robert; Azas, Nadine; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2010-07-20

    In the Comoros Islands, the aerial parts of Flacourtia indica are used in traditional medicine to treat malaria. Because of the important use of this plant, the phytochemistry of the aerial parts was investigated. Three compounds were isolated from the decoction of this plant material, pyrocatechol, homaloside D and poliothrysoside. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity on the chloroquine-resistant strain (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum and the cytotoxicity on two complementary human cell lines (THP1, HepG2), of AcOEt extract obtained after liquid/liquid extraction of the decoction and pure compounds, were evaluated. The poliothrysoside isolated from the AcOEt extract presented a strong antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)=7.4 microM) and a good selectivity index (>28) similar to chloroquine. This study reports for the first time antiplasmodial activity for Flacourtia indica, for its AcOEt extract and the three major constituents and confirms its traditional use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Golden Indica and Japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Tran Thi Cuc; Al-Babili, Salim; Schaub, Patrick; Potrykus, Ingo; Beyer, Peter

    2003-09-01

    As an important step toward free access and, thus, impact of GoldenRice, a freedom-to-operate situation has been achieved for developing countries for the technology involved. Specifically, to carry the invention beyond its initial "proof-of-concept" status in a Japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar, we report here on two transformed elite Indica varieties (IR64 and MTL250) plus one Japonica variety Taipei 309. Indica varieties are predominantly consumed in the areas with vitamin A deficiency. To conform with regulatory constraints, we changed the vector backbone, investigated the absence of beyond-border transfer, and relied on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to obtain defined integration patterns. To avoid an antibiotic selection system, we now rely exclusively on phosphomannose isomerase as the selectable marker. Single integrations were given a preference to minimize potential epigenetic effects in subsequent generations. These novel lines, now in the T(3) generation, are highly valuable because they are expected to more readily receive approval for follow-up studies such as nutritional and risk assessments and for breeding approaches leading to locally adapted variety development.

  1. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

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    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  2. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  3. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Sik; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT) and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance.

  4. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females

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    Dong-Kyu Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance.

  5. Eficácia do extrato de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg. (jabuticabeira sobre bactérias orais

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    Maria R. Macedo-Costa

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato da folha de Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg., Myrtaceae (jabuticabeira sobre: Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 903, Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175, Streptococcus sanguinis (ATCC 15300, Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557, Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 7073 e Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 9595. A pesquisa foi realizada através de técnicas bacteriológicas laboriosas. Os ensaios foram realizados pelo método da diluição em meio sólido para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. Os resultados obtidos foram transferidos para um banco de dados informatizado e calculados os parâmetros estatísticos mediante o emprego do programa SPSS versão 13.0. Utilizou-se, ao nível de 5% de significância, o teste t-Student. Em estudo comparativo, foi determinada a CIM do digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12%. O extrato de jabuticabeira formou halos de inibição variando de 10 a 18 mm de diâmetro e apresentou desempenho médio significativamente inferior em relação a clorexidina, na comparação do extrato bruto vs substância pura e nas concentrações 1:2 e 1:4. Conclui-se, que o extrato de Myrciaria cauliflora produziu uma significante atividade bacteriostática in vitro sobre as bactérias do biofilme dental, o que sugere a utilização dessa substância como meio alternativo e economicamente viável para o controle de afecções em Odontologia.

  6. Comparison of the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale, Mini-BESTest, and Berg Balance Scale to Predict Falls in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Brombacher, Stephanie; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weisser, Burkhard; Möller, Bettina; Deuschl, Günther

    2016-04-01

    The correct identification of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) at risk for falling is important to initiate appropriate treatment early. This study compared the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale with the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) to identify individuals with PD at risk for falls and to analyze which of the items of the scales best predict future falls. This was a prospective study to assess predictive criterion-related validity. The study was conducted at a university hospital in an urban community. Eighty-five patients with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stages: 1-4) participated in the study. Measures were number of falls (assessed prospectively over 6 months), FAB scale, Mini-BESTest, BBS, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The FAB scale, Mini-BESTest, and BBS showed similar accuracy to predict future falls, with values for area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.68, 0.65, and 0.69, respectively. A model combining the items "tandem stance," "rise to toes," "one-leg stance," "compensatory stepping backward," "turning," and "placing alternate foot on stool" had an AUC of 0.84 of the ROC curve. There was a dropout rate of 19/85 participants. The FAB scale, Mini-BESTest, and BBS provide moderate capacity to predict "fallers" (people with one or more falls) from "nonfallers." Only some items of the 3 scales contribute to the detection of future falls. Clinicians should particularly focus on the item "tandem stance" along with the items "one-leg stance," "rise to toes," "compensatory stepping backward," "turning 360°," and "placing foot on stool" when analyzing postural control deficits related to fall risk. Future research should analyze whether balance training including the aforementioned items is effective in reducing fall risk. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  7. Male meiosis, heterochromatin characterization and chromosomal location of rDNA in Microtomus lunifer (Berg, 1900 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Hammacerinae

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    María Poggio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we analysed the male meiosis, the content and distribution of heterochromatin and the number and location of nucleolus organizing regions in Microtomus lunifer (Berg, 1900 by means of standard technique, C- and fluorescent bandings, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe. This species is the second one cytogenetically analysed within the Hammacerinae. Its male diploid chromosome number is 31 (2n=28+X1X2Y, including a minute pair of m-chromosomes. The diploid autosomal number and the presence of m-chromosomes are similar to those reported in M. conspicillaris (Drury, 1782 (2n=28+XY. However, M. lunifer has a multiple sex chromosome system X1X2Y (male that could have originated by fragmentation of the ancestral X chromosome. Taking into account that M. conspicillaris and M. lunifer are the only two species within Reduviidae that possess m-chromosomes, the presence of this pair could be a synapomorphy for the species of this genus. C- and fluorescent bandings showed that the amount of heterochromatin in M. lunifer was small, and only a small CMA3 bright band was observed in the largest autosomal pair at one terminal region. FISH with the 18S rDNA probe demonstrated that ribosomal genes were terminally placed on the largest autosomal pair. Our present results led us to propose that the location of rDNA genes could be associated with variants  of the sex chromosome systems in relation with a kind of the sex chromosome systems within this family. Furthermore, the terminal location of NOR in the largest autosomal pair allowed us to use it as a chromosome marker and, thus, to infer that the kinetic activity of both ends is not a random process, and there is an inversion of this activity.

  8. Toxicity of the phenolic extract from jabuticabeira (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart. O. Berg fruit skins on Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Ana Paula C Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is the main pest of maize, besides attacking sorghum and cotton crops. The control of this pest has been accomplished mainly with the use of synthetic insecticides but, due to the growing concern about the environment and food quality, phenolic compounds have shown their potential for the biological control of this insect. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the extract of jabuticabeira, Myrciaria cauliflora [Mart.] O. Berg (Myrtaceae fruit skin flour in the control of S. frugiperda. Skins of M. cauliflora Sabará genotype were dried at 45 °C in a forced air oven. In order to obtain the extract, 1.0 g flour was mixed with 10 mL acetone: water solution (7:3 v/v. Forty-eight-hour-old S. frugiperda caterpillars were placed in glass tubes with an artificial diet containing the extract at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L-1. The extract, in which the phenolic compounds gallic acid, gallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid, and salicylic acid were identified at a concentration of 2000 mg L-1, in average, increased mortality rates by 150% in the larval stage, duration of larval stages by 60%, and pupal by 17%, and decreased amount of females by 55%. On the other hand, the extract at 1000 mg L-1 only increased duration of larval period by 24%. It was concluded that the extract is harmful to this insect, probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds.

  9. Validity and reliability of the Berg Balance Scale for community-dwelling persons with lower-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Fatone, Stefania; Roth, Elliot J

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) for use in people with lower-limb amputation. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Individuals (N=30; age, 54±12y; 20 men) with unilateral transtibial (n=13), unilateral transfemoral (n=14), or bilateral (n=3) lower-limb amputation of dysvascular (n=7), traumatic (n=14), infectious (n=6), or congenital (n=3) origin. Not applicable. BBS, 2-minute walk test, L test, Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire-Mobility Subscale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and Frenchay Activities Index; self-reported descriptors were also collected, including frequency of prosthesis use, number of falls in 12 months before the visit, fear of falling, and daily mobility aid use. The BBS had high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient =.945) and internal consistency (α=.827). Relations between the BBS scores and those of other outcome measures were all statistically significant (P≤.001). Significant group differences in BBS scores were observed for fear of falling (P=.008) and mobility aid use (Pmultiple (≥2) falls in the previous 12 months (P=.381). BBS items involving reaching forward, turning 360°, tandem standing, and standing on 1 leg had relatively greater frequencies of lower scores across participants. The BBS appears to be a valid and reliable clinical instrument for assessing balance in individuals with lower-limb amputation, but it may not be able to discriminate between individuals with greater or lesser fall risk. Limitations in prosthetic motion and control may be responsible for the challenges experienced on items of lower performance. Future studies would be useful to assess the responsiveness of the BBS to interventions aimed at improving balance in individuals with lower-limb amputation. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparação do risco de queda em idosos sedentários e ativos por meio da escala de equilíbrio de Berg Comparison of fall risk between sedentary and active aged by means of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Martins Pimentel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento da população é um fenômeno mundial, do qual o Brasil apresenta um dos mais agudos processos. A prática regular de exercícios por idosos pode melhorar a capacidade física, proporcionar ganho de auto-estima e confiança, contribuindo para diminuição do risco de quedas, comuns em idosos. Este estudo visou comparar o risco de quedas entre idosos sedentários e ativos, verificando como a prática de exercício físico se reflete no desempenho dos sujeitos na escala de Berg. Foram avaliados por esse instrumento 70 idosos, divididos em 2 grupos: sedentários (n=35 e ativos (n=35. Os escores médios na escala de Berg dos grupos sedentário e ativo foram 47,7±5,6 pontos e 53,6±3,7, respectivamente (pPopulation aging is a worldwide phenomenon which is particularly acute in Brazil. Regular physical exercise by the aged may improve physical capacity, provide gains in self-esteem and confidence, and contribute to reducing the number of falls, which are common among the elderly. This study aimed at comparing fall risk between sedentary and active elderly subjects, by assessing how the regular practice of physical exercises is reflected by subjects' performance at the Berg balance scale. Seventy elderly subjects were divided into 2 groups, sedentary (n=35 and active (n=35, and submitted to the Berg test. The sedentary group mean score at the Berg scale was 47.7±5.6, and the active groups', 53.6±3.7 (p<0.0001. The odds ratio analysis showed that fall risk was 15.6 times higher for the sedentary group as compared to the active group (p=0.002. Since the performance of the sedentary group at the Berg scale was worse than the active group's, it may be said that regular practice of physical activities affects such performance, and that physically active subjects present less fall risk than sedentary ones.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  12. Antitrypanosomal quinoline alkaloids from the roots of Waltheria indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretton, Sylvian; Breant, Lise; Pourrez, Lucie; Ambuehl, Chiara; Marcourt, Laurence; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Perozzo, Remo; Karimou, Soumana; Kaiser, Marcel; Cuendet, Muriel; Christen, Philippe

    2014-10-24

    Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane root extract of Waltheria indica led to the isolation and characterization of 10 quinoline alkaloids, namely, 8-deoxoantidesmone (1), waltheriones E-L (2-9), and antidesmone (10). Among these, compounds 2-9 have not yet been described in the literature. Their chemical structures were established by means of spectroscopic data interpretation including (1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY experiments and UV, IR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of the compounds were established by comparison of experimental and TDDFT-calculated ECD spectra. In addition, the isolated constituents were evaluated for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Compounds 4, 5, and 8 showed potent and selective growth inhibition toward Trypanosoma cruzi with IC50 values between 0.02 and 0.04 μM. Cytotoxicity for mouse skeletal L-6 cells was also determined for these compounds.

  13. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

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    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  15. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shailey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. Objective: The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Results: Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P<0.01, increased level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05 and a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with insulin, A. indica leaf extract (AILE, and A. indica bark extract (AIBE restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Conclusions: Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.

  16. Antibacterial effects of Pluchea indica Less leaf extract on E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Febrina Pargaputri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus. faecalis (E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum are the most common bacteria found in infected tooth root canal. Most of these bacteria often cause failure in endodontic treatments. Pluchea indica Less leaf is a species of plants that has several chemical properties. It consists of flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, and essensial oils which have been reported as antibacterial agents. Because of its benefits, the extract of Pluchea indica Less leaves may be potentially developed as one of root canal sterilization dressing. Purpose: This study aimed to determine antibacterial activity of Pluchea indica Less leaves extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria. Method: Dilution method was conducted first to show Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum. The antibacterial activity test on Pluchea indica Less leaves extract was performed on E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria using agar diffusion method. The Pluchea indica Less leaves extract used for antibacterial activity test was at a concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%. Thirty-five petridiscs were used and divided into five groups based on the extract concentration. Result: The results showed strong and moderate antibacterial effects of the Pluchea indica Less leaves extract on E. faecalis at the concentrations of 100% and 50%, while on F. nucleatum only at the concentration of 100% with moderate effect. Conclusion: Pluchea indica Less leaves extract has antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria with strong-moderate effect.

  17. Berliini! Berliini! / Maimu Berg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berg, Maimu, 1945-

    1999-01-01

    Ehitusjärgus uuest Berliinist. Uksed avanud Riigipäevahoonest (arhitekt Paul Wallot, ümberehituse projekteerijate juht sir Norman Foster, kupli sisekujundaja taani disainer Per Arnoldi), Juudi muuseumist (arhitekt Daniel Liebeskind). Berliini projekteerima kutsutud arhitekte

  18. Angela van der Berg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    weather events, droughts, floods, extreme hailstorms, gales, fires, earthquakes and the occurrence of sinkholes .... planning, storm-water management systems, gas and electricity regulation, firefighting services, environmental .... likely to occur in the municipal area, and their effects;56 a system of incentives that will promote.

  19. Armuavaldus Underile / Maimu Berg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berg, Maimu, 1945-

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. Kumu auditooriumis esietendunud Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  20. Light induces petal color change in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Petal color change, a common phenomenon in angiosperms, is induced by various environmental and endogenous factors. Interestingly, this phenomenon is important for attracting pollinators and further reproductive success. Quisqualis indica L. (Combretaceae is a tropical Asian climber that undergoes sequential petal color change from white to pink to red. This color changing process is thought to be a good strategy to attract more pollinators. However, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms driving this petal color change phenomenon is still underexplored. In this context, we investigated whether changes in pH, pollination, light, temperature or ethylene mediate petal color change. We found that the detected changes in petal pH were not significant enough to induce color alterations. Additionally, pollination and temperatures of 20–30 °C did not alter the rate of petal color change; however, flowers did not open when exposed to constant temperatures at 15 °C or 35 °C. Moreover, the application of ethylene inhibitor, i.e., silver thiosulphate, did not prevent color change. It is worth mentioning here that in our study we found light as a strong factor influencing the whole process of petal color change, as petals remained white under dark conditions. Altogether, the present study suggests that petal color change in Q. indica is induced by light and not by changes in petal pH, pollination, ethylene, or temperature, while extremely low or high temperatures affect flower anthesis. In summary, our findings represent the probable mechanism underlying the phenomenon of petal color change, which is important for understanding flower color evolution.

  1. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mohammadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as res­ervoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran.Methods: Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from indi­vidual specimens, such as some taxonomic features and mitochondrial cytochrome b gene that had previously proven useful for the taxonomy of rodents. Wild rodents were caught using live wooden and wire traps. The specimens were identified morphologically using external criteria and molecularly by sequencing of Cyt b gene and phylogenetic analyses. Results: Forty one T. indica were collected and identified morphologically in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Two morphotypes of T. indica were found and classified but sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial Cyt b gene did not support any subspecies between two morphotypes of T. indica.  Because all 21 sequences of both morphotypes of T. indica had no variation with only one common and novel haplotype (GenBank accession No KP001566.Conclusion: This is the first time that T. indica was characterized molecularly in Iran. There is no molecular evi­dence for T. indica morphotypes or subspecies, and so a population genetics approach using several polymorphic genes might be employed using species-specific molecular markers. In addition, more specimens of T. indica species in large geographical locations should be tested. 

  2. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  3. Covariance and decoupling of floral and vegetative traits in nine Neotropical plants: a re-evaluation of Berg's correlation-pleiades concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, W S; Di Stilio, V S; Tuxill, J D; Flores, T C; Velásquez Runk, J L

    1999-01-01

    Nearly forty years ago R. L. Berg proposed that plants with specialized pollination ecology evolve genetic and developmental systems that decouple floral morphology from phenotypic variation in vegetative traits. These species evolve separate floral and vegetative trait clusters, or as she termed them, "correlation pleiades." The predictions of this hypothesis have been generally supported, but only a small sample of temperate-zone herb and grass species has been tested. To further evaluate this hypothesis, especially its applicability to plants of other growth forms, we examined the patterns of phenotypic variation and covariation of floral and vegetative traits in nine species of Neotropical plants. We recognized seven specific predictions of Berg's hypothesis. Our results supported some predictions but not others. Species with specialized pollination systems usually had floral traits decoupled (weak correlation; Canna and Eichornia) or buffered (relationship with shallow proportional slope; Calathea and Canna) from variation in vegetative traits. However, the same trend was also observed in three species with unspecialized pollination systems (Echinodorus, Muntingia, and Wedelia). One species with unspecialized pollination (Croton) and one wind-pollinated species (Cyperus) showed no decoupling or buffering, as predicted. While species with specialized pollination usually showed lower coefficients of variation for floral traits than vegetative traits (as predicted), the same was also true of species with unspecialized or wind pollination (unlike our prediction). Species with specialized pollination showed less variation in floral traits than did species with unspecialized or wind pollination, as predicted. However, the same was true of the corresponding vegetative traits, which was unexpected. Also in contrast to our prediction, plants with specialized pollination systems did not exhibit tighter phenotypic integration of floral characters than did species with

  4. Vínculos entre teatro y cine en La señorita Julia. De August Strindberg a Alf Sjöberg y Liv Ullmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Oulego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente artículo es abordar comparativamente el texto dramático La señorita Julia, escrito por el dramaturgo August Strindberg, con las versiones fílmicas dirigidas por los cineastas Alf Sjöberg y Liv Ullmann. Si bien la obra responde al naturalismo, consideramos que Strindberg debatió con el carácter determinista de la herencia. En este sentido, elementos de la mitología cristiana, como el festejo de la Noche de San Juan, y la presencia de lo dionisíaco formarán parte del análisis. Asimismo, las divisiones jerárquicas ancestrales entre los sexos, por un lado, y amos y esclavos, por otro, serán vinculadas con la religión desde una mirada crítica del cristianismo. En su película Sjöberg se distanció de Strindberg acentuando en el factor determinista al indagar en la prehistoria de los personajes mediante el recurso técnico del flashback y apelando a metáforas audiovisuales en consonancia con el cine sueco experimental de su tiempo. Del mismo modo, Liv Ullmann, continuó examinando la influencia del determinismo y profundizó la construcción de los personajes desde la animalización planteada por Sjöberg. Por último, las referencias metateatrales del texto original retomadas en esta transposición permitirán enriquecer el estudio interdisciplinario entre teatro y cine.

  5. Identification of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (bufotenine) in takini (Brosimumacutifolium Huber subsp. acutifolium C.C. Berg, Moraceae), a shamanic potion used in the Guiana Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Christian; Gaillard, Yvan; Grenand, Pierre; Bévalot, Fabien; Prévosto, Jean-Michel

    2006-06-30

    This paper is the first thorough analysis of takini, a hallucinogen used by the shamans of several peoples in Suriname, French Guiana, and the region east of the Para in Brazil. The drug is contained in the latex of the Brosimum acutifolium tree, and until now, its psychotropic properties appeared inconsistent with the more general medicinal uses of the tree in the surrounding region. Our chemical and botanical studies reveal that the active ingredient of takini is bufotenine; and that this compound is only contained in the subspecies Brosimum acutifolium Huber subsp. acutifolium C.C. Berg that is found in the same area of the eastern Guianas.

  6. Simbologia e hereditariedade na formação de uma Grundgestalt: a primeira das Quatro Canções Op.2 de Berg Symbology and heredity on the formation of a Grundgestalt: the first of Berg's Four Songs Op.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Lemos Almada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrando um amplo projeto de pesquisa que visa elaborar uma metodologia analítica específica para os procedimentos de variação progressiva, o presente estudo examina a possibilidade de existência de, por assim dizer, transmissão hereditária (extraopus na construção da ideia primordial (ou Grundgestalt de uma peça musical. Para isso, é analisada a primeira das Quatro Canções op.2, de Alban Berg, cuja Grundgestalt apresenta-se como um complexo formado por várias transformações de elementos-chave extraídos de três obras: Tristão e Isolda de Richard Wagner, a Primeira Sinfonia de Câmara op.9 de Arnold Schoenberg e a Sonata para Piano op.1, do próprio Berg.As a part of a broad research project that aims at elaborating a specific analytical methodology for the procedures of developing variation, the present study examines the possibility of, so to speak, hereditary (extraopus transmission in the construction of the primordial idea (or Grundgestalt of a musical piece. Thus, the analysis was focused on the first of the Four Songs op.2, by Alban Berg, of which the Grundgestalt is presented as a complex formed by several transformations of key-elements extracted from three pieces: Tristan and Isolde, by Richard Wagner, the First Chamber Symphony op.9, by Arnold Schoenberg, and the Piano Sonata op.1, by Berg.

  7. A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications, Pharmacological Activities, and Bioactive Compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meran Keshawa Ediriweera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae, commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically, and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments, and a number of bioactive phytochemical constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids, and so forth. Several studies have proven the pharmacological potential of different parts of mango trees such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots, and flowers as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiplasmodial, and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described.

  8. A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications, Pharmacological Activities, and Bioactive Compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae), commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically, and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments, and a number of bioactive phytochemical constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids, and so forth. Several studies have proven the pharmacological potential of different parts of mango trees such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots, and flowers as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiplasmodial, and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described. PMID:29456572

  9. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency.

  10. Absorption and translocation of 15N in Japonica (Hinohikari) and Indica (Hadsaduri) rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N.; Inagaki, S.; Chishaki, N.; Horiguchi, T.

    1997-01-01

    The absorption and translocation of 15 N-labeled nitrogen (N) applied as three N levels of ammonium nitrate at the stages of panicle initiation (PI) and heading (HD) were compared between a japonica rice variety (var. Hinohikari) and a tall indica rice variety (var. Hadsaduri) by growing them hydroponically. With the supply of low N level, 15 N absorption by the japonica variety was larger, but at medium and high N levels, the tall indica variety absorbed larger amounts of 15 N at both stages. However, the amount of 15 N partitioned to the panicles at maturity was considerably smaller in the indica variety, since dry matter allocation to the panicles was also smaller in this variety. The tall indica variety showed a considerable loss of 15 N from heading to maturity at the high N-level unlike the japonica variety. (author)

  11. Antifungal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae extracts against dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván Ospina Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis.  Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitos Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  12. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    OpenAIRE

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...

  13. Simultaneous Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Tatera indica in Southwestern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Somayeh; Parvizi, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interest in Tatera indica rodent arises mostly because it is believed that this species is survived among four subspecies reported from Iran, two of which exist in Khuzestan Province. In addition, it might has a role as res­ervoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the transmission of Leishmania major in some of the widespread Asian foci including southwestern Iran.Methods: Diagnostic morphological and molecular markers for T. indica were sought by characterizing from in...

  14. The role of auxins and cytokinins in the mutualistic interaction between Arabidopsis and Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Ritter, Claudia; Venus, Yvonne; Camehl, Iris; Varma, Ajit; Shahollari, Bationa; Novák, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Arabidopsis growth and reproduction are stimulated by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The fungus produces low amounts of auxins, but the auxin levels and the expression of auxin-regulated genes are not altered in colonized roots. Also, mutants with reduced auxin levels (ilr1-1, nit1-3, tfl2, cyp79 b2b3) respond to P. indica. However, the fungus rescues the dwarf phenotype of the auxin overproducer sur1-1 by converting free auxin into conjugates, which also results in the downregulation of the auxin-induced IAA6 and the upregulation of the P. indica-induced LRR1 gene. The fungus produces relatively high levels of cytokinins, and the cytokinin levels are higher in colonized roots compared with the uncolonized controls. trans-Zeatin cytokinin biosynthesis and the CRE1/AHK2 receptor combination are crucial for P. indica-mediated growth stimulation, while mutants lacking cis-zeatin, impaired in other cytokinin receptor combinations, or containing reduced cytokinin levels respond to the fungus. Since root colonization is not affected in the cytokinin mutants, we propose that cytokinins are required for P. indica-induced growth promotion. Finally, a comparative analysis of the phytohormone mutants allows the conclusion that the response to P. indica is independent of the architecture and size of the roots.

  15. Efecto de la práctica de embolsado sobre la calidad del fruto en feijoa (Acca sellowiana Berg tander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El  cultivo de  feijoa  (Acca  sellowiana Berg.  se ha  extendido  durante  los últimos  años  en  el territorio colombiano, debido a que  la  fruta es muy apetecida en el mercado por las excelentes propiedades  organolépticas.  Sin  embargo,  la cal idad  y  sanidad  exigidas  para  la comercialización  se  ven  afectadas  por  varios factores,  entre  los  que  se  encuentra  el  daño causado  por  la mosca de  la  fruta  (Anastrepha spp..  Por  tanto,  la  evaluación  del  efecto  de embolsado sobre la calidad de la fruta de feijoa es un tema de gran interés. Además, esta técnica es comúnmente usada en guayaba que pertenecea la misma familia que la feijoa (Mirtáceae. Para el estudio, se embolsaron flores en el momento de  la caída de pétalos, y cada semana después hasta  cuat ro  semanas.   Los  frutos  que  se embolsaron a la caída de pétalos detuvieron su crecimiento; aquellos embolsados una, dos y tres semanas  después  de  la  caída  de  pétalos  no reportaron diferencias significativas en cuanto los parámetros  evaluados  (peso  fresco,  peso  seco, diámetro transversal y  longitudinal, intensidad de infestación,  sólidos  solubles  totales  y  acidez titulable Los frutos embolsados cuatro semanas después de la caída de pétalos fueron de mayor peso,  tamaño y más dulces con  respecto a  los demás. La efectividad en el control de mosca de la  fruta  fue evidente. El embolsado, además de mejorar la sanidad del fruto,  influyó en su calidad y permitió obtener un producto con características adecuadas para el mercado.

  16. Characterisation of glufosinate resistance mechanisms in Eleusine indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaludin, Adam; Yu, Qin; Zoellner, Peter; Beffa, Roland; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-06-01

    An Eleusine indica population has evolved resistance to glufosinate, a major post-emergence herbicide of global agriculture. This population was analysed for target-site (glutamine synthetase) and non-target-site (glufosinate uptake, translocation and metabolism) resistance mechanisms. Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity extracted from susceptible (S) and resistant (R*) plants was equally sensitive to glufosinate inhibition, with IC 50 values of 0.85 mm and 0.99 mm, respectively. The extractable GS activity was also similar in S and R* samples. Foliar uptake of [ 14 C]-glufosinate did not differ in S and R* plants, nor did glufosinate net uptake in leaf discs. Translocation of [ 14 C]-glufosinate into untreated shoots and roots was also similar in both populations, with 44% to 47% of the herbicide translocated out from the treated leaf 24 h after treatment. The HPLC and LC-MS analysis of glufosinate metabolism revealed no major metabolites in S or R* leaf tissue. Glufosinate resistance in this resistant population is not due to an insensitive GS, or increased activity, or altered glufosinate uptake and translocation, or enhanced glufosinate metabolism. Thus, target-site resistance is likely excluded and the exact resistance mechanism(s) remain to be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

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    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  18. Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity

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    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

  19. Assessment of Tamarindus indica extracts for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

  20. Development of mango (Mangifera indica L. energy drinks

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    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two hydrocolloids, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was evaluated in mango beverage stability (Mangifera indica L. formulated and developed with caffeine at a concentration of 30 mg/100 mL. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of color, acidity, viscosity, total soluble solids, pH, flavor, aroma and texture were studied every three days over a 12-day period. The beverages were packaged in high-density polyethylene containers with a 250 mL capacity and were stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for the duration of the experimentation period. The drinks with added pectin showed greater stability and lower acidity values than the control, but higher values than those prepared with CMC. The drinks made with CMC had a significantly higher viscosity at a 95% confidence level than those made with pectin or the control beverages. The treatment that showed the lowest browning index was the one added with pectin. Concerning the sensory evaluation, the drinks showed significant differences at a 95% confidence level; the drink made with pectin was the most widely accepted. It was concluded that the most stable drinks were those made with pectin because they presented the lowest height in millimeters of precipitate solids over the storage period. No off-flavors in beverages were perceived by the judges.

  1. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  2. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro. PMID:28217550

  3. Purification and properties of the dihydrofolate synthetase from Serratia indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masamichi; Iwai, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The dihydrofolate synthetase (EC6.3.2.12) responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid from dihydropteroic acid and L-glutamic acid was purified about 130-fold from extracts of Serratia indica IFO 3759 by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The enzyme preparation obtained was shown to be homogeneous by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and ultracentrifugal analysis. The sedimentation coefficient of this enzyme was 3.9 S, and the molecular weight was determined to be about 47,000 by Sephadex G-100. The optimum pH for the reaction was 9.0. The enzymatic reaction required dihydropteroate, L-glutamate and ATP as substrates, and Mg 2+ and K + as cofactors. γ-L-Glutamyl-L-glutamic acid cannot replace L-glutamic acid as the substrate. Neither pteroic acid nor tetrahydropteroic acid can be used as the substrate. ATP was partially replaced by ITP or GTP. The enzyme reaction was inhibited by the addition of ADP, but not by AMP. One mole of dihydrofolate, 1 mole of ADP and 1 mole of orthophosphate were produced from each 1 mole of dihydropteroic acid, L-glutamic acid, and ATP. These results suggest that the systematic name for the dihydrofolate synthetase is 7,8-dihydropteroate: L-glutamate ligase (ADP). (auth.)

