Emergent Computation is concerned with recent applications of Mathematical Linguistics or Automata Theory. This subject has a primary focus upon "Bioinformatics" (the Genome and arising interest in the Proteome), but the closing chapter also examines applications in Biology, Medicine, Anthropology, etc. The book is composed of an organized examination of DNA, RNA, and the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Rather than examine these areas from a purely mathematical viewpoint (that excludes much of the biochemical reality), the author uses scientific papers written mostly by biochemists based upon their laboratory observations. Thus while DNA may exist in its double stranded form, triple stranded forms are not excluded. Similarly, while bases exist in Watson-Crick complements, mismatched bases and abasic pairs are not excluded, nor are Hoogsteen bonds. Just as there are four bases naturally found in DNA, the existence of additional bases is not ignored, nor amino acids in addition to the usual complement of...
The chapters in this Volume 7 of a series of PAPERS are based on papers published in the period 2004 - 2008 authored/co-authored by Palle Thoft-Christensen......The chapters in this Volume 7 of a series of PAPERS are based on papers published in the period 2004 - 2008 authored/co-authored by Palle Thoft-Christensen...
Denham, D.H.; Kathren, R.L.
This paper explores the changing emphases in health physics as evidenced by the subject matter of published papers in four primary English language journals of interest to health physicists. Articles from each journal were first grouped by subject and date of publication and were then compiled according to the list of professional domains practiced by health physicists. Five domains of practice were examined, measurements including dosimetry and environmental monitoring; regulations and standards; facilities and equipment including shielding, ventilation, and instrumentation; operations and procedures; and education and training. 2 tabs
Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis
This paper argues that in teaching educational psychology, different experts often compartmentalize theories in substantially different ways, and there is considerable disagreement within the field regarding the dividing lines that separate various "isms." The four main "isms" (behaviorism, information processing theory, constructivism, and social…
Dinerstein, H. L.
The ability to communicate effectively, both in oral and written form, is crucial for success in almost any career path. Furthermore, being able to effectively communicate information requires a high level of conceptual mastery of the material. For these reasons, I have incorporated practice in communication into courses at a variety of levels, ranging from non-science-major undergraduate courses to graduate courses. I briefly describe the content of these courses, particularly the communication-related component. The first, Ast 309N, ``Astronomy Bizarre: Stars and Stellar Evolution," is an elective which follows one semester of general introductory astronomy for non-majors. Instead of homework problems, the students complete a sequence of writing assignments of graduated complexity, beginning with simple tasks such as writing abstracts and critiques of assigned readings, and moving on to writing term papers which require literature research and a short science fiction story incorporating accurate depictions of relativistic effects. In Ast 175/275, a ``Journal Club" course for upper-division astronomy majors, students read articles in the professional literature and give short oral presentations to the rest of the class. To build up their understanding of a topic, we work through the ``paper trail" of key papers on topics with exciting recent developments, such as extrasolar planets, gravitational lenses, or gamma-ray bursts. Finally, in a seminar course for first-semester astronomy graduate students (Ast 185C) that broadly addresses professional development issues, I include a practice AAS oral session, with the students giving 5-minute presentations on a journal paper of their choice. This seminar course also examines career paths and employment trends, the peer review process for papers and proposals, professional norms and ethics, and other topics. Syllabi for these and other courses I teach regularly can be found from my home page (http://www.as.utexas.edu/astronomy/people/dinerstein).
Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD is one of the most important diseases of cattle responsible for major economic losses in dairy industries of Iran. So far, no nationwide program has been taken in Iran to control and eradicate the disease. Moreover, until now, no vaccination program has been practiced against BVD in Iran, although the disease is prevailing in the country. For effective controlling of BVD, it is necessary to cull the affected animals, and new entry of BVD in the farm should be prevented. Focusing on biosecurity in systematic control programs of BVD can also reduce the risks of introduction and spread of other epizootic and zoonotic diseases, thereby improving both cattle health and welfare in general. In this review paper, an overview on BVD emphasizing on Iran perspective has been discussed focusing on clinical manifestations of BVD, routes of transmission of BVD virus (BVDV, its diagnostic methods and possible prevention strategies. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 240-251
Amir Saleh Masoomi
Full Text Available Â Abstract Â In this paper, the use of two different linguistic tools in Arabic language, i.e. Metonymy and Emphasis combined in form of " Emphasizing Metonymy " has been studied . Metonymy, in the tradition of Arabic linguistics, is defined as "the use of a word in the meaning other than the prime meaning for which the word was coined". Using the metonymy has certain requirements; one of them is the existence of sign or marker ( Ø§ÙÙØ±ÛÙÚ in the text. The function of the sign is to inform reader of word's new use in the meaning other than the prime meaning. In the other words , its function is to prevent understanding the true meaning from the word used in the metonymic meaning. The sign conceptually is related to metonymic meaning and incompatible with true meaning ; so, if the reader wants to consider concept of sign and true meaning of word beside each other, he certainly faces conceptual tension . Thus, he has no way but interpreting the word in its metonymic meaning and here, he finds the metonymic use of the word out. Â The Muslim linguists have introduced two general types of sign: "verbal sign" and "contextual sign" ( Ø§ÙÙØ±ÛÙÙ Ø§ÙÙÙØ¸ÛÙ ÙØ§ÙÙØ±ÛÙÙ Ø§ÙÙ ÙØ§Ù ÛÙ . The verbal sign is the one seen among the words used in the text and the contextual sign is the one gained from the context. Of these tow, the fist one has more power to determine metonymic meaning, so that if the reader doesn't find it in the text, he can interpret the word in its true meaning. But, in the other hand, due to the extensive and abundant use of metonymy in Arabic, especially in the literary texts, it could be expected to find the metonymic words almost in all sentences, even though there is no verbal sign. In fact, this is because it's likely to be found the contextual sign for metonymic meaning in the text. Since the contextual signs, in contrary to verbal
This is an interim report presented by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Committee of the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission to recommend adequate policy lines in each field of fuel cycle. As for the procurement of natural uranium, advises are given for both state authorities and for private companies (including electric utilities) on the basis of the ''develop-and-import'' policy. As for the procurement of enriched uranium, the urgency of the development of enrichment techniques and plants is emphasized together with the important role of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). As for reprocessing, it is confirmed that the construction and operation of the second reprocessing plant should be undertaken by private interests. The state authorities are advised to undertake revisions of the relevant laws, regulations, and standards. As for plutonium recycle, the demonstration of the use of plutonium with Fugen type heavy water reactors, as well as light water reactors is encouraged. As for the radiative waste disposal, advices associated with experimental ocean dumping, solidification, storage, and geological disposal are given. Finally, as for spent fuel transportation, problems associate with the physical protection and the safety of spent fuel transportation are treated. (Aoki, K.)
Hannah, John; Stewart, Sepideh; Thomas, Mike
Linear algebra with its rich theoretical nature is a first step towards advanced mathematical thinking for many undergraduate students. In this paper, we consider the teaching approach of an experienced mathematician as he attempts to engage his students with the key ideas embedded in a second-year course in linear algebra. We describe his…
Yest, Michael T.; Grant, Kelly A.
This paper introduces a unique project to faculty seeking an interdisciplinary activity that exposes students to the necessary art of persuasive communication in the field of finance. Specifically, we have designed a multi-stage simulation in which undergraduate business students apply both finance and communication skills, specifically…
Jensen, Lars Peter
in these programmes are often very motivated and they follow the flipped instructions and read the suggested material, but do they also use their study group and experience peer learning? This question is investigated in this paper using one semester in the 2-year part-time programme: Master in Problem Based Learning...
Harper, Kathleen A.
This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.
Full Text Available As result of the convergence of computers and mobile phones, Android comes with the great opportunity of implementing personal mobile applications in a Java language environment. The paper presents two main aspects concerning the new age of programming. The first aspect refers to the existing library of applications in economic domain. The paper extracts the most useful financial and business apps that run on Android smart-phones. The second aspect presents an example of building an economic application using one of Android’s various IDEs (Integrated Development Environments: Android Studio. The developed app calculates the prognosis of a business size starting from known statistic data sets and evaluates the effort of the business implementation, using the linear regression method. The app differs from other Android applications by the explicit answers that result from the regression calculus
Minelle Enéas da Silva
Full Text Available From sustainability perspective, the supply chain management strategy can use different indicators related to Triple Bottom Line to improve its practices. Some studies in the topic have focused only environmental issues; however in some cases the social issues should be considered as a core of the sustainable strategies. Considering this view, the paper aims to highlight the relevance of social issues in the Brazilian context toward sustainable supply chain. Therefore, a theoretical essay was conducted using the literature about sustainable supply chain in relation to the Brazilian perspective to understand how it is possible to use new approaches for a more emphasis on social issues. The discussions indicates that to re-conceptualize the social relations in supply chains, it's necessary to use corporate social responsibility and social capital approaches to create a better discussion about sustainable supply chain. The proposal starts a discussion in the Brazilian context to stimulate new scholars to study this topic.
This thesis analyzes transmission pricing, transmission congestion risks and their associated hedging instruments as well as mechanisms for stimulating investments in transmission expansion. An example of risk management in the case of a hydropower producer is included. After liberalization and restructuring of electricity markets, risk management has become important. In particular the thesis analyzes risks due to transmission congestion both in the short- and long-term (investments) for market players such as generators, loads, traders, independent system operators and merchant investors. The work is focused on the northeastern United States electricity markets and the Nordic electricity markets. The first part of the thesis reviews the literature related to the eight research papers in the thesis. This describes the risks that are relevant for an electricity market player and how these can be managed. Next, the basic ingredients of a competitive electricity market are described including the design of the system operator. The transmission pricing method is decisive for hedging against transmission congestion risks and there is an overview of transmission pricing models considering their similarities and differences. Depending on the transmission pricing method used, locational or area (zonal) pricing, the electricity market players can use financial transmission rights or Contracts for Differences, respectively. In the long-term it is important to create mechanisms for investments in transmission expansion and the thesis describes one possible approach and its potential problems. The second part comprises eight research papers. It presents empirical analyses of existing markets for transmission congestion derivatives, theoretical analyses of transmission congestion derivatives, modeling of merchant long-term financial transmission rights, theoretical analysis of the risks of the independent system operator in providing financial transmission rights, an analysis
Mi Jeong Kim
Full Text Available The effectiveness of visual displays has often been linked to the sense of presence embodied by immersive visualization. However, efforts analyzing how presence is associated with multi-users’ quality of communication, including visualization capabilities to assist in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC, are still unfolding. This research is an exploratory study on social interaction, which aims to improve the presentation and communication of complex data through immersive simulation techniques. This paper reviews key concepts such as presence and immersion to identify factors that influence communication in the representative literature. It then introduces the Hub for Immersive Visualization and eResearch (HIVE with a focus on the technological components. Finally it presents a conceptual framework of immersive shared environment, which enables multi-users to understand how to implement social interaction in a system efficiently or to determine whether a visualization system could support communication effectively. Future studies to validate the proposed framework are discussed, particularly in the context of cognitive factors in a shared environment.
The Kronig-Penney problem is a textbook example for discussing band dispersions and band gap formation in periodic layered media. For example, in photonic crystals, the behaviour of bands next to the band edges is important for further discussions of such effects as inhibited light emission, slow light and negative index of refraction. However, the standard Kronig-Penney equation does not explicitly state the band edge conditions. This paper derives a new solution for the Kronig-Penney problem that explicitly displays the band edge conditions as well as contains all other essential physics of band formation. Therefore, the present exposition should show the student that the band edge conditions are not simply special cases of the familiar Kronig-Penney equation but, instead, are an integral part of the band theory. For the computationally minded student, the new equation is particularly convenient for calculating the positions of closely spaced band edges. The present results can be taught alongside the Kronig-Penney equation in advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate quantum mechanics, solid state theory and photonics courses dealing with wave propagation through periodic layered media
Kjølle, G.H.; Utne, I.B.; Gjerde, O.
Failures in critical infrastructures can cause major damage to society. Wide-area interruptions (blackouts) in the electricity supply system have severe impacts on societal critical functions and other critical infrastructures, but there is no agreed-upon framework on how to analyze and predict the reliability of electricity supply. Thus, there is a need for an approach to cross-sector risk analyses, which facilitates risk analysis of outages in the electricity supply system and enables investigation of cascading failures and consequences in other infrastructures. This paper presents such an approach, which includes contingency analysis (power flow) and reliability analysis of power systems, as well as use of a cascade diagram for investigating interdependencies. A case study was carried out together with the Emergency Preparedness Group in the city of Oslo, Norway and the network company Hafslund Nett. The case study results highlight the need for cross-sector analyses by showing that the total estimated societal costs are substantially higher when cascading effects and consequences to other infrastructures are taken into account compared to only considering the costs of electricity interruptions as seen by the network company. The approach is a promising starting point for cross-sector risk analysis of electricity supply interruptions and consequences for dependent infrastructures.
Macko, S. A.; O'Connell, M. T.
Sustainability awareness is increasingly a subject in educational settings. Marine science classes are perfect settings of establishing sustainability awareness owing to declining populations of organisms and perceived collapse in fisheries worldwide. Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (18 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This approach, to use a field basis for a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and laboratories. In addition, short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture. Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for travel to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and NOAA) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local stores, or larger city markets in Washington, Baltimore and Virginia Beach and International distribution centers, enhanced the understanding of productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of sustainability with discussions on ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the
Brand, Judith, Ed.
Exploratorium Magazine communicates ideas that exhibits cannot easily demonstrate, extending the museum beyond its physical walls. This issue takes an in-depth look at the science and history of paper. Topics include: (1) Fascinating Facts about Paper; (2) A Closer Look at the Paper in This Magazine; (3) Handmade Paper; (4) Paper Airplanes; (5)…
The purpose of the study is the learning using research as a base. To strengthen the skills of classroom research Emphasizing Data Analysis and Result and to study the development of research skills in the class Emphasizing Data Analysis and Result of SSRU' Students by learning using research base. The target group are students in the 2nd semester…
Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine
With this special issue of Seismograf we are happy to present a new format of articles: Audio Papers. Audio papers resemble the regular essay or the academic text in that they deal with a certain topic of interest, but presented in the form of an audio production. The audio paper is an extension...
Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald
Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Greene, Lisa A.
Describes how to create paper cuts and suggests the most appropriate materials for young children that give good quality results. Describes the methods the author, a professional artist, uses to assemble her own paper cuts and how these can be adopted by older students. (KM)
Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester
Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mossack Fonseca kept its clients largely on the right side of the law. Indeed, that’s entirely the point. This article for The Atlantic draws on my wealth management research to explain why most of what is revealed in the Panama Papers leak will not result in criminal prosecution for anyone...
In this paper, however, I argue for a different kind of approach, one which holds that there is a useful distinction to be drawn between the metaphysical and epistemological aspects of singular terms. This approach not only avoids the problems faced by alternative accounts but also coheres well with how ordinary speakers ...
Philosophical Papers is a generalist journal of philosophy edited in the Department of Philosophy at Rhodes University. The journal appears three times a year; the November issue of every year is topic-based and guest-edited. The journal is published by Routledge (Taylor & Francis). Information regarding submissions ...
The other minds skeptic supposes there may be no minds other than his. The external world skeptic thinks there could be no world external to him. Some philosophers think a person can refute the skeptic and prove that his world is not the solitary scenario the skeptic supposes his could be. In this paper I examine one ...
A collection of papers, previously published in the New Scientist between September 1980 and January 1983, dealing with the pressurised water reactor and in particular the proposal by CEGB to build a PWR at Sizewell, Suffolk, is presented. The individual papers are entitled: American reactors are wrong for Britain; Britain's first pressurised-water reactor; a test bed for nuclear safety; the pressure on nuclear safety; Suffolk - a soft touch for PWRs; why Britain needs a PWR; critical time for Sizewell's reactor; why Britain does not need a PWR; a reactor designed for Sizewell; a case not proven; lessons from Three Mile Island; how France went nuclear; an environmentalist's case for the Sizewell PWR. (U.K.)
Heitman, J. L.; Vepraskas, M. J.
Mass-volume relationships are a useful tool emphasized for problem solving in many geo-science and engineering applications. These relationships also have useful applications in soil science. Developing soils students' ability to utilize mass-volume relationships through schematic diagrams of soil phases (i.e., air, water, and solid) can help to…
Stahl, R. [Scheuchl GmbH, Ortenburg (Germany); Prechtl, S. [Applikations- und Technikzentrum fuer Energieverfahrens-, Umwelt- und Stroemungstechnik (ATZ-EVUS), Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)
This paper presents a processing method which consists in thermal hydrolysis and subsequent anaerobic fermentation and is especially well suited for wet, low-structure organic wastes. [German] Das vorgestellte Verwertungsverfahren bestehend aus thermischer Hydrolyse und anschliessender anaerober Vergaerung eignet sich besonders fuer nasse, strukturarme organische Abfaelle. (orig.)
Elgot, Calvin C
Cal Elgot was a very serious and thoughtful researcher, who with great determi nation attempted to find basic explanations for certain mathematical phenomena as the selection of papers in this volume well illustrate. His approach was, for the most part, rather finitist and constructivist, and he was inevitably drawn to studies of the process of computation. It seems to me that his early work on decision problems relating automata and logic, starting with his thesis under Roger Lyndon and continuing with joint work with Biichi, Wright, Copi, Rutledge, Mezei, and then later with Rabin, set the stage for his attack on the theory of computation through the abstract treatment of the notion of a machine. This is also apparent in his joint work with A. Robinson reproduced here and in his joint papers with John Shepherdson. Of course in the light of subsequent work on decision problems by Biichi, Rabin, Shelah, and many, many others, the subject has been placed on a completely different plane from what it was whe...
Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhong, Nanbert
The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling are all different with those in old models. In the psychotherapeutic model, genetic counseling will not only focus on counselees' genetic disorders and birth defects, but also their psychological problems. "Client-centered therapy" termed by Carl Rogers plays an important role in genetic counseling process. The basic procedures of psychotherapeutic model of genetic counseling include 7 steps: initial contact, introduction, agendas, inquiry of family history, presenting information, closing the session and follow-up.
Nicholson, Robert A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Lapka, Christina; Wellborn, Rachel; Clark, Eddie M.; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta; Jacobsen, Heather M.; Casey, Chris
Little is known about how minority groups react to public information that highlights racial disparities in cancer. This double-blind randomized study compared emotional and behavioral reactions to four versions of the same colon cancer (CRC) information presented in mock news articles to a community sample of African-American adults (n = 300). Participants read one of four articles that varied in their framing and interpretation of race-specific CRC mortality data, emphasizing impact (CRC is...
A total of 18 papers were presented at the 2003 Annual Executive Conference of the Canadian Gas Association held at St. Andrews, NB, from June 25th to June 28th. Titles of the presentations were as follows: (1) 'Positioning natural gas in a transforming world' by Pierre Marcel Desjardins; (2) 'Positioning natural gas in a transforming world' by Jean-Paul Theoret; (3) 'Perceptions of natural gas' by Noel Sampson; (4) 'Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry' by Peter Love; (5) 'Natural gas R and D - NRCan perspective' by Graham R. Campbell; (6) 'Impact of earned media on corporate perceptions in the gas industry' by Michael Coates; (7) 'Moving forward with an initiative for natural gas technology innovation' by Emmanuel Morin; (8) 'Natural gas R and D - No more dodging the issue' by Chuck Szmurlo; (9) 'Meeting the technology needs of the gas industry and the gas consumer' by Stanley S. Borys; (10) 'Market signals' by John Wellard; (11) 'Future sources of Canadian natural gas' by Rick Hyndman; (12) 'The state of supply: Northeast U.S. perspective' by Tom Kiley; (13) 'AGA's priorities and perspectives' by Dick Reiten; (14) 'Global energy issues: Recent development in policy and business' by Gerald Doucet; (15) 'Keeping the distribution cart behind the horse: Why finding more offshore gas is much more important than completing the natural gas grid, including for New Brunswick' by Brian Lee Crowley; (16) 'Environmental opportunities and challenges for the gas industry' by Manfred Klein; (17) 'The potential for natural gas demand destruction' by Timothy Partridge; and (18) 'Pushing the envelope on gas supply' by Roland R. George. In most instances only speaking notes and view graphs are available
U.S. president Barack Obama emphasized innovation and competitiveness in his State of the Union address on 25 January. He also raised science and technology early in the hour-long speech, noting that nations like China and India are focusing on math and science education and investing in research and technology. To be competitive with those countries, “we need to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world,” Obama said. “The first step in winning the future is encouraging American innovation.”
Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M
Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Harrington, Jesse R; Boski, Pawel; Gelfand, Michele J
Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates), worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes) and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability). This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation.
Jesse R Harrington
Full Text Available Throughout history and within numerous disciplines, there exists a perennial debate about how societies should best be organized. Should they emphasize individual freedom and autonomy or security and constraint? Contrary to proponents who tout the benefits of one over the other, we demonstrate across 32 nations that both freedom and constraint exhibit a curvilinear relationship with many indicators of societal well-being. Relative to moderate nations, very permissive and very constrained nations exhibit worse psychosocial outcomes (lower happiness, greater dysthymia, higher suicide rates, worse health outcomes (lower life expectancy, greater mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and diabetes and poorer economic and political outcomes (lower gross domestic product per capita, greater risk for political instability. This supports the notion that a balance between freedom and constraint results in the best national outcomes. Accordingly, it is time to shift the debate away from either constraint or freedom and focus on both in moderation.
Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei
In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.
Nicholson, Robert A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Lapka, Christina; Wellborn, Rachel; Clark, Eddie M; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta; Jacobsen, Heather M; Casey, Chris
Little is known about how minority groups react to public information that highlights racial disparities in cancer. This double-blind randomized study compared emotional and behavioral reactions to four versions of the same colon cancer (CRC) information presented in mock news articles to a community sample of African-American adults (n = 300). Participants read one of four articles that varied in their framing and interpretation of race-specific CRC mortality data, emphasizing impact (CRC is an important problem for African-Americans), two dimensions of disparity (Blacks are doing worse than Whites and Blacks are improving, but less than Whites), or progress (Blacks are improving over time). Participants exposed to disparity articles reported more negative emotional reactions to the information and were less likely to want to be screened for CRC than those in other groups (both P emotional reactions and participants were more likely to want to be screened. Moreover, negative emotional reaction seemed to mediate the influence of message type on individuals wanting to be screened for CRC. Overall, these results suggest that the way in which disparity research is reported in the medium can influence public attitudes and intentions, with reports about progress yielding a more positive effect on intention. This seems especially important among those with high levels of medical mistrust who are least likely to use the health care system and are thus the primary target of health promotion advertising.
Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul; Khairiyah Basri, Nur; Asmah Hassan, Sitti
Transportation is one of the sectors that contributes to the Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions. In terms of carbon footprint, transportation is among the major contributors of high carbon intensity in the urban area. This study was conducted to reduce the carbon footprint contributed by the transportation sector in Penang Island by emphasizing the use of public buses. Secondary school students were the target group for this study. They were asked to report their daily travel behaviour and fuel consumption in a travel journal. The fuel consumption data from the travel journal were used to calculate each individual’s carbon emission level. After the analyses, the value of carbon emissions was revealed to the students. Next, they were encouraged to use public transport in a motivation session and were asked to record their fuel consumption in the travel journal once again. The results showed that there was a significant difference in fuel consumption before and after the motivation session, as the students preferred to use public buses instead of private vehicles after the motivation session. This indicates that the motivation programme had been successful in creating the awareness towards carbon footprint reduction among the adolescents.
Du, Xu; Hao, Jian
Specific emotions, especially guilt, are considered to facilitate children's prosocial behavior. The current study differentiated moral stories with a helping theme in terms of the valence and source of emotions and aimed to clarify the effect of these stories on preschoolers' helping intentions and behavior. A total of 322 preschoolers between 4 and 6 years old were randomly assigned to four experimental groups and one control group. A specific type of moral story was presented to each of the experimental groups, whereas a nonmoral story was presented to the control group. The preschoolers were also asked to answer relevant questions to examine their story comprehension. The preschoolers' donating intentions and behavior were then measured. The results showed that all the experimental groups expressed more donating intentions than the control group. However, only the group that read the moral story emphasizing the actor's negative emotions toward his nonhelping behavior displayed more donating behavior than the control group. Therefore, the current study reveals that various moral stories dealing with a helping theme can facilitate helping intentions among preschoolers and that only certain stories can promote their helping behavior. Thus, it indicates the specificity of moral stories that facilitate prosocial behavior in terms of the valence and source of emotions in those stories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seaward, B L
Many hospitals, corporations, and communities have developed wellness programs to help people maintain a healthy life-style. Today's wellness doctrine reflects modern medical thinking that, to achieve optimal human potential, a person must enjoy physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Most wellness programs, however, concentrate on the physical; few take into account spiritual well-being. Wellness programs developed by the Boulder County YMCA, Longmont, CO, and the University of Maryland, College Park, were based on an interpretation of a model suggested by Carl Jung that defines spirituality as the development of self-reliance. According to Jung, the constituents of self-reliance include awareness, inner faith, self-worth, humility, patience, acceptance, and self-confidence. He suggested that the absence of any one of these could cause a breakdown in a person's belief system and lead to a spiritual crisis. These programs trained participants to recognize the importance of their spiritual well-being and to find practical ways to improve it. Key components were a stress management course; workshops in confidence building and values clarification; and classes, lectures, and workshops that emphasize the integration of spiritual and physical well-being.
Li, Hongying; Liao, Bo; Xiong, Juan; Zhou, Xingwang; Zhi, Huozhen; Liu, Xiang; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan
Electrochemically active biofilm is necessary for the electron transfer between bacteria and anodic electrode in microbial fuel cells and selecting the type of anodic electrode material that favours formation of electrochemically active biofilm is crucial for the microbial fuel cell operation. We report a new finding that the interaction of anodic binder with bacteria plays more important role than its hydrophilicity for forming an electrochemically active biofilm, which is emphasized by applying poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin) as an anodic binder of the microbial fuel cell based on carbon nanotubes as anodic electrode and Escherichia coli as bacterium. The physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements demonstrate that poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin) exhibits a strong interaction with bacteria and thus provides the microbial fuel cell with excellent power density output. The MFC using poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin) reaches a maximum power density output of 3.8 W m-2. This value is larger than that of the MFCs using polytetrafluoroethylene that has poorer hydrophilicity, or polyvinyl alcohol that has better hydrophilicity but exhibits weaker interaction with bacteria than poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin).
Jouffroy, Jerome; Lottin, Jacques
The importance of control laboratory courses is widely recognized as a crucial part of control education. This paper addresses the role of interdisciplinarity (meaning the different aspects of control) in laboratory courses for undergraduate students. Explanations and ideas are given based....... After running the simulation of the system, qualitative results are described. Finally, some remarks are given to conclude the paper....
Sandra Cristina de Oliveira
Full Text Available A scientific co-authorship network may be modeled by a graph G composed of k nodes and m edges. Researchers that make up this network may be interpreted as its nodes and the link between these agents (co-authored papers as its edges. Current work evaluated and compared the reliability measure of networks with two emphases: 1 On nodes (perfectly reliable edges and 2 On edges (perfectly reliable nodes. Specifically, the reliability of a fictitious co-authorship network at a given time t was analyzed taking into account, first, the reliability of nodes (researchers equal and different, and, second, the reliability of edges (co-authorship relations, equal and different. Additionally, centrality measures of nodes were obtained to identify situations where the insertion of an edge significantly increased the reliability of the network. Results showed that the reliability of the co-authorship network focusing on edges is more sensitive to changes in individual reliabilities than the reliability of the network focusing on nodes. Additionally, the use of centrality measures was viable to identify possible insertions of edges or co-authorship relations to increase the reliability of the network in the two approaches.
Avrigeanu Alina Florentina
This paper aims to present the elements of the internal environment of firms and how they contribute to achieve a relative advantage. Altough VRIO framework is a precious strategic management tool it can be effective only in correlation with analysis of the external environment given, for example, need to find external references for estimating the value, scarcity and inimitability of a resource and selection of reference elements from the same market or the same strategic group.
Tobin, S.J.; Fensin, M.L.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Menlove, H.O.; Quiter, B.J.; Sandoval, N.P.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Thompson, S.J.
There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of 'Pu isotopic correlation' is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.
Stambulova, Natalia B
During the last decade, the field of athlete career research has seen much expansion. Researchers established the holistic lifespan and ecological approaches, introduced cultural praxis of athletes' careers paradigm, and updated the taxonomy of athletes' transitions. However, recent transition research focused mainly on the transition process and factors contributing to successful transitions, while crisis-transitions and factors contributing to ineffective coping have been largely ignored. The aim of this paper is to facilitate relevant research and practice through (1) positioning athletes' developmental crises within the context of the current transition literature, (2) introducing two new approaches (termed 'cognitive turn' and 'cultural turn') with a potential to enhance our understanding of the phenomenon, and (3) outlining crisis-coping interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sabol, J.; Hudzietzova, J.
The paper deals with some selected problems and requirements related to the education in areas concerning dangerous substances where special besides dosimetry and radiation protection quantities and units, special attention has also been paid to the threat which presents the potential misuse of nuclear and radioactive materials. In particular, the issues regarding the prevention against the use of these materials for terrorist attacks and procedures aimed at minimizing the impact of such malevolent act on the population and the environment have been discussed. In addition, it is given an overview of the current Czech legislation in this field as well as some of the most important international recommendations or directives/resolutions which address this field. (authors)
Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza
Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.
Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.
William B. Grant
Full Text Available People with neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities have much greater health care needs. Mainly staying indoors, such people generally have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. The Vitamin D Task Force of the American Academy of Developmental Medicine and Dentistry (AADMD reviewed the evidence of 25(OHD concentrations that benefit the health of persons with developmental disabilities. Maintaining recommended optimal serum 25(OHD concentrations year long will benefit skeletal development in infants, children, and adolescents, and benefit musculoskeletal health and neuromuscular coordination in adult patients, and decrease risk of falls. Maintaining optimal concentrations decreases risks and severities of autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, many types of cancer, dementia, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory tract infections. Other benefits include improved dental and oral health and improved physical performance. The Task Force recommends that 25(OHD concentrations for optimal health to be in the range of 75 to 125 nmol/L, which can be achieved using between 800 and 4000 IU/day vitamin D3 and sensible exposure to solar UVB radiation. The paper also discusses the potential risks of higher 25(OHD concentrations, the evidence from and limitations of randomized controlled trials, and the recommendations by various groups and agencies.
Grant, William B.; Wimalawansa, Sunil J.; Holick, Michael F.; Cannell, John J.; Pludowski, Pawel; Lappe, Joan M.; Pittaway, Mary; May, Philip
People with neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities have much greater health care needs. Mainly staying indoors, such people generally have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The Vitamin D Task Force of the American Academy of Developmental Medicine and Dentistry (AADMD) reviewed the evidence of 25(OH)D concentrations that benefit the health of persons with developmental disabilities. Maintaining recommended optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations year long will benefit skeletal development in infants, children, and adolescents, and benefit musculoskeletal health and neuromuscular coordination in adult patients, and decrease risk of falls. Maintaining optimal concentrations decreases risks and severities of autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, many types of cancer, dementia, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory tract infections. Other benefits include improved dental and oral health and improved physical performance. The Task Force recommends that 25(OH)D concentrations for optimal health to be in the range of 75 to 125 nmol/L, which can be achieved using between 800 and 4000 IU/day vitamin D3 and sensible exposure to solar UVB radiation. The paper also discusses the potential risks of higher 25(OH)D concentrations, the evidence from and limitations of randomized controlled trials, and the recommendations by various groups and agencies. PMID:25734565
Grant, William B; Wimalawansa, Sunil J; Holick, Michael F; Cannell, John J; Pludowski, Pawel; Lappe, Joan M; Pittaway, Mary; May, Philip
People with neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities have much greater health care needs. Mainly staying indoors, such people generally have low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. The Vitamin D Task Force of the American Academy of Developmental Medicine and Dentistry (AADMD) reviewed the evidence of 25(OH)D concentrations that benefit the health of persons with developmental disabilities. Maintaining recommended optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations year long will benefit skeletal development in infants, children, and adolescents, and benefit musculoskeletal health and neuromuscular coordination in adult patients, and decrease risk of falls. Maintaining optimal concentrations decreases risks and severities of autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, many types of cancer, dementia, types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, and respiratory tract infections. Other benefits include improved dental and oral health and improved physical performance. The Task Force recommends that 25(OH)D concentrations for optimal health to be in the range of 75 to 125 nmol/L, which can be achieved using between 800 and 4000 IU/day vitamin D3 and sensible exposure to solar UVB radiation. The paper also discusses the potential risks of higher 25(OH)D concentrations, the evidence from and limitations of randomized controlled trials, and the recommendations by various groups and agencies.
Cohen, Philip R
Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854
Full Text Available As reconfigurable devices' capacities and the complexity of applications that use them increase, the need for self-reliance of deployed systems becomes increasingly prominent. Organic computing paradigms have been proposed for fault-tolerant systems because they promote behaviors that allow complex digital systems to adapt and survive in demanding environments. In this paper, we develop a sustainable modular adaptive redundancy technique (SMART composed of a two-layered organic system. The hardware layer is implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA to provide self-repair using a novel approach called reconfigurable adaptive redundancy system (RARS. The software layer supervises the organic activities on the FPGA and extends the self-healing capabilities through application-independent, intrinsic, and evolutionary repair techniques that leverage the benefits of dynamic partial reconfiguration (PR. SMART was evaluated using a Sobel edge-detection application and was shown to tolerate stressful sequences of injected transient and permanent faults while reducing dynamic power consumption by 30% compared to conventional triple modular redundancy (TMR techniques, with nominal impact on the fault-tolerance capabilities. Moreover, PR is employed to keep the system on line while under repair and also to reduce repair time. Experiments have shown a 27.48% decrease in repair time when PR is employed compared to the full bitstream configuration case.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is limited to the exclusionary effects of poor decision making power on children. A total of 500 children from both genders were selected by systematic sampling technique and interviewed, from seven shopping streets and seven high schools of the District Peshawar. Likert scale was used as measurement tool besides, using Chi-square test and Kendall’s Tau-b tests to check the strength and direction of association between social exclusion and decision making power. Relationship of social exclusion was significant and negative with feeling one’s self influential in molding family level decision, having membership of any organization, liberty in choice of sport, liberty in choice of dress/shoes and people listen to child’s views. At multivariate level the association of social exclusion in male and female children varied by means of power of decision making. Likewise, results of groups based on religious affiliations indicated a spurious relationship between power of making decision in children and their social exclusion. However, result of groups based on joint and nuclear family affiliation indicated a non-spurious relationship between power of making decision in children and their social exclusion; conversely, single parent family group had a spurious relationship with above two groups. Contrariwise, result of groups based on sufficiency of family income indicated a non-spurious relationship between power of making decision in children and their social exclusion. A welfare state while safeguarding employment to all income segments, ensuring child’s constructive social participation at family and community level activities, reintegration of family role in child’s physical, social and psychological care and socialization, and overcoming gender and religion based disparities in the society were some of the policy recommendations in light of the study.
Nassar, Joanna Mohammad; Sevilla, Galo Andres Torres; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa
A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A; Kim, Hye Kyung
Reducing rates of obesity will require interventions that influence both individual decisions and environmental factors through changes in public policy. Previous work indicates that messages emphasizing environmental determinants increases support for public policies, but some suspect this strategy may undermine motivation to engage in diet and exercise. Study 1 involved 485 adults recruited from a shopping mall in New York. Study 2 involved 718 adult members of a Web-based national panel of US adults. Respondents in both studies were randomly assigned to read a story that emphasized environmental determinants of health or a control condition. The stories varied in the extent to which they described the story character as taking personal responsibility for weight management. Logistic regression and ordered logit models were used to test for differences in intentions to engage in diet and exercise behaviors based on which story the participant read. Analyses were also performed separately by participants' weight status. In both studies, messages that acknowledged personal responsibility while emphasizing environmental causes of obesity increased intentions to engage in healthy behavior for at least 1 weight status group. Emphasizing factors outside of personal control appears to enhance rather than undermine motivations to engage in healthy diet and exercise behavior.
Terpstra, David E.; Honoree, Andre L.
The authors investigated the relative emphasis that educators give to teaching, research, and service in the business discipline and 4 other academic disciplines. The authors also investigated the effects of different faculty activity emphases on faculty teaching effectiveness, research performance, service levels, job and pay satisfaction,…
Shaw, Susan M.; Kemeny, Lidia
Looked at techniques for promoting fitness participation among adolescent girls, in particular those which emphasize the slim ideal. Relative effectiveness of posters using different models (slim, average, overweight) and different messages (slimness, activity, health) was tested using 627 female high school students. Found slim model to be most…
Roni Sahroni, Taufik; Nasution, Januar
This paper presents the design of sustainable paper bicycle which describes the stage by stage in the production of paper bicycle. The objective of this project is to design a sustainable paper bicycles to be used for children under five years old. The design analysis emphasizes in screening method to ensure the design fulfil the safety purposes. The evaluation concept is presented in designing a sustainable paper bicycle to determine highest rating. Project methodology is proposed for developing a sustainable paper bicycle. Design analysis of pedal, front and rear wheel, seat, and handle were presented using AutoCAD software. The design optimization was performed to fulfil the safety factors by modifying the material size and dimension. Based on the design analysis results, it is found that the optimization results met the factor safety. As a result, a sustainable paper bicycle was proposed for children under five years old.
Weinberg, Jessica P., Ed.; O'Bryan, Erin L., Ed.; Moll, Laura A., Ed.; Haugan, Jason D., Ed.
The five papers included in this volume approach the study of American Indian languages from a diverse array of methodological and theoretical approaches to linguistics. Two papers focus on approaches that come from the applied linguistics tradition, emphasizing ethnolinguistics and discourse analysis: Sonya Bird's paper "A Cross Cultural…
Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Borba, Ana Olivia Cardoso; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos
The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, also known as progonoma, is a rare benign disease of neural crest origin that occurs within the first year of life and affects mainly the maxilla. The authors report a case of a 10-month-old child presenting with this uncommon tumor in the maxilla, emphasizing the diagnostic findings on computed tomography, and present a literature review. (author)
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A
This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social) determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718) to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.
Full Text Available This study tests whether policy narratives designed to increase support for obesity-reducing public policies should explicitly acknowledge individual responsibility while emphasizing social, physical, and economic (social determinants of obesity. We use a web-based, randomized experiment with a nationally representative sample of American adults (n = 718 to test hypotheses derived from theory and research on narrative persuasion. Respondents exposed to narratives that acknowledged individual responsibility while emphasizing obesity's social determinants were less likely to engage in counterargument and felt more empathy for the story's main character than those exposed to a message that did not acknowledge individual responsibility. Counterarguing and affective empathy fully mediated the relationship between message condition and support for policies to reduce rates of obesity. Failure to acknowledge individual responsibility in narratives emphasizing social determinants of obesity may undermine the persuasiveness of policy narratives. Omitting information about individual responsibility, a strongly-held American value, invites the public to engage in counterargument about the narratives and reduces feelings of empathy for a character that experiences the challenges and benefits of social determinants of obesity.
Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah
To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.
Van Winkle, W.
Arguments are presented in favor of emphasizing population-level assessments over community/ecosystem-level assessments. The two approaches are compared on each of four issues: (1) the nature of entrainment/impingement impacts; (2) the ability to forecast reliably for a single fish population as contrasted to the ability to forecast for an aquatic community or ecosystem; (3) practical considerations involving money, manpower, time, and the need to make decisions; and (4) the nature of societal and economic concerns. The conclusion on each of these four issues is that population-level assessments provide the optimal approach for evaluating the effects of entrainment and impingement mortality
Bahyeh Zarei; Mozafar Yektayar
The objective of this research was doing an examination about the relationship of socio-economic status (SES) with leisure time spending in the girls of Sanandaj city emphasizing sporting activities. The method of research was descriptive-correlated and has been done as field research. The population of the research consisted of all young girls of Sanandaj aged between 15-29 years old which 384 samples were selected by using multi-stage cluster sampling. The tools of research were Godrat Nama...
Full Text Available In this research, a combined approach emphasizing on data pre-processing technique is developed to forecast prices of agricultural commodities in Thailand. The future prices play significant role in decision making to cultivate crops in next year. The proposed model takes ability of MODWT to decompose original time series data into more stable and explicit subseries, and SVR model to formulate complex function of forecasting. The experimental results indicated that the proposed model outperforms traditional forecasting models based on MAE and MAPE criteria. Furthermore, the proposed model reveals that it is able to be a useful forecasting tool for prices of agricultural commodities in Thailand
Full Text Available Designing diffractive optical elements is crucial for efficient development of THz techniques. Here, we consider paper structures and we analyze their advantages and disadvantages in fast prototyping. The discussion about using material parameters like refractive index and absorption coefficient in designing diffractive optical elements is shown. We analyze the influence of phase step mismatch, of attenuation of real structure, and of nonuniform illumination on the efficiency of the structure. All these features result in worsening of the diffraction efficiency but they do not seem to have such significant influence as shadow effect introduced by fast varying zones. Diffractive elements can be designed with very good accordance with experimental results which makes them ideal for possible applications. Paper optics scan be used more for fast prototyping; nevertheless its performance can be increased by placing it inside water protecting foil.
The author was assigned the task to comment on the broad topic: "New sciences, technologies, and media--impact on education for librarianship (or libraries)." The author choose to emphasize "information science." Narrowing the subject down even further, in this article the author emphasizes some of the aspects of the…
Full Text Available This study aimed at 1 investigating the problems and needs for the enhancement of learning management performances emphasizing the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers, 2 developing an effective curriculum to enhance the learning management performances which emphasized the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers, and 3 studying the effects of using the curriculum developed for the enhancement of learning management performances emphasizing the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers. The research was conducted in 4 phases. Phase 1 of the research was the study of fundamental information regarding problems and needs for the enhancement of learning management performances emphasizing the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers. It was carried out by studying the related literature and exploring the needs. The instrument used in Phase 1 study was the needs assessment. The statistics used for data analysis were mean ( , percentage (%, and standard deviation (S.D.. The result of the study revealed that the Science teachers’ prior knowledge was at low level and the need to enhance their performances was at high level. The development of the curriculum was carried out in Phase 2 of the study. The curriculum was constructed and developed in order to enhance the learning management performances which emphasized the higher order thinking skills. The instrument used was the appropriateness the assessment of the curriculum framework. Mean ( , percentage (%, and standard deviation (S.D. were used to analyze the data. The result of the assessment showed that the overall appropriateness of the curriculum was at high level. The main components of the curriculum comprised of curriculum’s problem and necessity, rationale, objective, structure, training activity, training media, training duration, and evaluation and assessment. The curriculum trial was
Papers are presented under the following session headings: emission factors and inventories; certifications and accreditation; PM10/2.5; advanced techniques; and QA/QC. Some of the papers are only the overheads/viewgraphs of the presentation.
