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Sample records for sino-singapore defense relation

  1. [Scenario analysis on sustainable development of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city based on emergy and system dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-fa; Cao, Ying-ying; Yang, Jian-cho; Yang, Qi-qi

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic evaluation of sustainable development is one of the key fundamental parts of the success of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, which is the first eco-city in China constructed by international cooperation. Based on the analysis of nature and economy, function and structure, planning control indices and so on, we constructed a sustainable development evaluation index system and a system dynamics model of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city to explore dynamic trends of its population, material and currency by comprehensive utilization of emergy analysis and system dynamics method. Five scenarios were set up and simulated, including inertial scenario, scientific and technological scenario, economic scenario, environmental scenario and harmonious development scenario. Then, the sustainability of the 5 scenarios was evaluated and compared. The results showed that in the economy and environment sustainable development scenario, there was a steady growth trend of GDP, accumulation of both emergy and currency, and relatively lower values in emergy waste ratio, emergy ratio of waste, and emergy loading ratio. Although both sustainable evaluation indices, such as ESI and UEI, were relatively low, the economy and environment sustainable development scenario was still the best development scenario which was more active than others.

  2. Financing Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City: What Lessons Can Be Drawn for Other Large-Scale Sustainable City-Projects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjie Zhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC is currently the best-known and arguably the most successful large-scale sustainable new town development project in China; as such, experiences gathered there are of significant importance for the development of other eco-cities in China and elsewhere. This article focuses on a thus far relatively understudied aspect of SSTEC, the financial vehicles used to fund SSTEC. The authors find that highly structured and intense collaboration at the national level between China and Singapore plays a catalytic role in attracting many other players to the project by giving them confidence that it is too big to fail. It encourages various preferential policies from lower governmental bodies, broad involvement of the private sector, a market-based operation model and the issuing of bonds in Singapore, which all contribute significantly to Tianjin eco-city’s financial viability. The broad involvement of the private sector relieves part of the financial burden from local governments, while the bonds issued in international markets lower the interest rate for master developers. However, the Sino-Singaporean collaboration at the national level is far less likely to be replicated to other eco-cities, since this requires an enormous willingness on the part of other countries to invest manpower, money, and other resources into the construction of eco-cities in China.

  3. Financing Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City : What lessons can be drawn for other large-scale sustainable city-projects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhan, C.; de Jong, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC) is currently the best-known and arguably the most successful large-scale sustainable new town development project in China; as such, experiences gathered there are of significant importance for the development of other eco-cities in China and elsewhere.

  4. United States Civil Military Relations: Defense Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of 1986 .............17 Figure 2. Relations between Intelligence and Policymakers’ Attitudes ....................52 Figure 3. Recommendation for the...The Washington Quarterly, 20, no. 4, (Autumn 1997), 31–33, doi:10.1080/01636609709550275; and Ole Holsti, “Of Chasms and Convergences: Attitudes ...serious injury to several more operatives.61 Commanders on the ground aborted the mission when only five of eight helicopters were able to make it to

  5. Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, L.C. van; Rep, M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been found to occur more specifically in some plant species. Most PRs and related proteins are induced through the action of the signaling compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, and possess...

  6. Induced expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis upon infection with Phytophthora capsici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Bouwmeester, K.; Mortel, van de J.E.; Shan, W.; Govers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of pathogens by plants initiates defense responses including activation of defense-related genes and production of antimicrobial compounds. Recently, we reported that Phytophthora capsici can successfully infect Arabidopsis and revealed interaction specificity among various

  7. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  8. KEY DUTIES OF A COUNTRY’S ECONOMY RELATED TO NATIONAL DEFENSE IN CRITICAL TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahruz MAMMADOV

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A country’s economy has a special role in a country’s defense. The organization of the national defense is carried out not only through the development of national armed forces, but also by increasing the sustainability of the economic activity for provision of the State and population demands during war. For this reason, development of the economic potential, taking necessary measures for preparation and sustainability of labor, material and financial resources are one of the significant issues and studying the conceptual, legal and economic issues related to the duties of the economy in the organization of state defense in Azerbaijan is very crucial.

  9. Defense-related proteins involved in sugarcane responses to biotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Thais P.; Dias, Renata O.; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sugarcane is one of the most important agricultural crops in the world. However, pathogen infection and herbivore attack cause constant losses in yield. Plants respond to pathogen infection by inducing the expression of several protein types, such as glucanases, chitinases, thaumatins, peptidase inhibitors, defensins, catalases and glycoproteins. Proteins induced by pathogenesis are directly or indirectly involved in plant defense, leading to pathogen death or inducing other plant defense responses. Several of these proteins are induced in sugarcane by different pathogens or insects and have antifungal or insecticidal activity. In this review, defense-related proteins in sugarcane are described, with their putative mechanisms of action, pathogen targets and biotechnological perspectives. PMID:28222203

  10. Regulation of Stomatal Defense by Air Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Shweta; Chitrakar, Reejana; Thompson, Blaine K; Obulareddy, Nisita; Roy, Debanjana; Hambright, W Sealy; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-11-01

    It has long been observed that environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants and animals. For instance, many bacterial plant disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds and natural openings, such as stomata, which are adjustable microscopic pores in the epidermal tissue. Several studies have shown that stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion. In this study, we found that high humidity can effectively compromise Pseudomonas syringae-triggered stomatal closure in both Phaseolus vulgaris and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is accompanied by early up-regulation of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway and simultaneous down-regulation of salicylic acid (SA) pathway in guard cells. Furthermore, SA-dependent response, but not JA-dependent response, is faster in guard cells than in whole leaves, suggesting that the SA signaling in guard cells may be independent from other cell types. Thus, we conclude that high humidity, a well-known disease-promoting environmental condition, acts in part by suppressing stomatal defense and is linked to hormone signaling in guard cells. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Ego Defense Mechanisms and Types of Object Relations in Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Silva, Vanessa; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio

    2016-11-01

    This research evaluates the personality structure of adults with ADHD from a psychodynamic perspective. The hypothesis was that possible structural characteristics in personality could be correlated with this syndrome. Assessment tools for ego functions (Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory [BORRTI-Form O], Defense Style Questionnaire ( DSQ-40)) were applied to a sample of 90 adults with ADHD, recruited in a specialized clinic. Among the ADHD sample, 84.4% of the participants were identified as having object relations pathologies. Pathological elevations were observed mainly in the Alienation, Egocentricity, and Insecure Attachment subscales. Statistically, significant differences were found especially in the use of immature and neurotic defense mechanisms, compared with normative data. The findings indicate that adults with ADHD make more use of immature and neurotic defense mechanisms, and presented pathological internalized object relations that are typical of an archaic and poorly structured egoic structure. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER, NATIONAL DEFENSE AND CI IL MILITARY RELATIONS

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    Miguel Navarro Meza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of its independent life, the several constitutions of Chile have included concepts related ith defence, sovereignty and national security. At the same time, those constitutional texts have recognized the existence of the armed organizations of the State, under the generic name of Public Force and have addressed their relation ith the political authorities, both ith the Executive and Congress. his has not been a permanent process. n the contrary, it has suffered upheavals and bac steps, but the general path has been clear and progressive. For one thing, the norms related to the armed forces have been, in comparative terms, more thoroughly developed than those referring to defence, sovereignty and national security. hen, from the 1833 Constitution, the basic elements of the relations bet een the political authorities and the military have evolved so as to ensure a genuine civilian control over the military, in line ith contemporary theories of civilDmilitary relations. he ay in hich the 1980 Constitution addresses national security and defence and its provisions that recognize the existence of the armed forces, their missions and roles and that regulate the ay in hich they relate to the political authorities, are the result of a progressive development starting ith the Provisional Constitution of 1811 up to present times, and they are completely in line ith current theories about civilDmilitary relations in democracy.

  13. Induced expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis upon infection with Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Bouwmeester, Klaas; van de Mortel, Judith E; Shan, Weixing; Govers, Francine

    2013-07-01

    Recognition of pathogens by plants initiates defense responses including activation of defense-related genes and production of antimicrobial compounds. Recently, we reported that Phytophthora capsici can successfully infect Arabidopsis and revealed interaction specificity among various accession-isolate combinations. We used this novel pathosystem to demonstrate that camalexin, indole glucosinolates (iGS) and salicylic acid (SA) have a role in defense against P. capsici. To further investigate the role of camalexin-, iGS- and SA-related pathways in the differential interaction between Arabidopsis and P. capsici, we monitored expression of marker genes over time during infection. In both compatible and incompatible interactions, induction of expression was detected, but in compatible interactions transcript levels of camalexin and iGS marker genes were higher.

  14. The physician's quality of life: Relationship with ego defense mechanisms and object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Benedito; Louzã, Mário Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether ego defense mechanisms and object relations (the way an individual subjectively experiences his/her relationships with others) are related to quality of life among physicians. In this cross-sectional mail survey, 602 physicians from Botucatu, SP, Brazil, were sent a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory-Form O (BORRTI-O), the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40), and the World Health Organization Abbreviated Instrument for Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF). 198 questionnaires (33%) with valid responses were obtained. High BORRTI-O scores (indicative of pathology) on the alienation, egocentricity and insecure attachment subscales were associated with reduced WHOQOL-BREF scores for the psychological health and social relationship domains. Immature ego defense mechanisms were associated with lower WHOQOL-BREF scores for all domains. No significant associations of WHOQOL-BREF scores with working hours, workplace or monthly income were observed in the study population WHOQOL-BREF scores correlated with mature defense mechanisms and normal object relations, suggesting an association between psychological maturity and quality of life among physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Contempt and defensiveness in couple relationships related to childhood sexual abuse histories for self and partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric C; Sheffield, Rachel; Larson, Jeffry H; Holman, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) for one or both members of a romantic couple and perceptions of contempt and defensiveness for self and partner. Data from the Relationship Evaluation (RELATE) were analyzed for 10,061 couples. The findings suggest that when either or both partner(s) has a history of CSA, contempt and defensiveness in the couple relationship are greater than when neither reports a history of CSA. Furthermore, the males' experience of CSA had a greater impact on their perceptions of self and partner's contempt and defensiveness than females' experience of CSA. Explanations of gender differences are offered and implications for future research and practice are suggested. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  16. Arabidopsis NATA1 Acetylates Putrescine and Decreases Defense-Related Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Aileen S.

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine is induced in response to pathogen infection of plants. Putrescine, which is produced from Arg, serves as a metabolic precursor for longer polyamines, including spermidine and spermine. Polyamine acetylation, which has important regulatory functions in mammalian cells, has been observed in several plant species. Here we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY1 (NATA1) catalyzes acetylation of putrescine to N-acetylputrescine and thereby competes with spermidine synthase for a common substrate. NATA1 expression is strongly induced by the plant defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid and coronatine, an effector molecule produced by DC3000, a Pseudomonas syringae strain that initiates a virulent infection in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. DC3000 growth is reduced in nata1 mutant Arabidopsis, suggesting a role for NATA1-mediated putrescine acetylation in suppressing antimicrobial defenses. During infection by P. syringae and other plant pathogens, polyamine oxidases use spermidine and spermine as substrates for the production of defense-related H2O2. Compared to wild-type Columbia-0 Arabidopsis, the response of nata1mutants to P. syringae infection includes reduced accumulation of acetylputrescine, greater abundance of nonacetylated polyamines, elevated H2O2 production by polyamine oxidases, and higher expression of genes related to pathogen defense. Together, these results are consistent with a model whereby P. syringae growth is improved in a targeted manner through coronatine-induced putrescine acetylation by NATA1. PMID:27208290

  17. Arabidopsis NATA1 Acetylates Putrescine and Decreases Defense-Related Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yann-Ru; Bor, Melike; Yan, Jian; Preuss, Aileen S; Jander, Georg

    2016-06-01

    Biosynthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine is induced in response to pathogen infection of plants. Putrescine, which is produced from Arg, serves as a metabolic precursor for longer polyamines, including spermidine and spermine. Polyamine acetylation, which has important regulatory functions in mammalian cells, has been observed in several plant species. Here we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE ACTIVITY1 (NATA1) catalyzes acetylation of putrescine to N-acetylputrescine and thereby competes with spermidine synthase for a common substrate. NATA1 expression is strongly induced by the plant defense signaling molecule jasmonic acid and coronatine, an effector molecule produced by DC3000, a Pseudomonas syringae strain that initiates a virulent infection in Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia-0. DC3000 growth is reduced in nata1 mutant Arabidopsis, suggesting a role for NATA1-mediated putrescine acetylation in suppressing antimicrobial defenses. During infection by P. syringae and other plant pathogens, polyamine oxidases use spermidine and spermine as substrates for the production of defense-related H2O2 Compared to wild-type Columbia-0 Arabidopsis, the response of nata1mutants to P. syringae infection includes reduced accumulation of acetylputrescine, greater abundance of nonacetylated polyamines, elevated H2O2 production by polyamine oxidases, and higher expression of genes related to pathogen defense. Together, these results are consistent with a model whereby P. syringae growth is improved in a targeted manner through coronatine-induced putrescine acetylation by NATA1. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides obtained from B. subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level ...

  19. Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

    Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

  20. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K.

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of ''refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  2. Heterotrimeric G proteins interact with defense-related receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Sicilia, María Nieves; Trusov, Yuri; Maruta, Natsumi; Chakravorty, David; Zhang, Yuelin; Botella, José Ramón

    2015-09-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G-proteins) are versatile signaling elements conserved in Eukaryotes. In animals G-proteins relay signals from 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular downstream effectors; however, the existence of GPCRs in plants is controversial. Contrastingly, a surplus of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) provides signal recognition at the plant cell surface. It is established that G proteins are involved in plant defense and suggested that they relay signals from defense-related RLKs. However, it is unclear how the signaling is conducted, as physical interaction between the RLKs and G proteins has not been demonstrated. Using yeast split-ubiquitin system and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation assays, we demonstrate physical interaction between the Gα, Gγ1 and Gγ2 subunits, and the defense-related RD-type receptor like kinases CERK1, BAK1 and BIR1. At the same time, no interaction was detected with the non-RD RLK FLS2. We hypothesize that G-proteins mediate signal transduction immediately downstream of the pathogenesis-related RLKs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. [Defense mechanisms as outcome measure in short-term psychotherapy related to symptoms, severity and overall functioning: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccanari de' Fornari, Maria Antonietta; Piccione, Michele; Maiello, Luca; Giampà, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of defense mechanisms in psychotherapy is currently one of the most used ways to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy. In literature there are few reports on defense mechanisms changes by short-term treatments. To determine whether the defense mechanisms are changed after twelve sessions of short-term psychotherapy related to psychopathological symptoms, severity and overall functioning. Twenty patients (12 F and 8 M; age 38.4) affected by anxiety and mood disorders were recruited to the study between November 2008 and July 2009 and were assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire-88 (DSQ-88), scale Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), scale Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and scale Valutazione Globale del Funzionamento (VGF) at the beginning and after short-term psychotherapy. Half the sample also assumed drugs. The treatment was supportive-expressive psychotherapy of Luborsky, a short focal dynamic therapy, characterized by the integration of supportive and expressive techniques. Both patients showed a significant decrease in immature defenses and a significant-increase in mature defenses (p defenses were significantly correlated with severity (r = -0632; p = 0.003) and overall functioning (r = 0529; p = 0.01). Immature and mature defenses seem to be a useful outcome measure in short-term psychotherapy as well as severity and overall functioning and the combined treatment may be most effective in reducing immature defenses.

  4. The Primary Role of Fibrinogen-Related Proteins in Invertebrates Is Defense, Not Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanington, Patrick C.; Zhang, Si-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin is an essential process that underlies the establishment of the supporting protein framework required for coagulation. In invertebrates, fibrinogen-domain-containing proteins play a role in the defense response generated against pathogens; however, they do not function in coagulation, suggesting that this role has been recently acquired. Molecules containing fibrinogen motifs have been identified in numerous invertebrate organisms, and most of these molecules known to date have been linked to defense. Moreover, recent genome projects of invertebrate animals have revealed surprisingly high numbers of fibrinogen-like loci in their genomes, suggesting important and perhaps diverse functions of fibrinogen-like proteins in invertebrates. The ancestral role of molecules containing fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs) with immunity is the focus of this review, with emphasis on specific FReDs called fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) identified from the schistosome-transmitting mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. Herein, we outline the range of invertebrate organisms FREPs can be found in, and detail the roles these molecules play in defense and protection against infection. PMID:21063081

  5. Are Individual Differences in Appetitive and Defensive Motivation Related? A Psychophysiological Examination in Two Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapas, Casey; Katz, Andrea C.; Nelson, Brady D.; Campbell, Miranda L.; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Robison-Andrew, E. Jenna; Altman, Sarah E.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Appetitive and defensive motivation account for a good deal of variance in personality and mental health, but whether individual differences in these systems are correlated or orthogonal has not been conclusively established. Previous investigations have generally relied on self-report and have yielded conflicting results. We therefore assessed the relation between psychophysiological indices of appetitive and defensive motivation during elicitation of these motivational states: specifically, frontal EEG asymmetry during reward anticipation and startle response during anticipation of predictable or unpredictable threat of shock. Results in a sample of psychopathology-free community members (n=63), an independent sample of undergraduates with a range of internalizing symptoms (n=64), and the combination of these samples (n=127) revealed that differences in responding to the two tasks were not significantly correlated. Average coefficients approached zero in all three samples (community: .04, undergraduate: −.01, combined: .06). Implications of these findings for research on normal and abnormal personality are discussed. PMID:24191979

  6. Neonicotinoid insecticides alter induced defenses and increase susceptibility to spider mites in distantly related crop plants.

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    Adrianna Szczepaniec

    Full Text Available Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae, in multiple, distantly related crop plants.Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, corn (Zea mays and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment.Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated.

  7. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  8. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. Methods One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. Results High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. Conclusions These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  9. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Chiara; Perinel, Giada; Arnaboldi, Paola; Gandini, Sara; Vadilonga, Valeria; Rotmensz, Nicole; Tagini, Angela; Didier, Florence; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2017-11-09

    Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  10. Black Yeasts and Their Filamentous Relatives: Principles of Pathogenesis and Host Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G.; Mouton, Johan W.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Verweij, Paul E.; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Among the melanized fungi, the so-called “black yeasts” and their filamentous relatives are particularly significant as agents of severe phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma in humans and animals. The pathogenicity and virulence of these fungi may differ significantly between closely related species. The factors which probably are of significance for pathogenicity include the presence of melanin and carotene, formation of thick cell walls and meristematic growth, presence of yeast-like phases, thermo- and perhaps also osmotolerance, adhesion, hydrophobicity, assimilation of aromatic hydrocarbons, and production of siderophores. Host defense has been shown to rely mainly on the ingestion and elimination of fungal cells by cells of the innate immune system, especially neutrophils and macrophages. However, there is increasing evidence supporting a role of T-cell-mediated immune responses, with increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) and low levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) being deleterious during the infection. There are no standardized therapies for treatment. It is therefore important to obtain in vitro susceptibilities of individual patients' fungal isolates in order to provide useful information for selection of appropriate treatment protocols. This article discusses the pathogenesis and host defense factors for these fungi and their severity, chronicity, and subsequent impact on treatment and prevention of diseases in human or animal hosts. PMID:24982320

  11. Discovery, Biosynthesis and Stress-Related Accumulation of Dolabradiene-Derived Defenses in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafu, Sibongile; Ding, Yezhang; Murphy, Katherine M; Yaacoobi, Omar; Addison, J Bennett; Wang, Qiang; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Castro-Falcon, Gabriel; Hughes, Chambers C; Betsiashvili, Mariam; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A; Zerbe, Philipp

    2018-04-01

    Terpenoids are a major component of maize ( Zea mays ) chemical defenses that mediate responses to herbivores, pathogens, and other environmental challenges. Here, we describe the biosynthesis and elicited production of a class of maize diterpenoids, named dolabralexins. Dolabralexin biosynthesis involves the sequential activity of two diterpene synthases, ENT -COPALYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (ZmAN2) and KAURENE SYNTHASE-LIKE4 (ZmKSL4). Together, ZmAN2 and ZmKSL4 form the diterpene hydrocarbon dolabradiene. In addition, we biochemically characterized a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, ZmCYP71Z16, which catalyzes the oxygenation of dolabradiene to yield the epoxides 15,16-epoxydolabrene (epoxydolabrene) and 3β-hydroxy-15,16-epoxydolabrene (epoxydolabranol). The absence of dolabradiene and epoxydolabranol in Zman2 mutants under elicited conditions confirmed the in vivo biosynthetic requirement of ZmAN2. Combined mass spectrometry and NMR experiments demonstrated that much of the epoxydolabranol is further converted into 3β,15,16-trihydroxydolabrene (trihydroxydolabrene). Metabolite profiling of field-grown maize root tissues indicated that dolabralexin biosynthesis is widespread across common maize cultivars, with trihydroxydolabrene as the predominant diterpenoid. Oxidative stress induced dolabralexin accumulation and transcript expression of ZmAN2 and ZmKSL4 in root tissues, and metabolite and transcript accumulation were up-regulated in response to elicitation with the fungal pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum Consistently, epoxydolabranol significantly inhibited the growth of both pathogens in vitro at 10 µg mL -1 , while trihydroxydolabrene-mediated inhibition was specific to F verticillioides These findings suggest that dolabralexins have defense-related roles in maize stress interactions and expand the known chemical space of diterpenoid defenses as genetic targets for understanding and ultimately improving maize resilience. © 2018

  12. Exploring the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, homicide-related posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Di, Xiaohu; Wan, King Hung

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. One hundred and fifty male homicide perpetrators and 156 male perpetrators of non-violent crime completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (except for non-violent perpetrators), the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Defense Styles Questionnaire, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results showed that 44% of homicide perpetrators met the criteria for PTSD. No significant differences were found between groups in alexithymia, defense style and psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators suppressed depression significantly more than the non-violent group. PLS analyses showed that alexithymia was significantly correlated with defense style. Defense styles were significantly correlated with emotional suppression which, in turn, was associated with homicide-related PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, perpetrators can experience PTSD reactions following the act of homicide. The severity of these reactions and other psychological problems were related to difficulty getting in touch with distressing emotions, the defenses they used to protect themselves psychologically and the way they suppressed their emotion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Using the TAT to Assess the Relation Between Gender Identity and the Use of Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether 2 different dimensions of personality, when assessed at an implicit level with the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943 ) will show a theoretically meaningful coherence not demonstrated when 1 is assessed at an implicit level and the other at an explicit level. Gender identity and defense mechanisms were assessed implicitly using the TAT. Gender identity was compared with a self-report measure of gender-related attributes assessed at the explicit level. The results showed a theoretically meaningful coherence when different dispositions were assessed at the same level, but a lack of agreement when similar dispositions were assessed at different levels. The study is based on a secondary analysis of data from 2 previously published papers (Cramer, 1998 ; Cramer & Westergren, 1999 ).

  14. Differences and Similarities of Soybean Defense-Related Genes Suppressed by Pathogenic and Symbiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial effector proteins secreted through type III secretion systems (T3SS) play a crucial role in establishing plant and human diseases. Type III effectors have been shown to trigger defense responses when recognized by resistant plants, and to suppress defense responses in susceptible host plan...

  15. Phytohormone priming elevates the accumulation of defense-related gene transcripts and enhances bacterial blight disease resistance in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoodee, Sunisa; Kobayashi, Yohko; Songnuan, Wisuwat; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Thitamadee, Siripong; Kobayashi, Issei; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2018-01-01

    Cassava bacterial blight (CBB) disease caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is a severe disease in cassava worldwide. In addition to causing significant cassava yield loss, CBB disease has not been extensively studied, especially in terms of CBB resistance genes. The present research demonstrated the molecular mechanisms underlining the defense response during Xam infection in two cassava cultivars exhibiting different degrees of disease resistance, Huay Bong60 (HB60) and Hanatee (HN). Based on gene expression analysis, ten of twelve putative defense-related genes including, leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), resistance (R), WRKY and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, were differentially expressed between these two cassava cultivars during Xam infection. The up-regulation of defense-related genes observed in HB60 may be the mechanism required for the reduction of disease severity in the resistant cultivar. Interestingly, priming with salicylic acid (SA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) for 24 h before Xam inoculation could enhance the defense response in both cassava cultivars. The disease severity was decreased 10% in the resistant cultivar (HB60) and was remarkably reduced 21% in the susceptible cultivar (HN) by SA/MeJA priming. Priming with Xam inoculation modulated cassava4.1_013417, cassava4.1_030866 and cassava4.1_020555 (highest similarity to MeWRKY59, MePR1 and AtPDF2.2, respectively) expression and led to enhanced resistance of the susceptible cultivar in the second infection. The putative cis-regulatory elements were predicted in an upstream region of these three defense-related genes. The different gene expression levels in these genes between the two cultivars were due to the differences in cis-regulatory elements in their promoter regions. Taken together, our study strongly suggested that the induction of defense-related genes correlated with defense resistance against Xam infection, and exogenous application of SA or Me

  16. Defensive roles of (E)-2-alkenals and related compounds in heteroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noge, Koji; Prudic, Kathleen L; Becerra, Judith X

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether shared volatiles found in various heteropteran species and developmental stages function to repel predators. The nymphal dorsal abdominal gland secretions of Riptortus pedestris (Heteroptera: Alydidae) and Thasus acutangulus (Heteroptera: Coreidae), and the metathoracic scent gland secretion of Euschistus biformis (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) adults were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). (E)-2-Hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal (4-OHE), and (E)-2-octenal were found in all three species and deemed likely candidates for repelling predators. In addition to (E)-2-alkenals, the adult E. biformis secreted (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-octenyl acetate, and four hydrocarbons. We evaluated the potential predator repellent properties of these compounds and compound blends against a generalist, cosmopolitan insect predator, the Chinese praying mantid (Mantodea: Mantidae: Tenodera aridifolia sinensis). Mantids that experienced (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E)-2-octenyl acetate moved away from the site of interaction, while 4-OHE and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate did not affect mantid behavior. The compound blends did not have additive or synergistic repellency effects on predator behavior. Compound repellency was not related to compound volatility. Instead, the repellent effect is likely related to predator olfaction, and the affinity of each compound to receptors on the antennae. Our results also suggest the repellents might intensify the visual defensive signals of aposematism (T. acutangulus nymphs) and mimicry (R. pedestris nymphs) in heteropteran bugs.

  17. The psychological defensive profile of hemodialysis patients and its relationship to health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, André F; Ramírez, Susana P; Macêdo, Danielle S; Sales, Paulo Marcelo G; Rebouças, Juliana C; Daher, Elizabeth F; Hyphantis, Thomas N

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary data suggest that defensive profile of hemodialysis (HD) patients might influence adaptation to the disease. However, the association of defense mechanisms with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HD patients remains unknown. In this cross-sectional investigation, 170 HD patients and 170 age- and sex-matched healthy participants had their psychological profile assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Furthermore, the HD patients had their HRQoL measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-abbreviated version. The HD patients had a more neurotic and immature defensive profile. Splitting, projection, reaction formation, and denial were significantly associated with impaired HRQoL, independent of psychological distress. Somatization was an independent correlate of worse overall and physical HRQoL. These findings suggest that, apart from the treatment of psychological distress symptoms, clinicians should also consider the defensive profile of HD patients because it is independently associated with HRQoL and may be amenable to treatment.

  18. FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs): A new family of peptides from amphibian defensive skin secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Smyth, Anita; Johnsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    amide (EF-10 amide), from the defensive skin secretions of two different species of African hyperoliid frogs, Kassina maculata and Phylictimantis verrucosus, respectively. These represent the first canonical FMRF amide-related peptides (FaRPs) from a vertebrate source. The cDNA encoding IF-8 amide...... was cloned from a skin secretion library and found to contain a single copy of the peptide located at the C-terminus of a 58 amino acid residue open-reading frame. These data extend the potential targets of the defensive arsenal of amphibian tegumental secretions to parasitic/predatory invertebrates...

  19. FOREIGN RELATIONS: Kwajalein Atoll Is the Key U.S. Defense Interest in Two Micronesian Nations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The Compact provided for the continuation of a defense arrangement that has connected the United States and these Pacific islands since the end of World War II...

  20. Effects of psychological defense on processing of neutral stimuli indicated by event-related potentials (ERPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, H R; Nordby, H; Olff, M; Ursin, H

    2000-12-01

    The Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) is claimed to identify personnel with a high risk for accidents. A new explanation for why the DMT seems to predict performance when survival depends on split second decisions is proposed. Sixteen right-handed, adult male students were tested with the DMT and with an ERP paradigm (two sine wave tones, presented binaurally). Each subject was tested with a one-stimulus paradigm, and a passive and an active oddball paradigm. Under the passive oddball condition, High defensive subjects differed from Low, having significantly smaller N2 amplitudes (low immediate perception), and significantly larger P3 amplitudes (rely on later associative mechanisms). High defensive subjects seem to have less ability to perceive the environment correctly immediately. This slowness may be fatal when life depends on split second decisions. The fundamental neurophysiological difference may also be the basis for the very complex cognitive and perceptual mechanisms involved in psychological defense mechanisms.

  1. 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bray, Robert M; Hourani, Laurel L; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L; Witt, Michael; Brown, Janice M; Pemberton, Michael R; Marsden, Mary Ellen; Marriott, Bernadette; Scheffler, Scott; Vandermaas-Peeler, Russ

    2006-01-01

    ... Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs). All of the surveys investigated the prevalence of alcohol use, illicit drug use, and tobacco use, as well as negative consequences associated with substance use...

  2. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Latournerie-Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase. The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non-infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase ('Amaxito' and 'Simojovel' and peroxidase enzymes activities ('Tabaquero' increased in infested plants (P < 0.05. We conclude that basal activities of plant defense-related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense-related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.

  3. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Tract: Relation to Host Defense and Microbial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Duane R; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2015-08-01

    The urinary tract exits to a body surface area that is densely populated by a wide range of microbes. Yet, under most normal circumstances, it is typically considered sterile, i.e., devoid of microbes, a stark contrast to the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts where many commensal and pathogenic microbes call home. Not surprisingly, infection of the urinary tract over a healthy person's lifetime is relatively infrequent, occurring once or twice or not at all for most people. For those who do experience an initial infection, the great majority (70% to 80%) thankfully do not go on to suffer from multiple episodes. This is a far cry from the upper respiratory tract infections, which can afflict an otherwise healthy individual countless times. The fact that urinary tract infections are hard to elicit in experimental animals except with inoculum 3-5 orders of magnitude greater than the colony counts that define an acute urinary infection in humans (105 cfu/ml), also speaks to the robustness of the urinary tract defense. How can the urinary tract be so effective in fending off harmful microbes despite its orifice in a close vicinity to that of the microbe-laden gastrointestinal tract? While a complete picture is still evolving, the general consensus is that the anatomical and physiological integrity of the urinary tract is of paramount importance in maintaining a healthy urinary tract. When this integrity is breached, however, the urinary tract can be at a heightened risk or even recurrent episodes of microbial infections. In fact, recurrent urinary tract infections are a significant cause of morbidity and time lost from work and a major challenge to manage clinically. Additionally, infections of the upper urinary tract often require hospitalization and prolonged antibiotic therapy. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract with an emphasis on their specific roles in host defense. We also highlight the

  4. Defense related decadienal elicits membrane lipid remodeling in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Sabharwal

    Full Text Available Diatoms rapidly release extracellular oxylipins (oxygenated lipids including polyunsaturated aldehydes in response to herbivory and other stresses. Oxylipins have several defense-related activities including inhibition of reproduction in herbivores and signaling to distant diatoms. Physiological changes in diatoms exposed to varying levels of oxylipins are only beginning to be understood. In this study, Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultures were treated with sublethal concentrations of the polyunsaturated aldehyde trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (DD to assess effects on lipid composition and membrane permeability. In cells treated with DD for 3 hr, all measured saturated and unsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased (0.46-0.69 fold of levels in solvent control cells except for 18:2 (decreased but not significantly. The decrease was greater in the polyunsaturated fatty acid pool than the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid pool. Analysis of lipid classes revealed increased abundances of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine at 3 and 6 hr. Concomitantly, these and other membrane lipids exhibited increased saturated and monounsaturated acyl chains content relative to polyunsaturated acyl chains compared to control cells. Evidence of decreased plasma membrane permeability in DD treated cells was obtained, based on reduced uptake of two of three dyes relative to control cells. Additionally, cells pre-conditioned with a sublethal DD dose for 3 hr then treated with a lethal DD dose for 2 hr exhibited greater membrane integrity than solvent pre-conditioned control cells that were similarly treated. Taken together, the data are supportive of the hypothesis that membrane remodeling induced by sublethal DD is a key element in the development of cellular resistance in diatoms to varying and potentially toxic levels of polyunsaturated aldehydes in environments impacted by herbivory or other stresses.

  5. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  6. High presence/absence gene variability in defense-related gene clusters of Cucumis melo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Víctor M; Aventín, Núria; Centeno, Emilio; Puigdomènech, Pere

    2013-11-12

    , were found to be particularly affected by PAV polymorphisms. As cucurbits are known to possess a significantly lower number of defense-related genes compared to other plant species, PAV variation may play an important role in generating new pathogen resistances at the subspecies level. In addition, these results show the limitations of single reference genome sequences as the only basis for characterization and cloning of resistance genes.

  7. Multidisciplinary approach to unravelling the relative contribution of different oxylipins in indirect defense of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, T.A.L.; Poecke, van R.M.P.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    The oxylipin pathway is commonly involved in induced plant defenses, and is the main signal-transduction pathway induced by insect folivory. Herbivory induces the production of several oxylipins, and consequently alters the so-called ‘oxylipin signature’ in the plant. Jasmonic acid (JA), as well as

  8. Effects of psychological defense on processing of neutral stimuli indicated by event-related potentials (ERPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksen, H. R.; Nordby, H.; Olff, M.; Ursin, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) is claimed to identify personnel with a high risk for accidents. A new explanation for why the DMT seems to predict performance when survival depends on split second decisions is proposed. Sixteen right-handed, adult male students were tested with the DMT and with an

  9. 78 FR 69267 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements Relating to Supply Chain Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...; or (v) Is critical to the direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions but this does not... provisions exist before the Government can exercise its authorities under section 806. First, use of section... Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence [[Page 69269

  10. Sex-related differences in reproductive allocation, growth, defense and herbivory in three dioecious neotropical palms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Cepeda-Cornejo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, in dioecious plants, female plants allocate more resources to reproduction than male plants. Therefore it is expected that asymmetrical allocation to reproduction may lead to a reproduction-growth tradeoff, whereby female plants grow less than male plants, but invest more in defenses and thus experience lower herbivory than male plants.We tested these expectations by comparing resource allocation to reproduction, growth and defense and its consequences on herbivory in three sympatric dioecious Chamaedorea palms (C. alternans, C. pinnatifrons and C. ernesti-augusti using a pair-wise design (replicated male/female neighboring plants in a Mexican tropical rain forest. Our findings support the predictions. Biomass allocation to reproduction in C. pinnatifrons was 3-times higher in female than male plants, consistent with what is known in C. alternans and C. ernesti-augusti. Growth (height and leaf production rate and biomass production was higher in male plants of all three species. Female plants of the three species had traits that suggest greater investment in defense, as they had 4-16% tougher leaves, and 8-18% higher total phenolic compounds concentration. Accordingly, female plants sustained 53-78% lower standing herbivory and 49-87% lower herbivory rates than male plants.Our results suggests that resource allocation to reproduction in the studied palms is more costly to female plants and this leads to predictable intersexual differences in growth, defense and herbivory. We conclude that resource allocation to reproduction in plants can have important consequences that influence their interaction with herbivores. Since herbivory is recognized as an important selective force in plants, these results are of significance to our understanding of plant defense evolution.

  11. Understanding Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding defense mechanisms is an important part of psychotherapy. In this article, we trace the history of the concept of defense, from its origin with Freud to current views. The issue of defense as an unconscious mechanism is examined. The question of whether defenses are pathological, as well as their relation to pathology, is discussed. The effect of psychotherapy on the use of defenses, and their relation to a therapeutic alliance is explored. A series of empirical research studies that demonstrate the functioning of defense mechanisms and that support the theory is presented. Research also shows that as part of normal development, different defenses emerge at different developmental periods, and that gender differences in defense use occur.