  4. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  5. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L.

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    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen interacciones que afecten el color, el olor ni la concentración de polifenoles en las mezclas binarias extracto blando de tamarindo-excipientes a 30 ºC, y a temperaturas mayores se reduce la cantidad de polifenoles en las mezclas. La formulación preliminar número tres produce tabletas de calidad tecnológica y resulta adecuada para los subsecuentes estudios de formulación y optimización de tabletas de tamarindo.

  6. Antimicrobial activity screening of isolated flavonoids from Azadirachta indica leaves

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    QUDSIA KANWAL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of two flavonoids, namely genistein 7-O-glucoside (1 and (–-epi-catechin (2, isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem leaves, were evaluated against five fungal species, viz: Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. and Penicillium citrii, and four bacterial species, viz. Lactobacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Azospirillium lipoferum and Bacillus sp. Six concentrations, viz. 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1000 ppm of each of the two flavonoids were employed using malt extract agar medium. All the concentrations of both the test compounds significantly suppressed fungal as well as bacterial growth. The highest concentration (1000 ppm of both fractions 1 and 2 reduced the growth of the different test fungal species by 83–99 % and 82–95 %, respectively. Compound 1 was highly effective against Lactobacillus sp., against which its various concentrations reduced the bacterial growth by 52–99.8 %. Compound 2 was highly effective against A. lipoferum and Bacillus sp., resulting in 94–100 % and 73–99% reduction in bacterial growth, respectively.

  7. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological and molecular identification of Gyrodactylus bubyri Osmanov, 1965 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from Caucasian dwarf goby, Knipowitschia caucasica (Berg) (Actinopterygii: Gobionellidae) from a Black Sea lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Borislav; Huyse, Tine; Pankov, Plamen; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2016-04-01

    Gyrodactylus bubyri Osmanov, 1965, a monogenean parasite of Caucasian dwarf goby Knipowitschia caucasica (Berg) described from Aral Sea and subsequently reported from the same host from Strymon River, Greece, is recorded from Atanasovsko Lake, Bulgarian Black Sea coast (the first record of G. bubyri from the Black Sea basin). The species is redescribed by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as the ITS rDNA sequence is obtained. As comparative materials, specimens of G. bubyri from K. caucasica (Strymon River), G. charon Vanhove and Huyse in Vanhove et al., 2014 from Knipowitschia milleri (Acheron Delta, Greece) and G. micropsi Gläser, 1974 from Potamoschistus microps from North Sea (Belgium) are studied. Comparative morphology and molecular data demonstrate that G. micropsi is a junior synonym of G. bubyri (new synonymy). The validity of G. charon is questioned, pending examination of additional materials in order to prove it as a distinct species or as a junior synonym of G. bubyri.

  9. Chemical and biological evaluation of essential oils from two species of Myrtaceae - Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, João Henrique G; Souza, Elisângela Dutra; Mariane, Bruna; Pascon, Renata; Vallim, Marcelo A; Martins, Roberto Carlos C; Baroli, Adriana A; Carvalho, Bianca A; Soares, Marisi G; dos Santos, Roberta T; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2011-11-25

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from leaves of two Myrtaceae species-Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS as well as determination of Kovatz indexes indicated atractylone (26.78%) and curzerene (17.96%) as major constituents of E. uniflora oil and α-cadinol (19.15%), apiole (11.15%) and cubenol (5.43%) as main components in P. trunciflora oil. Both essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria. E. uniflora and P. trunciflora essential oils were active towards two Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus equi and Staphylococcus epidermis. In addition, biological activity of both essential oils was detected for pathogenic yeasts of the genus Candida and Cryptococcus. E. uniflora was active towards all yeast tested and exhibited interesting minimal inhibitory concentrations (0.11 to 3.75 mg/mL) across a broad spectrum of activity.

  10. Induction of root colonization by Piriformospora indica leads to enhanced asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesan, Jisha; Narayanan, Anith K; Sakunthala, Manjula

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) has wide application in Indian and Chinese traditional medicines with documented evidence for wound healing and neuroprotective and anti-aging potential. Asiaticoside, a trisaccharide triterpene, is the most medicinally active compound in the plant. β-Amyrin synthase and squalene synthase have been identified as the two key genes in the triterpenoid pathway which regulate the production of asiaticoside in C. asiatica. The paper reports salient findings of our study utilizing the growth-promoting endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica to successfully colonize roots of C. asiatica in vitro cultures for investigating the effect of the mutualistic association on asiaticoside production. Co-cultivation of P. indica resulted in the rapid enhancement of root and shoot biomass of host plant, which was visible after 7 days of culture and continued up to 45 days. P. indica co-cultivation also favored the synthesis of asiaticosides, as evidenced by HPLC analysis which indicated about twofold increase (0.53% (w/w) in leaves and 0.23% (w/w) in whole plant) over control (0.33% (w/w) in leaves and 0.14% (w/w) in whole plant). Real-time PCR results confirmed the strong upregulation of squalene synthase and β-amyrin synthase transcripts in P. indica-challenged plants compared with the control. Our data demonstrate the potential use of P. indica as a means to enhance plant secondary metabolite production in planta with scope for further field evaluation. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  11. TEST OF Morus khunpai AND M.indica HYBRID TOWARDS SILKWORM FEED

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    Nurhaedah Muin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of silkworm rearing depends on the availability of qualified mulberry plants. The research is aimed to observe the compatibility of hybrid Morus khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm's feeding. It is related to the cocoon and filament quality. KI hybrids are a result of pollination control male parent M.khunpai and female parent M.indica S-54. The research applied a Randomized Complete Design by measuring variables, i.e.: the percentage of cocoon, number of normal cocoon, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio and filament length. The result showed that cocoon and filament quality of silkworm fed by mulberry hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI have shown non-significant differences compared with silkworm fed by mulberry parents (M.khunpai and M.indica and the control (M.nigra. This situation showed that there has not been recognised yet as the compatibility of hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm feeding.

  12. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-12-17

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.

  13. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S N; Naranjo, A M; Herrera, A P

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au +3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl 4 ) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution. (paper)

  14. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  15. Antibacterial activity of fumaria indica (hausskn.) pugsley against selected bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Y.; Nawaz, K.; Hussain, K.

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts of F. indica prepared in different doses against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains i.e. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), Escherichia coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using agar well diffusion method (inhibition zone measurements) compared to gentamicin as standard antibiotic. Results showed significant activities against the test organisms with overall satisfactory statistics. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus strains as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed more inhibition to methanolic extracts of F. indica. Minimum inhibitory as well as minimum bactericidal concentrations against all strains except Shigella sonnei were also recorded. Studies showed promising horizons for the use of F. indica as an active antibacterial component in modern drug formulations. (author)

  16. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (pMangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  17. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae and Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR-enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection of L. indica.

  18. Macroscopial, anatomical and physico-chemical studies on fruits of Coccinia indica Wight &Arn. (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To rationalize the macroscopial, anatomical and physico-chemical studies on fruits of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae. Methods: The crude ethanolic extract of fruits of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae was using physico-chemical parameters, fluorescence analysis, and preliminary photochemical investigation (TLC, HPTLC, column chromatography. Results: An attempt has been made to highlight this folk herbal medicine through present study which will assist in the identification of fresh as well as dried crude samples of fruits anatomically and physico chemically. TLC fingerprint profiling and fluorescence analysis of powdered fruits were also carried out and the salient qualitative and quantitative parameters are reported. Conclusions: The present study will provide referential information for correct identification and help in checking adulteration in market samples used in the preparation of various herbal medicines. The present observation will also be helpful in macroscopial, anatomical and physicochemical studies on fruits of Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae.

  19. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. and Manihot esculenta Extracts on Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Zenon Machado; da Trindade, Lenilson Santos; Santana, Genelane Cruz; Padilha, Francine Ferreira; da Costa Mendonça, Marcelo; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; López, Jorge A.; Macedo, Maria Lucila Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Background: The chemical composition of plants used in traditional medicine exhibits biologically active compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids and becomes a promising approach to treat microbial infections, mainly with drug-resistant bacteria. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) as antimicrobial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolated and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Hydroethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection, Fourier transform infrared, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and ultraviolet-visible methods. The antimicrobial activity against four strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the microdilution method at minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results: Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids were detected in the plant extracts. T. indica extract at 500 μg/mL showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa; however, M. esculenta showed only activity against P. aeruginosa in this concentration. Conclusions: Our results suggested that polyphenols and flavonoids present in T. indica leaf extracts are a potential source of antimicrobial compound. The T. indica extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while M. esculenta had effect only on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. SUMMARY Antibacterial effect of T. indica and M. esculenta leaf extract was evaluated.T. indica extract displayed activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains.M. esculenta showed effect on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant. Abbreviations Used: BHI: Agar brain heart infusion, CAPES: Coordination for the improvement of higher education personnel, DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, FAPITEC/SE: Foundation for support to research and technological innovation of the state of

  20. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica.

  1. Preconditioning with Azadirachta indica ameliorates cardiorenal dysfunction through reduction in oxidative stress and extracellular signal regulated protein kinase signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temidayo Olutayo Omóbòwálé

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Together, A. indica and vitamin C prevented IRI-induced cardiorenal dysfunction via reduction in oxidative stress, improvement in antioxidant defence system and increase in the ERK1/2 expressions. Therefore, A. indica can be a useful chemopreventive agent in the prevention and treatment of conditions associated with intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

  2. Nesting and feeding habits of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) in Karlapat wildlife sanctuary, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, A. K.; Shrotriya, S.; Rout, S. D.; Dash, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    Hábitos de nidificación y alimentación de la ardilla gigante hindú (Ratufa indica) en el refugio de vida silvestre de Karlapat, India La ardilla gigante hindú (Ratufa indica) es una de las cuatro especies de ardilla gigante del mundo. Se trata de una especie endémica de la India, pero sus poblaciones se encuentran muy fragmentadas. La ecología de las ardillas en Asia se ha estudiado poco, lo que ha entorpecido los esfuerzos de conservación y de gestión. Se estudiaron los hábitos de nidif...

  3. Mantis indica Mukherjee, 1995: a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870 (Insecta: Mantodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 was erected on the basis of some distinctive characters. Based on morphological characters, it was supposed to belong to the genus Statilia (Roy (1999: 163. However, in the absence of the knowledge of the structure of genitalia, its species status remained confusing. A further study on the structure of genitalia revealed that Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 is undoubtedly a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870. A table is provided to compare significant features of related species. Colour photographs of holotype and genitalia of comparable species are also provided.

  4. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Roop, J.K.; Dhaliwal, P.K.; Guraya, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Mel...

  5. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF INDIVIDUAL BERG BALANCE ITEMS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL SCORE TO PREDICT FALLS IN COMMUNITY DWELLING ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Denzil Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are a major problem in the elderly leading to increased morbidity and mortality in this population. Scores from objective clinical measures of balance have frequently been associated with falls in older adults. The Berg Balance Score (BBS which is a frequently used scale to test balance impairments in the elderly ,takes time to perform and has been found to have scoring inconsistencies. The purpose was to determine if individual items or a group of BBS items would have better accuracy than the total BBS in classifying community dwelling elderly individuals according to fall history. Method: 60 community dwelling elderly individuals were chosen based on a history of falls in this cross sectional study. Each BBS item was dichotomized at three points along the scoring scale of 0 – 4: between scores of 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 3 and 4. Sensitivity (Sn, specificity (Sp, and positive (+LR and negative (-LR likelihood ratios were calculated for all items for each scoring dichotomy based on their accuracy in classifying subjects with a history of multiple falls. These findings were compared with the total BBS score where the cut-off score was derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: On analysing a combination of BBS items, B9 and B11 were found to have the best sensitivity and specificity when considered together. However the area under the curve of these items was 0.799 which did not match that of the total score (AUC= 0.837. A, combination of 4 BBS items - B9 B11 B12 and B13 also had good Sn and Sp but the AUC was 0.815. The combination with the AUC closest to that of the total score was a combination items B11 and B13. (AUC= 0.824. hence these two items can be used as the best predictor of falls with a cut off of 6.5 The ROC curve of the Total Berg balance Scale scores revealed a cut off score of 48.5. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of items B11 and B13 may be best predictors of falls in

  6. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF INDIVIDUAL BERG BALANCE ITEMS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL SCORE TO PREDICT FALLS IN COMMUNITY DWELLING ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Denzil Dias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are a major problem in the elderly leading to increased morbidity and mortality in this population. Scores from objective clinical measures of balance have frequently been associated with falls in older adults. The Berg Balance Score (BBS which is a frequently used scale to test balance impairments in the elderly ,takes time to perform and has been found to have scoring inconsistencies. The purpose was to determine if individual items or a group of BBS items would have better accuracy than the total BBS in classifying community dwelling elderly individuals according to fall history. Method: 60 community dwelling elderly individuals were chosen based on a history of falls in this cross sectional study. Each BBS item was dichotomized at three points along the scoring scale of 0 – 4: between scores of 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 3 and 4. Sensitivity (Sn, specificity (Sp, and positive (+LR and negative (-LR likelihood ratios were calculated for all items for each scoring dichotomy based on their accuracy in classifying subjects with a history of multiple falls. These findings were compared with the total BBS score where the cut-off score was derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: On analysing a combination of BBS items, B9 and B11 were found to have the best sensitivity and specificity when considered together. However the area under the curve of these items was 0.799 which did not match that of the total score (AUC= 0.837. A, combination of 4 BBS items - B9 B11 B12 and B13 also had good Sn and Sp but the AUC was 0.815. The combination with the AUC closest to that of the total score was a combination items B11 and B13. (AUC= 0.824. hence these two items can be used as the best predictor of falls with a cut off of 6.5 The ROC curve of the Total Berg balance Scale scores revealed a cut off score of 48.5. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of items B11 and B13 may be best predictors of falls in

  7. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  8. Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L) Kuntze in Mice. Chung-Shih Chen, Mei-Lin Wang, Rosa Huang Liu, Shih-Pin Chen, Tsong-Ming Lu, Wei-Yu Tsai, Chien-Fu Huang, Chi-Chiang Yang, Yew-Min Tzeng ...

  9. Ecology of Pleuromamma indica Wolfenden (Copepoda - Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswathy, M.; Iyer, H.K.

    , strong oxygen minimum above 500m depth and a wide range of salinity varying from 32 x 10-3 in Bay of Bengal to more than 37 x 10 -3 in the northern Arabian Sea were characteristics of the study area. P. indica showed a positive correlation with salinity...

  10. Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. cv Suguna leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P

  11. Mangifera indica L. (the mango plant) of Anacardiaceae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mangifera indica L. (the mango plant) of Anacardiaceae is a large spreading evergreen tree with simple leaves and small reddish white or yellowish green flowers borne on much-branched inflorescences. More than 500 varieties of mango are cultivated in Indiafor their large, sweet, edible fruits which are of high economic ...

  12. The effect of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf meal on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the growth performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens. The neem leaf meal was used in replacing parts of wheat offal in the diets of 192 day-old broiler chickens fed ad libitum at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% levels of ...

  13. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Zoology University of Ekpoma, Edo state were used for this study. They were weighed at intervals of five days before and after the experiment. They were randomly divided into four groups (A. – D) of two rabbits each. The chloroquine and aqueous extract of A. indica leaf was administered to the animals orally ...

  14. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  15. Efficacy of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) varieties as a source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) serves as a source of food, feed, as well as a means of additional income to the people in northern Ethiopia. The species has different varieties with varied rate of productivity and palatability. This study was conducted to assess the food and feed value of the Cactus Pear varieties in ...

  16. Studies on mode of infection of Neovossia indica incitant of karnal bunt of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munjal, R.L.; Chatrath, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    Mode of infection of Karnal bunt fungus-Neovossia indica has been established by using histopathological and radiotracer techniques. It has been observed that germ tubes arising from sporidia of the fungus directly enter the epidermal cells of glumes and then to the ovary through the ovary wall. (author)

  17. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree ( Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) M Shahin-uz-zaman, M Ashrafuzzaman, MS Haque, LN Luna. Abstract. A study was conducted with root and shoot tip explants of neem to develop an efficient protocol of regeneration. Shoot tips and root tips from 10 - 20 days old seedlings of neem ...

  18. mangifera indica as a bioindicator of lead, copper and iron in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-07-16

    Jul 16, 2009 ... The levels of lead, Pb copper Cu and iron Fe in Mangifera indica leaf and bark and the native soil samples in the vicinity of Makeri smelting plant, ... metals such as mercury, copper, cadmium, and lead are known to be very toxic and ... They were then transported to the laboratory in clean polyethylene bags.

  19. Is oxidative stress involved in the loss of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.; Vos, de C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a valuable multipurpose tree of tropical arid and semi-arid regions. The use of its seeds is hindered by their short storage longevity. The possible causes of rapid loss of viability were investigated on different seed lots during exposure to 32% and 75% RH at 20°C.

  20. A genetic map and germplasm diversity estimation of Mangifera indica (mango) with SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is often referred to as the “King of Fruits”. As the first steps in developing a mango genomics project, we genotyped 582 individuals comprising six mapping populations with 1054 SNP markers. The resulting consensus map had 20 linkage groups defined by 726 SNP markers with...

  1. Genetic Diversity Assessment of Rarely Cultivated Traditional Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha, T.; Martin, Kottackal Poulose; Sreekumar, V. B.; Madassery, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting was performed to assess the genetic diversity among rarely cultivated traditional indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties collected from a tribal hamlet of Kerala State, India. A total of 664 DNA bands amplified by 15 primers exhibited 72.9% polymorphism (an average of 32.3 polymorphic bands per primer). The varieties Jeerakasala and...

  2. THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CACTI (Opuntia ficus indica)-LEGUME MIXED SILAGE

    OpenAIRE

    J. GUSHA; S. KATSANDE; P.I. ZVINOROVA; S. NCUBE

    2013-01-01

    The potential of making silage using dry browse legume hay (Acacia angustissima, Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra callothrysus and Macroptilium Atropurpureum) mixed with fresh cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) for winter supplementation of veld grass was evaluated using the proximate, tannins and the pH analyses. Chemical analysis revealed that N values were significantly increased (P

  3. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a

  4. Effect of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and plant ash on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedlings of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp attacked by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus were treated with water extracts of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and plant ash separately. The extract was found to exhibit an insecticidal effect. It has an antifeedant and growth regulating effects on the pulse beetle.

  5. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the groCulex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neem tree Azadirachta indica Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most studied plant species for pest control, including mosquitoes. However, the effect of aqueous neem seed extracts (ANSE) on each of the 4 instars of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is unknown. In order to determine the effect of ...

  6. Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G M; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Dethe, Shekhar M; Sangli, Gopala K; Abhilash, K; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In the earlier studies, methanolic extract of Mangifera indica L leaf was exhibited hypocholesterol activity. However, the bioactive compounds responsible for the same are not reported so far. To isolate the bioactive compounds with hypocholesterol activity from the leaf extract using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay which can be used for the standardization of extract. The leaf methanolic extract of M. indica (Sindoora variety) was partitioned with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on silica gel to yield twelve fractions and the activity was monitored by using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. Active fractions were re-chromatographed to yield individual compounds. A major compound mangiferin present in the extract was screened along with other varieties of mango leaves for cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. However, the result indicates that compounds other than mangiferin may be active in the extract. Invitro pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibition assay was used for bioactivity guided fractionation (BAGF) to yield bioactive compound for standardization of extract. Bioactivity guided fractionation afford the active fraction containing 3b-taraxerol with an IC50 value of 0.86μg/ml. This study demonstrates that M. indica methanol extract of leaf have significant hypocholesterol activity which is standardized with 3b-taraxerol, a standardized extract for hypocholesterol activity resulted in development of dietary supplement from leaves of Mangifera indica.

  7. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  9. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Selma; Khalil, Eltahir A; Khalid, Sami A; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Mohieldein, Abdlmarouf; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Seke Etet, Paul Faustin; Farahna, Mohammed

    2013-08-29

    Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells' fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices.

  10. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  11. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity.

  12. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  13. Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    peptic ulcers, haemorrhage, or pathological changes in the liver or kidney were observed in A. indica- treated mice, and there were no significant ... exercise combined with a balanced diet may be the most effective strategy through with to ... conditions, such as inflammatory disease, liver disease, intestinal infections ...

  14. The extraction of proteins from the neem seed ( Indica azadirachta A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for maximizing the extraction of protein from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss) were investigated. Extractants used were sodium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions of varying concentration and pH. Maximum extractions of 17.86 g of extractable protein was obtained from 1 kg of crude protein, using ...

  15. Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Waltheria indica L. (syn. Waltheria americana): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, F; Ribuot, C; Boumendjel, A; Guissou, I

    2013-06-21

    Waltheria indica L. (syn. Waltheria americana) is commonly used in traditional medicine in Africa, South America and Hawaii, mainly against pain, inflammation, conditions of inflammation, diarrhea, dysentery, conjunctivitis, wounds, abscess, epilepsy, convulsions, anemia, erectile dysfunctions, bladder ailments and asthma. Aim of the review to provide an up-to-date overview of the botany, phytochemistry, traditional uses, pharmacological activities and toxicity data of Waltheria indica. Additionally, studies providing an evidence for local and traditional uses of Waltheria indica are discussed. Further phytochemical and pharmacological potential of this species are suggested for future investigations. The information was collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via academic libraries and electronic search. These sources include Pubmed, Web of Science, Portal de Portales-Latindex, Science Research.com and Google scholar. These studies about the medical botanical, traditional uses, chemical, pharmacological and toxicological data on Waltheria indica were published in English, Portuguese, Spanish, German and French. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Waltheria indica were investigated and showed analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anti-anemic, anti-oxidant, sedative and anticonvulsant activities. The phytochemical investigations showed the presence of cyclopeptid alkaloids, flavonoids (e.g., (-)-epicatechin, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-(6″-E-p-coumaryl)-glucopyranoside), tannins, sterols, terpenes, saponins, anthraquinones. Studies of acute toxicity in animal indicated that Waltheria indica can be toxic. Waltheria indica possess therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammation, malaria, infectious diseases (e.g., lungs infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, diarrhea due to Candida albicans or Escherichia coli) and prevention of oxidative stress. Further studies are necessary to

  16. Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of Lagerstroemia indica and Lagerstroemia fauriei (Lythraceae) seedlings for phytoremediation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Gu, Cuihua; Bai, Shangbin; Sun, Zhibin; Zhu, Tingting; Zhu, Xudan; Grit, Dale H; Tembrock, Luke R

    2016-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals is one of the most serious environmental problems generated from human activities. Because phytoremediation utilizes plants to uptake contaminants, it could potentially be used to remediate metal-contaminated areas. A pot culture experiment with four levels of cadmium (Cd) (0, 20, 40, and 80 mg of Cd/kg dry soil) was conducted to investigate Cd accumulation and tolerance of roots, shoots, and leaves of Lagerstroemia indica and Lagerstroemia fauriei as well as their potential for phytoremediation. Experimental results indicated that Cd inhibited seedling growth only at the higher Cd exposure concentration (40 and 80 mg/kg). The tolerance index revealed that on average L. indica is more tolerant of Cd than L. fauriei. Moreover, plants in the experiment accumulated Cd differentially. In comparisons between L. indica and L. fauriei, the leaves of the former had higher concentrations of Cd, while the roots of latter had higher concentrations of Cd. Furthermore, the roots, shoots, and leaves had very high bioaccumulation factors that markedly exceeded 1.0 (exceptional only in shoots of 80 mg/kg for L. fauriei), indicating that the seedlings extracted Cd from the soil. The leaves' translocation factor of L. indica was greater than 1.0, being significantly higher than that of L. fauriei. Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and total declined in both species significantly as Cd concentrations exceeded 40 mg/kg in the soil. In contrast, lipid peroxidation and proline content was found to increase with increasing Cd concentration. From the assessments of biomass production, Cd tolerance and uptake L. indica and L. fauriei could stand as excellent species for remediating Cd-contaminated soils.

  17. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G. M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A. Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J. Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. Materials and Methods: The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Results and Discussion: Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. Conclusions: The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. SUMMARY The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity. PMID:28250649

  18. Screening of antidepressant activity and estimation of quercetin from Coccinia indica using TLC densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Kudrat; Kumar, Deepak; Jamwal, Anupam; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Coccinia indica Naud (Cucurbitaceae) has been traditionally used for the treatment of depression but these claims have not been validated. The objective of this study is to investigate antidepressant activity of various extracts and fractions of C. indica aerial parts, and to estimate content of quercetin in the plant using TLC densitometry. Coccinia indica aerial parts were successively extracted using solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely n-hexane, chloroform, methanol, and water. Various extracts were evaluated for antidepressant activity at doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o., upon acute administration in mice using the forced swim test (FST). The bioactive extract was partitioned successively using solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. All fractions were also screened for antidepressant activity at doses of 25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o., upon acute administration in mice. The methanol extract significantly reduced the duration of immobility in FST at dose of 400 mg/kg without affecting locomotor activity in open field test, thus, confirmed its antidepressant activity, which was statistically equivalent to the standard drug (imipramine, 15 mg/kg, i.p.). Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited antidepressant activity at 50 mg/kg. Comparative TLC fingerprint studies confirmed the presence of quercetin in methanol extract and EAF. Quercetin was used as a chemical marker to standardize C. indica aerial parts using the validated TLC densitometric method, and the content of quercetin was found to be 0.00172% w/w. The present studies scientifically validated traditional claims of C. indica for antidepressant activity.

  19. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjin; Abdelaziz, Mohamad E; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Guo, Xiujie; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-09-02

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA 4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA 4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2017-06-28

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  1. Estudo da vegetação relacionada com a alimentação do "pacu" (Colossoma mitrei-Berg(1895 no Pantanal mato-grossense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Os 102 aparelhos digestivos analisados foram provenientes de espécimes capturados no Pantanal de Mato Grosso, nos municípios do Poconé e Barão de Melgaço. O estudo da vegetação aquática, ciliar e de áreas inundáveis foi conduzido nas áreas onde os espécimes de "pacu" foram capturados. Foram considerados também dados biométricos do "pacu", tais como: comprimento total do esôfago, do intestino e do estômago.This study is part of the "pacu" (Colossoma mitrei Berg 1895 project of biotecnology. The studies were conducted in areas of Pantanal, municipalities of Poconé and Barão de Melgaço (Mato Grosso, Brasil. In conjunction with the vegetation study, the stomach contents od 102 espécimes of "pacu" were analized. The results indicate that Colossoma mitrei's custom feeding is herbivorous.

  2. Education of mining engineers with the specialization in Rescue, fire and safety technique at the BERG Faculty of the Technical University of Košice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlatý Václav

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available After the separation of Czechoslovakia, in 1993, the Mining Faculty (now BERG Faculty of the Technical University of Košice started a teaching program with the specialization in mining rescue, fire guard and safety technique at the Detachment in Prievidza, because of all the needs and conditions related to the education of engineers in the mentioned areas. During the last 10 years, the Detachment in Prievidza has been growing in terms of number of students. From the beginning of this period to present days 75 students graduated. The full-time studies last five years and the academic years are divided into two semesters of 15 weeks each. The semesters are finished by examination sessions. The first 2 years, in principle, include basic studies in mathematics, scientific subjects and some subjects related to earth sciences. The third and fourth year are generally devoted to basic technical subjects of mining and underground works, and then to rescue, fire and safety subjects. A practical work experience has to be gained by students in a mine or fire and safety stations. The practical training term is scheduled after the third academic year. During the last two semesters the students are preparing their Master’s degree thesis using a stay in the mine company or other firms to receive the necessary information and data.

  3. Balance ability measured with the Berg balance scale: a determinant of fall history in community-dwelling adults with leg amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Kevin; Chen, Christine C; Blackwell, Wren M; Rahal, Rana T; Benoy, Stephany A

    2015-01-01

    Falls are common among adults with leg amputations and associated with balance confidence. But subjective confidence is not equivalent with physical ability. This multivariate analyses of community-dwelling adults with leg amputations examined relationships among individual characteristics, falls, balance ability and balance confidence. Cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling adults with leg amputations recruited from a support group and prosthetic clinic. Subjects provided self-reported medical/fall history, prosthetic functional use, and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) questionnaire data. Balance ability was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Fall incidence was categorized as any fall (one or more) and recurrent falls (more than one). Multivariate logistic regression analyzed relationships within the two fall categories. Cross tabulations and ANOVA analyzed differences among subcategories. Fifty-four subjects (mean age 56.8) with various etiologies, amputation levels, and balance abilities participated. 53.7% had any fall; 25.9% had recurrent falls. Models for both fall categories correctly classified fall history in > 70% of subjects with combinations of the variables ABC, BBS, body-mass-index, and amputation level. Falls occurred regardless of clinical characteristics. Total BBS and select item scores were independent determinants of fall history. Unlike other balance-impaired populations, adults with leg amputation and better balance ability had greater odds of falling.

  4. Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Essential Oils from Two Species of Myrtaceae — Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg Kausel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi G. Soares

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from leaves of two Myrtaceae species–Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg Kausel–were determined. Analysis by GC/MS as well as determination of Kovatz indexes indicated atractylone (26.78% and curzerene (17.96% as major constituents of E. uniflora oil and α-cadinol (19.15%, apiole (11.15% and cubenol (5.43% as main components in P. trunciflora oil. Both essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria. E. uniflora and P. trunciflora essential oils were active towards two Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus equi and Staphylococcus epidermis. In addition, biological activity of both essential oils was detected for pathogenic yeasts of the genus Candida and Cryptococcus. E. uniflora was active towards all yeast tested and exhibited interesting minimal inhibitory concentrations (0.11 to 3.75 mg/mL across a broad spectrum of activity.