Taylor, H.W.; Singh, B.
The radioactivity of fine papers has been studied through γ-ray spectroscopy with an intrinsic Ge detector. Samples of paper from European and North American sources were found to contain very different amounts of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The processes which introduce radionuclides into paper are discussed. The radioactivity from fine papers makes only a small contribution to an individual's annual radiation dose; nevertheless it is easily detectable and perhaps, avoidable. (Author)
This paper looks at the issue of data quality within the context of transportation operations and management. The objective of this paper is to investigate data quality measures and how they are applied in existing systems. This paper explores the re...
This Projection Paper is in two parts. The first is a general discussion of current knowledge and the present basis of radiation protection policy, the rather dismal prospects in the foreseeable future of getting realistic estimates of the human impact of radiation-induced mutation, and some general remarks about radiation standards and research strategy. The second part deals with specific research projects that might increase basic knowledge and narrow the gap between what is needed and what is known. We should emphasize at the outset that, of all environmental hazards, radiation is one whose genetic effects are best understood. There is good information on the dose-response curve, on the effects of dose rate and fractionation, and on the differential sensitivity of different ages, sexes and cell stages. This includes a great deal of knowledge of one organism closely related to man, the mouse. This information has been the basis for risk assessment and for safety standards that are widely accepted as solidly based
Alava, Mikko; Niskanen, Kaarlo
Paper is a material known to everybody. It has a network structure consisting of wood fibres that can be mimicked by cooking a portion of spaghetti and pouring it on a plate, to form a planar assembly of fibres that lie roughly horizontal. Real paper also contains other constituents added for technical purposes. This review has two main lines of thought. First, in the introductory part, we consider the physics that one encounters when 'using' paper, an everyday material that exhibits the presence of disorder. Questions arise, for instance, as to why some papers are opaque and others translucent, some are sturdy and others sloppy, some readily absorb drops of liquid while others resist the penetration of water. The mechanical and rheological properties of paper and paperboard are also interesting. They are inherently dependent on moisture content. In humid conditions paper is ductile and soft, in dry conditions brittle and hard. In the second part we explain in more detail research problems concerned with paper. We start with paper structure. Paper is made by dewatering a suspension of fibres starting from very low content of solids. The processes of aggregation, sedimentation and clustering are familiar from statistical mechanics. Statistical growth models or packing models can simulate paper formation well and teach a lot about its structure. The second research area that we consider is the elastic and viscoelastic properties and fracture of paper and paperboard. This has traditionally been the strongest area of paper physics. There are many similarities to, but also important differences from, composite materials. Paper has proved to be convenient test material for new theories in statistical fracture mechanics. Polymer physics and memory effects are encountered when studying creep and stress relaxation in paper. Water is a 'softener' of paper. In humid conditions, the creep rate of paper is much higher than in dry conditions. The third among our topics is the
Nassar, Joanna Mohammad
A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors are provided. A method of producing a paper based sensor can include the steps of: a) providing a conventional paper product to serve as a substrate for the sensor or as an active material for the sensor or both, the paper product not further treated or functionalized; and b) applying a sensing element to the paper substrate, the sensing element selected from the group consisting of a conductive material, the conductive material providing contacts and interconnects, sensitive material film that exhibits sensitivity to pH levels, a compressible and/or porous material disposed between a pair of opposed conductive elements, or a combination of two of more said sensing elements. The method of sensing can further include measuring, using the sensing element, a change in resistance, a change in voltage, a change in current, a change in capacitance, or a combination of any two or more thereof.
International Monetary Fund
This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...
Gauthier, Serge; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
review various aspects of Turbulent Mixing that were discussed at the Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, held in summer 2009 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy. The papers are arranged by TMB themes and within each theme they are ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author, with tutorials following research contributions. Canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing. The theme of canonical turbulence and turbulent mixing is considered by several authors. Casciola et al investigate the dynamics of inertial particles dispersed in a turbulent jet and compare their numerical modeling results with the classical similarity theory of the jet far-field. Remarkable agreement is found between the theory and the direct numerical simulations (DNS), including decay of Stokes numbers with the distance from the origin, self-similarity of the mean axial particle velocity profile, etc. Nagata considers complex turbulent flows, which are known to exhibit no linear critical point for the laminar states, and which are linearly stable at finite Reynolds numbers. Square duct flow and sliding Couette flow in an annulus are considered and nonlinear traveling-wave states are found for the flows with the use of the homotopy approach developed by the author. These states may constitute a skeleton around which a time-dependent trajectory in the phase space is organized. Teitelbaum and Mininni study a decaying 3D incompressible turbulence, which mimicks turbulent mixing in geophysical flows, with rotation rendering the flow anisotropic at large scales. The authors analyze three DNS results (without and with rotation, and with helicity), observe a decoupling of the modes normal to the rotation axis, and show that the helicity decreases the decay rate of turbulence. Wang and Peters investigate the structure of turbulence by studying strain rates of various scalars, including a
Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL are ... Poetry in South African Sign Language: What is different? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...
Pringle, David L.; And Others
Uses crepe paper for the introduction of spectrophotometric concepts. Dyes used in the manufacturing of the crepe paper dissolve rapidly in water to produce solutions of colors. The variety of colors provides spectra in the visible spectrum that allow students to grasp concepts of absorption and transmission. (AIM)
Items 1 - 26 of 26 ... Archives: Philosophical Papers. Journal Home > Archives: Philosophical Papers. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 26 of 26 Items. 2008. Vol 37 ...
The mock research paper combines creative writing with academic writing and, in the process, breaks down that binary. This article describes a writing assignment that offers an introduction to the college research paper genre. This assignment helps students focus on crafting an argument and learning genre conventions while postponing until the…
Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M
This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.
Physicists coded and recorded their programs through series of holes on punch paper tape or on punched cards. It was popular in the 1970s due to its high throughput speed and low cost, paper tape was one of the original data storage methods for computers. Information was encoded in the distinct pattern of holes punched in the paper; the paper itself was oiled to facilitate being run through the reading mechanism and to prevent tears due to brittleness. Though the paper was cheap, it had low storage capacity (only a few dozen kilobytes per roll) and the machinery involved in punching the holes was quite expensive. Higher capacity alternatives, such as magnetic tape, has get developped.
Full Text Available This study prospectively reviews a consecutive series of 228 primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA procedures utilizing a technique to optimize knee flexion. The main features include: (1the use of a “patellar friendly” femoral component and reduced thickness patellar components, (2 patient individualized adjustment of the femoral component rotation set strictly to the anterior-posterior femoral axis, (3a rigorous flexion compartment debridement to remove non-essential posterior femoral bone with a Z-osteotome, and (4incorporation of a rapid recovery protocol with features to promote knee flexion. Results were categorized into three groups: low pre-op flexion (90 degrees and below, regular pre-op flexion (91-125 degrees, and high pre-op flexion (126 degrees and above. Average flexion in the low flexion group improved by 20 degrees at 6 weeks, 28 degrees at 3 months, 31 degrees at 1 year, and 30 degrees at 5 years. In the regular flexion group, average flexion improved by 2 degrees at 6 weeks, 10 degrees at 3 months, 12 degrees at 1 year, and 13 degrees at 5 years. Finally, in the high flexion group, average flexion decreased by 7 degrees at 6 weeks, regained preoperative levels at 3 months, and increased by 3 degrees at 1 year and 4 degrees at 5 years. In summary, a technique that emphasizes patellofemoral kinematics can consistently improve flexion in TKA in short and long-term follow-up.
mohamad khosravi farsani
Full Text Available Agha Ali and Jelveh ,two of outstanding of Tehran philosophy school, have reconsidered Sandra's opinions in two opposite sides. Agha Ali is the claimant of negation and ambiguity in most of Sandra's opinions while emphasizing on transcendent theosophy foundations ,and he tries to make these ambiguities clear .However , Jelveh follows Avicenna's way and has the idea of criticizing Sandra .This article has chosen the problem Of immortality of subject in substantial movement between all debates of these two philosophers of the same age.in this essay we are going to survey Agha Ali's claims in his new explantation in one hand ,and survey and criticize the new explanation of Jelveh in negation Of substantial movement .One of the consequences of surveying and criticizing these two philosophers is that we recognize Agha Ali has succeeded in making Sadra's opinions clear by presenting a new explanation of substantial movement subject. However ,Jelveh has merged Sadra's opinions with Avicenna's instead of debilitating Sadra's opinions and stabilizing Avicenna's opinions.
Yousefi, Seyedeh Zahra; Tabatabaei-Panah, Pardis-Sadat; Seyfi, Javad
Improving the bioinertness of materials is of great importance for developing biomedical devices that contact human tissues. The main goal of this study was to establish correlations among surface morphology, roughness and chemistry with hydrophobicity and cell adhesion in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposites loaded with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles. Firstly, wettability results showed that the nanocomposite loaded with 30 wt.% of TiO 2 exhibited a superhydrophobic behavior; however, the morphology and roughness analysis proved that there was no discernible difference between the surface structures of samples loaded with 20 and 30 wt.% of nanoparticles. Both cell culture and MTT assay experiments showed that, despite the similarity between the surface structures, the sample loaded with 30 wt.% nanoparticles exhibits the greatest reduction in the cell viability (80%) as compared with the pure PDMS film. According to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, the remarkable reduction in cell viability of the superhydrophobic sample could be majorly attributed to the role of surface chemistry. The obtained results emphasize the importance of adjusting the surface properties especially surface chemistry to gain the optimum cell adhesion behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chenevey, E. C.
A study to determine the feasibility of preparing ultrathin papers with a target weight of 3.5 g/m squared from polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibrids was undertaken. Small hand sheets of target weight were fabricated. They were light brown, low density materials with sufficient strength to be readily handleable. Characterization of these sheets included strength, fold endurance, thermal gravimetric analysis in air and nitrogen and photomicrographs. Two different batches of PBI fibrids were studied and differences in fabrication performance were noted. In neither case could target weight papers be prepared using conventional paper making techniques.
Gromov, Yu.V.; Kapustin, V.I.; Volkova, T.G.
The possibility of radiographic control with application of ''Fototelegrafnaya BS'' photographic paper in conjunction with the ''Standart'' image intensifier as an X-ray image converter is studied. Investigations were made using steel samples 5 to 45 mm thick, X-ray radiation energy varied from 80 to 240 keV. Specifications of the image intensifier of the ''Standart type and photographic paper are given. It is shown, that the photographic paper improves the sensitivity of the method to the detection of small defects. The method provides standard and panoramic radioscopy, conservation of objective documentation, enables one to mechanize and automatize the process of photodevelopment. The application of the photographic paper is beneficial, its cost being six times as low as that of X-ray film
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Link to the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Naile, J., A.W. Garrison, J. Avants, and J. Washington. Isomers/enantiomers of...
EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.
on this major objective, the paper among other specific objectives, examines the role of ... discovering facts and principles needed for the solution of identified problems ... The question often raised here, is, have these laudable objectives of.
A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume
, the antique lexicon). By working them out together on the same sheet, the boundaries erode between whittling lines of poetry and carving blocks of stone. Unlike previous attempts to connect Michelangelo's architecture and poetry, this paper focuses on the materiality of the paper as a meeting point between...... the question of what might be discovered by looking closer at these three paper modani (Corpus 536, 538, 539). The verses on the modani are merely fragments and revisions, part of a lineage of multiple and incomplete sources. At the same time, as 1:1 scaled templates, the modani empowered in a unique way...... Michelangelo's well-known propensity toward the fragmentation and re-assembly of the profile line. What emerges is how the paper enabled parallel processes of iteration, cutting and substitution, each operating within rather strict formal boundaries (for the poem, the Petrarchan sonnet; for the architecture...
Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.
Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr
The ability to put cutting edge technology on paper—not in words but in a working physical form—has been attracting an increasing number of researchers over the past decade. Paper has many advantages that make it attractive for flexible electronics: it is relatively environmentally benign; it is renewable; it can be recycled; it is light weight; production processes for paper are well advanced; and it is inexpensive. This special issue, with guest editors Ronald Österbacka from Åbo Akademi University in Finland and Jin-Woo Han from the NASA AMES Research Center, features some of the latest in paper electronics research, including developments towards applications in displays, sensing and alternative energy sources, as well as fundamental studies to further our understanding of how paper can be most effectively used in electronics. As Andrew Steckl and colleagues in the US point out, 'Cellulose-based paper substrates were implemented as an electronic substrate as early as 1969, with most advancement occurring in the past decade largely due to technology improvements in thin film deposition and organic materials' [1, 2]. They report a detailed comparison between paper, standard liquid crystal display rigid glass and flexible glass for hosting pentacene organic thin film transistors, and obtain promising results for future paper-based devices. As most meaningful electronic devices rely on transistors to function, transistors feature quite prominently in this special issue. Rodrigo Martins and colleagues in France and Portugal study the effect of fibre type, structure and dimension on paper-based transistors and reveal further insights into how paper properties affect device performance . Qing Wan and colleagues in China bring the state of the art in transistor technology to paper substrates , fabricating indium-zinc-oxide (IZO)-based protonic/electronic hybrid thin film transistors on paper and showing that they can be used as artificial synapses. Like the
This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.
This paper is the survey of studies that include design processes of some fuzzy expert systems for applications in some medical area. Recent studies of us that include fuzzy expert systems that make use of fuzzy logic method were described. Some of fuzzy expert systems mentioned in this paper have been developed as first time. Followings were investigated; the risk of prostate cancer, risk of coronary heart disease, degree of child anemia, determination the level of iron deficiency anemia, di...
@@ Papermaking techniques are undergoing a great revolution and a new paper made from stone is lining up to take the place of the conventional type. At this year's National People's Congress of China and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference that is to start on March 3, all the file bags and scratchpads will be made from a new type of low-carbon paper which is environmentally friendly.
Atmanspacher, Harald; Haven, Emmanuel; Raine, Derek
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.
Cedraschi, Christine; Girard, Elodie; Luthy, Christophe; Kossovsky, Michel; Desmeules, Jules; Allaz, Anne-Françoise
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by widespread pain. This study focuses on patients' attributions of illness and of symptom onset. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 56 women to elicit patients' views on what triggered their FM. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using a classical indexing technique to identify key themes. Content analysis was performed by two independent coders. Primary causal attributions fell into five categories: psychological problems (28 respondents); somatic concerns (N=12); violence/abuse during childhood (N=7), gynaecological/obstetrical problems (N=6), and fatigue (N=3). Patients' attributions were internal and external in the same proportions, more frequently unstable than stable, and more often described uncontrollable than controllable. Participants expressed decrements in self-esteem and feelings such as self-blame or despair; global perceptions of persistent pain and long-lasting problems, evoking chronicity and hopelessness; and low perceived control over their lives as well as beliefs that nothing can be done, thus increasing a feeling of guilt and vulnerability. Patients' narratives emphasized disruptive circumstances surrounding symptom onset. Attributions often referred to the psychological dimension of the events surrounding FM onset, even though some of them also had a clear somatic dimension. Many narratives mentioned successive disruptive events and suggested an increasing loss of control. Addressing these illness representations may contribute to tailor the treatment and to help patients gain self-coherency by providing means to understand pain onset but also to guide future behaviours, particularly in terms of adjustment and help-seeking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.
In this paper we survey some early applications and research on brain-computer interfacing. We emphasize and revalue the role the views on artistic and playful applications have played. In previous years various road maps for BCI research appeared. The interest in medical applications has guided BCI
Fernando, T.; Nijholt, Antinus
In this position paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can
The rigorous demand of peer review has been emphasized to illustrate the academic nature of scholarly publishing. The quality attributes of a manuscript in terms of ... The rules, norms, ethics and standards of publishing in relation to copyrights and plagiarism are discussed. The published paper is recognized as the ...
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 6 is presents the association and the results of the ordinary general assembly of the 28 June 2003. (A.L.B.)
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no.10 is devoted to the sustainable development education. Examples of actions in agriculture schools and colleges are presented. (A.L.B.)
A review is given of the papers presented at the European Symposium on Fast Breeder Reactors in the context of the early history of nuclear energy, the concept of breeding, the safety of the breeder, terrorism and other hazards, the need for more energy, human factors and safety. (U.K.)
Shabalin, P L; Yakubenko, A A; Pokhilevich, VA; Krein, M G
This collection of eleven papers covers a broad spectrum of topics in analysis, from the study of certain classes of analytic functions to the solvability of singular problems for differential and integral equations to computational schemes for the partial differential equations and singular integral equations.
Articles should be relevant to the analytic tradition in philosophy, understood broadly and including critiques of that tradition. All submissions are independently refereed. In most cases, decisions are based on reports from at least two referees. Final editorial decisions are made by the Editorial Board of Philosophical Papers.
Howe, Christine; Mercer, Neil
This commentary discusses the four papers that comprise the special issue on dialogic teaching and learning, while making general observations that apply across the field as a whole. Similarities and differences are identified over the concepts of "dialogue" and "dialogic pedagogy". The possibility is raised that some aspects…
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 1 provides information such as, meeting, Internet addresses and programs, for the month of April 2002. (A.L.B.)
The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which
The mountain of paper and digital records which the nuclear industry accumulates creates a huge management problem, one that must be dealt with rigorously to avoid serious safety and financial risks. Recent developments in the technology of ''engineering document management'', together with advances in management understanding, have led to systems to control the problem, offering companies various strategic advantages as well. (author)
The conference proceedings contain 152 abstracts of presented papers relating to various aspects of personnel dosimetry, the dosimetry of the working and living environment, various types of dosemeters and spectrometers, the use of radionuclides in various industrial fields, the migration of radionuclides on Czechoslovak territory after the Chernobyl accident, theoretical studies of some parameters of ionizing radiation detectors, and their calibration. (M.D.)
This thesis is a collection of six papers in auction theory, with several economic applications, both to real life auctions and to other economic phenomena. In the introduction to the thesis, Onderstal argues why auction theory is an important branch of economic theory, and discusses several
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 3 is devoted to the part of the environment observation in the sustainable development implementation. (A.L.B.)
International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).
Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures…
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Stage, Jan
Mobile devices with small screens and minimal facilities for interaction are increasingly being used in complex human activities for accessing and processing information, while the user is moving. This paper presents a case study of the design and evaluation of a mobile system, which involved...
States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…
Apt, K.R.; Constable, R.L.; Silva, A.
Dexter was my manager during the first 8 months or so of my one year stay at the IBM Research Center at Yorktown Heights in the mid eighties. Our interaction in terms of scientific output was very slim — it consisted of just a single paper, titled "Limits for automatic verification of finite-state
John M. Considine
Paper and paperboard are the most widely-used green materials in the world because they are renewable, recyclable, reusable, and compostable. Continued and expanded use of these materials and their potential use in new products requires a comprehensive understanding of the variability of their mechanical properties.
Arun Kumar Agnihotri
One-Minute Paper: A thinking centered assessment tool. Ashakiran ... achievement of objectives and learning ability of the students, to analyze the questioning pattern of ... factual information, rote memory and critical thinking. The aim of every teacher while teaching ... question prompts another higher order cognitive skill ...
evidence based policy making. Canada's ... not subject to peer review, nor reviewed or edited for style and content. The views ... This paper develops a simple model to disentangle the effect of education on incomes by .... with prior belief, returns to education were low in agriculture, and resulted from lacking learning ...
This book is a sort of tribute to Rob Clifton (1964-2002), Associate Professor of Philosophy and Associate Director of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh, philosopher of physics and editor of the journal Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, who tragically died of cancer. It contains fourteen papers by Clifton, for the most part written in collaboration with other authors (Jeffrey Bub (2), Sheldon Goldstein, Michael Dickson, Hans Halvorson (6), Adrian Kent (2)), published between 1995 and 2002. The choice of papers made by the editors is very impressive. They concern the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Among the issues discussed are the modal interpretations of quantum mechanics, the problems of hidden variables theories, non-locality, Bell's inequality, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, Lorentz invariance, de-coherence, non-contextuality, complementarity, entanglement and quantum information. A consequence of such investigations is that non-separability is a more complex issue than violation of Bell's inequality. Apart from the perspective one can follow-whether one agrees or not with Clifton-these papers are effective contributions to an understanding of the problems involved in the foundations of quantum mechanics. The most interesting parts, in my opinion, are related to the extension of the discussion of foundational problems to quantum field theory: on the algebraic approach, and on the twin concepts of particle and vacuum. Non-locality appears to be 'worse' in relativistic quantum field theory than in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. All the papers deal with relevant epistemological and even historical aspects of quantum mechanics interpretations, but all the issues are discussed from a technical, logical and mathematical approach. A complete bibliography of Clifton's papers is given at the end of the volume. (book review)
Elter, M.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wittenberg, T.