  12. 48 CFR 203.570 - Prohibition on persons convicted of frauds or other defense-contract-related felonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 203.570 Prohibition on...

  13. The relations of thematic and nonthematic childhood depression measures to defensiveness and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, T E

    1996-12-01

    The susceptibility of self-report and thematic measures of depression to the effects of a defensive test-taking approach was assessed among 44 child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients. It was hypothesized that scores on a measure of defensiveness would be associated with self-reported but not thematic measures of depression, and furthermore, that this finding would be more pronounced for girls than boys. Patients completed the Lie Scale of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Roberts Apperception Test for Children. As predicted, RCMAS-Lie scores were significantly associated with CDI but not Roberts Depression scores, and this effect was more pronounced among females, primarily due to the high CDI scores of nondefensive girls. Implications of results for psychological assessment of children and adolescents are discussed.

  14. Defense-related Proteins from Chelidonium majus L. as Important Components of its Latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to cover most recent research on plant pathogenesis- and defenserelated proteins from latex-bearing medicinal plant Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae) in the context of its importance for latex activity, function, pharmacological activities, and antiviral medicinal use. These results are compared with other latex-bearing plant species and recent research on proteins and chemical compounds contained in their latex. This is the first review, which clearly summarizes pathogenesisrelated (PR) protein families in latex-bearing plants pointing into their possible functions. The possible antiviral function of the latex by naming the abundant proteins present therein is also emphasized. Finally latex-borne defense system is hypothesized to constitute a novel type of preformed immediate defense response against viral, but also non-viral pathogens, and herbivores. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Annual Report To Congress. Department of Energy Activities Relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-02-28

    The Department of Energy (Department) submits an Annual Report to Congress each year detailing the Department’s activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board), which provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy (Secretary) regarding public health and safety issues at the Department’s defense nuclear facilities. In 2003, the Department continued ongoing activities to resolve issues identified by the Board in formal recommendations and correspondence, staff issue reports pertaining to Department facilities, and public meetings and briefings. Additionally, the Department is implementing several key safety initiatives to address and prevent safety issues: safety culture and review of the Columbia accident investigation; risk reduction through stabilization of excess nuclear materials; the Facility Representative Program; independent oversight and performance assurance; the Federal Technical Capability Program (FTCP); executive safety initiatives; and quality assurance activities. The following summarizes the key activities addressed in this Annual Report.

  16. Servant leadership behaviors of aerospace and defense project managers and their relation to project success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Michael T.

    The success of a project is dependent in part on the skills, knowledge, and behavior of its leader, the project manager. Despite advances in project manager certifications and professional development, the aerospace and defense industry has continued to see highly visible and expensive project failures partially attributable to failures in leadership. Servant leadership is an emerging leadership theory whose practitioners embrace empowerment, authenticity, humility, accountability, forgiveness, courage, standing back, and stewardship, but has not yet been fully examined in the context of the project manager as leader. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between servant leadership behaviors demonstrated by aerospace and defense project managers and the resulting success of their projects. Study participants were drawn from aerospace and defense oriented affinity groups from the LinkedInRTM social media web system. The participants rated their project managers using a 30-item servant leadership scale, and rated the success of their project using a 12-item project success scale. One hundred and fifteen valid responses were analyzed from 231 collected samples from persons who had worked for a project manager on an aerospace and defense project within the past year. The results of the study demonstrated statistically significant levels of positive correlation to project success for all eight servant leadership factors independently evaluated. Using multiple linear regression methods, the servant leadership factors of empowerment and authenticity were determined to be substantial and statistically significant predictors of project success. The study results established the potential application of servant leadership as a valid approach for improving outcomes of projects.

  17. U.S.-Mexico Defense Relations: An Incompatible Interface. (Strategic Forum, Number 243, July 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    defense of Chapultepec Castle, the site of the military academy in 1847. And the formal education of the army officer corps further embeds the actions...counternarcot- ics, disaster relief, education and training, and technology, and significant coordina- tion efforts began at the first BWG meeting...Revolucionario Institucional , or PRI), breaking the PRI’s 70-year hold on the executive branch. With George W. Bush’s vic- tory in November

  18. Annual report to Congress: Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Calendar Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-02-01

    This is the tenth Annual Report to the Congress describing Department of Energy activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). The Board, an independent executive-branch agency established in 1988, provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy regarding public health and safety issues at the Department's defense nuclear facilities. The Board also reviews and evaluates the content and implementation of health and safety standards, as well as other requirements, relating to the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Department's defense nuclear facilities. During 1999, Departmental activities resulted in the closure of nine Board recommendations. In addition, the Department has completed all implementation plan milestones associated with three Board recommendations. One new Board recommendation was received and accepted by the Department in 1999, and a new implementation plan is being developed to address this recommendation. The Department has also made significant progress with a number of broad-based initiatives to improve safety. These include expanded implementation of integrated safety management at field sites, opening of a repository for long-term storage of transuranic wastes, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  19. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-kereamy, Ashraf; El-sharkawy, Islam; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Taheri, Ali; Errampalli, Deena; Kumar, Prakash; Jayasankar, Subramanian

    2011-03-23

    Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5) has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica). Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and phytoalexin (camalexin) pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  20. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-kereamy

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5 has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica. Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and phytoalexin (camalexin pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  1. Annual report to Congress: Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Calendar Year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the tenth Annual Report to the Congress describing Department of Energy activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). The Board, an independent executive-branch agency established in 1988, provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy regarding public health and safety issues at the Department's defense nuclear facilities. The Board also reviews and evaluates the content and implementation of health and safety standards, as well as other requirements, relating to the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Department's defense nuclear facilities. During 1999, Departmental activities resulted in the closure of nine Board recommendations. In addition, the Department has completed all implementation plan milestones associated with three Board recommendations. One new Board recommendation was received and accepted by the Department in 1999, and a new implementation plan is being developed to address this recommendation. The Department has also made significant progress with a number of broad-based initiatives to improve safety. These include expanded implementation of integrated safety management at field sites, opening of a repository for long-term storage of transuranic wastes, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction

  2. Relative roles of the cellular and humoral responses in the Drosophila host defense against three gram-positive bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine T Nehme

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Toll and immune deficiency (imd, are required for survival to bacterial infections in Drosophila. In response to septic injury, these pathways mediate rapid transcriptional activation of distinct sets of effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, which are important components of a humoral defense response. However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense.In order to dissect the relative importance of humoral and cellular defenses after septic injury with three different gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, we used latex bead pre-injection to ablate macrophage function in flies wildtype or mutant for various Toll and imd pathway components. We found that in all three infection models a compromised phagocytic system impaired fly survival--independently of concomitant Toll or imd pathway activation. Our data failed to confirm a role of the PGRP-SA and GNBP1 Pattern Recognition Receptors for phagocytosis of S. aureus. The Drosophila scavenger receptor Eater mediates the phagocytosis by hemocytes or S2 cells of E. faecalis and S. aureus, but not of M. luteus. In the case of M. luteus and E. faecalis, but not S. aureus, decreased survival due to defective phagocytosis could be compensated for by genetically enhancing the humoral immune response.Our results underscore the fundamental importance of both cellular and humoral mechanisms in Drosophila immunity and shed light on the balance between these two arms of host defense depending on the invading pathogen.

  3. Human defensive behaviors to threat scenarios show parallels to fear- and anxiety-related defense patterns of non-human mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D C; Hynd, A L; Minke, K A; Minemoto, T; Blanchard, R J

    2001-12-01

    Defense patterns of rats and mice have been characterized in terms of the relationships between the type of defensive behavior (e.g. flight, freezing, hiding, defensive threat/attack, and risk assessment) and particular features of the eliciting (threat) stimulus and the situation in which it is encountered. Because the defense systems of rodents serve as major models for investigating and understanding both the physiology and the behavioral expression of emotional response to aversive stimuli, it is essential to evaluate whether these systems show strong parallels in human responsivity to threat. One hundred and sixty male and female undergraduate students read a set of 12 scenarios involving a present or potential threatening conspecific, and chose a primary defensive response to each. These scenarios were designed to vary features known to influence defensive responding in rodents: magnitude of threat; escapability of the situation; ambiguity of the threat stimulus; distance between the threat and the subject; presence of a hiding place. Male and female responses to the various scenarios were highly correlated, except for yell, scream, or call for help which was frequent for females, rare for males. However, a combination of this response category with 'attack' showed a highly positive (+0.96) male-female correlation, across scenarios.Correlations between manipulated (and rated) features of the threat stimulus and situation, and type of defensive behavior chosen, strongly supported a view that the patterning of defensive behavior is similar for humans and non-human mammals. Significant correlations were obtained relevant to eight specific hypotheses derived from the animal literature, with some support for two additional hypotheses (non-significant correlations averaging 0.4 or more in expected direction). While three predicted correlations were not supported in these findings, only a single significant correlation was obtained that had not been predicted on the

  4. Air Defense Options for Taiwan: An Assessment of Relative Costs and Operational Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the western Pacific rim that already lead to situations just short of those in this vignette, which suggests that it might be of interest to air...baseline IADS lacks survivable medium-range air defenses that can attack heli- copters before they get into range to fire weapons or that can attack...a short-range interceptor, such as a ground-launched AIM-9X, which can shoot down weapons fired at the Sentinel radar, and a longer-range ground

  5. Inference of Longevity-Related Genes from a Robust Coexpression Network of Seed Maturation Identifies Regulators Linking Seed Storability to Biotic Defense-Related Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Karima; Vu, Joseph Ly; Pelletier, Sandra; Vu, Benoit Ly; Glaab, Enrico; Lalanne, David; Pasha, Asher; Patel, Rohan V; Provart, Nicholas J; Verdier, Jerome; Leprince, Olivier; Buitink, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Seed longevity, the maintenance of viability during storage, is a crucial factor for preservation of genetic resources and ensuring proper seedling establishment and high crop yield. We used a systems biology approach to identify key genes regulating the acquisition of longevity during seed maturation of Medicago truncatula. Using 104 transcriptomes from seed developmental time courses obtained in five growth environments, we generated a robust, stable coexpression network (MatNet), thereby capturing the conserved backbone of maturation. Using a trait-based gene significance measure, a coexpression module related to the acquisition of longevity was inferred from MatNet. Comparative analysis of the maturation processes in M. truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and mining Arabidopsis interaction databases revealed conserved connectivity for 87% of longevity module nodes between both species. Arabidopsis mutant screening for longevity and maturation phenotypes demonstrated high predictive power of the longevity cross-species network. Overrepresentation analysis of the network nodes indicated biological functions related to defense, light, and auxin. Characterization of defense-related wrky3 and nf-x1-like1 (nfxl1) transcription factor mutants demonstrated that these genes regulate some of the network nodes and exhibit impaired acquisition of longevity during maturation. These data suggest that seed longevity evolved by co-opting existing genetic pathways regulating the activation of defense against pathogens. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Uncoupling salicylic acid-dependent cell death and defense-related responses from disease resistance in the Arabidopsis mutant acd5.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, J T; Silverman, F P; Liang, H

    2000-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is required for resistance to many diseases in higher plants. SA-dependent cell death and defense-related responses have been correlated with disease resistance. The accelerated cell death 5 mutant of Arabidopsis provides additional genetic evidence that SA regulates cell death and defense-related responses. However, in acd5, these events are uncoupled from disease resistance. acd5 plants are more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae early in development and show spontaneou...

  7. Self-reported attachment patterns and Rorschach-related scores of ego boundary, defensive processes, and thinking disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berant, Ety; Wald, Yaarit

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we addressed associations between self-reported attachment scales (anxiety and avoidance) and Rorschach (1921/1942) indexes indicating ego-boundary perception (barrier and penetration), use of projective identification, devaluation and splitting defenses, and Comprehensive System (Exner, 2005) scores that represent boundary blurring (incongruous and fabulized combinations). In this study, we extended the sample and findings described by Berant, Mikulincer, Shaver, and Segal (2005) using a nonclinical sample of 89 Israeli adults. We found significant associations between attachment orientations and Rorschach indexes dynamically related to anxiety. We also found a trend toward association between attachment orientation and avoidance. We discuss the theoretical and clinical implications of these findings.

  8. Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) and Kernberg's theory of personality organization related to adolescents in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, P; Sundbom, E

    1997-06-01

    75 adolescent psychiatric patients were diagnosed with the perceptual projective test the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) and also according to Kernberg's theory of personality organization (PO). The test protocols were scored in respect of 130 DMT variables and analyzed by means of partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis. The objective was to try to separate the three types of PO, psychotic (PPO), borderline (BPO) and neurotic (NPO) by means of the DMT and also to compare the results with a similar study in adult psychiatric patients. The results showed that it is possible to separate significantly the three groups of PO. The BPO group seemed to be heterogeneous. The results were fairly similar to those obtained with adult psychiatric patients. The overall results supported the concurrent validity of Kernberg's theory of PO and for the DMT as well. The DMT seems to be a useful diagnostic method in respect of adolescent psychiatric patients.

  9. 75 FR 13262 - Reporting on Offsets Agreements in Sales of Weapon Systems or Defense-Related Items to Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Reporting on Offsets Agreements in Sales of Weapon Systems or Defense.... firms are required to report annually to the Department of Commerce (Commerce) on contracts for the sale... either government-to-government or commercial sales of defense articles and/or defense services, as...

  10. Involvement of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 Protein in the Regulation of Botrytis Virulence- and Tomato Defense-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriston V. Gomes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several Trichoderma spp. are well known for their ability to: (i act as important biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi; (ii function as biofertilizers; (iii increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; and (iv induce plant defense responses via the production and secretion of elicitor molecules. In this study, we analyzed the gene-regulation effects of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 protein during the interactions of mutant Δepl-1 or wild-type T. harzianum strains with: (a the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea and (b with tomato plants, on short (24 h hydroponic cultures and long periods (4-weeks old plants after Trichoderma inoculation. Our results indicate that T. harzianum Epl-1 protein affects the in vitro expression of B. cinerea virulence genes, especially those involved in the botrydial biosynthesis (BcBOT genes, during the mycoparasitism interaction. The tomato defense-related genes were also affected, indicating that Epl-1 is involved in the elicitation of the salicylic acid pathway. Moreover, Epl-1 also regulates the priming effect in host tomato plants and contributes to enhance the interaction with the host tomato plant during the early stage of root colonization.

  11. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  12. Sucrose-mediated priming of plant defense responses and broad-spectrum disease resistance by overexpression of the maize pathogenesis-related PRms protein in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ariza, Jorge; Campo, Sonia; Rufat, Mar; Estopà, Montserrat; Messeguer, Joaquima; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María

    2007-07-01

    Expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes is part of the plant's natural defense response against pathogen attack. The PRms gene encodes a fungal-inducible PR protein from maize. Here, we demonstrate that expression of PRms in transgenic rice confers broad-spectrum protection against pathogens, including fungal (Magnaporthe oryzae, Fusarium verticillioides, and Helminthosporium oryzae) and bacterial (Erwinia chrysanthemi) pathogens. The PRms-mediated disease resistance in rice plants is associated with an enhanced capacity to express and activate the natural plant defense mechanisms. Thus, PRms rice plants display a basal level of expression of endogenous defense genes in the absence of the pathogen. PRms plants also exhibit stronger and quicker defense responses during pathogen infection. We also have found that sucrose accumulates at higher levels in leaves of PRms plants. Sucrose responsiveness of rice defense genes correlates with the pathogen-responsive priming of their expression in PRms rice plants. Moreover, pretreatment of rice plants with sucrose enhances resistance to M. oryzae infection. Together, these results support a sucrose-mediated priming of defense responses in PRms rice plants which results in broad-spectrum disease resistance.

  13. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIC-3-related genes of cotton (Gossypium spp.) were identified and shown to have root-specific expression, associated with pathogen defense-related function and specifically increased expression in root-knot nematode (RKN) resistant plants after nematode infection. Here we cloned and sequenced MIC-...

  14. Global proteomic analysis of Chelidonium majus and Corydalis cava (Papaveraceae) extracts revealed similar defense-related protein compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Robert; Zauber, Henrik; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2014-04-01

    Chelidonium majus and Corydalis cava are phylogenetically closely related (Papaveraceae family). The medicinal and pharmaceutical interest in these plants is based on their synthesis of pharmaceutically important compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and proteins. C. majus shoot and C. cava tuber extracts have been used in traditional folk medicine to treat many diseases, such as fungal, bacterial and viral infections, liver disorders, fever, post-traumatic, colic, abdominal and menstrual pains and even cancer. This study attempts to perform a global comparative proteomic analysis of pharmacologically important extracts from these two closely related unsequenced plant species to gain insights into the protein basis of these plant organs and to compare their common and specific proteomic compositions. We used a shotgun proteomic approach combined with label-free protein quantitation according to the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI). In total, a mean number of 228 protein identification results were recorded in C. cava tuber extracts and about 1240 in C. majus shoot extracts. Comparative analysis revealed a similar stress and defense-related protein composition of pharmacologically active plant species and showed the presence of different pathogenesis-related and low molecular inducible antimicrobial peptides. These findings could form the basis for further elucidation of the mechanism of the strong pharmacological activities of these medicinal plant extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-related Resistance and the Defense Signaling Pathway of Ph-3 Gene Against Phytophthora infestans in Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rashad Ali Shah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance (R genes against plant pathogens often have age-related resistance (ARR effects. However, the mechanism involved in this phenomenon remains unknown. In this paper, Solanum lycopersicum ‘CLN2037B’ and S. pimpinellifolium ‘L3708’ harboring the Ph-3 gene, as well as S. habrochaites ‘LA2099’, ‘LA1777’ and ‘LA1033’ harboring quantitative trait loci (QTLs, were tested to investigate age-related resistance against late blight (LB; caused by Phytophthora infestans in the three-leaf stage of the plants. The results demonstrated that the QTL-related LB resistance showed the same age-related resistance as the Ph-3-mediated resistance at the six- and nine-leaf stages compared with the three-leaf stage. This indicated that there is a common defense mechanism in tomatoes against P. infestans via ARR. In addition, we combined ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA mutants with virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS to study the Ph-3-dependent resistance signaling pathway. The results showed that ethylene and salicylic acid, but not jasmonic acid, are involved in the LB resistance mediated by the Ph-3 gene.

  16. A genome-wide association study of the maize hypersensitive defense response identifies genes that cluster in related pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode A Olukolu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR, a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R- genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21, were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Genome-wide association (GWA analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants.

  17. A Genome-Wide Association Study of the Maize Hypersensitive Defense Response Identifies Genes That Cluster in Related Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata, Bala P.; Marla, Sandeep; Ji, Jiabing; Gachomo, Emma; Chu, Kevin; Negeri, Adisu; Benson, Jacqueline; Nelson, Rebecca; Bradbury, Peter; Nielsen, Dahlia; Holland, James B.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Johal, Gurmukh

    2014-01-01

    Much remains unknown of molecular events controlling the plant hypersensitive defense response (HR), a rapid localized cell death that limits pathogen spread and is mediated by resistance (R-) genes. Genetic control of the HR is hard to quantify due to its microscopic and rapid nature. Natural modifiers of the ectopic HR phenotype induced by an aberrant auto-active R-gene (Rp1-D21), were mapped in a population of 3,381 recombinant inbred lines from the maize nested association mapping population. Joint linkage analysis was conducted to identify 32 additive but no epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) using a linkage map based on more than 7000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of 26.5 million SNPs was conducted after adjusting for background QTL. GWA identified associated SNPs that colocalized with 44 candidate genes. Thirty-six of these genes colocalized within 23 of the 32 QTL identified by joint linkage analysis. The candidate genes included genes predicted to be in involved programmed cell death, defense response, ubiquitination, redox homeostasis, autophagy, calcium signalling, lignin biosynthesis and cell wall modification. Twelve of the candidate genes showed significant differential expression between isogenic lines differing for the presence of Rp1-D21. Low but significant correlations between HR-related traits and several previously-measured disease resistance traits suggested that the genetic control of these traits was substantially, though not entirely, independent. This study provides the first system-wide analysis of natural variation that modulates the HR response in plants. PMID:25166276

  18. The Relative Influence of Competition and Prey Defenses on the Phenotypic Structure of Insectivorous Bat Ensembles in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, M. Corrie; Jacobs, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Deterministic filters such as competition and prey defences should have a strong influence on the community structure of animals such as insectivorous bats that have life histories characterized by low fecundity, low predation risk, long life expectancy, and stable populations. We investigated the relative influence of these two deterministic filters on the phenotypic structure of insectivorous bat ensembles in southern Africa. We used null models to simulate the random phenotypic patterns expected in the absence of competition or prey defences and analysed the deviations of the observed phenotypic pattern from these expected random patterns. The phenotypic structure at local scales exhibited non-random patterns consistent with both competition and prey defense hypotheses. There was evidence that competition influenced body size distribution across ensembles. Competition also influenced wing and echolocation patterns in ensembles and in functional foraging groups with high species richness or abundance. At the same time, prey defense filters influenced echolocation patterns in two species-poor ensembles. Non-random patterns remained evident even after we removed the influence of body size from wing morphology and echolocation parameters taking phylogeny into account. However, abiotic filters such as geographic distribution ranges of small and large-bodied species, extinction risk, and the physics of flight and sound probably also interacted with biotic filters at local and/or regional scales to influence the community structure of sympatric bats in southern Africa. Future studies should investigate alternative parameters that define bat community structure such as diet and abundance to better determine the influence of competition and prey defences on the structure of insectivorous bat ensembles in southern Africa. PMID:19005563

  19. Endophytic Bacteria Suppress Bacterial Wilt of Tomato Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Activate Defense-related Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Safdarpour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phytopathogenic microorganisms affect plant health and burden a major threat to food production and ecosystem stability. Increasing the use of chemical pesticides for plant diseases control causes several negative effects on human and environment health. Furthermore, increasing public awareness about the side effects of them led to a research to find alternatives for these products. One of the alternative methods is bio-control utilizing plant associated antagonistic microorganisms. Materials and methods: In this study, 80 endophytic bacteria were isolated from tomato tissues. Their antagonistic activity screened based on agar diffusion test, against tomato bacterial wilt disease (Ralstonia solanacearum. They were identified based on the morphological, biochemical properties and 16s rRNA sequence analyses. These strains were evaluated in greenhouse and tested for their ability to induce the production of defense-related enzymes in plants e.g. Peroxidase (PO, polyphenoloxidase (PPO and phenolics based on spectrophotometer method. Results: Results showed FS67, FS167 and FS184 strains had maximum inhibition zone forming. They identified as Pseudomonas mossellii, P. fuorescence and P. brassicacearum respectively. FS67 and FS167 strains significantly reduced disease in greenhouse. There was a significant increase in the activity of PO, PPO and phenolics in tomato plants treated with FS67, FS167 and pathogen. Discussion and conclusion: The present study has shown that P. mosselli and P. fuorescence might have the potential to control R. solanacearum. However, the good results obtained in vitro cannot be gained the same as those in greenhouse or field conditions. So, further experiments are needed to determine the effectiveness of these isolates under field conditions.This work support the view that increased defense enzymes activities could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of endophytic bacteria on plants growth

  20. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  1. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  2. Projection as a psychological defense mechanism and its relation to the self-perception of the individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Михайлович Тохтамиш

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the classical and contemporary psychological theories of projection as a defense mechanism, investigates its connection with the verbally evaluated component of self-perception. A significant statistical dependence of high level of projection as a defense mechanism with low self-esteem is detected

  3. Differential regulation of defense-related proteins in soybean during compatible and incompatible interactions between Phytophthora sojae and soybean by comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Maofeng; Ma, Hongyu; Li, Haiyang; Guo, Baodian; Zhang, Xin; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Haonan; Wang, Qiuxia; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-07-01

    Few proteomic studies have focused on the plant- Phytophthora interactions, our study provides important information regarding the use of proteomic methods for investigation of the basic mechanisms of plant-Phytophthora interactions. Phytophthora sojae is a fast-spreading and devastating pathogen that is responsible for root and stem rot in soybean crops worldwide. To better understand the response of soybean seedlings to the stress of infection by virulent and avirulent pathogens at the proteomic level, proteins extracted from the hypocotyls of soybean reference cultivar Williams 82 infected by P. sojae P6497 (race 2) and P7076 (race 19), respectively, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 95 protein spots were differently expressed, with 83 being successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and subjected to further analysis. Based on the majority of the 83 defense-responsive proteins, and defense-related pathway genes supplemented by a quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay, a defense-related network for soybean infected by virulent and avirulent pathogens was proposed. We found reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) signal pathway and biosynthesis of isoflavones were significantly up-regulated in the resistant soybean. Our results imply that following the P. sojae infection, ROS and SA signal pathway in soybean play the major roles in defense against P. sojae. This research will facilitate further investigation of the molecular regulatory mechanism of the defense response in soybean following infection by P. sojae.

  4. Immune-related transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki workers: the defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Li, Yi-Feng; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Yang; Chen, Chuan-Cheng; Wen, Shuo-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, live socially in microbial-rich habitats. To understand the molecular mechanism by which termites combat pathogenic microbes, a full-length normalized cDNA library and four Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed from termite workers infected with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana), Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and the libraries were analyzed. From the high quality normalized cDNA library, 439 immune-related sequences were identified. These sequences were categorized as pattern recognition receptors (47 sequences), signal modulators (52 sequences), signal transducers (137 sequences), effectors (39 sequences) and others (164 sequences). From the SSH libraries, 27, 17, 22 and 15 immune-related genes were identified from each SSH library treated with M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, B. thuringiensis and E. coli, respectively. When the normalized cDNA library was compared with the SSH libraries, 37 immune-related clusters were found in common; 56 clusters were identified in the SSH libraries, and 259 were identified in the normalized cDNA library. The immune-related gene expression pattern was further investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Important immune-related genes were characterized, and their potential functions were discussed based on the integrated analysis of the results. We suggest that normalized cDNA and SSH libraries enable us to discover functional genes transcriptome. The results remarkably expand our knowledge about immune-inducible genes in C. formosanus Shiraki and enable the future development of novel control strategies for the management of Formosan subterranean termites.

  5. Immune-related transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki workers: the defense mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussain

    Full Text Available Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, live socially in microbial-rich habitats. To understand the molecular mechanism by which termites combat pathogenic microbes, a full-length normalized cDNA library and four Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH libraries were constructed from termite workers infected with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and the libraries were analyzed. From the high quality normalized cDNA library, 439 immune-related sequences were identified. These sequences were categorized as pattern recognition receptors (47 sequences, signal modulators (52 sequences, signal transducers (137 sequences, effectors (39 sequences and others (164 sequences. From the SSH libraries, 27, 17, 22 and 15 immune-related genes were identified from each SSH library treated with M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, B. thuringiensis and E. coli, respectively. When the normalized cDNA library was compared with the SSH libraries, 37 immune-related clusters were found in common; 56 clusters were identified in the SSH libraries, and 259 were identified in the normalized cDNA library. The immune-related gene expression pattern was further investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR. Important immune-related genes were characterized, and their potential functions were discussed based on the integrated analysis of the results. We suggest that normalized cDNA and SSH libraries enable us to discover functional genes transcriptome. The results remarkably expand our knowledge about immune-inducible genes in C. formosanus Shiraki and enable the future development of novel control strategies for the management of Formosan subterranean termites.

  6. Object relations, defensive operations, and affective states in narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Berg, J L

    1992-08-01

    Rorschach data were used to psychometrically "map" the internal psychological operations of three Cluster B personality disorders, listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), all of which may be organized at a borderline level. Psychopathic antisocial subjects (P-APDs) and narcissistic subjects (NPDs) were highly narcissistic. NPD subjects, however, produced more indices of anxiety and attachment capacity and fewer scores related to borderline object relations and damaged identity. P-APDs and borderline subjects (BPDs) produced similar mean numbers of borderline object relations; however, the BPDs were more anxious, produced more unsublimated aggressive and libidinal drive material, and evidenced greater potential for attachment. BPDs were also less narcissistic than both P-APDs and NPDs. Nonpsychopathic antisocial subjects (NP-APDs) were less borderline than P-APDs and BPDs, less narcissistic in terms of a stable grandiose self-structure than NPD and P-APDs, produced less evidence of attachment capacity than NPDs and BPDs but more than P-APDs, and were similar to BPDs in their proneness to anxiety. The outpatient NPDs and BPDs produced more idealization responses than the incarcerated antisocial personality disorder (APD) groups. We conclude that the behavioral descriptions offered for these three Cluster B personality disorders, when used in conjunction with information such as level of personality organization (Kernberg, 1984), level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985), and outpatient versus inpatient research settings, may have greater intrapsychic specificity than previously thought.

  7. The psychological defensive profile of primary Sjögren's syndrome patients and its relationship to health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, T; Mantis, D; Voulgari, P V; Tsifetaki, N; Drosos, A A

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to assess the defensive profile of primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients and to investigate the independent associations of psychological distress and personality variables with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In 40 primary SS patients we assessed psychological distress (SCL-90-R), ego defense mechanisms (Defense Style Questionnaire), hostility features (HDHQ) and HRQOL (WHOQOL-BREF). Fifty-six patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosous (SLE) and 80 healthy participants matched for age and sex served as controls. Primary SS patients presented higher rates of general psychological distress compared to SLE and healthy participants. Symptoms of somatisation were more prominent in SS than SLE or healthy controls. SS patients presented less use of humour defense and more help-rejecting complains and delusional guilt hostility, compared to controls. Primary SS patients' HRQOL was more impaired than healthy participants and comparable to SLE. Psychological distress was a constant independent correlate of SS patients' HRQOL, while less use of humour (ppsychological distress; more use of schizoid fantasy was also independently associated with impaired Environment HRQOL (p=0.005). Primary SS patients exhibit several specific psychological difficulties in adaptation to life stressors, and clinicians and consultation-liaison psychiatrists, apart from the early assessment and treatment of psychological distress and somatisation symptoms, should consider the patients' underlying defensive profile and coping capacities, since such personality traits, although usually underestimated, are also independently associated with the disease outcome.

  8. Effects of oligosaccharides from endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 on activities of defense-related enzymes in Dioscorea zingiberensis suspension cell and seedling cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqin Li

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Both EOS and WOS significantly increased the activities of PAL, PPO and POD in the suspension cell and seedling cultures of D. zingiberensis. The results suggested that the oligosaccharides from the endophytic fungus F. oxysporum Dzf17 may be related to the activation and enhancement of the defensive mechanisms of D. zingiberensis suspension cell and seedling cultures.

  9. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  10. Acclimation of hydrogen peroxide enhances salt tolerance by activating defense-related proteins in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyaraj, Gayathri; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Ok Ran; Parvin, Shonana; Balusamy, Sri Renuka Devi; Khorolragchaa, Atlanzul; Yang, Deok Chun

    2014-06-01

    The effect of exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide on salt stress tolerance was investigated in Panax ginseng. Pretreatment of ginseng seedlings with 100 μM H2O2 increased the physiological salt tolerance of the ginseng plant and was used as the optimum concentration to induce salt tolerance capacity. Treatment with exogenous H2O2 for 2 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in ginseng seedlings by increasing the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and by decreasing the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous H2O2 as well as the production rate of superoxide radical (O2(-)). There was a positive physiological effect on the growth and development of salt-stressed seedlings by exogenous H2O2 as measured by ginseng dry weight and both chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Exogenous H2O2 induced changes in MDA, O2(-), antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds, which are responsible for increases in salt stress tolerance. Salt treatment caused drastic declines in ginseng growth and antioxidants levels; whereas, acclimation treatment with H2O2 allowed the ginseng seedlings to recover from salt stress by up-regulation of defense-related proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant compounds.

  11. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  12. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.E.; Chazel, A.C.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Estes, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ''refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022)

  13. The parenchyma of secondary xylem and its critical role in tree defense against fungal decay in relation to the CODIT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Morris

    2016-11-01

    for structure-function relations, while also examining how fungi can breach the defense system using an array of enzymes in conjunction with the physically intrusive hyphae.

  14. An enrichment of CRISPR and other defense-related features in marine sponge-associated microbial metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Horn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. This study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.

  15. In silico differential display of defense-related expressed sequence tags from sugarcane tissues infected with diazotrophic endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambais Marcio R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of 277 sugarcane expressed sequence tags (EST-contigs encoding putative defense-related (DR proteins were evaluated using the Sugarcane EST database. The DR proteins evaluated included chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, chalcone synthases, chalcone isomerases, isoflavone reductases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, proline-rich glycoproteins, peroxidases, catalases, superoxide dismutases, WRKY-like transcription factors and proteins involved in cell death control. Putative sugarcane WRKY proteins were compared and their phylogenetic relationships determined. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to identify DR ESTs with similar expression profiles in representative cDNA libraries. To identify DR ESTs differentially expressed in sugarcane tissues infected with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus or Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, 179 putative DR EST-contigs expressed in non-infected tissues (leaves and roots and/or infected tissues were selected and arrayed by similarity of their expression profiles. Changes in the expression levels of 124 putative DR EST-contigs, expressed in non-infected tissues, were evaluated in infected tissues. Approximately 42% of these EST-contigs showed no expression in infected tissues, whereas 15% and 3% showed more than 2-fold suppression in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. Approximately 14 and 8% of the DR EST-contigs evaluated showed more than 2-fold induction in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. The differential expression of clusters of DR genes may be important in the establishment of a compatible interaction between sugarcane and diazotrophic endophytes. It is suggested that the hierarchical clustering approach can be used on a genome-wide scale to identify genes likely involved in controlling plant-microorganism interactions.

  16. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction and related defense mechanisms in critical illness-induced multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Steven E; Van den Berghe, Greet; Vanhorebeek, Ilse

    2017-10-01

    Patients with critical illness-induced multiple organ failure suffer from a very high morbidity and mortality, despite major progress in intensive care. The pathogenesis of this condition is complex and incompletely understood. Inadequate tissue perfusion and an overwhelming inflammatory response with pronounced cellular damage have been suggested to play an important role, but interventions targeting these disturbances largely failed to improve patient outcome. Hence, new therapeutic perspectives are urgently needed. Cellular dysfunction, hallmarked by mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress, is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the development of organ failure in critical illness. Several cellular defense mechanisms are normally activated when the cell is in distress, but may fail or respond insufficiently to critical illness. This insight may open new therapeutic options by stimulating these cellular defense mechanisms. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in critical illness-induced multiple organ failure and gives an overview of the corresponding cellular defense mechanisms. Therapeutic perspectives based on these cellular defense mechanisms are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Immune and Metabolic Alterations in Trauma and Sepsis edited by Dr. Raghavan Raju. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Overexpression of SAMDC1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana increases expression of defense-related genes as well as resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eMarco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been previously described that elevation of endogenous spermine levels in Arabidopsis could be achieved by transgenic overexpression of S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC or Spermine synthase (SPMS. In both cases, spermine accumulation had an impact on the plant transcriptome, with up-regulation of a set of genes enriched in functional categories involved in defense-related processes against both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the response of SAMDC1-overexpressing plants against bacterial and oomycete pathogens has been tested. The expression of several pathogen defense-related genes was induced in these plants as well as in wild type plants exposed to an exogenous supply of spermine. SAMDC1-overexpressing plants showed an increased tolerance to infection by Pseudomonas syringae and by Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Both results add more evidence to the hypothesis that spermine plays a key role in plant resistance to biotic stress.