  5. Enzyme expression in indica and japonica rice cultivars under saline stress=Expressão de enzimas em cultivares de arroz indica e japonica sob estresse salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodrigues Mendes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is the main rice producer in Brazil with a 60% participation of the national production and 86% participation of the region. Rice culture irrigation system is done by flooding, which leads to soil salinization, a major environmental constraint to production since it alters the plants’ metabolism exposed to this type of stress. The indica cultivar, widely used in RS, has a higher sensitivity to salinity when compared to that of the japonica cultivar in other physiological aspects. Current research analyzes enzymes expression involved in salt-subjected indica and japonica rice cultivars’ respiration. Oryza sativa L. spp. japonica S.Kato (BRS Bojuru, IAS 12-9 Formosa and Goyakuman and Oryza sativa L. spp. indica S. Kato (BRS Taim-7, BRS Atalanta and BRS Querencia were the cultivars employed. Seedlings were transferred to 15 L basins containing 50% Hoagland nutrient solution increased by 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl, and collected at 14, 28 and 42 days after transfer (DAT. Plant tissues were macerated and placed in eppendorf tubes with Scandálios extractor solution. Electrophoresis was performed in 7% of the polyacrylamide gels in vertical vats. Bands were revealed for the following enzymes systems: esterase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and alpha amylase. The enzymes expression was greater in subspecies japonica, with more intense bands in proportion to salinity increase. Results show that enzyme systems are involved in the salinity defense mechanisms in O. sativa spp. japonica cultivar.O Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS destaca-se como principal produtor de arroz, participando com 60% da produção nacional e 86% da regional. O sistema de irrigação da cultura é por inundação, que induz o solo à salinização, um dos maiores limitadores ambientais à produção, alterando o metabolismo da plantas expostas a este tipo de estresse. As cultivares

  6. Comparison Uptake of Cadmium (II from Aqueous Solution, onto Algae Brown Fucus Serratus and Cystoseira Indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium metal not only has detrimental effects on the nervous system, the kidneys, and the human fetus but is also lethal because of its carcinogenic effects. Biological absorption of cadmium has a number of advantages over conventional methods that include high removal efficiency for eliminating heavy metals from dilute solutions, availability and abundance of the required materials in nature, and reproducibility and reusability of the materials. In this study, the biosorption of cadmium (II ions onto the dry biomass of two brown algae, Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus, was investigated. Cystoseira indica was collected from the coastal areas of the Oman Sea and Fucus serratus was collected from the coastal area of the Atlantic Ocean. The algae were first dried, washed three times with tap water, and finally washed with distilled water without ions before they were isolated in pieces 0.5-1.5 mm in diameter. In all the experiments, distilled water was used to which known amounts of cadmium were added before the algae were introduced into the solution. The metal ion concentrations in the solution were measured using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after the metal came into contact with the algae. The optimum pH for the adsorption of cadmium was found to be 3/0 ± 5/6 and 3/0 ± 5/5 for Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus, respectively. The maximum metal uptakes by both algae were observed in acidic pH conditions. The time required for the biosorption of the metal to reach equilibrium was 360 minutes for Cystoseira indica and 300 minutes Fucus serratus. The adsorption capacities for Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus using the Langmuir isotherm were determined as 44/58 and 54/95 mg /g, respectively. Moreover, the functional groups involved in cadmium uptake in both algae were identified. Finally, the results of this study showed that Fucus serratus algae had a higher capacity for adsorbing cadmium ions than did

  7. VARIASI KONSENTRASI BUAH ASAM (Tamarindus indica L. DAN SUSU SKIM TERHADAP KUALITAS YOGHURT KUNIR ASAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Rahayu Artini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi buah asam (Tamarindus indica L. dan  susu skim untuk menghasilkan kualitas yoghurt sesuai  dengan SNI 01-2981-2009.Rancangan percobaan yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri atas sembilan perlakuan. Yoghurt kunir asam dibuat dari variasi penambahan variasi konsentrasi Tamarindus indica L. 30%, 40%, dan 50% (b/V dan  susu skim 5%, 10%, dan 15% (b/V. Sifat fisika, kimia, dan mikrobiologi  yoghurt kunir asam diamati. Dihasilkan kualitas terbaik yoghurt kunir asam dengan penambahan 30% Tamarindus indica L. (b/V0dan 15% susu skim (b/V. Dengan hasil analisis penampakan cairan kental; konsistensi homogen; rasa asam; bau khas; viskositas 89,3 cP; pH 4,85; kadar abu 1,52%; kadar lemak total 2,53%; kadar protein total 3,74%; kadar asam laktat 0,223%, kadar kurkumin 0,389%; cemaran logam Pb dan Cu serta Total Coliform dan E. coli negatif. ABSTRACT:.The objective of this research was to determinethe influence of concentrated Tamarindus indica L. and skim milk powder in producing tumuric curcumin yogurt towards its product based on SNI 01-2981-2009. The research was conducted in completely randomized design which consisted of nine treatments. The yogurt mixtures were made from a variation of 30%, 40%, and 50% of Tamarindus indica L. and addition of  5%, 10%, and 15% of skim milk powder.  Physical, chemical, and microbiology properties of the turmeric curcuma yogurts were observed.  The results showed the best quality of turmeric curcumin  yogurt was formulated by the addition of 30% Tamarindus indica L. and 15% skim milk powder,  with the results of the analysis: the appearance of a viscous fluid; homogeneous consistency; sour taste; distinctive smell; viscosity of 89.3 cP; pH of 4.85; ash content of 1.52%; total fat content of 2.53%; total protein content of 3.74%; lactic acid levels of 0.22%, curcumin content of 0

  8. Primer registro de Coccidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea sobre Duchesnea indica (Rosaceae “frutilla silvestre” en Tucumán, Argentina

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    Patri GONZÁLEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el primer registro de la Argentina y el mundo del Coccidae Saissetia coffeae (Walker sobre Duchesnea indica (Andrews Focke, frutilla silvestre relacionada con frutilla cultivada (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

  9. In vivo biochemical and gene expression analyses of the antioxidant activities and hypocholesterolaemic properties of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Yin Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tamarindus indica (T. indica is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9 ± 10.1 mg GAE/extract and flavonoid (93.9 ± 2.6 mg RE/g extract content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  10. Mineral composition ofTamarindus indicaLINN (tamarind) pulp and seeds from different agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Jaspher; Okullo, John B L; Eilu, Gerald; Nyeko, Philip; Obua, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Mineral composition of dry Tamarindus indica LINN pulp and seeds was evaluated on samples collected from three different agro-ecological zones of Uganda (Lake Victoria Crescent, and Eastern and West Nile). The objective of the study was to evaluate the mineral composition of T. indica pulp and seed samples from across Uganda's different agro-ecological zones and land use types. Separately grounded samples of T. indica pulp and seeds were analyzed for Zn, Fe, Mg, P, Na, K, and Ca. The univariate analysis of variance in the General Linear Model was used to compare differences in mineral composition. Treatment means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) in Post Hoc Tests. The results showed that there were significant differences ( p  ≤ 0.005) in mineral composition levels of T. indica pulp and seed samples between the different agro-ecological zones with the exception of P and Na (for pulp). The T. indica pulp and seeds samples from the Lake Victoria Crescent zone and wild land use type had generally higher mineral levels than T. indica samples from other agro-ecological zones and different land use types. As mineral composition levels were generally higher in the seed than the pulp samples, consumption of T. indica seeds should be promoted. There is also need to conserve individual species both on-farm and in the wild population, but T. indica mineral concentrations (both pulp and seeds) were higher in the samples from the wild population, making them good for human and animal diets.

  11. In vivo biochemical and gene expression analyses of the antioxidant activities and hypocholesterolaemic properties of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chor Yin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica (T. indica) is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9 ± 10.1 mg GAE/extract) and flavonoid (93.9 ± 2.6 mg RE/g extract) content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  12. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed E; Kim, Dongjin; Ali, Shawkat; Fedoroff, Nina V; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-10-01

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na + /K + ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K + channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na + and K + homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na + /K + ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na + and K + ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na + /K + under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of cephalandra indica against advanced glycation end products, sorbitol accumulation and aldose reductase activity in homoeopathic formulation

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    Lalit Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extreme generation of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which has been apprehensive in several disease processes such as diabetic complications and vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the potential of homoeopathic preparations of Cephalandra indica L. against oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Potencies of Cephalandra indica (mother tincture, 6C and 30C were procured from Dr. Willmar Schwabe India Pvt. Ltd. The antioxidant activity of Cephalandra indica was evaluated by employing various in vitro antioxidant methods. Results: The total phenol content was found to be 1905, 849 and 495 mg/g gallic acid equivalents in mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica and total antioxidant capacity was found to be 2710, 759 and 510 μM/g ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. Mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica was found to have strong reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Percentage inhibition of AGEs formation by mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica (10–50 μl was found to be 30.34%–91.77%, 29.98%–65.71% and 33.05%–57.75%, respectively. Mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica showed inhibitory effect against sorbitol accumulation with IC50value of 26.12 μl, 203.10 μl and 897.3 μl, respectively, whereas, in aldose reductase inhibition assay, the IC50value was 32.54 μl, 175.02 μl and 834.34 μl, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed that homoeopathic preparations of Cephalandra indica exhibit protective effect against oxidative stress.

  14. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na + /K + homeostasis under salt stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis

    2017-07-13

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na+/K+ ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K+ channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na+ and K+ homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na+/K+ ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na+ and K+ ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na+/K+ under salt stress conditions.

  15. Improvement of Soil Properties, Growth of Cucumber and Protection against Fusarium Wilt by Piriformospora indica and Two Industrial Organic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work was focused on characterizing bagasse ash (BA and press mud (PM as soil amendments and to study their effect in combination with the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on Fusarium wilt (FW of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Fo. Whereas BA and PM improved almost all physico-chemical properties of the soil evaluated, seed treatment with P. indica had no such effect. In shake culture in potato dextrose broth (PDB medium amended with aqueous extracts of BA and PM, alone or in combination, production mycelial mass of Fo was significantly decreased by PM extract, while production mycelial mass of P. indica was highly improved. The colonization rate of cucumber roots by P. indica as determined by microscopy was highly increased by increasing amounts of BA, PM and BA+PM added to the soil. Seed treatment of cucumber with P. indica before plant cultivation in non-amended soil significantly decreased the disease severity of FW and improved plant growth. When seed treated with P. indica was sown into soil amended with BA, PM or the combination of both, the disease severity was even more reduced than after seed treatment with P. indica alone. In this respect, amendment with PM was more effective than with BA, and the combinations were more effective than the single treatments. Hence, there is a scope to integrate PM and BA as soil amendments in combination with P. indica for eco-friendly FW management, improving soil properties and growth of cucumber plants.

  16. Nymphal Linguatulosis in Indian Crested Porcupines (Histrix Indica in Southwest of Iran

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    Mohammad Rajabloo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Linguatula serrata is one of the important zoonotic parasites. Carnivores serve as definitive host. The larvae existed in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, liver, lungs, etc of intermediate herbivores. The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting viscera containing the infective nymphal stage. Humans may be infected with Linguatula either by ingestion of nymphs resulting in a condition called nasopharyngeal linguatulosis or Halzoun syndrome or by ingestionof infective eggs which develop in internal organs resulting in visceral linguatulosis. Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica is a common rodent in Middle East. Based on some tradition, consumption of Histrix meat andviscera is common in some parts of Iran. The present study reports the occurrence of Linguatula serrata nymph in H. indica as a new intermediate host from southwest of Iran.

  17. Evaluation of different food grains as baits for management of Hystrix indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, A.; Ahmed, S. M.; Ahmad, A.; Ali, Q. M.

    2015-01-01

    Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica is widely distributed and serious rodent pest of orchards, field crops and vegetables in Pakistan. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine highly effective cereal used as bait base for its management. Six locally available food grains viz. wheat, rice, maize, black gram, sorghum and millet were offered in whole/crack form. Under no choice and choice tests, rice was the most preferred food, followed by wheat, maize and others. The present study suggested that rice in whole or cracked form alone or in combination with wheat can be applied as very palatable (32 percentage and 27 percentage, respectively) and cost effective grain as bait base for effective management of Indian porcupine, Hystrix indica, being an economically important rodent pest of agriculture, forestry and irrigation network in Pakistan. (author)

  18. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Herbal Methionine and Mangifera Indica Against Lead-induced Organ Toxicity in Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, D. Udaya; Adilaxmamma, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, V. Vykunta

    2011-01-01

    Lead toxicity was studied in male broiler chicks (Cobb strain) of a day-old age. The chicks were randomly divided into six groups consisting of 15 in each group. Group 1 was maintained as basal diet control and group 2 was kept on lead at 300 ppm in feed throughout 5 wk as toxic control without any treatment. Groups 3 and 4 were maintained on herbal methionine at 1.4 g/kg feed + Mangifera Indica at 0.1% in feed, respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were treated with lead + herbal methionine and lead + M. indica, respectively, for the 5 wk. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver and kidney revealed a significant (Pindica may be attributed to their antioxidant, anti-stress and hepatoprotective principles. PMID:21430924

  20. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of Asplenium nidus, Phaleria macrocarpa and Eleusine indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mariya Mohd; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Three local medicinal plants namely Asplenium nidus (langsuyar), Eleusine indica (sambau) and Phaleria macrocarpa (mahkota dewa) were screened for the cytotoxicity and antiviral activities. Six plant extracts were prepared including the aqueous and methanol extracts from A. nidus leaf and root, aqueous extract from dried whole plant of E. indica and methanol extract from P. macrocarpa fruits. Cytotoxicity screening in Vero cell line by MTT assay showed that the CC50 values ranged from 15 to 60 mg/mL thus indicating the safety of the extracts even at high concentrations. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The EC50 concentrations were between 3.2 to 47 mg/mL. The selectivity indices (SI = CC50/EC50) of each tested extracts ranged from 4.3 to 63.25 indicating the usefulness of the extracts as potential antiviral agents.

  1. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  3. Comparing the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale with the Mini-BESTest and Berg Balance Scale to assess postural control in patients with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Brombacher, Stephanie; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weisser, Burkhard; Möller, Bettina; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-02-01

    To validate the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale for patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD); and to compare the FAB Scale with the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Observational study to assess concurrent validity, test-retest, and interrater reliability of the FAB Scale in patients with PD and to compare the distribution of the scale with the Mini-BESTest and BBS. University hospital in an urban community. Patients with idiopathic PD (N=85; Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-4). Not applicable. FAB Scale, Mini-BESTest, BBS, timed Up and Go test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and visual analog scale. Interrater (3 raters) and test-retest (3±1 d) reliability were high for all scales (ICCs≥.95). The FAB Scale was highly correlated with the Mini-BESTest (Spearman ρ=.87) and timed Up and Go test item of the Mini-BESTest (Spearman ρ=.83). In contrast with the BBS, the FAB Scale and Mini-BESTest have only minimal ceiling effects. The FAB Scale demonstrated the most symmetric distribution when compared with the Mini-BESTest and BBS (skewness: FAB scale: -.54; Mini-BESTest: -1.07; BBS: -2.14). The FAB Scale is a valid and reliable tool to assess postural control in patients with PD. No ceiling effect was noted for the FAB Scale. Although the items of the FAB Scale are more detailed when compared with the Mini-BESTest, interrater and test-retest reliability were excellent. The scale is a promising tool to detect small changes of the postural control system in individuals with PD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Between-rater reliability of the 6-minute walk test, berg balance scale, and handheld dynamometry in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Elaine; Coote, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the between-rater reliability of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 6-Minute Walk test (6MW), and handheld dynamometry (HHD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies that examined BBS and 6MW reliability in people with MS have not used more than two raters, or analyzed different mobility levels separately. The reliability of HHD has not been previously reported for people with MS. In this study, five physical therapists assessed eight people with MS using the BBS, 6MW, and HHD, resulting in 12 pairs of data. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Spearman correlation coefficients (SCCs), and Bland and Altman methods. The results suggest excellent agreement for the BBS (SCC = 0.95, mean difference between raters [d̄] = 2.08, standard error of measurement [SEM] = 1.77) and 6MW (ICC = 0.98, d̄ = 5.22 m, SEM = 24.76 m) when all mobility levels are analyzed together. Reliability is lower in less mobile people with MS (BBS SCC = 0.6, d̄ = -1.83; 6MW ICC = 0.95, d̄ = 20.04 m). Although the ICC and SCC results for HHD suggest good-to-excellent reliability (0.65-0.85), d̄ ranges up to 17.83 N, with SEM values as high as 40.95 N. While the small sample size is a limitation of this study, the preliminary evidence suggests strong agreement between raters for the BBS and 6MW and decreased agreement between raters for people with greater mobility problems. The mean differences between raters for HHD are probably too high for it to be applied in clinical practice.

  5. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

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    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  6. Pemisahan Dan Penentuan Kadar Asam Sitrat Dari Buah Asam Jawa (Tamarindus Indica.L)

    OpenAIRE

    Napitupulu, Piktor Mangarahon

    2011-01-01

    Determination of citric acid in the flesh of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica Linn) by spectrophotometric had been carried out. Principle of Reaction was oxidation citric acid become acetone, then bromide compound was ready become penta bromoacetone, which was determinated by spectrophotometric with wave length 520 nm. Separation of citric acid from tamarind was done by extraction with methanol as solvent. Then methanol was vapored and citric acid was determinated by spectrophotometric. According ...

  7. Ethanol extract and chromatographic fractions of Tamarindus indica stem bark inhibits Newcastle disease virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Omobola O; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-12-01

    The plethora of ethnomedicinal applications of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Leguminosae), tamarind, includes treatment of human and livestock ailments; preparations are recognized antipyretics in fevers, laxatives and carminatives. African folklore has various applications of tamarind. However, in Nyasaland, domestic fowl are fed with preparations for prophylactic properties. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antiviral properties of T. indica extract. Tamarindus indica stem bark was extracted through ethanol maceration over 24 h, and the crude extract was fractionated by gravity-propelled column chromatography. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inhibitory activity of extract and fractions were evaluated in vivo using 10-d-old embryonated chicken egg (ECE) as the medium for virus cultivation and antivirus assay. About 240 ECE were grouped into eight (three controls and five experimental) and, 200 μL of the extract and fractions respectively inoculated into NDV pre-infected eggs and incubated at 37 °C. Allantoic fluid was harvested 5 d post-virus infection and assayed for haemagglutination (HA). Anti-NDV assessment showed 62.5 mg/mL of crude extract and fractions: TiA, TiC and TiD to yield a HA titre of 1:128 each, while TiB showed 1:64 HA titre. At 125 mg/mL, a titre of 1:16 was recorded against TiB and TiD and, 1:8 against TiA. Similarly, crude extract and TiC, each recorded 1:4 HA titre. However, the minimum concentrations of extract and fraction for virus inactivation were 0.24 mg/mL and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively. The antiviral activity shown by T. indica portends novel antiviral drugs and, perhaps, as scaffold for new drugs.

  8. Micromorphological and preliminary phytochemical studies of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach

    OpenAIRE

    JAFARI, Samineh; SAEIDNIA, Soodabeh; ARDEKANI, Mohammad Reza SHAMS; HADJIAKHOONDI, Abbas; KHANAVI, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A.Juss. and Melia azedarach L. are 2 closely related species from Meliaceae that are considered noteworthy medicinal plants in the world and have very often been confused with each other. Various evaluations like organoleptic and microscopic characteristics, preliminary phytochemical screening, and fluorescence analysis were carried out on the pulp, husk, leaves, and seeds of both plants in powdered form to establish appropriate data that can aid rapid and easy differentiat...

  9. Nesting and feeding habits of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) in Karlapat wildlife sanctuary, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, A. K.; Shrotriya, S.; Rout, S. D.; Dash, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica) is one of four species of giant squirrels in the world. It is endemic to India and its populations are severely fragmented. The ecology of squirrels in Asia has been little studied, hindering conservation and management efforts. We studied the Indian giant squirrel’s nesting and feeding habits during spring in the Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary, India. We surveyed 122.5 km of natural trails for direct observation of these squirrels, their nests and feedi...

  10. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Carlos [Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)]. E-mail: carlosvasquez@ucla.edu.ve; Quiros de G, Magally [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, (Venezuela). Museo de Artropodos; Aponte, Orlando [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Estado Aragua (Venezuela). Inst. de Zoologia Agricola; Sandoval, D. Maria F. [Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Agricultura y Tierras (Venezuela). Servicio Autonomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria

    2008-11-15

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 deg 27' 47{sup N} and 64 deg 10' 38{sup W}) and Monagas (9 deg 46'60{sup N} and 63 deg 12'0{sup W}) states in northeastern Venezuela. (author)

  11. Biotic and abiotic stress-induced phenylpropanoids in leaves of the mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rodolfo R. da; Câmara, Cláudio A. G. da; Almeida, Argus V.; Ramos, Clécio S.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that plant’s chemical composition is affected by both abiotic and biotic stress. This is the case of Mangifera indica leaves which respond very clearly to the damages caused by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris and to mechanical damage by biosynthesizing several stress-related volatile compounds, mainly phenylpropanoids such as myristicin, dillapiole, eugenol and eugenol acetate. The identification of these phenylpropanoids in mango leaves in response to abiotic...

  12. Variation in Seedling Growth of Tamarindus indica (L.: A Threatening Medicinal Fruit Tree Species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Salim Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling growth is a precondition for conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources which depends upon understanding of breeding system, genetic inconsistency, and evolutionary forces in forest tree improvement. The aim of this study was to determine variation in seedling growth and age-age correlations of Tamarindus indica at population level in Bangladesh. The study revealed significant (P<0.05 differences of seasonal variation in seedling growth. Height and collar diameter growth showed significant (P<0.05 positive correlation with mean monthly rainfall. The study also revealed significant difference (P<0.05 of seedling growth among T. indica population. PCA illustrated rainfall, height growth, and diameter growth as the main characters in this study which defined drought as an additive character for this species. Cluster analysis of similarity showed how seedlings from 22.67°N latitude (origin separated from others. An increasing trend of age-age correlation was identified in both cases of shoot height and diameter growth. The study concluded that seed collection for either ex situ conservation or seedling production can be done from 22.67°N latitude as seedlings from that area performed better than others, and early clonal selection of T. indica can be done at the age of 9 months.

  13. Origin and diversity of testate amoebae shell composition: Example of Bullinularia indica living in Sphagnum capillifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaine, Maxence; Bernard, Nadine; Gilbert, Daniel; Recourt, Philippe; Armynot du Châtelet, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Testate amoebae are free-living shelled protists that build a wide range of shells with various sizes, shapes, and compositions. Recent studies showed that xenosomic testate amoebae shells could be indicators of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) deposition. However, no study has yet been conducted to assess the intra-specific mineral, organic, and biologic grain diversity of a single xenosomic species in a natural undisturbed environment. This study aims at providing new information about grain selection to develop the potential use of xenosomic testate amoebae shells as bioindicators of the multiple-origin mineral/organic diversity of their proximal environment. To fulfil these objectives, we analysed the shell content of 38 Bullinularia indica individuals, a single xenosomic testate amoeba species living in Sphagnum capillifolium, by scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with X-ray spectroscopy. The shells exhibited high diversities of mineral, organic, and biomineral grains, which confirms their capability to recycle xenosomes. Mineral grain diversity and size of B. indica matched those of the atmospheric natural mineral PM deposited in the peatbog. Calculation of grain size sorting revealed a discrete selection of grains agglutinated by B. indica. These results are a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of particle selection by xenosomic testate amoebae in natural conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistical Optimization of Media Components for Production of Fibrinolytic Alkaline Metalloproteases from Xenorhabdus indica KB-3

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    Kumar Pranaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenorhabdus indica KB-3, a well-known protease producer, was isolated from its entomopathogenic nematode symbiont Steinernema thermophilum. Since medium constituents are critical to the protease production, the chemical components of the selected medium (soya casein digest broth were optimized by rotatable central composite design (RCCD using response surface methodology (RSM. The effects of all five chemical components (considered as independent variables, namely tryptone, soya peptone, dextrose, NaCl, and dipotassium phosphate, on protease production (dependent variable were studied, and it was found that tryptone and dextrose had maximum influence on protease production. The protease production was increased significantly by 66.31% under optimal medium conditions (tryptone—5.71, soya peptone—4.9, dextrose—1.45, NaCl—6.08, and dipotassium phosphate—0.47 in g/L. To best of knowledge, there are no reports on optimization of medium component for protease production by X. indica KB-3 using RSM and their application in fibrinolysis. This study will be useful for industrial processes for production of protease enzyme from X. indica KB-3 for its application in the field of agriculture and medicine.

  15. EFEK LAKSATIF JUS DAUN ASAM JAWA (Tamarindus indica Linn. PADA TIKUS PUTIH YANG DIINDUKSI DENGAN GAMBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sundari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn. known to the public as a shade tree and is found in almost all parts of Indonesia. The leaves are called "sinom" in the Java language is also used as a vegetable and medicine Empirically Java acid is used as a remedy gout, ulcers, boils, laxative, fever, menstrual facilitator, inflammation. Laxative effect has been studied (laxative leaf juice tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn. Intestinal transit method and experimental animals used white rats. The dose tested was 3 doses of juice that is 20%, 40% and 60%, which is given orally. For purposes of comparison (positive control is the granting of four Dulcolax ml/200 g bw., While distilled water as negative control. Two days before the experiment is done, all rats were induced constipation with gambier extract 3 g / kg bw. The experimental results showed that the average ratio of intestinal length traversed by charcoal proanalisa Java acidic juice dose group 60%, 40%, 20%; Dulcolax and distilled water, respectively 49.86%, 60.2%, 18.34%, 75.22% and 2.01%. Showed statistically tamarind juice at doses of 40% has laxative properties, but smaller than the Dulcolax.   Keywords: laxative, white mice, Tamarindus indica Linn., leaves, tamarindjuice

  16. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae): patterns of use in traditional African medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havinga, Reinout M; Hartl, Anna; Putscher, Johanna; Prehsler, Sarah; Buchmann, Christine; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-02-17

    To increase the understanding of the ethnopharmacology of a single species, elaboration of dispersed primary data is required. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae), or tamarind, is a common tree, especially in West Africa, with a good potential to contribute to affordable local health care based on traditional medicine (TM). For this single species review, more than 60 references with detailed information on the ethnopharmacology of Tamarindus indica in the African context were selected. It showed that most prominently, the fruits are used as laxative or febrifuge throughout the Sahel and Soudan ecological zones. Tamarind bark and leaves are often involved in the treatment of wounds, especially in central West Africa. While the bark is used to treat diarrhoea in West Africa, the leaves are used for this purpose in East Africa. Our findings suggest a difference in the way tamarind is used between East and West Africa and we assess the similarities of its uses within those regions. This review demonstrates the capability of literature research to reveal knowledge by mining and compiling information from the growing body of primary ethnopharmacologic data, much of which is published in this journal. By creating a specific profile of tamarind in the context of traditional medicine throughout Africa, the authors contribute to the collection of current ethnobotanic species accounts on Tamarindus indica that tend to be qualitative and more general. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of Bassia indica for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Gross, Amit; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2012-09-01

    The treatment and reuse of wastewater in constructed wetlands offers a low-cost, environmentally-friendly alternative for common engineered systems. Salinity in treated wastewater is often increased, especially in arid and semi-arid areas, and may harm crops irrigated from wetlands. We have strong evidence that halophyte plants are able to reduce the salinity of wastewater by accumulating salts in their tissues. Bassia indica is an annual halophyte with unique adaptations for salt tolerance. We performed three experiments to evaluate the capability of B. indica for salt phytoremediation as follows: a hydroponic system with mixed salt solutions, a recirculated vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW) with domestic wastewater, and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) for treating goat farm effluents. B. Indica plants developed successfully in all three systems and reduced the effluent salinity by 20-60% in comparison with unplanted systems or systems planted with other wetland plants. Salinity reduction was attributed to the accumulation of salts, mainly Na and K, in the leaves. Our experiments were carried out on an operative scale, suggesting a novel treatment for green desalination in constructed wetlands by salt phytoremediation in desert regions and other ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of recalcitrant indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shri, Manju; Rai, Arti; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Misra, Prashant; Dubey, Sonali; Kumar, Smita; Verma, Sikha; Gautam, Neelam; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2013-04-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of indica rice varieties has been quite difficult as these are recalcitrant to in vitro responses. In the present study, we established a high-efficiency Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) cv. IR-64, Lalat, and IET-4786. Agrobacterium strain EHA-101 harboring binary vector pIG121-Hm, containing a gene encoding for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin resistance, was used in the transformation experiments. Manipulation of different concentrations of acetosyringone, days of co-culture period, bacterial suspension of different optical densities (ODs), and the concentrations of L-cysteine in liquid followed by solid co-culture medium was done for establishing the protocol. Among the different co-culture periods, 5 days of co-culture with bacterial cells (OD600 nm = 0.5-0.8) promoted the highest frequency of transformation (83.04 %) in medium containing L-cysteine (400 mg l(-1)). Putative transformed plants were analyzed for the presence of a transgene through genomic PCR and GUS histochemical analyses. Our results also suggest that different cultural conditions and the addition of L-cysteine in the co-culture medium improve the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation frequencies from an average of 12.82 % to 33.33 % in different indica rice cultivars.