Mammography is the most effective method for breast cancer screening available today. However, the low positive predictive value of breast biopsy resulting from mammogram interpretation leads to approximately 70% unnecessary biopsies with benign outcomes. To reduce the high number of unnecessary breast biopsies, several computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed in the last several years. These systems help physicians in their decision to perform a breast biopsy on a suspicious lesion seen in a mammogram or to perform a short term follow-up examination instead. We present two novel CAD approaches that both emphasize an intelligible decision process to predict breast biopsy outcomes from BI-RADS findings. An intelligible reasoning process is an important requirement for the acceptance of CAD systems by physicians. The first approach induces a global model based on decison-tree learning. The second approach is based on case-based reasoning and applies an entropic similarity measure. We have evaluated the performance of both CAD approaches on two large publicly available mammography reference databases using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, bootstrap sampling, and the ANOVA statistical significance test. Both approaches outperform the diagnosis decisions of the physicians. Hence, both systems have the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary breast biopsies in clinical practice. A comparison of the performance of the proposed decision tree and CBR approaches with a state of the art approach based on artificial neural networks (ANN) shows that the CBR approach performs slightly better than the ANN approach, which in turn results in slightly better performance than the decision-tree approach. The differences are statistically significant (p value <0.001). On 2100 masses extracted from the DDSM database, the CRB approach for example resulted in an area under the ROC curve of A(z)=0.89±0.01, the decision-tree approach in A(z)=0.87±0
Baron, Todd H.
Publishing medical papers in English is important as English remains the predominant language for most medical papers (both electronic and traditional journal publications). In addition, journals with the highest impact factors are published in English and a publication in English thus enhances the visibility of authors and their institutions, and is important for promotion in some academic centers. This article reviews the basic principles that will help you successfully publish a manuscript in English. Although other books and articles are available on this subject, there are relatively few references. The present article is based on this author's experience of publishing nearly 400 articles in English. It will emphasize writing original articles, but the principles can be applied to virtually any type of manuscript.
Chiriboga-Oleszczak Boris Alejandro
Full Text Available Terminal lucidity is a term used in the medical literature to determine the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, even among patients with serious and long-term disorders. In 19th century, cases of mind clarity recovery shortly before death, were often recognized by doctors and interpreted as a sign of an impending death. In 20th century, the interest in this phenomenon decreased and then, virtually disappear. In recent years, on the wave of publications concerning near death experiences and related events such as the end of life experiences, papers about the improvement of mental functioning shortly before death, exponentially grew and got a new name, terminal lucidity. In this paper, an overview of the available literature is presented to outline the historical, phenomenological and clinical picture of this phenomenon and its possible implications for medical care and future studies.
Quigg, B. [Grays Harbor Paper, Hoquiam, WA (United States)
Wood waste biomass boilers are used at Grays Harbor Paper in Hoquiam, Washington. This presentation showed that large volumes of biomass are left after a traditional clearcut. The opportunities and challenges of collecting branches, tops and stumps from this wet coastal climate were outlined. The paper described some of the low-tech methods for picking up branches, stumps and woody debris. It included several photographs of custom logging machines for timber harvest, including a brush grapple slasher, a shearer shovel, chippers, grinders, slicesaws, trucks, trailers and caterpillar log loaders for handling slash. The slash recovery program relies on innovative harvesting machines that convert scattered logging slash into bundles that can be easily collected, transported, and stored for use in existing facilities that utilize wood fiber for fuel. figs.
Wong, Bang; Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt
Creating pictures is integral to scientific thinking. In the visualization process, putting pencil to paper is an essential act of inward reflec- tion and outward expression. It is a constructive activity that makes our thinking specific and explicit. Compared to other constructive approaches...... such as writing or verbal explanations, visual representa- tion places distinct demands on our reasoning skills by forcing us to contextualize our understanding spatially....
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no 8 presents the regional energy observatories and some news on the wood energy experience, the thermal and energetic improvement of buildings and the green certificates in Aquitaine. (A.L.B.)
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 2 is devoted to the IDEA missions and their cooperation with ''Alliance pour la qualite et la performance''. This association groups actors for the development and the promotion of the quality. (A.L.B.)
Center for Spatial Studies, UCSB
The Spatial Search specialist meeting in Santa Barbara (December 2014) brought together 35 academic and industry representatives from computational, geospatial, and cognitive sciences with interest in focused discussions on the development of an interdisciplinary research agenda to advance spatial search from scientific and engineering viewpoints. The position papers from participants represent the shared expertise that guided discussions and the formulation of research questions about proces...
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no.11 is devoted to the wastes management in Aquitaine. Data on wastes volume, type and recycling are presented and examples of enterprises actions are provided. (A.L.B.)
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 7 is devoted to the water quality and management in Gironde. The european framework directive on water and the humid zones are discussed. (A.L.B.)
Widener, Edward L.
Perhaps 80 percent of papermaking energy is expended in chemical pulping of vegetable cellulose, a natural polymer. Commercial supplies of wood, bagasse, cotton and flax are valued as renewable resources and bio-mass assets; however, few enterprises will salvage waste-paper and cardboard from their trash. A basic experiment in the Materials Lab uses simple equipment to make crude handsheets. Students learn to classify secondary fibers, identify contraries, and estimate earnings.
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 9 is devoted to the air quality: atmospheric pollution effects on health, nitrogen oxide pollution, air quality monitoring in buildings, the regulations and the atmospheric pollution, emissions land registry objectives and the greenhouse gases. (A.L.B.)
The approximately 500 papers from this conference are divided into the following sections: Rail transit systems--stray current corrosion problems and control; Total quality in the coatings industry; Deterioration mechanisms of alloys at high temperatures--prevention and remediation; Research needs and new developments in oxygen scavengers; Computers in corrosion control--knowledge based system; Corrosion and corrosivity sensors; Corrosion and corrosion control of steel reinforced concrete structures; Microbiologically influenced corrosion; Practical applications in mitigating CO 2 corrosion; Mineral scale deposit control in oilfield-related operations; Corrosion of materials in nuclear systems; Testing nonmetallics for life prediction; Refinery industry corrosion; Underground corrosion control; Mechanisms and applications of deposit and scale control additives; Corrosion in power transmission and distribution systems; Corrosion inhibitor testing and field application in oil and gas systems; Decontamination technology; Ozone in cooling water applications, testing, and mechanisms; Corrosion of water and sewage treatment, collection, and distribution systems; Environmental cracking of materials; Metallurgy of oil and gas field equipment; Corrosion measurement technology; Duplex stainless steels in the chemical process industries; Corrosion in the pulp and paper industry; Advances in cooling water treatment; Marine corrosion; Performance of materials in environments applicable to fossil energy systems; Environmental degradation of and methods of protection for military and aerospace materials; Rail equipment corrosion; Cathodic protection in natural waters; Characterization of air pollution control system environments; and Deposit-related problems in industrial boilers. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base
Netzer, Colonel Gideon
This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.
The following members in the Space Physics & Aeronomy Section received Outstanding Student Paper Awards at the 2003 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, California. Arve Aksnes; Aroh Barjatya; Jacob Bortnik; Amir Caspi; Ruben Delgado; Galen Fowler; Paul G. Hanlon; Sid Henderson; Tara B. Hiebert; Chia-Lin Huang; Steven P. Joy; Eun-Hwa Kim; Colby Lemon; Yingjuan Ma; Elizabeth A. MacDonald; Jaco Minnie; Mitsuo Oka; Yoshitaka Okazaki; Erin J. Rigler; Ina P. Robertson; Patrick A. Roddy; Sang-Il Roh; Albert Y. Shih; Christopher Smithtro; Emma Spanswick; Maria Spasojevic; Hiroki Tanaka; Linghua Wang; Deirdre E. Wendel; Jichun Zhang>
The papers in this conference represent the latest technological advances in corrosion control and prevention. The following subject areas are covered: cathodic protection in natural waters; materials for fossil fuel combustion and conversion systems; modern problems in atmospheric corrosion; innovative ideas for controlling the decaying infrastructure; deposits and their effects on corrosion in industry; volatile high temperature and non aqueous corrosion inhibitors; corrosion of light-weight and precoated metals for automotive application; refining industry corrosion; corrosion in pulp and paper industry; arctic/cold weather corrosion; materials selection for waste incinerators and associated equipment; corrosion measurement technology; environmental cracking of materials; advancing technology in the coating industry; corrosion in gas treating; green inhibition; recent advances in corrosion control of rail equipment; velocity effects and erosion corrosion in oil and gas production; marine corrosion; corrosion of materials in nuclear systems; underground corrosion control; corrosion in potable and industrial water systems in buildings and its impact on environmental compliance; deposit related boiler tube failures; boiler systems monitoring and control; recent developments and experiences in reactive metals; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion and corrosion control for steel reinforced concrete; international symposium on the use of 12 and 13 Cr stainless steels in oil and gas production environments; subsea corrosion /erosion monitoring in production facilities; fiberglass reinforced pipe and tubulars in oilfield service; corrosion control technology in power transmission and distribution; mechanisms and methods of scale and deposit control; closing the loop -- results oriented cooling system monitoring and control; and minimization of aqueous discharge
The following working papers are included in this report. The other papers, or the memos of which they consist, are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. WP2001-2 Inventory of TRANS files exchanged since the last meeting; WP2001-4 Data headings and units for wavelength and kT; WP2001-6 Proposed Polarization Quantities; WP2001-7 Correlation / Angular correlation: Clarifications and dictionary cleanup; WP2001-8 Proposed quantity PAR/M-,DA,G; WP2001-14 Units N/PART/SR etc. for Dict. 25; WP2001-15 Coding of differential neutron multiplicity distributions; WP2001-16 Headings E-LVL-INI, E-LVL-FIN as 'additional information'; WP2001-17 Dictionary sorting flags and wildcards; WP2001-18 IAEA/NDS priorities in the EXFOR compilation; WP2001-21 CSISRS Library Statistics (NNDC); WP2001-23 CINDA-2001 Manual (24 May 2001); WP2001-24 Correspondence of quantity codes for CINDA-2001; WP2001-25 EXFOR as a multi-platform relational database: current status of development; WP2001-26 Compilation and Evaluation of Alpha-Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Astrophysics; WP2001-28 Journal coverage for CINDA
The following working papers are included in this report. The other papers, or the memos of which they consist, are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. WP2001-2 Inventory of TRANS files exchanged since the last meeting; WP2001-4 Data headings and units for wavelength and kT; WP2001-6 Proposed Polarization Quantities; WP2001-7 Correlation / Angular correlation: Clarifications and dictionary cleanup; WP2001-8 Proposed quantity PAR/M-,DA,G; WP2001-14 Units N/PART/SR etc. for Dict. 25; WP2001-15 Coding of differential neutron multiplicity distributions; WP2001-16 Headings E-LVL-INI, E-LVL-FIN as 'additional information'; WP2001-17 Dictionary sorting flags and wildcards; WP2001-18 IAEA/NDS priorities in the EXFOR compilation; WP2001-21 CSISRS Library Statistics (NNDC); WP2001-23 CINDA-2001 Manual (24 May 2001); WP2001-24 Correspondence of quantity codes for CINDA-2001; WP2001-25 EXFOR as a multi-platform relational database: current status of development; WP2001-26 Compilation and Evaluation of Alpha-Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Astrophysics; WP2001-28 Journal coverage for CINDA.
Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Mysore, Venkataram
Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients) to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy.
Full Text Available Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy.
Asner, D.M.; Calancha, C.; Fujii, K.; Graf, N.; Haber, H.E.; Ishikawa, A.; Kanemura, S.; Kawada, S.; Kurata, M.; Miyamoto, A.; Neal, H.; Ono, H.; Potter, C.; Strube, J.; Suehara, T.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, J.; Tsumura, J.; Watanuki, S.; Weiglein, G.; Yagyu, K.; Yokoya, H.
The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative approaches to electroweak symmetry breaking, and precision goals for Higgs boson experiments. Experimental topics include the measurement of the Higgs cross section times branching ratio for various Higgs decay modes at ILC center of mass energies of 250, 500, and 1000 GeV, and the extraction of Higgs couplings and the total Higgs width from these measurements. Luminosity scenarios based on the ILC TDR machine design are used throughout. The gamma-gamma collider option at the ILC is also discussed.
Topics covered by this conference include: cathodic protection in natural waters; cleaning and repassivation of building HVAC systems; worldwide opportunities in flue gas desulfurization; advancements in materials technology for use in oil and gas service; fossil fuel combustion and conversion; technology of corrosion inhibitors; computers in corrosion control--modeling and information processing; recent experiences and advances of austenitic alloys; managing corrosion with plastics; corrosion measurement technology; corrosion inhibitors for concrete; refining industry; advances in corrosion control for rail and tank trailer equipment; CO 2 corrosion--mechanisms and control; microbiologically influenced corrosion; corrosion in nuclear systems; role of corrosion in boiler failures; effects of water reuse on monitoring and control technology in cooling water applications; methods and mechanisms of scale and deposit control; corrosion detection in petroleum production lines; underground corrosion control; environmental cracking--relating laboratory results and field behavior; corrosion control in reinforced concrete structures; corrosion and its control in aerospace and military hardware; injection and process addition facilities; progress reports on the results of reinspection of deaerators inspected or repaired per RP0590 criteria; near 100% volume solids coating technology and application methods; materials performance in high temperature environments containing halides; impact of toxicity studies on use of corrosion/scale inhibitors; mineral scale deposit control in oilfield related operations; corrosion in gas treating; marine corrosion; cold climate corrosion; corrosion in the pulp and paper industry; gaseous chlorine alternatives in cooling water systems; practical applications of ozone in recirculating cooling water systems; and water reuse in industry. Over 400 papers from this conference have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base
... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Paper and paper products. 247.10... COMPREHENSIVE PROCUREMENT GUIDELINE FOR PRODUCTS CONTAINING RECOVERED MATERIALS Item Designations § 247.10 Paper and paper products. Paper and paper products, excluding building and construction paper grades. ...
In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines
The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) is the independent, non-governmental, scientific organisation, comprising all essential scientific disciplines, which, together with the WHO, is qualified to assess health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. ICNIRP uses the results of this assessment of draft health based exposure guidelines. The development of exposure guidelines requires a critical, in depth evaluation of the established scientific literature. The paper describes some criteria used for health risk assessment. Dosimetry is one of the most critical components of any scientific study assessing effects of electromagnetic fields on biological systems. Induced electric fields or current densities and specific absorption rate (SAR) are the fundamental and widely accepted dosimetric parameters. Significant recent dosimetric developments include the introduction of anatomically derived voxel-based electromagnetic models of the human body of various resolutions as well as varieties of effective numerical schemes. Due to these developments it is possible to analyse systematically the relationship between various exposure parameters and the fundamental dosimetric parameters. An appropriate metric for EMF epidemiology should be sufficiently comprehensive to allow the determination of the basic dosimetric quantities, their amplitudes and distribution in the human body. (author)
Wu, Jingda; Lin, Lih Y.
Conventional approaches to flexible optoelectronic devices typically require depositing the active materials on external substrates. This is mostly due to the weak bonding between individual molecules or nanocrystals in the active materials, which prevents sustaining a freestanding thin film. Herein we demonstrate an ultrathin freestanding ZnO quantum dot (QD) active layer with nanocellulose structuring, and its corresponding device fabrication method to achieve substrate-free flexible optoelectronic devices. The ultrathin ZnO QD-nanocellulose composite is obtained by hydrogel transfer printing and solvent-exchange processes to overcome the water capillary force which is detrimental to achieving freestanding thin films. We achieved an active nanocellulose paper with ~550 nm thickness, and >91% transparency in the visible wavelength range. The film retains the photoconductive and photoluminescent properties of ZnO QDs and is applied towards substrate-free Schottky photodetector applications. The device has an overall thickness of ~670 nm, which is the thinnest freestanding optoelectronic device to date, to the best of our knowledge, and functions as a self-powered visible-blind ultraviolet photodetector. This platform can be readily applied to other nano materials as well as other optoelectronic device applications.
This volume surveys the development of combinatorics since 1930 by presenting in chronological order the fundamental results of the subject proved in over five decades of original papers by:.-T. van Aardenne-Ehrenfest.-R.L. Brooks.-N.G. de Bruijn.-G.F. Clements.-H.H. Crapo.-R.P. Dilworth.-J. Edmonds.-P.Erdös.-L.R. Ford, Jr.-D.R. Fulkerson.-D. Gale.-L. Geissinger.-I.J. Good.-R.L. Graham.-A.W. Hales.-P. Hall.-P.R. Halmos.-R.I. Jewett.-I. Kaplansky.-P.W. Kasteleyn.-G. Katona.-D.J. Kleitman.-K. Leeb.-B. Lindström.-L. Lovász.-D. Lubell.-C. St. J.A. Nash-Williams.-G. Pólya.-F.P. Ramsey.-G.C. Rota.-B.L. Rothschild.-H.J. Ryser.-C. Schensted.-M.P. Schützenberger.-R.P. Stanley.-G. Szekeres.-W.T. Tutte.-H.E. Vaughan.-H. Whitney.
Carpenter, D. K.
Main Issues Considered in the Four Papers Schomaker and Waser These authors emphasize the importance of "global variables" of a system. By this term they mean that the pressure and temperature of the surroundings are the values that determine the thermodynamic properties of the system (even if there might be variations of the pressure within the system). From their point of view, the pressure "of" a system is the pressure exerted on it by the surrounding fluid with which it is in thermal and mechanical equilibrium, and is therefore the pressure that is appropriate to such expressions as G= U + pV - TS. They believe that this takes care of the possibility that regions within a system may have different pressures, or even have pressures that are undefined; all that is required is that the pressures within the system are functions of the external pressure (that of the surroundings). As one of their main convictions, Schomaker and Waser hold that if the surroundings of a system are kept at fixed temperature and pressure, then any process that is isothermostatic and isobarostatic (in their sense) will conform to the condition deltaG is less than or equal to 0 in a quite general sense, even in the special case of a system confined to a fixed volume by an ideally rigid container. Schomaker and Waser have given considerable attention to the thermodynamic properties of systems that are exposed simultaneously to different pressures, such as is the case for the walls of a container for which the inner and outer pressures differ. To deal with this they applied elasticity theory to irregularly shaped solids. Although I requested that the details of such calculations be omitted from their manuscript, they did introduce the notion that the container walls may contribute significantly to the overall change in the Gibbs function. Although it is not a subject of controversy between the authors of the other papers, Schomaker and Waser also emphasize a distinction between the changes in
The following working papers are included in this report: WP 2002-2, Dictionary Restructuring; WP-2002-4, Page numbers for REFERENCE (CP-C/285); WP-2002-5, Correlation quantities; WP 2002-8, Proposed data heading EN-CM-TOT (memo CP-A/121); WP 2002-9, Proposed high energy quantities (memo CP-A/123); WP 2002-11, Use of nuclide codes in SF 7 (memo CP-C/302); WP 2002-12, Redundant coding, new data heading PART-OUT; WP 2002-16, Zeros in error field (CP-C/306); WP 2002-17, Multiple appearance of the first Reference in EXFOR; WP 2002-18 + Add., EXFOR master file comparisons; WP 2002-19, Measures of Security at the NDS Open Area for EXFOR; WP 2002-20, New and revised entries received at NDS; WP 2002-21, EXFOR transmissions (NNDC); WP 2002-22, CINDA statistics (NNDC); WP 2002-24, CINDA batch exchange information (NDS); WP 2002-25, Journal coverage for CINDA; WP 2002-26, EXFOR-relational as multi-platform database (V. Zerkin); WP 2002-27, Completeness of EXFOR compil. as indexed by CINDA; WP 2002-28, Future NRDC Cooperation on CINDA: see Appendix 9; WP 2002-31, Development of Web Editor for Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data (N. Otuka, H. Noto, A. Ohnishi, K. Kato). The following other papers, or the memos of which they consist, are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section: WP 2002-1, Actions of previous meetings (2002, 2001) see INDC(NDS)-427, pp.20-26, and INDC(NDS)-418, pp.26-31; WP 2002-3, Units for particle and product yields: see memos CP-C/294, 286; WP 2002-6, 4-momentum transfer and mom.distr.data: see memos CP-C/295 and CP-D/330; WP 2002-7, Several 'straightforward' new quantities: see memos CP-/C-291, 298 and CP-A/118; WP 2002-10, Quantities proposed by JCPRG (see memos DP-D/337, CP-E/004, 003); WP 2002-13, Clarifications on Product Yields and Thick Target Yields (see memo CP-D/332); WP 2002-14, Clarifications on Polarization quantities (see memo CP-D/320); WP 2002-15, New Legendre polynomial modifier proposed (see CP-C/305); WP 2002-23, see memo 4C-4
Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines
Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders
waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....
Kolme Balti riigi presidendid kohtusid Riias Läänemere Arengufoorumil. Oma kõnedes rõhutasid presidendid vajadust kaitsta Läänemerd ning rääkisid energeetika ja transpordi arendamise olulisusest
This volume contains papers that originally appeared in Japanese in the journal Sūgaku. Ordinarily the papers would appear in the AMS translation of that journal, but to expedite publication, the Society has chosen to publish them as a volume of selected papers. The papers here are in the general area of mathematical analysis as it pertains to free probability theory.
The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper`s development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965-?).
He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Chun-Ho
Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a
This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.