  18. Induction of Defense-Related Responses in Cf9 Tomato Cells by the AVR9 Elicitor Peptide of Cladosporium fulvum Is Developmentally Regulated1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honée, Guy; Buitink, Julia; Jabs, Thorsten; De Kloe, José; Sijbolts, Fred; Apotheker, Marion; Weide, Rob; Sijen, Titia; Stuiver, Maarten; De Wit, Pierre J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The AVR9 elicitor from the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum induces defense-related responses, including cell death, specifically in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene. To study biochemical mechanisms of resistance in detail, suspension cultures of tomato cells that carry the Cf-9 resistance gene were initiated. Treatment of cells with various elicitors, except AVR9, induced an oxidative burst, ion fluxes, and expression of defense-related genes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Cf9 tomato leaf discs with Avr9-containing constructs resulted efficiently in transgenic callus formation. Although transgenic callus tissue showed normal regeneration capacity, transgenic plants expressing both the Cf-9 and the Avr9 genes were never obtained. Transgenic F1 seedlings that were generated from crosses between tomato plants expressing the Avr9 gene and wild-type Cf9 plants died within a few weeks. However, callus cultures that were initiated on cotyledons from these seedlings could be maintained for at least 3 months and developed similarly to callus cultures that contained only the Cf-9 or the Avr9 gene. It is concluded, therefore, that induction of defense responses in Cf9 tomato cells by the AVR9 elicitor is developmentally regulated and is absent in callus tissue and cell-suspension cultures, which consists of undifferentiated cells. These results are significant for the use of suspension-cultured cells to investigate signal transduction cascades. PMID:9662523

  19. RNA-Seq analysis of Citrus reticulata in the early stages of Xylella fastidiosa infection reveals auxin-related genes as a defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; de Souza, Alessandra A; Takita, Marco A; Kishi, Luciano T; Machado, Marcos A

    2013-10-03

    Citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is one the most important citrus diseases, and affects all varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb). On the other hand, among the Citrus genus there are different sources of resistance against X. fastidiosa. For these species identifying these defense genes could be an important step towards obtaining sweet orange resistant varieties through breeding or genetic engineering. To assess these genes we made use of mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) that is known to be resistant to CVC and shares agronomical characteristics with sweet orange. Thus, we investigated the gene expression in Ponkan mandarin at one day after infection with X. fastidiosa, using RNA-seq. A set of genes considered key elements in the resistance was used to confirm its regulation in mandarin compared with the susceptible sweet orange. Gene expression analysis of mock inoculated and infected tissues of Ponkan mandarin identified 667 transcripts repressed and 724 significantly induced in the later. Among the induced transcripts, we identified genes encoding proteins similar to Pattern Recognition Receptors. Furthermore, many genes involved in secondary metabolism, biosynthesis and cell wall modification were upregulated as well as in synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and auxin. This work demonstrated that the defense response to the perception of bacteria involves cell wall modification and activation of hormone pathways, which probably lead to the induction of other defense-related genes. We also hypothesized the induction of auxin-related genes indicates that resistant plants initially recognize X. fastidiosa as a necrotrophic pathogen.

  20. Induction of extracellular defense-related proteins in suspension cultured-cells of Daucus carota elicited with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Jara, Ana B; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, María A

    2014-04-01

    Suspension cultured-cells (SCC) of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, separately or in combination, on the induction of defense responses, particularly the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. A comparative study of the extracellular proteome (secretome) between control and elicited carrot SCC pointed to the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to glycoproteins which have inhibitory activity against the cell-wall-degrading enzymes secreted by pathogens and/or are induced when carrot cells are exposed to a pathogen elicitor. Other amino acid sequences were homologous to Leucine-Rich Repeat domain-containing proteins, which play an essential role in defense against pathogens, as well as in the recognition of microorganisms, making them important players in the innate immunity of this plant. Also, some tryptic peptides were shown to be homologous to a thaumatin-like protein, showing high specificity to abiotic stress and to different reticuline oxidase-like proteins that displayed high levels of antifungal activity, suggesting that methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in SCC of D. carota. Apart from these elicitor-inducible proteins, we observed the presence of PR-proteins in both control and elicited carrot SCC, suggesting that their expression is mainly constitutive. These PR-proteins are putative class IV chitinases, which also have inhibitory activity against pathogen growth and the class III peroxidases that participate in response to environmental stress (e.g. pathogen attack and oxidative), meaning that they are involved in defense responses triggered by both biotic and abiotic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Emerging Roles for MAS-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor-X2 in Host Defense Peptide, Opioid, and Neuropeptide-Mediated Inflammatory Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hydar

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are tissue-resident immune cells that contribute to host defense but are best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases. In humans, MCs are divided into two subtypes based on the protease content of their secretory granules. Thus, human lung MCs contain only tryptase and are known as MC T , whereas skin MCs contain both tryptase and chymase and are known as MC TC . Patients with severe asthma display elevated MCs in the lung, which undergo phenotypic change from MC T to MC TC . Although the human genome contains four Mas related G protein coupled receptor X (MRGPRX) genes, an important feature of MC TC is that they selectively express MRGPRX2. It is activated by antimicrobial host defense peptides such as human β-defensins and the cathelicidin LL-37 and likely contributes to host defense. MRGPRX2 is also a receptor for the neuropeptide substance P, major basic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, opioids, and many FDA-approved cationic drugs. Increased expression of MRGPRX2 or enhanced downstream signaling likely contributes to chronic inflammatory diseases such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria, and severe asthma. In this chapter, I will discuss the expression profile and function of MRGPRX1-4 and review the emerging roles of MRGPRX2 on host defense, chronic inflammatory diseases, and drug-induced pseudoallergic reactions. I will also examine the novel aspects of MRGPRX2 signaling in MCs as it related to degranulation and review the mechanisms of its regulation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Host Defense-Related Proteins Using Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Milk Whey from Cows with Staphylococcus aureus Subclinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa Abdelmegid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious pathogen associated with bovine subclinical mastitis. Current diagnosis of S. aureus mastitis is based on bacteriological culture of milk samples and somatic cell counts, which lack either sensitivity or specificity. Identification of milk proteins that contribute to host defense and their variable responses to pathogenic stimuli would enable the characterization of putative biomarkers of subclinical mastitis. To accomplish this, milk whey samples from healthy and mastitic dairy cows were analyzed using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. In total, 90 proteins were identified, of which 25 showed significant differential abundance between healthy and mastitic samples. In silico functional analyses indicated the involvement of the differentially abundant proteins in biological mechanisms and signaling pathways related to host defense including pathogen-recognition, direct antimicrobial function, and the acute-phase response. This proteomics and bioinformatics analysis not only facilitates the identification of putative biomarkers of S. aureus subclinical mastitis but also recapitulates previous findings demonstrating the abundance of host defense proteins in intramammary infection. All mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007516.

  3. Actin-related defense mechanism to reject penetration attempt by a non-pathogen is maintained in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Issei; Hakuno, Humiaki

    2003-06-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a key player in defense responses during early stages of infection by fungal pathogens. To investigate molecular mechanisms of actin-related defense responses, a cultured tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cell system was devised. When conidia were directly deposited on BY-2 cells, neither a pathogen, Erysiphe cichoracearum, nor a non-pathogen, Erysiphe pisi, was able to form appressoria or haustoria on BY-2 cells. On the other hand, conidia of the powdery mildews formed appressoria on BY-2 cells if they were covered with a thin hydrophobic membrane of Formvar. Percentages of appressoria formation of the powdery mildews on the Formvar-covered BY-2 cells were mostly the same as those on leaf epidermal cells. The pathogen successfully penetrated through the membrane into BY-2 cells and formed haustoria, whereas penetration attempts of the non-pathogen were completely rejected by the BY-2 cells similar to attempts on leaf epidermal cells. On the other hand, when BY-2 cells were treated with actin cytoskeleton-depolymerizing agents, cytochalasins, the non-pathogen became able to penetrate and form haustoria in BY-2 cells. Simultaneously, cytochalasin inhibited callose deposition at penetration sites of the non-pathogen. These results demonstrated that the actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in defense mechanisms against fungal penetration, even in the dedifferentiated cultured cells. The newly devised Formvar-covered cultured cell system will be a useful tool for molecular dissection of signal perception and defense mechanisms of plant cells during the early stage of fungal attack.

  4. Sequence/structural analysis of xylem proteome emphasizes pathogenesis-related proteins, chitinases and β-1, 3-glucanases as key players in grapevine defense against Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce’s disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set.

  5. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that enhancing defensive enzymes' activities and inducing new isozymes may be related to mitigating pathogen-induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be involved in the mechanisms of plant against fungal ...

  6. 22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical data designated in § 121.1 of this subchapter...

  7. Annual report to Congress. Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-03-01

    This Annual Report to the Congress describes the Department of Energy's activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. During 2000, the Department completed its implementation and proposed closure of one Board recommendation and completed all implementation plan milestones associated with two additional Board recommendations. Also in 2000, the Department formally accepted two new Board recommendations and developed implementation plans in response to those recommendations. The Department also made significant progress with a number of broad-based safety initiatives. These include initial implementation of integrated safety management at field sites and within headquarters program offices, issuance of a nuclear safety rule, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  8. Annual report to Congress. Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Annual Report to the Congress describes the Department of Energy's activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. During 2000, the Department completed its implementation and proposed closure of one Board recommendation and completed all implementation plan milestones associated with two additional Board recommendations. Also in 2000, the Department formally accepted two new Board recommendations and developed implementation plans in response to those recommendations. The Department also made significant progress with a number of broad-based safety initiatives. These include initial implementation of integrated safety management at field sites and within headquarters program offices, issuance of a nuclear safety rule, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction

  9. Identification of infection- and defense-related genes via a dynamic host-pathogen interaction network using a Candida albicans-zebrafish infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Zong-Yu; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chao, Chun-Cheih; Liu, Fu-Chen; Lan, Chung-Yu; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans infections and candidiasis are difficult to treat and create very serious therapeutic challenges. In this study, based on interactive time profile microarray data of C. albicans and zebrafish during infection, the infection-related protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of the two species and the intercellular PPI network between host and pathogen were simultaneously constructed by a dynamic interaction model, modeled as an integrated network consisting of intercellular invasion and cellular defense processes during infection. The signal transduction pathways in regulating morphogenesis and hyphal growth of C. albicans were further investigated based on significant interactions found in the intercellular PPI network. Two cellular networks were also developed corresponding to the different infection stages (adhesion and invasion), and then compared with each other to identify proteins from which we can gain more insight into the pathogenic role of hyphal development in the C. albicans infection process. Important defense-related proteins in zebrafish were predicted using the same approach. The hyphal growth PPI network, zebrafish PPI network and host-pathogen intercellular PPI network were combined to form an integrated infectious PPI network that helps us understand the systematic mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. albicans and the immune response of the host, and may help improve medical therapies and facilitate the development of new antifungal drugs. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  12. Strain-Related Differences on Response of Liver and Kidney Antioxidant Defense System in Two Rat Strains Following Diazinon Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diazinon (DZN is one of the most organophosphates that widely used in agriculture and ectoparasiticide formulations. Its extensive use as an effective pesticide was associated with the environmental deleterious effects on biological systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of DZN to affect serum biochemical parameters and the antioxidant defense system in the liver and kidney of two rat strains. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 female Wistar and 30 female Norway rats were randomly divided into control and DZN groups. DZN group was divided into four subgroups: 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of DZN administered groups by i.p. injection. The parameters were evaluated after 24 hours. Results At higher doses of DZN, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney of Wistar rats were higher than Norway rats. At these concentrations, DZN increased some serum biochemical indices such as liver enzymes activities and levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in Wistar rat. Conclusions DZN at higher doses alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance in liver and kidney of both rat strains and induces oxidative stress, which is associated with a depletion of GSH and increased lipid peroxidation. However, Wistar rats are found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of DZN compared to Norway rats. In addition, the effect of DZN on liver antioxidant system was more than kidney.

  13. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  14. Seasonal variation of defense-related gene expression in leaves from Bois noir affected and recovered grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Lucia; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2011-06-22

    Although Bois noir is one of the main phytoplasma diseases of grapevine, the gene expression and enzyme activities that underlie physiological changes occurring in symptomatic and recovered (with spontaneous or induced symptom remission) plants are mostly unknown. Bois noir symptomatic leaves (September 2006, 2007) and symptomless leaves from infected symptomatic plants (September 2007) of Sangiovese (moderately susceptible) and Chardonnay (highly susceptible) cultivars were collected. Moreover, leaves from infected symptomless plants of both cultivars were harvested in June 2007. Leaves from recovered plants were also collected in the same periods. In recovered plants of both cultivars, class III chitinase and almost every time phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase expression were increased for all collection periods. In symptomatic leaves of both cultivars, the expressions of the same genes were up-regulated and also those of β-1,3-glucanase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase. The activities of chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase, and superoxide dismutase generally correlated with gene expression. For the moderately susceptible Sangiovese, the defense genes were generally up-regulated in both symptomatic and symptomless leaves (for all collection periods). This behavior was not observed in the highly susceptible Chardonnay, in which changes in gene expression were linked to evident symptom display. Therefore, the physiological response of the plants to this pathogen infection appear to be the reason for the resistance of the cultivar to the disease.

  15. Dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation facilitates anxiety-, but not panic-related, defensive responses in rats tested in the elevated T-maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplesi, M. Jr.; Bortoli, V.C. de; Paula Soares, V. de; Nogueira, R.L.; Zangrossi, H. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety

  16. Dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation facilitates anxiety-, but not panic-related, defensive responses in rats tested in the elevated T-maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplesi, M. Jr. [Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Bortoli, V.C. de [Departamento de Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, ES (Brazil); Paula Soares, V. de [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Nogueira, R.L. [Laboratório de Psicologia Comparada, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zangrossi, H. Jr. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-03

    The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety.

  17. Impact of social separation during pregnancy on the manifestation of defensive behaviors related to generalized anxiety and panic throughout offspring development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Cristina de Brito Guzzo Soliani

    Full Text Available The multiple insecurities, anatomical, physiological and psychological changes arising from the gestational period can generate an overload of stress in the mother and cause disturbances in the offspring, affecting it throughout its development. The existing analysis linking prenatal stress and offspring's anxiety have divergent results, being limited as to gestational week, type of stressor and age of progeny's assessment. Social separation has been described as a stressor that causes increase in anxiety. Thus, the present study evaluated the effects of social separation applied in one of the three gestational weeks of rat dams on the manifestation of the defensive behaviors related to generalized anxiety disorder and panic in the Elevated T Maze of the male progeny in three stages of development (1, 3 or 6 months of life. It was found, in the offspring of grouped (control dams, increased behaviors associated with generalized anxiety disorder and a reduction of panic-like behaviors throughout development. For animals whose dams were socially separated during pregnancy, the most critical period of exposure was the 2nd gestational week, which affected the acquisition of aversive memory, demonstrated by the impairment on learning of avoidances of the offspring in all ages evaluated. Stressor exposure in this week also increased the avoidances, related to generalized anxiety of progeny in the 1st month and decreased escapes, related to panic in the 3rd month of life and, at the age of 6 months old, an inverse situation, with the reduction of the defensive behaviors associated to generalized anxiety disorder. The results show that, when assessing effects of prenatal stress on the manifestation of anxiety, not only the period of exposure is important, but also the age of offspring assessed.

  18. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    capital assets, such as an F-35 Joint Strike Fighter or a Virginia-class submarine. Investment costs are distinguished from expenses, which are...procurement funds before a formal Milestone C approval. How else does DOD purchase goods and services? How does DOD procurement relate to defense...purchase services (e.g., research, architectural design, or cleaning services) and smaller goods (e.g., gauze or light bulbs) because such purchases

  19. Cooperative regulation of anxiety and panic-related defensive behaviors in the rat periaqueductal grey matter by 5-HT1A and μ-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncon, Camila M; Biesdorf, Carla; Coimbra, Norberto C; Audi, Elisabeth A; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

    2013-12-01

    Previous results with the elevated T-maze (ETM) test indicate that the antipanic action of serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG) depends on the activation endogenous opioid peptides. The aim of the present work was to investigate the interaction between opioid- and serotonin-mediated neurotransmission in the modulation of defensive responses in rats submitted to the ETM. The obtained results showed that intra-dPAG administration of morphine significantly increased escape latency, a panicolytic-like effect that was blocked by pre-treatment with intra-dPAG injection of either naloxone or the 5-HT1A antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1 piperazinyl] ethyl] -N- 2- pyridinyl-ciclohexanecarboxamide maleate (WAY-100635). In addition, previous administration of naloxone antagonized both the anti-escape and the anti-avoidance (anxiolytic-like) effect of the 5-HT1A agonist (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), but did not affect the anti-escape effect of the 5-HT2A agonist (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI). Moreover, the combination of sub-effective doses of locally administered 5-HT and morphine significantly impaired ETM escape performance. Finally, the µ-antagonist D-PHE-CYS-TYR-D-TRP-ORN-THR-PEN (CTOP) blocked the anti-avoidance as well as the anti-escape effect of 8-OHDPAT, and the association of sub-effective doses of the µ-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin acetate salt (DAMGO) and of 8-OHDPAT had anti-escape and anti-avoidance effects in the ETM. These results suggest a synergic interaction between the 5-HT1A and the µ-opioid receptor at post-synaptic level on neurons of the dPAG that regulate proximal defense, theoretically related to panic attacks.

  20. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases.We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF.Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.

  1. 22 CFR 227.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary of Defense. 227.500 Section 227.500... Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal... immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental...

  2. 22 CFR 519.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secretary of Defense. 519.500 Section 519.500... Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal... immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental...

  3. 22 CFR 712.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secretary of Defense. 712.500 Section 712.500... LOBBYING Exemptions § 712.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by... written exemption to Congress immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense...

  4. 22 CFR 138.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary of Defense. 138.500 Section 138.500... Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal... immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental...

  5. The pathogen-inducible promoter of defense-related LsGRP1 gene from Lilium functioning in phylogenetically distinct species of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Chen, Chao-Ying

    2017-01-01

    A suitable promoter greatly enhances the efficiency of target gene expression of plant molecular breeding and farming; however, only very few promoters are available for economically important non-graminaceous ornamental monocots. In this study, an 868-bp upstream region of defense-related LsGRP1 of Lilium, named P LsGRP1 , was cloned by genome walking and proven to exhibit promoter activity in Nicotiana benthamiana and Lilium 'Stargazer' as assayed by agroinfiltration-based β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression system. Many putative biotic stress-, abiotic stress- and physiological regulation-related cis-acting elements were found in P LsGRP1 . Serial deletion analysis of P LsGRP1 performed in Nicotiana tabacum var. Wisconsin 38 accompanied with types of treatments indicated that 868-bp P LsGRP1 was highly induced upon pathogen challenges and cold stress while the 131-bp 3'-end region of P LsGRP1 could be dramatically induced by many kinds of abiotic stresses, biotic stresses and phytohormone treatments. Besides, transient GUS expression in a fern, gymnosperms, monocots and dicots revealed good promotor activity of P LsGRP1 in many phylogenetically distinct plant species. Thus, pathogen-inducible P LsGRP1 and its 131-bp 3'-end region are presumed potential as tools for plant molecular breeding and farming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide is coupled to biotic defense responses by ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 in a daylength-related manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Sejir; Queval, Guillaume; Vanderauwera, Sandy; Mhamdi, Amna; Vandorpe, Michaël; Langlois-Meurinne, Mathilde; Van Breusegem, Frank; Saindrenan, Patrick; Noctor, Graham

    2010-08-01

    While it is well established that reactive oxygen species can induce cell death, intracellularly generated oxidative stress does not induce lesions in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) photorespiratory mutant cat2 when plants are grown in short days (SD). One interpretation of this observation is that a function necessary to couple peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-triggered oxidative stress to cell death is only operative in long days (LD). Like lesion formation, pathogenesis-related genes and camalexin were only induced in cat2 in LD, despite less severe intracellular redox perturbation compared with SD. Lesion formation triggered by peroxisomal H(2)O(2) was modified by introducing secondary mutations into the cat2 background and was completely absent in cat2 sid2 double mutants, in which ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 (ICS1) activity is defective. In addition to H(2)O(2)-induced salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, the sid2 mutation in ICS1 abolished a range of LD-dependent pathogen responses in cat2, while supplementation of cat2 with SA in SD activated these responses. Nontargeted transcript and metabolite profiling identified clusters of genes and small molecules associated with the daylength-dependent ICS1-mediated relay of H(2)O(2) signaling. The effect of oxidative stress in cat2 on resistance to biotic challenge was dependent on both growth daylength and ICS1. We conclude that (1) lesions induced by intracellular oxidative stress originating in the peroxisomes can be genetically reverted; (2) the isochorismate pathway of SA synthesis couples intracellular oxidative stress to cell death and associated disease resistance responses; and (3) camalexin accumulation was strictly dependent on the simultaneous presence of both H(2)O(2) and SA signals.

  7. Chronic unpredictable mild stress alters an anxiety-related defensive response, Fos immunoreactivity and hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, J S; Céspedes, I C; Abrão, R O; Dos Santos, T B; Diniz, L; Britto, L R G; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C; Ortolani, D; Melo-Thomas, L; da Silva, R C B; Viana, M B

    2013-08-01

    Previous results show that elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses are facilitated by acute restraint. Escape, on the other hand, was unaltered. To examine if the magnitude of the stressor is an important factor influencing these results, we investigated the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on ETM avoidance and escape measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to map areas activated by stress exposure in response to ETM avoidance and escape performance. Additionally, the effects of the UCMS protocol on the number of cells expressing the marker of migrating neuroblasts doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus were investigated. Corticosterone serum levels were also measured. Results showed that UCMS facilitates ETM avoidance, not altering escape. In unstressed animals, avoidance performance increases Fos-ir in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus (dentate gyrus) and basomedial amygdala, and escape increases Fos-ir in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. In stressed animals submitted to ETM avoidance, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, ventrolateral septum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, dorsal and median raphe nuclei. In stressed animals submitted to ETM escape, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. Also, UCMS exposure decreased the number of DCX-positive cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and increased corticosterone serum levels. These data suggest that the anxiogenic effects of UCMS are related to the activation of specific neurobiological circuits that modulate anxiety and confirm that this stress protocol activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and decreases hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Romania's Experiences with Defense Reform Since the December 1989 Revolution and the Dimensions of Civil-Military Relations Viewed as a Trinity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stan, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    ...) since the collapse of communism in December 1989. The purpose of the thesis is to identify relevant qualitative and quantitative indicators for measuring the progress of Romanian political and military authorities in implementing defense reform initiatives...

  9. Romania’s Experiences with Defense Reform Since the December 1989 Revolution and the Dimensions of Civil-Military Relations Viewed as a Trinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    of Defense: Different Levels, Different Roles. United States. Dept. of Defense. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2006. Gilroy, Curtis L., David K. Horne, and...Lexington Books, 1980. Hasson, Judi. “DOD Plans to Link Pay and Performance.” Federal Computer Week 19, no. 2 (Jan 24, 2005): 48. Held, David and Anthony...Organizational Psychology 78, (Dec, 2005): 553. Lipshitz, Raanan, Micha Popper, and Sasson Oz. “Building Learning Organizations: The Design and Implementation

  10. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  11. μ-Opioid and 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus interact for the regulation of panic-related defensive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncon, Camila Marroni; Yamashita, Paula Shimene de Melo; Frias, Alana Tercino; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne; Zangrossi, Helio

    2017-06-01

    The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) have been implicated in the genesis and regulation of panic-related defensive behaviors, such as escape. Previous results point to an interaction between serotonergic and opioidergic systems within the DPAG to inhibit escape, involving µ-opioid and 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR). In the present study we explore this interaction in the DMH, using escape elicited by electrical stimulation of this area as a panic attack index. The obtained results show that intra-DMH administration of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.5 nmol) prevented the panicolytic-like effect of a local injection of serotonin (20 nmol). Pretreatment with the selective μ-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist CTOP (1 nmol) blocked the panicolytic-like effect of the 5-HT1AR agonist 8-OHDPAT (8 nmol). Intra-DMH injection of the selective MOR agonist DAMGO (0.3 nmol) also inhibited escape behavior, and a previous injection of the 5-HT1AR antagonist WAY-100635 (0.37 nmol) counteracted this panicolytic-like effect. These results offer the first evidence that serotonergic and opioidergic systems work together within the DMH to inhibit panic-like behavior through an interaction between µ-opioid and 5-HT1A receptors, as previously described in the DPAG.

  12. The arabidopsis wall associated kinase-like 10 gene encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase and is co-expressed with pathogen defense related genes

    KAUST Repository

    Meier, Stuart

    2010-01-26

    Background: Second messengers have a key role in linking environmental stimuli to physiological responses. One such messenger, guanosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), has long been known to be an essential signaling molecule in many different physiological processes in higher plants, including biotic stress responses. To date, however, the guanylyl cyclase (GC) enzymes that catalyze the formation of cGMP from GTP have largely remained elusive in higher plants. Principal Findings: We have identified an Arabidopsis receptor type wall associated kinase-like molecule (AtWAKL10) as a candidate GC and provide experimental evidence to show that the intracellular domain of AtWAKL10431-700 can generate cGMP in vitro. Further, we also demonstrate that the molecule has kinase activity indicating that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain catalytic protein. A co-expression and stimulus-specific expression analysis revealed that AtWAKL10 is consistently coexpressed with well characterized pathogen defense related genes and along with these genes is induced early and sharply in response to a range of pathogens and their elicitors. Conclusions: We demonstrate that AtWAKL10 is a twin-domain, kinase-GC signaling molecule that may function in biotic stress responses that are critically dependent on the second messenger cGMP. © 2010 Meier et al.

  13. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  14. Molecular characterization and temporal expression analyses indicate that the MIC (Meloidogyne Induced Cotton) gene family represents a novel group of root-specific defense-related genes in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubben, Martin J; Callahan, Franklin E; Hayes, Russel W; Jenkins, Johnie N

    2008-06-01

    The molecular events underlying the resistance of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to the root-knot nematode (RKN) are largely unknown. In this report, we further characterize the previously identified MIC3 gene including the identification of 14 related MIC cDNAs in nematode-infected roots of allotetraploid cotton that show >85% identity with MIC3. A time-course analysis of RKN infection in resistant and susceptible cotton lines showed that maximum MIC transcript accumulation occurred immediately prior to the phenotypic manifestation of resistance. MIC expression was not induced by mechanical wounding or by virulent reniform nematode infection. MIC expression was undetectable in cotton leaves undergoing a hypersensitive response to Xanthomonas campestris. A time-course analysis of defense gene expression (PR10, ERF5, CDNS, LOX1, POD4, POD8) in resistant and susceptible cotton roots showed that RKN infection specifically elicits the induction of MIC in resistant roots and not other common defense-signaling pathways. These results suggest that cotton resistance to RKN involves novel defense-signaling pathways and further supports the idea that the MIC genes are intimately involved in this resistance response and represent a group of root-specific defense-related genes in cotton.

  15. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. FY 1989--1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  16. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1991 and FY-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Chazel, A.C.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Estes, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980`s. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 14 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites? (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site? (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams? (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of ``refuge ponds`` as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay? Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  17. GmWRKY31 and GmHDL56 Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae by Regulating Defense-Related Gene Expression in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujie Fan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a destructive disease worldwide. The molecular mechanism of the soybean response to P. sojae is largely unclear. We report a novel WRKY transcription factor (TF in soybean, GmWRKY31, in the host response to P. sojae. Overexpression and RNA interference analysis demonstrated that GmWRKY31 enhanced resistance to P. sojae in transgenic soybean plants. GmWRKY31 was targeted to the nucleus, where it bound to the W-box and acted as an activator of gene transcription. Moreover, we determined that GmWRKY31 physically interacted with GmHDL56, which improved resistance to P. sojae in transgenic soybean roots. GmWRKY31 and GmHDL56 shared a common target GmNPR1 which was induced by P. sojae. Overexpression and RNA interference analysis demonstrated that GmNPR1 enhanced resistance to P. sojae in transgenic soybean plants. Several pathogenesis-related (PR genes were constitutively activated, including GmPR1a, GmPR2, GmPR3, GmPR4, GmPR5a, and GmPR10, in soybean plants overexpressing GmNPR1 transcripts. By contrast, the induction of PR genes was compromised in transgenic GmNPR1-RNAi lines. Taken together, these findings suggested that the interaction between GmWRKY31 and GmHDL56 enhances resistance to P. sojae by regulating defense-related gene expression in soybean.

  18. Adaptive defense mechanisms: function and transcendence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jesse A

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the high-adaptive (mature) defense mechanisms, along with case material illustrating each. These defenses are described in terms of not only the specific means by which they serve to ward off anxiety and manage conflict, but also how they often transcend their role as defenses by contributing to the creation of new "products" of value, such as new meanings, perspectives, modes of relating, and works of art or science. This report also discusses the implications of the use of adaptive defenses, especially humor, in the context of psychotherapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Investment in defense and cost of predator-induced defense along a resource gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2007-01-01

    investment in defense along a resource gradient, but competing models predict different patterns of investment. There are currently insufficient empirical data on changes in investment in defensive traits or their costs along resource gradients to differentiate between the competing allocation models......An organism's investment in different traits to reduce predation is determined by the fitness benefit of the defense relative to the fitness costs associated with the allocation of time and resources to the defense. Inherent tradeoffs in time and resource allocation should result in differential....... In this study, I exposed tadpoles to caged predators along a resource gradient in order to estimate investment in defense and costs of defense by assessing predator-induced plasticity. Induced defenses included increased tail depth, reduced feeding, and reduced swimming activity; costs associated...

  20. Modulations of physiological responses and possible involvement of defense-related secondary metabolites in acclimation of Artemisia annua L. against short-term UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Neha; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2014-09-01

    UV - B radiation exposure for upto 3 h did not cause direct damage to physiology, but adjusted secondary metabolism and metabolites accumulation as an effective acclimation mechanism to mitigate the adverse effects of radiation. Artemisia annua L. plants were irradiated with UV-B radiation (280-315 nm; 2.8 Wm(-2)) for different short-term (1, 2, 3 and 4 h) durations. UV-B irradiation of 3 h reduced the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. However, F v/F m, a sensitive indicator of photosynthetic inhibition, remained stable (0.78) upto 3 h, thereafter it declined sharply (0.72). Interestingly, transcript level of LHCB1, PSBA and PSBO genes related to photosystem II (PSII) were induced under UV-B exposure. In addition, genes coding for Rubisco small (RBCS1B) and large (RBCL) subunits were also upregulated upto 3 h. To mitigate the adverse effects of UV-B radiation, plants tremendously induced defense-related secondary metabolites such as antioxidative phenolics, UV-B absorbing flavonoids, anthocyanins and protective terpenes. The GC-MS analysis of essential oils revealed relatively higher production of monoterpenes over sesquiterpenes as well as 1.2-folds higher total oil yield under UV-B radiation. Owing to its diverse biological activities, the altered quantity and quality of essential oil of A. annua may contribute towards improving its therapeutic properties. The results suggest that UV-B irradiation upto 3 h reduced photosynthesis, probably due to stomatal limitations rather than any direct injury to photosynthetic apparatus as evident from stable F v/F m value, upregulated genes and greater accumulation of their corresponding proteins which gauge PSII health, elevated UV-B absorbing compounds and other protective metabolites. Correlation analysis indicates a significant positive correlation of photosynthetic rate with stomatal conductance while a negative correlation with anthocyanin and monoterpene contents under UV-B radiation

  1. 75 FR 81908 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Supplement; Organizational Conflicts of Interest in Major Defense Acquisition Programs AGENCY: Defense... conflicts of interest in major defense acquisition programs. DATES: Effective Date: December 29, 2010. FOR... guidance and tighten existing requirements relating to organizational conflicts of interest (OCIs) of...

  2. 22 CFR 120.12 - Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 120.12 Section 120.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.12 Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau of...

  3. 22 CFR 311.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Secretary of Defense. 311.500 Section 311.500 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 311.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal action from the...

  4. Differential Regulation of Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor X2-Mediated Mast Cell Degranulation by Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides and Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kshitij; Idahosa, Chizobam; Roy, Saptarshi; Lee, Donguk; Subramanian, Hariharan; Dhingra, Anuradha; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Korostoff, Jonathan; Ali, Hydar

    2017-10-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen that contributes to periodontal pathogenesis by disrupting host-microbe homeostasis and promoting dysbiosis. The virulence of P. gingivalis likely reflects an alteration in the lipid A composition of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the penta-acylated ( Pg LPS 1690 ) to the tetra-acylated ( Pg LPS 1435/1449 ) form. Mast cells play an important role in periodontitis, but the mechanisms of their activation and regulation remain unknown. The expression of epithelium- and neutrophil-derived host defense peptides (HDPs) (LL-37 and human β-defensin-3), which activate mast cells via Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2), is increased in periodontitis. We found that MRGPRX2-expressing mast cells are present in normal gingiva and that their numbers are elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis. Furthermore, HDPs stimulated degranulation in a human mast cell line (LAD2) and in RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing MRGPRX2 (RBL-MRGPRX2). Pg LPS 1690 caused substantial inhibition of HDP-induced mast cell degranulation, but Pg LPS 1435/1449 had no effect. A fluorescently labeled HDP (FAM-LL-37) bound to RBL-MRGPRX2 cells, and Pg LPS 1690 inhibited this binding, but Pg LPS 1435/1449 had no effect. These findings suggest that low-level inflammation induced by HDP/MRGPRX2-mediated mast cell degranulation contributes to gingival homeostasis but that sustained inflammation due to elevated levels of both HDPs and MRGPRX2-expressing mast cells promotes periodontal disease. Furthermore, differential regulation of HDP-induced mast cell degranulation by Pg LPS 1690 and Pg LPS 1435/1449 may contribute to the modulation of disease progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Bacillus cereus AR156 primes induced systemic resistance by suppressing miR825/825* and activating defense-related genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dongdong; Xia, Jing; Jiang, Chunhao; Qi, Beibei; Ling, Xiaoyu; Lin, Siyuan; Zhang, Weixiong; Guo, Jianhua; Jin, Hailing; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    Small RNAs play an important role in plant immune responses. However, their regulatory function in induced systemic resistance (ISR) is nascent. Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces ISR in Arabidopsis against bacterial infection. Here, by comparing small RNA profiles of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000-infected Arabidopsis with and without AR156 pretreatment, we identified a group of Arabidopsis microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially regulated by AR156 pretreatment. miR825 and miR825* are two miRNA generated from a single miRNA gene. Northern blot analysis indicated that they were significantly downregulated in Pst DC3000-infected plants pretreated with AR156, in contrast to the plants without AR156 pretreatment. miR825 targets two ubiquitin-protein ligases, while miR825* targets toll-interleukin-like receptor (TIR)-nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) type resistance (R) genes. The expression of these target genes negatively correlated with the expression of miR825 and miR825*. Moreover, transgenic plants showing reduced expression of miR825 and miR825* displayed enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000 infection, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing miR825 and miR825* were more susceptible. Taken together, our data indicates that Bacillus cereus AR156 pretreatment primes ISR to Pst infection by suppressing miR825 and miR825* and activating the defense related genes they targeted. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  7. Defense Co-Production: Collaborative National Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Robert R

    2005-01-01

    ...) and the defense industry at large. The aim of the study will be to examine the evolution of the procurement and contracting process since World War II with a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the increasingly symbiotic...

  8. Takeover defenses and IPO firm value in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosenboom, P.; van der Goot, L.R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The central question of this study involves the relation between the use of takeover defenses and IPO firm value. We report that management frequently uses takeover defenses before taking the firm public. The use of takeover defenses is primarily motivated by managerial entrenchment. IPO investors

  9. 22 CFR 213.7 - Omission not a defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Omission not a defense. 213.7 Section 213.7... defense. Failure by USAID to comply with any provision of this part is not available to a debtor as a defense against payment of a debt. ...

  10. 22 CFR 512.8 - Omissions not a defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Omissions not a defense. 512.8 Section 512.8... 1982 General Provisions § 512.8 Omissions not a defense. The failure of Broadcasting Board of Governors to comply with any provision in this regulation shall not serve as a defense to the debt. ...

  11. Penitentiary integral defense

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Rodríguez Román

    2012-01-01

    Penitentiary integral defense is a set of techniques designed to solve the breach of the peace that may appear in the penitentiary world. This paper studies the scope and legal framework of penitentiary self-defense. This kind of self-defense is defined by the particular characteristics of a confinement context and a very specific regulation aimed at preserving the integrity of prisoners and penitentiary staff as well as prison facilities. A technical section illustrating the main penitentiar...

  12. Circular from January 26, 2004, taken for the enforcement of the by-law from January 26, 2004, relative to the national defense secrecy protection in the domain of nuclear materials protection and control; Circulaire du 26 janvier 2004 prise pour l'application de l'arrete du 26 janvier 2004 relatif a la protection du secret de la defense nationale dans le domaine de la protection et du controle des matieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-15

    The by-law of January 26, 2004 gives a regulatory foundation to the classification of sensible informations relative to the security and physical protection of nuclear materials. This circular recalls, in this framework, the conditions of implementation of the regulation relative to the protection of national defense secrecies in the domain of the protection of nuclear facilities and materials. (J.S.)