  19. How much Dillenia indica seed predation occurs from Asian elephant dung?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Giam, Xingli; Sharma, Netra Prasad; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Elephants are thought to be effective seed dispersers, but research on whether elephant dung effectively protects seeds from seed predation is lacking. Quantifying rates of seed predation from elephant dung will facilitate comparisons between elephants and alternative dispersers, helping us understand the functional role of megaherbivores in ecosystems. We conducted an experiment to quantify the predation of Dillenia indica seeds from elephant dung in Buxa Reserve, India from December 2012 to April 2013. Using dung boluses from the same dung pile, we compared the number of seeds in boluses that are a) opened immediately upon detection (control boluses), b) made available only to small seed predators (seed predators and secondary dispersers for 1-4 months. Using a model built on this experiment, we estimated that seed predation by small seed predators (most likely ants and termites) destroys between 82.9% and 96.4% of seeds in elephant dung between the time of defecation and the median germination date for D. indica. Exposure to larger seed predators and secondary dispersers did not lead to a significant additional reduction in the number of seeds per dung bolus. Our findings suggest that post-dispersal seed predation by small insects (dispersers of D. indica in a tropical moist forest habitat.

  20. Cold tolerance in rice germinating seeds revealed by deep RNAseq analysis of contrasting indica genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dametto, Andressa; Sperotto, Raul A; Adamski, Janete M; Blasi, Édina A R; Cargnelutti, Denise; de Oliveira, Luiz F V; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Fregonezi, Jeferson N; Mariath, Jorge E A; da Cruz, Renata P; Margis, Rogério; Fett, Janette P

    2015-09-01

    Rice productivity is largely affected by low temperature, which can be harmful throughout plant development, from germination to grain filling. Germination of indica rice cultivars under cold is slow and not uniform, resulting in irregular emergence and small plant population. To identify and characterize novel genes involved in cold tolerance during the germination stage, two indica rice genotypes (sister lines previously identified as cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive) were used in parallel transcriptomic analysis (RNAseq) under cold treatment (seeds germinating at 13 °C for 7 days). We detected 1,361 differentially expressed transcripts. Differences in gene expression found by RNAseq were confirmed for 11 selected genes using RT-qPCR. Biological processes enhanced in the cold-tolerant seedlings include: cell division and expansion (confirmed by anatomical sections of germinating seeds), cell wall integrity and extensibility, water uptake and membrane transport capacity, sucrose synthesis, generation of simple sugars, unsaturation of membrane fatty acids, wax biosynthesis, antioxidant capacity (confirmed by histochemical staining of H2O2), and hormone and Ca(2+)-signaling. The cold-sensitive seedlings respond to low temperature stress increasing synthesis of HSPs and dehydrins, along with enhanced ubiquitin/proteasome protein degradation pathway and polyamine biosynthesis. Our findings can be useful in future biotechnological approaches aiming to cold tolerance in indica rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Constituents of Artemisia indica Willd. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of davanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S Zafar; Mohan, Manindra; Andola, Harish Chandra

    2014-07-01

    The genus Artemisia is important due to its medicinal properties as well as vital aroma compounds of commercial value. The aim of the study was to explore the potential of the essential oil of Artemisia indica wildly growing in Uttarakhand. The aerial parts of Artemisia indica Willd. (Asteraceae), collected from wild growing habitat of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand (north of India) at full flowering stage were hydro-distilled and gave pale yellow oil with the yield of 0.8% (v/w). The obtained essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and identified 32 components, amounting 95.42% of the oil. Among detected compounds, the principal component was found to be davanone (30.80%), followed by β-pinene (15.30%) and germacrene-D (5.82%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on A. indica from Himalayan region of India, which detected davanone as major component. The species, collected from a specific location, can be explored for isolation of davanone for its industrial utilization and as alternate source of Artemisia pallens, which have already established commercial value.

  2. Effects of Mangifera indica (Careless) on Microcirculation and Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald-Werner, Sybille; Schön, Christiane; Frank, Sonja; Reule, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    A commercial Mangifera indica fruit powder (Careless) showed beneficial acute effects on microcirculation in a randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot study. Here, long-term effects on microcirculation and glucose metabolism were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 3-arm parallel-design study in healthy individuals. A daily dose of 100 mg or 300 mg of the fruit powder was compared to placebo after supplementation for 4 weeks. Microcirculation and endothelial function were assessed by the Oxygen-to-see System and pulse amplitude tonometry, respectively. Glucose metabolism was assessed under fasting and postprandial conditions by capillary glucose and HbA1c values.Microcirculatory reactive hyperemia flow increased, especially in the 100 mg group (p = 0.025). The 300 mg of the M. indica fruit preparation reduced postprandial glucose levels by trend if compared to placebo (p = 0.0535) accompanied by significantly lower HbA1c values compared to baseline. Furthermore, 300 mg intake significantly improved postprandial endothelial function in individuals with decreased endothelial function after high-dose glucose intake (p = 0.0408; n = 11).In conclusion, the study suggests moderate beneficial effects of M. indica fruit preparation on microcirculation, endothelial function, and glucose metabolism. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Potentials of Mangifera indica in the treatment of depressive-anxiety disorders: possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Eluogu, Chinedum O

    2016-09-01

    Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) is an important herb in the traditional African and Ayurvedic medicines. The stem barks are used in the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, tumour, depression, rheumatism and as a tonic. This study was carried out to investigate antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effect of the hydroethanol stem bark extract of M. indica (HeMI) in mice. HeMI (12.5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before subjecting the animal to the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze tests (EPM). HeMI (12.5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment produced significant reduction in immobility time [F(6.56)=8.35, pindica through interaction with 5-HT2 receptor, α2-adrenoceptor and dopamine D2-receptors. Also, an anxiolytic-like effect through its affinity for 5-HT2 and benzodiazepine receptors. Hence, M. indica could be a potential phytotherapeutic agent in the treatment of mixed anxiety-depressive illness.

  4. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. Objective: To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Materials and Methods: The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Results: Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. Conclusions: OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. SUMMARY Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). PMID:28839374

  5. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Majid Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester, santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile and tocopherols of Tamarindus indica L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Moreno Luzia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize Tamarindus indica L. seeds regarding its composition and to evaluate its antioxidant potential, fatty acid profile and content of tocopherols. In order to obtain the extract, the dried and crushed seeds were extracted with ethanol for 30 minutes in a 1:3 seeds: ethanol ratio under continuous stirring at room temperature. After that, the mixtures were filtered and subjected to roto-evaporation at 40 ºC in order to determine, through direct weighing, the dry matter yields of the extracts. According to the results, Tamarindus indica L. seeds showed high content of total carbohydrates (71.91% and offered relevant content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. Tamarindus indica L. seeds oil presents high oxidative stability (15.83 hours and significant total tocopherol content (57.77 mg.kg-1, besides presenting a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids - the main component being linolenic (59.61%, which is considered an essential fatty acid.

  7. Cytotoxic Evaluation of Melia Azedarach in Comparison with, Azadirachta Indica and its Phytochemical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samineh Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages.Methods:In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study.Results:Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1. In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1. The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine.Conclusions:The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows

  8. MILICIA EXCELSA WELW CC BERG

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lekitos'

    plants. We present findings of an experiment aimed at preventing Phytolyma attack on. Milicia seedlings in the nursery using chemical control and physical barrier (screen house). Ninety ... direct sunlight and treated fortnightly with a low concentration (0.05%) of water-based ... economic and cultural importance in Sub-.

  9. 15 ten Berge 02.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    . Het is niet ondenkbaar dat men ook katholieke, anglicaanse of .... niet (kunnen) voorzien dat de handel in Afrikaanseslaven mede hierdoor kon ontstaan. Er moest een nieuwe “arbeidsreserve” (wat een cynisch woord) ...

  10. Calyptranthes grandifolia O.Berg (Myrtaceae) ethanolic extract inhibits TNF-α gene expression and cytokine release in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexheimer, Geórgia Muccillo; Becker Delving, Luciana Knabben de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Henrique Sulzbach; Biolchi, Vanderlei; Goettert, Márcia Inês; Pozzobon, Adriane

    2017-05-01

    Anti-tumor therapies based on anti-inflammatory effects have been considered in cancer treatment. Survival, proliferation and, resultantly, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells are regulated by local inflammatory mediators. Primary inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are targets for anticancer therapy. Several anti‑inflammatory agents isolated from natural products are becoming important chemopreventive and therapeutic agents for cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of TNF‑α, nuclear factor‑κΒ (NF‑κΒ) and p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38α) genes, associated with proliferation and inflammation in the Caco‑2 cell line treated with ethanolic and hexanic extracts of Calyptranthes grandifolia O.Berg (Myrtaceae). Caco‑2 cells were cultured and treated with plant extract at different concentrations (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For gene expression, analysis was performed by total RNA extraction followed by synthesis of complementary DNA and analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The release of TNF‑α cytokine was evaluated by ELISA in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages activated by LPS. Among the evaluated genes, there was a decrease in TNF-α expression at 100 and 200 µg/ml concentrations only with the ethanolic extract (P<0.025). The p38α gene exhibited a tendency to increase expression only when treated with ethanolic extract and the NF‑κΒ gene did not significantly differ compared with the positive control when treated with either analyzed extract. The inhibition of TNF-α cytokine in the RAW 264.7 cell line was significant (P<0.05) in ethanolic extract at 200 µg/ml compared with the positive control (LPS 1 µg/ml). In conclusion, the ethanolic extract may exhibit an anti‑inflammatory activity by inhibiting TNF‑α. However, further studies are required to confirm its potential anti-inflammatory effects.

  11. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O. Berg (Guavira

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    Isabel Duarte Coutinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O. Berg leaves, collected in the reproductive (flowering and fruit-bearing and vegetative stages, were characterized by GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. A total of 95 compounds of the essential oils were identified. In the reproductive stage (flowering the major constituents were monoterpenes (limonene, α-pinene and β-pinene while during the vegetative stage the major constituents were the sesquiterpenes (bicyclogermacrene and globulol. The essential oil of the reproductive stage shows high antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, and all show moderate activity against Escherichia coli. The essential oils were also evaluated for their radical-scavenging activity by DPPH. The chemogeographical variations of the oil composition from the four distinct localities studied all contained α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene, however the samples from Jardim city contained neither limonene nor linalool.Os óleos essenciais obtidos das folhas de Campomanesia adamantium foram caracterizados através da combinação de CG-EM e índice de retenção, sendo identificado um total de 95 compostos. Na floração as substâncias majoritárias foram monoterpenos (limoneno, α-pineno e β-pineno e durante o estágio vegetativo as substâncias majoritárias foram sesquiterpenos (biciclogermacreno e globulol. Os óleos essenciais obtidos da floração e frutificação mostraram alta atividade contra Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans e moderada contra Escherichia coli em todos os estágios. Foi avaliada a atividade antioxidante dos óleos essenciais usando o método do DPPH. O óleo essencial das 4 cidades mostrou a presença de α-pineno, β-pineno, limoneno, linalol, β-cariofileno, germacreno D e biciclogermacreno, mas a amostra da cidade de Jardim n

  12. Maduración poscosecha de la feijoa (Acca sellowiana Berg tratada con CaCl2 en tres temperaturas de almacenamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Juan Manuel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Con la finalidad de comprobar los efectos retardantes del calcio en la maduración de los frutos de feijoa (Acca sellowiana Berg, cultivar Quimba, se realizó un estudio sobre la aplicación poscosecha, mediante inmersiones de tres soluciones distintas de cloruro de calcio (5%, 10% y 15% y un testigo. La aplicación de CaCl2 prolongó la vida de almacenamiento de los fru­tos, ya que los tratamientos permitieron a los frutos so­portar las condiciones de almacenamiento. Se observó un efecto importante en la disminución de las pérdidas de peso; los frutos tratados con el porcentaje de calcio más alto (15% presentaron las menores pérdidas de peso en cada temperatura. En las fejioas almacenadas a temperatura ambiente (18° C, se observó que la in­cidencia de enfermedades fue más pequeña en los fru­tos tratados con CaCl2. La velocidad de pérdida de la firmeza de los frutos también se vio fortalecida por la adición de calcio. Con relación a las propiedades quí­micas de los frutos, no se presentaron diferencias sig­nificativas entre los tratamientos con cloruro de calcio para cada temperatura de almacenamiento; las feijoas tratadas con CaCl presentaron niveles superiores de sólidos solubles totales, a pesar de no ser significativos estadísticamente.

  13. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  14. Post-stroke motor and functional evaluations: a clinical correlation using Fugl-Meyer assessment scale, Berg balance scale and Barthel index Avaliações motoras e funcionais pós-AVC: correlação clínica usando a escala de desempenho físico de Fugl-Meyer, a escala de equilíbrio de Berg e o índice de Barthel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Sequels deriving from this event may lead to motor disability and from mild to severe deficits. In order to better classify sensory-motor dysfunction, balance and ability to perform activities of daily living, quantitative and qualitative evaluation scales have been used. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the scales Fugl-Meyer assessment scale, Berg balance scale and Barthel index. Twenty subjects with sequel after a single, unilateral stroke in chronic phase (>6 months post ictus were evaluated for about one hour. RESULTS: Barthel scale was statistically related to the total motor score of Fugl-Meyer assessment (r=0.597, p=0.005. The lower limb section at Fugl-Meyer had positive correlation with Berg scale (r=0.653, p=0.002 and with the balance section of Fugl-Meyer own scale (r=0.449, p=0.047. Both balance scales were correlated one with other (r=0.555, p=0.011. Statistical divergence appeared when Barthel's Index was correlated with Berg's Scale (r=0.425, p=0.062, and it is not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The use of both quantitative and qualitative scales was shown to be a good measuring instrument for the classification of the general clinical performance of the patient, especially when positively related joint evaluations are applied.O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC é reconhecido como uma das maiores causas de morbidade e mortalidade. Seqüelas decorrentes deste evento podem levar a inabilidade motora e déficits leves a graves. Para classificar melhor a disfunção sensitivo-motora, o equilíbrio e as habilidades para as atividades de vida diária, escalas de avaliações quantitativas e qualitativas estão sendo utilizadas. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a escala de desempenho físico de Fugl-Meyer, a escala de equilíbrio de Berg e o índice de Barthel. MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 20 sujeitos com sequela de um único e unilateral AVC em fase crônica (>6 meses pós ictal, que

  15. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica’s stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security.

  16. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pedrotti

    Full Text Available Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  17. Antioxidative Characteristics of Anisomeles indica Extract and Inhibitory Effect of Ovatodiolide on Melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Chang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the antioxidant characteristics of Anisomeles indica methanol extract and the inhibitory effect of ovatodiolide on melanogenesis. In the study, the antioxidant capacities of A. indica methanol extract such as DPPH assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, reducing capacity and metal ion chelating capacity as well as total phenolic content of the extract were investigated. In addition, the inhibitory effects of ovatodiolide on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the antioxidant capacities of A. indica methanol extract increased in a dose-dependent pattern. The purified ovatodiolide inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.253 mM, the compound also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.469 mM and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 0.435 mM in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Our results concluded that A. indica methanol extract displays antioxidant capacities and ovatodiolide purified from the extract inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Hence, A. indica methanol extract and ovatodiolide could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  18. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  19. Antioxidant properties and chemical characterization of Spanish Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. cladodes and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that consumption of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. has an important positive health benefit, mainly due to antioxidant properties, which justifies this research. This study examined antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar profile, total phenolic, and physicochemical characteristics of six O. ficus-indica cultivars growing in the Spanish Mediterranean. It should be noted that, in this study, both cladodes (young and adult) and fruits (peel and pulp) were analyzed. The antioxidant activity (2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods) was higher in fruit peel than in cladodes. The young cladodes presented an important antioxidant activity by the ferric-reducing ability of plasma method as well as a higher total phenolic content (18.90 g gallic acid equivalent per kilogram). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detector analysis revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose, which the values were higher in pulp fruits. HPLC with refractive index detector analysis showed that citric, malic, and succinic acids were the main organic acids in all cultivars, with a significant higher content in old cladodes. These investigations valorize O. ficus-indica fruits in comparison with cladodes. In general, this plant can be considered as an ingredient for the production of health-promoting food, highlighting mainly in the antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content found in young cladodes and peel fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Immunological and physiological parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails exposed to Azadirachta indica plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, F A; El-Hommossany, K; Mossalem, H S

    2012-07-01

    Plant molluscicides could be appropriate for snail control measures against schistosomiasis in endemic areas. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunological and physiological responses of Biomphalaria (B.) alexandrina snails to the effect of methanol extract of Azadirachta (A.) indica plant. Haemolymph samples were collected from snails treated with LC25 from methanol extract for 1 month and untreated snails. The collected haemolymph samples from treated and untreated snails with tested plant were used for flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle. The obtained results indicated that hemolymph samples from B. alexandrina snails contained two morphologically distinct types of hemocytes, designated as Hyalinocyte and Granulocyte cells. In addition, the number of both snail's hyalinocytes and granulocytes and the mortality rate was significantly increased with treatment with A. indica extract. Phagocytosis in group treated with tested plant was highly significant increased than control one indicating a highly increase response of snail against the treatment. The lipid peroxide and glucose levels in hemolymph of treated snails were elevated while the protein and glycogen contents showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI); glycogenolytic enzymes as glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase); gluconeogenic enzymes as fructose-1-6 diphosphatase (F-D-P ase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was also significantly reduced in response to treatment. It was concluded that the application of methanol extracts of A. indica plant may be helpful in snail control as it interferes with the snails'immunology and physiology.

  1. Discriminating the effects of Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica: a web survey of medical cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Daniel D; Mitsouras, Katherine; Irizarry, Kristopher J

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the opinions of medical cannabis (MC) users on the effects of Cannabis indica vs. those of Cannabis sativa on conditions and symptoms through an online survey. Survey of 95 non-randomly assigned MC users. A two-sided chi-square test followed by Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparison and Fisher exact test were used to determine correlations. The Cronbach α was used to determine internal consistency. Announcements on 13 MC websites with links to SurveyMonkey.com. Self-identified MC users. Web survey. Species effects were compared regarding health symptoms, conditions, purpose, route, and trust in product label. Trust in the purity, the route of administration, or the purpose (recreational vs. medicinal) did not differ between the two species. A preference for C. indica was statistically significant for pain management (p=0.001), helping with sedation (p=0.015), and sleep (p<0.001). C. sativa was preferred for euphoria (p<0.001) and enhancing energy (p=0.022). The conditions reaching statistical significance for C. indica preference were: nonmigraine headaches (p=0.042), glaucoma (p=0.036), neuropathy (p=0.024), spasticity (p=0.048), seizures (p=0.031), insomnia (p<0.001), and joint pain (p=0.048). For C. sativa, no conditions reached significance. The MC websites' descriptions of effects that agreed with the survey results are listed. Some conditions had very few respondents. The internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach α) was adequate for the condition scale but not for the symptom survey. In this anonymous Web survey, which had limitations, the two species had different effect associations on symptoms and conditions, possibly because of ingredient differences. Future surveys and subsequent prospective definitive trials are needed to confirm the findings.

  2. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipak N; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-04-01

    A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an approximately 34 kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(1), with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6 A.

  3. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac potential of a chemically characterized aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amita; Das, Snehashis; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Shetty, Raghavendra; Gill, Meghna; Sumalatha, Suhani; Devkar, Raviraj; Gourishetti, Karthik; Kumar, Nitesh

    2018-01-10

    Tamarindus indica is an ingredient in the traditional aphrodisiac formulations in Africa and India. It is also a widely used food ingredient in other tropical countries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the aphrodisiac potential and reproductive safety profile of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica in male Wistar rats. The aqueous extract was prepared by maceration of pulp followed by reduction of volume in rotavapor under heat followed by freeze drying. The prepared extract was characterized for contents of total phenol, flavonoid, and saponin. It was also subjected to phytoconstituent analysis using GCMS. Further, the extract was evaluated for acute toxicity study. The aphrodisiac and reproductive toxicity potential were evaluated in animals after grouping them in four with six animals each namely, normal control, standard (Sildenafil citrate, 4mg/kg p.o.) and extract of Tamarindus indica treated groups at two dose levels, 125 and 250mg/kg p.o. The study was conducted for 54 days with daily once dosing of extract and standard. Equal number of females was grouped without treatment for evaluation of parameters of sexual desire (mount frequency and intromission frequency) and parameters of sexual arousal (mount latency and intromission latency). These parameters were evaluated on day 14, 28, 42 and 54. Animals were sacrificed on day 54, testes were removed and studied for histopathological changes. The extract showed 6.6mg gallic acid equivalent/g of total phenol, 2.3mg catechin equivalent/g of flavonoid and 11.6% saponin. Forty chemical constituents were identified by GCMS analysis. In acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be safe till 2000mg/kg p.o. Efficacy study showed significant (ptamarind compared to normal control. Improvements in these parameters were comparable to the standard drug. Histopathology study and sperm count suggested an increase in sperm production without any sign of toxicity in testis. Sperm motility significantly (p<0

  4. Desarrollo de un producto a base de neem (Azadirachta indica) para el control de Varroa destructor.

    OpenAIRE

    González Gómez, Rebeca

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto del extracto oleoso de neem (A. indica) en el control de V. destructor. La investigación estuvo encaminada a explorar los efectos que causa el neem tanto a V. destructor como a Apis mellifera, donde la colonia de abejas se observó como un superorganismo. En la primera parte de la investigación se corroboraron en laboratorio los efectos de toxicidad y repelencia del neem en el ácaro, observados en estudios previos; se observó que 2.64, 5.28, 10.56 y 21.12% de extracto de n...

  5. Inhibitive Effect of Fuyuziphine isolated from Plant (Pittapapra) (Fumaria indica) on Spore Germination of Some Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, M B; Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Anil K; Singh, U P

    2007-09-01

    The alkaloid fuyuziphine was isolated from the whole plant of Fumaria indica. It had inhibitive effect against spore germination of some plant pathogenic fungi (Collectotrichum sp., C. gloeosporioides, C. falcatum, Curvularia maculans, C. lunata, Erysiphe cichoracearum, Helminthosporium pennisetti, Oidium erysiphoides, Ustilago cynodontis, Alternaria chieranthi, A. melongenae, A. brassicicola and A. solani). Curvularia lunata, Oidium erysiphoides, Alternaria brassicicola and A. solani did not germinate at 750 and 1000 ppm and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. falcatum, Curvularia maculans were inhibited at 1000 ppm for 24 hr incubation. Germination of most fungi was significantly inhibited at 100~750 ppm.

  6. Review Of Usability Of Azadirachta Indica As A Biopesticide For Better Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant Rambhau Damal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta Indica Neem has some sort of well-developed root system that may well extract nutrients with lower soil levels which makes a crucial agent with erosion Control because it can be virtually drought-resistant. As these it can be effective as some sort of dune fixation tree. Indian farmers use Neem cake as a natural manure together with soil amendment the idea expands the productivity of nitrogen fertilizers just by limiting the charge of nitrification together with hampering pests these as nematodes fungi together with insects. This paper provides the brief assessment of literature to know the biopesticide benefits together with functions of Neem.

  7. Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, S.A.; Wickens, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Research into the systems of agriculture based on vegetative fallows should begin from enquiries into the shrubs and trees most efficient in restoring soil productivity and providing essential products. Azadirachta indica, of the semiarid regions is an outstanding example of a species which is not only an efficient soil ameliorant, but also provides products that are highly competitive in price and quality with petroleum-based synthetics. The launching of a research and development programme leading to the exploitation of this tree is proposed. Several projects that could be studied in such a programme are briefly outlined.

  8. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. leaves in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Salimon, S S

    2015-04-02

    Mangifera indica L. leaves have a long history of indigenous use, as an antidiarrhoeal agent among others, without any scientific study that has substantiated or refuted this claim. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the secondary metabolites in the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves and its acclaimed antidiarrhoeal activity in rats. The aqueous leaf extract of Mangifera indica was screened for its constituent secondary plant metabolites. In each of the diarrhoeal models, female albino rats were assigned into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) containing five animals each such that rats in groups A and B were the positive and negative controls respectively while those in groups C, D and E received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively in addition to specific requirements of the model. The extract contained alkaloids (4.20mg/g), flavonoids (13.60mg/g), phenolics (1.50mg/g) and saponins (3.10mg/g) while tannins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and steroids were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the onset time of diarrhoea was significantly prolonged by the 25 and 50mg/kg body weight whereas there was no episode in the 100mg/kg body weight treated animals. The extract (25 and 50mg/kg body weight) decreased the number, water content, fresh weight and total number of wet feaces and increased the inhibition of defecations. All the doses of the extract significantly increased the Na(+) -K(+) ATPase activity in the small intestine. The extract dose dependently decreased the masses and volume of intestinal fluid with corresponding increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the castor oil-induced enteropooling model. The extract also reduced the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the 30min gastrointestinal transit model. All these changes were similar to the reference drugs with the 100mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the most profound antidiarrhoeal activity. The study concluded

  9. Quill injury - cause od death of captive indian crested porcupine(Hystrix indica, Kerr, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Švara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica is a member of the family of Old World porcupines (Hystricidae. Its body is covered with multiple layers of quills, which serve for warning and attack if animal is threatened. However, the literature data on injuries caused by Indian crested porcupine are absent. We describe pathomorphological lesions in an Indian crested porcupine from the Ljubljana Zoo, which died after a fight with a younger male that caused a perforative quill injury of the thoracic wall, followed by septicaemia. Macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological findings were detailed

  10. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roop, J K; Dhaliwal, P K; Guraya, S S

    2005-06-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 +/- 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 +/- 0.33 and 4.67 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 +/- 1.67 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 +/- 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 +/- 0.40 and 1.80 +/- 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 +/- 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 +/- 5.93 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 +/- 0.88 and 5.33 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 +/- 3.58 and 14.60 +/- 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 +/- 15.72 and 222.20 +/- 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and

  11. The nerve protection and in vivo therapeutic effect of Acalypha indica extract in frogs

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    Ernie H. Purwaningsih

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To demonstrate nerve protection and/or treatment effect of Acalypha indica Linn. extract on nerve paralysis induced by subcutaneus injection of pancuronium bromide on frog’s back.Methods The study was performed on sixty frogs (Bufo melanostictus Schneider that divided into two groups, i.e. the neuro-protection and neuro-therapy group. Each group was divided further into 6 sub-treatment groups: negative control group treated by water and positive control group treated by piracetam, treatment groups received the extracts 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/kgBW. Pancuronium bromide 0.2% (1 : 20 dilutions were injected subcutaneously as muscle relaxant. The protective effect was studied by giving the extract orally, 1 hour prior to injection; while the therapeutic effect of the extract was studied by 10 minute treatment after injecting pancuronium bromide solution. The parameters measured were the onset and duration of paralysis (in minutes and the recovery time (time needed to recover into normal condition.Results The study showed significantly different protective effect of Acalypha indica Linn. root water extract at 400 and 500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group and positive control group (piracetam (p < 0.05; while the therapeutic effect was obvious at the dose 200-500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group (p = 0.000. There was no significant difference compared to positive control group (piracetam, except at 300 mg/KgBW (p = 0.012.Conclusion These results have proven that the water extract of Acalypha indica Linn. root has comparable protective and treatment effect on nerves system, as piracetam, but further studies should be performed to provide more evidences particularly pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on two animal models that commonly used. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:96-102Keywords: Acalypha indica Linn, Bufo melanostictus Schneider, nerve-protection

  12. Automatic visual model for classification and measurement of quality of fruit: case mangifera indica l

    OpenAIRE

    Atencio, Pedro; Sánchez T, Germán; Branch, John William

    2010-01-01

    Las propiedades físicas de las frutas en la industria agrícola constituyen la principal información en la determinación de calidad para las actividades como la exportación. Este trabajo presenta un método basado en la inspección visual para la clasificación de mango (Mangifera indica L.), acorde con la Norma Tecnica Colombiana NTC 5139, realizado mediante la estimación automática de las propiedades físicas de la fruta, como la altura, anchura, volumen, peso, calibre y nivel de madurez, por me...

  13. Chemical characterization of xyloglucan obtained from Tamarindus indica seeds from the semi arid northeastern (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Silva, Sarah M.F.; Gallao, Maria Izabel; Azeredo, Henriette M.C. de

    2015-01-01

    Playing an important role in food, seeds are sources of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, so they have been explored for a long time by the food industry. For this reason, the objective of present work is to obtain and characterize xyloglucan obtained from tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica). In order to assess possible industrial applications of the polysaccharide, it was characterized by Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Search results showed that it was possible to perform xyloglucan extraction but the process still requires improvements in order to increase the extraction yield. FTIR, NMR and TGA results were similar to those found in literature. (author)

  14. ESTIMACIÓN DE VARIABLES DE OPERACIÓN DE UN BIORREACTOR CON CÉLULAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss ESTIMATION OF OPERATION VARIABLES OF A BIOREACTOR WITH Azadirachta indica A. Juss. CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Muñoz Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las variables de operación de un biorreactor de tanque agitado para el cultivo de células en suspensión de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Se utilizó carboximetilcelulosa, CMC 0,7 % p/v, para estimar el coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno, kLa, entre 120 - 400 rpm y entre 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obteniéndose valores de 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. El kLa para suspensiones de A. indica en erlenmeyers fue de 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Con los resultados anteriores se definieron las condiciones de operación del biorreactor y se evaluó el crecimiento de células de A. indica a 200 rpm y 0,2 vvm de aire, alcanzando 9,2 g cel secas/l. El crecimiento celular no fue limitado por el suministro de oxígeno. Los tamaños de aglomerados celulares cultivados en erlenmeyers con bafles agitados magnéticamente y en biorreactor fueron similares, pero menores que los obtenidos en erlemeyers con agitación orbital. El presente estudio establece parámetros para la operación de biorreactores con A. indica y confirma que los medios con CMC pueden utilizarse para estimar variables operacionales en biorreactores.Operation variables of a stirred tank bioreactor were studied in order to culture cell suspension of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Carboximethylcelulose, CMC 0,7 % w/v, was used to estimate the coefficient of oxygen transfer, kLa, between 120 - 400 rpm and 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obtaining values of 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. The kLa for suspension cultures of A. indica in erlenmeyers was 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Based upon the previous results, the operation conditions of the bioreactor were defined and cell growth of A. indica was evaluated at 200 rpm and 0,2 vvm of air, reaching 9,2 g dry cell/l. Celular growth was not limited by dissolved oxygen. The sizes of cell agglomerates magnetically stirred in erlemeyers with bafles and in the bioreactor were similar, but smaller that those obtained in erlenmeyers with orbital agitation. The present study establishes parameters for operation of bioreactors

  15. Pyridine metabolism and trigonelline synthesis in leaves of the mangrove legume trees Derris indica (Millettia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuling; Sasamoto, Hamako; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the pyridine metabolism in leaves of two mangrove legumes, Derris indica (= Millettia pinnata or Pongamia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista. Radioactivity from [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide supplied exogenously to young leaf disks was recovered in nicotinic acid, nicotinic acid mononucleotide, NAD, NADP, nicotinamide mononucleotide and trigonelline. These mangrove species, especially D. indica, have strong ability to convert nicotinamide to trigonelline, but not to nicotinic acid glucoside. The endogenous trigonelline content in leaves of D. indica was more than 830 microg/g dry weight. This value is 5-12 times greater than that in leaves of Glycine max. There was little short-term effect of 250 and 500 mM NaCl (equivalent to ca. 50% and 100% sea water) on nicotinamide metabolism.