The first papers reporting original research results in technical periodicals and proceedings appeared in the late 17th century. Since that time, the typical scientific paper has evolved from a fairly simple document, accessible to a general audience, to a much more complex one, aimed at a specialized audience. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of what the first scientific papers were like and how they evolved to their present form and style. To facilitate this discussion, the scientific paper's development has arbitrarily been divided into four stages: the origin and formative years of the scientific paper (1665-1765), emergence of scientific papers written for specialized publications (1765-1865), development of the modem scientific paper (1865-1965), and hyperspecialization and computerization of the modem scientific paper (1965- ).
Levintal, Oren; Zeira, Joseph
This paper tells the story of how paper money evolved as a result of lending by banks. While lending commodity money requires holding large reserves of commodity money to ensure liquidity, issuing convertible paper money reduces these costs significantly. The paper also examines the possibility of issuing inconvertible notes and shows that while they further reduce the cost of borrowing they also have adverse effects on the stability of the banking system. As a result, governments often inter...
Kim, Si Jung
This book introduces the essence of scientific paper, contents of paper, writing of manuscript, as well as research and analysis and arrangement of reference. It shows conditions of paper, kinds of paper, division and arrangement of content, title, author name, table of contents, abstracts, introduction, experimental materials and methods, results, consideration, conclusion, summary, acknowledgements, references. It also covers draft, quotation, footnotes and references, graphs and pictures, importance of literature research, how to find special literature, and analysis and arrangement of literature.
Tyler, Timothy F; Schmitt, Brandon M; Nicholas, Stephen J; McHugh, Malachy P
Hamstring-strain injuries have a high recurrence rate. To determine if a protocol emphasizing eccentric strength training with the hamstrings in a lengthened position resulted in a low recurrence rate. Longitudinal cohort study. Sports-medicine physical therapy clinic. Fifty athletes with hamstring-strain injury (age 36 ± 16 y; 30 men, 20 women; 3 G1, 43 G2, 4 G3; 25 recurrent injuries) followed a 3-phase rehabilitation protocol emphasizing eccentric strengthening with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. Injury recurrence; isometric hamstring strength at 80°, 60°, 40°, and 20° knee flexion in sitting with the thigh flexed to 40° above the horizontal and the seat back at 90° to the horizontal (strength tested before return to sport). Four of the 50 athletes sustained reinjuries between 3 and 12 mo after return to sport (8% recurrence rate). The other 42 athletes had not sustained a reinjury at an average of 24 ± 12 mo after return to sport. Eight noncompliant athletes did not complete the rehabilitation and returned to sport before initiating eccentric strengthening in the lengthened state. All 4 reinjuries occurred in these noncompliant athletes. At time of return to sport, compliant athletes had full restoration of strength while noncompliant athletes had significant hamstring weakness, which was progressively worse at longer muscle lengths (compliance × side × angle P = .006; involved vs noninvolved at 20°, compliant 7% stronger, noncompliant 43% weaker). Compliance with rehabilitation emphasizing eccentric strengthening with the hamstrings in a lengthened position resulted in no reinjuries.
Shaharum Ramli; Usang, M.D.
Malaysian research results are world class and its research papers are read all over the world. With this visibility, some elements in the papers should be localized so that the readers know that this is the work of Malaysians. This paper discusses two elements for example statement of authors name and preparation of diagrams. (author)
He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Chun-Ho; Lien, Der-Hsien
All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described. In an embodiment, a paper-based memory device is prepared by coating one or more areas of a paper substrate with a conductor material such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode
Full Text Available Rhesus (Rh mediated hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR are usually immunoglobulin G mediated and delayed onset. Rh antibodies being the cause of acute HTR (AHTR and intravascular hemolysis are still under debate. We report here a case of a 53-year-old male who developed AHTR due to "anti-c" antibodies within 3 h of blood transfusion, precipitating fatal acute liver failure in a patient with hepatitis C related chronic liver disease. This case emphasizes the need of inclusion of antibody screening in routine pretransfusion testing as well as a critical role of transfusion medicine specialists for early diagnosis and minimizing transfusion-related morbidity and mortality.
McCarthy, Brian, Ed.
Sixteen papers are presented. Topics covered include language teaching, discourse analysis, code switching, phonetics, language and cultural identity, and descriptive and comparative studies. All presenters were from the Asia-Pacific area of the world. Papers include: "The Baba Malay Lexicon: Hokkien Loanwords in Baba Malay" (Anne…
Shangguan, Jin-Wen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Sha; Hou, Yun-Xuan; Xu, Bi-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan
Paper capillary is introduced to enable effective sampling on microfluidic paper analytical devices. By coupling mac-roscale capillary force of paper capillary and microscale capillary forces of native paper, fluid transport can be flexibly tailored with proper design. Subsequently, a hybrid-fluid-mode paper capillary device was proposed, which enables fast and reliable sampling in an arrayed form, with less surface adsorption and bias for different components. The resulting device thus well supports high throughput, quantitative, and repeatable assays all by hands operation. With all these merits, multiplex analysis of ions, proteins, and microbe have all been realized on this platform, which has paved the way to level-up analysis on μPADs.
Aizenshtat, A Ya; Podran, N E; Ponizovskii, IS; Shain, BM
This volume contains papers selected by leading specialists in algebraic semigroups in the U.S., the United Kingdom, and Australia. Many of the papers strongly influenced the development of algebraic semigroups, but most were virtually unavailable outside the U.S.S.R. Written by some of the most prominent Soviet researchers in the field, the papers have a particular emphasis on semigroups of transformations. Boris Schein of the University of Arkansas is the translator.
International Monetary Fund
This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...
Pober, Jonathan C.
The Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) was a first-generation 21 cm cosmology experiment with the specific goal of detecting the power spectrum of the 21 cm emission from the Epoch of Reionization. Analysis of PAPER data is still ongoing, but lessons learned from PAPER to date have played a critical role in designing the next-generation Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) experiment. This article reviews five key design choices made by PAPER: use of a non-imaging configuration, redundancy, short baselines, small antenna elements, and a large instantaneous bandwidth. We describe the impact of these choices and the role they played in designing HERA.
... points when you write more papers in the future. The useful phrases in Chap. 19 will help you to structure your paper and give you an indication of the typical coverage of each section. I have written many papers before. Will I still learn something from this book? If you have ever had a paper rejected due to poor English, poor structure or poor readability, then this book will certainly help you. What are the three most important things I will learn from this book? This book is based on three fund...
Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao
The effect of irradiation on enzymatic hydrolysis of waste papers was studied. The sugar yield increased with increasing irradiation dose. In irradiation of deligninized paper, no acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis was observed. Degradation of cellulose molecules in paper by irradiation was examined by measurements of degree of polymerization and of potential reducing sugar. It was found in enzymatic hydrolysis that oligosaccharides such as celobiose were produced by irradiation. In irradiation of waste papers in catbon dioxide atmosphere, the glucose yield during enzymatic hydrolysis increased with increasing carbon dioxide gas pressure. (author)
Price, Morgan N; Arkin, Adam P
Large-scale genome sequencing has identified millions of protein-coding genes whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are similar to characterized proteins from other organisms, but much of this information is missing from annotation databases and is hidden in the scientific literature. To make this information accessible, PaperBLAST uses EuropePMC to search the full text of scientific articles for references to genes. PaperBLAST also takes advantage of curated resources (Swiss-Prot, GeneRIF, and EcoCyc) that link protein sequences to scientific articles. PaperBLAST's database includes over 700,000 scientific articles that mention over 400,000 different proteins. Given a protein of interest, PaperBLAST quickly finds similar proteins that are discussed in the literature and presents snippets of text from relevant articles or from the curators. PaperBLAST is available at http://papers.genomics.lbl.gov/. IMPORTANCE With the recent explosion of genome sequencing data, there are now millions of uncharacterized proteins. If a scientist becomes interested in one of these proteins, it can be very difficult to find information as to its likely function. Often a protein whose sequence is similar, and which is likely to have a similar function, has been studied already, but this information is not available in any database. To help find articles about similar proteins, PaperBLAST searches the full text of scientific articles for protein identifiers or gene identifiers, and it links these articles to protein sequences. Then, given a protein of interest, it can quickly find similar proteins in its database by using standard software (BLAST), and it can show snippets of text from relevant papers. We hope that PaperBLAST will make it easier for biologists to predict proteins' functions.
Lassen Hanan, Anne
This paper outlines the major schools within social capital theory. Contemporary authors such as Coleman, Putnam and Bourdieu are elaborated on. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review on studies of social capital. Furthermore, a criticial discussion on social capital is reviewed, before...
The paper explicates a set of criteria the joint satisfaction of which is taken to qualify moral judgements as cognitive. The paper examines evidence that some moral judgements meet these criteria, and relates the resulting conception of moral judgements to ongoing controversies about cognitivism in ethics. Philosophical ...
Painter, Richard A.
A learning experience is described for upper elementary or junior high students involving the manufacture, transportation, and marketing of a product for consumers. Steps are given and roles are assigned for students to convert raw material (paper) to a finished product (paper airplanes) and to sell it. (AV)
Cockburn, Patrick Joseph
Street papers are publications produced specifically for sale by the homeless and other vulnerable people in many countries around the world. Their social status is, however, often conspicuously unstable: ‘Get a job!’ has been reported as a common insult addressed to vendors, and street paper...
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA papers provides information such as, meeting, Internet addresses and programs. This paper is specially devoted to the environment. (A.L.B.)
Because of its exceptional significance in the history of great ideas in science, Einstein's first paper on relativity, especially its first part, deserves a more careful translation into English than presently exists. A new and annotated translation of this first part is presented here, together with a brief discussion of certain aspects of Einstein's paper
The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published
Calixto, M.K.; Medeiros, I.A.; Lima, R.C.; Araujo, Y.C.F.; Lima, E.M.C. de
The changes in the planet have accelerated the discussion about environmental preservation and the pursuit for sustainable solutions aiming the human development. In the civil construction, the residue recovery, not only contribute to sustainability but also relieves the consumption of raw material and for all this the search for new products in this new twist is in the center of global technological research. The goal of this work is to obtain plasterboard incorporating discarded paper in the educational environment. In this study, the plaster was characterized initially by X-ray diffraction and thermals analysis (TG e DTA). It was prepared a paste of plaster and processed paper varying the paper amount in two proportions with 10% and 50% respectively, and was utilized the plaster/water factor equals to 0,7. The plaster - paper mixtures were characterized about the setting time and compressive strength. The results indicated that the increase in paper content led to the decreased resistance. (author)
Nearly 20 years have passed since the initiation of peaceful uses of atomic energy in Japan. Close to the end of this period, there occurred the so-called oil crisis, which emphasized the need for nuclear power development. Meanwhile, voices of the people in Japan are varied concerning nuclear power, as in siting of the power plants and the n.s. (nuclear ship) Mutsu. The paper describes the following: safety, environmental protection, nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle, fission reactor and fusion reactor development, nuclear-powered ships, and radiation utilization.
Nearly 20 years have passes since the initiation of peaceful uses of atomic energy in Japan. Close to the end of this period, there had occurred the so-called oil crisis, which emphasizes the keen need for nuclear power development. In the meanwhile, voices of the people in Japan are varied concerning the nuclear power, as in siting of the power plants and the n.s. (nuclear ship) Mutsu. The white paper describes the following: safety, environment preservation, nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle, power reactor development and fusion reactor, nuclear-powered ship, radiation utilization, etc. (Mori, K.)
Full Text Available Background. Xylella fastidiosa, the causative agent of various plant diseases including Pierce’s disease in the US, and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis in Brazil, remains a continual source of concern and economic losses, especially since almost all commercial varieties are sensitive to this Gammaproteobacteria. Differential expression of proteins in infected tissue is an established methodology to identify key elements involved in plant defense pathways. Methods. In the current work, we developed a methodology named CHURNER that emphasizes relevant protein functions from proteomic data, based on identification of proteins with similar structures that do not necessarily have sequence homology. Such clustering emphasizes protein functions which have multiple copies that are up/down-regulated, and highlights similar proteins which are differentially regulated. As a working example we present proteomic data enumerating differentially expressed proteins in xylem sap from grapevines that were infected with X. fastidiosa. Results. Analysis of this data by CHURNER highlighted pathogenesis related PR-1 proteins, reinforcing this as the foremost protein function in xylem sap involved in the grapevine defense response to X. fastidiosa. β-1, 3-glucanase, which has both anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities, is also up-regulated. Simultaneously, chitinases are found to be both up and down-regulated by CHURNER, and thus the net gain of this protein function loses its significance in the defense response. Discussion. We demonstrate how structural data can be incorporated in the pipeline of proteomic data analysis prior to making inferences on the importance of individual proteins to plant defense mechanisms. We expect CHURNER to be applicable to any proteomic data set.
Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.
Large-scale genome sequencing has identified millions of protein-coding genes whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are similar to characterized proteins from other organisms, but much of this information is missing from annotation databases and is hidden in the scientific literature. To make this information accessible, PaperBLAST uses EuropePMC to search the full text of scientific articles for references to genes. PaperBLAST also takes advantage of curated resources (Swiss-Prot, GeneRIF, and EcoCyc) that link protein sequences to scientific articles. PaperBLAST’s database includes over 700,000 scientific articles that mention over 400,000 different proteins. Given a protein of interest, PaperBLAST quickly finds similar proteins that are discussed in the literature and presents snippets of text from relevant articles or from the curators. With the recent explosion of genome sequencing data, there are now millions of uncharacterized proteins. If a scientist becomes interested in one of these proteins, it can be very difficult to find information as to its likely function. Often a protein whose sequence is similar, and which is likely to have a similar function, has been studied already, but this information is not available in any database. To help find articles about similar proteins, PaperBLAST searches the full text of scientific articles for protein identifiers or gene identifiers, and it links these articles to protein sequences. Then, given a protein of interest, it can quickly find similar proteins in its database by using standard software (BLAST), and it can show snippets of text from relevant papers. We hope that PaperBLAST will make it easier for biologists to predict proteins’ functions.
Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing; Melucci, Massimo [Padua Univ., Padova (Italy). Dept. of Information Engineering; Frommholz, Ingo [Bedfordshire Univ. (United Kingdom); Arafat, Sachi (eds.) [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing Science
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)
Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Arafat, Sachi
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)
Walnut, David F
This book traces the prehistory and initial development of wavelet theory, a discipline that has had a profound impact on mathematics, physics, and engineering. Interchanges between these fields during the last fifteen years have led to a number of advances in applications such as image compression, turbulence, machine vision, radar, and earthquake prediction. This book contains the seminal papers that presented the ideas from which wavelet theory evolved, as well as those major papers that developed the theory into its current form. These papers originated in a variety of journals from differ
This paper reports that the SPE is creating an electronic index to over 25,000 technical papers and will produce a CD-ROM as an initial product. This SPE CD-ROM Masterdisc will be available at the SPE Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. on October 4-7, 1992. The SPE Board has appointed an Ad Hoc Committee on Electronic Publishing to coordinate and oversee this project and to recommend authoring standards for submitting SPE papers electronically in the future
Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Waumans, Michaël Charles; Bersini, Hugues
Many results have been obtained when studying scientific papers citations databases in a network perspective. Articles can be ranked according to their current in-degree and their future popularity or citation counts can even be predicted. The dynamical properties of such networks and the observation of the time evolution of their nodes started more recently. This work adopts an evolutionary perspective and proposes an original algorithm for the construction of genealogical trees of scientific papers on the basis of their citation count evolution in time. The fitness of a paper now amounts to its in-degree growing trend and a "dying" paper will suddenly see this trend declining in time. It will give birth and be taken over by some of its most prevalent citing "offspring". Practically, this might be used to trace the successive published milestones of a research field.
An investigation was performed to compare the quality of radiographic paper with that of X-ray film, after a review had been made of the rather scarce literature on the subject. The equipment used throughout the investigation is described, and characteristic curves for Agfa-Gevaert and Kodak papers exposed with different intensifying screens in the low and intermediate voltage range are reproduced. The relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed from these curves. The quality of the radiographic image was checked on U/Al blocks and plates, Al and Fe blocks, and fiber-reinforced composites. Exposure charts for Al and Fe were made for various paper and screen combinations. Both the sharpness of the radiographic image as well as the influence of processing on speed and contrast were checked. Examples are given of the practical application of the paper for radiography of castings, weldings, solderings, assemblies, etc. (author)
All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described. In an embodiment, a paper-based memory device is prepared by coating one or more areas of a paper substrate with a conductor material such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode of a memory, depositing a layer of insulator material, such as titanium dioxide, over one or more areas of the conductor material, and depositing a layer of metal over one or more areas of the insulator material to form a second electrode of the memory. In an embodiment, the device can further include diodes printed between the insulator material and the second electrode, and the first electrode and the second electrodes can be formed as a crossbar structure to provide a WORM memory. The various layers and the diodes can be printed onto the paper substrate by, for example, an ink jet printer.
Tippett, Benjamin K; Tsang, David
This white paper is an explanation of Ben and Dave's TARDIS time machine, written for laypeople who are interested in time travel, but have no technical knowledge of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. The first part of this paper is an introduction to the pertinent ideas from Einstein's theory of curved spacetime, followed by a review of other popular time machine spacetimes. We begin with an introduction to curvature and lightcones. We then explain the Alcubierre Warp Drive, the Morris...
We report the memory device on paper by means of an all-printing approach. Using a sequence of inkjet and screen-printing techniques, a simple metal-insulator-metal device structure is fabricated on paper as a resistive random access memory with a potential to reach gigabyte capacities on an A4 paper. The printed-paper-based memory devices (PPMDs) exhibit reproducible switching endurance, reliable retention, tunable memory window, and the capability to operate under extreme bending conditions. In addition, the PBMD can be labeled on electronics or living objects for multifunctional, wearable, on-skin, and biocompatible applications. The disposability and the high-security data storage of the paper-based memory are also demonstrated to show the ease of data handling, which are not achievable for regular silicon-based electronic devices. We envision that the PPMDs manufactured by this cost-effective and time-efficient all-printing approach would be a key electronic component to fully activate a paper-based circuit and can be directly implemented in medical biosensors, multifunctional devices, and self-powered systems. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Anderson, Cheryl A M; Cobb, Laura K; Miller, Edgar R; Woodward, Mark; Hottenstein, Annette; Chang, Alex R; Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; White, Karen; Charleston, Jeanne; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thomas, Letitia; Appel, Lawrence J
For decades, dietary sodium intake in the United States has remained high, and few studies have examined strategies for maintaining recommended intakes. We examined the effects of a behavioral intervention, which emphasized spices and herbs, on the maintenance of sodium intake at the recommended intake of 1500 mg/d in individuals to whom the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans apply. We conducted a 2-phase study that included adults ≥18 y of age for whom Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 1500 mg Na/d. The study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, from 2012 to 2014. In phase 1, 55 individuals consumed a low-sodium diet for 4 wk. Participants were provided all foods, snacks, and calorie-containing drinks. In phase 2, 40 participants from phase 1 were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention to reduce sodium intake (n = 20) or a self-directed control group (n = 20) for 20 wk. The primary study outcome was the change in mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion during phase 2. Linear regression analyses were used to determine intervention effects on urinary sodium excretion. Participant characteristics were as follows: women: 65%; African American: 88%; hypertension: 63%; diabetes: 18%; mean age: 61 y; and mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 30. At the end of phase 2, mean 24-h sodium excretion was lower in the behavioral intervention than in the self-directed group (mean difference: -956.8 mg/d; 95% CI: -1538.7, -374.9 mg/d) after sodium intake at screening was controlled for (P = 0.002). These findings persisted in sensitivity analyses that excluded potentially incomplete urine collections [Mage's equation mean difference: -1090 mg/d (P = 0.001); Joosens' equation mean difference: -796 mg/d (P = 0.04)]. A multifactorial behavioral intervention emphasizing spices and herbs significantly reduced sodium intake. Because of the ubiquity of sodium in the US food supply, multilevel strategies addressing individual behaviors and the food supply are needed
This volume presents some of the most influential papers published by Rabi N. Bhattacharya, along with commentaries from international experts, demonstrating his knowledge, insight, and influence in the field of probability and its applications. For more than three decades, Bhattacharya has made significant contributions in areas ranging from theoretical statistics via analytical probability theory, Markov processes, and random dynamics to applied topics in statistics, economics, and geophysics. Selected reprints of Bhattacharya’s papers are divided into three sections: Modes of Approximation, Large Times for Markov Processes, and Stochastic Foundations in Applied Sciences. The accompanying articles by the contributing authors not only help to position his work in the context of other achievements, but also provide a unique assessment of the state of their individual fields, both historically and for the next generation of researchers. Rabi N. Bhattacharya: Selected Papers will be a valuable resource for yo...
Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F; Mazzeo, Aaron D
This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nW⋅cm -2 ⋅nm -1 ), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like "stretchy" structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.
Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.
Waste solids containing paper are biologically treated in a system by: fermentation with lactobacilli, separation of the solids, ion exchange of the supernatant from the separation, anaerobic digestion of the ion-exchanged liquor, separation of a liquor from the fermentation, and digestion of the liquor. Thus, a municipal waste containing paper and water was inoculated with Aspergillus niger and lactobacilli for 2 days; the mixture was anaerobically treated and centrifuged; the clear liquor was ion exchanged; and the solid waste was filter pressed. The filter cake was treated with Trichoderma nigricaus and filtered. The filtrate and the ion-exchanged liquor were digested for CH/sub 4/ production.