  13. Estilos de defensa predominantes en relación con experiencias anómalo/paranormales (Predominant Defenses Styles in Relation to Abnormal / Paranormal Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Parra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El concepto de mecanismos de defensa tiene sus orígenes en la teoría psicoanalítica, que se centra más en el proceso de las defensas que en el objetivo de las defensas. El presente estudio examinó las diferencias entre individuos que tienen experiencias anómalo/paranormales y tres estilos defensivos (factor maduro, neurótico e inmaduro y quienes no han tenido tales experiencias. Estudiantes universitarios (60 % mujeres y 40 % varones, Edad promedio = 33.87 años recibieron el Cuestionario de Estilos de Defensa (DSQ-40 y diez preguntas que exploran varias experiencias anómalo/paranormales. Las personas reportaron una alta frecuencia de experiencias, tales como déjà-vu, sueños de percepción extrasensorial (PES, telepatía y recuerdos de vidas pasadas. Los resultados también mostraron mayor nivel de experiencias paranormales y defensas maduras, así como defensas neuróticas, en comparación con individuos sin experiencias. Aunque la naturaleza del estudio es francamente exploratoria, el autor sugiere que algunas de estas experiencias atribuidas a causas paranormales parecen servir como un mecanismo de protección a potenciales eventos traumáticos, mejorar el bienestar subjetivo del individuo o – al menos– evitar o disminuir las consecuencias perturbadoras de los eventos negativos de la vida. Por lo tanto, las experiencias paranormales podrían corresponder a rasgos no patológicos que producen cambios en la «homeostasis» psicológica. ABSTRACT: The concept of defense mechanisms has its origins in psychoanalytic theory, which focuses more on the defenses´process than on the objective of defenses. The present study examined the differences between individuals who have abnormal/paranormal experiences – and three defensive styles (mature, neurotic, and immature factor, and those who have not had such experiences. College students (60 % women and 40 % men, mean age = 33.87 years old received the Defense Styles

  14. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  15. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  16. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  17. Defense Signaling in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Self defense is the basic response of every living organism. This response is readily observed in animals because of their physical movements typically involved in that pro- cess. Being immobile, plants have evolved highly complex defense mechanisms that differ from those commonly seen in animals. Plants are able to ...

  18. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  19. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  20. Relative contribution of Na+/K+homeostasis, photochemical efficiency and antioxidant defense system to differential salt tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Qiao, Wenqing; Liu, Xiaohong; Shi, Jianbin; Xu, Qinghua; Zhou, Hong; Yan, Gentu; Huang, Qun

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the role of specific components of different coping strategies to salt load were identified. A pot experiment was conducted with four cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (differing in salt-sensitivity) under salinity stress. Based on observed responses in growth performance and physiological characteristics, CZ91 was the most tolerant of the four cultivars, followed by cultivars CCRI44 and CCRI49, with Z571 being much more sensitive to salt stress. To perform this tolerant response, they implement different adaptative mechanisms to cope with salt-stress. The superior salt tolerance of CZ91 was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: its ability to regulate K + and Na + transport more effectively, its higher photochemical efficiency and better antioxidant defense capacity. However, only one or a few specific components of these defense systems play crucial roles in moderately salt tolerant CCRI44 and CCRI49. Lower ROS load in CCRI44 may be attributed to simultaneous induction of antioxidant defenses by maintaining an unusually high level of SOD, and higher activities of CAT, APX, and POD during salt stress. CCRI49 could reduce the excess generation of ROS not only by maintaining a higher selective absorption of K + over Na + in roots across the membranes through SOS1, AKT1, and HAK5, but also by displaying higher excess-energy dissipation (e.g., higher ETR, P R and qN) during salt stress. Overall, our data provide a mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress tolerance among these cultivars and shed light on the different strategies employed by cotton cultivars to minimize the ill effects of stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel......In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  2. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar......, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce...

  3. Short-term overcrowding of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua: effects on serum-mediated antibacterial activity and transcription of glucose transport and antioxidant defense related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Brinchmann, Monica F; Kiron, Viswanath

    2008-12-01

    Serum-mediated control of Listonella anguillarum and transcriptional profiles of selected glucose transport and antioxidant defense genes, following short-term overcrowding in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua were determined. Fish were subjected to overcrowding by reducing the water level in the tank for 1 h and this was repeated thrice over a 12 h period. Blood samples were collected before overcrowding (initial group) and at 2, 24 and 72 h post-crowding. The sera from fish obtained at 2 h post-crowding caused a significant reduction in L. anguillarum counts compared to the initial samples. There was a transcriptional upregulation of the glucose transport-4 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes at 2 h after crowding. Gene transcripts of the antioxidant enzymes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), catalase and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase also significantly increased at 2 h post-crowding, but thereafter they returned to their pre-crowding levels with the exception of Cu/Zn SOD that remained significantly higher than the initial group until 72 h. Thus, short-term overcrowding of Atlantic cod leads to a transient enhancement of in vitro serum antibacterial activity and enhanced transcriptional activity of glucose transport and antioxidant defense genes.

  4. Induction of Defense-Related Physiological and Antioxidant Enzyme Response against Powdery Mildew Disease in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentusL.) Plant by Using Chitosan and Potassium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Mona H; El-Mohamedy, Riad S R

    2017-12-01

    Foliar sprays of three plant resistance inducers, including chitosan (CH), potassium sorbate (PS) (C 6 H 7 kO 2 ), and potassium bicarbonates (PB) (KHCO 3 ), were used for resistance inducing against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC (powdery mildew) infecting okra plants. Experiments under green house and field conditions showed that, the powdery mildew disease severity was significantly reduced with all tested treatments of CH, PS, and PB in comparison with untreated control. CH at 0.5% and 0.75% (w/v) plus PS at 1.0% and 2.0% and/or PB at 2.0% or 3.0% recorded as the most effective treatments. Moreover, the highest values of vegetative studies and yield were observed with such treatments. CH and potassium salts treatments reflected many compounds of defense singles which leading to the activation power defense system in okra plant. The highest records of reduction in powdery mildew were accompanied with increasing in total phenolic, protein content and increased the activity of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase in okra plants. Meanwhile, single treatments of CH, PS, and PB at high concentration (0.75%, 2.0%, and/or 3.0%) caused considerable effects. Therefore, application of CH and potassium salts as natural and chemical inducers by foliar methods can be used to control of powdery mildew disease at early stages of growth and led to a maximum fruit yield in okra plants.

  5. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  6. Statement of Glenn A. Fine, Acting Inspector General, Department of Defense on Department of Defense Office of Inspector General Report of Investigation on Allegations Related to USCENTCOM Intelligence Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    wanted to avoid emotional language in intelligence products, and that they wanted to use terminology that the commander and operators understood. We...Recommendations #1 and #2); 9 • USCENTCOM update and maintain its JICCENT standard operating procedures, including the employment of the Intelligence ...Inspector General Report of Investigation on Allegations Related to USCENTCOM Intelligence Products 1 Good afternoon Madam Chairwoman Hartzler

  7. Year 2000 Conversion Within the Defense Security Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Our objective was to determine whether the Defense Security Service effectively planned, executed, and coordinated year 2000 management strategies to ensure that year 2000 related issues would...

  8. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    1979-01-01

    Results showed that by ninth or tenth grade, males begin to externalize conflict while females tend to deal with conflict internally. This differentiation of defense choice by sex is clearly established by the last two years of high school. (JMB)

  9. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  10. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  11. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  12. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  13. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  14. Defensive pessimism, self-esteem instability, and goal strivings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Niwako; Tschanz, Brian; Feick, David

    2004-02-01

    Defensive pessimism (Norem & Cantor, 1986a) is conceived as an adaptive motivational strategy employed in academic contexts. The present research investigates some potentially deleterious correlates of the defensively pessimistic strategy. We examined the hypothesis that defensive pessimists would have a relatively high ratio of negative-to-positive academically relevant self-thoughts, and these accessible thoughts would be related to high self-esteem instability. Mediational analyses generally supported this hypothesis. However, defensive pessimism-optimism differences in self-esteem seemed to partially account for the mediated effects. We also found support for the hypothesis that, relative to optimists, defensive pessimists would tend to be less oriented toward mastery goals and more oriented toward performance-avoidance achievement goals in academic settings. Results were discussed in terms of the processing correlates and adaptive trade-offs of defensive pessimism.

  15. Cannabidiol Post-Treatment Alleviates Rat Epileptic-Related Behaviors and Activates Hippocampal Cell Autophagy Pathway Along with Antioxidant Defense in Chronic Phase of Pilocarpine-Induced Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Mahshid; Nikseresht, Sara; Khodagholi, Fariba; Naderi, Nima; Maghsoudi, Nader

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal and sometimes severe behavioral and molecular symptoms are usually observed in epileptic humans and animals. To address this issue, we examined the behavioral and molecular aspects of seizure evoked by pilocarpine. Autophagy can promote both cell survival and death, but there are controversial reports about the neuroprotective or neurodegenerative effects of autophagy in seizure. Cannabidiol has anticonvulsant properties in some animal models when used as a pretreatment. In this study, we investigated alteration of seizure scores, autophagy pathway proteins, and antioxidant status in hippocampal cells during the chronic phase of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy after treatment with cannabidiol. Cannabidiol (100 ng, intracerebroventricular injection) delayed the chronic phase of epilepsy. Single administration of cannabidiol during the chronic phase of seizure significantly diminished seizure scores such as mouth clonus, head nodding, monolateral and bilateral forelimb clonus and increased the activity of catalase enzyme and reduced glutathione content. Such a protective effect in the behavioral scores of epileptic rats was also observed after repeated administrations of cannabidiol at the onset of the silent phase. Moreover, the amount of Atg7, conjugation of Atg5/12, Atg12, and LC3II/LC3I ratio increased significantly in epileptic rats treated with repeated injections of cannabidiol. In short, our results suggest that post-treatment of Cannabidiol could enhance the induction of autophagy pathway and antioxidant defense in the chronic phase of epilepsy, which could be considered as the protective mechanisms of cannabidiol in a temporal lobe epilepsy model.

  16. Gastrointestinal defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hyder; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-11-01

    To summarize and illuminate the recent findings regarding gastroduodenal mucosal defense mechanisms and the specific biomolecules involved in regulating this process, such as glucagon-like peptides (GLPs). There has been a growing interest in luminal nutrient chemosensing and its physiological effects throughout the digestive system. From the ingestion of food in the oral cavity to the processing and absorption of nutrients in the intestines, nutrient chemosensing receptors signal the production and release of numerous bioactive peptides from enteroendocrine cells, such as the proglucagon-derived peptides. There has been a major emphasis on two proglucagon-derived peptides, namely GLP-1 and GLP-2, due to their apparent beneficial effect on gut structure, function, and on metabolic processes. As an incretin, GLP-1 not only enhances the effect and release of insulin on pancreatic βcells but also has been implicated in having trophic effects on the intestinal epithelium. In addition, GLP-2, the other major proglucagon-derived peptide, has potent intestinotrophic effects, such as increasing the rate of mucosal stem cell proliferation, mucosal blood flow, and fluid absorption, as well as augmenting the rate of duodenal bicarbonate secretion to improve gastric mucosal health and longevity. Understanding the mechanisms underlying nutrient chemosensing and how it relates to GLP release can further elucidate how the gut functions in response to cellular changes and disturbances. Furthermore, a more in-depth comprehension of GLP release and its tissue-specific effects will help improve the utility of GLP-1 and GLP-2 receptor agonists in clinical settings. This, in turn, should help patients suffering from intestinal failure, malabsorption, and mucosal injury.

  17. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  18. SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) and the US defense posture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    Issues surrounding the Strategic Defense Initiative are discussed. Comments are made on the research and development program and the effect of this program on the defensive posture of the United States.

  19. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  20. Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

    2014-05-01

    Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Defense Technology Area Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    evacuation , missile defense, reconnaissance and surveillance, sea lane control, search and rescue, special operations, strategic and theater airlift...decontamination technology advances. Recently, novel types of polymeric support termed “ starburst ” dendrimer polymers have been developed. The ability to...threats • Optimize military performance; survival and stabilization of combat casualties • Provide the world’s best casualty evacuation and medical

  2. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  3. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  4. Ministries of Defense: Driving Force in Defense Restructuring

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction. For more effective democratic civilian control (and better defense decisions), Ministries of Defense bridge the gap between political institutions and the armed forces. These institutions translate political objectives into military capabilities. MODs, staffed with enough civilian defense experts, provide the continuity and stability needed in a democratic system.

  5. Independent Preharvest Applications of Methyl Jasmonate and Chitosan Elicit Differential Upregulation of Defense-Related Genes with Reduced Incidence of Gray Mold Decay during Postharvest Storage of Fragaria chiloensis Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela M. Saavedra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis fruit has interesting organoleptic properties, but its postharvest life is affected by gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea. The effect of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA or chitosan on the molecular defense-related responses and protection against gray mold decay were investigated in Chilean strawberry fruit during postharvest storage. Specifically, we inoculated harvested fruit with B. cinerea spores and studied the expression of genes encoding for the pathogenesis-related (PR proteins β-1,3-glucanases (FcBG2-1, FcBG2-2 and FcBG2-3 and chitinases (FcCHI2-2 and FcCHI3-1, and for polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (FcPGIP1 and FcPGIP2 at 0, 2, 24, 48, and 72 h post inoculation (hpi. Remarkably, MeJA- and chitosan-treated fruit exhibited a lower incidence of B. cinerea infection than the control-treated at 48 and 72 hpi. At the molecular level, both are efficient elicitors for priming in F. chiloensis fruit since we observed an upregulation of the FcBG2-1, FcBG2-3, FcPGIP1, and FcPGIP2 at 0 hpi. Moreover, a chitosan-mediated upregulation of FcPGIPs at early times post inoculation (2–24 hpi and MeJA upregulated FcBGs (24–72 hpi and FcPGIP1 at later times could contribute to reduce B. cinerea incidence by differential upregulation of defense genes. We concluded that preharvest applications of MeJA or chitosan had a long-lasting effect on the reduction of B. cinerea incidence during postharvest as well as an enhancer effect on the induction of PR and PGIP gene expression.

  6. Independent Preharvest Applications of Methyl Jasmonate and Chitosan Elicit Differential Upregulation of Defense-Related Genes with Reduced Incidence of Gray Mold Decay during Postharvest Storage of Fragaria chiloensis Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Gabriela M; Sanfuentes, Eugenio; Figueroa, Pablo M; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2017-07-03

    The Chilean strawberry ( Fragaria chiloensis ) fruit has interesting organoleptic properties, but its postharvest life is affected by gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea . The effect of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or chitosan on the molecular defense-related responses and protection against gray mold decay were investigated in Chilean strawberry fruit during postharvest storage. Specifically, we inoculated harvested fruit with B. cinerea spores and studied the expression of genes encoding for the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins β-1,3-glucanases ( FcBG2-1 , FcBG2-2 and FcBG2-3 ) and chitinases ( FcCHI2-2 and FcCHI3-1 ), and for polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins ( FcPGIP1 and FcPGIP2 ) at 0, 2, 24, 48, and 72 h post inoculation (hpi). Remarkably, MeJA- and chitosan-treated fruit exhibited a lower incidence of B. cinerea infection than the control-treated at 48 and 72 hpi. At the molecular level, both are efficient elicitors for priming in F. chiloensis fruit since we observed an upregulation of the FcBG2-1 , FcBG2-3 , FcPGIP1, and FcPGIP2 at 0 hpi. Moreover, a chitosan-mediated upregulation of FcPGIP s at early times post inoculation (2-24 hpi) and MeJA upregulated FcBG s (24-72 hpi) and FcPGIP1 at later times could contribute to reduce B. cinerea incidence by differential upregulation of defense genes. We concluded that preharvest applications of MeJA or chitosan had a long-lasting effect on the reduction of B. cinerea incidence during postharvest as well as an enhancer effect on the induction of PR and PGIP gene expression.

  7. Sexual Responsivity and Ego Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Thomas; Bekker, Demoyne

    1976-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether high- and low-sexual responders on a double-entendre word association test differed in defensive preference on Gleser and Ihilevich's Defense Mechanism Inventory. (Author)

  8. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  9. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  10. Joint stabilizing projects in defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

  11. Belowground herbivory and plant defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Belowground-feeding herbivores may be very destructive to plants. Roots are known to produce various defense compounds to protect themselves against these herbivores, both with direct and indirect—inducible—defense compounds. Recent literature reviews reveal no overall pattern for root-shoot defense

  12. Cross talk in defense signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, A.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Plants are equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to protect themselves against attack by herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens. Some of these defense mechanisms are preexisting, whereas others are only activated upon insect or pathogen invasion. Induced defense responses entail fitness

  13. Defense Mechanisms in Group Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents considerations and strategies for conceptualizing, recognizing, and modifying defense mechanisms through the group counseling process. Provides awareness of defense mechanisms in planning for and implementation of group counseling, describes interaction patterns for identifying defenses among group participants, and clarifies modification…

  14. Vertebrate defense against parasites: Interactions between avoidance, resistance, and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, Ines; Karvonen, Anssi

    2017-01-01

    Hosts can utilize different types of defense against the effects of parasitism, including avoidance, resistance, and tolerance. Typically, there is tremendous heterogeneity among hosts in these defense mechanisms that may be rooted in the costs associated with defense and lead to trade-offs with other life-history traits. Trade-offs may also exist between the defense mechanisms, but the relationships between avoidance, resistance, and tolerance have rarely been studied. Here, we assessed these three defense traits under common garden conditions in a natural host-parasite system, the trematode eye-fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum and its second intermediate fish host. We looked at host individuals originating from four genetically distinct populations of two closely related salmonid species (Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar and sea trout, Salmo trutta trutta ) to estimate the magnitude of variation in these defense traits and the relationships among them. We show species-specific variation in resistance and tolerance and population-specific variation in resistance. Further, we demonstrate evidence for a trade-off between resistance and tolerance. Our results suggest that the variation in host defense can at least partly result from a compromise between different interacting defense traits, the relative importance of which is likely to be shaped by environmental components. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering different components of the host defense system when making predictions on the outcome of host-parasite interactions.

  15. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Do European Union Defense Initiatives Threaten NATO? Strategic Forum. Number 184, August 2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schake, Kori

    2001-01-01

    ...) Although transatlantic policies will be colored by issues such as the Kyoto treaty, missile defenses, and relations with Russia, ESDP is likely to dominate defense debates as the European Union (EU...

  17. Material Accounting and Management Control Weaknesses in the Defense Agencies' FYs 1995 and 1996 Financial Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to summarize Defense agency accounting system weaknesses and related management control program weaknesses identified during audits of defense agencies' FYs 1995 and 1996 financial data...

  18. Defense Spending Databases for Countries in the Asia-Pacific Region: An Analysis and Comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuning, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify and analyze a select number of unclassified databases that cover defense spending and other defense related criteria for countries in the Asia-Pacific region...

  19. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  20. Emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems : The role of defensiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Velotti, Patrizia; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Kosson, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in defensiveness (typically measured with social desirability scales) may affect associations among self-report measures, little is known about the impact of defensiveness in the well-established relations between self-report emotion dysregulation and

  1. Alliance Ground Surveillance and the Future of Natos Smart Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    europe/europes-shrinking-military-spending-under- scrutiny.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 135 Giulia Amparo Bruni Roccia, “Making NATO’s Smart Defense...Giulia Amparo Bruni. “Making NATO’s Smart Defense Initiative Work.” E- international Relations. March 25, 2013. http://www.e- ir.info/2013/03/25

  2. 29 CFR 570.128 - Good faith defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Good faith defense. 570.128 Section 570.128 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Enforcement § 570.128 Good faith defense. Link...

  3. Boomeranging in structural defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known. PMID:22990448

  4. Defense against Space Weapons,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-24

    which can be used at present are space defense missiles, killer satellites, high energy laser weapons and particle beam weapons. In 1962, the U.S... laser weapons and particle beam weapons have the ad- 4vantages of high power, concentrated energy, hit accuracy, and conven- ience of use. They have... weapons development amounts to 5 US$200,000,000. At present, irradiation by a laser weapon operating on the earth’s surface can cause optical and infrared

  5. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  6. Psychological defense mechanisms among individuals with SCI with adjustment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanshenas Ghazwin, Manijeh; Tavakoli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Latifi, Sahar; Saberi, Hooshang; Derakhshanrad, Nazi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Sadeghi, Majid; Emami Razavi, Seyed-Hassan; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    The used psychological defense styles among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) with adjustment disorders (AJD) have not yet been described. In the present investigation, the prevalence of AJD among people with SCI has been estimated and the pattern of used defense styles has been identified. Cross-sectional investigation. A tertiary rehabilitation center in Iran. Individuals referred to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center were invited to participate in a screening interview. AJD was diagnosed based on DSM-V criteria. Those with AJD diagnosis were scheduled for another interview to assess defense mechanisms. Demographic and injury-related variables were recorded. Defense mechanisms were assessed by the 40-item version of the Defense-Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). Among 114 participants, 32 (28%) were diagnosed with AJD among whom 23 subjects attended the second interview. Mean age and time since injury were 29.57 ± 9.29 years and 11.70 ± 6.34 months, respectively. The majority of patients were using idealization defense mechanism (91.3%). In the second and third place, passive aggression (87.0%) and somatization (82.6%) defense mechanisms were observed, respectively. Neurotic style was dominantly used (11.52 ± 2.26). Sex, marital status, educational level, cause of the injury and injury level were not related to defense style (P: 0.38, 0.69, 0.88, 0.73, and P: 0.32, respectively). Prevalence of AJD is estimated to be 28% among individuals with SCI. The most prevalent defense style was neurotic and the dominant used defense mechanism was "idealization." The role of demographic and injury-related variables in determining the used defense mechanisms was insignificant.

  7. Advanced thermal management technologies for defense electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Bar-Cohen, Avram

    2012-05-01

    Thermal management technology plays a key role in the continuing miniaturization, performance improvements, and higher reliability of electronic systems. For the past decade, and particularly, the past 4 years, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has aggressively pursued the application of micro- and nano-technology to reduce or remove thermal constraints on the performance of defense electronic systems. The DARPA Thermal Management Technologies (TMT) portfolio is comprised of five technical thrust areas: Thermal Ground Plane (TGP), Microtechnologies for Air-Cooled Exchangers (MACE), NanoThermal Interfaces (NTI), Active Cooling Modules (ACM), and Near Junction Thermal Transport (NJTT). An overview of the TMT program will be presented with emphasis on the goals and status of these efforts relative to the current State-of-the-Art. The presentation will close with future challenges and opportunities in the thermal management of defense electronics.

  8. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation.

  9. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  10. Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function (050)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    provides a framework for examining spending patterns of the federal government by category of activity, rather than by agency or type of financing ...federal spending. Since federal agencies often have diverse, overlapping responsibilities , it is not uncommon for them to be associated with multiple...agency responsible for approximately 96% of spending within the National Defense Budget (050). Defense Primer: The National Defense Budget Function

  11. Cognitive defenses and compliance with radiation treatment in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karassik, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationships between four cognitive defenses and compliance with radiation therapy in cancer patients. The role of accurate self-report of usage of each of the defenses was examined as well. A distinction between direct-action and emotion-focused coping was utilized to conceptualize the possible relationships between compliance and the defenses. Based on the proposals of Heilbrun and Renert (1986) regarding the relative evasiveness of the defenses and available evidence from the compliance literature, it was predicted that noncompliant patients would show more repression, projection, and denial and less rationalization than compliant patients. In addition, based upon the findings of Heilbrun and Pepe (1985) that related self-deception to effectiveness of the defenses in dealing with stress, predictions were also made regarding differences in accuracy of reported defense usage by compliant and noncompliant patients. Noncompliant repressors and projectors and compliant rationalizers were predicted to be less aware of their respective use of these defenses than their compliant counterparts; noncompliant deniers were predicted to be more aware of the use of this defense than compliant deniers

  12. Nest defense- Grassland bird responses to snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Predation is the primary source of nest mortality for most passerines; thus, behaviors to reduce the impacts of predation are frequently quantified to study learning, adaptation, and coevolution among predator and prey species. Video surveillance of nests has made it possible to examine real-time parental nest defense. During 1999-2009, we used video camera systems to monitor 518 nests of grassland birds. We reviewed video of 48 visits by snakes to 34 nests; 37 of these visits resulted in predation of active nests. When adult birds encountered snakes at the nest (n = 33 visits), 76% of the encounters resulted in a form of nest defense (nonaggressive or aggressive); in 47% of the encounters, birds physically struck snakes. When defending nests, most birds pecked at the snakes; Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) and Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) pecked most frequently in anyone encounter. Also, two Eastern Meadowlarks ran around snakes, frequently with wings spread, and three Bobolinks struck at snakes from the air. Nest defense rarely appeared to alter snake behavior; the contents of seven nests defended aggressively and two nests defended nonaggressively were partially depredated, whereas the contents of six nests defended each way were consumed completely. One fledgling was produced at each of three nests that had been aggressively defended. During aggressive defense, one snake appeared to be driven away and one was wounded. Our findings should be a useful starting point for further research. For example, future researchers may be able to determine whether the behavioral variation we observed in nest defense reflects species differences, anatomic or phylogenetic constraints, or individual differences related to a bird's prior experience. There appears to be much potential for studying nest defense behavior using video recording of both real and simulated encounters. 

  13. Ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY-1994 and FY-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory initiated ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF on the SRS in FY-1979. Two areas have been used for biological surveys and long-term monitoring: the DWPF construction site (S-Area and Z-Area), and two control sites (Rainbow Bay and Tinker Creek). The Rainbow Bay study area and S-Area are located within 5 km of each other on the SRS, and both once contained Carolina bays which were very similar ecologically. One goal of the SREL`s faunal studies is to compare the natural variation in amphibian populations at the Rainbow Bay control site to the variation observed at the human-altered site (Sun Bay, formerly on the DWPF construction site). Pre-construction biological surveys included data on vegetation, birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and several invertebrate groups. No species on the Federal Endangered or Threatened lists were found on either site, but several plants and animals of threatened or special-concern status in South Carolina were present and the gopher frog (Rana areolata) currently is being considered for federal listing. Continuing studies are directed towards assessing construction impacts on the biota and towares modeling the effects of alteration of wetland hydroperiod on the biota. Primary emphasis is being paced on evaluation the effectiveness of mitigation measures undertaken by DOE.

  14. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  15. Peroxisomal Hydrogen Peroxide Is Coupled to Biotic Defense Responses by ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 in a Daylength-Related Manner1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Sejir; Queval, Guillaume; Vanderauwera, Sandy; Mhamdi, Amna; Vandorpe, Michaël; Langlois-Meurinne, Mathilde; Van Breusegem, Frank; Saindrenan, Patrick; Noctor, Graham

    2010-01-01

    While it is well established that reactive oxygen species can induce cell death, intracellularly generated oxidative stress does not induce lesions in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) photorespiratory mutant cat2 when plants are grown in short days (SD). One interpretation of this observation is that a function necessary to couple peroxisomal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-triggered oxidative stress to cell death is only operative in long days (LD). Like lesion formation, pathogenesis-related genes and camalexin were only induced in cat2 in LD, despite less severe intracellular redox perturbation compared with SD. Lesion formation triggered by peroxisomal H2O2 was modified by introducing secondary mutations into the cat2 background and was completely absent in cat2 sid2 double mutants, in which ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1 (ICS1) activity is defective. In addition to H2O2-induced salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, the sid2 mutation in ICS1 abolished a range of LD-dependent pathogen responses in cat2, while supplementation of cat2 with SA in SD activated these responses. Nontargeted transcript and metabolite profiling identified clusters of genes and small molecules associated with the daylength-dependent ICS1-mediated relay of H2O2 signaling. The effect of oxidative stress in cat2 on resistance to biotic challenge was dependent on both growth daylength and ICS1. We conclude that (1) lesions induced by intracellular oxidative stress originating in the peroxisomes can be genetically reverted; (2) the isochorismate pathway of SA synthesis couples intracellular oxidative stress to cell death and associated disease resistance responses; and (3) camalexin accumulation was strictly dependent on the simultaneous presence of both H2O2 and SA signals. PMID:20543092

  16. Antipredator defenses predict diversification rates

    OpenAIRE

    Arbuckle, Kevin; Speed, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Prey use a variety of mechanisms to avoid the risk of predation, including chemical defense, camouflage, and conspicuous coloration. Here we show that variation in these forms of protection can have profound effects on macroevolutionary patterns in amphibians. Chemical defense and conspicuous coloration both increase speciation rates, in line with the “escape-and-radiate” hypothesis. However, chemical defense also increases extinction rates, lowering net diversification. We therefore show tha...

  17. Reconstruction of the evolution of microbial defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigbò, Pere; Makarova, Kira S; Kristensen, David M; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-04-04

    Evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes is a highly dynamic process that involves intensive loss of genes as well as gene gain via horizontal transfer, with a lesser contribution from gene duplication. The rates of these processes can be estimated by comparing genomes that are linked by an evolutionary tree. These estimated rates of genome dynamics events substantially differ for different functional classes of genes. The genes involved in defense against viruses and other invading DNA are among those that are gained and lost at the highest rates. We employed a stochastic birth-and-death model to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the rates of gain and loss of defense genes in 35 groups of closely related bacterial genomes and one group of archaeal genomes. We find that on average, the defense genes experience 1.4 fold higher flux than the rest of microbial genes. This excessive flux of defense genes over the genomic mean is consistent across diverse microbial groups. The few exceptions include intracellular parasites with small, degraded genomes that possess few defense systems which are more stable than in other microbes. Generally, defense genes follow the previously established pattern of genome dynamics, with gene family loss being about 3 times more common than gain and an order of magnitude more common than expansion or contraction of gene families. Case by case analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of defense genes indicates frequent multiple events in the same locus and widespread involvement of mobile elements in the gain and loss of defense genes. Evolution of microbial defense systems is highly dynamic but, notwithstanding the host-parasite arms race, generally follows the same trends that have been established for the rest of the genes. Apart from the paucity and the low flux of defense genes in parasitic bacteria with deteriorating genomes, there is no clear connection between the evolutionary regime of defense systems and microbial life style.

  18. Misexpression of AtTX12 encoding a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain induces growth defects and expression of defense-related genes partially independently of EDS1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Kee

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a tissue-specific GAL4/UAS activation tagging system was used for the characterization of genes which could induce lethality when ubiquitously expressed. A dominant mutant exhibiting stunted growth was isolated and named defective root development 1-D (drd1-D). The T-DNA tag was located within the promoter region of AtTX12, which is predicted to encode a truncated nucleotide-binding leucinerich repeat (NLR) protein, containing a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The transcript levels of AtTX12 and defense-related genes were elevated in drd1-D, and the misexpression of AtTX12 recapitulated the drd1-D phenotypes. In the presence of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1), a key transducer of signals triggered by TIR-type NLRs, a low-level of AtTX12 misexpression induced strong defective phenotypes including seedling lethality whereas, in the absence of EDS1, a high-level of AtTX12 misexpression induced weak growth defects like dwarfism, suggesting that AtTX12 might function mainly in an EDS1-dependent and partially in an EDS1-independent manner. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(12): 693-698].

  19. Transport of defense compounds from source to sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize a plethora of defense compounds crucial for their survival in a challenging and changing environment. Transport processes are important for shaping the distribution pattern of defense compounds, albeit focus hitherto has been mostly on their biosynthetic pathways. A recent...... identification of two glucosinolate transporters represents a breakthrough in our understanding of glucosinolate transport in Arabidopsis and has advanced knowledge in transport of defense compounds. In this review, we discuss the role of the glucosinolate transporters in establishing dynamic glucosinolate...... distribution patterns and source-sink relations. We focus on lessons learned from glucosinolate transport that may apply to transport of other defense compounds and discuss future avenues in the emerging field of defense compound transport....

  20. Defense or Development? A Decisive Question in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guarda, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    .... First, this paper reviews the theory for establishing the concepts of defense expenditures and development/social expenditures, second, it analyzes the facts and possible relation in the expenses...

  1. The Defense Distribution Center's Future Role in Theater Distribution Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newton, Clayton T

    2007-01-01

    ... the requirements of our National Military Strategy. In addition to exploring how the Defense Distribution Center's far reaching capabilities and distribution related core competencies present a unique opportunity to significantly improve intra-theater...

  2. Teaching Psychological Defense Mechanisms: "The Defense Mechanisms Game."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Charles G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the rules for an educational game in which students reinforce psychology lecture material by creating and dramatizing defense mechanisms such as reaction formation, displacement, and fantasy. Provides definitions and examples of the various defense mechanisms that can be portrayed. (JP)

  3. [Relationships between defense mechanisms and coping strategies, facing exam anxiety performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebot, E; Paty, B; Girarddephanix, N

    2006-01-01

    Defence mechanisms and coping strategies rely on different theoretical backgrounds and describe distinct psychological processes. Cramer has based a distinction on the following dimensions: conscious processes vs. not; intentionality vs. not; hierarchical conception vs. not. On the contrary to these distinctions, the two notions of defense mechanisms and coping strategies are defined as similar in the Diagnostical and Statistical Manual (DSM IV). This assimilation between coping and defenses in the DSM IV is not confirmed by some researches, namely the one by Callahan and Chabrol. It indeed proves a relationship between adaptive coping and mature defenses, as well as between maladaptive coping and immature defenses. Similarly, Plutchik offered theoretical correspondences between eight defense mechanisms and eight coping strategies: (a) Defenses: repression, isolation, introjection and Coping escape; (b) Defense denial and Coping minimalization; (c) Defense undoing and coping substitution; (d) Defenses: regression, acting out and coping social support; (e) Defenses: compensation, identification, fantasy and coping replacement; (f) Defenses: intellectualization, sublimation, annulation, rationalisation and coping: planification; (g) Defense projection and coping blame; (h) Defense: reactional formation and coping inversion. this research aims at testing the relations observed by Callahan and Chabrol and some theoretical correspondences proposed by Plutchik between defences and coping strategies in a population of students similar to the one used by Callahan and Chabrol. It also aims at studying the relationships between coping strategies and conscious derives of defense mechanisms, such as defined by Bond (1995). Defenses were evaluated the first day of the examination week. the population includes 184 women students in human sciences (sociology and psychology). defenses were evaluated with the Defense Style Questionnaire by Bond (DSQ 40). Its French version is made

  4. Current situation and countermeasures of the defense technology industry intellectual property management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Fei

    2014-01-01

    In Defense technology industry is a strategic industry of our country, is an important foundation for China to achieve modernization of national defense, is also important driving force of our national economy. Intellectual property plays a very important role in the defense industry ' strengthen the basis of capacity, combining military and civilian, leapfrog development' strategy. Defense-related science, technology and industry advanced nature of intellectual property management and its ownership is a direct reflection of the capability of independent innovation and sustainable development of the defense industry. Therefore, how to make the effective protection and management of intellectual property rights in the Defense Industry has also become a new issue that we face. In this paper, by analyzing the status of the defense technology industry intellectual property management, at home and abroad, and other industry advanced experience in intellectual property management, put forward recommendations to strengthen our national defense science and technology industry intellectual property management. (author)

  5. Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport

  6. Stimulus-Dependent, Promoter-Specific Binding of Transcription Factor WRKY1 to Its Native Promoter and the Defense-Related Gene PcPR1-1 in ParsleyW⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Franziska; Zhou, Aifen; Somssich, Imre E.

    2004-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors form a large family that plays a role in plant responses to biotic stress and during senescence. Defining in vivo relevant WRKY/promoter relationships has been hampered by the factors' indiscriminate binding to known W box DNA elements and their possible genetic redundance. Employing chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP) of cultured cells, we show that parsley (Petroselinum crispum) WRKY1 protein binds to the W boxes of its native promoter as well as to that of PcWRKY3 and the defense-related PR10-class marker gene Pathogenesis-Related1-1 (PcPR1-1). Although present at low concentrations in resting cells, WRKY1 does not appear to play a role in the immediate early gene response upon elicitation because it does not bind to the promoter at this time. Paradoxically, in vivo binding at the PcWRKY1 promoter correlates more with downregulation of gene expression, whereas previous overexpression studies suggested an activating function of WRKY1 on PcWRKY1 expression. By contrast, PcPR1-1 expression remains strong when its promoter is occupied in vivo by WRKY1. Unexpectedly, ChIP revealed that W boxes at promoter sites are constitutively occupied by other WRKY transcription factors, indicating that site recruitment does not seem to play a major role in their regulation. Rather, WRKY proteins very likely act in a network of mutually competing participants with temporal displacement occurring at defined preoccupied sites by other family members in a stimulus-dependent manner. PMID:15367720

  7. Defense Styles in Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty-five serious suicide attempters, paired to neuropsychiatric controls on relevant variables, were tested within two weeks of their attempt with the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Attempters revealed more turning-against-self defenses as hypothesized but showed no differences from controls in use of fantasized hostility. Implications for…

  8. Assertion and Defense Mechanism Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massong, Stefan R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether assertive and nonassertive individuals differ in defense mechanisms they most typically rely on when confronted with interpersonal stress and conflict. Results indicated assertive males and females both endorsed the most adaptive defense mechanism cluster, whereas nonassertive males and females endorsed more primitive defense…

  9. Wormuth: Work on Security, Defense 'Holistically'

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Concepts spawned at the Center for Homeland Defense and Security could be very valuable to government entities such as the Department of Defense as that agency expands its focus in...