  16. Biosynthesis and characterization of Acalypha indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M; Rajiv, P; Narendhran, S; Venckatesh, R

    2014-08-14

    Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by biological method using aqueous extract of Acalypha indica leaf and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, FT-IR, SEM TEM and EDX analysis. The synthesised particles were highly stable, spherical and particle size was in the range of 26-30 nm. The antimicrobial activity of A.indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was tested against selected pathogens. Copper oxide nanoparticles showed efficient antibacterial and antifungal effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. The cytotoxicity activity of A.indica mediated copper nanoparticles was evaluated by MTT assay against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and confirmed that copper oxide nanoparticles have cytotoxicity activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies of biologically active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Isahq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate composition, minerals analysis, phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS studies of active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica (C. indica leaves, stems, and seeds. Methods: Standard qualitative protocols of phytochemical screening were accomplished for the identification of biologically active phytochemicals. Minerals in plant samples were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The resins of C. indica were analyzed for medicinally active cannabinoid compounds by GC-MS. The sample for GC-MS study was mixed with small quantity of n-hexane and 30 mL of acetonitrile solution for the identification of cannabinoids. Agar well diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity. For antifungal activity, the tested fungal strains were sub-cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar at 28 °C. Results: Mineral analysis revealed the presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and some other minerals in all parts of C. indica. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids. C. indica divulged wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. The extracts of plant leaves, seeds and stems showed significant antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus oryzae. The biologically active cannabinoids of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (25.040% and cannabidiol (resorcinol, 2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-yl-5-pentyl (50.077% were found in Cannabis resin in high percentage. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggested that the existence of biologically active remedial cannabinoids in elevated concentrations and antimicrobial bioassays of C. indica make it a treasured source to be used in herbal preparation for various ailments.

  18. Inhibition of Mild Copper Metal Corrosion in HNO3 Medium by Acid Extract of Azadirachta Indica Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sangeetha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of acid extract of dry azadirachta indica seed as corrosion inhibitor for mild copper metal in various concentration of (1 N,2 N and 3N HNO3 medium was investigated in the present study. Experimental methods include weight loss, determination of corrosion rate, inhibition efficiency and phytochemical analysis was studied. The results indicate azadirachta indica seed to be a good corrosion inhibitor of a mixed type and having efficiency as high as 95% at 1% inhibitor concentration in different time duration.

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of medicinally potent plant Saraca indica: a novel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugu, Shyam; Nagati, Veerababu; Bhanoori, Manjula

    2016-06-01

    Eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have various applications in modern biotechnology for better outcomes and benefits to the society. In the present study, we report an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saraca indica leaf extract. Characterization of S. indica silver nanoparticles (SAgNPs) was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. SAgNPs showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Azadirachta indica reduces black sigatoka in east african highland banana by direct antimicrobial effects against Mycosphaerella fijiensis without inducing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakech, Alfred; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Black Sigatoka is a major disease of East African highland cooking bananas in Uganda. Aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Capsicum annuum have shown the potential to reduce Black Sigatoka in banana plantlets. The mechanisms by which plant extracts confer protection...... expression was compared in susceptible (cv. Musakala, genomic group AAA-EA) and resistant (cv. Kayinja, genomic group ABB) banana cultivars. Additionally, Musakala treated with A indica extract at 1 day before inoculation (DBI) was tested for induction of defence-related genes at 0, 10 and 20 days after...

  1. Nesting and feeding habits of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica in Karlapat wildlife sanctuary, India

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    Pradhan, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica is one of four species of giant squirrels in the world. It is endemic to India and its populations are severely fragmented. The ecology of squirrels in Asia has been little studied, hindering conservation and management efforts. We studied the Indian giant squirrel’s nesting and feeding habits during spring in the Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary, India. We surveyed 122.5 km of natural trails for direct observation of these squirrels, their nests and feeding evidence, and we sampled plot–based quadrats to assess the availability of resources. We used Manly’s resource selection function and log–likelihood test ratios to analyse the data for preference. The mean encounter rate of the Indian giant squirrel was 0.57 (± 0.18 SD individuals/km. Haldinia cordifolia (Wi = 4.899, p < 0.001 and Mangifera indica (Wi = 4.322, p = 0.001 were the preferred tree for nesting, whereas Xylia xylocarpa (31.30% and Bauhinia vahlii (28.24% were the most commonly eaten plants. Nest site preference was for taller tree species. As current management practices directly damage the preferred nesting sites and food resources, our findings aim to promote effective conservation of the Indian giant squirrel.

  2. Structural features and antiviral activity of sulphated fucans from the brown seaweed Cystoseira indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pinaki; Mateu, Cecilia Gabriela; Chattopadhyay, Kausik; Pujol, Carlos Alberto; Damonte, Elsa Beatriz; Ray, Bimalendu

    2007-01-01

    Natural compounds offer interesting pharmacological perspectives for antiviral drug development. In this study, we have analysed sulphated-fucan-containing fractions isolated from the brown seaweed Cystoseira indica. The crude water extract (CiWE) and the main fraction (CiF3) obtained by anion exchange chromatography had potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) without cytotoxicity for Vero cell cultures. Furthermore, they had no direct inactivating effect on virions in a virucidal assay, and lacked anticoagulant activity. The mode of action of these compounds could be mainly ascribed to an inhibitory effect on virus adsorption. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods showed that the major polysaccharide had an apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa and contained a backbone of alpha-(1 --> 3)-linked fucopyranosyl residues substituted at C-2 with fucopyranosyl and xylopyranosyl residues. This sulphated fucan, considered the active principle of the C. indica water extract, also contained variously linked xylose and galactose units and glucuronic acid residues. Sulphate groups, if present, are located mostly at C-4 of (1 --> 3)-linked fucopyranosyl units, and appeared to be very important for the anti-herpetic activity of this polymer.

  3. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandesh, P; Velu, V; Singh, R P

    2014-09-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as tannic acid equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment, caused restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation to values close to control while peroxidase was restored to 67 % of the control. Histopathological studies of liver of different groups supported the protective effects of TSCE by restoring the hepatic architecture. These studies could be further extended to exploit its possible application for the preservation of food products as well as a health supplement and neutraceutical.

  4. Evaluation of antiplaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract gel--a 6-week clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, M Raveendra; Acharya, Leelavathi D; Udupa, N

    2004-01-01

    Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity; however, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract against plaque formation was assessed in males between the age group of 20-30 years over a period of 6 weeks. Present study includes formulation of mucoadhesive dental gel containing Azadirachta indica leaf extract (25 mg/g). A 6-week clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of neem extract dental gel with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% w/v) mouthwash as positive control. Microbial evaluation of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli species was carried out to determine the total decrease in the salivary bacterial count over a period of treatment using a semi-quantitative four quadrant streaking method. The results of the study suggested that the dental gel containing neem extract has significantly (Pplaque index and bacterial count than that of the control group.

  5. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  6. A Study on Herbal Finish to Prevent Bed Sore Using Mangifera indica and Triphala Dried Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Deivasigamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “Bed sores” owe their name to the observation that patients who were bedridden and not properly repositioned would often develop ulcerations or sores on their skin, typically over bony prominences. These bed sores, which result from prolonged pressure, are also called “decubitus ulcers,” “pressure sores,” “skin breakdown,” and “pressure ulcers.” They are associated with adverse health outcomes and high treatment costs. This study focuses on developing herbal finish to prevent bed sores. For this purpose, functional finishing was utilized to produce a bedsore preventing fabric. Plain weave cotton fabric was dyed by using herbal extracts, dried, and then cured. Two samples in different ratios (1 : 2 and 2 : 1 of two herbal extracts (Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits were prepared with and without binder (chitosan. Air permeability, wicking ability, Drop Test for absorbency, and antibacterial properties were examined for those samples. Based on the results, fabric dyed with Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits in the ratio of 2 : 1 with chitosan is determined as the most promising combination for the final product.

  7. In silico Analysis of osr40c1 Promoter Sequence Isolated from Indica Variety Pokkali

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    W.S.I. de Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region of a drought and abscisic acid (ABA inducible gene, osr40c1, was isolated from a salt-tolerant indica rice variety Pokkali, which is 670 bp upstream of the putative translation start codon. In silico promoter analysis of resulted sequence showed that at least 15 types of putative motifs were distributed within the sequence, including two types of common promoter elements, TATA and CAAT boxes. Additionally, several putative cis-acing regulatory elements which may be involved in regulation of osr40c1 expression under different conditions were found in the 5′-upstream region of osr40c1. These are ABA-responsive element, light-responsive elements (ATCT-motif, Box I, G-box, GT1-motif, Gap-box and Sp1, myeloblastosis oncogene response element (CCAAT-box, auxin responsive element (TGA-element, gibberellin-responsive element (GARE-motif and fungal-elicitor responsive elements (Box E and Box-W1. A putative regulatory element, required for endosperm-specific pattern of gene expression designated as Skn-1 motif, was also detected in the Pokkali osr40c1 promoter region. In conclusion, the bioinformatic analysis of osr40c1 promoter region isolated from indica rice variety Pokkali led to the identification of several important stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements, and therefore, the isolated promoter sequence could be employed in rice genetic transformation to mediate expression of abiotic stress induced genes.

  8. Antioxidant and antiglycation properties of two mango (Mangifera indica L. cultivars from Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samba Fama Ndoye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic contents, antioxidant and antiglycation activities of leaves, barks, roots and kernels from two cultivars of Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae. Methods: Total phenolic contents were determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activities were assessed by three different protocols including DPPH, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and iron (II chelation assays. In addition, in vitro bovine serum albumin/D-ribose assay was chosen to evaluate the antiglycation properties of the extracts. Results: All the investigated extracts were found to contain high level of total phenols as well as potent antioxidant activities. Kernel extracts showed the highest total phenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities whereas higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity values were observed for leave, root and bark extracts. Besides, extracts from leaves, roots and barks from both cultivars exhibited potent inhibitory effects against the formation of advanced glycation end products, with IC50 values lower than the standard positive control aminoguanidine. Conclusions: The potent antiglycation and antioxidative activities of these two Mangifera indica cultivars suggest a possible role in targeting aging, diabetic complications and oxidative stress related diseases.

  9. Pembentukan Embrio Endospermik Sekunder Mangga (Mangifera indica L. Gedong Gincu Klon 289

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    Irni Furnawanthi Hindaningrum

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe improvement of Mangifera indica L. by conventional breeding approaches has been confounded by the long generation cycle, low fruit set, single seed per fruit and high degree of cross pollination. Biotechnology complements conventional breeding and expedite the mango improvement programs. Endosperm culture is a direct method to produce triploid plants. This study aimed  to obtain embryo from endosperm culture. The system of secondary somatic embriogenesis in mango described here represents a source of embryogenic material may be used for mass propagation and genetic manipulation of this crop. The method consisted of induction, proliferation, maturation, germination, and histological analysis of the obtaimed embryos. A protocol for plantlet regeneration was developed for Gedong Gincu mango clone 289 through secondary somatic embryogenesis. Primary somatic embryos (proembryo and cotyledonary embryos were cultured in induction medium to induce the secondary somatic embryos. The best proliferation rate was 0.22 in medium with 1 g L-1 Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP for multiplication of secondary somatic embryos. Maturation of inoculum derived from the proliferation medium supplemented with 2 g L-1 of activated charcoal on medium containing 0.4 mg L-1 BAP provides the average 2.39 embryo formation of cotyledonari phase. The highest germination frequency (20% was obtained in media with GA3 1.5 mg L-1.Keywords: endosperm, Gedong Gincu, Mangifera indica L, secondary endospermic embrio

  10. Optimized Monitoring of Production of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal Cactus

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    Horacio Vieyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs has grown significantly because they are useful for a wide range of applications. Additional advantage in their design requires that they meet the following characteristics: nontoxicity, abundance, sustainability, renewability, and low cost. To address these requirements, nanowhiskers were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Monitoring the process of CNWs preparation is necessary to ensure maximum yield and purity of the end product. In this study, the cellulose preparation was monitored by analyzing microscopic morphology by SEM; the purity degree was determined by fluorescence microscopy as a novel and rapid technique, and FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirmation. The additional parameters that monitored the process were the crystallinity index by X-ray diffraction and the size of the particle by dynamic light scattering (DLS. Nopal cellulose was found to be comparable to commercial microcrystalline cellulose. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica is a viable alternative for the production of highly pure CNWs and the strategy to supervise the preparation process was rapid.

  11. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

    2012-08-01

    Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (Fumariaceae), known as "Fumitory", is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  12. Anthelmintic potential of Calotropis procera, Azadirachta indica and Punica granatum against Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Suri, Mansi; Bagai, Upma

    2016-12-01

    Anthelmintic activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera flowers, Azadirachta indica leaves and Punica granatum fruit peel in comparison with albendazole was evaluated through in vitro studies by the worm motility inhibition assay. Significant anthelmintic effects (p granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, whereas it was 29.23 μg/ml ± 4.51 for albendazole. The mean mortality index (MI) was 1.0 and 0.90 for C. procera , 0.90 for A. indica and 0.73 and 0.80 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively whereas for albendazole it was 1.0. Percent mean worm motility inhibition (%WMI) was observed to be between 70 and 100 % for different extracts.Various concentrations (5-5000 μg/ml) of all the plant extracts and albendazole were used to detect their cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line to determine CC-50 by MTT assay. CC-50 values, of all the plant extracts were determined to be >1000 μg/ml and for albendazole it was found to be >10 μM. All the three plants can be potential sources for novel anthelmintics.

  13. Locais e período de alimentação da cigarrinha vetora de Xylella fastidiosa, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, em mudas cítricas Feeding sites and food intake of Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, a sharpshooter vector of Xylella fastidiosa, on citrus plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pedreira de Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A cigarrinha Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae é um importante vetor da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da clorose variegada dos citros. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar o local preferido de alimentação e o período de maior atividade alimentar desta cigarrinha em citros, no sentido de elucidar o comportamento alimentar relacionado à transmissão da bactéria. O local de alimentação foi estudado em ensaio de escolha, no qual 30 insetos adultos foram liberados em gaiolas de observação (n = 10 contendo uma muda de laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. Após 1; 15; 21; 25; 39; 45 e 49 h da liberação, contaram-se os insetos na parte superior (ramos com brotações e inferior (haste principal, até H"40 cm de altura da muda. Nos ramos da parte superior, avaliou-se a preferência entre a haste, o pecíolo e o limbo foliar. Em um segundo ensaio, 20 machos e 20 fêmeas de B. xanthophis foram confinados individualmente sobre a haste de 'seedlings' de laranja-doce para determinar os períodos de alimentação, quantificando-se a excreção de 'honeydew' (medida indireta da ingestão em períodos sucessivos de dia e noite, durante 48 h. A maioria dos indivíduos de B. xanthophis preferiu a haste dos ramos novos (62%, na parte superior da muda cítrica (91%. Nos 'seedlings', observou-se maior volume de excreção e proporção de indivíduos excretando durante a fotofase, independentemente do sexo. Portanto, em estudos de transmissão de X. fastidiosa, deve-se considerar a preferência de B. xanthophis pela haste de brotações cítricas e sua maior atividade alimentar durante a fotofase.The sharpshooter Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis. This study aimed to identify the preferred feeding sites and periods of this vector on citrus, in order to improve our understanding of the

  14. Azadirachta Indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    done using phenolphthalein Monophosphate. (7) method , and histological procedure followed for. (3) the harvested tissues using Carleton's method . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. Biochemical quantitative in vitro determination of the enzymes, were analyzed for statistical significance by one-way ANOVA using the statistical ...

  15. Characterization of SNP and Structural Variations in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Tilletia indica and Its Closely Related Species Formed Basis for a Simple Diagnostic Assay.

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    Mui-Keng Tan

    Full Text Available Tilletia indica causes the disease Karnal bunt in wheat. The disease is under international quarantine regulations. Comparative mitochondrial (mt genome analysis of T. indica (KX394364 and DQ993184 and T. walkeri (EF536375 has found 325 to 328 SNPs, 57 to 60 short InDels (from 1 to 13 nt, two InDels (30 and 61 nt and five (>200 nt presence/absence variations (PAVs between the two species. The mt genomes of both species have identical gene order. The numbers of SNPs and InDels between the mt genomes of the two species are approximately nine times of the corresponding numbers between the two T. indica isolates. There are eight SNPs between T. indica and T. walkeri that resulted in amino acid substitutions in the mt genes of cob, nad2 and nad5. In contrast, there is no amino acid substitution in the mt genes of the T. indica isolates from the SNPs found. The five PAVs present in T. indica (DQ993184 are absent in T. walkeri. Four PAVs are more than 1 kb and are not present in every T. indica isolate. Analysis of their presence and absence separates a collection of T. indica isolates into 11 subgroups. Two PAVs have ORFs for the LAGLIDAG endonuclease and two have ORFs for the GIY-YIG endonuclease family, which are representatives of homing endonuclease genes (HEGs. These intron- encoded HEGs confer intron mobility and account for their fluid distribution in T. indica isolates. The small PAV of 221 bp, present in every T. indica isolate and unique to the species, was used as the genetic fingerprint for the successful development of a rapid, highly sensitive and specific loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay. The simple procedure of the LAMP assay and the easy detection formats will enable the assay to be automated for high throughput diagnosis.

  16. Aristolochia indica green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: A sustainable control tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Labeeba, Mohammed Aamina; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wang, Lan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. We biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Aristolochia indica extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. In laboratory, LC50 of A. indica extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 262.66 (larvae I) to 565.02 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP against A. stephensi ranged from 3.94 (larvae I) to 15.65 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of A. indica extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) leads to 100% larval reduction after 72 h. In laboratory, 24-h predation efficiency of Diplonychus indicus against A. stephensi larvae was 33% (larvae II) and 57% (larvae III). In AgNP-contaminated environment (1 ppm), it was 45.5% (larvae II) and 71.75% (larvae III). Overall, A. indica-synthesized AgNP may be considered as newer and safer control tools against Anopheles vectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcrossing potential between U.S. red rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese indica rice (Oryza sativa) lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice in southern U.S. rice fields remains a widespread, economically challenging problem despite nearly a decade of rice production systems that include true-breeding rice cultivars and indica-derived hybrid rice with resistance to imazethapyr. Both of these herbicide-resistant rice systems hav...

  18. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture and the environment: a systematic, spatially-explicit survey and potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Butsic; Jacob C. Brenner

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research. An example from Humboldt...

  19. A study of water relations in neem (Azadirachta indica) seed that is characterised by complex storage behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Buitink, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed is reputed to have limited tolerance to desiccation, to be sensitive to chilling and imbibitional stress, and to display intermediate storage behaviour. To understand this behaviour the properties of water in seed tissues were studied. Water sorption isotherms showed

  20. Sustained exposure to abscisic acid enhances the colonization potential of the mutualist fungus Piriformospora indica on Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskan-Berghöfer, Tatjana; Vilches-Barro, Amaya; Müller, Teresa M; Glawischnig, Erich; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Rausch, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Root colonization by the beneficial fungus Piriformospora indica is controlled by plant innate immunity, but factors that channel this interaction into a mutualistic relationship are not known. We have explored the impact of abscisic acid (ABA) and osmotic stress on the P. indica interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana. The activation of plant innate immunity in roots was determined by measuring the concentration of the phytoalexin camalexin and expression of transcription factors regulating the biosynthesis of tryptophan-related defence metabolites. Furthermore, the impact of the fungus on the content of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-related metabolites was examined. We demonstrated that treatment with exogenous ABA or the ABA analogue pyrabactin increased fungal colonization efficiency without impairment of plant fitness. Concomitantly, ABA-deficient mutants of A. thaliana (aba1-6 and aba2-1) were less colonized, while plants exposed to moderate stress were more colonized than corresponding controls. Sustained exposure to ABA attenuated expression of transcription factors MYB51, MYB122 and WRKY33 in roots upon P. indica challenge or chitin treatment, and prevented an increase in camalexin content. The results indicate that ABA can strengthen the interaction with P. indica as a consequence of its impact on plant innate immunity. Consequently, ABA will be relevant for the establishment and outcome of the symbiosis under stress conditions. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based

  2. Draft genome sequence of Karnal bunt pathogen (Tilletia indica of wheat provides insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of quarantined fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    Full Text Available Karnal bunt disease in wheat is caused by hemibiotrophic fungus, Tilletia indica that has been placed as quarantine pest in more than 70 countries. Despite its economic importance, little knowledge about the molecular components of fungal pathogenesis is known. In this study, first time the genome sequence of T. indica has been deciphered for unraveling the effectors' functions of molecular pathogenesis of Karnal bunt disease. The T. indica genome was sequenced employing hybrid approach of PacBio Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT and Illumina HiSEQ 2000 sequencing platforms. The genome was assembled into 10,957 contigs (N50 contig length 3 kb with total size of 26.7 Mb and GC content of 53.99%. The number of predicted putative genes were 11,535, which were annotated with Gene Ontology databases. Functional annotation of Karnal bunt pathogen genome and classification of identified effectors into protein families revealed interesting functions related to pathogenesis. Search for effectors' genes using pathogen host interaction database identified 135 genes. The T. indica genome sequence and putative genes involved in molecular pathogenesis would further help in devising novel and effective disease management strategies including development of resistant wheat genotypes, novel biomarkers for pathogen detection and new targets for fungicide development.

  3. The Using Of Fenolic Compounds Of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Leaves Extracts As A Bioinsecticide And Bioherbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani; Rahayu, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    Pluchea indica (L.) Less. produces secondary metabolites such as lignans, terpenes, phenylpropanoids, benzoids, tannins, flavonoids, and hydroquinone phenols, used to protect plants against various herbivores, and pathogenic microorganisms, and are used as bioherbicides for weed control. The purpose of this study is to describe the effect of phenolic compounds of leaf extract of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. to the mortality of Spodoptera litura (LC 50 and LC 80) and its effect for seed germination inhibitor of Amaranthus spinosus. The research design was Randomized Completely Design (RCD) with one factor i.e concentration.Test of methanol extract bioactivity on instar two S. litura using five levels of concentrations 0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%, whereas in plants Amaranthus spinoususe lower concentrations 0%, 0,125%, 0,50% and 1%. The parameters measured the mortality of S. litura and the seed germination of A. spinosus which included percentage of germination and germination rate. The results show that the biopesticide developed from plants Pluchea indica can result in mortality 81.90% of S. litura at a concentration of 12%, with LC 50 of 4.00 ± 0.60 % and LC 80 of 9.88 ± 0.61% . As for the seed germination of plants, the higher concentration of P. indica leaf extract resulted higher inhibition on seed germination of Amaranthus spinosus

  4. Reactive oxygen species generation-scavenging and signaling during plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica interaction under stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Nath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also acts as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant–microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant–microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation and scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  5. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  6. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Cytotoxic Cycloartane Triterpenoid Glycosides from the Traditionally Used Medicinal Plant Leea indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Hsiung Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leea indica is a medicinal plant used traditionally to cure cancer. In this study, the cytotoxic compounds of L. indica were isolated using bioassay-guided approach. Two cycloartane triterpenoid glycosides, mollic acid arabinoside (MAA and mollic acid xyloside (MAX, were firstly isolated from L. indica. They inhibited the growth of Ca Ski cervical cancer cells with IC50 of 19.21 μM (MAA and 33.33 μM (MAX. MRC5 normal cell line was used to calculate selectivity index. MAA and MAX were about 8 and 4 times more cytotoxic to Ca Ski cells compared to MRC5. The cytotoxicity of MAA was characterized by both cytostatic and cytocidal effects. MAA decreased the expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen, increased sub-G1 cells, and arrested cells in S and G2/M phases. This study provides the evidence for the ethnomedicinal use of L. indica and paves the way for future mechanism studies on the anticancer effects of MAA.

  7. Altas habilidades/superdotação: mitos e dilemas docentes na indicação para o atendimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Lourenço de Azevedo

    Full Text Available O baixo quantitativo de indicação de alunos com altas habilidades/superdotação apontado pelos professores de um Município da periferia do Rio de Janeiro motivou a investigação das possíveis dificuldades encontradas pelos professores nesse processo. Os sujeitos desta pesquisa são 52 professores divididos em dois grupos: 26 professores que indicaram alunos para o programa de alunos com altas habilidades/ superdotação da Secretaria Municipal de Educação desse Município (grupo 1, e 26 professores que não indicaram alunos (grupo 2. Os fatores utilizados nesta pesquisa foram: (a perfil sociodemográfico dos respondentes; (b levantamento de possíveis elementos da representação social desse professor por meio dos termos indutores: altas habilidades/superdotação e educação especial; (c três dilemas baseados na teoria de julgamento moral e nos mitos referentes a altas habilidades/superdotação. conclui-se que, em ambos os grupos, há fortes indícios de que os mitos acerca das altas habilidades/superdotação influenciam a indicação/não indicação desses alunos, e que esses mitos devem ser discutidos junto aos professores de modo a facilitar a indicação

  8. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  9. Optimizing soaking and germination conditions to improve gamma-aminobutyric acid content in japonica and indica germinated brown rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Xiang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Germinated brown rice is a well-known functional food due to its high content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study was designed to test the difference of producing GABA in two domesticated rice genotypes (indica and japonica rice), and the effects of adding exogenous glutamic acid or

  10. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  11. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Muthupillai; Krishnan, Manigandan; Padarthi, Pavankumar

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. Results and discussion The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials. How to cite this article: Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotec-tive and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24. PMID:29264314

  12. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect ofMangifera IndicaLeaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Muthupillai; Krishnan, Manigandan; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl 2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials. How to cite this article: Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotec-tive and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24.

  13. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L. Gaertner

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    Siew Ling Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleusine indica (Linnaeus Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica, hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01±5.68% at 100 μg/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica, namely, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98±1.04%, with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were β-sitosterol (2.99±0.80% and stigmasterol (2.68±0.38%. The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism.

  14. Radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract in Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandini, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Ganesh Sanjeev; D'sa, Prima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract against radiation induced damage.The effect of 100 mg of hydroalcoholic extract of Tamarindus indica pod was studied in Swiss albino mice exposed to 6 Gy whole body electron beam radiation. Treatment of mice with extract for 15 days before irradiation reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the untreated irradiated group. The irradiated animals showed an elevation in lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione, total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Radiation induced mice has shown micronucleus in the bone marrow cells. Treatment of mice with Tamarindus indica pod extract before irradiation caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. It also showed a reduction in the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicate that the radioprotective activity of Tamarindus indica pod extract may be due to free radical scavenging attributed as a result of increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  15. Source and Inheritance of the Within Cultivar Residual Variation Detected in an indica Variety IR64

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    Jian-li WU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypically uniform indica variety IR64 was chosen for study of the source and inheritance of within cultivar residual variation using a set of SSR markers. Residual heterogeneity in IR64 was identified on the short arm of chromosome 2 involving at least 5 SSR loci spanning nearly 30 cM. The SSR variations originated from the parental lines of IR64 (IR5657-33-2/IR2061-465-1-5-5 and were segregating in the selfed bulk seed stock in a Mendelian manner for more than 20 years. This study verified that the within cultivar variations of SSR in a morphologically uniform variety IR64 of a selfing crop came from its parental lines, which has immediate and commercial applications including test of hybrid seed purity, varietal fingerprinting, and curation and propagation of germplasm collections.