The Atmospheric Sciences Committee has presented Kaye Brubaker and Jichun Shi with Outstanding Student Paper awards for presentations given at the AGU 1991 Spring Meeting, held in Baltimore May 28-31.Brubaker's paper, “Precipitation Recycling Estimated from Atmospheric Data,” presented quantitative estimates of the contribution of locallyevaporated moisture to precipitation over several large continental regions. Recycled precipitation is defined as water that evaporates from the land surface of a specified region and falls again as precipitation within the region. Brubaker applied a control volume analysis based on a model proposed by Budyko.
This paper is comprised of a large number of position papers that describe current research and potential areas for future research in the field of diagnostic procedures. There are few specific recommendations that can be made for research to identify biological effects below one rod in populations exposed to diagnostic radiological imaging. It is the conclusion of the author that if radiology is practiced according to the state-of-the-art, then it has been responsive to the implications of biological effects whether the effects adhere to the linear hypothesis or vary from it
Yeager, K L
This current issue paper reviews major accidents which have occurred at commercial and military nuclear facilities, and provides basic background on nuclear power and reactor design features to assist the novice in understanding the very complex technical issues surrounding these events. Above all, the role of human factors in the prevention of potential accident situations is emphasized. (author).
Ghorbani, Ahmad; Ghazvini, Kiarash
Many studies have emphasized the incorporation of active learning into classrooms to reinforce didactic lectures for physiology courses. This work aimed to determine if presenting classic papers during didactic lectures improves the learning of physiology among undergraduate students. Twenty-two students of health information technology were…
Murray, Fiona; Aghion, Philippe; Dewatripont, Mathias; Kolev, Julian; Stern, Scott
Scientific freedom and openness are hallmarks of academia: relative to their counterparts in industry, academics maintain discretion over their research agenda and allow others to build on their discoveries. This paper examines the relationship between openness and freedom, building on recent models emphasizing that, from an economic perspective,…
This current issue paper reviews major accidents which have occurred at commercial and military nuclear facilities, and provides basic background on nuclear power and reactor design features to assist the novice in understanding the very complex technical issues surrounding these events. Above all, the role of human factors in the prevention of potential accident situations is emphasized. (author)
Fry, John P.
This paper describes the results of one Army officer's experiment in applying the techniques of psychological research on the job. With a view to developing his subordinates' leadership ability and initiative, and permitting them an active role in managing the battalion, he emphasized particularly the principles of "contingency management"…
O'Brien, S; McFarland, J; Kealy, B; Pullela, A; Saunders, J; Cullen, W; Meagher, D
There is increasing interest in the application of recovery principles in mental health services. We studied the implementation of a programme of intensive case management (ICM) emphasizing recovery principles in a community mental health service in Ireland. Eighty service attenders with severe and enduring illness characterized by significant ongoing disability were randomized into (1) a group receiving a programme of ICM and (2) a group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Groups were compared before and after the programme for general psychopathology using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (clinician rated) and How are You? scale (self-rated). The Functional Analysis of Care Environments (FACE) scale provided assessment of multiple functional domains. The overall group (mean age 44.5 ± 13.2 years; 60% male) had mean total Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) scale scores of 10.5 ± 4.6, with problems in social functioning especially prominent (mean social subscale score 5.0 ± 2.7). The ICM group were younger (p recovery principles resulted in significant improvement across psychopathological and functional domains. Improvements were linked to enhanced engagement with structured daily activities. Recovery-oriented practices can be integrated into existing mental health services and provided alongside traditional models of care.
At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable
Reid, George C.
The problem of how to organize and write a scientific paper is a very basic one for most of us. A scientific paper is, after all, the only tangible product of a research scientist and, like all products, will be a failure if not marketed properly to reach its potential buyers. I think that a lack of attention to this “marketing and sales” aspect of research is a serious fault in our community, by which I mean those of us who publish in AGU journals.The potential audience for a scientific paper can be divided roughly into three distinct categories. The first group is usually rather small in number, consisting of fellow scientists working in a very closely related field, and to whom the details of the work are of major importance. The second group is also fellow scientists, but their interest is less sharply focused, and they are concerned with the broad outlines of the work and essential results. The third group is the sponsors and the people who actually pay for the work, whose interest in the details is minimal and they, sadly enough, are often concerned only with the fact that a paper has been published rather than its content.
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 4 presents the point of view of some participants to the third national meeting of the environment observatories. (A.L.B.)
Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.
The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable
Author Guidelines. Contributors are requested to submit their manuscripts as Word documents (.doc or .docx) in the following format: Paper size: A4. Top and bottom margins: 3 cm. Left-hand side and right-hand side margins: 2.5 cm. Line spacing: single (no additional space before or after paragraphs). Font: Times New ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 9. Collected Papers of Srinivasa Ramanujan. J E Littlewood. Classics Volume 18 Issue 9 September 2013 pp 859-865. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/09/0859-0865 ...
This paper explores the grounds upon which moral judgment of a person's beliefs is properly made. The beliefs in question are non-moral beliefs and the objects of moral judgment are individual instances of believing. We argue that instances of believing may be morally wrong on any of three distinct grounds: (i) by ...
Lien, Derhsien; Kao, Zhenkai; Huang, Tenghan; Liao, Yingchih; Lee, Sichen; He, Jr-Hau
. In addition, the PBMD can be labeled on electronics or living objects for multifunctional, wearable, on-skin, and biocompatible applications. The disposability and the high-security data storage of the paper-based memory are also demonstrated to show the ease
Allakhverdiev, B P; Fainshtein, A S; Khelemskii, AYa; Klenina, LI
The papers in this volume cover topics on functional analysis. They have been selected, translated, and edited from publications not otherwise translated into English under the auspices of the AMS-ASL-IMS Committee on Translations from Russian and Other Foreign Languages.
Akhmedov, S A; Berezanskii, Yu M; Bazalii, B V; Berezanskii, Yu M
The papers in this volume, like those in the previous one, have been selected, translated, and edited from publications not otherwise translated into English under the auspices of the AMS-ASL-IMS Committee on Translations from Russian and Other Foreign Languages.
Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.
This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…
Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.
The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)
Delle Monache, Stefano; Rocchesso, Davide; Qi, Ji
Introducing continuous sonic interaction in augmented pop-up books enhances the expressive and performative qualities of movables, making the whole narrative experience more engaging and personal. The SaMPL Spring School on Sounding Popables explored the specific topic of paper-driven sonic...
Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.
In the papers of this working group, the availability of uranium and the long-term supply situation for this raw material are discussed. A problem closely connected with uranium supply are the commercial contracts and their particularities. The points of view of the reporting countries of Great Britain, South Africa, Switzerland, Australia, Japan, and Korea are made clear
Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.
Full Text Available Socially and politically controlled teenagers find emancipatory spaces in young adult (YA literature, spaces where institutions can be challenged and individuals can gain agency and empowerment. Drawing on Foucault's theory of heterotopia, I examine the literary spaces in John Green's YA novel Paper Towns and examine how Green's online social networking community Nerdfighters shares an ideological common ground with the novel.
Spiewak, I.; Cope, D.F.
This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power
Santos, AS; Bittencourt, C.
The Brazilian paper industry has competitive advantages offered by the favorable climate, which favors an increase in the yield of forest restoration, and consequently, in the productive process. On the other hand, following the greenhouse gases (GHG), we can see our constantly changing sun, causing the solar storms, allowing their prevention or mitigating measures. The objective of this work is to contribute to the construction of the understanding necessary for the reduction of GHG emission from a preliminary analysis of the pulp and paper sector. As a secondary objective, the text preliminarily analyzes a company’s behavior against the backdrop of the Paris Accord, which strengthens the global response to the threat of climate change and strengthens the capacity of countries to deal with the impacts of such changes. The identification of best practices in the pulp and paper industry is understood, focusing on environmental sustainability, such as the adoption of reforestation, obtaining significant results. In the case of the paper industry, the management of public forests for sustainable production, within the structure of the Ministry of the Environment, establishes the promotion of public awareness about the importance of conservation, recovery and sustainable management of forest resources.
Preprint of the results of `the publicly applied proposal type and hi-tech (emphasized) field research and development in fiscal 1995`; `1995 nendo teian kobogata saisentan (juten) bun`ya kenkyu kaihatsu` seika hokokukai yokoshu
The preprint was prepared of a report meeting for the results of `the publicly applied proposal type and hi-tech (emphasized) field research and development in fiscal 1995` to be held in Tokyo during February 12 to 14, 1997. In the meeting, a lecture titled `The system of fundamental researches and its execution` is to be given as a special lecture and the following are as general lectures: `Energy/environmental technology and next generation catalysts,` ` The present and outlook of surgery in the 21st century - computer surgery,` The present situation of education and research related to the design of digital integrated systems,` and `The present and future of research and development of a new carbon material, fullerene.` Research reports were prepared by field as follows: 73 papers in the new material technology field, 46 in the bio-technology field, 36 in the electronics/information technology field, 8 in the mechanical system technology field, 8 in the human life engineering technology field, 23 in the medical/welfare equipment technology field, 5 in the resource technology field, 17 in the energy/environment technology field.
Widya, I.; Vanrijssen, E.; Michiels, E.
The paper presents the use of the concepts and modelling principles of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) upper layers structure in the modelling of multimedia teleservices. It puts emphasis on the revised Application Layer Structure (OSI/ALS). OSI/ALS is an object based reference model which intends to coordinate the development of application oriented services and protocols in a consistent and modular way. It enables the rapid deployment and integrated use of these services. The paper emphasizes further on the nesting structure defined in OSI/ALS which allows the design of scalable and user tailorable/controllable teleservices. OSI/ALS consistent teleservices are moreover implementable on communication platforms of different capabilities. An analysis of distributed multimedia architectures which can be found in the literature, confirms the ability of the OSI/ALS framework to model the interworking functionalities of teleservices.
Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.
The book is a collection of 16 papers presented at the Annual Chemical Congress which give a very broad picture of the problems of conservation both in the United Kingdom and in the world as a whole. The papers consider energy requirements of different communities and the wide disparity between the demands of the industrialized and Third World countries; the need for economy and the importance in due course of finding renewable forms of energy; very substantial losses of energy that take place when oil and coal are converted into electricity or when sources of energy have to be transported. The problems of nuclear energy are discussed and, in a consideration of the involvement of the chemical industry in energy, proposals are made for reducing the input of energy in the manufacture of chemicals. (MCW)
Charles-Jones, S.; Muirhead, S.; Wilson, E.A.; Jefferson, M.; Binnie, C.J.A.; O'Connor, B.A.; Rothwell, P.; Cowie, D.
Further observations were made on the great potential for tidal power developments in NW Australia. Discussion on the Severn Barrage paper and environmental effects of tidal power plants centred mainly around the impact on bird populations. The topics covered were: the adaptability of birds to changes in their environment with particular reference to the importance of inter-tidal areas for wildfowl and wading birds in the United Kingdom; the creation of mudflats as replacement feeding areas for wading birds; whether there is a danger that pressure from the construction industry might result in a barrage being built before the uncertainties in the environmental impact assessment are removed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)
Pereira, Samáris Ramiro; Duarte, Jacy Marcondes; Bandiera-Paiva, Paulo
From the hypothesis that the development of scientific papers, mainly in interdisciplinary areas such as Health Informatics, may bring difficulties to the author, as had its communicative efficacy decreased or compromising their approval for publication; we aim to make considerations on the main items to good players making this kind of text. The scientific writing has peculiarities that must be taken into consideration when it writes: general characteristics, such as simplicity and objectivity, and characteristics of each area of knowledge, such as terminology, formatting and standardization. The research methodology adopted is bibliographical. The information was based on literature review and the authors' experience, teachers and assessors of scientific methodology in peer review publications in the area. As a result, we designed a checklist of items to be checked before submission of a paper to a scientific publication vehicle in order to contribute to the promotion of research, facilitating the publication and increase its capacity in this important area of knowledge.
Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling conﬁguration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent ﬁnding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.
Papers published by RERF (a cooperative Japan-U.S. research organization) personnel mainly in 1977 issues of journals are listed as bibliography giving the title, authors, etc. Mostly in both Japanese and English. The total of about 50 such cover areas as follows; Variety of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular, dosimetry, genetics, pathology, radiation effects including such as diseases, and summary reports. (Mori, K.)
Creating an appreciation of art history in her junior-high students has always been one of the author's greatest challenges as an art teacher. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students re-created a famous work of art--piece by piece, like a puzzle or a stained-glass window--out of construction paper. (Contains 1 resource.)
Strongman, C.P.; Jones, R.; Moorhead, H.
The topics raised in discussion included: the performance of the generator sets; the movement of sediments and the effect on beach levels; monitoring near-bed sediments; the erosion of barrage materials by suspended solids; sediment transport models; the accuracy of hydrographic and other surveys; the relative ornithological importance of the estuary with respect to others in the United Kingdom. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the three papers under discussion. (UK)
This book describes the role of technology and challenge of future like why we focus on future technologies and future, human being and technology, methodology on development for future technologies such as global monitoring system for investigation on environmental change, investigation of research front for paper and patent and COMPAS, and domestic and foreign organization for discover on future technologies. It also introduces KISTI selection future technologies 500 : healthy society, smart society, safety society, and future technologies 500.
The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A
Sharik, T.L.; Kimmins, J.P.H.
Our understanding of the ecology and management of North American forests is rapidly evolving as a result of novel approaches to their study, many of which are the results of emerging technologies. The biennial North American Forest Ecology Workshop series attempts to capture these approaches and highlight the ways in which they expand our understanding of forest systems. The ten papers appearing in this issue were drawn from the 7th and most recent workshop, held in June 2009, in which there were over 150 presentations. The first paper in this special issue attempts to provide an overview of emerging themes in the ecology and management of North American Forests based on all presentations and follow-up discussions at the workshop and concludes with future research needs. The second paper describes the carbon flux of down woody materials in forests of the North central U.S. using recent data from the USDA Forest Services Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program and exemplifies the utility of a network of permanent plots for monitoring change over large spatial scales and long time periods. The study described in the third paper is a nice sequel to the second in that it uses FIA data to demonstrate changes in the population levels of an understory tree in eastern North America threatened by an introduced pathogen, among other causes. The authors point out that such data can be used to validate the findings of multiple small-scale studies and to generate hypotheses for testing at smaller scales, thereby reinforcing a workshop-wide call for the study of forest ecosystems at multiple scales.
Sadawarte, N. S.; Prasad, A. K.; Khanolkar, V. D.; Shenoy, S. C.
The pulp and paper industry is highly energy intensive. In view of the spiralling fuel prices and rising power costs, there is an urgent need to conserve energy through better management of various operations in the industry, from the optimal utilization of the forest residues to the shipment of the final product. The total energy concept, e.g., energy generation, distribution and utilization in Indian paper industry is discussed. The need for an energy audit is emphasized and the formats of energy reporting forms are included. Short and long term measures to be enforced to achieve energy savings in the pulp and paper mills are outlined. Some important energy conservation approaches are also discussed. Factors affecting energy efficiency in a pulp and paper mill are reviewed. Some areas where sustained R and D efforts should be focused to make the paper industry nearly self-sufficient in energy generation and utilization are also given. It is essential to have a National Energy Policy clearly defining achievable targets of energy conservation for industry. The Indian paper industry could advantageously form its own committee to review the operation of the various mills in the country and come out with concrete solutions for higher energy efficiency and more effective conservation of energy.
Virginia P. Edgcomb
Full Text Available Little is still known of the impacts of protist grazing on bacterioplankton communities in the dark ocean. Furthermore, the accuracy of assessments of in situ microbial activities, including protist grazing, can be affected by sampling artifacts introduced during sample retrieval and downstream manipulations. Potential artifacts may be increased when working with deep-sea samples or samples from chemically unique water columns such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. OMZs are oxygen-depleted regions in the ocean, where oxygen concentrations can drop to <20 μM. These regions are typically located near eastern boundary upwelling systems and currently occur in waters occupying below about 8% of total ocean surface area, representing ~1% of the ocean's volume. OMZs have a profound impact not only on the distribution of marine Metazoa, but also on the composition and activities of microbial communities at the base of marine food webs. Here we present an overview of current knowledge of protist phagotrophy below the photic zone, emphasizing studies of oxygen-depleted waters and presenting results of the first attempt to implement new technology for conducting these incubation studies completely in situ (the Microbial Sampling- Submersible Incubation Device, MS-SID. We performed 24-h incubation experiments in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP OMZ. This preliminary study shows that up to 28% of bacterial biomass may be consumed by protists in waters where oxygen concentrations were down to ~4.8 μM and up to 13% at a station with nitrite accumulation where oxygen concentrations were undetectable. Results also show that shipboard measurements of grazing rates were lower than rates measured from the same water using the MS-SID, suggesting that in situ experiments help to minimize artifacts that may be introduced when conducting incubation studies using waters collected from below the photic zone, particularly from oxygen-depleted regions of the water
Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.
Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang
The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges
Walker, R.; Wilson, E.A.; Gibson, P.
Questions raised in the discussion are reported. These concerned: the Treasury discount rate for the construction of such a project; the CO 2 benefits of tidal schemes in developing countries; the criteria for deciding the total installed capacity of the scheme; the Government review of the cost-benefit analysis; the benefit arising from the elimination of nitrogen and sulphur oxides; security of supply; carbon tax projections. The only response reported is on the question of criteria for deciding the total installed capacity. Separate abstracts have been prepared on the three papers under discussion. (UK)
Recent reviews of the records on disposal waste at several DOE sites have indicated that records still contain little information practical to waste management. Much of the disposed waste is identified by vague terms, i.e., general plant waste. Attached to this paper is a new waste characterization code devised by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to aid in waste volume reduction and stabilization. It is recommended that every facility involved in waste generation and disposal needs to be detailing its wastes to support upgrading of waste management practices. 1 table
Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Berstein, Lee A.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Messer, Bronson; Brown, B. Alex; Brown, Edward F.; Brune, Carl R.; Champagne, Art E.; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron J.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib
This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town mee...
Short, Steve; Short, Gretchen; Strack, Donald; Anloague, Philip; Brewster, Brian
Athletes experiencing hip, groin, and low back pain often exhibit similar clinical characteristics. Individuals with hip, groin and low back pain may have the presence of multiple concurrent pathoanatomical diagnoses. Regardless, similar regional characteristics and dysfunction may contribute to the patient's chief complaint, potentially creating a sub-group of individuals that may be defined by lumbopelvic and hip mobility limitations, motor control impairments, and other shared clinical findings. The purpose of this case series is to describe the conservative management of elite athletes, within the identified aforementioned sub-group, that emphasized regional manual therapy interventions, and therapeutic exercise designed to improve lumbopelvic and hip mobility, stability and motor control. Five elite athletes were clinically diagnosed by a physical therapist with primary pathologies including adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) with acetabular labral lesion and acute, mechanical low back pain (LBP). Similar subjective, objective findings and overall clinical profiles were identified among all subjects. Common findings aside from the chief complaint included, but were not limited to, decreased hip range of motion (ROM), impaired lumbopelvic motor control and strength, lumbar hypomobility in at least one segment, and a positive hip flexion-adduction-internal rotation (FADIR) special test. A three-phase impairment-based physical therapy program was implemented to resolve the primary complaints and return the subjects to their desired level of function. Acute phase rehabilitation consisted of manual therapy and fundamental motor control exercises. Progression to the sub-acute and terminal phases was based on improved subjective pain reports and progress with functional impairments. As the subjects progress through the rehabilitation phases, the delivery of physical therapy interventions were defined by decreased manual therapies
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is a leading cause of death in dengue. This study aims to identify predictors for GI bleeding in adult dengue patients, emphasizing the impact of existing comorbid disease(s.Of 1300 adults with dengue virus infection, 175 (mean age, 56.5±13.7 years patients with GI bleeding and 1,125 (mean age, 49.2±15.6 years without GI bleeding (controls were retrospectively analyzed.Among 175 patients with GI bleeding, dengue hemorrhagic fever was found in 119 (68% patients; the median duration from onset dengue illness to GI bleeding was 5 days. Gastric ulcer, erythematous gastritis, duodenal ulcer, erosive gastritis, and hemorrhagic gastritis were found in 52.3%, 33.3%, 28.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% of 42 patients with GI bleeding who had undergone endoscopic examination, respectively. Overall, nine of the 175 patients with GI bleeding died, giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 5.1%. Multivariate analysis showed age ≥60 years (cases vs. controls: 48% vs. 28.3% (odds ratio [OR]: 1.663, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.128-2.453, end stage renal disease with additional comorbidities (cases vs. controls: 1.7% vs. 0.2% (OR: 9.405, 95% CI: 1.4-63.198, previous stroke with additional comorbidities (cases vs. controls: 7.4% vs. 0.6% (OR: 9.772, 95% CI: 3.302-28.918, gum bleeding (cases vs. controls: 27.4% vs. 11.5% (OR: 1.732, 95% CI: 1.1-2.727, petechiae (cases vs. controls: 56.6% vs. 29.1% (OR: 2.109, 95% CI: 1.411-3.153, and platelet count <50×109 cells/L (cases vs. controls: 53.1% vs. 25.8% (OR: 3.419, 95% CI: 2.103-5.558 were independent predictors of GI bleeding in patients with dengue virus infection.Our study is the first to disclose that end stage renal disease and previous stroke, with additional comorbidities, were strongly significant associated with the risk of GI bleeding in patients with dengue virus infection. Identification of these risk factors can be incorporated into the patient assessment and management protocol
Jordan, S.R.; Arrowood, L.F.; Cain, W.D.; Stephens, W.M.; Vickers, B.D.