  10. Infrared point sensors for homeland defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ross C.; Carter, Michael T.; Homrighausen, Craig L.

    2004-03-01

    We report recent progress toward the development of infrared point sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents and explosive related chemicals, which pose a significant threat to both health and environment. Technical objectives have focused on the development of polymer sorbents to enhance the infrared response of these hazardous organic compounds. For example, infrared point sensors which part-per-billion detection limits have been developed that rapidlypartition chemical warfare agents and explosive related chemicals into polymer thin films with desirable chemical and physical properties. These chemical sensors demonstrate novel routes to reversible sensing of hazardous organic compounds. The development of small, low-power, sensitive, and selective instruments employing these chemical sensors would enhance the capabilities of federal, state, and local emergency response to incidents involving chemical terrorism. Specific applications include chemical defense systems for military personnel and homeland defense, environmental monitors for remediation and demilitarization, and point source detectors for emergency and maintenance response teams.

  11. Seven Defense Priorities for the New Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    building consume human and financial military resources for decades. New weapons like cyber and autonomous systems are aimed at the heart of the U.S...defense to make optimal use of funding and of scarce technical human resources ; determining the challenges and opportunities of cyber relative to...commitment needed, but the price to pay in both human resources and budget is substantial, given the more than two decades of neglect. Through its

  12. Defense Logistics Agency Family Housing Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Director, Defense Logistics Agency (Installation Support Group) requested the audit to review the process the Defense Logistics Agency installations use to determine family housing requirements...

  13. Defense Agencies Cash Management in the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    The primary audit objective was to determine whether the Fund Balance With Treasury Account on the Consolidated Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund for FY 1996 was presented...

  14. Defense Globalization: Impacts on the United States Defense Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    sources. Taking advantage of global competition could also result in benefits to the U.S. military such as better technological innovation, reduction... globalization of the DoD acquisition process and proves the U.S. defense industry is not the end-all answer to achieving technological superiority on...dominance, and even more so now that the defense industry is moving towards globalization . Numerous means of technology transfer exist, including

  15. Decline of Civilian power in Japan's Defense Policy

    OpenAIRE

    SEBATA, TAKAO; 瀬端, 孝夫

    2006-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, military official of Japan's Self-Defense Forces (SDF) have begun voicing their opinions more aggressively, exerting influence and power in such areas as: the right of personnel management, budget formulation, organization, and defense policy decision-making. Due to the enhanced status of military officials, change of power balance between civilians and military is taking place. This paper examines civil-military relations in the above areas and discusses how this ...

  16. Rock mechanics contributions from defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1992-02-01

    An attempt is made at illustrating the many contributions to rock mechanics from US defense programs, over the past 30-plus years. Large advances have been achieved in the technology-base area covering instrumentation, material properties, physical modeling, constitutive relations and numerical simulations. In the applications field, much progress has been made in understanding and being able to predict rock mass behavior related to underground explosions, cratering, projectile penetration, and defense nuclear waste storage. All these activities stand on their own merit as benefits to national security. But their impact is even broader, because they have found widespread applications in the non-defense sector; to name a few: the prediction of the response of underground structures to major earthquakes, the physics of the earth's interior at great depths, instrumentation for monitoring mine blasting, thermo-mechanical instrumentation useful for civilian nuclear waste repositories, dynamic properties of earthquake faults, and transient large-strain numerical modeling of geological processes, such as diapirism. There is not pretense that this summary is exhaustive. It is meant to highlight success stories representative of DOE and DOD geotechnical activities, and to point to remaining challenges

  17. European defense industrial policy and the United Kingdom's defense industrial base

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Hartley

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between European and U.K. defense industrial policy. It considers recent initiatives to create a European Defense Equipment Market and the U.K.’s Defense Industrial Strategy. The European and U.K. defense industries are evaluated and some of the future policy choices are assessed. The future defense firm will be different and there will be conflicts between efforts to open up national defense markets and the desire to maintain national defense industrie...

  18. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  19. Proactive Self Defense in Cyberspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulkins, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    ... and standards to properly secure and defend the Global Information Grid (GIG) from cyber attacks. This paper will discuss the strategic requirements for enacting a proactive self-defense mechanism in cyberspace...

  20. Defense Security Assistance Management System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... $10 billion Foreign Military Sales Program. As envisioned, it will replace 13 automated information systems used by the Military Departments and Defense Security Assistance Agency and will provide standardized and improved security assistance...

  1. Defense economics: Achievements and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Hartley

    2007-01-01

    Defense economics is now an established part of economics. This article reviews its achievements as represented by papers published in the research journal Defense and Peace Economics. The range of topics in the journal is reviewed, especially since 2000, and major gaps in coverage are identified. A changing research agenda reflects new developments such as terrorism and international peacekeeping. Gaps remain such as the need for good quality case studies of conflict (e.g., Iraq) and of majo...

  2. Antimicrobial defense of the earthworm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; De Baetselier, P.; Beschin, A.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2000), s. 283-300 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/99/1385; GA ČR GA310/00/1372 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cellular defense mechanisms * humoral defense mechanisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2000

  3. A Hierarchal System of Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Constructs a hierarchy of defense mechanisms through the addition of the concepts of secondary and tertiary defenses to the already existing psychoanalytic defenses and increases the explanatory power of the concept of defense. Research generated from this theoretical model is presented. (Author/BEF)

  4. Technical Soddi Defenses: The Trojan Horse Defense Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Trojan horse defense was at a crossroads, with two child pornography cases where it was successfully employed in the United Kingdom, resulting in acquittals.  The original Trojan horse defense has now become part of the more general “technical SODDI” defense, which includes the possibility of unknown actors using unsecured Wi-Fi connections or having physical access to a computer to perform criminal acts.  In the past ten years, it has failed to be effective in the United States for criminal cases, with no published acquittals in cases where it was the primary defense.  In the criminal cases where it has been used as leverage in plea negotiations, there has been either poor forensics performed by the prosecution or political pressure to resolve a matter.  On the civil side, however, the defense has been wildly successful, effectively shutting down large John Doe copyright infringement litigation against non-commercial violators.  

  5. 76 FR 53119 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID: DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Comment Addressed on Notice of...

  6. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [DOCKET ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised...

  7. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  8. Strategic defense requirements for progressive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.

    1991-03-01

    A companion paper discusses various applications for which strategic defense concepts could be used. The applications form a progression in size and complexity from accidental or unauthorized launches, through third country or subnational threats, to limited or strategic exchanges. This report attempts to quantify the requirements for meeting those applications and to assess the maturity of current strategic defense concepts relative to them, concluding that there are adequate interceptors for all of them, but that sensitivities to uncertainties in discrimination are awkward at all levels and bothersome at the high end. Strategic defenses are applicable to a progression of threats that range from accidental or unauthorized launches, through third country or subnational threats, to limited or strategic exchanges. Technologies exist for long range launches, but launches close to shore are feasible, stressing, and favor the attacker. Space based interceptors are suited to meeting the bulk of the launches; directed energy has significant advantages in reducing the threat to manageable levels. Current interceptor concepts appear adequate, but discrimination is both pivotal and delayed. 38 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists ( Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea ) and fungi ( Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes ). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  10. 22 CFR 127.5 - Authority of the Defense Security Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of the Defense Security Service. 127.5 Section 127.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS... ensure compliance with the Department of Defense National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual...

  11. 22 CFR 125.3 - Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports of classified technical data and classified defense articles. 125.3 Section 125.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC... in the Department of Defense National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (unless such...

  12. [Defense mechanisms and perceived adverse effects in a population of 70 HIV infected adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvernet, B; Combaluzier, S; Viaux, J-L

    2011-02-01

    We assessed the relations between defense mechanisms and perceived adverse effects of ART in a population of 70 HIV positive patients. The Bond Defense Style questionnaire was used to evaluate defense mechanisms. We used Justice's questionnaire to assess adverse effects and their psychological impact. We carried out multiple regression and mediation analyses to define the relations between the number of adverse effects, defensive styles, and the impact of adverse effects. The global model accounts for nearly 40 % of the score variance. Mature and immature defense styles bring significant contribution to understanding the impact of adverse effects, even when their number is controlled. Working on defense mechanisms should lower the psychological impact of adverse effects, therefore, improving the patient's quality of life and compliance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Defense Mechanisms and Utilization in Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Cramer, Phebe; Porcerelli, Daniel J; Arterbery, V Elayne

    2017-06-01

    A group of 49 patients who had been diagnosed with cancer during the preceding year and who were receiving radiation therapy were assessed for their use of defense mechanisms, as well as for their level of psychological distress. In addition, their utilization of medical services was determined. It was predicted that the use of services that were under the patients' control-namely, requesting extra outpatient visits and making trips to the emergency department-would be related to the patients' use of defense mechanisms, whereas a treatment option not under the patients' control-overnight hospitalization based on physicians' assessment of condition-would not be related to defense use. The findings confirmed the hypotheses. Outpatient visits were strongly predicted by defense use, whereas hospitalization was determined by psychological distress. However, emergency department visits were determined by both defense use and psychological distress. In addition, an interaction between defense and distress was found to predict hospitalization.

  14. The Inflammasome in Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nod-like receptors have emerged as an important family of sensors in host defense. These receptors are expressed in macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes and play an important role in microbial immunity. Some Nod-like receptors form the inflammasome, a protein complex that activates caspase-1 in response to several stimuli. Caspase-1 activation leads to processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we discuss recent advances in the inflammasome field with an emphasis on host defense. We also compare differential requirements for inflammasome activation in dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  15. Organizing Defense Logistics: What Strategic Structures Should Exist for the Defense Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maddox, Edward D

    2005-01-01

    .... The primary research question of this study was: What strategic organizational structures should exist within the Department of Defense to facilitate further integration of the defense supply chain...

  16. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be ... fungal diseases occurring in pear plants and fruits. Periodic application of .... Changes in SOD activity and isozyme in pear calli infected with MFH and BBP. Lanes 1-10: After ...

  17. Improving the transparency/anti-corruption efforts in defense procurement: recommendations from global practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kilaz, Ilker; Hayri, Kadir

    2011-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The purpose of this MBA Project is to explore the risks of corruption throughout the defense procurement cycle, and provide an overview of existing anti-corruption conventions and tools. This report includes background information and corruption focused analysis about defense offset agreements and single-source selection methods. The findings related to these corruption risks are supported with the analysis of three informative defense procurement cases. Additionall...

  18. Drivers of Greek and Turkish Defense Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waszkiewicz Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the factors responsible for maintaining substantial military expenditures in Greece and Turkey. The presented research encompasses theoretical and empirical aspects. First, defense spending by both countries was analyzed based on statistical data from international sources. Next, the theoretical determinants of budgetary spending are reviewed, which consider political, economic and military factors behind high expenditures on the army in Greece and in Turkey. Finally, Granger causality tests is applied to determine whether a causal relation between variables exists in the case of these two countries.

  19. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  20. Estresse oxidativo: relação entre geração de espécies reativas e defesa do organismo Oxidative stress: relations between the formation of reactive species and the organism's defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. S. Barreiros

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the mechanism of action of some reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS in the oxidative stress of the human body, and their consequences on damage to DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids. It also illustrates the defense system of our organism against these ROS and RNS species. The action of nonenzymatic protection systems is reported, with emphasis on micromolecules like Q10 coenzyme, vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol, carotenoids and flavonoids. The importance of flavonoids is also emphasized, and their body protection mechanism is detailed.

  1. Collaborative Attack vs. Collaborative Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shouhuai

    We have witnessed many attacks in the cyberspace. However, most attacks are launched by individual attackers even though an attack may involve many compromised computers. In this paper, we envision what we believe to be the next generation cyber attacks — collaborative attacks. Collaborative attacks can be launched by multiple attackers (i.e., human attackers or criminal organizations), each of which may have some specialized expertise. This is possible because cyber attacks can become very sophisticated and specialization of attack expertise naturally becomes relevant. To counter collaborative attacks, we might need collaborative defense because each “chain” in a collaborative attack may be only adequately dealt with by a different defender. In order to understand collaborative attack and collaborative defense, we present a high-level abstracted framework for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative defense against collaborative attacks. As a first step towards realizing and instantiating the framework, we explore a characterization of collaborative attacks and collaborative defense from the relevant perspectives.

  2. Defense mechanisms in ethics consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agich, George J

    2011-12-01

    While there is no denying the relevance of ethical knowledge and analytical and cognitive skills in ethics consultation, such knowledge and skills can be overemphasized. They can be effectively put into practice only by an ethics consultant, who has a broad range of other skills, including interpretive and communicative capacities as well as the capacity effectively to address the psychosocial needs of patients, family members, and healthcare professionals in the context of an ethics consultation case. In this paper, I discuss how emotion can play an important interpretive role in clinical ethics consultation and why attention to the role of defense mechanisms can be helpful. I concentrate on defense mechanisms, arguing first, that the presence of these mechanisms is understandable given the emotional stresses and communicative occlusions that occur between the families of patients and critical care professionals in the circumstances of critical care; second, that identifying these mechanisms is essential for interpreting and managing how these factors influence the way that the "facts" of the case are understood by family members; and, third, that effectively addressing these mechanisms is an important component for effectively doing ethics consultation. Recognizing defense mechanisms, understanding how and why they operate, and knowing how to deal with these defense mechanisms when they pose problems for communication or decision making are thus essential prerequisites for effective ethics consultation, especially in critical care.

  3. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plantenga, Todd. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolda, Tamara Gibson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  4. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  5. Defense ADP Acquisition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    generates lengthy acquisition times, but rather, the basis for the delays is related to the Air Force acqusition process. -5- (2) The Current Air...increasing technological merger of these two fields. Fragmentation of organiza- tional responsibility among a variety of rela- tively independent...potential solutions. Early considera- tion of one aspect of technology over another constrains the solution. Recognition of the technological merger of ADP

  6. The Full Costs of Ballistic Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arrow, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    ... and, therefore, are expensive. The Bush administration's interest in building a comprehensive, or "layered," missile defense system could lead to extraordinary defense budget costs over the next twenty to thirty years...

  7. Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krieg, Kenneth J

    2007-01-01

    ... Transformation initiatives and the goals that it has established to achieve change. It provides implementation plans to reform the Defense Acquisition System in the Department of Defense to keep pace with changing demands and adapt to new challenges...

  8. Department of Defense PERSEREC (DOD PERSEREC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) of the Department of Defense. DMDC will use the SSA data...

  9. Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Search form Search Basket Contact Us DVBIC Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center About DVBIC Leadership ... link is external) Read more DCoE news articles » Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Crisis Intervention (24/ ...

  10. Message framing and defensive processing: a cultural examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Deborah M; Kim, Heejung S

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that health messages on safer sexual practices that focus on relational consequences are more persuasive than messages that focus on personal consequences. However, we theorize that it is defensiveness against personal risk framing that threatens the self among people from more individualistic cultures. Two studies tested this idea. Study 1 showed that European Americans were less persuaded by personal framing than by relational framing but that this pattern was not found for Asian Americans, who are more collectivistic. Study 2 showed that these defensive patterns were eliminated among European American participants when a person's self-image was affirmed. These results suggest defensive processes as the mechanism behind the differences in message framing effectiveness and motivate a closer look at cultural patterns.

  11. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk-Herbrink, Marjolein; Andrea, Helene; Verheul, Roel

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire-60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV interview) in a large sample of patients with PDs (n = 1,435). Explorative factor analyses indicated that the nine CERQ subscales can be clustered into three higher-order factors (adaptive coping, non-adaptive coping and external attribution style). When compared to a general population sample, the PD sample particularly scored higher on nonadaptive coping styles. A higher number of PDs was related to a particularly higher level of nonadaptive coping and less mature defensive functioning, but also to lower levels of adaptive coping and external attribution. This study is the first to suggest that three higher-order coping styles can be identified among PD patients, and that these coping styles are related to the presence and number of PDs.

  12. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sharon L; Schroder, Hans S; Moran, Tim P; Durbin, C Emily; Moser, Jason S

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes--the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe)--measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes--startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry--in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN) was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity). The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological defense mechanisms and electroencephalographic arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksen, H. R.; Olff, M.; Mann, C.; Sterman, M. B.; Ursin, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological defense as measured by the Kragh tachistoscopic Defense Mechanisms Test (DMT), and general arousal properties of the individual as measured with electroencephalogram (EEG). The DMT assesses defense by presenting neutral and

  14. Strategy for Homeland Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    1 As defined by “Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership : Priorities for the 21st Century Defense,” January...and nuclear (CBRN) consequence management response forces in recognition of the proliferation of destructive technologies and the potent ideologies...the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Although DoD is always in a support role to civilian authorities (primarily the Federal Emergency Management Agency, or

  15. Extracellular ATP Acts on Jasmonate Signaling to Reinforce Plant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Diwaker; Zhang, Tong; Koo, Abraham J; Stacey, Gary; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2018-01-01

    Damaged cells send various signals to stimulate defense responses. Recent identification and genetic studies of the plant purinoceptor, P2K1 (also known as DORN1), have demonstrated that extracellular ATP is a signal involved in plant stress responses, including wounding, perhaps to evoke plant defense. However, it remains largely unknown how extracellular ATP induces plant defense responses. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular ATP induces plant defense mediated through activation of the intracellular signaling of jasmonate (JA), a well-characterized defense hormone. In Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) leaves, ATP pretreatment induced resistance against the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea The induced resistance was enhanced in the P2K1 receptor overexpression line, but reduced in the receptor mutant, dorn1 - 3 Mining the transcriptome data revealed that ATP induces a set of JA-induced genes. In addition, the P2K1-associated coexpression network contains defense-related genes, including those encoding jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, which play key roles as repressors of JA signaling. We examined whether extracellular ATP impacts the stability of JAZ1 in Arabidopsis. The results showed that the JAZ1 stability decreased in response to ATP addition in a proteasome-dependent manner. This reduction required intracellular signaling via second messengers-cytosolic calcium, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide. Interestingly, the ATP-induced JAZ1 degradation was attenuated in the JA receptor mutant, coi1 , but not in the JA biosynthesis mutant, aos , or upon addition of JA biosynthesis inhibitors. Immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that ATP increases the interaction between COI1 and JAZ1, suggesting direct cross talk between extracellular ATP and JA in intracellular signaling events. Taken together, these results suggest that extracellular ATP signaling directly impacts the JA signaling pathway to maximize plant defense responses. © 2018

  16. [Italian version of the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales for Clinicians: a tool for the assessment of defense mechanisms in medical oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Claudia; Giannini, Marco; Rusignuolo, Ilaria; Gori, Alessio; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Vegni, Elena Anna; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Facing distress situations arising from the interaction with the patient in oncology, eg breaking bad news, clinicians also, such as patients, protect themselves using unconscious defense mechanisms. Clinicians' psychic defenses topic is related to the clinicians training on communication with patients and to clinicians' individual characteristics issues. For clinicians the defensive functioning can be adaptive when mature defenses are activated or maladaptive if the defensive mode is immature, with implications on medical care effectiveness. It is therefore important to identify, assess and intervene on clinicians' defense mechanisms. The Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales for Clinicians (DMRS-C) is a tool developed as an addendum to the DMRS (originally created by Perry), for the assessment of clinician defenses. It is an assessment tool based on the observer, which can be applied to audio or video recordings, interviews transcripts or medical - psychotherapy sessions. This tool is currently available in French language only. The aim of this work is to translate and adapt DMRS-C in Italian. The DMRS-C has been translated into Italian and back-translated into French in order to verify the correspondence with the original language. Psychometric properties of the scale has been investigated, in terms of face validity and reliability among judges, by calculating the intraclass coefficients Correlation, based on videotaped interviews of oncology visits from the Milan San Paolo Hospital video recordings Archive. The assessment tool has had positive findings for the purposes of intra-judges reliability (ICC=4.73; sd mean=80,33) and face validity. The consistency of the italian version with the original makes it suitable to highlight the frequency and variety of clinician defenses. This is the first study on medical oncologists defenses in real interviews. This tool will be useful to the fields of training and research on defenses in clinical care settings treating severe

  17. 78 FR 13546 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Regulation Supplement; Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... the FAR regarding policy and procedures related to the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System... procedures and policies related to the Electronic Subcontracting Reporting System (eSRS). There were no...

  18. 24 CFR 100.308 - Good faith defense against civil money damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good faith defense against civil money damages. 100.308 Section 100.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Good faith defense against civil money damages. (a) A person shall not be held personally liable for...

  19. The Department of Defense Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) FY 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-04

    this work, a helmet-mounted version will be developed that pays attention to: human vision and ergonomic requirements, such as proximity to the eye...defense, medical and industrial systems such as night vision, reconnaissance, guidance, ranging, thermal imaging, thermography , meteorological... thermography , communications, etc. COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL: Potential defense-related applications for infrared photon detectors include enemy target

  20. Change in Coping and Defense Mechanisms across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings in a European American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Lumley, Mark A.; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change…

  1. Defensive Egotism and Bullying: Gender Differences Yield Qualified Support for the Compensation Model of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nail, Paul R.; Simon, Joan B.; Bihm, Elson M.; Beasley, William Howard

    2016-01-01

    According to the compensation model of aggression (Staub, 1989), some people bully to defend against their own feelings of weakness and vulnerability. Classmates and teachers rated a sample of American sixth graders in terms of trait: defensiveness (i.e., defensive egotism), self-esteem, bullying, and related behaviors. Consistent with the model,…

  2. Issues in national missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-01

    Strategic missiles and weapons are proliferating rapidly; thus, the US and its Allies are likely to face both capable bilateral threats and multilateral configurations with complex coalitions for which defenses could be essential for stability. Current hit-to-kill interceptor and radar and infrared detection, track, and discrimination technology should suffice for limited threats, but it is necessary to meet those threats in time while maintaining growth potential for the more sophisticated threats likely to follow. National Missile Defense faces a confusing array of threats, programs, and alternatives, but the technologies in development are clearly an appropriate first step towards any of them. They are likely to succeed in the near term; the challenge is to retain flexibility to provide needed options in the mid and long terms.

  3. Space-Based Chemical Lasers in strategic defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildt, D. (SDIO, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-07-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) has made significant progress in developing Space-Based chemical Laser (SBL) technologies and in studying the SBLs global defense capability. In this mission, a constellation of several orbiting laser platforms provides continuous global defense by intercepting threatening missiles in their boost phase, including short range ballistic missiles (SRBMs). An optional smaller constellation provides defense against launches from the low and midlatitude regions. In addition, SBLs have utility in other important related missions such as surveillance, air defense and discrimination. The hardware necessary to build such a system has been developed to the point where it is mature and ready for demonstration in space. Advances have been made in each of the following major areas of the SBL: laser device; optics/beam control; beam pointing; ATP (acquisition, tracking and pointing); uncooled optics; and laser lethality. Integration of the key laser and beam control technologies is now occurring in the ground-based ALI experiment, and a space demonstration experiment, Star LITE, is in the planning and concept development phase.

  4. Department of Defense Software Factbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    auto-generated code (created from a tool and used without change) Each of these sources requires a different amount of work effort to...for verification purposes. This tool successfully extracts the information from the standard Excel form for 2630-2 (initial) and 2630-3 (final...University. All Rights Reserved. This material is based upon work funded and supported by the Department of Defense under Contract No. FA8702-15-D-0002

  5. Genetic constraints and sexual dimorphism in immune defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolff, Jens; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia; Coltman, David W.

    2005-01-01

    : a common genetic architecture constrains the response to selection on a trait subjected to sexually asymmetric selection pressures. Here we show that males and females of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor differ in the quantitative genetic architecture of four traits related to immune defense...... and condition. Moreover, high genetic correlations between the sexes constitute a genetic constraint to the evolution of sexual dimorphism in immune defense. Our results suggest a general mechanism by which sexual conflict can promote evolutionary stasis. We furthermore show negative genetic correlations...

  6. 32 CFR 28.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of Defense. 28.500 Section 28.500 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 28.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) Exemption authority...

  7. Nicotine's defensive function in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Steppuhn

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. We transformed native tobacco(Nicotiana attenuata with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IRpmt orientations. Only the latter reduced (by greater than 95% constitutive and inducible nicotine. With D(4-nicotinic acid (NA, we demonstrate that silencing pmt inhibits nicotine production, while the excess NA dimerizes to form anatabine. Larvae of the nicotine-adapted herbivore Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm grew faster and, like the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata, preferred IRpmt plants in choice tests. When planted in their native habitat, IRpmt plants were attacked more frequently and, compared to wild-type plants, lost 3-fold more leaf area from a variety of native herbivores, of which the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and Trimerotropis spp. grasshoppers caused the most damage. These results provide strong evidence that nicotine functions as an efficient defense in nature and highlights the value of transgenic techniques for ecological research.

  8. Accuracy of Evaluating Videotape Feedback and Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, David A.; Ginot, Efrat

    1979-01-01

    Predicted that the accuracy of evaluating videotape replay of one's own behavior is related to the defense mechanism clusters of the evaluator. Results confirmed the prediction. Furthermore, subjects characterized by projection clusters tended to produce the greatest distortions, and those characterized by turning-against-self clusters evaluated…

  9. Topics and Signs: Defensive Control of Emotional Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mardi J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Single-case study examined frank disclosure of important topics in brief exploratory psychotherapy, including topics closely related to recent, unintegrated stressor life event. Quantitative measures of emotion and control variables showed heightened levels of both emotionality and defensive control during discourse on topic of stressor event.…

  10. Anorexia and Attachment: Dysregulated Defense and Pathological Mourning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elisa edelvecchio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of Defensive exclusion (Deactivation and Segregated Systems in the development of early relationships and related to subsequent manifestations of symptoms of eating disorders was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Fifty-one DSM-IV diagnosed women with anorexia participated in the study. Anorexic patients were primarily classified as dismissing or unresolved. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of defensive exclusion were carried out. Results showed potential benefits of using the AAP defense exclusion coding system, in addition to the main attachment classifications, in order to better understand the developmental issues involved in anorexia. Discussion concerned the processes, such as pathological mourning, that may underlie the associations between dismissing and unresolved attachment and anorexia. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  11. Eliciting maize defense pathways aboveground attracts belowground biocontrol agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, Camila Cramer; Willett, Denis S.; Pereira, Ramom Vasconcelos; Moino Junior, Alcides; Pareja, Martin; Duncan, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Plant defense pathways mediate multitrophic interactions above and belowground. Understanding the effects of these pathways on pests and natural enemies above and belowground holds great potential for designing effective control strategies. Here we investigate the effects of aboveground stimulation of plant defense pathways on the interactions between corn, the aboveground herbivore adult Diabrotica speciosa, the belowground herbivore larval D. speciosa, and the subterranean ento-mopathogenic nematode natural enemy Heterorhabditis amazonensis. We show that adult D. speciosa recruit to aboveground herbivory and methyl salicylate treatment, that larval D. speciosa are relatively indiscriminate, and that H. amazonensis en-tomopathogenic nematodes recruit to corn fed upon by adult D. speciosa. These results suggest that entomopathogenicnematodes belowground can be highly attuned to changes in the aboveground parts of plants and that biological control can be enhanced with induced plant defense in this and similar systems. PMID:27811992

  12. "Hand down, man down." Analysis of defensive adjustments in response to the hot hand in basketball using novel defense metrics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Csapo

    Full Text Available The hot-hand phenomenon, according to which a player's performance is significantly elevated during certain phases relative to the expected performance based on the player's base rate, has left many researchers and fans in basketball puzzled: The vast majority of players, coaches and fans believe in its existence but statistical evidence supporting this belief has been scarce. It has frequently been argued that the hot hand in basketball is unobservable because of strategic adjustments and defensive interference of the opposing team. We use a dataset with novel metrics, such as the number of defenders and the defensive intensity for each shot attempt, which enable us to directly measure defensive pressure. First, we examine how the shooting percentage of NBA players changes relative to the attributes of each metric. We find that it is of lesser importance by how many defenders a player is guarded but that defensive intensity, e.g., whether a defender raises his hand when his opponent shoots, has a larger impact on shot difficulty. Second, we explore how the underlying metrics and shooting accuracy change as a function of streak length. Our results indicate that defensive pressure and shot difficulty increase (decrease during hot (cold streaks, so that defenders seem to behave according to the hot-hand belief and try to force hot players into more difficult shots. However, we find that shooting percentages of presumably hot players do not increase and that shooting performance is not related to streakiness, so that the defenders' hot-hand behavior cannot be considered ecologically rational. Therefore, we are unable to find evidence in favor of the hot-hand effect even when accounting for defensive pressure.

  13. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 2. Nuclear Weapons Effects and Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    Basic information about nuclear weapons is presented so that their effects can be meaningfully related to the defensive countermeasures which will be most effective against them. Major topics include: (1) Explosive power of nuclear weapons, (2) Major effects of nuclear explosions, (3) Two basic types of nuclear explosions, (4) Contrast between air…

  14. Defense Infrastructure: Department of Defense Renewable Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    to this report include Harold Reich, Assistant Director; Stacy Bennett; Sharon Reid; Rebecca Rygg; Christopher Turner; and Michael Willems...Photovoltaic Fully Operational 2010 No 2009 1 $37.54 $37.54 Appropriated 183 Dept Navy Naval Base San Diego CA 200 kW PV Carport, McCandless Blvd Sub...Notes from the Department of Defense 183 Dept Navy Naval Base San Diego CA 200 kW PV Carport, McCandless Blvd Sub-Station Parking Lot 0.00 0.00

  15. The impact of defense expenses in medical malpractice claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Aaron E; Parikh, Parul Divya; Buddenbaum, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to take a closer look at defense-related expenses for medical malpractice cases over time. We conducted a retrospective review of medical malpractice claims reported to the Physician Insurers Association of America's Data Sharing Project with a closing date between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 2008. On average a medical malpractice claim costs more than $27,000 to defend. Claims that go to trial are much more costly to defend than are those that are dropped, withdrawn, or dismissed. However, since the overwhelming majority of claims are dropped, withdrawn, or dismissed, the total amount spent to defend them surpasses that spent on claims that go to trial. Defense attorney expenses account for the majority of defense-related expenses (74%), while expert witness expenses and other expenses split the remaining 26%. A strong association was also found between the average indemnity payment and the amount it costs to defend individual claims by specialty. Our study found that defense-related expenses for medical malpractice claims are not an insignificant cost. As state and federal governments debate how to repair the malpractice system, addressing the high cost of defending claims should not be ignored. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. Adaptive midlife defense mechanisms and late-life health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C; Cohen, Shiri; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Waldinger, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of research suggests that personality characteristics relate to physical health; however, this relation ship has primarily been tested in cross-sectional studies that have not followed the participants into old age. The present study utilizes data from a 70-year longitudinal study to prospectively examine the relationship between the adaptive defense mechanisms in midlife and objectively assessed physical health in late life. In addition to examining the direct effect, we test whether social support mediates this relation ship. The sample consisted of 90 men who were followed for over seven decades beginning in late adolescence. Health ratings from medical records were made at three time points (ages 70, 75, and 80). Defense mechanisms were coded from narratives by trained independent raters (Vaillant, Bond, & Vaillant, 1986). Independent raters assessed social supports between ages 50 and 70. More adaptive defenses in midlife were associated with better physical health at all three time points in late life. These relationships were partially mediated by social support. Findings are consistent with the theory that defense maturity is important for building social relationships, which in turn contribute to better late-life physical health. Psychological interventions aimed at improving these domains may be beneficial for physical health.

  17. Overexpression of Poplar PtrWRKY89 in Transgenic Arabidopsis Leads to a Reduction of Disease Resistance by Regulating Defense-Related Genes in Salicylate- and Jasmonate-Dependent Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanzhong; Guo, Li; Liu, Rui; Jiao, Bo; Zhao, Xin; Ling, Zhengyi; Luo, Keming

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) play key roles in plant defenses against pathogens and several WRKY transcription factors have been shown to have a role in SA/JA crosstalk. In a previous study, overexpression of the poplar WRKY gene PtrWRKY89 enhanced resistance to pathogens in transgenic poplars. In this study, the promoter of PtrWRKY89 (ProPtrWRKY89) was isolated and used to drive GUS reporter gene. High GUS activity was observed in old leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis containing ProPtrWRKY89-GUS construct and GUS expression was extremely induced by SA solution and SA+MeJA mixture but not by MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that PtrWRKY89 acted as a transcription activator in the nucleus. Constitutive expression of PtrWRKY89 in Arabidopsis resulted in more susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae and Botrytis cinerea compared to wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that marker genes of SA and JA pathways were down-regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis after pathogen inoculations. Overall, our results indicated that PtrWRKY89 modulates a cross talk in resistance to P. syringe and B. cinerea by negatively regulating both SA and JA pathways in Arabidopsis.

  18. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens. PMID:28360923

  19. Adaptation Mechanisms in the Evolution of Moss Defenses to Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts are early land plants that have evolved key adaptation mechanisms to cope with abiotic stresses and microorganisms. Microbial symbioses facilitated plant colonization of land by enhancing nutrient uptake leading to improved plant growth and fitness. In addition, early land plants acquired novel defense mechanisms to protect plant tissues from pre-existing microbial pathogens. Due to its evolutionary stage linking unicellular green algae to vascular plants, the non-vascular moss Physcomitrella patens is an interesting organism to explore the adaptation mechanisms developed in the evolution of plant defenses to microbes. Cellular and biochemical approaches, gene expression profiles, and functional analysis of genes by targeted gene disruption have revealed that several defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens are conserved between mosses and flowering plants. P. patens perceives pathogen associated molecular patterns by plasma membrane receptor(s) and transduces the signal through a MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade leading to the activation of cell wall associated defenses and expression of genes that encode proteins with different roles in plant resistance. After pathogen assault, P. patens also activates the production of ROS, induces a HR-like reaction and increases levels of some hormones. Furthermore, alternative metabolic pathways are present in P. patens leading to the production of a distinct metabolic scenario than flowering plants that could contribute to defense. P. patens has acquired genes by horizontal transfer from prokaryotes and fungi, and some of them could represent adaptive benefits for resistance to biotic stress. In this review, the current knowledge related to the evolution of plant defense responses against pathogens will be discussed, focusing on the latest advances made in the model plant P. patens .