  16. Tamarindus indica pectin blend film composition for coating tablets with enhanced adhesive force strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Rajneet; Singh, Kuldeep; Sapra, Bharti; Tiwary, A K; Rana, Vikas

    2014-02-15

    Tablet coating is the most useful method to improve tablet texture, odour and mask taste. Thus, the present investigation was aimed at developing an industrially acceptable aqueous tablet coating material. The physico-chemical, electrical and SEM investigations ensures that blending of Tamarindus indica (Linn.) pectin (TP) with chitosan gives water resistant film texture. Therefore, CH-TP (60:40) spray coated tablets were prepared. The evaluation of CH-TP coated tablets showed enhanced adhesive force strength (between tablet surface to coat) and negligible cohesive force strength (between two tablets) both evaluated using texture analyzer. The comparison of CH-TP coated tablets with Eudragit coated tablets further supported superiority of the former material. Thus, the findings pointed towards the potential of CH-TP for use as a tablet coating material in food as well as pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plant regeneration of indica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars from mature embryo-derived calli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, M; Muñoz, M; Vega, J R; Espinoza, A M

    1997-03-01

    Plant regeneration from seven-week-old callus cultures derived from mature embryos of several indica rice cultivars was achieved with frequencies of morphogenic calli from 10 to 47%. Three media were tested both for callogenesis and plant regeneration. For 3 of the 7 genotypes examined, the best combination of media for plant regeneration was Murashige & Skoog basal medium: MSC (callogenesis) and MSR (regeneration). The rates of callogenesis were not related to the capacity for plant regeneration. Two genotypes CR-1113 and CR-5272 produced the highest number of regenerated green plants. The results of this study suggest that genetic differences could be directly linked to the ability to regenerate in these plant cultivars.

  18. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

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    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  19. Molecular diversity of Pakistani mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazish, T; Shabbir, G; Ali, A; Sami-Ul-Allah, S; Naeem, M; Javed, M; Batool, S; Arshad, H; Hussain, S B; Aslam, K; Seher, R; Tahir, M; Baber, M

    2017-04-05

    Understanding the genetic diversity of different Pakistani mango varieties is important for germplasm management and varietal characterization. Microsatellites are efficient and highly polymorphic markers for comparative genome mapping, and were used in the present study to determine the genetic relatedness and variability among 15 indigenous mango cultivars (Mangifera indica L.). Overall, 181 bands were produced using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Out of the 12 primers used, 10 were polymorphic and two were monomorphic. Genetic relatedness among cultivars was assessed by constructing a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. The accessions exhibited coefficients of similarity ranging from 75 to 100%, indicating the frequent use of only a few parent cultivars and the presence of inbreeding. The primers used in the present study were found to be valuable for identifying genetic relationships among mango cultivars.

  20. Development of new microsatellite markers from Mango (Mangifera indica) and cross-species amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Kundapura Venkataramana; Mani, Bellam Hanumantha-Reddy; Anand, Lalitha; Dinesh, Makki Ramachandra

    2011-04-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to assess the genetic diversity among mango (Mangifera indica) cultivars and to test their amplification in closely related species. Thirty-six microsatellite (simple sequence repeats; SSR) loci were isolated by a microsatellite-enriched partial genomic library method. Primers designed for these loci were characterized using 30 diverse mango cultivars. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 19 with an average of 9.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.185 to 0.920 with a mean of 0.687. The total value for the probability of identity was 2.42 × 10(-31). The newly identified SSRs would be useful in genetic diversity studies, finger-printing, and mapping. Loci from five related species, M. odorata, M. anadamanica, M. zeylanica, M. camptosperma, and M. griffithii, were successfully amplified using these SSR primers, showing their potential utility across species.

  1. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

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    J.K. Roop

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  3. Study of Acid Phosphatase in Solubilization of Inorganic Phosphates by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshagiri, Swetha; Tallapragada, Padmavathi

    2017-01-02

    Phosphorus is an essential plant macronutrient present in the soil. Only a small portion of phosphorus in soil is taken up by plants and the rest of it becomes unavailable to plants as it is immobilized. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms play a vital role in converting the insoluble form of phosphates to the soluble form. The present paper reports the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate, single super phosphate, zinc phosphate and aluminum phosphate by Piriformospora indica with the production of organic acids as well as acid phosphatase. The amount of phosphate released (4.73 mg ml -1 ) and titratable acidity (0.12%) was found to be the highest in the case of single super phosphate as compared to other phosphate sources. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of oxalic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and succinic acid in the media. Highest phosphatase activity was observed with the cell membrane extract of the organism in the presence of zinc phosphate.

  4. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  5. Molluscicidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts on edible tropical land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenso, Ime E

    2004-02-01

    The effects of 350, 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) of crude extracts of neem, Azadirachta indica A Juss, on edible tropical land snails Archachatina marginata and Limicolaria aurora (Jay) were determined and compared with control using pawpaw, Carica papaya L as bait. Responses were measured through normal feeding, cessation of food intake, cessation of crawling, mucus secretion, lack of response to mechanical stimuli (mortality) and decomposition. Results showed no effects on the controls or snails exposed to neem seed oil extract. Crude extracts of bark, root and leaf of neem at 500 and 700 mg kg(-1) produced mortality after exposure for 48 h for L aurora and 72 h for A marginata.

  6. Antihepatotoxic efficacy of Mangifera indica L. polysaccharides against cyclophosphamide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Sohair R; Amien, Ahmed I; Abd-Elgleel, Fathi M; Elaskalany, Sara M

    2016-01-25

    The present study aims to evaluate the possible protective role of polysaccharides extracted from the Egyptian mango Mangifera indica L. (MPS) and/or silymarine against cyclophosphamide (CP) toxicity in male albino rats. The MPS and/or silymarin significantly decreased the activities of serum ASAT and ALAT. However, MPS (1000 mg/kg) normalized their activities towards the normal levels recording 28.75 and 78.75 U/ml respectively. The recorded data also showed the antioxidant effect of MPS by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as normalized the activities of the antioxidant enzyme GST and SOD. Histopathological examinations also confirmed the protective efficacy of MPS against liver toxicity of CP. In conclusion, the recorded results of the present study support the protective role of MPS and/or silymarin against CP-induced hepatic damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of Malachite Green Dye by Mangifera indica Seed Kernel Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dilbagh; Sowmya, V.; Abinandan, S.; Shanthakumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, batch experiments were carried out to study the adsorption of Malachite green dye from aqueous solution by Mangifera indica (mango) seed kernel powder. The mango seed kernel powder was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Effect of various parameters including pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature on adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was observed and the optimized condition for maximum dye removal was identified. Maximum percentage removal of 96% was achieved with an adsorption capacity of 22.8 mg/g at pH 6 with an initial concentration of 100 mg/l. The equilibrium data were examined to fit the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption process were also calculated.

  8. Evaluation of the fatty acid composition of the seeds of Mangifera indica L. and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuhsien; Tokuda, Megumi; Kashiwagi, Ayaka; Henmi, Atsushi; Okada, Yoshiharu; Tachibana, Shinya; Nomura, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), an edible fruit, is one of the main agricultural products in many tropical regions. Mango varieties differ in not only fruit shape but also aroma, which is an important characteristic. Although the fruit has many uses, the seeds are discarded as waste. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the fatty acid content of seed oil of mangoes from different cultivation areas (Miyazaki, Japan, and Taiwan), and to evaluate their application in cosmetics. Five fatty acids were identified in the mango seed oil. Oleic acid and stearic acid were the principal components of mango seed oil obtained from Miyazaki (46.1% and 39.8%, respectively) and Taiwan (43.7% and 40.1%, respectively). As a cosmetic ingredient, mango seed oil showed good deodorizing effect on both 2-nonenal and isovaleric acid. The results indicated the potential applications of mango seed oil in the cosmetic industry.

  9. Chromosome characterization of two varieties of Mangifera indica L.¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Izabel Pierozzi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome studies were performed in two varieties of Mangifera indica L. (mango, 'IAC-140 Espadona' and in its progenitor 'Espada Stahl'. Both varieties showed 2n=40 chromosomes though the karyotype formulae were 8m + 10sm + 2sm s for 'Stahl' and 7m + 11sm + 2sm s for 'IAC-140'. The varieties showed moderate karyotype asymmetry which was estimated according to four different indices. Both varieties exhibited three chromosome pairs with silver impregnation after NOR-banding. The number of nucleoli within interphase cells varied from one, the commonest, to eight. The nucleolus persistent phenomenon was observed in more than 22% of metaphase cells of both varieties, seeing that in 'Stahl', up to two nucleoli were evidenced. This variety also showed one nucleolus in several anaphase cells. The studies were suitable for evidencing diversity at chromosomal level between these two varieties.

  10. First Report of Raoiella indica (Hirst) (Acari: Tenuipalpide) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, F T; Silva, J E P; Ventura, M U; Pasini, A; Roggia, S

    2017-06-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica (Hirst) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), was found for the first time in the Paraná State, in southern Brazil. The first observations occurred in September 2015, on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch) leaves, which is not considered a typical host plant of RPM. It is probable that its occurrence on this plant was serendipitous. Visual surveys for RPM were carried out on four typical host plants (banana, coconut, foxtail palm, and real palm), in five cities of the Paraná State (Bela Vista do Paraíso, Londrina, Maringá, Marialva, and Sarandi). RPM was found on each of the four typical host plants, in each of the five cities. Our survey extends RPM occurrence to the southern region of Brazil and indicates that the pest could be widespread in the country.

  11. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  12. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  13. Phenolic Profiles, Phytchemicals and Mineral Content of Decoction and Infusion of Opuntia ficus-indica Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imene; Ennouri, Monia; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ben Amira, Amal; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-12-01

    Opuntia flowers are a natural source of biologically active compounds and they have been used as medicinal plant for a long time. Despite the various uses reported for the decoction and infusion of these flowers, their characterization has been discarded. In this study, the decoction and infusion prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica were analyzed with respect to their content in minerals and phytochemicals in order to evaluate its nutritional characteristics. The obtained data proved that these preparations are a rich source of minerals mainly K and Ca. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed that they have important polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents with the infusion that presented the highest polyphenol levels. LC-MS analyses of decoction and infusion allowed the characterization of 20 phenolic compounds. It is mainly identified by the presence of flavonols glycosides.

  14. Green Synthesis of Ag-Cu Nanoalloys Using Opuntia ficus- indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rocha, O.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Hernández-Martínez, A. R.; Gámez-Corrales, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Britto-Hurtado, R.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic Ag/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained by green synthesis using Opuntia ficus- indica plant extract. Two synthesis methods were applied to obtain nanoparticles with core-shell and Janus morphologies by reversing the order of precursors. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed size of 10 nm and 20 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Other small particles with size of up to 2 nm were also observed. Absorption bands attributed to surface plasmon resonance were detected at 440 nm and 500 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory predicted a breathing mode type (BMT) located at low wavenumber due to small, low-energy clusters of (AgCu) n with n = 2 to 9, showing a certain correlation with the experimental one (at 220 cm-1). The dependence of the BMT on the number of atoms constituting the cluster is also studied.

  15. Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2≤n≤9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

  16. Evaluation of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice hepatoprotective effect upon ethanol toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Mbarki, Sakhria; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rouma, Khémais

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our present study is to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice (PPJ) against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. Chronic ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w.) during 90 days to Wistar rats, significantly (p injuries. Conversely pre-treatment of ethanol-fed rats with PPJ (20 and 40 ml/kg b.w., orally), interestingly reduced liver lipid and protein oxidation, histopathologic lesions and inhibited the alterations of antioxidant enzymes and the release of biochemical markers. The hepatoprotective effect of PPJ could be due to their capacity to end free radicals chain reactions or to enhance the endogenous antioxidants activities.

  17. Investigations on the use of poison baits and fumigants against indian crested porcupine (Hytsrix indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Hussain, R.; Mian, A.

    2006-01-01

    Preventive methods were investigated against the Indian crested porcupine as it seriously damages trees, field crops, and vegetables. Large-scale field trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of two poison baits (0.0375% coumatetralyl and 2% zinc phosphide) and two fumigants (carbon monoxide and calcium cyanide powder) against the Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica, in forest plantations, barani or drylands, and desert rangelands. On the average, carbon monoxide, calcium cyanide and coumatetralyl caused 95.84, 96.52, and 100% mortality, and were equally effective. The zinc phosphide bait yielded 27.78% mortality, indicating that it was less effective and poorly consumed by the porcupines. Use of the two fumigants and the grain bait of coumatetralyl was found to be excellent for the control of Indian crested porcupines in different habitats. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Electrochemical Behavior of Nopal Extract (Opuntia Ficus- Indica as Possible Corrosion Inhibitor

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    Araceli Mandujano-Ruíz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main problems of degradation in components, tooling, equipment and even in structural applications, examples of this are the carbon steels. In the present work, the capacity of corrosion inhibition of a biodegradable organic extract from the Nopal plant (Opuntia ficus-indica, for the protection of carbon steel type AISI 1018 was studied adding 50% v/v of the Nopal extract (EN in a solution of H2SO4 (0.6 mol.l-1. Polarization Resistance (LPR and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques were used for the electrochemical evaluation at room temperature for 24 h in order to obtain corrosion rates (Vcorr and inhibition efficiency (IE. Metallographic examination was also carried out to register the surface damage by corrosion. The results showed a reduction of the Vcorr with a maximum IE value of about 84% by adding the organic- liquid extracted from Nopal.

  19. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica leaf extract and its antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pragyan; Das, Bhagyalaxmi; Mohanty, Abhipsa; Mohapatra, Sujata

    2017-11-01

    In this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was done using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica. The flavonoids and terpenoids present in the extract act as both reducing and capping agent. Microbes ( Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria) were isolated from borewell water using selective media. The silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria and E. coli. However the silver nanoparticles were more effective against E. coli as compared to Gram-positive bacteria. Various techniques were used to characterize synthesized silver nanoparticles such as DLS and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The absorbance peak was in the range of 420-450 nm, that varied depending upon the variation in the concentration of neem extract. This is a very rapid and cost-effective method for generation of silver nanoparticle at room temperature, however, its exact dose in water purification has to be determined.

  1. An improved protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of diverse indica rice cultivars

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    Sahoo Khirod K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice genome sequencing projects have generated remarkable amount of information about genes and genome architecture having tremendous potential to be utilized in both basic and applied research. Success in transgenics is paving the way for preparing a road map of functional genomics which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal context. However, the lack of a simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is a major constraint for such studies in this important cereal crop. Results In the present study, we have developed an easy, rapid and highly efficient transformation and regeneration protocol using mature seeds as explants and found its successful applicability to a choice of elite indica rice genotypes. We have optimized various steps of transformation and standardized different components of the regeneration medium including growth hormones and the gelling agent. The modified regeneration medium triggers production of large number of shoots from smaller number of calli and promotes their faster growth, hence significantly advantageous over the existing protocols where the regeneration step requires maximum time. Using this protocol, significantly higher transformation efficiency (up to 46% and regeneration frequency (up to 92% for the untransformed calli and 59% for the transformed calli were achieved for the four tested cultivars. We have used this protocol to produce hundreds of independent transgenic lines of different indica rice genotypes. Upon maturity, these transgenic lines were fertile thereby indicating that faster regeneration during tissue culture did not affect their reproductive potential. Conclusions This speedy, yet less labor-intensive, protocol overcomes major limitations associated with genetic manipulation in rice. Moreover, our protocol uses mature seeds as the explant, which can easily be obtained in quantity throughout the year and kept

  2. Nematicidal potential and specific enzyme activity enhancement potential of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Arti Shivraj; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Keum, Young Soo; Kim, Doo Hwan; Venkidasamy, Baskar; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar

    2018-02-01

    Nematodes are considered as major plant parasites damaging most of the crops, and neem plant exhibits potential nematicidal and insecticidal properties. This study aimed to check nemato-toxic potential of neem (Azadirachta indica) plant using in vitro and in-planta trials against Meloidogyne incognita. The findings suggested that the neem extracts were lethal to second-stage juvenile (J 2 ) and egg hatching with simultaneous enhancement in treated tomato plant growth. The egg numbers of M. incognita found less sensitive to the aqueous and alcoholic extracts than those of J 2 as per LC 50 values. Complete mortality of J 2 s was recorded at 40, 60, and 80% of neem standard extract (SE) dilutions and for undiluted SE of neem. The undiluted SE extract showed 100% inhibition of egg production. The highest reductions in the number of galls/root system, J 2 population, and egg production were observed with 80, 85, and 82% SE as compared control (untreated distilled water). The maximum 250% growth increment was observed in the length of tomato roots supplemented with neem extracts. Resistance-related enzyme [phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POX)] activities in tomato plant have been increased significantly by supplementation with neem extracts. It appears that the aerial parts of neem (A. indica) extracts showed significant and sustainable eco-friendly nemato-toxic potential towards M. incognita growth inhibition and eradication using alcoholic extracts compared to aqueous. From this study, it was concluded that the neem aerial parts were useful for the control of M. incognita and could be a possible replacement for synthetic nematicides in crop protection with utilization in enhancement of specific enzyme activity in tomato plants.

  3. The Piriformospora indica effector PIIN_08944 promotes the mutualistic Sebacinalean symbiosis

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    Fidele Ndifor Akum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic and mutualistic microbes actively suppress plant defense by secreting effector proteins to manipulate the host responses for their own benefit. Current knowledge about fungal effectors has been mainly derived from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes with restricted host range. We studied colonization strategies of the root endophytic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica that colonizes a wide range of plant species thereby establishing long-term mutualistic relationships. The release of P. indica’s genome helped to identify hundreds of genes coding for candidate effectors and provides an opportunity to investigate the role of those proteins in a mutualistic symbiosis. We demonstrate that the candidate effector PIIN_08944 plays a crucial role during fungal colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. PIIN_08944 expression was detected during chlamydospore germination, and fungal deletion mutants (Pi∆08944 showed delayed root colonization. Constitutive over-expression of PIIN_08944 in Arabidopsis rescued the delayed colonization phenotype of the deletion mutant. PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis showed a reduced expression of flg22-induced marker genes of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI and the salicylic acid (SA defense pathway, and expression of PIIN_08944 in barley reduced the burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS triggered by flg22 and chitin. These data suggest that PIIN_08944 contributes to root colonization by P. indica by interfering with SA-mediated basal immune responses of the host plant. Consistent with this, PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis also supported the growth of the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis while growth of the necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea on Arabidopsis and Fusarium graminearum on barley was not affected.

  4. Characterization and evaluation of rice blast resistance of Chinese indica hybrid rice parental lines

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    Yunyu Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistant varieties and hybrid combinations has been the most effective and economical strategy to control blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the distribution of major R genes and blast resistance characterization in hybrid rice parents has not been well investigated, resulting in their limited use in hybrid rice blast-resistance breeding. In the present study, 88 elite indica hybrid rice parental lines were evaluated with 30 isolates of M. oryzae collected from the main planting area of indica hybrid rice in China and were characterized for the presence of 11 major resistance genes using molecular markers. The pathogenicity assays showed that four types of hybrid rice parent line showed some resistance to M. oryzae. However, the proportions of highly resistant lines and the mean resistance frequency (RF varied among the four types, with resistance in decreasing order shown by three-line restorer lines, three-line maintainer lines, two-line sterile lines, and two-line restorer lines. All 88 hybrid rice parental lines carried more than one R gene, but none carried the R genes Pi1 and Pi2. Although Pid3 and Pi9 were present only in three-line restorer lines and Pigm only in three-line maintainer lines, the remaining six R genes (Pib, Pid2, Pi5, Pia, Pi54, and Pita were present in the four types of hybrid rice parent with significantly different distribution frequencies. The correlation between R genes and resistance reactions was investigated. The results are expected to provide useful information for rational utilization of major R genes in hybrid rice breeding programs. Keywords: Hybrid rice parental lines, Magnaporthe oryzae, Pi genes, Resistance evaluation, Molecular markers

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Esume, Celestine

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies in standard laboratories have indicated that a typical mango stem bark aqueous extract (Magnifera indica Linn) possess anti-malaria and anti-fever properties. Recent information also exists in the literature, suggesting its potency as a very effective anti-inflammatory plant extract. This study will therefore contribute immensely to the systemic search for a useful, less toxic and natural bioactive medicinal compound. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (MI) in a carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema model of acute inflammation. Rats (n=5) were treated orally with MI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or distilled water (3 mL). Thirty minutes later, acute inflammation was induced with a sub-plantar injection of 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenin solution into the right hind paw of the rats. The paw oedema sizes were measured with the aid of a Vernier calliper over a period of 3 hours. The aqueous extract of MI (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent and significant inhibition of the acute inflammation induced by the carrageenin in rats when compared with controls. The percentage inhibition of oedema formation produced by MI (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to that elicited by acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results of this preliminary investigation suggest that MI contains active compounds with an anti-inflammatory activity. However, more detailed studies using additional models are necessary to further characterise the effects of MI in inflammatory disorders.

  6. Atheromic and lymphoplasmacytic effects of Mangifera indica methanolic leaf extract on the heart of chinchilla rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngokere, Anthony Ajuluchukwu; Ezeofor, Peace Chinelo; Okoye, Jude Ogechukwu; Chukwuanukwu, Rebecca Chinyelu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Mangifera indica on serum concentration of creatine kinase, total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocyte counts and the micro-anatomical architecture of the heart in chinchilla rabbits in order to find its safe and toxic levels. A total of 24 Chinchilla rabbits aged 10-14 weeks, divided into four experimental groups were orally administered the doses of none, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight of the methanol extract of M. indica, respectively, for 28 days. The modified International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method was used to estimate the serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK (-MB)) while the haematology auto-analyser was used to estimate the total WBC count and lymphocyte count. The estimated values were subjected to analysis of variance using the SPSS software application (version 16) and expressed as mean±standard deviation. Tissue sections were stained by phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin and haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. The result showed significant increases in serum concentrations of CK (-MB) (12.05±3.11-21.55±9.93 U/L) and total WBC count (5.33±0.66-6.51±0.38 103/μL) when the control group was compared with the treated groups (p0.05). Significant differences were also observed in the body weight of the treated groups (pindica is indicated to have some health benefits at 500 mg/kg and shows toxicity on the micro-architecture of the heart at a concentration of ≥1000 mg/kg.

  7. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and antiradical activities of some leaf fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmus, Jelili A; Adedosu, Temitope O; Fatoki, John O; Adegbite, Victor A; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibitions and anti-radical activities of methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fractions of Mangifera indica leaf. Inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in egg, brain, and liver homogenates, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH-) radical scavenging activities were evaluated. Total phenol was assessed in all fractions, and the reducing power of methanolic fraction was compared to gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The results showed that Fe2+ induced significant lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the homogenates. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest percentage inhibition of LPO in both egg yolk (68.3%) and brain (66.3%), while the aqueous fraction exerted the highest inhibition in liver homogenate (89.1%) at a concentration of 10 microg/mL. These observed inhibitions of LPO by these fractions were higher than that of ascorbic acid used as a standard. The DPPH radical scavenging ability exhibited by ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the highest with IC50 value of 1.5 microg/mL. The ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions had the highest OH- radical scavenging ability with the same IC50 value of 5 microg/mL. The total phenol content of ethyl acetate fraction was the highest with 0.127 microg/mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The reductive potential of methanolic fraction showed a concentration-dependent increase. This study showed that inhibition of LPO and the DPPH and OH- radicals scavenging abilities of Mangifera indica leaf could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf may be a good source of natural antioxidative agent.

  8. Physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Seed

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    A. Dauda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on physical properties and specific heat capacity of Tamarindus indica seed. Physical properties investigated were axial dimensions, one thousand seed weight, bulk and true densities, porosity, roundness and sphericity, surface area, angle of repose and static coefficient of friction. The thermal property determined was the specific heat. These properties of Tamarindus indica seed were investigated within the moisture content range of 7.55 - 10.47% (d.b. The length, width and thickness increased from 9.979 to 10.634mm, 8.909 to 10.089mm and 5.039 to 5.658mm, respectively in the above moisture range. One thousand seed weight, surface area, seed volume, true density and porosity, increased from 388.4 to 394.8g, 86.916 to 87.58cm2, 0.353 to 0.366cm3, 1217.5 to 1287.00kg/m3 and 28.22 to 33.87%, respectively, as moisture content increased in the above range, while bulk density decreased from 873.9 to 851.4kg/m3. Roundness and sphericity, and angle of repose also increased from 41 to 42.4% and 73.7 to 76.3% and 36.1 to 38.93o, respectively. Specific heat capacity values increased linearly from 589.00J/kgK to 638.61 J/kgK in the above moisture range.

  9. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant screening of fruits, bark and leaves of lagerstroemia indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Arooj, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Lagerstroemia indica L. The phytochemical screening of L. indica revealed the presence of active metabolites such as anthraquinones, reducing sugars, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. Antimicrobial assessment was carried out against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) and fungal strains (Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger). Maximum antibacterial potential (58.33 9 ± 0.88 mm) was exhibited by petroleum ether extract of bark against B. subtilis. The maximum antifungal potential 40.33 ± 0.88 mm and 40.0 ± 1.15 mm against A. niger was observed by chloroform extract of bark and fruits respectively. The antioxidant potential was assessed using five assays viz. ABTS activity, DPPH degree radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, total flavonoid contents and total phenolic contents. Highest TEAC value 7.946 ± 0.04 mM trolox for ABTS+ assay was observed by aquous extract of leaves. The highest values for total flavonoid contents 1185.740 ± 0.01 mu g/ml and total phenolic contents 40.333 ± 0.23 mu g/ml was exhibited by petroleum ether bark extract. The maximum metal chelating activity 60.302 ± 0.93 was observed by petroleum ether extract of fruit. The highest value of % DPPH degree (92.92 ± 0.08 %) was observed by aquous extract of bark. (author)

  10. Transcriptome Profiling to Discover Putative Genes Associated with Paraquat Resistance in Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Shen, Xuefeng; Ma, Qibin; Yang, Cunyi; Liu, Simin; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.), a serious annual weed in the world, has evolved resistance to several herbicides including paraquat, a non-selective herbicide. The mechanism of paraquat resistance in weeds is only partially understood. To further study the molecular mechanism underlying paraquat resistance in goosegrass, we performed transcriptome analysis of susceptible and resistant biotypes of goosegrass with or without paraquat treatment. Results The RNA-seq libraries generated 194,716,560 valid reads with an average length of 91.29 bp. De novo assembly analysis produced 158,461 transcripts with an average length of 1153.74 bp and 100,742 unigenes with an average length of 712.79 bp. Among these, 25,926 unigenes were assigned to 65 GO terms that contained three main categories. A total of 13,809 unigenes with 1,208 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 314 predicted KEGG metabolic pathways, and 12,719 unigenes were categorized into 25 KOG classifications. Furthermore, our results revealed that 53 genes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, 10 genes related to polyamines and 18 genes related to transport were differentially expressed in paraquat treatment experiments. The genes related to polyamines and transport are likely potential candidate genes that could be further investigated to confirm their roles in paraquat resistance of goosegrass. Conclusion This is the first large-scale transcriptome sequencing of E. indica using the Illumina platform. Potential genes involved in paraquat resistance were identified from the assembled sequences. The transcriptome data may serve as a reference for further analysis of gene expression and functional genomics studies, and will facilitate the study of paraquat resistance at the molecular level in goosegrass. PMID:24927422

  11. Late nitrogen application enhances spikelet number in indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Wei Zhou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To increase rice yield potential, field experiments were conducted in farmers’ paddies in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen applications on the yield and panicle components of three typical indica hybrid rice varieties in Sichuan Province. The number of grains per panicle resulting from late nitrogen application (LA was 12 % greater than that obtained from traditional nitrogen application (TA; this increase was the main source of improvements in yield. The number of surviving and differentiated spikelets (NSS and NDiS resulting from LA was significantly higher than that measured under TA, especially for the Fyou498 cultivar, where the NSS and NDiS increased by 15 % and 14 %, respectively. Compared with TA, the number of degenerated secondary branches and the percentage of degenerated secondary branches (NDeSB and PDeSB were significantly reduced by 9 % and 11 %, respectively, by LA. This is the first study to demonstrate that an increase in NSS and a decrease in NDeSB lead to yield-improving effects attributable to LA. The grain yields of different varieties ranged from 9225.6 to 9408.7 kg ha−1, the PDeSB was as high as 31 %, and the number of surviving secondary branches (NSSB was significantly and positively correlated with NSS. These data indicate that the yield of indica hybrid rice has considerable potential for being improved, and increasing NSSB is key to increasing NSS and improving the grain yield. These improvements should be pursued so as to increase the yield of hybrid rice to ensure both food security and sustainable agricultural development.