Object-Oriented Technology (OOT), although not a new paradigm, has recently been prominently featured in the trade press and even general business publications. Indeed, the promises of object technology are alluring: the ability to handle complex design and engineering information through the full manufacturing production life cycle or to manipulate multimedia information, and the ability to improve programmer productivity in creating and maintaining high quality software. Groups at a number of the DOE facilities have been exploring the use of object technology for engineering, business, and other applications. In this white paper, the technology is explored thoroughly and compared with previous means of developing software and storing databases of information. Several specific projects within the DOE Complex are described, and the state of the commercial marketplace is indicated.
Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph
The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...
This document gathers some slides, papers and posters that were presented at the 2011 annual EUROSAFE forum. This forum focuses in its plenary part on 'Nuclear safety: new challenges, gained experience and public expectations' in the light of the Fukushima nuclear power station (NPS) accident. The topic will be considered from the point of view of Japanese safety authorities, of a regulator, of an international organisation, of a utility and of a Technical Safety Organisation (TSO). The first part of the second day will be devoted to presentations of the Fukushima NPS accident. The second part of this day will present the latest work carried out by ETSON (European Technical Safety Organizations Network) and EUROSAFE members and their partners worldwide through three seminars (nuclear safety research and safety assessment, radiation protection and environment, nuclear material and nuclear facilities security) and a workshop on operating experience feedback on nuclear fuel cycle facilities
Täuber, Susanne; van Zomeren, Martijn; Kutlaca, Maja
The main objective of this paper is to identify a serious problem for communicators regarding the framing of climate issues in public discourse, namely that moralizing such an issue can motivate individuals while at the same time defensively lead them to avoid solving the problem. We review recent
Adamaszek, M; D'Agata, F; Ferrucci, R; Habas, C; Keulen, S; Kirkby, K C; Leggio, M; Mariën, P; Molinari, M; Moulton, E; Orsi, L; Van Overwalle, F; Papadelis, C; Priori, A; Sacchetti, B; Schutter, D J; Styliadis, C; Verhoeven, J
Over the past three decades, insights into the role of the cerebellum in emotional processing have substantially increased. Indeed, methodological refinements in cerebellar lesion studies and major technological advancements in the field of neuroscience are in particular responsible to an exponential growth of knowledge on the topic. It is timely to review the available data and to critically evaluate the current status of the role of the cerebellum in emotion and related domains. The main aim of this article is to present an overview of current facts and ongoing debates relating to clinical, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings on the role of the cerebellum in key aspects of emotion. Experts in the field of cerebellar research discuss the range of cerebellar contributions to emotion in nine topics. Topics include the role of the cerebellum in perception and recognition, forwarding and encoding of emotional information, and the experience and regulation of emotional states in relation to motor, cognitive, and social behaviors. In addition, perspectives including cerebellar involvement in emotional learning, pain, emotional aspects of speech, and neuropsychiatric aspects of the cerebellum in mood disorders are briefly discussed. Results of this consensus paper illustrate how theory and empirical research have converged to produce a composite picture of brain topography, physiology, and function that establishes the role of the cerebellum in many aspects of emotional processing.
The present volume of historical papers on nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) encompasses NTP technology development regarding solid-core NTP technology, advanced concepts from the early years of NTP research, and recent activities in the field. Specific issues addressed include NERVA rocket-engine technology, the development of nuclear rocket propulsion at Los Alamos, fuel-element development, reactor testing for the Rover program, and an overview of NTP concepts and research emphasizing two decades of NASA research. Also addressed are the development of the 'nuclear light bulb' closed-cycle gas core and a demonstration of a fissioning UF6 gas in an argon vortex. The recent developments reviewed include the application of NTP to NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System, the use of NTP for the Space Exploration Initiative, and the development of nuclear rocket engines in the former Soviet Union.
Warin, Dominique; Wallenius, Janne; Ouzounian, Gerald; Wikberg, Peter; Todd, Terry A.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhael V.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Mayorshin, A.A.; McLachlan, Fiona; Nash, Ken L.; Nilsson, M.; Grimes, T.; Braley, J.C.; TAKESHITA, Kenji; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Spendlikova, I.; Distler, P.; John, J.; Sebesta, F.; VU, Trong-Hung; SIMONIN, Jean-Pierre; PAULENOVA, Alena; PRECEK, Martin; HARTIG, Kyle; KNAPP, Nathan; Vidick, Geoffrey; Bouslimani, Nouri; Desreux, Jean F.; Lewis, F.W.; Hudson, M.J.; Harwood, L.M.; Nunez, Ana; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Raj, Baldev; Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Pouchon, Manuel A.; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Nordlund, Anders; John, Jan; Maershin, Alexander; Zakirov, R.; Panov, A.; Toropov, Andrey
This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the workshop but with no attached paper. These slides refer to the following presentations: - Presentation of ITN (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear); - Minor Actinide Partitioning (Dominique Warin); - Transmutation (Janne Wallenius); - Radioactive Waste Management, IGD-TP (Gerald Ouzounian); - Present status of the Swedish nuclear waste management programme (Peter Wikberg); - The U.S. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program - Separations Research and Development (Terry Todd); - Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles - Russian Expert Vision (Mikhael Kormilitsyn) - Extraction Studies Of Potential Solvent Formulations For The GANEX Process (Fiona MacLachlan); - Investigations of The Fundamental Chemistry of the TALSPEAK Process (Ken Nash); - Extraction Separation of Trivalent Minor Actinides and Lanthanides by Hexa-dentate Nitrogen-donor Extractant, TPEN, and its Analogs (Kenji Takeshita); - Fluorinated Diluents for HLW Processing - technological point of view (Vasiliy Babain); - Extraction properties of some new pyridine molecules and search for better diluents (Irena Spendlikova); - Kinetics of extraction of Eu 3+ ion by TODGA and CyMe 4 -BTBP studied using the RMC technique (Trong Hung Vu); - Redox Chemistry of Neptunium in Solutions of Nitric Acid (Alena Paulenova); - NMR applied to actinide ions and their complexes. In search of covalency effects (Geoffrey Vidick); - Towards 'Stability Rules' for Radiolysis of bis-DGA compounds (Ana Nunez); - Pyroprocess Research Activities at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India (K. Nagarajan); - Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides: from ISTC No. 1606 to No. 3749 (1. year of project activity) and MARS/EVOL cooperation (Victor Ignatiev); - Conversion processes: Internal Gelation and the Sphere-pac concept (Manuel Pouchon); - A Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry Master. A Unique
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order 12). 570.63 Section 570.63 Labor Regulations... involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order...
Mayra Carrijo Rochael
response to different stimuli, in a similar way to that occurring in erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The syndrome has been described in association with conditions such as infections, pregnancy, the use of certain medications and malignancy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical and histopathological alterations occurring in this syndrome and to assess the association between these alterations and other conditions. METHODS: A retrospective study of 73 cases was conducted, evaluating data on the microscopic examination of skin lesions, as well as clinical and laboratory data. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were female (83.0%, white (49.2% and between 30 and 60 years of age (73.8%. The principal alterations found were: erythymatous plaques (76.9%, papules (43.0%, pseudo-vesiculation (PV (38.4% and target lesions (18.5%. With respect to the associated conditions, upper respiratory tract infections (15.4% and the use of medication (10.8% were the most common. Other associations, albeit represented by only one case each, were: Hodgkin's lymphoma, pregnancy, ulcerative colitis, polycythemia vera and lupus erythematosus in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. The principal microscopic findings were: neutrophils with leukocytoclasia (98.6%, collagen degeneration (87.7%, edema (74.0% and PV (38.4%. The presence of eosinophils (41.1% ranged from rare to abundant and was usually unrelated to the use of medication. Inflammatory infiltrate reached the deep epidermal layer in 47.9% of cases and panniculitis was found in 80.0% of cases in which the hypodermis was affected (10 cases. CONCLUSIONS: In general, these findings are in agreement with results published in the literature, emphasizing the frequent finding of eosinophils unrelated to drug use, panniculitis and the rare association with Hodgkin's lymphoma. This is the fifth report of an association between Sweet's syndrome and Hodgkin's disease.
Sandahl, Tone Irene
This research has been initiated on the basis of practical experiences in developing a relatively large SGML system at the University of Oslo. This thesis contributes to the field of information systems, with a particular focus on document systems. The aim of this work is to inform the design of document systems by considering the transformation from paper to digital documents in organizations. The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML, ISO 8879) approach is emphasized. The SGML approach...
十年前广州制订战略规划的最初称谓就是概念规划.强调战略规划可以研究问题的多样性和不确定性跟突出战略规划阶段要研究基本概念不相矛盾.在现行规划体制与制度下,如何提高战略规划阶段中一些概念对城市总体规划有更大的贡献,本文强调应该突出土地利用、交通网络、生态环境三个概念.%Ten years ago in Guangzhou, the original strategic planning was named conceptual planning. Accentuating on strategic planning allows us to study the issues of diversity and uncertainty,which is not inconsistent with giving prominence to the study of basic concepts in strategic planning.How to enhance the value of certain concepts of strategic planning has greater contribution to city master planning in current metropolitan planning system. This paper underlines three basic concepts of strategic planning: land use, transportation network, and ecological environment.
Kim, Hyeong Sun
This book covers definition of paper, how to write paper, as well as proofreading of paper and process of publication. It explains necessity and kinds of paper, organizations and form of paper, evaluation of paper, titles, abstracts, introductions, method of study, results, considerations, conclusions, acknowledgement and epilogue, reference, writers, pictures and tables, tense and analysis of sentences, submission of paper and ethics of publication, plagiarism, confirmation of items before writing paper, matters to be attended to drafting, and criteria and assessment of the examination of paper.
Kim, Hyeong Sun
This book covers definition of paper, how to write paper, as well as proofreading of paper and process of publication. It explains necessity and kinds of paper, organizations and form of paper, evaluation of paper, titles, abstracts, introductions, method of study, results, considerations, conclusions, acknowledgement and epilogue, reference, writers, pictures and tables, tense and analysis of sentences, submission of paper and ethics of publication, plagiarism, confirmation of items before writing paper, matters to be attended to drafting, and criteria and assessment of the examination of paper.
Schneider, Jeremy A; Cohen, Philip R
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are two of the most severe dermatologic conditions occurring in the inpatient setting. There is a lack of consensus regarding appropriate management of SJS and TEN. The scientific literature pertaining to SJS and TEN (subsequently referred to as SJS/TEN) is summarized and assessed. In addition, an interventional approach for the clinician is provided. PubMed was searched with the key words: corticosteroids, cyclosporine, etanercept, intravenous immunoglobulin, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The papers generated by the search, and their references, were reviewed. Supportive care is the most universally accepted intervention for SJS/TEN. Specific guidelines differ from the care required for patients with thermal burns. Adjuvant therapies are utilized in most severe cases, but the data are thus far underwhelming and underpowered. Using systemic corticosteroids as sole therapy is not supported. A consensus regarding combined corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has not been reached. Data regarding IVIG, currently the standard of care for most referral centers, is conflicting. Newer studies regarding cyclosporine and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors are promising, but not powered to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. Data regarding plasmapheresis is equivocal. Thalidomide increases mortality. Clinicians who manage SJS/TEN should seek to employ interventions with the greatest impact on their patients' condition. While supportive care measures may seem an obvious aspect of SJS/TEN patient care, providers should understand that these interventions are imperative and that they differ from the care recommended for other critically ill or burn patients. While adjuvant therapies are frequently discussed and debated for hospitalized patients with SJS/TEN, a standardized management approach is not yet clear based on the current data. Therefore, until further data
Angeli, Paolo; Bezinover, Dimitri; Biancofiore, Gianni; Bienholz, Anja; Findlay, James; Paugam Burtz, Catherine; Reyntjens, Koen; Sakai, Tetsuro; Saner, Fuat H; Tomescu, Dana; Wagener, Gebhard; Weiss, Emmanuel
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury is associated with high mortality in the perioperative period of liver transplantation. The aim of this position paper was to provide an up-to-date overview with special emphases on diagnosis, risk factors, and treatment. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The Liver Intensive
Derluyn, H.; Janssen, H.; Diepens, J.F.L.; Derome, D.; Carmeliet, J.
This study presents experimental analysis and numerical modeling of hygroscopic moisture buffering by paper and books. First, a literature review of moisture transport properties of paper is presented. Experimental work on two paper types includes SEM analysis of the paper structure, determination
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers. Cigarette...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the following...
Full Text Available of the paper which is then melted to allow the wax to penetrate the depth of the paper. This results in hydrophobic barriers capable of guiding fluid movement through the paper. The paper provides a detailed study of process parameters critical...
Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...
Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Guan, Wenchuan
A simple wind speed measurement device, a paper anemometer, is fabricated based on the theory of standing waves. In providing the working profile of the paper anemometer, an experimental device is established, which consists of an anemometer sensor, a sound sensor, a microphone, paper strips, a paper cup, and sonic acquisition software. It shows…
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articulation paper. 872.6140 Section 872.6140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6140 Articulation paper. (a) Identification. Articulation paper is a device composed of paper coated with an ink dye intended to be placed between the...
Sutcliffe, W.G. [ed.
This report contains selected papers from the Global `95 Conference ``Evaluation of Emerging Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems,`` held in Versailles, Sept. 11-14, 1995. The 11 papers in Part I are from ``Benefits and Risks of Reprocessing`` sessions. The 7 papers in Part II are some of the more interesting poster papers that relate to the use of Pu for power generation. Finally, the 3 papers are on the topic of management and disposition of Pu from retired nuclear weapons.
This report contains selected papers from the Global '95 Conference ''Evaluation of Emerging Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems,'' held in Versailles, Sept. 11-14, 1995. The 11 papers in Part I are from ''Benefits and Risks of Reprocessing'' sessions. The 7 papers in Part II are some of the more interesting poster papers that relate to the use of Pu for power generation. Finally, the 3 papers are on the topic of management and disposition of Pu from retired nuclear weapons
A study was undertaken to evaluate the availability and suitability of waste paper for conversion to biofuel in Canada and to examine the environmental impacts of waste paper processing. The total quantity of waste paper available in 1991 for each province and territory was determined and broken down into seven paper types. The total quantity across Canada was estimated at between 5.7 million and 7.6 million tonnes, of which old corrugated containers made up 23-26%. The variation in prices by waste paper type was also examined on a regional basis and a detailed analysis was made of the recent history of prices for several paper types. Waste paper prices have generally decreased, but since mid-1992, prices for certain types such as writing paper, computer output paper, and newsprint have increased steadily, partly due to increasing demand for recycled content in new paper. Utilization and disposal practices by region for waste paper generated in 1991, including recycling, conversion, and landfilling, were studied. National quantities of waste paper recycled, landfilled, and unavailable for recycling are estimated. The feasibility of using each type of waste paper as feedstock for each of three conversion processes (pyrolysis, incineration, fermentation) was examined. Scenarios were then developed for evaluating environmental impacts of each conversion technology. The environmental impacts of recycling, conversion, and landfilling practices are discussed qualitatively. 92 refs., 16 figs., 53 tabs
Teti, Anna; Econs, Michael J
Osteopetroses are a heterogeneous group of rare genetic bone diseases sharing the common hallmarks of reduced osteoclast activity, increased bone mass and high bone fragility. Osteoclasts are bone resorbing cells that contribute to bone growth and renewal through the erosion of the mineralized matrix. Alongside the bone forming activity by osteoblasts, osteoclasts allow the skeleton to grow harmonically and maintain a healthy balance between bone resorption and formation. Osteoclast impairment in osteopetroses prevents bone renewal and deteriorates bone quality, causing atraumatic fractures. Osteopetroses vary in severity and are caused by mutations in a variety of genes involved in bone resorption or in osteoclastogenesis. Frequent signs and symptoms include osteosclerosis, deformity, dwarfism and narrowing of the bony canals, including the nerve foramina, leading to hematological and neural failures. The disease is autosomal, with only one extremely rare form associated so far to the X-chromosome, and can have either recessive or dominant inheritance. Recessive ostepetroses are generally lethal in infancy or childhood, with a few milder forms clinically denominated intermediate osteopetroses. Dominant osteopetrosis is so far associated only with mutations in the CLCN7 gene and, although described as a benign form, it can be severely debilitating, although not at the same level as recessive forms, and can rarely result in reduced life expectancy. Severe osteopetroses due to osteoclast autonomous defects can be treated by Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT), but those due to deficiency of the pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine, RANKL, are not suitable for this procedure. Likewise, it is unclear as to whether HSCT, which has high intrinsic risks, results in clinical improvement in autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need to identify new therapies and studies are currently in progress to test gene and cell therapies, small interfering RNA approach and novel pharmacologic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…
The Advisory Committee on Cooperation with Developing Countries set up in August 1983 in the AEC has studied for about one year the actual situations of nuclear energy development and utilization in developing countries and their expections toward Japan and also problems in Japan in this connection. The Advisory Committee's report is summarized: significance of nuclear energy cooperation; status of nuclear energy energy utilizations in developing countries; status and problems in Japan's cooperation (technical cooperation through IAEA and technical cooperation by JAERI, JAIF, etc.); future prospects (areas of cooperation including the uses of radioisotopes and radiation and research reactors, nuclear power generation, etc. and tasks of the Government and the private sector in expanding the cooperation). (Mori, K.)
In this presentation, the author stresses the importance of writing exercises to educate students in certain disciplines. The objective is to make the students become personally involved so that their educational experience is more geared towards a learning paradigm instead of a teaching paradigm. In addition to accumulating a wealth of knowledge the students also refine and expand their writing skills and abilities. One should be pragmatic in one's approach. In other words, the instructor should have a clear understanding of the skills the students need to develop. It is important to define the target and implementation mode while designing writing exercises. Effective learning can thus be combined with enthusiasm in classroom instructional development. It is extremely important that all undergraduate engineering students are provided with an adequate understanding and thorough background of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. At present, undergraduate students at Miami University of Ohio do not acquire any knowledge pertaining to this particular topic. The author proposes that a topic based on NEPA be introduced in the Fluid Mechanics Course at a Junior Level. The author believes that there is an absolute and urgent need for introducing the students to the fact that various documents such as EA (Environmental Assessment), EIS (Environmental Impact Statement), FONSI (Finding Of No Significant Impact), are an essential part of present-day workplace environment. In this presentation the author talks about introducing NEPA in the classroom. More than a decade ago Harvard University Professor Dr. Howard Gardner suggested the theory of Multiple Intelligences. Dr. Gardner proposed that eight different Intelligences accounted for the development of human potential (Gardner, 1983, 1993, 2000). Leading scholars in the area of Cognitive Science and Educational Methodologies also agree and have concluded that it is essential that students need to be taught in a learning environment that enables them to acquire real-world problem-solving skills (Saxe, 1988; Senge, 1990; Sims, 1995). Educators should not allow the students to wonder whether they have been learning anything that would actually serve them in the workplace, upon graduation. (Barr and Tagg, 1995). Howard Gardner's list of Eight Intelligences is given below. 1. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart") 2. Logical intelligence ("number smart") 3. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") 4. Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") 5. Musical intelligence ("music smart") 6. Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") 7. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") 8. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart") The author has tried to examine students' learning development, behavior and exploration using some of the above eight Intelligences. In this presentation, he provides data he has collected while teaching certain selected courses (Narayanan, 2007). References Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic,1983 Gardner, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic, 1993. Gardner, Howard. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2000. Barr, R. B., and Tagg, J. (1995, November/December). From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change: The Magazine of Higher Education, 13-24. Narayanan, Mysore (2007). Assessment of Perceptual Modality Styles. Proceedings of ASEE 2007 Annual Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (progonoma): a case report emphasizing the computed tomography findings and literature review; Tumor neuroectodermico melanocitico da infancia (progonoma): relato de caso enfatizando os aspectos tomograficos e revisao da literatura
Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Fraguas Filho, Sergio Roberto; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Borba, Ana Olivia Cardoso; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Machado, Marcio Martins; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, also known as progonoma, is a rare benign disease of neural crest origin that occurs within the first year of life and affects mainly the maxilla. The authors report a case of a 10-month-old child presenting with this uncommon tumor in the maxilla, emphasizing the diagnostic findings on computed tomography, and present a literature review. (author)
Full Text Available This issue of Open Praxis compiles selected papers presented at the Open Education Consortium Global Conference, held in Cape Town (South Africa on March 8-10, 2017. Additionaly, the Innovative Practice section includes three papers.
This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal, Sugaku. The papers range over a variety of topics, including nonlinear partial differential equations, C^*-algebras, and Schrödinger operators.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.
Remote Sensing has started to institute a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of remote sensing techniques, design and applications published in Remote Sensing. We are pleased to announce the first “Remote Sensing Best Paper Award” for 2013. Nominations were selected by the Editor-in-Chief and selected editorial board members from among all the papers published in 2009. Reviews and research papers were evaluated separately.
Venkatasubramanian, Venkat; Gani, Rafiqul
The Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal has assessed the papers published in Volume 33 by means of a three stage process of nomination and balloting. We are pleased to announce that the 2009 Best Paper of the Year Award goes to J.M. Harrold and R.S. Parker for their paper entitled “Clinically...