  20. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  1. Cyber defense and situational awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Kott, Alexander; Erbacher, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first publication to give a comprehensive, structured treatment to the important topic of situational awareness in cyber defense. It presents the subject in a logical, consistent, continuous discourse, covering key topics such as formation of cyber situational awareness, visualization and human factors, automated learning and inference, use of ontologies and metrics, predicting and assessing impact of cyber attacks, and achieving resilience of cyber and physical mission. Chapters include case studies, recent research results and practical insights described specifically for th

  2. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  3. Safety issues at the defense production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States produces plutonium and tritium for use in nuclear weapons at the defense production reactors - the N Reactor in Washington and the Savannah River reactors in South Carolina. This report reaches general conclusions about the management of those reactors and highlights a number of safety and technical issues that should be resolved. The report provides an assessment of the safety management, safety review, and safety methodology employed by the Department of Energy and the private contractors who operate the reactors for the federal government. This report examines the safety objective established by the Department of Energy for the production reactors and the process the Department of its contractors use to implement the objective; focuses on a variety of uncertainties concerning the production reactors, particularly those related to potential vulnerabilities to severe accidents; and identifies ways in which the DOE approach to management of the safety of the production reactors can be improved

  4. Defense sesterterpenoid lactones from Leucosceptrum canum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Hong; Hua, Juan; Niu, Xue-Mei; Liu, Yan; Li, Chun-Huan; Zhou, Yan-Ying; Jing, Shu-Xi; Zhao, Xu; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2013-02-01

    Ten sesterterpenoids, leucosceptroids E-N (1-10), possessing an α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone moiety, were isolated from the leaves and flowers of a woody Labiatae, Leucosceptrum canum. Their structures including relative stereochemistry were determined by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR, MS, and in the case of 1 and 10, by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. This class of unique plant terpenoids was designated as leucosceptrane sesterterpenoids (=leucosceptroids). The potent antifeedant activity of the most abundant compound, leucosceptroid G (3), and a representative compound, leucosceptroid N (10), against the generalist plant-feeding insect Helicoverpa armigera suggested that they might also be defense compounds of L. canum against insects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Childhood Malnutrition on Host Defense and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa K; Zambruni, Mara; Melby, Christopher L; Melby, Peter C

    2017-10-01

    The global impact of childhood malnutrition is staggering. The synergism between malnutrition and infection contributes substantially to childhood morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric indicators of malnutrition are associated with the increased risk and severity of infections caused by many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Since childhood malnutrition commonly involves the inadequate intake of protein and calories, with superimposed micronutrient deficiencies, the causal factors involved in impaired host defense are usually not defined. This review focuses on literature related to impaired host defense and the risk of infection in primary childhood malnutrition. Particular attention is given to longitudinal and prospective cohort human studies and studies of experimental animal models that address causal, mechanistic relationships between malnutrition and host defense. Protein and micronutrient deficiencies impact the hematopoietic and lymphoid organs and compromise both innate and adaptive immune functions. Malnutrition-related changes in intestinal microbiota contribute to growth faltering and dysregulated inflammation and immune function. Although substantial progress has been made in understanding the malnutrition-infection synergism, critical gaps in our understanding remain. We highlight the need for mechanistic studies that can lead to targeted interventions to improve host defense and reduce the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. MX Survivability: Passive and Active Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    0 u80 Acoess ion For % ZqTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounced 0 Justification- AFIT/GST/OS/82M-11 Byl~ pDistribution / Availability Codes ’, Avail and/or...12 Exoatmospheric Defense Subsystem -------------- 14 Endoatmospheric Defense Subsystem ------------- 16 System Variables...Attack Probability of Kill for Endoatmospheric Defense Model (One TDU) -------------------------------- 101 APPENDIX G: Computer Model Listing and Q

  7. THE DEFENSE PLANNING SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo STICZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense planning in the Alliance is a fundamental element of the arrangements which enable its member countries to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defense and other common military efforts to enhance security and stability. In this respect, the aim of this paper is to outline the role of the Armed Forces and the specific processes aiming to achieve the ultimate goal of a nation regarding national security, with focus on defense planning and the PDPS.

  8. Status of DOE defense waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, K.G.; Scott, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper very briefly traces the statutory basis for DOE management of atomic energy defense activity wastes, touches on the authority of the Federal agencies involved in the regulation of defense nuclear waste management, and addresses the applicable regulations and their status. This background sets the stage for a fairly detailed discussion of management and disposal strategies of the Defense Waste and Byproducts Management Program

  9. Trade Costs, Conflicts, and Defense Spending

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Michael; Tarasov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Roman

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a quantitative model of trade, military conflicts, and defense spending. Trade liberalization between two countries reduces probability of an armed conflict between them, causing both to cut defense spending. This in turn causes a domino effect on defense spending by other countries. As a result, both countries and the rest of the world are better off. We estimate the model using data on trade, conflicts, and military spending. We find that, after reduction of costs of tra...

  10. The ecology and evolution of inducible defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvell, C D

    1990-09-01

    Inducible defenses are responses activated through a previous encounter with a consumer or competitor that confer some degree of resistance to subsequent attacks. While the importance of inducible resistance has long been known in host-parasite interactions, it is only recently that its importance has emerged in other natural systems. Although the structural defenses produced by invertebrates to their competitors and predators are by no means the same as an immune response triggered by parasites, these responses all share the properties of (1) specificity, (2) amplification and (3) memory. This review discusses the following ecological consequences and evolutionary causes of inducible defenses: (1) Inducible defenses render historical factors important in biological interactions and can affect the probability of individual survival and growth, as well as affect population dynamics of consumers in some circumstances. (2) Although the benefits of inducible defenses are often balanced by fitness costs, including reduced growth, reproductive output and survivorship, the role of costs and benefits in the evolution of inducible defenses is by no means clear. A more integrated approach would involve a multivariate analysis of the role of natural selection on the inducible characters of interest, their norms of reaction and correlated fitness characters. (3) The disproportionate representation of inducible, morphological defenses among clonal organisms may be due to both a higher rate of origination and enhanced selection to maintain these defenses in clonal taxa. (4) Inducible defenses should be most common when reliable cues are available, attacks by biological agents are unpredictable, and the fitness gains of defenses are balanced by the costs. An integrated approach to studying inducible defenses would thus combine mechanistic estimates of costs, population-level estimates of defense effectiveness, and genetic estimates of correlations between fitness and inducible

  11. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  12. Defensive and Offensive Realism - Exploring the limits of neorealism

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Michael Christian Borchgrevink; Herbst-Jensen, Mathias Michael

    2016-01-01

    This project aims to setup a comparing and contrasting look into international relations theory (IRT), specifically realism. Realism is one of the major pillars of IRT; and is a theory that long has been regarded as the predominant school of thought in International Relations (IR). Our project has its theoretical impetus in a branch of realism called neorealism. Neorealism as first theorized by Kenneth Waltz in Theory of International Politics (1979), which also is known as defensive realism,...

  13. Defense Procurement Strategy for a Globalized Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLean, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    .... This paper presents an examination of the strategic issues raised by defense industrial base policy and recommends an overarching strategy that promotes the benefits of globalization while safe...

  14. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Defense Business Operations Fund Inventory Record Accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether inventory amounts on the FY 1996 Defense Business Operations Fund Consolidated Financial Statements were presented fairly in accordance...

  16. Energetic Techniques For Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, B.; Bambacus, M.; Bruck Syal, M.; Greenaugh, K. C.; Leung, R. Y.; Plesko, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose heliocentric orbits tend to approach or cross Earth's heliocentric orbit. NEOs of various sizes periodically collide with Earth, and efforts are currently underway to discover, track, and characterize NEOs so that those on Earth-impacting trajectories are discovered far enough in advance that we would have opportunities to deflect or destroy them prior to Earth impact, if warranted. We will describe current efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to assess options for energetic methods of deflecting or destroying hazardous NEOs. These methods include kinetic impactors, which are spacecraft designed to collide with an NEO and thereby alter the NEO's trajectory, and nuclear engineering devices, which are used to rapidly vaporize a layer of NEO surface material. Depending on the amount of energy imparted, this can result in either deflection of the NEO via alteration of its trajectory, or robust disruption of the NEO and dispersal of the remaining fragments. We have studied the efficacies and limitations of these techniques in simulations, and have combined the techniques with corresponding spacecraft designs and mission designs. From those results we have generalized planetary defense mission design strategies and drawn conclusions that are applicable to a range of plausible scenarios. We will present and summarize our research efforts to date, and describe approaches to carrying out planetary defense missions with energetic NEO deflection or disruption techniques.

  17. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  18. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the post-Cold War period, interest in having the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) use its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process has grown. Various pledges by the U.S. and Russian presidents to place former defense materials under some type of international monitoring raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards concepts and approaches for monitoring these materials, which may include both classified and unclassified materials. Clearly, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA monitoring is the conflict between traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and various national and international constraints, including U.S. classification laws, and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Possible 'verification' approaches to classified former defense materials could be based on item accountancy, 'attributes measurements', and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical feasibility or for their possible acceptability in an inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines some of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials. (author)

  19. Contribution to the improvement of management in defense logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan D. Ljubojević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Changes in social environment require adequate answers of all organizational systems, including defense systems and their logistic systems. Improvement of management in defense logistics involves good knowledge of management theory and practice, knowledge of the impact of ownership and market on management, knowledge of public and other macroeconomic sectors functioning, broader opening towards environment and the exchange of knowledge, information and lessons learned with international environment. The paper presents theoretical and practical knowledge that is prerequisite for improving the management of defense and the management of defense logistic systems.   Definition and the essence of management   Regarding its complexity and a lack of a comprehensive definition, the concept of management is nowadays considered in three ways: as a skill, as social categories - structure of management, as well as a theory - a scientific discipline. When we aanalyze the phenomenon of management, with respect to the historical aspect of its development, there is a necessity to distinguish between management as a scientific discipline and management practice.   Relation between organizational science and management In theory and practice, management is associated with the achievements of many other scientific fields. One of the areas closest to management is organizational science. Today, in the management theory and organization theory, the prevailing attitudes state that these two areas are non-separable and that they are focused on the explaination of the same phenomenon, with the same desire to improve effectivity and development of different purpose systems. There is no clear boundary between organizational science and management, both from theoretical and practical aspects.   Achievements and shortcomings of organizational schools   As a result of solving problems in real systems, a number of opinions and different organizational

  20. Report to the Congressional Defense Committees: Status of the Department of Defense's Business Transformation Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ...). It directs the Secretary of Defense to provide the Congressional Defense Committees with an annual report on the Department's business transformation efforts and compliance with the requirements of the law...

  1. Defense Agency Travel Payments at Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The audit objective was to assess the effectiveness of Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Center management controls over payments to Defense agency personnel for temporary duty and local travel...

  2. [Study on psychiatric disorders and defensive process assessed by the "defense style questionnaire" in sterile males SAMPLE consulting in andrology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, M; Cottencin, O; Rigot, J M; Goudemand, M

    2005-01-01

    The literature about artificial insemination and the associated psychological, psychiatric and sexual disorders is relatively rich. But the majority of these studies is made in gynaecology, with a feminine approach of the disorder. There are very few works led in andrology. This justified the investigation of new trails in order to understand better the clinical context of the sterile man. We undertake a study about the psychiatric disorders among sterile men and about the defense styles. These are a clinical entity recently introduced in the quantitative psychopathology research. The defense style questionnaire (DSQ) is a psychometric scale used in common practice in order to measure the defense styles. We made this study in order to examine the psychiatric state of a sterile males sample consulting in andrology; to assess the defense style by means of the Bond and al DSQ-88 ; to look into a difference between the defensive process according to their clinical situation of azoospermic males or as the oligoazoospermic males and finally, to reveal a correlation between the psychiatric disorders developed in this sample of sterile males and the defensive process they used. There were 42 people (22 azoospermic males and 20 oligoazoospermic males) aged between 23 and 49 years old in the analysed sample. These have been selected at the surgery of andrology at the RUHC of Lille, depending on their arrival order for 6 months. There was no significant difference between the two groups as far as the age and the education standard are concerned. The selection criteria were medical and somatic. Our sample population were divided into two groups: azoospermia (no spermatozoon found in the semen analysis) and oligoasthenospermia (decrease of the number and the mobility of the spermatozoa and an increase of the percentage of atypical forms). The method first consisted in the DSQ, followed by the analysis of the psychiatric state according to the DSM IV, a hetero questionnaire to

  3. For the Pseudoacceptance or Theoretical Bases of one Undescribed Defense Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Borisov Karabelyov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers emphasize that what we know about the defense mechanisms is actually a result of collected clinical data. For somedefense mechanisms like the classical projection, there is not any empirical data proving their existence. There are numerous psychologicalschools, each with its own view of the nature, of the types, of the characteristics and of the effects of the defense mechanisms. There is nota single theory of defense mechanisms. This paper lays the theoretical bases of the pseudoacceptance as one undescribed defense mechanism,so the broadening of the intrapsychic defense system is the main purpose of this theoretical analysis. The nature and the characteristics ofthe pseudoacceptance are presented, as well as the mechanism of its deployment, its differentiation and relations with other defensemechanisms. An example of the pseudoacceptance is also presented and analyzed.

  4. The MAP kinase substrate MKS1 is a regulator of plant defense responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, E.; Jenkins, T.; Brodersen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) functions as a regulator of pathogen defense responses, because it is required for both repression of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent resistance and for activation of jasmonate (JA)-dependent defense gene expression. To understand MPK4 signaling mechanisms, we used......-dependent resistance, but does not interfere with induction of a defense gene by JA. Further yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that MKS1 interacts with the WRKY transcription factors WRKY25 and WRKY33. WRKY25 and WRKY33 were shown to be in vitro substrates of MPK4, and a wrky33 knockout mutant was found to exhibit...... increased expression of the SA-related defense gene PR1. MKS1 may therefore contribute to MPK4-regulated defense activation by coupling the kinase to specific WRKY transcription factors....

  5. Animal defense strategies and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Shuhama

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are classified according to symptoms, time course and therapeutic response. Concurrently, the experimental analysis of defensive behavior has identified three strategies of defense that are shared by different animal species, triggered by situations of potential, distal and proximal predatory threat, respectively. The first one consists of cautious exploration of the environment for risk assessment. The associated emotion is supposed to be anxiety and its pathology, Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The second is manifested by oriented escape or by behavioral inhibition, being related to normal fear and to Specific Phobias, as disorders. The third consists of disorganized flight or complete immobility, associated to dread and Panic Disorder. Among conspecific interactions lies a forth defense strategy, submission, that has been related to normal social anxiety (shyness and to Social Anxiety Disorder. In turn, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder do not seem to be directly related to innate defense reactions. Such evolutionary approach offers a reliable theoretical framework for the study of the biological determinants of anxiety disorders, and a sound basis for psychiatric classification.Os transtornos de ansiedade são classificados conforme a sintomatologia, decurso temporal e resposta terapêutica. Paralelamente, a análise experimental dos comportamentos de defesa identificou três estratégias comuns a diferentes espécies de animais, desencadeadas por situações de perigo predatório potencial, distal ou proximal, respectivamente. A primeira consiste na investigação cautelosa do ambiente, avaliando o risco. Supõe-se que a emoção que a acompanha seja a ansiedade e sua patologia, o Transtorno de Ansiedade Generalizada. A segunda é expressa pela fuga orientada ou pela inibição comportamental, sendo a emoção correlata o medo, e a patologia representada pelas Fobias Específicas. Finalmente, a

  6. Financial Reporting for Other Defense Organizations at the Defense Agency Financial Services Accounting Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-09

    FINANCIAL REPORTING FOR OTHER DEFENSE ORGANIZATIONS AT THE DEFENSE AGENCY FINANCIAL SERVICES ACCOUNTING OFFICE Report No. D-2001-048...34) 09Feb2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Financial Reporting for Other Defense Organizations at the Defense...Supplementary Notes Abstract This report is the first in this series addressing the underlying financial reporting processes that cause abnormal balances

  7. INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF MANAGEMENT AND EVALUATION OF UKRAINIAN DEFENSE LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garazhа Y.P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The management and evaluation of defense land was revealed in the article. Specific institution is the military institutе in the institutional framework for defense land. A special regime and zoning, evaluation, payment and exclusion conditions were established for these lands. The market economy has changed the land-property relations in the country. Lands for defense used only in the framework that established the state. Recently there was a tendency of land release this subcategory. This has led to their misuse, belonging to other owners. The research problem consists of the setting clear boundaries of defense land and legal regulation mechanisms of land relations. Public ownership rights applies only to the defense lands. They are located only in the state ownership. The subject is the state that implements ownership (right to possess, use and dispose of the lands of Defense. It ensures the defense of the country and territory for military sites, airfields, parts, ammunition depots. Functional use of defense land is divided into public (military schools, socio-cultural (health centers, recreation centers, industrial (military and industrial objects, residential (cantonment, commercial (commissary, special (military installations, transport ( carpark, bridges, engineering (antennas, radars, storage (defense deport. The land for military unit were given for permanent use with the justification of the project design documentation sizes. The military part of the land for permanent use with the justification sizes by the project design documentation. Safety, security and other areas are created around military and other defense installations. There are restricted areas, prohibited areas. They have a special regime. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real estate. Reform of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the State Special Transport Service leads to the release of land and real

  8. Arabidopsis GH3-LIKE DEFENSE GENE 1 is required for accumulation of salicylic acid, activation of defense responses and resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Raina, Surabhi; Acharya, Biswa R; Maqbool, Shahina B; Mosher, Stephen L; Appel, Heidi M; Schultz, Jack C; Klessig, Daniel F; Raina, Ramesh

    2007-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the GH3-like gene family consists of 19 members, several of which have been shown to adenylate the plant hormones jasmonic acid, indole acetic acid and salicylic acid (SA). In some cases, this adenylation has been shown to catalyze hormone conjugation to amino acids. Here we report molecular characterization of the GH3-LIKE DEFENSE GENE 1 (GDG1), a member of the GH3-like gene family, and show that GDG1 is an important component of SA-mediated defense against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Expression of GDG1 is induced earlier and to a higher level in response to avirulent pathogens compared to virulent pathogens. gdg1 null mutants are compromised in several pathogen defense responses, including activation of defense genes and resistance against virulent and avirulent bacterial pathogens. Accumulation of free and glucoside-conjugated SA (SAG) in response to pathogen infection is compromised in gdg1 mutants. All defense-related phenotypes of gdg1 can be rescued by external application of SA, suggesting that gdg1 mutants are defective in the SA-mediated defense pathway(s) and that GDG1 functions upstream of SA. Our results suggest that GDG1 contributes to both basal and resistance gene-mediated inducible defenses against P. syringae (and possibly other pathogens) by playing a critical role in regulating the levels of pathogen-inducible SA. GDG1 is allelic to the PBS3 (avrPphB susceptible) gene.

  9. Special Army Reports Prepared by Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Armstrong, Jack L; Wenzel, Paul C; Barnes, Leslie M; Grum, Andrew D; Kleiman, E. E; Baer, Joseph A; Maroska, Chad A; Thompson, Ann L

    2007-01-01

    .... This is the second in a series of reports related to Army budget execution operations. The first report discussed the transmission of Army budget execution data by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS...

  10. The Relationship between Defense Patterns and DSM-5 Maladaptive Personality Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, Antonella; La Marca, Luana; Mannino, Giuseppe; Giunta, Serena; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Research has extensively examined the relationship between defense mechanisms (DM) and personality traits. However, no study to date has explored if specific defenses (alone or in combination) are able to predict dysfunctional variants of personality domains, as conceived in the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DMs and DSM-5 maladaptive personality domains among adults. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty-eight adults aged between 18 and 64 years old completed measures on DMs and maladapive personality domains. Regression analyses were performed to determine which DMs predicted the maladaptive personality domains of negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. Results: According to psychoanalytic literature, results showed that immature defenses positively predicted maladaptive personality domain scores, whereas mature defenses were generally related with better personality functioning. Moreover, different defense patterns emerged as significant predictors of the maladaptive personality domains comprised in the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorder. Discussion: Our findings support the view that defense patterns represent core components of personality and its disorders, and suggest that an increased use of immature defenses and a reduced use of mature defenses have a negative impact on the development of personality. PMID:29163301

  11. The Relationship between Defense Patterns and DSM-5 Maladaptive Personality Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, Antonella; La Marca, Luana; Mannino, Giuseppe; Giunta, Serena; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Research has extensively examined the relationship between defense mechanisms (DM) and personality traits. However, no study to date has explored if specific defenses (alone or in combination) are able to predict dysfunctional variants of personality domains, as conceived in the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DMs and DSM-5 maladaptive personality domains among adults. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty-eight adults aged between 18 and 64 years old completed measures on DMs and maladapive personality domains. Regression analyses were performed to determine which DMs predicted the maladaptive personality domains of negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. Results: According to psychoanalytic literature, results showed that immature defenses positively predicted maladaptive personality domain scores, whereas mature defenses were generally related with better personality functioning. Moreover, different defense patterns emerged as significant predictors of the maladaptive personality domains comprised in the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorder. Discussion: Our findings support the view that defense patterns represent core components of personality and its disorders, and suggest that an increased use of immature defenses and a reduced use of mature defenses have a negative impact on the development of personality.

  12. Neural substrates of defensive reactivity in two subtypes of specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Ulrike; Hilbert, Kevin; Stolyar, Veronika; Maslowski, Nina I; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    Depending on threat proximity, different defensive behaviours are mediated by a descending neural network involving forebrain (distal threat) vs midbrain areas (proximal threat). Compared to healthy subjects, it can be assumed that phobics are characterized by shortened defensive distances on a behavioural and neural level. This study aimed at characterizing defensive reactivity in two subtypes of specific phobia [snake (SP) and dental phobics (DP)]. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), n = 39 subjects (13 healthy controls, HC; 13 SP; 13 DP) underwent an event-related fMRI task employing an anticipation (5-10 s) and immediate perception phase (phobic pictures and matched neutral stimuli; 1250 ms) to modulate defensive distance. Although no differential brain activity in any comparisons was observed in DP, areas associated with defensive behaviours (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain) were activated in SP. Decreasing defensive distance in SP was characterized by a shift to midbrain activity. Present findings substantiate differences between phobia types in their physiological and neural organization that can be expanded to early stages of defensive behaviours. Findings may contribute to a better understanding of the dynamic organization of defensive reactivity in different types of phobic fear. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Relationship between defense mechanism and therapeutic alliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, S; Cailhol, L; Pourcel, L; Thalamas, C; Lapeyre-Mestre, M; Chabrol, H

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic alliance can be defined as a collaborative relationship between the patient and the practitioner. It represents an essential component of the psychotherapeutic process (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006; Martin et al., 2000). Some authors suggest that a good alliance can have a favorable impact on the therapeutic success (Barber et al., 2000; Hubble, Duncan, & Miller 1999; Horvath & Luborsky, 1993; Horvath & Symonds, 1991). This alliance can be influenced by psychological and behavioral factors (Cungi, 2006) Thus, some defense mechanisms could prevent change or, on the contrary could facilitate adaptation (Ambresin et al., 2007) and have an impact on the therapeutic success (Muris & Merckelbach, 1996). However, the relationship between therapeutic alliance and defense mechanisms represents an insufficiently explored field (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006). The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between therapeutic alliance and twenty defense mechanisms in a sample of French psychiatric patients, by differentiating results in men and women. We also examined the positive and the negative therapeutic alliance. Sixty patients aged from 18 to 58 (M=41.50; SD=11.03) completed the French versions of the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and the Helping Alliance questionnaire-II (HAq-II). Therapeutic alliance was significantly associated with each defense style: mature (0.62), neurotic (0.45) Pdefense style was a significant predictor of therapeutic alliance (R(2) adj=36, F=12.39, β=0.65, Pdefenses, three neurotic defenses (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization) and four immature defenses (splitting, denial, somatization, passive aggression). Among men, three mature defenses were associated (anticipation, humor, sublimation), four neurotic (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization and undoing) and two immature (somatization and denial). The negative therapeutic alliance, in our total sample, was

  14. Psychological masochism: A systematic review of the literature on conflicts, defenses, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Békés, Vera; Perry, J Christopher; Robertson, Brian M

    2018-05-01

    Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychological masochism to identify hypotheses for examination in clinical studies. We identified defenses, conflicts, and motives using standardized measures in 23 psychoanalytic papers. Three primary and three secondary subtypes of masochism emerged in the literature. Overall Gratification Inhibition (subtype I.1) was the "healthiest" form, associated with higher developmental level motives and neurotic defenses. The Global Conflict (I.2) was the least healthy form of masochism, consistent with personality disorder. It was associated with early developmental level motives and immature defenses, including depressive defenses, often associated with depression. Dominant Other (I.3) represented masochistic attachment problems, associated with early developmental level motives, object-related, image-distorting defenses, and narcissism. Of the secondary types, Separation-Abandonment (II.1) reflected object-related defenses, and separation-related motives. Rejection of Others (II.2) represented a sadistic-narcissistic form, associated with image-distorting and disavowal defenses, with both early and later developmental level motives. Finally, Sexual Pleasure vs. Guilt (II.3) was associated with autistic fantasy, and both early and later developmental level motives, suggesting a distinct traumatic origin and representing the juncture of sexual and psychological masochism. Analysts described six distinguishable types of masochism. Future studies should examine their validity.

  15. 76 FR 22681 - Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is updating... Directory: Defense Logistics Agency Headquarters, Andrew T. McNamara Building, 8725 John J. Kingman Road...

  16. [The clinical relevance of defense mechanisms in inpatients and outpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitmansgruber, Horst; Beck, Thomas; Mulser, Hubert; Dahlbender, Reiner W; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    How clearcut is the clinical significance of mature and immature defense mechanisms in psychological symptoms? Defense mechanisms, symptoms and well-being were assessed in 293 inpatients, 316 outpatients and 157 students. The factors "mature defense" and "immature defense" predict well-being/symptoms to a substantial degree. The assessment of defense mechanism via self-report is clinically useful.

  17. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Regulation; Defense Base Act AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA... the Defense Base Act. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to the Regulatory... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of 1941...

  18. 32 CFR 150.10 - Request for appellate defense counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request for appellate defense counsel. 150.10 Section 150.10 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 150.10 Request...

  19. Oxylipins in moss development and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés ePonce De León

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids that participate in plant development and defense against pathogen infection, insects and wounding. Initial oxygenation of substrate fatty acids is mainly catalyzed by lipoxygenases and alpha-dioxygenases but can also take place non-enzymatically by autoxidation or singlet oxygen-dependent reactions. The resulting hydroperoxides are further metabolized by secondary enzymes to produce a large variety of compounds, including the hormone jasmonic acid and short-chain green leaf volatiles. In flowering plants, which lack arachidonic acid, oxylipins are produced mainly from oxidation of polyunsaturated C18 fatty acids, notably linolenic and linoleic acids. Algae and mosses in addition possess polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids including arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids, which can also be oxidized by lipoxygenases and transformed into bioactive compounds. Mosses are phylogenetically placed between unicellular green algae and flowering plants, allowing evolutionary studies of the different oxylipin pathways. During the last years the moss Physcomitrella patens has become an attractive model plant for understanding oxylipin biosynthesis and diversity. In addition to the advantageous evolutionary position, functional studies of the different oxylipin-forming enzymes can be performed in this moss by targeted gene disruption or single point mutations by means of homologous recombination. Biochemical characterization of several oxylipin-producing enzymes and oxylipin profiling in P. patens reveal the presence of a wider range of oxylipins compared to flowering plants, including C18 as well as C20-derived oxylipins. Surprisingly, one of the most active oxylipins in plants, jasmonic acid, is not synthesized in this moss. In this review we present an overview of oxylipins produced in mosses and discuss the current knowledge related to the involvement of oxylipin-producing enzymes and their products in moss development

  20. Egg Production Constrains Chemical Defenses in a Neotropical Arachnid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís M Nazareth

    Full Text Available Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF. We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group.

  1. Climate Change and Defense against Pathogens in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Adrian C; Torrance, Lesley; Holden, Nicola; Toth, Ian K; Cooke, David E L; Blok, Vivian; Gilroy, Eleanor M

    2012-01-01

    Most reviews of climate change are epidemiological, focusing on impact assessment and risk mapping. However, there are many reports of the effects of environmental stress factors on defense mechanisms in plants against pathogens. We review those representative of key climate change-related stresses to determine whether there are any patterns or trends in adaptation responses. We recognize the complexity of climate change itself and the multitrophic nature of the complex biological interactions of plants, microbes, soil, and the environment and, therefore, the difficulty of reductionist dissection approaches to resolving the problems. We review host defense genes, germplasm, and environmental interactions in different types of organisms but find no significant group-specific trends. Similarly, we review by host defense mechanism type and by host-pathogen trophic relationship but identify no dominating mechanism for stress response. However, we do identify core stress response mechanisms playing key roles in multiple response pathways whether to biotic or abiotic stress. We suggest that these should be central to mechanistic climate change plant defense research. We also recognize biodiversity, heterogeneity, and the need for understanding stress in a true systems biology approach as being essential components of progressing our understanding of and response to climate change. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological and Radiological Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense is a free, on-line journal dedicated to providing an international, peer-reviewed journal of original scientific research and clinical and doctrinal knowledge in the area of medical treatment and countermeasures for chemical, biological and radiological defense; and to developing and maintaining an archive of current research and development information on training, doctrine, and professional discussions of problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. The Journal, www.JMedCBR.org, now in its fifth year, is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to: Neuroprotectants; Bioscavengers for Nerve Agents; Medical Diagnostic Systems and Technologies; Medical Effects of Low Level Exposures; Toxicology and Biological Effects of TICs and TIMs; Broad Spectrum Medical Countermeasures; Treatments and Therapeutics for Bacterial, Viral and Toxin Agents; Radiological Medical Countermeasures; Clinical Treatment of Chemical, Biological or Radiological Casualties; Toxins Structures and Treatments. The Journal is supported by an editorial advisory board of distinguished scientists and researchers in the fields of CBR defense and medical treatment and countermeasures in eleven countries.(author)

  3. Evolution of plant growth and defense in a continental introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Bradburd, Gideon S; Woods, Ellen C; Züst, Tobias; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Bukovinszky, Tibor

    2015-07-01

    Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common milkweed Asclepias syriaca, which was introduced from North America to Europe over the past 400 years and which lacks most of its specialized herbivores in the introduced range. Using 10 populations from each continent grown in a common environment, we identified several growth and defense traits that have diverged, despite low neutral genetic differentiation between continents. We next developed a Bayesian modeling approach to account for relationships between molecular and phenotypic differences, confirming that continental trait differentiation was greater than expected from neutral genetic differentiation. We found evidence that growth-related traits adaptively diverged within and between continents. Inducible defenses triggered by monarch butterfly herbivory were substantially reduced in European populations, and this reduction in inducibility was concordant with altered phytohormonal dynamics, reduced plant growth, and a trade-off with constitutive investment. Freedom from the community of native and specialized herbivores may have favored constitutive over induced defense. Our replicated analysis of plant growth and defense, including phenotypically plastic traits, suggests adaptive evolution following a continental introduction.

  4. Antiherbivory defense mechanisms along an environmental gradient in restinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Matilde da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant-herbivore interactions have directed the evolution of defense mechanisms in plants, which can vary intraspecifically according to environmental quality. This study evaluated variation in the production of antiherbivory defenses in plant species distributed along an environmental gradient of restinga. The study was performed in Parque Estadual Acaraí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Three species of four plant formations with different abiotic conditions were selected for study. Specific leaf area; water, nitrogen and carbon content; and presence of phenols, tannins, lignin and alkaloids, were evaluated in leaves of ten plants per species per plant formation. The results indicated that Symphyopappus casarettoi possesses Low Nutritional Quality Syndrome, characterized by low specific leaf area, presence of secondary metabolites and low nitrogen content. Dodonaea viscosa and Varronia curassavica possess Nutrition and Defense Syndrome, characterized by a balance between nutritional quality (high nitrogen content and lower C:N ratio and protection (greater thickness of leaves and higher density of trichomes. The results did not confirm the Resource Availability Hypothesis. The absence of a pattern in antiherbivory response due to the environmental gradient may indicate that the investment in defense by plants is not unidirectional and that certain morpho-anatomical attributes are typically related to conservation of resources.

  5. Costs of defense and a test of the carbon-nutrient balance and growth-differentiation balance hypotheses for two co-occurring classes of plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Joy Massad

    Full Text Available One of the goals of chemical ecology is to assess costs of plant defenses. Intraspecific trade-offs between growth and defense are traditionally viewed in the context of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH. Broadly, these hypotheses suggest that growth is limited by deficiencies in carbon or nitrogen while rates of photosynthesis remain unchanged, and the subsequent reduced growth results in the more abundant resource being invested in increased defense (mass-balance based allocation. The GDBH further predicts trade-offs in growth and defense should only be observed when resources are abundant. Most support for these hypotheses comes from work with phenolics. We examined trade-offs related to production of two classes of defenses, saponins (triterpenoids and flavans (phenolics, in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae, an abundant tree in Costa Rican wet forests. We quantified physiological costs of plant defenses by measuring photosynthetic parameters (which are often assumed to be stable in addition to biomass. Pentaclethra macroloba were grown in full sunlight or shade under three levels of nitrogen alone or with conspecific neighbors that could potentially alter nutrient availability via competition or facilitation. Biomass and photosynthesis were not affected by nitrogen or competition for seedlings in full sunlight, but they responded positively to nitrogen in shade-grown plants. The trade-off predicted by the GDBH between growth and metabolite production was only present between flavans and biomass in sun-grown plants (abundant resource conditions. Support was also only partial for the CNBH as flavans declined with nitrogen but saponins increased. This suggests saponin production should be considered in terms of detailed biosynthetic pathway models while phenolic production fits mass-balance based allocation models (such as the CNBH. Contrary to expectations based on the two

  6. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  7. Low power unattended defense reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, W.L.; Meier, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A small, low power, passive, nuclear reactor electric power supply has been designed for unattended defense applications. Through innovative utilization of existing proven technologies and components, a highly reliable, walk-away safe design has been obtained. Operating at a thermal power level of 200 kWt, the reactor uses low enrichment uranium fuel in a graphite block core to generate heat that is transferred through heat pipes to a thermoelectric (TE) converter. Waste heat is removed from the TEs by circulation of ambient air. Because such a power supply offers the promise of minimal operation and maintenance (O and M) costs as well as no fuel logistics, it is particularly attractive for remote, unattended applications such as the North Warning System

  8. Defense program pushes microchip frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, K.

    1985-05-01

    The very-high-speed integrated circuit (VHSIC) program of the Department of Defense will have a significant effect on the expansion of integrated circuit technology. This program, which is to cost several hundred million dollars, is accelerating the trend toward higher-speed, denser circuitry for microchips through innovative design and fabrication techniques. Teams in six different American companies are to design and fabricate a military useful 'brassboard' system which would employ chips developed in the first phase of the VHSIC program. Military objectives envisaged include automatic monitoring of displays in tactical aircraft by means of an artificial intelligence system, a brassboard used in airborne electronic warfare system, and antisubmarine warfare applications. After a fivefold improvement in performance achieved in the first phase, the second phase is concerned with a further 20-fold increase. The entire VHSIC program is, therefore, to produce a 100-fold gain over the state of the art found when the program started.

  9. 2011 Congressional Report on Defense Business Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    OBMS 9/20/2010 ODAA Business Management System $2.420 PVDAS 9/30/2010 Pharmacovigilance Defense Application System $2.000 TBI/PH - ITI 8/4... Pharmacovigilance Defense Application System $2.000 UITS Universal Immunization Tracking System $0.640 JTDI Joint Technical Data Integration $3.321 MSSM

  10. Teaching Psychological Defenses: An Interactive Computerized Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibace, Roger; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interactive computerized teaching program with which students learn to analyze behaviors as examples of psychological defense. Students' satisfaction with the program and their subsequent performance in identifying defense mechanisms indicated that the program was successful in developing analytical skills. (Author/JDH)

  11. Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2006-01-01

    Integrating theory, research, and practical applications, this book provides a comprehensive examination of defense mechanisms and their role in both normal development and psychopathology. The author describes how children and adults mobilize specific kinds of defenses to maintain their psychological equilibrium and preserve self-esteem,…

  12. The Defense Mechanisms of Coronary Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peglar, Marian; Borgen, Fred H.

    1984-01-01

    Tested 73 male inpatients with coronary heart disease on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a perception of health measure. Subjects were followed for five years. Principalization was discovered to be the most successful and projection the least successful defense. (JAC)

  13. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  14. Strengthening Nordic-Baltic Defense Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and troubling challenge to the way international security has been structured in Europe since the end of the Cold War. While most of the existing defense cooperation with a view of strengthening defense capabilities has been carried out within the internationally renowned framework of NORDEFCO...