  12. Estabilidad en estante de tabletas de las hojas de Tamarindus indica L Storage condition stability of Tamarindus indica L. leaf tablets

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    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar la estabilidad física, química y microbiológica, en estante, de tabletas de hojas de Tamarindus indica L. Métodos: se evaluaron las propiedades físico-mecánicas, la concentración de polifenoles, los perfiles de disolución y la calidad microbiológica durante dos años, manteniendo las tabletas envasadas en frascos de cloruro de polivinilo de alta densidad, con tapa inviolable y almacenadas en lugar seco y fresco. Se realizaron determinaciones de cada una de las propiedades cada tres meses. Resultados: Durante el estudio, las tabletas mantuvieron el color marrón claro que las caracteriza, el mismo olor fresco a fruta madura y la misma apariencia física. Las propiedades físicas se mantuvieron intactas durante dos años: dureza mayor que 5 kg/f (Monsanto, friabilidad menor que 1 %, masa y la altura dentro de la variabilidad permitida. El tiempo de desintegración fue menor que 10 min. La cantidad de polifenoles liberada en 30 min estuvo por encima del 87 % durante el estudio. Conclusiones: se demostró que las tabletas de tamarindo 120 mg, mantienen las propiedades físico-mecánicas, la concentración de polifenoles y la calidad microbiológica y biofarmacéutica durante dos años. Para asegurar la estabilidad química de las tabletas con mayor precisión, en este momento se desarrollan estudios por cromatografía de capa delgada.Objective: to evaluate the physical stability, chemical and microbiological stability of the Tamarindus indica L tablets on shelf. Methods: the physical and mechanical properties, the polyphenol concentrations, the dissolution profiles and the microbiological quality were evaluated for two years. Tablets were packed in high density PVP flasks and were stored in a dry and fresh place. Each of the properties was determined every three months. Results: throughout the study, the tablets kept their characteristic light brown color, the same odour resembling ripe fruit and the same physical

  13. Saturação de manga (Mangifera indica L. var. rosa com açúcares Mango (Mangifera indica l. cv. rosa saturation with sugars

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    Margarida Sabino RIBEIRO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangas (Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa, no estádio "de vez", selecionadas e lavadas em água contendo 8-10ppm cloro residual livre, 0,1% de detergente neutro e o pH ajustado e mantindo em 6, foram descascadas, cortadas em forma de cubos (2cmx2cm e estes tratados em água a 85° C por 10 minutos. Após resfriados em água gelada, ficaram imersos em xarope a 30° Brix (90% de sacarose e 10% de glicose, sendo o pH ajustado para 4. Após 48 horas, o equilíbrio osmótico foi atingido, o xarope drenado, tratado termicamente, e a concentração de açúcar aumentada em 10° Brix. A cada equilíbrio, o teor de açúcar era acrescido em 10° Brix e no final do processo, os cubos atingiram 71,6 e o xarope 76,5° Brix. No início do processo, o pH decresceu, enquanto a acidez aumentou em função da autofermentação ocorrida no sistema. Cessado o processo fermentativo, o pH caminhou para o equílibrio, oscilando entre 3,8 a 3,9. O teor de açúcares redutores (AR na fruta, que era de 2,15% no início do processo, esteve em contínuo aumento, em função dos tratamentos térmicos e do processo fermentativo, que contribuíram para que ocorresse a inversão da sacarose. No final do processso, esse teor era de 8,28%, que não foi acompanhado pelo xarope, que apresentou 5,14% de AR, devido à redução na velocidade de inversão da sacarose, ocasionada pela alta concentração de sólidos solúveis, pelo grau de absorção de AR da fruta e pelo pH do sistema. Testes de aceitabilidade revelaram que 73% dos adultos e 76% das crianças consumiriam a manga critalizada.Mango (Mangifera indica L cv. Rosa was in a stage of initial physiological maturation, it was washed in solution that showed 8-10 ppm of free residue chlorine 0,1% of the neutral detergents and the pH adjusted and maintained at 6. The mango was peeled and cutted in cubes (2cmx2cm, treated in hot water in 85oC for about 10 minutes. After cooling off in freezer water, the cubes were immersed in syrup

  14. Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2009-09-01

    This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae.

  15. Effects of Biopesticides on Foliar Diseases and Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) Adults in Roses (Rosa spp.), Oakleaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated efficacy of biopesticides for reducing foliar diseases and feeding damage from Japanese beetle adults on hybrid T rose (Rosa spp.), oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). The materials tested included household soaps with Triclosan act...

  16. COMPARACIÓN DEL EFECTO HIPOGLICEMIANTE DE LAS PLANTAS Azadirachta indica Y Eucalyptus camaldulensis EN CÉLULAS SANGUÍNEAS HUMANAS | COMPARISON OF THE HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT BETWEEN THE PLANTS Azadirachta indica AND Eucalyptus camaldulensis IN HUMAN BLOOD CELLS

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    Nubilde Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the most widely used medicinal plants by people are those that possess hypoglycemic effect, such as Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, which are widely distributed in Venezuela. The purpose of this research was to compare the hypoglycemic effect of A. indica and E. camaldulensis using aqueous solutions of each plant, in human blood cells in a normoglycemic medium. Aqueous solutions were used in concentrations of 6.4% m / v, in dosages of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.175, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL, for each plant, and the concentration of glucose was measured at 0, 90, 210, 300 and 600 sec. Insulin (Humulin® in concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 nM, was used as a control to compare its effect against aqueous solutions. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and comparison of means by the Tukey test. The results indicated that there was a greater hypoglycemic effect for the A. indica aqueous solution compared to the control (p = 0.0074, this effect was shown to be significant (p = 0.0349 in the higher doses 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL. Additionally, there was a notable increase hypoglycemic effect from 210 sec-600 sec (p < 0.0001. The aqueous solution of E. camaldulensis showed erratic behavior and lower effect than the control, without evidence of hypoglycemic effect. It is concluded that the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extracts of A. indica was evidenced while was not observed in those of E. camaldulensis.

  17. Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Metanol Kayu Mangifera indica L., Mangifera foetida Lour, dan Mangifera odorata Griff.

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    Ganis Lukmandaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ekstrak dari kayu dan kulit batang tiga spesies mangifera, yaitu mangga (Mangifera indica L., pakel (Mangifera foetida Lour, dan kweni (Mangifera odorata Griff. telah diuji aktivitas antioksidannya (AAO. Tiap bagian batang tersebut diekstrak dengan metanol (MeOH dan ekstrak kasarnya kemudian difraksinasi secara bertingkat dengan pelarut n-heksana, etil asetat (EtOAc dan n-butanol untuk memperoleh 4 fraksi berbeda. Sifat anti oksidan dari ekstrak MeOH dan hasil fraksinasinya ditentukan melalui uji 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak MEOH dari gubal pakel serta kulit kweni secara nyata memberikan AAO tertinggi jika dibandingkan dengan antioksidan standar (asam galat dan katekin dengan nilai IC50 sekitar 3-10 ppm. Dari beberapa faksi yang dipisahkan pada ekstrak MeOH di bagian-bagian tersebut, fraksi terlarut EtOAc secara nyata menunjukkan AAO tertinggi. Uji identifikasi metabolit sekunder dengan reaksi kimia secara kualitatif mengindikasikan bahwa alkaloid dan tanin berperan pada hasil pengujian AAO. Kadar fenolat total (KFT dari tiap ekstrak juga ditentukan berdasarkan metoda Folin-Ciocalteu. Baik pada bagian ekstrak kasar maupun hasil fraksinasi, hanya korelasi yang lemah didapatkan apabila antara nilai AAO dan KFT dihubungkan. Kata kunci : Mangifera, ekstraktif, antioksidan, uji DPPH, kadar fenolat   Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Extracts from Mangifera indica L., Mangifera foetida Lour, and Mangifera odorata Griff.Woods Abstract Wood and bark extracts of three mangifera species, mangga (Mangifera indica L., pakel (Mangifera foetida Lour, and kweni (Mangifera odorata Griff. were examined for its antioxidant activity (AOA. Each stem part was extracted with methanol (MeOH and the crude extract was then sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and n-butanol to obtain four different fractions. The antioxidant properties of the MeOH extracts and their fractions were determined by

  18. Indicações de cinecoronariografia na doença arterial coronária

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    Solimene Maria Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Na atualidade, o avanço da ciência médica e o aprimoramento das técnicas de revascularização miocárdica, tanto na área de cirurgia, como na intervenção percutânea, tornaram atrativa a opção inicial pelo tratamento invasivo de pacientes com doença arterial coronária. Desse modo, a cinecoronariografia tem sido cada vez mais indicada. Alguns conceitos têm sido revistos, especialmente em relação aos quadros isquêmicos agudos; o infarto do miocárdio sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (antes denominado infarto não-Q e a angina instável são considerados como "síndromes coronárias agudas instáveis" e a conduta para ambos é equivalente. Constituem indicações prioritárias para a cinecoronariografia: 1 os pacientes com angina limitante, mesmo estável; 2 aqueles com as síndromes agudas instáveis, considerados de alto risco (angina refratária, aumento de troponina, dor associada a novos desnivelamentos do segmento ST ou a insuficiência cardíaca e arritmias graves; 3 pacientes na fase aguda do infarto do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento de ST, que serão submetidos à angioplastia primária ou que evoluem com instabilidade hemodinâmica ou isquemia persistente. Os pacientes considerados de baixo risco clínico (angina de alívio rápido com medicação, ausência de alterações eletrocardiográficas ou laboratoriais ou dor torácica atípica podem ser estratificados por métodos não-invasivos; se não houver indução de isquemia, a cinecoronariografia não estará indicada e o tratamento clínico bem conduzido é ainda adequado para um grande número de doentes. A indicação de cinecoronariografia para o diagnóstico e prognóstico da doença arterial coronária tem tido limites imprecisos, e freqüentemente ela tem sido empregada como primeiro método na investigação da dor precordial, mesmo quando suas características não se enquadram na clássica "angina do peito". Nesta revisão, os autores discutem as

  19. Microgreffage de quatre espèces ligneuses sahéliennes Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica et Ziziphus mauritiana) en vue de leur rajeunissement

    OpenAIRE

    Danthu, P.; Hane, B.; Touré, M.; Sagna, P.; Sagna, M.; Bâ, S.; de Troyer, MA.; Soloviev, P.

    2001-01-01

    Micrografting of Four Sahelian Trees (Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritiana) with a View to their Rejuvenation. This paper proposes a protocol of rejuvenation of four Sahelian ligneous species : Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritian. It consists in aseptically removing a small scion (5-10 mm in length) and in micrografting it on to a seeding grown in vitro used as rootstock. The main elements of success are the age o...

  20. Efficacité biopesticide de Hyptis spicigera Lam., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. et Euphorbia balsamifera Ait. sur le niébé Vigna unguculata L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambara, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticide Efficacy of Hyptis spicigera Lam., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Euphorbia balsamifera Ait. on Cowpea Insect Pests Controlling. Hyptis spicigera Lam., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Euphorbia balsamifera Ait. biopesticide trial showed that their efficacy on cowpea insect pests controlling was lesser than deltamethrine. Plots treated with these plants extracts yielded more haulm than grain. Deep research undertaking is necessary to characterize these plants products and may be to enhance their biopesticide virtue.

  1. Cymothoa indica (Isopoda; Cymothoidae and Alitropus typus (Isopoda; Aegidae on freshwater fish Tilapia mossambica (Cichlidae in Vellar estuary, Southeast coast of India

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    G. Rameshkumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to establish the extent of double parasitation of two species of isopods Cymothoa indica and Alitropus typus on Tilapia mossambica. Cymothoa indica, a typical Indo-Pacific genus, and A. typus, a common crustacean parasite of fish in Southeast Asia, which feeds by sucking blood species, are reported by the first time in the freshwater fish Tilapia from Vellar estuary.

  2. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  3. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  4. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

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    R. N. Okigbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fungi to them was observed in culture. The tested organisms were Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat, Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc and Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom. All tested organisms showed different degrees of inhibitions by the extracts with A. niger being the most inhibited by ethanolic extraction of A. melegueta. The overall result showed that A. indica was more active on the organisms though it’s effects and that of A. melegueta were not significantly different (P>0.05.

  5. The effectiveness of mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss spray disinfectant on alginate impression

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    Hanoem EH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alginate impression contaminated by saliva and blood could potentially cause cross contamination. To prevent this, the impression has to be disinfected by disinfectant liquid, such as mimba oil. Mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A.Juss has some chemical content, such as azadirachtin, which is a phenol group used as antibacterial and antimalaria, nimbolide used as antibacterial and antimalarial, and nimbidin used as antibacterial and antifungal. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out the most effective concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression. Methods: Thirty six samples were taken from 9 respondents. This alginate impression was divided into 4 groups: group 1 sprayed with sterile aquadest (as control group, group 2 sprayed with mimba oil 50% for 30 seconds, group 3 sprayed with mimba oil 75% for 30 seconds, group 4 sprayed with mimba oil 100% for 30 seconds. The microorganism colony was counted by colony counter. The sample data then were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and was tested with Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test for further analysis. Results: There was significant difference among each group, p = 0.01 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, usage of 50% concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant is effective to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression.Latar belakang: Cetakan alginat yang terkontaminasi saliva dan darah dapat berpotensi terjadinya infeksi silang. Untuk mencegah hal tersebut, cetakan didisinfeksi dengan bahan disinfektan cair seperti minyak mimba. Minyak mimba (Azadirachta indica A.Juss memiliki beberapa kandungan kimia, antara lain Azadirachtin yang merupakan kelompok fenol yang memmiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria, nimbolide memiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria sedangkan nimbidin memiliki efek antibakteri dan antijamur. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi yang paling

  6. Differential Effects of Thidiazuron on Production of Anticancer Phenolic Compounds in Callus Cultures of Fagonia indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tariq; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-04-01

    Fagonia indica, a very important anticancer plant, has been less explored for its in vitro potential. This is the first report on thidiazuron (TDZ)-mediated callogenesis and elicitation of commercially important phenolic compounds. Among the five different plant growth regulators tested, TDZ induced comparatively higher fresh biomass, 51.0 g/100 mL and 40.50 g/100 mL for stem and leaf explants, respectively, after 6 weeks of culture time. Maximum total phenolic content (202.8 μg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/mL for stem-derived callus and 161.3 μg GAE/mL for leaf-derived callus) and total flavonoid content (191.03 μg quercetin equivalent [QE]/mL for stem-derived callus and 164.83 μg QE/mL for leaf-derived callus) were observed in the optimized callus cultures. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data indicated higher amounts of commercially important anticancer secondary metabolites such as gallic acid (125.10 ± 5.01 μg/mL), myricetin (32.5 ± 2.05 μg/mL), caffeic acid (12.5 ± 0.52 μg/mL), catechin (9.4 ± 1.2 μg/mL), and apigenin (3.8 ± 0.45 μg/mL). Owing to the greater phenolic content, a better 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity (69.45 % for stem explant and 63.68 % for leaf explant) was observed in optimized calluses. The unusually higher biomass and the enhanced amount of phenolic compounds as a result of lower amounts of TDZ highlight the importance of this multipotent hormone as elicitor in callus cultures of F. indica.

  7. Degradation of vitamin C in a product made from mango (Mangifera indica L. and whey protein

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    Fernando Alonso Mendoza-Corvis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the kinetics of vitamin C degradation in a product made from mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. and whey protein powder, in order to determine the effect of temperature on its conservation and further evaluate the behavior of the L*, a*, b* and the total color difference (ΔE in the powder product. Vitamin C was determined by the aoac 967.21/90 method using 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol, and the color was quantified with a HunterLab Color Flex EZ colorimeter. Vitamin C showed greater stability in the powder product ResumoEsta pesquisa procurou determinar a cinética de degradação da vitamina C em um produto em pó elaborado a base de polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. var. Hilacha e lactisoro, com o fim de conhecer o efeito da temperatura na sua conservação e ademais avaliar o comportamento dos parâmetros L*, a*, b* e a diferença total da cor (ΔE no produto. A vitamina C determinou-se mediante o método aoac 967.21/90, com 2,6-diclorofenol indofe-nol; enquanto que a cor se quantificou com um colorímetro cor Flex EZ marca HunterLab. A vitamina C exibiu maior estabilidade no produto em pó armazenado a uma temperatura de 4 °C, stored at 4 °C with a concentration at the end of the eighth sampling week of 13.94 ± 1.2 mg/10 0 g-1 sample and showing a first order degradation kinetics with k1 values of 0.014 and 0.041 mg/100 g/week at temperatures of 4 °C and 28 °C, respec-tively. The greatest variations in color occurred in samples stored at 28 °C, indicating the influence of the temperature change on the product compo-nents. In addition, L*, a* and b* parameters were less affected under storage temperature of 4 °C, and their values correspond to a second degree polynomial.

  8. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  9. Phenolic Profiling of Duchesnea indica Combining Macroporous Resin Chromatography (MRC with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS

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    Mingzhi Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchesnea indica (D. indica is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been clinically used to treat cancer in Asian countries. It has been described previously as a rich source of phenolic compounds with a broad array of diversified structures, which are the major active ingredients. However, an accurate and complete phenolic profiling has not been determined yet. In the present work, the total phenolic compounds in crude extracts from D. indica were enriched and fractionated over a macroporous resin column, then identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS (ion trap MS. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in D. indica, of which 21 compounds were identified for the first time. These 27 phenolic compounds encompassing four phenolic groups, including ellagitannins, ellagic acid and ellagic acid glycosides, hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and flavonols, were then successfully quantified using peak areas against those of the corresponding standards with good linearity (R2 > 0.998 in the range of the tested concentrations. As a result, the contents of individual phenolic compounds varied from 6.69 mg per 100 g dry weight (DW for ellagic acid to 71.36 mg per 100 g DW for brevifolin carboxylate. Not only did this study provide the first phenolic profiling of D. indica, but both the qualitative identification and the subsequent quantitative analysis of 27 phenolic compounds from D. indica should provide a good basis for future exploration of this valuable medicinal plant.

  10. Infestation of Raoiella indica Hirst (Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) on Host Plants of High Socio-Economic Importance for Tropical America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Colina, G; González-Gómez, R; Martínez-Bolaños, L; Otero-Prevost, L G; López-Buenfil, J A; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, R M

    2016-06-01

    The mite Raoiella indica Hirst was recently introduced into America, where it has shown amazing ability to disseminate and broaden its range of hosts. An experiment was conducted in Cancún, Mexico, to determine infestation levels of this mite on plants recorded as hosts: coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) of cultivars Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids Deli x Ghana and Deli x Nigeria, Dwarf Giant banana (Musa acuminata, AAA subgroup Cavendish), Horn plantain (M. acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB subgroup Plantain), lobster claw (Heliconia bihai), and red ginger (Alpinia purpurata). Nursery plants of these host species or cultivars were artificially infested with R. indica in February 2011. In the four replications of 10 plants, each plant was infested with 200 R. indica specimens, and the numbers of infesting mites were recorded for 6 months. A maximum of 18,000 specimens per plant were observed on coconut Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, followed by lobster claw, with a maximum of 1000 specimens per plant. Infestations were minimal for the remaining plants. Mite numbers on all plants declined naturally during the rainy season. All plant materials sustained overlapping mite generations, indicating that they are true hosts. Complementarily, infestation level was determined in backyard bananas and plantains. Correlations of infestation with plant height, distance from coconuts, and exposure to direct sunlight were estimated. Both bananas and plantains were infested by R. indica even when situated far from infested coconut palms. A Spearman correlation was found between infestation and plant height, although it was significant only for Silk plantain.

  11. Fabrication of Tamarindus indica seeds extract loaded-cream for photo-aged skin: Visioscan® studies

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    Muhammad Khurram Waqas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress triggered by free radicals promotes skin aging, which is designated by atypical pigmentation and wrinkles. The consumption of antioxidants is an efficacious measure to avert symptoms involved in skin aging. Aim: The current research was commenced to explore the anti-aging potential of antioxidants present in Tamarindus indica seeds extract. Material and methods: Tamarindus indica seeds extract was obtained by concentrating the ethanolic extract of seeds. The antioxidant activities of the extract were measured by nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Formulation comprising 4% of the concentrated extract of seeds was formulated by loading it in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil (W/O cosmetic emulsion. The base, used as control, consisted of the same emulsion but without loading Tamarindus indica seeds extract. The cosmetic emulsions were applied to the cheeks of 11 healthy male volunteers for duration of 12 weeks. Both base and formulation were assessed for their antioxidant effects on different skin parameters i.e. skin moisture contents, elasticity and surface evaluation of living skin (SELS. Results: The formulation showed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 and the base showed insignificant (p > 0.05 effects on skin elasticity and skin moisture contents. There is a significant decline in SELS, skin scaliness (SEsc, skin wrinkles (SEw, skin smoothness (SEsm, and skin roughness (SEr parameters after application of the formulation. Conclusions: Topical application of the cosmetic emulsion entrapped with Tamarindus indica seeds extract containing various antioxidants exerts potential skin antiaging effects.

  12. Comparative evaluation of Mangifera indica leaf mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation, and salivary streptococcal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sham S Bhat; K Sundeep Hegde; Chinchu Mathew; S Vidya Bhat; M Shyamjith

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to compare the efficacy of a mango (Mangifera indica) leaf mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque status, gingival status, and salivary Streptococcus mutans count. Materials and Methods: A sample of twenty children, aged 8–14 years, Mangalore Residential School, Karnataka, India, was allocated into two groups. Group A (10) and Group B (10) were given test mouthwash “mango leaf mouthwash” and chlorhexidine, respectively. The clinical trial was carried out for ½ h after ri...

  13. Phytochemical and in vitro and in vivo biological investigation on the antihypertensive activity of mango leaves (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Scherer, Rodrigo; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Boëchat, Giovanna Assis Pereira; Lenz, Dominik; Fronza, Marcio; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of leaves Mangifera indica L. using in vitro and in vivo assays. The ethanol extract of leaves of M. indica was fractionated to dichloromethanic, n-butyl alcohol and aqueous fractions. The chemical composition of ethanolic extract and dichloromethanic fraction were evaluated by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Antioxidant activity was evaluated in the DPPH scavenging activity assay. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was investigated using in vitro and in vivo assays. The chronic antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), dichloromethanic fraction (100 mg/kg; twice a day) or vehicle control for 30 days. The baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The dichloromethanic fraction exhibited the highest flavonoid, total phenolic content and high antioxidant activity. Dichloromethanic fraction elicited ACE inhibitory activity in vitro (99 ± 8%) similar to captopril. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of ferulic acid (48.3 ± 0.04 µg/g) caffeic acid (159.8 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (142.5 ± 0.03 µg/g), apigenin (11.0 ± 0.01 µg/g) and quercetin (203.3 ± 0.05 µg/g). The chronic antihypertensive effects elicited by dichloromethanic fraction were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalized in SHR. Plasma ACE activity and cardiac hypertrophy were comparable with animals treated with enalapril. Dichloromethanic fraction of M. indica presented an antihypertensive effect, most likely by ACE inhibition, with benefits in baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac hypertrophy. Altogether, the results of the present study suggest that the dichloromethanic fraction of M. indica leaves may have potential as a promoting

  14. Biology and Life History of Balcha indica, an Ectoparasitoid Attacking the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J.; Taylor, Philip B.; Fuester, Roger W.

    2011-01-01

    Balcha indica Mani and Kaul (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a solitary ectoparasitoid attacking larvae, prepupae, and pupae of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae). Its fecundity, oviposition rate, longevity, and development time were determined in the laboratory under standard rearing conditions (25 ± 2° C, 65 ± 10% relative humidity, and 14:10 L:D). Adults lived a mean of 59 days with a maximum of 117 days. Lifetime adult fecundity averaged 36 eggs with a maximum 94 eggs per female. The egg stage lasted for a maximum of four days with ∼ 50% eggs hatched within two days. The development time of the first instars lasted for a maximum of nine days; 50% of the first instars completed their development (i.e., molted to the next instar) within five days. Instars of the intermediate and final stage larvae (after molting of the first instars occurred) could not be distinguished until they reached the pupal stage, and 50% of those larvae pupated ∼ 62 days after adult oviposition. Under the standard rearing conditions, 50% of B. indica took ∼ 83 days to complete the life cycle (from egg to adult emergence) ranging from 47 to 129 days. These results suggest that B. indica may not have more than two generations in the mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions of United States, where normal growing seasons—with average temperature above 25° C—are normally less than six months (May–October). Because of the long life span and oviposition period of adults, however, B. indica is likely to have overlapping generations. PMID:22233385

  15. Chemical composition, leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils from Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa and Espada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eduardo H S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Nerys, Laís L de A; Nascimento, Silene C; Militão, Gardênia C G; de Figueiredo, Regina C B Q; da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from Mangifera indica var. Rosa and Espada latex were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-seven components were identified. The main compound in the essential oil from M. indica var. Espada (EOMiE) was terpinolene (73.6%). The essential oil of M. indica var. Rosa (EOMiR) was characterized by high amounts of β-pinene (40.7%) and terpinolene (28.3%). In the test for leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis, EOMiR and EOMiE showed IC50 (72 h) of 39.1 and 23.0 μg/mL, respectively. In macrophages, EOMiR and EOMiE showed CC50 of 142.84 and 158.65 μg/mL, respectively. However, both were more specific to the parasite than macrophages, with values of selectivity index of 6.91 for EOMiE and 3.66 for EOMiR. The essential oils were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the human tumor cells HEp-2, HT-29, NCI-H292, and HL-60. The EOMiR and EOMiE were most effective against the HL-60, with IC50 values of 12.3 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the essential oils of M. indica can destroy L. amazonensis and inhibit tumor cell growth. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the Brazilian biodiversity as a source of potential therapeutic agents.

  16. PELATIHAN MEMBUAT SABUN MANDI ANTI BAKTERI ALAMI DARI DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) DI DESA PENARUKAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rahayu Santi; I M, Sukadana; W. Bogoriani

    2012-01-01

    The activity of the community service about the manner of making nature antibacterial soap from Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss) was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the PKK members of Penarukan village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan Regency. Making nature antibacterial soap has very simple formulaic techniquee. The soap was made by using many chemicals, among others : coconut oil, 32% sodium hydroxide, dextrin, surfactant, dyes, parfume, as well as antibacterial agent from Nem...

  17. Biosynthesis of Anisotropic Silver Nanoparticles by Bhargavaea indica and Their Synergistic Effect with Antibiotics against Pathogenic Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Singh, Hina; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-01-01

    The strain Bhargavaea indica DC1 isolated from four-year-old P. ginseng rhizospheric soil was used to perform rapid and extracellular biosynthesis of anisotropic silver nanoparticles. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra of the reaction mixture containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 460 nm, corresponding to the surface plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Field-emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM) structural characterization revealed the nanobar, pentagon, s...

  18. Effect of temperature of 32P uptake and translocation in varieties and a cross of japonica and indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.R.; Madhusudhan Rao, L.

    1976-01-01

    Three genotypes of rice, one in each of japonica, indica, and a japonica-indica cross were grown in half-Hoagland culture solution. 32 P (40 μCi/I) was added to each of these culture jars and placed at 10,20,30 and 40degC in growth chamber for a period of 1,5 and 10 h at each temperature. The actual uptake of 32 P in plant was very low at 10 and 20degC; moderately low at 40degC and very low at 30degC in japonica and the cross. The uptake was higher at 30 and 40degC in indica. This indicates their ability in uptake of fertilizer at these temperatures. The percentage of absorbed ions decreased at 10 and 20degC and increased at 30 and 40degC with increased duration in all the genotypes. The actual uptake of ions was in proportion to the absorbed ions at higher temperatures and inversely proportional at lower temperatures. The percentage of translocation of 32 P to shoot increased with time between 20 and 50degC in indica, whereas it was high only at 30 and 40degC in japonica and the cross. The translocation was low at 10degC in all the genotypes. The uptake of 32 P at different concentrations under different diurnal temperatures (20/10, 30/20 and 40/30degC) was also studied. (author)

  19. Bioengineered 'golden' indica rice cultivars with beta-carotene metabolism in the endosperm with hygromycin and mannose selection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Baisakh, Niranjan; Oliva, Norman; Torrizo, Lina; Abrigo, Editha; Tan, Jing; Rai, Mayank; Rehana, Sayda; Al-Babili, Salim; Beyer, Peter; Potrykus, Ingo; Datta, Swapan K

    2003-03-01

    Vitamin-A deficiency (VAD) is a major malnutrition problem in South Asia, where indica rice is the staple food. Indica-type rice varieties feed more than 2 billion people. Hence, we introduced a combination of transgenes using the biolistic system of transformation enabling biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm of several indica rice cultivars adapted to diverse ecosystems of different countries. The rice seed-specific glutelin promoter (Gt-1 P) was used to drive the expression of phytoene synthase (psy), while lycopene beta-cyclase (lcy) and phytoene desaturase (crtI), fused to the transit peptide sequence of the pea-Rubisco small subunit, were driven by the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S P). Transgenic plants were recovered through selection with either CaMV35S P driven hph (hygromycin phosphotransferase) gene or cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter (CMP) driven pmi (phophomannose isomerase) gene. Molecular and biochemical analyses demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes. The yellow colour of the polished rice grain evidenced the carotenoid accumulation in the endosperm. The colour intensity correlated with the estimated carotenoid content by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Carotenoid level in cooked polished seeds was comparable (with minor loss of xanthophylls) to that in non-cooked seeds of the same transgenic line. The variable segregation pattern in T1 selfing generation indicated single to multiple loci insertion of the transgenes in the genome. This is the first report of using nonantibiotic pmi driven by a novel promoter in generating transgenic indica rice for possible future use in human nutrition.

  20. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  1. GABA-A Receptor Modulation and Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Antidepressant Activities of Constituents from Artemisia indica Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia indica, also known as “Mugwort,” has been widely used in traditional medicines. However, few studies have investigated the effects of nonvolatile components of Artemisia indica on central nervous system’s function. Fractionation of Artemisia indica led to the isolation of carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid which were evaluated for their effects on GABA-A receptors in electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes and were subsequently investigated in mouse models of acute toxicity, convulsions (pentylenetetrazole induced seizures, depression (tail suspension and forced swim tests, and anxiety (elevated plus maze and light/dark box paradigms. Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be positive modulators of α1β2γ2L GABA-A receptors and the modulation was antagonized by flumazenil. Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be devoid of any signs of acute toxicity (50–200 mg/kg but elicited anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolytic activities. Thus carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid demonstrated CNS activity in mouse models of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolysis. The anxiolytic activity of all three compounds was ameliorated by flumazenil suggesting a mode of action via the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA-A receptors.

  2. Biosorption of stable cesium by chemically modified biomass of Sargassum glaucescens and Cystoseira indica in a continuous flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, R; Ebrahimi, M; Aflaki, F; Ghafourian, H; Sahafipour, M H

    2008-11-30

    Pretreatment of biosorbents have been suggested to modify the surface characteristics which could improve biosorption process. Stable cesium biosorption was studied in continuous fixed-bed column by chemically modified biosorbents. Two kinds of brown algae (Sargassum glaucescens and Cystoseira indica) were treated with chemical agents including formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), potassium hexacyanoferrate (HCF), FA and HCF, and GA and HCF. The highest biosorption capacity (BC) was obtained from C. indica treated with FA (63.5 mg Cs/g biomass) and S. glaucescens treated with FA and HCF (62 mg Cs/g biomass). To study the effect of the best treatments on the BC, the concentration of each treatment agent was decreased. With decreasing FA agent for C. indica treatment, the BC dropped. Treatment of 1g S. glaucescens biomass with 2.2g FA and then 0.18 g HCF resulted in the highest BC (73.08 mg Cs/g dry biomass) which was 35.8 times higher than intact S. glaucescens.