  15. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Board DEFENSE HEALTH BOARD MEMBERS Maj Gen (Ret.) George K. Anderson, MD, MPH DHB Second Vice President Craig H. Blakely , MS, MPH, PhD...SFS Executive Secretary, Defense Health Board (Until August 2016) Sara Higgins, MPH, CSSGB Report Lead/Analyst, Grant Thornton LLP Katharine

  16. Defense Enzyme Responses in Dormant Wild Oat and Wheat Caryopses Challenged with a Seed Decay Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Patrick Fuerst

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds have well-established passive physical and chemical defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. However, there are few studies evaluating potential biochemical defenses of dormant seeds against pathogens. Caryopsis decay by the pathogenic Fusarium avenaceum strain F.a.1 was relatively rapid in wild oat (Avena fatua L. isoline “M73,” with >50% decay after 8 days with almost no decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. RL4137. Thus, this fungal strain has potential for selective decay of wild oat relative to wheat. To study defense enzyme activities, wild oat and wheat caryopses were incubated with F.a.1 for 2–3 days. Whole caryopses were incubated in assay reagents to measure extrinsic defense enzyme activities. Polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase were induced in whole caryopses, but oxalate oxidase was reduced, in response to F.a.1 in both species. To evaluate whether defense enzyme activities were released from the caryopsis surface, caryopses were washed with buffer and enzyme activity was measured in the leachate. Significant activities of polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase, but not oxalate oxidase, were leached from caryopses. Defense enzyme responses were qualitatively similar in the wild oat and wheat genotypes evaluated. Although the absolute enzyme activities were generally greater in whole caryopses than in leachates, the relative degree of induction of polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase by F.a.1 was greater in caryopsis leachates, indicating that a disproportionate quantity of the induced activity was released into the environment from the caryopsis surface, consistent with their assumed role in defense. It is unlikely that the specific defense enzymes studied here play a key role in the differential susceptibility to decay by F.a.1 in these two genotypes since defense enzyme activities were greater in the more susceptible wild

  17. Defense Enzyme Responses in Dormant Wild Oat and Wheat Caryopses Challenged with a Seed Decay Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, E Patrick; James, Matthew S; Pollard, Anne T; Okubara, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Seeds have well-established passive physical and chemical defense mechanisms that protect their food reserves from decay-inducing organisms and herbivores. However, there are few studies evaluating potential biochemical defenses of dormant seeds against pathogens. Caryopsis decay by the pathogenic Fusarium avenaceum strain F.a .1 was relatively rapid in wild oat ( Avena fatua L.) isoline "M73," with >50% decay after 8 days with almost no decay in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) var. RL4137. Thus, this fungal strain has potential for selective decay of wild oat relative to wheat. To study defense enzyme activities, wild oat and wheat caryopses were incubated with F.a .1 for 2-3 days. Whole caryopses were incubated in assay reagents to measure extrinsic defense enzyme activities. Polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase were induced in whole caryopses, but oxalate oxidase was reduced, in response to F.a .1 in both species. To evaluate whether defense enzyme activities were released from the caryopsis surface, caryopses were washed with buffer and enzyme activity was measured in the leachate. Significant activities of polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase, but not oxalate oxidase, were leached from caryopses. Defense enzyme responses were qualitatively similar in the wild oat and wheat genotypes evaluated. Although the absolute enzyme activities were generally greater in whole caryopses than in leachates, the relative degree of induction of polyphenol oxidase, exochitinase, and peroxidase by F.a .1 was greater in caryopsis leachates, indicating that a disproportionate quantity of the induced activity was released into the environment from the caryopsis surface, consistent with their assumed role in defense. It is unlikely that the specific defense enzymes studied here play a key role in the differential susceptibility to decay by F.a .1 in these two genotypes since defense enzyme activities were greater in the more susceptible wild oat, compared to

  18. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  19. Primitive defenses: cognitive aspects and therapeutic handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, L S

    In this paper the primitive defenses first described by Melanie Klein under the label of "schizoid mechanisms" are examined. The defenses considered are splitting the pathological uses of identification and projective identification, and the psychotic forms of denial. This examination is twofold: (1) the cognitive aspects of these defenses as described in terms of concepts developed by Jean Piaget; (2) concrete examples of the operation of these defenses during the treatment of schizophrenic patients are given and the effects of interventions based on the cognitive analysis are described. It is stressed that at times interventions, such as interpretation and confrontation, based on cognitive analysis, can temporarily and in some instances even permanently stop the operation of these defenses, allowing emotionally meaningful material to emerge which expedites the therapeutic process.

  20. Change in Coping and Defense Mechanisms across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings in a European-American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Lumley, Mark A.; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European-American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change trajectories for sublimation and suppression showed that their use increased from adolescence to late middle age and early old age, and remained mostly stable into late old age. The change trajectory for intellectualization showed that the use of this defense mechanism increased from adolescence to middle age, remained stable until late midlife, and started to decline thereafter. The defense mechanisms of doubt, displacement, and regression showed decreases from adolescence until early old age, with increases occurring again after the age of 65. Linear age-related decreases were found for the coping mechanism of ego regression and the defense mechanisms of isolation and rationalization. Gender and socioeconomic status were associated with the mean levels of several coping and defense mechanisms, but did not moderate age-related changes. Increases in ego level were associated with increased use of the defense mechanism intellectualization and decreased use of the defense mechanisms of doubt and displacement. Overall, these findings in a European-American sample suggest that most individuals showed development in the direction of more adaptive and less maladaptive coping and defense strategies from adolescence until late middle age or early old age. However, in late old age this development was reversed, presenting potential challenges to the adaptive capacity of older adults. PMID:23834293

  1. Analysis of Defense Industry Consolidation Effects on Program Acquisition Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Russell V

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis examines whether cost changes are evident following consolidation within the defense industry by conducting a regression analysis of Major Defense Acquisition Programs across 13 broad defense market sectors...

  2. Transforming Department of Defense Financial Management: A Strategy for Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF), the Department of Defense (DoD) contracted with the Institute for Defense Analyses to conduct a study to recommend a strategy for financial management improvements within the Department...

  3. FY 1997 Financial Reporting by The Defense Automated Printing Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The accuracy of information in the financial systems and reported on financial statements is the joint responsibility of the Defense Automated Printing Service and the Defense Logistics Agency...

  4. Accounting for Unliquidated Obligations for the Defense Fuel Supply Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... The Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) Columbus Center, Columbus, Ohio, and the Defense Fuel Supply Center share responsibility for accurate accounting information and financial reporting...

  5. Defense Contract Management Command Capitalization of Fixed Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1997-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Logistics Agency and the Defense Finance and Accounting Service had implemented effective management control procedures and complied with laws...

  6. Defense Finance and Accounting Service Commercial Activities Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... This report evaluated the Defense Finance and Accounting Service competitive sourcing process and reviewed the adequacy of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service management control program...

  7. Defense islands in bacterial and archaeal genomes and prediction of novel defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-11-01

    The arms race between cellular life forms and viruses is a major driving force of evolution. A substantial fraction of bacterial and archaeal genomes is dedicated to antivirus defense. We analyzed the distribution of defense genes and typical mobilome components (such as viral and transposon genes) in bacterial and archaeal genomes and demonstrated statistically significant clustering of antivirus defense systems and mobile genes and elements in genomic islands. The defense islands are enriched in putative operons and contain numerous overrepresented gene families. A detailed sequence analysis of the proteins encoded by genes in these families shows that many of them are diverged variants of known defense system components, whereas others show features, such as characteristic operonic organization, that are suggestive of novel defense systems. Thus, genomic islands provide abundant material for the experimental study of bacterial and archaeal antivirus defense. Except for the CRISPR-Cas systems, different classes of defense systems, in particular toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, show nonrandom clustering in defense islands. It remains unclear to what extent these associations reflect functional cooperation between different defense systems and to what extent the islands are genomic "sinks" that accumulate diverse nonessential genes, particularly those acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The characteristics of defense islands resemble those of mobilome islands. Defense and mobilome genes are nonrandomly associated in islands, suggesting nonadaptive evolution of the islands via a preferential attachment-like mechanism underpinned by the addictive properties of defense systems such as toxins-antitoxins and an important role of horizontal mobility in the evolution of these islands.

  8. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    .... Since establishment of the Defense Business Operations Fund (DBOF), the General Accounting Office; Inspector General (IO), DoD; and Service audit agencies have completed several audits on the preparation...

  9. Should the Department of Defense Transfer the Defense Logistics Agency's Map Functions to the Defense Working Capital Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... The functions cost about $25 million annually and are funded by operations and maintenance (O&M) dollars. This study analyzed if the functions should be transferred to the Defense Working Capital Fund...

  10. 22 CFR 130.10 - Information to be furnished by applicant or supplier to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... supplier to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 130.10 Section 130.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT... § 130.10 Information to be furnished by applicant or supplier to the Directorate of Defense Trade... business of the applicant or supplier, as the case may be, and, if applicable, the employer and title; (3...

  11. Department of Defense Chiropractic Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Department of Defense (DoD) chiropractic internships first began in July of 2001. At the time of this study, 30 New York Chiropractic College student interns had completed part of their clinical education within chiropractic clinics at either the National Naval Medical Center or Naval Hospital Camp Lejeune. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the careers of DoD chiropractic internship participants with comparable nonparticipants in terms of demographics, professional activities, income, and satisfaction. Methods: Survey research was employed to gather data from DoD chiropractic internship participants and comparable nonparticipants. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine significant differences with a nominal significance level set as.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in demographics, professional activities, income, or career satisfaction between the 21 DoD chiropractic internship participants (70% response rate) and 35 internship nonparticipants (35% response rate). Conclusions: This study utilized practice parameters as a form of feedback for a comparative analysis of DoD chiropractic internship participants and nonparticipants and found no significant differences between these groups. Limitations of the study may have influenced the results. Opportunities for chiropractic students to train within these settings remains limited and should be further explored, as should additional research into this component of chiropractic clinical education. PMID:18483629

  12. The SA-dependent defense pathway is active against different pathogens in tomato and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuo, A E; Audenaert, K; Meziane, H; Höfte, M

    2002-01-01

    The importance of salicylic acid (SA) in plant defense against pathogen attack has been elaborately documented. Benzothiadiazole (BTH, BION), a chemical analogue of SA, also induces resistance through the SA-dependent pathway. We investigated the role of SA in both basal defense and induced resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) against Oidium neolycopersici (a biotrophic pathogen) and Botrytis cinerea (a necrotrophic pathogen). A comparison of NahG transgenic tomato and tobacco (unable to accumulate SA) to their respective wild types revealed that in both crops, SA was not involved in basal defense against O. neolycopersici. SA also played no role in the basal defense of tobacco against B. cinerea but NahG tomato plants were significantly more sensitive to B. cinerea than wild type plants. Activation of the SA-dependent defense pathway via BTH resulted in induced resistance against B. cinerea in tomato but not in tobacco. In contrast, BTH induced resistance against O. neolycopersci in tobacco but not in tomato. Microscopic analysis revealed that BTH treatment could prevent penetration of the odium germ tube through the epidermal cell wall of tobacco leaves whereas penetration was successful on tomato leaves, irrespective of BTH treatment. We conclude that even in two related plant species such as tomato and tobacco, the SA-dependent defense pathway does not trigger the same defense responses. It also means that the outcome of a BTH treatment cannot be predicted and has to be tested for each plant-pathogen combination.

  13. Activation of Defense Mechanisms against Pathogens in Mosses and Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, Inés; Montesano, Marcos

    2013-02-04

    During evolution, plants have developed mechanisms to cope with and adapt to different types of stress, including microbial infection. Once the stress is sensed, signaling pathways are activated, leading to the induced expression of genes with different roles in defense. Mosses (Bryophytes) are non-vascular plants that diverged from flowering plants more than 450 million years ago, allowing comparative studies of the evolution of defense-related genes and defensive metabolites produced after microbial infection. The ancestral position among land plants, the sequenced genome and the feasibility of generating targeted knock-out mutants by homologous recombination has made the moss Physcomitrella patens an attractive model to perform functional studies of plant genes involved in stress responses. This paper reviews the current knowledge of inducible defense mechanisms in P. patens and compares them to those activated in flowering plants after pathogen assault, including the reinforcement of the cell wall, ROS production, programmed cell death, activation of defense genes and synthesis of secondary metabolites and defense hormones. The knowledge generated in P. patens together with comparative studies in flowering plants will help to identify key components in plant defense responses and to design novel strategies to enhance resistance to biotic stress.

  14. Changes in Defense Mechanism Functioning During Group Therapy for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert; Tasca, Giorgio A; Presniak, Michelle; Francis, Kylie; Palardy, Melissa; Grenon, Renee; Mcquaid, Nancy; Hayden, Genevieve; Gick, Mary; Bissada, Hany

    2015-01-01

    This study examined change in defensive mechanism functioning during group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) for women with binge-eating disorder (BED). Women with BED (N = 85) received 16 weeks of GPIP. Five group therapy sessions (sessions 1, 3, 8, 12, and 16) from each of the 12 groups were video recorded and transcribed. Participants were rated on an observer-based measure of defensive functioning, the Defense Mechanism Rating Scale (DMRS). Symptom outcomes were assessed pre- and posttreatment. Overall defensive functioning (ODF) scores improved significantly during group treatment, with specific defense level improvements in high adaptive, major image distorting, and action defenses. The linear increase in ODF mediated a decrease in binge-eating episodes and depressive symptoms. Reverse mediation was also noted. A cubic growth curve best modeled ODF data such that ODF improved in the early stage, followed by a slower rate of improvement in the middle stage, and a further increase in rate of improvement at the end of treatment. Change in defense mechanism functioning may be an important aspect of group psychotherapy that is related to improved symptoms for women with BED who receive GPIP. The cubic trend that represented nonlinear growth in ODF is consistent with psychodynamic theory and a stage model of psychotherapy.

  15. Using EPIC to Find Conflicts, Inconsistencies, and Gaps in Department of Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    new tool that automates one step of the methodology. We describe the framework, methodol- ogy, and new software- based tool and demonstrate with case...analysts showed that 113 of the extractions were related to standards. Analy- 1 The EPIC tool is a Microsoft (MS) Office– based program written in...designated approving authority DARS DoD Architecture Registry System DAS Defense Acquisition System DATO Denial of Authorization to Operate DBSMC Defense

  16. Air Attack on America?: Vulnerabilities, Capabilities, and Implications of the Air Defense of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    the Air Force and its role in defense of the nation as well as targeted advertising . Air Force public relations advertised on the radio with...Source: Schaffel, The Emerging Shield, 230. Finishing out the defense in depth were U.S. Air Force BOMARC surface-to-air missiles and U.S. Army Nike ...surface-to-air missiles. Both of these missiles were designed to intercept enemy bombers. The Nike -1 variant was fielded first and in 1952

  17. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Defensive Functioning Scale: a validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Cogan, Rosemary; Markova, Tsveti; Miller, Kristen; Mickens, Lavonda

    2011-01-01

    We assess the convergent and predictive validity of the Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS) with measures of life events, including childhood abuse and adult partner victimization; dimensions of psychopathology, including axis I (depressive) and axis II (borderline personality disorder) symptoms; and quality of object relations. One hundred and ten women from a university-based urban primary care clinic completed a research interview from which defense mechanisms were assessed. The quality of object relations was also assessed from interview data. The women completed self-report measures assessing depression, borderline personality disorder symptoms, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and adult partner physical and sexual victimization. Inter-rater reliability of the scoring of the DFS levels was good. High adaptive defenses were positively correlated with the quality of object relations and pathological defenses were positively correlated with childhood and adult victimization and symptom measures. Although major image distorting defenses were infrequently used, they were robustly correlated with all study variables. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, major image distorting defenses, depressive symptoms, and minor image distorting defenses significantly predict childhood victimization, accounting for 37% of the variance. In a second stepwise multiple regression analysis, borderline personality disorder symptoms and disavowal defenses combined to significantly predict adult victimization, accounting for 16% of the variance. The DFS demonstrates good convergent validity with axis I and axis II symptoms, as well as with measures of childhood and adult victimization and object relations. The DFS levels add nonredundant information to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition beyond axis I and axis II. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Defensive behavior of Dipsas sanctijoannis (Serpentes: Dipsadidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Rojas Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the defensive behavior of Dipsas sanctijoannis (Boulenger, 1911 for first time, based on observations of three different individuals in the Municipality of Manizales, Departamento de Caldas, Colombia.

  19. Self-defense training for college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, N

    1992-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of self-defense training for college women. Advocates of self-defense training believe these courses will not only provide women with the physical survival techniques necessary to repel attacks effectively, but that this kind of training will also help to prevent future violence by developing traits such as assertiveness and confidence in individuals. There is evidence that women who convey such characteristics are less likely to be victimized. Opponents argue that self-defense training does not properly prepare women for an attack, does not adequately address acquaintance rape threats, and can provide a dangerous false sense of security to students. This article reviews the relevant literature, outlines practical suggestions for initiatives in this area, and describes a model self-defense course at one university. Guidelines for evaluation and implications for university policy and program decisions that address violence against women on college campuses are included.

  20. Lease vs. Purchase in Defense Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hensley, Carlton L; Tinjum, Archie L

    2008-01-01

    With declining budgets and consolidation in the defense industry, should competition between prime and sub-prime contractors be fostered through innovative lease arrangements similar to the Navy's TAKX...

  1. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  2. Capitalization of Defense Technology Security Administration Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    ... $5.2 million in the Equipment in Use account on its trial balance. Starting with FY 1996, Defense Technology Security Administration financial data will be included in consolidated DoD financial statements...

  3. Introduction to Defense Acquisition Management. Fifth Edition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochrane, C

    2001-01-01

    ...) acquisition management policies and procedures, the Department of Defense (DoD) 5000 Documents. This handbook is designed to be a quick study guide to refresh the skilled and experienced acquisition management professional...

  4. Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) Public Properties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FUDS Public GIS dataset contains point location information for the 2,709 Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) properties where the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is...

  5. Deploying Missile Defense: Major Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M

    2004-01-01

    By October 2004, the United States will have begun initial deployment of a missile defense capability albeit a modest, limited, and not completely proven one to defend the homeland against a limited...

  6. Human Capital: Defense Contracting Command-Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... and staffing of contracting organizations. The Director, Defense Procurement requested the audit after a Procurement Management Review identified potential issues concerning equal employment opportunity, "pay banding" in employee compensation...

  7. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  8. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mathilde Gralepois; Corinne Larrue; Mark Wiering; Ann Crabbé; Sue Tapsell; Hannelore Mees; Kristina Ek; Malgorzata Szwed

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden). The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with th...

  9. Options for Deploying Missile Defenses in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    efforts at missile defense (such as the 1960s- era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the vast Soviet missile arsenal. Recent efforts are...on unclassified performance parameters for the various radars and interceptors and assumed that the systems would work “as advertised .” (A...develop defenses against ballistic missiles. Early U.S. efforts (such as the 1960s-era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the Soviet Union’s

  10. Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-28

    forward the initial report of the Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence . This report is submitted in accordance with the provisions of Section 591...programs and policies associated with domestic violence in the military. These programs are commonly referred to within the Department of Defense as...Department in addressing domestic violence matters. During our initial meeting on April 24-26, 2000, we formed four standing workgroups: (1) Community

  11. Fungal Recognition and Host Defense Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambuza, I M; Levitz, S M; Netea, M G; Brown, G D

    2017-07-01

    Fungi have emerged as premier opportunistic microbes of the 21st century, having a considerable impact on human morbidity and mortality. The huge increase in incidence of these diseases is largely due to the HIV pandemic and use of immunosuppressive therapies, underscoring the importance of the immune system in defense against fungi. This article will address how the mammalian immune system recognizes and mounts a defense against medically relevant fungal species.

  12. Defensive effects of extrafloral nectaries in quaking aspen differ with scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Brent; Wagner, Diane; Doak, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    The effects of plant defenses on herbivory can differ among spatial scales. This may be particularly common with indirect defenses, such as extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), that attract predatory arthropods and are dependent on predator distribution, abundance, and behavior. We tested the defensive effects of EFNs in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) against damage by a specialist herbivore, the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella Cham.), at the scale of individual leaves and entire ramets (i.e., stems). Experiments excluding crawling arthropods revealed that the effects of aspen EFNs differed at the leaf and ramet scales. Crawling predators caused similar reductions in the percent leaf area mined on individual leaves with and without EFNs. However, the extent to which crawling predators increased leaf miner mortality and, consequently, reduced mining damage increased with EFN expression at the ramet scale. Thus, aspen EFNs provided a diffuse defense, reducing damage to leaves across a ramet regardless of leaf-scale EFN expression. We detected lower leaf miner damage and survival unassociated with crawling predators on EFN-bearing leaves, suggesting that direct defenses (e.g., chemical defenses) were stronger on leaves with than without EFNs. Greater direct defenses on EFN-bearing leaves may reduce the probability of losing these leaves and thus weakening ramet-scale EFN defense. Aspen growth was not related to EFN expression or the presence of crawling predators over the course of a single season. Different effects of aspen EFNs at the leaf and ramet scales suggest that future studies may benefit from examining indirect defenses simultaneously at multiple scales.

  13. Cometary Defense with Directed Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Lubin, P. M.; Hughes, G. B.

    2016-12-01

    Cometary impacts pose a long-term hazard to humans on Earth. Due to their comparative rarity, most planetary defense schemes neglect the comet threat, choosing instead to focus exclusively on mitigating asteroid impacts. Methods like kinetic impactors may be suitable for deflecting near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), both of which are characterized by low inclination orbits and short orbital periods which favor early detection—characteristics ideal for an interception mission. In contrast, Halley-type comets (HTCs) and long-period comets (LPCs) are often found in high inclination orbits rarely more than 2 yr prior to reaching Earth's orbit. Unless discovered and identified in a prior apparition—often centuries or millennia earlier, if ever—timely interception of a threatening HTC or LPC is improbable even with preparation, with missions demanding delta-v budgets often in excess of 30 km/s. Active comets, however, are already naturally perturbed from purely gravitational trajectories through solar-driven sublimation of volatiles. Further deflection may be achieved by supplementing the solar radiation with an artificial directed energy source such as by one or more laser arrays positioned on or near Earth. Simulations were developed with models derived from the known solar nongravitational perturbations of typical comets. Results suggest that a diffraction-limited 500 m array operating at 10 GW for 10 min/day may be sufficient to divert a typical active 500 m comet from an impact given 1 yr. A larger 1 km array operating at 100 GW for 100 s/day is similarly effective. Care must be taken to ensure the target remains intact throughout the deflection period due to comets' low compressive strength and resulting propensity for disintegration at high incident flux.

  14. A New Department of Defense Framework for Efficient Defense Support of Civil Authorities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liberato, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    ...) capabilities support to civilian authorities during emergencies. Hurricane Katrina added to this national attention on the role the Department of Defense should play in responding to emergencies...

  15. Acquisition: Allegations to the Defense Hotline on the Management of the Defense Travel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Defense Travel System was envisioned as a general support system designed to make business travel quicker, easier, and more efficient by providing automated commercial and Government travel...

  16. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  17. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

  18. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Defense Threat Reduction Agency Radiochemical Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Michael A. R.; Velazquez, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Government (USG) first developed nuclear forensics-related capabilities to analyze radiological and nuclear materials, including underground nuclear test debris and interdicted materials. Nuclear forensics is not a new mission for Department of Defense (DoD). The department's existing nuclear forensics capability is the result of programs that span six (6) decades and includes activities to assess foreign nuclear weapons testing activities, monitor and verify nuclear arms control treaties, and to support intelligence and law enforcement activities. Today, nuclear forensics must support not only weapons programs and nuclear smuggling incidents, but also the scientific analysis and subsequent attribution of terrorists' use of radiological or nuclear materials/devices. Nuclear forensics can help divulge the source of origin of nuclear materials, the type of design for an interdicted or detonated device, as well as the pathway of the materials or device to the incident. To accomplish this mission, the USG will need trained radiochemists and nuclear scientists to fill new positions and replace the retiring staff.

  20. Second Line of Defense Spares Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Dale L.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Muller, George; Mercier, Theresa M.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Perkins, Casey J.; Cooley, Scott K.; Thorsen, Darlene E.

    2012-11-20

    During Fiscal Year 2012, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an assessment and analysis of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Sustainability spare parts program. Spare parts management touches many aspects of the SLD Sustainability Program including contracting and integration of Local Maintenance Providers (LMP), equipment vendors, analyses and metrics on program performance, system state of health, and maintenance practices. Standardized spares management will provide better data for decisions during site transition phase and will facilitate transition to host country sustainability ownership. The effort was coordinated with related SLD Sustainability Program initiatives, including a configuration items baselining initiative, a metrics initiative, and a maintenance initiative. The spares study has also led to pilot programs for sourcing alternatives that include regional intermediate inventories and partnering agreements that leverage existing supply chains. Many partners from the SLD Sustainability program contributed to and were consulted in the course of the study. This document provides a description of the findings, recommendations, and implemented solutions that have resulted from the study.

  1. 76 FR 11414 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 231 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Independent Research and Development Technical Descriptions (DFARS Case 2010-D011) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION...

  2. 78 FR 25853 - Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...-OS-0018] Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is revising its Privacy Act procedural and.... This rule provides policies and procedures for the Defense Logistics Agency's implementation of the...

  3. 77 FR 46653 - Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...-OS-0018] Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Program AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is proposing to amend... Regulatory Action a. This rule provides policies and procedures for the Defense Logistics Agency's...

  4. 75 FR 9588 - Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice of closed meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to... Law 94-409, notice is hereby given that the Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board, will meet on...

  5. The Identification and Modification of Defense Mechanisms in Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests considerations and strategies for identifying and modifying a client's defense mechanisms in counseling. Provides definitions of individual defenses and indicators for identifying the mechanisms. Literature review focuses on counseling implications of defenses. Process of defense mechanism modification is illustrated through case example.…

  6. 28 CFR 69.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of Defense. 69.500 Section 69... § 69.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a... Congress immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue...

  7. 6 CFR 9.41 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 9.41 Section 9.41 Domestic....41 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered... Congress immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue...

  8. 45 CFR 1158.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretary of Defense. 1158.500 Section 1158.500... Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal action from... immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental...

  9. 43 CFR 18.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretary of Defense. 18.500 Section 18... Exemptions § 18.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a... Congress immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue...

  10. 20 CFR 438.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary of Defense. 438.500 Section 438.500... of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal... immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental...

  11. 12 CFR 411.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 411.500 Section 411.500....500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered... Congress immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue...

  12. 38 CFR 45.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of Defense. 45...) NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 45.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense.... (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental regulations to implement paragraph (a) of this...

  13. 31 CFR 21.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of Defense. 21.500 Section... LOBBYING Exemptions § 21.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by... written exemption to Congress immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense...

  14. 40 CFR 34.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of Defense. 34.500 Section 34... RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 34.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on... Department of Defense may issue supplemental regulations to implement paragraph (a) of this section. ...

  15. 13 CFR 146.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 146.500... Exemptions § 146.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis... exemption to Congress immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue...

  16. 45 CFR 1168.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretary of Defense. 1168.500 Section 1168.500... of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal... immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental...

  17. 10 CFR 601.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 601.500 Section 601.500 Energy... Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal... immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental...

  18. 49 CFR 20.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretary of Defense. 20.500 Section 20.500... Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal... immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental...

  19. 15 CFR 28.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretary of Defense. 28.500 Section... Exemptions § 28.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a... Congress immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue...

  20. 45 CFR 93.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretary of Defense. 93.500 Section 93.500 Public... Exemptions § 93.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a... Congress immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue...

  1. 34 CFR 82.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of Defense. 82.500 Section 82.500 Education... Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on a case-by-case basis, a covered Federal... immediately after making such a determination. (b) The Department of Defense may issue supplemental...

  2. 45 CFR 604.500 - Secretary of Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretary of Defense. 604.500 Section 604.500... RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Exemptions § 604.500 Secretary of Defense. (a) The Secretary of Defense may exempt, on... Department of Defense may issue supplemental regulations to implement paragraph (a) of this section. ...

  3. 32 CFR 634.21 - Department of Defense Form 2220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Department of Defense Form 2220. 634.21 Section 634.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Motor Vehicle Registration § 634.21...

  4. In vitro testing of defense reactions in zygotic and somatic embryos of Abies numidica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Defense of desiccated cotyledonary somatic embryos and mature zygotic embryos of Abies numidica was tested in vitro by dual cultures with tester, fungus Phaeolus schweinitzii. Both types of embryos expressed defense reactions manifested by inhibited growth of fungal tester towards the embryos. Mycelial growth was described by logistic sigmoid growth model with a single asymptote. Mutual comparisons of mycelial growth in presence of zygotic and somatic embryos showed significant differences in parameters of mycelium growth curves towards the embryos. Larger defense reactions were observed in zygotic embryos relative to somatic embryos and unlimited control cultivations without embryo. The possible role of auxin in the defense response of plant embryos is discussed.

  5. Hydrodynamic Behavior of Overtopping Wave Energy Converters Built in Sea Defense Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, Lander; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Troch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many sea defense structures need to be adapted to the rising sea water level and changing wave climate due to global warming. The accordingly required investment opens perspectives for wave energy converters (WECs) – that are built as part of the sea defense structures – to become economically...... viable. In this paper the average overtopping discharges q of overtopping wave energy devices built in sea defense structures are studied. Physical model tests with this type of devices have been carried out in a wave flume leading to experimental q - values. The experimental q -values are compared...... with predicted average overtopping discharges by existing empirical formulae from literature. Overtopping converters have low relative crest freeboards and smooth slope characteristics to maximize overtopping, which is contradictive to the basic role of sea defense structures. As a consequence, the achieved...

  6. Defense Mechanisms in Adolescence as Predictors of Adult Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandholm, Thea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-05-01

    Our study examines whether defense styles and separate defenses in depressed adolescent outpatients predict adult personality disorders (PDs). We obtained data from consecutive adolescent outpatients who participated in the Adolescent Depression Study at baseline and at the 8-year follow-up (N = 140). Defense styles were divided into mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature and a secondary set of analyses were made with separate defenses as predictors of a PD diagnosis. Neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles in adolescence were associated with adulthood PDs. Neurotic defense style associated with cluster B diagnosis and image-distorting defense style associated with cluster A diagnosis. Separate defenses of displacement, isolation, and reaction formation were independent predictors of adult PD diagnosis even after adjusting for PD diagnosis in adolescence. Defense styles and separate defenses predict later PDs and could be used in the focusing of treatment interventions for adolescents.

  7. Differentiation of depression and anxiety groups using defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Trevor R; Presniak, Michelle D; MacGregor, Michael Wm

    2009-11-01

    We examined whether participants in depressed and anxious groups could be classified correctly using observer and self-report measures of defense mechanisms. A sample of 1182 university students completed the Personality Assessment Inventory and those scoring in the clinical range on either depression or anxiety indices were selected for participation. In total, 25 participants met criteria for the depressed group and 94 met criteria for the anxious group. Individual defense scores from the Defense-Q and the Defense Style Questionnaire were separately entered into 2 stepwise discriminant analyses. After cross-validation, the Defense-Q and Defense Style Questionnaire analyses classified participants with 75.0% and 71.3% accuracy, respectively. The results indicated that depression and anxiety groups can be significantly differentiated by defense use alone. Important differences in defensive functioning between these groups were confirmed and differences between observer and self-report measures of defenses mechanisms and current challenges in defense research were highlighted.

  8. Change in children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems: the role of defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the relation of defense mechanism to children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, as assessed from mothers' report at age 9 and 12 years, based on archival data. The defense mechanisms of denial, projection, and identification were assessed from Thematic Apperception Test stories told by the children at age 9 years, using the Defense Mechanism Manual (Cramer, The development of defense mechanisms: Theory, research and assessment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991a; Protecting the self: Defense mechanisms in action. New York: Guilford Press, 2006). The results showed that the use of identification predicted a decrease in externalizing behaviors between age 9 and 12 years. In contrast, change in internalizing behaviors was not predicted by defense use, but the use of projection was related to fewer internalizing behaviors at both ages. These findings are consistent with the idea that behavioral intervention stressing self-regulation can be effective in reducing externalizing problems, but internalizing problems require an intervention that is sensitive to the underlying behavioral inhibition in these children.

  9. 22 CFR 126.15 - Expedited processing of license applications for the export of defense articles and defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the export of defense articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. 126.15... articles and defense services to Australia or the United Kingdom. (a) Any application submitted for authorization of the export of defense articles or services to Australia or the United Kingdom will be...

  10. Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    March 2017 Task Force on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities OFFICE OF THE UNDER SECRETARY OF...the Department of Defense. The DSB Task Force on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities completed its formal...Ensuring the Resilience of National Space Capabilities | i DSB Task Force on Defense Strategies for Ensuring the

  11. The First Line of Defense: Higher Education in Wartime and the Development of National Defense Education, 1939-1959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Dana Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    This study posits that the National Defense Education Act of 1958 (NDEA) represented the culmination of nearly a century-long process through which education was linked to national defense in periods of wartime, and later retained a strategic utility for defense purposes in times of peace. That a defense rationale for federal support of public…

  12. Defense Commissary Agency Financial Reporting of Property, Plant, and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-27

    ort DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY FINANCIAL REPORTING OF PROPERTY, PLANT, AND EQUIPMENT Report Number 98-097 March 27, 1998 Office of the Inspector...UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (COMPTROLLER) DIRECTOR, DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY SUBJECT: Audit Report on Defense Commissary Agency Financial Reporting of...General for Auditing Office of the Inspector General, DoD Report No. 98-097 March 27, 1998 (Project No. 7FJ-2026) Defense Commissary Agency Financial

  13. Activation of basal defense mechanisms of rice plants by Glomus intraradices does not affect the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Soriano, Lidia; García-Garrido, José Manuel; San Segundo, Blanca

    2010-10-01

    • Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi establish symbiotic associations with a wide range of plant species. AM fungi must then have the ability to suppress, neutralize or evade the plant defense response. We investigated the physiological and molecular responses of rice to inoculation with the AM fungus Glomus intraradices, focusing on the relevance of the plant defense response during the symbiotic mycorrhizal interaction. • Defense gene expression analysis and proteomic approaches were used. The impact of defense gene expression on the mycorrhizal process was analyzed using transgenic PRms (Pathogenesis-Related maize seed) rice plants, the PRms plants exhibiting constitutive expression of endogenous defense genes. • Inoculation with G. intraradices stimulated growth and biomass production in wild-type and PRms plants. Evidence is presented on the activation of the basal defense response in mycorrhizal rice roots. Analysis of the symbiotic proteome confirmed the accumulation of stress-related proteins in mycorrhizal roots, including PR proteins and antioxidant enzymes. Although constitutive expression of defense genes occurred in the roots of PRms plants, the symbiotic efficiency of G. intraradices in these plants was not affected. • These results suggest that AM fungi have evolved the capacity to circumvent defense mechanisms that are controlled by the plant's immune system. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  14. Photoperiod-induced geographic variation in plant defense chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reudler, J H; Elzinga, Jelmer A

    2015-02-01

    Spatial variation in chemical defense of plants can be caused by genetic, biotic, and abiotic factors. For example, many plants exhibit a latitudinal cline in chemical defense, potentially due to latitudinal variation in abiotic environmental factors such as the light regime during the growing season. In the worldwide distributed Plantago lanceolata, the levels of deterrent iridoid glycosides (IGs), aucubin and catalpol, vary geographically, including latitudinally. To examine whether latitudinal variation in photoperiod can explain part of this geographic variation, plants from the Netherlands and Finland were exposed to two different photoperiods, simulating the Dutch (middle European) and Finnish (northern European) light period during the growing season. The experiment showed that although most variation in IG content was genetic, plants from both Dutch and Finnish origin produce relatively more catalpol under a northern European than under a middle European photoperiod. Our results confirm that latitudinal effects on photoperiod can contribute to geographic variation in plant defense chemistry, which should be considered when studying latitudinal clines in plant-enemy interactions.

  15. Natural selection on immune defense: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeloh, Laura; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Seppälä, Otto

    2017-02-01

    Predicting the evolution of phenotypic traits requires an understanding of natural selection on them. Despite its indispensability in the fight against parasites, selection on host immune defense has remained understudied. Theory predicts immune traits to be under stabilizing selection due to associated trade-offs with other fitness-related traits. Empirical studies, however, report mainly positive directional selection. This discrepancy could be caused by low phenotypic variation in the examined individuals and/or variation in host resource level that confounds trade-offs in empirical studies. In a field experiment where we maintained Lymnaea stagnalis snails individually in cages in a lake, we investigated phenotypic selection on two immune defense traits, phenoloxidase (PO)-like activity and antibacterial activity, in hemolymph. We used a diverse laboratory population and manipulated snail resource level by limiting their food supply. For six weeks, we followed immune activity, growth, and two fitness components, survival and fecundity of snails. We found that PO-like activity and growth were under stabilizing selection, while antibacterial activity was under positive directional selection. Selection on immune traits was mainly driven by variation in survival. The form of selection on immune defense apparently depends on the particular trait, possibly due to its importance for countering the present parasite community. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kerry M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont. Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism, then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont

  17. Ego Defenses and Reaction to Stress: A Validation Study of the Defense Mechanisms Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleser, Goldine C.; Sacks, Marilyn

    1973-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between scores on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory and reaction to an experimental conflict situation in which Ss (85 undergraduate college students) were led to believe that their performance was deficient on a new test of scholastic ability. The pattern of defenses predicted residual posttest estimates of…

  18. Evolution of defensive playing in handball: Towards alternative defenses as concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Román Seco

    2016-12-01

    The author exposes a rigorous methodological system in which the concepts of playing space and the moment of action are conjugated in an alternative way as base of the defensive complexity. It translates all into a philosophy of defensive behavior valid for any structure applicable to all times and circumstances.

  19. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gralepois, M.; Larrue, C.; Wiering, M.A.; Crabbé, A.; Tapsell, S.; Mees, H.; Ek, K.; Szwed, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated

  20. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Gralepois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  1. 77 FR 30361 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaty With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation (the Treaty) and the Security Cooperation Act of 2010... articles, technical data, and defense services. The governing law is the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) (22... 22 CFR 126.17(g) and other applicable U.S. laws and regulations. These requirements include marking...

  2. 78 FR 36108 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Defense Trade Cooperation Treaties With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense Trade Cooperation (the U.S.-U.K. DTC... America and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Concerning Defense... governing law is the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 et seq.) and implementing regulations in the...

  3. The dimensionality of defense-mechanism parcels in the Defense Style Questionnaire-40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Ritchie, Timothy D

    2015-03-01

    The Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40; Andrews, Singh, & Bond, 1993) uses pairs of items to measure 20 individual defense mechanisms. In a statistical sense, these item pairs represent parcels and are subject to the standards of unidimensionality demanded of parcels in general. Using a 2-facet modeling approach (N = 672), the present study examined the dimensionality of the defense-mechanism parcels in the DSQ-40 and found that the majority of the parcels did not satisfy the criteria for unidimensionality. In addition, the original 3-factor model of defense styles was not tenable with the present data. Overall, the results suggest caution when attempting to assess individual defense mechanisms using the DSQ-40. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  4. MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plant Defense and Viral Counter-Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Hu, Chun-Gen; Wei, Chao-Ling; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs of approximately 20-24 nucleotides in length that serve as central regulators of eukaryotic gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. In plants, miRNAs are associated with numerous regulatory pathways in growth and development processes, and defensive responses in plant-pathogen interactions. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding miRNA-mediated gene silencing and how viruses counter this defense mechanism. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and recent advances in understanding the roles of miRNAs involved in the plant defense against viruses and viral counter-defense. We also document the application of miRNAs in plant antiviral defense. This review discusses the current understanding of the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated gene silencing and provides insights on the never-ending arms race between plants and viruses.

  5. Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Strauß

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The defense glands in the dorsal prothorax are an important autapomorphic trait of stick insects (Phasmatodea. Here, we study the functional anatomy and neuronal innervation of the defense glands in Anisomorpha paromalus (Westwood, 1859 (Pseudophasmatinae, a species which sprays its defense secretions when disturbed or attacked. We use a neuroanatomical approach to identify the nerves innervating the gland muscles and the motoneurons with axons in the different nerves. The defense gland is innervated by nerves originating from two segments, the subesophageal ganglion (SOG, and the prothoracic ganglion. Axonal tracing confirms the gland innervation via the anterior subesophageal nerve, and two intersegmental nerves, the posterior subesophageal nerve, and the anterior prothoracic nerve. Axonal tracing of individual nerves reveals eight identified neuron types in the subesophageal or prothoracic ganglion. The strongest innervating nerve of the gland is the anterior subesophageal nerve, which also supplies dorsal longitudinal thorax muscles (neck muscles by separate nerve branches. Tracing of individual nerve branches reveals different sets of motoneurons innervating the defense gland (one ipsilateral and one contralateral subesophageal neuron or the neck muscle (ventral median neurons. The ipsilateral and contralateral subesophageal neurons have no homologs in related taxa like locusts and crickets, and thus evolved within stick insects with the differentiation of the defense glands. The overall innervation pattern suggests that the longitudinal gland muscles derived from dorsal longitudinal neck muscles. In sum, the innervating nerves for dorsal longitudinal muscles are conserved in stick insects, while the neuronal control system was specialized with conserved motoneurons for the persisting neck muscles, and evolutionarily novel subesophageal and prothoracic motoneurons innervating the defense gland.

  6. Precipitation affects plant communication and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzola, Enrico; Mancuso, Stefano; Karban, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Anti-herbivore defense shows high levels of both inter- and intraspecific variability. Defending against herbivores may be costly to the plant when it requires a tradeoff in allocation between defense and other missed opportunities, such as reproduction. Indeed, the plastic expression of defensive traits allows the plant to invest resources in defense only when the risk of being damaged actually increases, avoiding wasted resources. Plants may assess risk by responding to volatile cues emitted by neighbors that are under attack. Most plastic responses likely depend on environmental conditions. In this experiment, we investigated the effect of water availability on resistance induced by volatile cues in sagebrush. We found that plants receiving additional water over summer and/or volatile cues from neighbor donor plants showed reduced herbivore damage compared to control plants. Interestingly, we found no evidence of interactions between additional water and volatile cues. We performed an inferential analysis comparing historical records of the levels of herbivore damage during different years that had different temperature and precipitation accumulations. Results confirmed findings from the experiment, as the regression model indicated that sagebrush was better defended during wetter and hotter seasons. Reports from the literature indicated that sagebrush is extremely sensitive to water availability in the soil. We suggest that water availability may directly affect resistance of herbivory as well as sensitivity to cues of damage. Costs and benefits of allocating resources to defensive traits may vary with environmental conditions. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Spatial mosaic evolution of snail defensive traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de León Francisco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent models suggest that escalating reciprocal selection among antagonistically interacting species is predicted to occur in areas of higher resource productivity. In a putatively coevolved interaction between a freshwater snail (Mexipyrgus churinceanus and a molluscivorous cichlid (Herichthys minckleyi, we examined three components of this interaction: 1 spatial variation in two putative defensive traits, crushing resistance and shell pigmentation; 2 whether abiotic variables or frequency of molariform cichlids are associated with spatial patterns of crushing resistance and shell pigmentation and 3 whether variation in primary productivity accounted for small-scale variation in these defensive traits. Results Using spatial autocorrelation to account for genetic and geographic divergence among populations, we found no autocorrelation among populations at small geographic and genetic distances for the two defensive traits. There was also no correlation between abiotic variables (temperature and conductivity and snail defensive traits. However, crushing resistance and frequency of pigmented shells were negatively correlated with molariform frequency. Crushing resistance and levels of pigmentation were significantly higher in habitats dominated by aquatic macrophytes, and both traits are phenotypically correlated. Conclusion Crushing resistance and pigmentation of M. churinceanus exhibit striking variation at small spatial scales often associated with differences in primary productivity, substrate coloration and the frequency of molariform cichlids. These local geographic differences may result from among-habitat variation in how resource productivity interacts to promote escalation in prey defenses.

  8. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  9. Generality of toxins in defensive symbiosis: Ribosome-inactivating proteins and defense against parasitic wasps in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ballinger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While it has become increasingly clear that multicellular organisms often harbor microbial symbionts that protect their hosts against natural enemies, the mechanistic underpinnings underlying most defensive symbioses are largely unknown. Spiroplasma bacteria are widespread associates of terrestrial arthropods, and include strains that protect diverse Drosophila flies against parasitic wasps and nematodes. Recent work implicated a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP encoded by Spiroplasma, and related to Shiga-like toxins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, in defense against a virulent parasitic nematode in the woodland fly, Drosophila neotestacea. Here we test the generality of RIP-mediated protection by examining whether Spiroplasma RIPs also play a role in wasp protection, in D. melanogaster and D. neotestacea. We find strong evidence for a major role of RIPs, with ribosomal RNA (rRNA from the larval endoparasitic wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, exhibiting the hallmarks of RIP activity. In Spiroplasma-containing hosts, parasitic wasp ribosomes show abundant site-specific depurination in the α-sarcin/ricin loop of the 28S rRNA, with depurination occurring soon after wasp eggs hatch inside fly larvae. Interestingly, we found that the pupal ectoparasitic wasp, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae, escapes protection by Spiroplasma, and its ribosomes do not show high levels of depurination. We also show that fly ribosomes show little evidence of targeting by RIPs. Finally, we find that the genome of D. neotestacea's defensive Spiroplasma encodes a diverse repertoire of RIP genes, which are differ in abundance. This work suggests that specificity of defensive symbionts against different natural enemies may be driven by the evolution of toxin repertoires, and that toxin diversity may play a role in shaping host-symbiont-enemy interactions.

  10. Generality of toxins in defensive symbiosis: Ribosome-inactivating proteins and defense against parasitic wasps in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Matthew J; Perlman, Steve J

    2017-07-01

    While it has become increasingly clear that multicellular organisms often harbor microbial symbionts that protect their hosts against natural enemies, the mechanistic underpinnings underlying most defensive symbioses are largely unknown. Spiroplasma bacteria are widespread associates of terrestrial arthropods, and include strains that protect diverse Drosophila flies against parasitic wasps and nematodes. Recent work implicated a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) encoded by Spiroplasma, and related to Shiga-like toxins in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, in defense against a virulent parasitic nematode in the woodland fly, Drosophila neotestacea. Here we test the generality of RIP-mediated protection by examining whether Spiroplasma RIPs also play a role in wasp protection, in D. melanogaster and D. neotestacea. We find strong evidence for a major role of RIPs, with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) from the larval endoparasitic wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, exhibiting the hallmarks of RIP activity. In Spiroplasma-containing hosts, parasitic wasp ribosomes show abundant site-specific depurination in the α-sarcin/ricin loop of the 28S rRNA, with depurination occurring soon after wasp eggs hatch inside fly larvae. Interestingly, we found that the pupal ectoparasitic wasp, Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae, escapes protection by Spiroplasma, and its ribosomes do not show high levels of depurination. We also show that fly ribosomes show little evidence of targeting by RIPs. Finally, we find that the genome of D. neotestacea's defensive Spiroplasma encodes a diverse repertoire of RIP genes, which are differ in abundance. This work suggests that specificity of defensive symbionts against different natural enemies may be driven by the evolution of toxin repertoires, and that toxin diversity may play a role in shaping host-symbiont-enemy interactions.

  11. Psychological defensive profile of sciatica patients with neuropathic pain and its relationship to quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutoglu, A; Boyaci, A; Karababa, I F; Koca, I; Kaya, E; Kucuk, A; Yetisgin, A

    2015-09-01

    To identify differences between defense styles and mechanisms in sciatica patients with or without neuropathic pain and their relationship to quality of life. The study included 37 sciatica patients with neuropathic pain (SNP), 36 sciatica patients without neuropathic pain and 38 healthy subjects. Pain severity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Psychological condition was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Defense mechanisms were assessed using a 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and quality of life was assessed using Short Form-36 (SF-36). BDI and BAI scores were significantly higher in the SNP group (p < 0.001). Idealization and immature defense styles, as well as isolation, displacement and somatization were significantly higher in the SNP group (p < 0.05). SF-36 parameters also differed significantly between the groups, with controls having the best scores and the SNP group the worst. In linear regression analysis, acting out and BDI were found to affect the pain domain of the SF-36 (p < 0.001). The acting out defensive style and BDI were independently associated with pain-related quality of life. In the SNP group, significant differences were found in the immature and neurotic styles of the defense mechanisms.

  12. An empirical look at the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT): reliability and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekehammar, Bo; Zuber, Irena; Konstenius, Marja-Liisa

    2005-07-01

    Although the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) has been in use for almost half a century, there are still quite contradictory views about whether it is a reliable instrument, and if so, what it really measures. Thus, based on data from 39 female students, we first examined DMT inter-coder reliability by analyzing the agreement among trained judges in their coding of the same DMT protocols. Second, we constructed a "parallel" photographic picture that retained all structural characteristic of the original and analyzed DMT parallel-test reliability. Third, we examined the construct validity of the DMT by (a) employing three self-report defense-mechanism inventories and analyzing the intercorrelations between DMT defense scores and corresponding defenses in these instruments, (b) studying the relationships between DMT responses and scores on trait and state anxiety, and (c) relating DMT-defense scores to measures of self-esteem. The main results showed that the DMT can be coded with high reliability by trained coders, that the parallel-test reliability is unsatisfactory compared to traditional psychometric standards, that there is a certain generalizability in the number of perceptual distortions that people display from one picture to another, and that the construct validation provided meager empirical evidence for the conclusion that the DMT measures what it purports to measure, that is, psychological defense mechanisms.

  13. Mental incapacity defenses at the War Crimes Tribunal: questions and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparr, Landy F

    2005-01-01

    Following a report from the Secretary General in May 1993, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 827 and its Statute establishing an International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) located in The Hague, The Netherlands. Although such action has been discussed in the past, this is the first time the international community has established a tribunal to indict and try individuals for war crimes. The crimes had been previously "created" by multilateral international treaties. The ICTY Rules of Procedure and Evidence allowed for "any special defense, including that of diminished or lack of mental responsibility." Precise legal parameters of the defense were not specified. In 1998, a defendant at the ICTY "Celebici" Trial named Esad Landzo raised the defense of diminished mental responsibility. The Celebici Trial Chamber thus became the first legal body to consider reduced mental capacity as it applies to international criminal law. This article is an examination of the application of the affirmative defense of diminished responsibility at the ICTY and relates the process to the need for further definition of mental incapacity defenses at the newly established International Criminal Court (ICC). At the ICC preparatory commission, drafting material elements of crimes was emphasized, with less consideration given to mental elements. That diminished capacity and diminished-responsibility defenses have often confused scholars and practitioners alike is explored in this article with suggestions for further directions.

  14. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of tomato induced defense responses affects spider mite performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Ataide, Livia M S; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-10-03

    When feeding from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induces jasmonate (JA)- and salicylate (SA)-regulated defense responses that hamper its performance. The related T. evansi, a Solanaceae-specialist, suppresses these defenses, thereby upholding a high performance. On a shared leaf, T. urticae can be facilitated by T. evansi, likely via suppression of defenses by the latter. Yet, when infesting the same plant, T. evansi outcompetes T. urticae. Recently, we found that T. evansi intensifies suppression of defenses locally, i.e., at its feeding site, after T. urticae mites were introduced onto adjacent leaf tissue. This hyper-suppression is paralleled by an increased oviposition rate of T. evansi, probably promoting its competitive population growth. Here we present additional data that not only provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of defense induction and suppression by mites, but that also suggest T. evansi to manipulate more than JA and SA defenses alone.

  15. Development of Information Technology for Smart Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Kyoil; Lee, So Yeon; Park, Sangjoon; Park, Jonghyun; Han, Sangcheol

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been demand for the convergence of IT (Information and communication Technologies, ICT) with defense, as has already been achieved in civilian fields such as healthcare and construction. It is expected that completely new and common requirements would emerge from the civilian and military domains and that the shape of war field would change rapidly. Many military scientists forecast that future wars would be network-centric and be based on C4I(Command, Control, Communication and Computer, Intelligence), ISR(Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance), and PGM(Precision Guided Munitions). For realizing the smart defense concept, IT should act as a baseline technology even for simulating a real combat field using virtual reality. In this paper, we propose the concept of IT-based smart defense with a focus on accurate detection in real and cyber wars, effective data communication, automated and unmanned operation, and modeling and simulation

  16. Development of Information Technology for Smart Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyoil; Lee, So Yeon; Park, Sangjoon; Park, Jonghyun [ETRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sangcheol [KEIT, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Recently, there has been demand for the convergence of IT (Information and communication Technologies, ICT) with defense, as has already been achieved in civilian fields such as healthcare and construction. It is expected that completely new and common requirements would emerge from the civilian and military domains and that the shape of war field would change rapidly. Many military scientists forecast that future wars would be network-centric and be based on C4I(Command, Control, Communication and Computer, Intelligence), ISR(Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance), and PGM(Precision Guided Munitions). For realizing the smart defense concept, IT should act as a baseline technology even for simulating a real combat field using virtual reality. In this paper, we propose the concept of IT-based smart defense with a focus on accurate detection in real and cyber wars, effective data communication, automated and unmanned operation, and modeling and simulation.

  17. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Sven; Nietzer, Samuel; Schupp, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars. PMID:26154741

  18. Defensive medicine in Israel - a nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Asher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Defensive medicine is the practice of diagnostic or therapeutic measures conducted primarily as a safeguard against possible malpractice liability. We studied the extent, reasons, and characteristics of defensive medicine in the Israeli health care system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional study performed in the Israeli health care system between April and July 2008 in a sample (7% of board certified physicians from eight medical disciplines (internal medicine, pediatrics, general surgery, family medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedic surgery, cardiology, and neurosurgery. A total of 889 physicians (7% of all Israeli board certified specialists completed the survey. The majority [60%, (95%CI 0.57-0.63] reported practicing defensive medicine; 40% (95%CI 0.37-0.43 consider every patient as a potential threat for a medical lawsuit; 25% (95%CI 0.22-0.28 have previously been sued at least once during their career. Independent predictors for practicing defensive medicine were surgical specialty [OR=1.6 (95%CI 1.2-2.2, p=0.0004], not performing a fellowship abroad [OR=1.5 (95%CI 1.1-2, p=0.027], and previous exposure to lawsuits [OR=2.4 (95%CI 1.7-3.4, p<0.0001]. Independent predictors for the risk of being sued during a physician's career were male gender [OR=1.6 (95%CI 1.1-2.2, p=0.012] and surgery specialty [OR=3.2 (95%CI 2.4-4.3, p<0.0001] (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedic surgery, and neurosurgery. CONCLUSIONS: Defensive medicine is very prevalent in daily physician practice in all medical disciplines. It exposes patients to complications due to unnecessary tests and procedures, affects quality of care and costs, and undermines doctor-patient relationships. Further studies are needed to understand how to minimize defensive medicine resulting from an increased malpractice liability market.

  19. Defense programs beryllium good practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, M.

    1997-07-01

    Within the DOE, it has recently become apparent that some contractor employees who have worked (or are currently working) with and around beryllium have developed chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an occupational granulomatous lung disorder. Respiratory exposure to aerosolized beryllium, in susceptible individuals, causes an immunological reaction that can result in granulomatous scarring of the lung parenchyma, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and, ultimately, respiratory failure. Beryllium disease was originally identified in the 1940s, largely in the fluorescent light industry. In 1950, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) introduced strict exposure standards that generally curtailed both the acute and chronic forms of the disease. Beginning in 1984, with the identification of a CBD case in a DOE contractor worker, there was increased scrutiny of both industrial hygiene practices and individuals in this workforce. To date, over 100 additional cases of beryllium-specific sensitization and/or CBD have been identified. Thus, a disease previously thought to be largely eliminated by the adoption of permissible exposure standards 45 years ago is still a health risk in certain workforces. This good practice guide forms the basis of an acceptable program for controlling workplace exposure to beryllium. It provides (1) Guidance for minimizing worker exposure to beryllium in Defense Programs facilities during all phases of beryllium-related work, including the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities. (2) Recommended controls to be applied to the handling of metallic beryllium and beryllium alloys, beryllium oxide, and other beryllium compounds. (3) Recommendations for medical monitoring and surveillance of workers exposed (or potentially exposed) to beryllium, based on the best current understanding of beryllium disease and medical diagnostic tests available. (4) Site-specific safety procedures for all processes of beryllium that is

  20. Oil and related toxicant effects on mallard immune defenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocke, T.E.; Yuill, T.M.; Hinsdill, R.D.

    1984-04-01

    A crude oil, a petroleum distillate, and chemically dispersed oil were tested for their effects on resistance to bacterial infection and the immune response in waterfowl. Sublethal oral doses for mallards were determined for South Louisiana crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil a dispersant-Corexit 9527, and oil/Corexit combinations by gizzard intubation. Resistance to bacterial challange (Pasteurella multocida) was significantly lowered in mallards receiving 2.5 or 4.0 ml/kg of Bunker C fuel oil, 4.0 ml/kg of South Louisiana crude oil, and 4.0 ml/kg of a 50:1 Bunker C fuel oil/Corexit mixture daily for 28 days. Ingestion of oil or oil/Corexit mixtures had no effect on mallard antibody-producing capability as measured by the direct spleen plaque-forming assay.

  1. Civil Military Relations and Defense Reform in Poland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaszycki, Marek

    2006-01-01

    .... From the beginning, these changes in the European order included security problems. This paper describes changes in the national security of Poland since 1989 with a focus on the Polish Armed Forces (PAF...

  2. Terahertz Technology for Defense and Security-Related Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof

    :4 MV/cm are reached. A good agreement between two independent methods of eld measurement and a numerical time-domain simulation is shown. Finally, and extensive study of THz radar cross sections (RCS) of scale models of airplanes is carried out. Angle- and frequency-resolved RCS of aircraft ghters F-16...... and F-35 are measured. The scaling law allows for translating THz RCS results to the microwave regime. 2D cross section images of the airplanes are reconstructed. Range resolution of 0.27 mm and cross range resolution of 0.19 mm is reached. Properties of exible absorbing metamaterials for the THz...

  3. Quantitative expression of defense-related genes induced in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    XP LITE

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... plants, the induced Pox activity was observed at 1 das and experimental PMO showed no difference as compared to the control. After inoculation, both presented an increase in the enzymatic activity at 10 das. However, commercial PMO peaked at 6 h after inoculation also on seedlings treated with ASM.

  4. Immune defense in leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Broch, Jens F; Marín, Hermogenes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    -fostering experiment designed to address the influences of genotype and social rearing environment upon individual and social immune defenses. We used a multiply mating leaf-cutting ant, enabling us to test for patriline effects within a colony, as well as cross-colony matriline effects. The worker's father influenced...... social defense, a Pseudonocardia bacteria that helps to control pathogens in the ants' fungus garden, showed a significant colony of origin by rearing environment interaction, whereby ants that acquired the bacteria of a foster colony obtained a less abundant cover of bacteria: one explanation...

  5. Integrating the Department of Defense Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    46.202-4), “Examples of higher-level quality standards are ISO 9001 , 9002, or 9003; ANSI/ ISO /ASQ Q9001-2000; ANSI/ASQC Q9001, Q9002, or Q9003; QS...United States—Armed Forces—Supplies and stores. 2. Logistics —United States. 3. United States. Defense Logistics Agency. 4. United States. Dept. of...Defense—Rules and practice—Evaluation. I. Robbins, Marc. II. McGovern, Geoffrey. III. United States. Deputy Under Secretary of Defense ( Logistics and

  6. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  7. 77 FR 39141 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... 0750-AH39 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium... policies relating to the use of material containing hexavalent chromium. DATES: Effective Date: June 29... environmental risks related to the use of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium is a chemical that has been...

  8. The Development of Defense Mechanisms During the Latency Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2018-02-06

    The developmental period of latency, during middle childhood, has not been previously studied for possible change in the use of defense mechanisms. Using a validated narrative method to assess defenses, the present research examines change in children's defense use during this period. As predicted from theory, there was a significant increase in the use of the defense of Identification. This finding is consistent with theory that posits a shift at this time from defense against anxiety that is based on lack of impulse control to defense that is based on anxiety due to violation of conscience.

  9. 2003 annual report. Information and health, defense, energy; Rapport annuel 2003. Information et sante, defense, energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the 2003 annual report of the French atomic energy commission (CEA). It presents, first, the main highlights of the research activity of the CEA in three domains: the national defense (the Simulation program and the share of the technical means with the scientific community, the nuclear warheads, the nuclear propulsion, the cleansing of the Rhone valley facilities, the monitoring of treaties respect and the fight against proliferation and terrorism; the energy: the researches on nuclear wastes, the optimization of industrial nuclear systems, the innovations devoted to future nuclear systems, the new energy-related technologies, the basic energy research; the technologies devoted to information and health: micro- and nano-technologies, the software technologies, the basic research. It presents also the main research facilities opened to the community of scientific and industrial users, the training activities, partnerships, agreements and the improvements made in the general organization of the CEA: scientific evaluation, planning, optimization, manpower, international relations, communication, risk management, certification, radiation protection and environmental monitoring. The financial data are added at the end of the document. (J.S.)

  10. Defense and Regional Integration: Brazil’s Weapons Industry Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzeley Kalil Mathias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper works with the relation between technological development and weapons industry in Brazil, pointing out the dependence of this to that one. One reveals as the changes in the commerce of armaments that currently privileges the production of small weapons for exportation. The conclusion is that to keep projects of this nature, is using to advantage the industrial park for the dual production, that is, that one takes care the civil and the military demands. At last, it defends the possibility of the defense industry works as mechanism of regional integration.

  11. Knowledge Loss: A Defensive Model In Nuclear Research Organization Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Bin Sulaiman; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is an essential part of research based organization. It should be properly managed to ensure that any pitfalls of knowledge retention due to knowledge loss of both tacit and explicit is mitigated. Audit of the knowledge entities exist in the organization is important to identify the size of critical knowledge. It is very much related to how much know-what, know-how and know-why experts exist in the organization. This study conceptually proposed a defensive model for Nuclear Malaysia's organization memory and application of Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment (KLRA) as an important tool for critical knowledge identification. (author)

  12. Does the War Powers Act Provide for the Common Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-11

    watchword of all parties.’P 15 ( Montesquieu was another leading influence on the Framers and Ratifiers of the Constitution. In The Spirit of Laws... Montesquieu discussed law in relation to both defensive and offensive force. OThe life of governments is like that of man. The latter has the right to kill in...198. 20. Ibid., p. 212. 21. Ibid., p. 253. 22. Ibid., p. 254-255. 23. Montesquieu , The Spirit of Laws, trans. Thomas Nugent, rev. J.V. Prichard, v. 38

  13. Reactions to threat and personality: psychometric differentiation of intensity and direction dimensions of human defensive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Adam M; Corr, Philip J

    2006-04-25

    Gray and McNaughton [Gray JA, McNaughton N. The neuropsychology of anxiety. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2000] predict that fear is associated with orientation away from threat whereas anxiety is associated with orientation towards threat; this first dimension of 'defensive direction' is independent of a second dimension of 'defensive intensity'. Defensive reactions were measured using a threat scenario questionnaire developed by Blanchard et al. [Blanchard DC, Hynd AL, Minke KA, Minemoto T, Blanchard RJ. Human defensive behaviours to threat scenarios show parallels to fear- and anxiety-related defence patterns of non-human mammals. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2001;25:761-70] who found that responses paralleled the defensive reactions of rodents faced with real threats. In a sample of 141 participants we replicated Blanchard et al.'s findings as well as confirming the Gray and McNaughton hypotheses. As predicted, trait anxiety was associated with a tendency to orientate towards threat. In addition, the personality trait of psychoticism (tough-mindedness) was related to defensive intensity with low scorers on psychoticism being more sensitive to threat in general and high scorers being more threat insensitive. A well-established personality measure of general punishment sensitivity, namely the Carver and White [Carver CS, White TL. Behavioural inhibition, behavioural activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales. J Pers Soc Psychol 1994;67:319-33] BIS scale, was positively correlated with both defensive intensity and direction. These data indicate that the threat scenario questionnaire has some validity as a measure of human reactions to threat.

  14. Carbon limitation reveals allocation priority to defense compounds in peppermint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkelova, Lenka; Unsicker, Sybille; Forkel, Matthias; Huang, Jianbei; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    after the start of treatments and after the onset of the 13CO2 labelling. Under the control treatment (W+CO2) the relative proportion of new carbon in the four carbon sinks was very similar whereas under the three stress treatments (D+CO2, W-CO2, D-CO2) new carbon was preferentially invested into terpenoid defense compounds. This indicates that also under abiotic stress plants need to invest carbon into defense and so protect immature leaf tissue to secure long-term photosynthetic activity (Massad et al., 2014). Even though the concentration of water soluble sugars under both low [CO2] treatments dramatically dropped, concentration of terpenoid compounds correspondingly change only under the combination of drought and low [CO2] (D-CO2), which was the harshest treatment. Drought alone (D+CO2) caused high investment of old carbon and concentration increase of water soluble sugars as well as starch compared to other treatments. This carbohydrates increase could be explained by the use of water soluble sugars as osmoprotectants (Dichio et al.,2009) and by the fast growth decline as the main carbon sink (Muller et al., 2011).

  15. Managing Change: Converting the Defense Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    America’s historical opposition to central planning. This research paper explores the issue from the perspective of commercial firms’ strategic planning...Executive Office of the President. This research paper concludes that the defense conversion effort is actually a transition which isn’t

  16. Rape aggression defense and workplace violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sarah Steelman

    2012-01-01

    An R.A.D. Basic Physical Defense program for women employees, launched by a health system's corporate security department, has proven to be a popular low cost method of workplace violence prevention, according to the author, one of the program's instructors. The initial investment in equipment and certification is negligible compared to the benefits and potential benefits it brings, she reports.

  17. Structural evaluation of multifunctional flood defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Flood risk reduction aims to minimize losses in low-lying areas. One of the ways to reduce flood risks is to protect land by means of flood defenses. The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood protection and, therefore, a wide variety of technical reports written

  18. Role of advanced technologies in strategic defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1988-10-01

    This report discusses the role of advanced technologies in strategic defense and reviews the threats, the proposed solutions, the risks involved in implementing the solutions, and the roles advanced technologies could play in reducing the risks. Although current technologies could address nominal threats, advanced technologies would be required for increased threats. 34 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Spiegeleire, Stephan; Maas, Matthijs Michiel; Sweijs, Tim

    . The report contains an overview of the role that ‘intelligence’ - the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world - has played in defense and security throughout human history; a primer on AI (what it is, where it comes from and where it stands today - in both civilian and military...

  20. DETERMINATION OF DEFENSE MECHANISM IN Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Field studies were conducted to determine the role of defense mechanism in various parameters associated with plant protection subjected to UV-B radiation in Phaseolus trilobus Ait. commonly used as green manure and fodder. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that UV-B radiation decreases the chlorophyll content ...

  1. Non-Traditional Commercial Defense Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    capabilities as a “poison pill ” to make it more difficult to be bought by a foreign company? The need to obtain security clearances was another barrier to...reports. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ smart /ppcp97c1.htm Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). (2002, April 5). Mandatory

  2. Biotech Business Lessons for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    swing the pendulum . Since establishing the current structure during the McNamara era, the four or five large-scale reforms have failed. Sadly, defense...replaced the buggy; the mobile phone supplanted Ma Bell; and petroleum displaced whale oil. Revolution is more likely in such an environment than the

  3. Defense Primer: A Guide for New Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    2 Regular Military Compensation ...Military Compensation CRS In Focus IF10532, Defense Primer: Regular Military Compensation , by Lawrence Kapp Military Pay Raise CRS In Focus...Specialist on Congress and the Legislative Process vheitshusen@crs.loc.gov, 7-8635 Kristy N. Kamarck Analyst in Military Manpower kkamarck@crs.loc.gov

  4. Does reproduction compromise defense in woody plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Herms; William J. Mattson

    1991-01-01

    A general principle of adaptive allocation was proposed by Cody (1966) who hypothesized that 1) all living organisms have finite resources to partition among growth and competing physiological processes such as reproduction and defense; and 2) natural selection results in the evolution of unique resource allocation patterns that maximize fitness in different...

  5. 77 FR 59404 - Food Defense; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Food Defense; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office of Regulatory...), Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center (FAPC), is announcing a public workshop entitled...

  6. British Defense Policy: A New Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-14

    by the 15th century. It was soon to be followed by the discovery of the New World, Newfoundland fishing areas, and sea routes to the Far East during... Zanzibar , Borneo, Tanganyika, 65 Uganda, Mauritus, Malaya and Korea. 13 Defense spending actually reflected the ambitious nature of the British pursuit of

  7. COMPETITIVENESS OF DEFENSE INDUSTRY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki BILGEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has created some opportunities for the organisations in the defense industry to generate a suitable business and to ensure its sustainability. The domestic coverage ratio of defense system need in 2010 is aimed as 50%. To achieve this target depends on the defense industry competitiveness. In this study, the development plans, strategies and foreign trade are examined. Its contribution which has an important place in the research and development investment, is not at the level expected in Turkey’s economy. Turkey occupies 47th position in World Competitiveness Scoreboard, and 61st position in Global Competitiveness Index in 2009. The index factors are investigated to understand the competitiveness according to the Porter’s diamond model, applied in Turkey for the first time. As a result, the competitiveness analysis of Turkish defense industry is carried out and its global place and competitive advantage are exposed. Therefore, a framework is made to introduce a guide for decision-making by using a widely-accepted model, and to contribute to the plans and strategies

  8. Defense Acquisition Structures and Capabilities Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    McWilliams, Department POC C-4 Stephen Miller Capt Andrew Rozek Kevin Slone Brian Shannon LtCol Michelle Trigg Grace Yang U.S. Special...Acquisition Executive, Defense Threat Reduction Agency Durante , Blaise, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisi- tion Integration

  9. Assessment of Department of Defense reinvention laboratories.

    OpenAIRE

    Gosnell, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines improvements in business practices accomplished by Department of Defense (DOD) Reinvention Laboratories. DOD goals for the National Performance Review and accomplishments are analyzed. DOD incorporation of entrepreneurial government ideas of restructuring, reengineering, reinventing realigning, and rethinking are evaluated. Over $16.4 billion in financial savings achieved through increased efficiency are described....

  10. Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    Include Security Clasification ) (U) Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Bjornson, A. B., Bjornson...the course of bacterial and viral infec- tions. Infect. Immun. 30:824-831. 25. Zimmerli, W., B. Seligmann, and J. I. Gallin. 1986. Exudation primes

  11. 29 CFR 1630.15 - Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discrimination under this part may include, but are not limited to, the following: (a) Disparate treatment... defense to a charge of discrimination, as described in § 1630.10, that an alleged application of... safety of the individual or others in the workplace. (See § 1630.2(r) defining direct threat.) (c) Other...

  12. Upper Airway Control in Airway Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliacek I

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Upper airways (UA are an organic component of the respiratory tract, they serve to respiration, respiratory tract protection and defense, phonation, deglutition, etc. The functions of UA are regulated by motor control of the oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles.

  13. Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Brian T. Smith, Roxanna T. Sun, Bruce H. Thomas, Oziel A. Trevino, and Alyssa Weir. The following primary staff were responsible for individual...ATOR) Erin E. Preston , Sean E. Manzano Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Maria A. Durant, John M. Ortiz Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile

  14. Schools Enlisting Defense Industry to Boost STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Defense contractors Northrop Grumman Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. are joining forces in an innovative partnership to develop high-tech simulations to boost STEM--or science, technology, engineering, and mathematics--education in the Baltimore County schools. The Baltimore County partnership includes the local operations of two major military…

  15. The Defense of Henderson Field, Guadalcanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    Combat Training Squadron, Creech Air Force Base, Nevada , where I will instruct airbase defense. In Memory Of Corporal Daniel J, Filler, United...intelligence. 22 / 4 The living conditions on Guadalcanal were extremely harsh throughout the campaign due to the near constant combat, hunger from lack of

  16. Langerhans cells in innate defense against pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2010-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are at the frontline in defense against mucosal infections because they line the mucosal tissues and are ideally situated to intercept pathogens. Recent data suggest that LCs have an innate anti-HIV-1 function. LCs express the LC-specific C-type lectin Langerin that

  17. Innate host defense against intracellular pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, Michiel van der

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the recognition of pathogenic bacteria and the defense mechanisms that are activated during the innate immune response to infection. Detection of pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, depends on receptors that bind to evolutionary conserved structures on their

  18. Pathogen Pressure Puts Immune Defense into Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, Nicholas P. C.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which organisms can protect themselves from disease depends on both the immune defenses they maintain and the pathogens they face. At the same time, immune systems are shaped by the antigens they encounter, both over ecological and evolutionary time. Ecological immunologists often

  19. Pathogen pressure puts immune defense into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, N.P.C.; Matson, K.D.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which organisms can protect themselves from disease depends on both the immune defenses they maintain and the pathogens they face. At the same time, immune systems are shaped by the antigens they encounter, both over ecological and evolutionary time. Ecological immunologists often

  20. Robust Defense Against Small Boat Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Factors 24 Non-controllable Factors Fixed / Variable Levels Weather Fixed Fair weather Sea-State Fixed Benign (0 to 1) Environ- mental Shipping...McIntosh, G. C., Galligan, D. P., Anderson, M. A., & Lauren, M. K. (2007). MANA user’s manual. Defense Technology Agency, Auckland , New Zealand. Naval