  3. Biosorption of stable cesium by chemically modified biomass of Sargassum glaucescens and Cystoseira indica in a continuous flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabbagh, R. [Nuclear Science Research School, Nuclear Science Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rdabagh@yahoo.com; Ebrahimi, M.; Aflaki, F.; Ghafourian, H.; Sahafipour, M.H. [Nuclear Science Research School, Nuclear Science Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-11-30

    Pretreatment of biosorbents have been suggested to modify the surface characteristics which could improve biosorption process. Stable cesium biosorption was studied in continuous fixed-bed column by chemically modified biosorbents. Two kinds of brown algae (Sargassum glaucescens and Cystoseira indica) were treated with chemical agents including formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), potassium hexacyanoferrate (HCF), FA and HCF, and GA and HCF. The highest biosorption capacity (BC) was obtained from C. indica treated with FA (63.5 mg Cs/g biomass) and S. glaucescens treated with FA and HCF (62 mg Cs/g biomass). To study the effect of the best treatments on the BC, the concentration of each treatment agent was decreased. With decreasing FA agent for C. indica treatment, the BC dropped. Treatment of 1 g S. glaucescens biomass with 2.2 g FA and then 0.18 g HCF resulted in the highest BC (73.08 mg Cs/g dry biomass) which was 35.8 times higher than intact S. glaucescens.

  4. Jogo (indica-sus: estratégia lúdica na aprendizagem sobre o sistema único de saude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Gomes Maia Pires

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Es cuestionable que tecnología lúdico-educativa en el aprendizaje acerca de SUS favorece la imaginación, relajación, espontaneidad y reflexión en la formación de los profesionales de la salud. Los objetivos fueram desarrollar el juego (INDICA-SUS centrado en diálogo sobre políticas de salud con los juguetones; analizar componentes de relajación, placer, aspectos formativos, emociones y tácticas del desarrollo del (INDICA-SUS; identificar las variables indicativas de lo lúdico en tecnologías educativas para la salud. Enfoque exploratorio, descriptivo, cuantitativo y cualitativo, estudio de caso. Las pruebas se realizaron con partidas testes de 180 participantes, cuestionarios, observación participante, análisis de contenido y prueba estadística de Pearson. Las variables indicativas de ludicidad de tecnologías de educación para la salud incluyen placer y tensión en el juego. El (INDICA-SUS integra carácter inventivo, imaginativo e de intercambio como potencial para la formación; contemplase aprendizaje múltiple y el enseño del SUS, a partir de él.

  5. Production and Characterization of Cosmetic Nanoemulsions Containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill Extract as Moisturizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar de Azevedo Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill extract (FXE were white, homogeneous and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5–6.0; droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI around 0.200 and a zeta potential from −26.71 to −47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  6. Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; You, Xiao-Ying; Fu, Kong-Long; Yin, Wan-Le

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI) in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application. PMID:23304232

  7. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  8. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids inOpuntia ficus-indicaFruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n -butanol. The n -butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol- n -butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P x ) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3- O -methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3- O -β- d -glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n -butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-P x . OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  9. The effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on salt and drought stress tolerance in Stevia rebaudiana under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Seraj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Piriformospora indica under salt and drought stresses on some vegetative characteristics and physiological parameters of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni medicinal plant, an experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replicates at Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Factors include three levels of osmatic potential (0, -5, and -10 bar and with three osmotic sources including NaCl (Na, Mannitol (M and NaCl+Mannitol (N+M and inoculation of mycorrhizae like fungi at two levels (non-inoculated and inoculation with fungi. The plantlets were treated for 30 days and then some morphological and physiological parameters were measured. Results of ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction between osmatic source and levels with fungi inoculation for the most determined parameters. Inoculation of stevia plantlets with P. indica at osmatic level of -5 bar caused either by M or M+Na markedly improved dry weight of leaf (112 and 156%, respectively and aerial parts (49 and 144%, respectively as compared to the uninoculated control. Fungi inoculation positively improved vegetative parameters of stevia plant under most osmatic levels and sources. The most ameliorate effect, however, was observed where M as drought stress or M+Na were adjusted to -5 bar. Therefore, the results of this study represented a positive effect of P. indica inoculation in inproving osmotic tolerance of stevia medicinal plant.

  10. Effect of hyaluronic acid and polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes on the metabolism of human chondrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, A M; Cardile, V; Garufi, F; Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Ronsisvalle, S

    2007-05-04

    Conventional medications in articular disease are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favourable influence on the course of the disease. In this study, we assay the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective effect of some lyophilised extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes and of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the production of key molecules released during chronic inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human chondrocyte culture, stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Further the antioxidant effect of these extracts was evaluated in vitro employing the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test). All the extracts tested in this study showed an interesting profile in active compounds. Particularly some of these extracts were characterized by polyphenolic and polysaccharidic species. In vitro results pointed out that the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes were able to contrast the harmful effects of IL-1 beta. Our data showed the protective effect of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes in cartilage alteration, which appears greater than that elicited by hyaluronic acid (HA) commonly employed as visco-supplementation in the treatment of joint diseases.

  11. Analysis of anti-bacterial and anti oxidative activity of Azadirachta indica bark using various solvents extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raid Al Akeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medications have been used for relief of symptoms of disease. Regardless of the great advances observed in current medicine in recent decades, plants still make a significant contribution to health care. An alarming increase in bacterial strains resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to or less sensitive to current antibiotics. Anti-bacterial activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark was tested against pathogenic Salmonella paratyphi and Salmonella typhi using various solvent extracts. The in vitro anti-bacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method and the results were expressed as the average diameter of zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the well. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed better anti-bacterial activity with zone of inhibition (20–25 mm when compared with other tested extracts and standard antibiotic Erythromycin (15 mcg with zone of inhibition (13–14 mm. Using Fisher’s exact test of significance difference was found between two Salmonella strains sensitivity patterns against tested extracts (P ⩽ 0.035. Extracts of A. indica stem bark also exhibited significant antioxidant activity, thus establishing the extracts as an antioxidant. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the A. indica stem bark for further investigation of compounds and in future could be used as drug.

  12. Intoxicação em suínos pela ingestão de sementes de Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae Poisoning in swine from the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano N. Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um surto espontâneo de intoxicação em suínos pela ingestão de sementes de Aeschynomene indica e a reprodução da doença nessa espécie animal. O surto espontâneo ocorreu numa propriedade de criação de suínos localizada na região central do Rio Grande do Sul. Nessa propriedade havia 100 suínos (20 matrizes e 80 suínos jovens de várias categorias. Os suínos eram alimentados com uma ração feita na propriedade pela mistura de 50% farelo de milho, 25% de farelo de soja, 5% de um suplemento vitamínico-mineral de origem comercial e 20% quirera de arroz contaminada por 40% de sementes de A. indica. Embora aparentemente todos os suínos tenham recebido a mesma ração, apenas os suínos de 45 dias de idade foram afetados; as taxas de morbidade, mortalidade e letalidade foram respectivamente 25%-40%, 8,5%-20% e 25%-66%. Os sinais clínicos apareceram cerca de 24 horas após o início da administração da ração contendo sementes de A. indica e incluíam vários graus de incoordenação no andar, quedas, decúbito esternal com membros pélvicos posicionados afastados entre si, decúbito lateral e morte. Não foi possível determinar quantos suínos se recuperaram e quanto tempo levou a recuperação. Um suíno foi submetido à eutanásia e necropsiado na propriedade. A doença foi reproduzida em 5 suínos jovens (A-E alimentados com uma ração contendo 10% (Suíno A, 15% (Suíno B e 20% (Suínos C-E de sementes de A. indica e em um suíno mais velho (Suíno F que recebeu uma ração com 16,5% de sementes de A. indica. Os sinais clínicos foram semelhantes aos observados nos suínos do surto espontâneo. Os Suínos A, B e F foram submetidos à eutanásia e os Suínos C-E morreram de uma doença aguda respectivamente 16, 21 e 24 horas após o início do experimento. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuada hiperemia das leptomeninges em todos os suínos, grandes quantidades de sementes de A. indica no estômago e

  13. Report of cases in patients with acute herpetic neuralgia using a Mangifera indica extract

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    Beatriz Garrido-Suárez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Vimang® is the brand name of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae, traditionally used in Cuba for its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we determined the possible effects of Vimang formulations in acute herpes zoster (n=12 patients, that received a daily dose of 1800 mg of extract (two coated Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, three times daily before meals associated to low doses of amitriptyline (10-25 mg/d. In addition to the tablets, they utilized compresses containing Vimang dissolution at 2% on skin lesions for thirty days. The average daily pain score using a Likert scale and variations in concomitant drug daily dosage were determined. The analgesic effect was observed from week 1 (p<0.001 with respect to baseline data and none showed post-herpetic neuralgia. Significant reduction of antidepressant medication (p<0.01 and analgesic rescue dosages (p=0.0035 with respect to the initial daily dosage were showed. No adverse events were reported. The results obtained in this report of cases suggest that Vimang supplementation might be beneficial to prevent and treat neuropathic pain.

  14. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  15. Morphological and organoleptic description of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. cultivated in Jipijapa canton in Ecuador

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    Gabriel-Ortega Julio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2016, seventeen cultivars of mango (Mangifera indica L. were collected in local markets and farmers' field of Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, with the aim of describing and analyzing mango fruits due to their morphological characteristics of sugars (°Brix and total solids. Collections were carried out by stu-dents and teachers of the Research Methodologies course of the Agricultural Engineering Career, of the Southern State University of Manabí (UNESUM. The fruits were characterized by using 16 qualitative and quantitative variables for fruit and seed recommended by UPOV and IPGRI. The percentage of total solids and Brix grades of each harvested crop were also analyzed in the UNESUM bromatology laboratory. Results showed that in the Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, there is a great biodiversity of native mangoes, which were not characterized. Fruit shapes, pulp color and variable fiber contents were observed. The length of fruit was 6.33 to 12.50 cm, and the width was 5.27 to 8.50 cm, with a length/width ratio between 0.77 and 1.83 cm. The fruit weight was 63.3 to 500 g. No significant differences were observed in the sugars content (°Brix. Finally, it was observed that the range of consumable pulp was 63 to 94% in native cultivars and 86% to 97% in the improved ones.

  16. Thrombolytic potential of Ocimum sanctum L., Curcuma longa L., Azadirachta indica L. and Anacardium occidentale L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan Newaz; Habib, Md Razibul; Rahman, Md Mominur; Mannan, Adnan; Sarker, Md Mominul Islam; Hawlader, Sourav

    2011-06-01

    Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed xin blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether herbal preparations possess thrombolytic activity or not. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four aqueous herbal extracts viz., O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica, A. occidentale along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. The percentage (%) clot lysis was statistically significant (poccidentale showed moderate clot lysis activity (30.01 ± 6.168%, 32.94 ± 3.663%, 27.47 ± 6.943%, 33.79 ± 2.926% respectively) whereas standard streptokinase showed 86.2 ± 10.7 % clot lysis effect. From our study we found that all the herbs showed reasonable % of clot lysis. These herbal extracts possess thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of these extracts for clot lysis are yet to be discovered.

  17. Neoteric trends in tissue culture-mediated biotechnology of Indian ipecac [Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Saikat; Kundu, Suprabuddha

    2017-07-01

    Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill, an ethno-pharmacologically important perennial climber of Asclepiadaceae, is commonly known as Antamul or Indian ipecac. It is essentially accredited for its medicinal properties owing to its wide range of alkaloids in the form of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as tylophorine, tylophorinine, and tylophorinidine. Accelerated mass propagation of Tylophora is challenging because of its reduced seed germination frequency that consequently headed the pursuit for efficient protocols on in vitro propagation for the large-scale regeneration, conservation as well as sustainable supply of quality propagules. Ample tissue culture-mediated biotechnological investigations have been carried out on this medicinal plant till date and several micropropagation protocols have been standardized as well. The present review compares between several typical methods as well as factors, involving on direct and indirect organogenesis of Tylophora along with various up-to-date and modified techniques such as somatic embryogenesis, protoplast culture, synthetic seed production, genetic transformation, and in vitro interventions for the secondary metabolite production that have been reported in last two decades. This compilation will allow assessing the achievements and trends of Tylophora research so far, as well as will advance the research more rapidly, since many aspects, basic and applied, have yet to be explored.

  18. Azadirachta indica mitigates DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity- a biochemical and radiometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Ashwani; Mohan, Vandana; Bharati, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) was assessed against DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity. DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene) treatment (40 mg/kg body weight, ip) to male Balb/c mice resulted in the derailment of liver function as revealed by extremely slow clearance of 99m Tc-mebrofenin from liver, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine transaminase (ALT), compared to control group. In addition, elevated micronuclei score and high apoptotic index indicated hepatogenotoxicity in DMBA-treated mice. DMBA treatment also upregulated cytochrome P450 (CYP), cytochrome b 5 (Cyt b 5 ) and decreased glutathione-S-transferase activity in hepatic tissue, compared to control group. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels along with decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level were also observed in DMBA group, compared to control group. AAILE co-treatment (200 mg/kg body weight, po, thrice a week) for 8 weeks followed by DMBA injection showed significant improvement in hepatic status, as revealed by normalization of 99m Tc-mebrofenin clearance rate, decreased ALP and ALT levels, reduced genotoxicity in terms of micronuclei score and apoptotic index. Levels of LPO were significantly decreased along with increased hepatic GST and GSH levels in AAILE + DMBA group, compared to DMBA group. However, no significant change was observed in hepatic CYP and Cyt b 5 levels, compared to DMBA group. The results indicated that AAILE effectively ameliorated DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity. (author)

  19. Cardioprotective effect of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. on isoprenaline induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Prashee A; Trivedi, Purvi C; Nigade, Prashant B; Ghaisas, Mahesh M; Deshpande, Avinash D

    2008-05-07

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (AI) on the basis of haemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological parameters in isoprenaline induced myocardial infarction in rats and to compare with vitamin E, a known cardioprotective antioxidant. A significant (plevel of cardiac marker enzymes [Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Serum Glutamate Oxalotransaminase (SGOT)] in the heart homogenate with a corresponding increase in their level in serum. In vitamin E control group significant (plevels while decrease in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was observed. On histopathological examination, myocardial damage in isoprenaline control group further confirmed cardiotoxic effect of isoprenaline. Our data showed that AI (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly restores most of the haemodynamic, biochemical and histopathalogical parameters. Finally we concluded that AI leaf extract exerts equipotent cardioprotective activity in the experimental model of isoprenalin induced myocardial necrosis in rats as compared to vitamin E, a known cardioprotective antioxidant.

  20. Optimization of enzymatic extraction of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes after mucilage removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Friji, Marwa; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2018-02-15

    In this study, pectin was isolated from Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes after removing mucilage using the xylanase and cellulase. The process variables were optimized by the Box Behnken design with three factors at three levels. The optimal extraction condition obtained was: liquid to solid (LS), cellulase to xylanase and enzymes to matter ratios of 22ml/g, 2:1U/U and 4U/g, respectively. The simulated extraction yield of 17.91% was validated by the experimental result (16.67±0.30). The enzyme-extracted pectin from OFI cladodes (EAEPC) was low methylated, with a high uronic acid content, a water and oil holding capacity of 5.42g/g and 1.23g/g, respectively, a good foam and emulsion stability and important DPPH radical scavenging activity. Both the OFI cladodes and enzymatic process present promising alternatives to traditional sources and extraction processes of pectin, respectively. EAEPC thus represents a promising additive in food industries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Biocarbon of Tamarindus indica : An efficient biosorbent for Pb(II

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    Patel Amit B.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effective removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater is among the most important issue as the presence of heavy metals in the environment has adverse effect. Adsorption processes employed in the most of the available technologies for the removal of metal contaminants from aqueous systems. There is a need to develop new adsorbents which are readily available at low cost to remove metal contaminants in aqueous system. In this study, The presence of lead in drinking water above the permissible limit (5 ng/ml may cause adverse health effects such as anaemia, encephalopathy, hepatitis, and nephritic syndrome. Biocarbon produced from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica leaves was applied to remove of lead (II. Various kinetic models were tested for conformity to the experimental data obtained. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were also used to test the data. Batch sorption experiments were performed as a function of pH, contact time, solute concentration and adsorbent dose. The optimum pH required for maximum adsorption was found to be 4.0. The maximum contact time for the equilibrium condition is 2 hour at the biocarbon dose rate of 0.1g/20ml. The maximum efficiency of lead removal via biocarbon was found to be >98%.

  2. Total Economic Value of Applied Used Green Line Street Model For Tamarindus Indica in Rembang District

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    Rangga Fajar Abdillah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the green line street functions is to providing land of carbon sink crops. Javanese tamarind (Tamarindus indica is a type of productive crop that has a carbon absorbent function. The type of Javanese tamarind crops production is wood products and tamarind fruit harvest products. The purpose of this study to determine the total economic value (NET a calculation of the model of the applied use of green line street for Javanese tamarind plants .The economic value that can be calculated from the modeling are Direct Value and Indirect Value. Direct benefit value consist of value of wood and value of crop. While indirect benefits value consist of value of carbon stock and biodiversity value. This research was conducted in May 2017 in Rembang District, Rembang Regency, Central Java. The methods used are allometric modeling method and economic valuation method. Allometric modeling method is used to determine the potential of carbon and wood reserves along the green line street. While the economic valuation method is used to calculate total economic value of the application of this modeling result. Applying of this model has result in total economic value Rp 1,942,788,721 per year. It can be concluded that the green liner street has great potential utilization and should be optimally utilized.

  3. Antioxidant and toxicological evaluation of a Tamarindus indica L. leaf fluid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, J C; Perez-Rosés, R; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J; Mwasi, L B; Cabrera-Sotomayor, O; Machado-García, R; Fong-Lórez, O; Alfonso-Castillo, A; Puente-Zapata, E

    2016-01-01

    In the scientific community, there is a growing interest in Tamarindus indica L. leaves, both as a valuable nutrient and as a functional food. This paper focuses on exploring its safety and antioxidant properties. A tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) wholly characterised was evaluated for its anti-DPPH activity (IC50 = 44.36 μg/mL) and its reducing power activity (IC50 = 60.87 μg/mL). TFE also exhibited a high ferrous ion-chelating capacity, with an estimated binding constant of 1.085 mol L(-1) while its influence over nitric oxide production in human leucocytes was irregular. At low concentrations, TFE stimulated NO output, but it significantly inhibited it when there was an increase in concentration. TFE was also classified as a non-toxic substance in two toxicity tests: the acute oral toxicity test and the oral mucous irritability test. Further toxicological assays are needed, although results so far suggest that TFE might become a functional dietary supplement.

  4. Inhibition of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (Ex Vivo by Morus indica (Mulberry

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    Vanitha Reddy Palvai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are the bioactive components that contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase would be an effective means of lowering plasma cholesterol in humans. The present study explores the HMG CoA reductase inhibitory effect of extracts from leaves of Morus indica varieties, M5, V1, and S36, compared with the statin, using an ex vivo method. The assay is based on the stoichiometric formation of coenzyme A during the reduction of microsomal HMG CoA to mevalonate. Dechlorophyllised extract of three varieties was studied at 300 µg. The coenzyme A released at the end of assay in control (100.31 nmoles and statins (94.46 nm was higher than the dechlorphyllised extracts of the samples. The coenzyme A released during the reduction of HMG CoA to mevalonate in dechlorophyllised extracts of the samples was as follows: S36 < M5 < V1. The results indicated that the samples were highly effective in inhibiting the enzyme compared to statins (standard drug. The results indicate the role of Morus varieties extracts in modulating the cholesterol metabolism by inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase. These results provide scope for designing in vivo animal studies to confirm their effect.

  5. Formulación de cápsulas duras de Tamarindus indica L.

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    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    Full Text Available Objetivo: formular cápsulas duras a partir de extracto blando de Tamarindus indica L. Métodos: se seleccionaron las cantidades de los excipientes lactosa monohidratada, almidón de maíz y dióxido de silicio coloidal (Aerosil®, utilizando un diseño factorial 2³. Se seleccionó para envasar en cápsulas, el granulado con mejor fluidez y menor humedad residual. Se evaluó la calidad de las cápsulas duras. Resultados: la formulación escogida fue lactosa monohidratada 35,0 g, Aerosil® 3,0 g y almidón de maíz 7,5 g, pues mostró buena fluidez y una humedad residual de 4,17 %. Las cápsulas duras formuladas, presentaron buena calidad tecnológica. Conclusiones: se obtuvieron cápsulas duras que pueden ser preparadas, a pequeña escala, a nivel dispensarial.

  6. Highly efficient protocol for callogenesis, somagenesis and regeneration of Indica rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Parisa; Rafii, Mohd Y; Mahmood, Maziah; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Abiri, Rambod; Sahebi, Mahbod

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we have reported a simple, fast and efficient regeneration protocol using mature embryos as explants, and discovered its effective applicability to a range of Indica rice genotypes. We have considered the response of six varieties in the steps of the regeneration procedure. The results showed that calli were variably developed from the scutellar region of seeds and visible within 6-20 days. The highest and lowest calli induction frequency (70% and 51.66%) and number of induced calli from seeds (14 and 10.33) were observed in MR269 and MRQ74, respectively. The maximum and minimum number (7.66 and 4) and frequency of embryogenic calli (38.33% and 20%) were recorded in MR219 and MRQ74, respectively. However, the highest browning rate was observed in MR84 (87%) and the lowest rate in MRQ50 (46%). The majority of plants regenerated from embryogenic calli were obtained from MRQ50 (54%) and the minimum number of plants from MR84. In this study, the maximum numbers of plantlets were regenerated from the varieties with highest rate of embryogenic calli. Also, various varieties, including MRQ50, MR269, MR276 and MR219, were satisfactorily responding, while MRQ74 and MR84 weakly responded to the procedure. Such a simple, successful and generalized method possesses the potential to become an important tool for crop improvement and functional studies of genes in rice as a model monocot plant. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

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    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  8. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A.; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M.; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:25878974

  9. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgad A Awad El-Gied

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L. is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L. The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

  10. Efecto insecticida del extracto de semillas de Neem (Azadirachta indica sobre Collaria scenica, Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Daniel Villamil Montero

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. This work was developed with the objetive to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against grass bug nymphs Collaria scenica Stal. For that, an extract was prepared from green fruits of Neem by rotaevaporación. The extract was diluted in three ppm concentrations corresponding to treatments. Using thin-layer chromatography we identified the presence of Azaridactina. DCA essay was carried out with 4 treatments and 5 repetitions that included the three extract concentrations and a control. In each repetition were used 15 nymphs, randomly placed in plastic boxes with food and the corresponding concentration. Every day an extract application was made and recorded mortality percentage, number of exuviae and number of individuals who came to adulthood in each treatment. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Games-Howell for each variable. The three concentrations of Neem seed extract had a negative effect on the development of the bugs. The more concentrated treatment (250 ppm was the most effective, showing a 97% mortality, fewer exuvias and and fewer adults in the end of the experiment.

  11. Volatile constituents and polyphenol composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill from Morocco

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    jihane OUMATOU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the extraction and the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and total phenolic compounds of three Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., species from Morocco, namely Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul. The VOCs were extracted with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME associated to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant compounds in extracts were determined by liquid- Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS. The study allowed the identification of forty-six compounds for the VOCs. The most abundant compounds in the three varieties (Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul were 2-hexanal and n-hexanol with a percentage of 10.6%, 10.9% and 44.0% for the first compound and 10.3 %, 59.0%, 18.7% for the second, successively. The extraction of phenolic compounds permitted the identification and quantification of 15 fractions of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Caffeic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid with 16.0 and 10.8 mg/100g of plant material respectively for Dellahia and Aissa. For flavoinoids composition, isorhamnetin was the major compound. It accounted respectively for 40.5% and 43.2% for Dellahia and Aissa. We can conclude that cactus pear fruits are a good source of natural antioxidants and the major compounds responsible of flavor in the studied varieties are 2-hexanal and n-hexanol.

  12. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  13. Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with leaf spot of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nurul Husna; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Mohamed Nor, Nik Mohd Izham; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2018-01-01

    Leaf spot diseases are mainly caused by fungi including Fusarium. In the present study several species of Fusarium were isolated from the leaf spot lesion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) Based on morphological characteristics, TEF-1α sequences and phylogenetic analysis, five species were identified as F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. mangiferae, F. solani and F. chlamydosporum. Pathogenicity test indicated that representative isolates of F. proliferatum, F. semitectum and F. chlamydosporum were pathogenic on mango leaves causing leaf spot with low to moderate virulence. Nevertheless, abundance of spots on the leaf can disrupt photosynthesis which in turn reduced growth, and lead to susceptibility to infection by opportunistic pathogens due to weakening of the plant. Fusarium solani and F. mangiferae were non-pathogenic and it is possible that both species are saprophyte which associated with nutrient availability on the surface of the leaf through decaying leave tissues. The occurrence of Fusarium spp. on the leaf spot lesion and the effect from the disease needs to be considered when developing disease management method of mango cultivation as numerous spot on the leaves could effect the photosynthesis process and finally giving low yield and less quality of mango. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity of mango (Mangifera indica) germplasm in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, I G B; Valente, S E S; Britto, F B; de Souza, V A B; Lima, P S C

    2011-12-14

    We evaluated genetic variability of mango (Mangifera indica) accessions maintained in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using RAPDs. Among these accessions, 35 originated from plantings in Brazil, six from the USA and one from India. Genomic DNA, extracted from leaf material using a commercial purification kit, was subjected to PCR with the primers A01, A09, G03, G10, N05, and M16. Fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified, with mean of 9.16 ± 3.31 bands per primer and 100% polymorphism. Application of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average cluster analysis demonstrated five genotypic groups among the accessions examined. The genotypes Rosa 41, Rosa 48 and Rosa 49 were highly similar (94% similarity), whereas genotypes Sensation and Rosa 18 were the most divergent (only 7% similarity). The mango accessions were found to have considerable genetic variability, demonstrating the importance of analyzing each genotype in a collection in order to efficiently maintain the germplasm collection.

  15. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2018-02-08

    Mango ( Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10 -6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10 -6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  16. Protective effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Eun Young; Choi, Goya; Hyun, Jin Won; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Hye Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2013-04-01

    Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose extracts have been described as an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Skin aging is a consequence of chronic sun exposure to the sun and therefore ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Naturally occurring antioxidants are known to reduce skin aging. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of mango extract against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. HR-1 hairless male mice (6 weeks old) were divided into three groups: control (n = 5), UVB-treated vehicle (n = 5), and UVB-treated mango extract (n = 5) groups. UVB-irradiated mice from the mango extract group were orally administered 0.1 ml of water containing 100 mg of mango extract/kg body weight per day. The inhibitory activity of mango extract on wrinkle formation was determined by the analysis of the skin replica, epidermal thickness based on histological examination, and damage to collagen fiber. The mean length of wrinkles in UVB-treated vehicle group significantly improved after the oral administration of mango extract, which significantly inhibited the increase in epidermal thickness and epidermal hypertrophy (P mango extract by Masson's trichrome staining. These results indicate that mango extract showed anti-photoaging activity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Comparison of efficiency of distance measurement methodologies in mango (Mangifera indica) progenies based on physicochemical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, E O S; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Souza, A M; Santos, C A F; Lima Neto, F P; Corrêa, R X

    2012-03-14

    We investigated seven distance measures in a set of observations of physicochemical variables of mango (Mangifera indica) submitted to multivariate analyses (distance, projection and grouping). To estimate the distance measurements, five mango progeny (total of 25 genotypes) were analyzed, using six fruit physicochemical descriptors (fruit weight, equatorial diameter, longitudinal diameter, total soluble solids in °Brix, total titratable acidity, and pH). The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the seven distance measurements were, except for the Mahalanobis' generalized distance (0.41 ≤ rs ≤ 0.63), high and significant (rs ≥ 0.91; P < 0.001). Regardless of the origin of the distance matrix, the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouping method proved to be the most adequate. The various distance measurements and grouping methods gave different values for distortion (-116.5 ≤ D ≤ 74.5), cophenetic correlation (0.26 ≤ rc ≤ 0.76) and stress (-1.9 ≤ S ≤ 58.9). Choice of distance measurement and analysis methods influence the.

  18. Bioethanol production from leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) involving naturally isolated and recombinant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Deka, Deepmoni; Jawed, Mohammad; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Arun

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the usage of dried leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) containing 26.3% (w/w) cellulose, 54.4% (w/w) hemicellulose, and 16.9% (w/w) lignin, as a substrate for bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Candida shehatae. The substrate was subjected to two different pretreatment strategies, namely, wet oxidation and an organosolv process. An ethanol concentration (1.21 g/L) was obtained with Z. mobilis in a shake-flask simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) trial using 1% (w/v) wet oxidation pretreated mango leaves along with mixed enzymatic consortium of Bacillus subtilis cellulase and recombinant hemicellulase (GH43), whereas C. shehatae gave a slightly higher (8%) ethanol titer of 1.31 g/L. Employing 1% (w/v) organosolv pretreated mango leaves and using Z. mobilis and C. shehatae separately in the SSF, the ethanol titers of 1.33 g/L and 1.52 g/L, respectively, were obtained. The SSF experiments performed with 5% (w/v) organosolv-pretreated substrate along with C. shehatae as fermentative organism gave a significantly enhanced ethanol titer value of 8.11 g/L using the shake flask and 12.33 g/L at the bioreactor level. From the bioreactor, 94.4% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21% purification efficiency.

  19. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

  20. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.