Society, American Mathematical
This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal Sūgaku. These papers range over a variety of topics in ordinary and partial differential equations, and in analysis. Many of them are survey papers presenting new results obtained in the last few years. This volume is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in analysis and differential equations.
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared in...
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material is...
Working papers are published by CCAA staff, consultants, advisers, or interns, and are not part of partner-funded research activities. Each paper is peer reviewed by CCAA staff. They are published and distributed primarily in electronic format via the CCAA site, though hardcopies are available upon request. Working papers ...
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in accordance...
Birriel, Jennifer J.; Roe, Clarissa
Several papers in this journal have dealt with the fluorescence in orange neon plastic, olive oil, and soda. In each case, the fluorescent emission was excited by either green or violet-blue laser light. In this paper, we examine the fluorescent emission spectra of so-called neon colored papers and plastic clipboards available in department and…
C.D. Knoops (Chris); J. Noeverman (Jan)
textabstractLast year, we presented the book “Accountability 2008: papers from master theses”. The book contained eleven papers. Each paper was based on a thesis in the field of Accounting, Auditing and Control, on which these students received a Master’s degree in Economics & Business from the
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial paper. 541.5 Section 541.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.5 Commercial paper. The term commercial paper means any note, draft, or...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper ends. 51.1240 Section 51.1240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1240 Paper ends. Paper ends means...
Even at the beginning of the 21st century, we are far from becoming paperless. Pen and paper is still the only truly ubiquitous information processing technology. Pen-and-paper user interfaces bridge the gap between paper and the digital world. Rather than replacing paper with electronic media, they seamlessly integrate both worlds in a hybrid user interface. Classical paper documents become interactive. This opens up a huge field of novel computer applications at our workplaces and in our homes. This book provides readers with a broad and extensive overview of the field, so as to provide a fu
Editorial highlighting-the process whereby journal editors select, at the time of publication, a small subset of papers that are ostensibly of higher quality, importance or interest-is by now a widespread practice among major scientific journal publishers. Depending on the venue, and the extent to which editorial resources are invested in the process, highlighted papers appear as News & Views, Research Highlights, Perspectives, Editors' Choice, IOP Select, Editors' Summary, Spotlight on Optics, Editors' Picks, Viewpoints, Synopses, Editors' Suggestions, etc. Here, we look at the relation between highlighted papers and highly influential papers, which we define at two levels: having received enough citations to be among the (i) top few percent of their journal, and (ii) top 1% of all physics papers. Using multiple linear regression and multilevel regression modeling we examine the parameters associated with highly influential papers. We briefly comment on cause and effect relationships between citedness and highlighting of papers.
Derluyn, Hannelore; Janssen, Hans; Diepens, Jan
This study presents experimental analysis and numerical modeling of hygroscopic moisture buffering by paper and books. First, a literature review of moisture transport properties of paper is presented. Experimental work on two paper types includes SEM analysis of the paper structure, determination...... and not on the relative humidity. Books consist of several paper sheets with air layers between the sheets. To take the air layers into account, a parallel transport model is proposed to determine the effective moisture transport properties of books taking into account the air layers. The dynamic hygroscopic behavior...... of small book samples was measured. It is shown that, although the water vapor permeability of different paper types can be quite different, the effusivity of a book highly depends on the presence of the air layers and can therefore remain comparable for different paper types....
Full Text Available A unique concept of making nanocomposites from carbon nanofiber paper was explored in this study. The essential element of this method was to design and manufacture carbon nanofiber paper with well-controlled and optimized network structure of carbon nanofibers. In this study, carbon nanofiber paper was prepared under various processing conditions, including different types of carbon nanofibers, solvents, dispersants, and acid treatment. The morphologies of carbon nanofibers within the nanofiber paper were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In addition, the bulk densities of carbon nanofiber papers were measured. It was found that the densities and network structures of carbon nanofiber paper correlated to the dispersion quality of carbon nanofibers within the paper, which was significantly affected by papermaking process conditions.
Full Text Available This paper discusses how to avoid plagiarism in a research paper. Avoiding plagiarism is part of a scientific writing ethic that always stated in any publication. Every writer should pay attention to their papers submitted to a journal or a scientific forum that they are free from unethical conduct. Writing a research paper needs overall accuracy especially in avoiding plagiarism in the paper that is to be published in a journal or to be presented at a certain scientific meeting, seminar or symposium. It is based on writers’ experience as a paper writer as well as a journal reviewer. The first application that the writers use is ‘checker’, a Mac computer application, used to check spelling and grammar. It assists the writers to check how misspelling and an ungrammatical inaccuracy in the writers’ papers. The second free application is ‘plagiarism checker’. Checking originality of a paper is essential and it is not too difficult to do today. It is freely accessible that plagiarism checker can be used to check how original the paper is. By visiting “Google” then write down ‘plagiarism checker’, it will appear ‘smallseatools’ and then the writers could choose and check how original the paper is. This application is freely accessed and helps immensely to check how original a paper is and how far a paper is free from plagiarism. The unoriginal phrase will be underlined and marked red and finally will be shown how inimitable the paper is. Plagiarism scan report which consists of the date of the report, plagiarism status, total words and total characters can be downloaded.
Alexander Rani Suryandono
Alice Wisler (2015 Facts about Recycling Paper. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Facts_About_Recycling_Paper. Accessed 2 April 2016 Clay Miller (2011 5 Benefits of Recycling Paper. http://www.ways2gogreenblog.com/2011/09/28/5-benefits-of-recycling-paper/. Accessed 10 May 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Grades of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/grade.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Properties of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/paperpro.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Kathryn Sukalich (2016 Everything You Need to Know about Paper Recycling. http://earth911.com/business-policy/business/paper-recycling-details-basics/. Accessed 15 July 2016 [U1] Larry West (2015 Why Recycle Paper. http://environment.about.com/od/recycling/a/The-Benefits-Of-Paper-Recycling-Why-Recycle-Paper.htm. Accesed 15 June 2016 Marie-Luise Blue (2008 The Advantages of Recycling Paper. http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-recycling-paper-3440.html. Accessed 15 June 2016 Nina Spitzer (2009 http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/810025/the-impact-of-disposable-coffee-cups-on-the-environment. Accessed 15 June 2016 Radio New Zealand (2010 Iwi not Giving Up Fight against Tasman Mill Discharges. http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/regional/64521/iwi-not-giving-up-fight-against-tasman-mill-discharges. Accessed 15 July 2016 Rick LeBlanc (2016 Paper Recycling Facts, Figures and Information Sources. https://www.thebalance.com/paper-recycling-facts-figures-and-information-sources-2877868?_ga=1.192832942.544061388.1477446686. Accesed 2 April 2016 Robinson Meyer (2016 Will More Newspapers Go Nonprofit? http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/01/newspapers-philadelphia-inquirer-daily-news-nonprofit-lol-taxes/423960/. Accessed 3 August 2016 School of Engineering at Darthmouth (2010 Forest and Paper Industry. http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~d30345d/courses/engs171/Paper.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2016 T. Subramani, V. Angappan. (2015. Experimental Investigation of Papercrete Concrete
Full Text Available A method for direct aniline interfacial polymerization on polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE-reinforced paper substrate is introduced in this paper. Cellulose-based papers with and without reinforcement were considered. The polyaniline (PANI-paper composites had surface resistivity lower than 100 Ω/sq after more than 3 polymerizations. Their mechanical strength and thermal stability were analyzed by tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR results revealed that there was strong interaction between NH groups in aniline monomers and OH groups in fibers, which did not disappear until after 3 polymerizations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and field emission (FE SEM images showed morphological differences between composites using reinforced and untreated base papers. Conductive composites made with PAE-reinforced base paper had both good thermal stability and good mechanical strength, with high conductivity and a smaller PANI amount.
Moise, Ioan Valentin; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin Daniel; Manea, Mihaela; Alexandru, Mioara; Trandafir, Laura; Zorila, Florina Lucica; Talasman, Catalina Mihaela; Manea, Daniela; Nisipeanu, Steluta; Haiducu, Maria; Balan, Zamfir
Museums, libraries and archives are preserving documents that are slowly degrading due to the inherent ageing of the cellulose substrate or to the technological errors of the past (acid paper, iron gall ink). Beside this, large quantities of paper are rapidly damaged by biological attacks following natural disasters and improper storage conditions. The treatment of paper documents with ionizing radiation can be used for mass decontamination of cultural heritage items but conservators and restaurators are still reserved because of the radiation induced degradation. We conducted a study for establishing the dose needed for the effective treatment of paper documents, taking into account the biological burden and the irradiation effects on paper structure. We used physical testing specific to paper industry and less destructive analytical methods (thermal analysis). Our results show that an effective treatment can be performed with doses lower than 10 kGy. Old paper appears to be less affected by gamma radiation than recent paper but the sampling is highly affected by the non-uniform degree of the initial degradation status. The extent of testing for degradation and the magnitude of acceptable degradation should take into account the biological threat and the expected life time of the paper documents. - RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: ► For doses <15 kGy, the measurement uncertainty of mechanical properties is higher than the radiation induced degradation. ► The statistics of measuring induced degradation may be improved by testing both mechanical properties and thermal decomposition of paper. ►Because of the large variability of paper samples, testing to only one irradiation dose has no or reduced relevance. ►It was choused for the irradiation of paper items from archives and collections a dose range of 5–7 kGy.
Turner, R K; Grace, R
The most promising new source of paper for recycling is the household and small commercial business, whose waste papers can be processed if the paper and board industry is willing to invest capital to develop the facilities and the technology needed to upgrade indigenous fibers. Cost-benefit analyses in the United Kingdom indicate that support of this type of paper recycling has more merit than a buffer stock scheme. Efforts to conserve virgin materials by increasing the use of secondary materials could be further strengthened by taxes on the disposal of virgin materials. Paper recycling policies should include a range of sources, from discarded post-consumer waste paper and boxes to the release and use of energy by incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. Waste availability is influenced by product durability, replacement by other products (such as plastic wrap for paper), industry maturity, and social attitudes. Public acceptance of lower-quality paper products and improved technology to remove ink and color should combine to make recycling more feasible. Efforts to develop the household and commercial sector will result in lower import requirements for wood pulp and an improved balance of payments for the United Kingdom. Recycled fibers require less water and energy to process, but the process wastes introduce environmental pollutants. Short- and long-term forecasts show a growth rate trend that varies with paper grade and corresponds with general economic growth. (35 references) (DCK)
Full Text Available Paper-based sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for many application areas including clinical diagnosis, food quality control and environmental monitoring. The unique properties of paper which allow passive liquid transport and compatibility with chemicals/biochemicals are the main advantages of using paper as a sensing platform. Depending on the main goal to be achieved in paper-based sensors, the fabrication methods and the analysis techniques can be tuned to fulfill the needs of the end-user. Current paper-based sensors are focused on microfluidic delivery of solution to the detection site whereas more advanced designs involve complex 3-D geometries based on the same microfluidic principles. Although paper-based sensors are very promising, they still suffer from certain limitations such as accuracy and sensitivity. However, it is anticipated that in the future, with advances in fabrication and analytical techniques, that there will be more new and innovative developments in paper-based sensors. These sensors could better meet the current objectives of a viable low-cost and portable device in addition to offering high sensitivity and selectivity, and multiple analyte discrimination. This paper is a review of recent advances in paper-based sensors and covers the following topics: existing fabrication techniques, analytical methods and application areas. Finally, the present challenges and future outlooks are discussed.
Kiiskinen, Harri T.; Pakarinen, Pekka I.
The paper industry has used IR cameras primarily for troubleshooting, where the most common examples include the examination of the condition of dryer fabrics and dryer cylinders and the analysis of moisture variations in a paper web. Another application extensively using IR thermography is non-destructive testing of composite materials. This paper presents some recently developed laboratory methods using an IR camera to examine paper structure. Specific areas include cockling, moisture content, thermal uniformity, mechanism of failure, and an analysis of the copying process.
Kiiskinen, H.T.; Kukkonen, H.K.; Pakarinen, P.I.; Laine, A.J.
The paper industry has used IR cameras primarily for troubleshooting, where the most common examples include the examination of the condition of dryer fabrics and dryer cylinders and the analysis of moisture variations in a paper web. Another application extensively using IR thermography is non-destructive testing of composite materials. This paper presents some recently developed laboratory methods using an IR camera to examine paper structure. Specific areas include cockling, moisture content, thermal uniformity, mechanism of failure, and an analysis of the copying process. (author)
Cutrubinis, M.; Moise, I.V.; Negut, C.D.; Georgescu, R.; Suvaila, R.; Virgolici, M.; Manea, M.M.
Complete text of publication follows. Irradiation of archive paper (document archives of institutions, companies etc. and library or museum collections of books and documents) can solve the problems related to the bio-deterioration and bio-contamination of paper and sometimes save valuable cultural heritage paper items. For valuable paper items care should be taken to the degradation induced instantly by the ionising radiation to the cellulosic support and also to the long term post-irradiation effects. The free radicals formed due to the irradiation treatment could contribute to instant degradation of paper. Part of them are also trapped for months and years after irradiation and they could be related to the post-irradiation effects in paper items. In this study, different sorts of cellulosic support samples (soft wood and hard wood cellulose, contemporary paper, paper from archives and from collections etc.) have been irradiated with dosis up to 100 kGy and the radiation induced free radicals have been measured by ESR spectrometry. The ESR signals have shown the type and quantity of radiation induced free radicals. Their study can be used for a realistic estimation of the degradative effect of the ionising radiation treatment of archive paper.
Park, Yeon Ho; Shin, Dae Sun; Lee, Gyeong Ja
This book introduces meanings and kinds of paper, structures and characteristics of paper, preparation of writing paper, writing paper, comments and footnotes, how to collect materials, and list of reference and appendix. It explains composition of chapters and paragraphs and development of contents, how to use library materials, writing draft, usage of quotations and comments, mathematical tables and charts, completing draft, basic principle of footnotes and how to fill up them, survey method, survey design, experimental methods, and real examples of comments and references.
Leland, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
The Science and Technology (S&T) Division 1000 Strategic Plan includes the Themes, Goals, and Actions for FY16. S&T will continue to support the Labs Strategic plan, Mission Areas and Program Management Units by focusing on four strategic themes that align with the targeted needs of the Labs. The themes presented in this plan are Mission Engagement, Bold Outcomes, Collaborative Environment, and the Safety Imperative. Collectively they emphasize diverse, collaborative teams and a self-reliant culture of safety that will deliver on our promise of exceptional service in the national interest like never before. Mission Engagement focuses on increasing collaboration at all levels but with emphasis at the strategic level with mission efforts across the labs. Bold Outcomes seeks to increase the ability to take thoughtful risks with the goal of achieving transformative breakthroughs more frequently. Collaborative environment strives for a self-aware, collaborative working environment that bridges the many cultures of Sandia. Finally, Safety Imperative aims to minimize the risk of serious injury and to continuously strengthen the safety culture. Each of these themes is accompanied by a brief vision statement, several goals, and planned actions to support those goals throughout FY16 and leading into FY17.
New and innovative policy approaches are necessary to help Canada achieve its target for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, since it is becoming clear that the voluntary action plans that are currently in place are not adequate to address climate change. The use of economic instruments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was the focus of this conference. Topics included various forms of greenhouse gas emissions trading, taxation instruments, and hybrid instruments which make use of both emissions trading and emissions charges. The three forms of emission trading - carbon content trading, allowance trading, and credit trading - which have the potential to beneficially influence climate change were explored by several participants. Technical and policy related issues were explored in detail and the manner in which offsets fit into global, regional and local scenarios were reviewed. It was emphasized that clear and consistent policy signals and a flexible attitude from government is necessary to interest greenhouse gas emitters in taking action to reduce emissions without sacrificing the economy. Under a joint implementation framework recently agreed to at Kyoto, developed countries could earn credits for limiting emissions or enhancing carbon sinks in other countries by taking advantage of the low costs of emission reductions in developing countries. To date, this is the most fertile area for innovative action for effecting a global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. refs., tabs., figs
Liu, Hua; Li, Lu
Geography teaching paper is the paper especially to describe geography teaching reform and research achievement, its main purpose is to find solution to handle questions encountered in teaching through personal teaching practice, constant trying and exploration, and to scientifically summarize the procedure and methods to deal with the problem,…
Durner, Mary Beth
This position paper presents an interdisciplinary approach to the study of population. Six main sections are included in the paper: Introduction, The Growth of the Human Population, The Psychological Effects of Population Growth, Overpopulated America, Myths Concerning Population Growth and Control, and Population Education. Section 1, an…
C.D. Knoops (Chris); J. Noeverman (Jan)
textabstractWe are proud to be able to present this book, the first volume of what we intend to become an annual book series. This year’s edition contains eleven papers. Each paper is based on a thesis in the field of Accounting, Auditing and Control, on which these students received a Master’s
This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal Sūgaku. The papers range over a variety of topics, including operator algebras, analysis, and statistics. This volume is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in analysis and its applications.
This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal Sūgaku. The papers range over a variety of topics in probability theory, statistics, and applications. This volume is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in probability and statistics.
The aim of this project is to reduce energy costs in paper production by optimising the process in the press section of a paper machine. In this press section water is squeezed as it passes through the press nip. In a modern press section the moisture content of the sheet after three or four presses
on different specific themes and four poster sessions gener- ally coordinated with each day's themes. The following nine papers are a representative sample of both plenary and review papers presented. Comparative animal physiology and biochemistry are areas of study largely concerned with the ways in which diverse.
Kersletter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.
A successful recycling program requires several components: education and promotion, convenient collection service, and most importantly, a market for collected materials. In Washington state, domestic markets currently have, or are building, the capacity to use most of the glass, newsprint, aluminum, tin cans, and corrugated materials that are collected. Unfortunately, markets for mixed waste paper (MWP), a major component of the state's solid waste stream, have been slow to develop and are unable to absorb the tremendous volumes of material generated. The American Paper Stock Institute classifies MWP as low grade paper such as magazines, books, scrap paper, non-corrugated cardboard (boxboard/chipboard), and construction paper. When viewed as part of a curbside collection program MWP consists primarily of catalogs, binder paper, magazines, brochures, junk mail, cereal boxes, and other household packaging items. A comprehensive analysis of Washington State's solid waste stream showed that during 1988, Washington citizens generated approximately 460,000 tons of mixed waste paper. No small amount, this is equivalent to more than 10% of the total solid waste generated in the state, and is expected to increase. Current projections of MWP generation rates indicated that Washington citizens could discard as much as 960,000 tons of MWP by the year 2010 making it one of the single largest components of the state's solid waste stream. This paper reports on the use of MWP as fuel source
Salentijn, Gert Ij; Grajewski, Maciej; Verpoorte, Elisabeth
Proof-of-concept is shown for two-phase countercurrent flow on paper. The device consists of two paper layers, one of which has been modified with a sizing agent to be hydrophobic. The layers exhibit different wetting behavior for water and octanol. Both phases dominate wetting in one of the layers
National Council for Resource Development, Washington, DC.
This document compiles nine papers issued by the National Council for Resource Development. Papers include: (1) "How to Be Successful at Grantsmanship--Guidelines for Proposal Writing--Foundation Proposals"; (2) "A Federal Glossary" (acronyms); (3) "Special Projects" (a working model for an institutional development office); (4) "The Role of the…
Reviews are papers that compile, summarize, critique and synthesize the available information on a topic. They are highly represented in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry’s 100 most cited papers for a good and obvious reason. If you wish to provide citation to support your ...
Stodden, Robert A., Ed.
This collection of four policy papers on vocational assessment for the handicapped deals with personnel development, interagency coordination, current research and development, and providing individualized assessment services. Discussed in the initial paper on program improvement in vocational assessment for the handicapped are federal legislation…
He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Chun-Ho; Lien, Der-Hsien
All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described which can be prepared by a process that includes coating, using a screen printer, one or more areas of a paper substrate (102) with a conductor material (104), such as a carbon paste
National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.
Women have made slow, steady progress in the labor market since 1979, but the wage gap has not narrowed significantly. This briefing paper updates a September 1987 paper based on "Male-Female Differences in Work Experience, Occupations, and Earnings: 1984" (Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 10, issued in…
The radioactivities of the naturally occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K) and a fallout nuclide ( 137 Cs) in newspapers issued during 1990s in Japan and information business papers were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry to obtain information on radioactivity level of papers and the sources of radionuclides contained in papers. The concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in the newspapers were low, whereas the 228 Ra and 228 Th contents of an information business paper were as high as 30 Bq kg -1 . Perhaps the thorium series nuclides contained in this information business paper was present in the kaolinite filler used in the paper. 137 Cs was detected in all the newspapers, while the radionuclide was not detected in the information business papers. The 137 Cs concentration in the newspaper ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 Bq kg -1 . Mechanical pulp was the main constituent of the newspapers, and 137 Cs in the newspapers was maybe brought with the mechanical pulp which kept a part of fallout 137 Cs contained in the material wood. The data obtained in this work may be useful to estimate radioactivity released from incinerators to the environment by burning waste paper. (author)
Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.
This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....
Chen Ning Yang.
This volume consists of a collection of papers written by C. N. Yang and commentaries on them. Previously unpublished papers or those that appeared in journals which are not readily available are included. The commentaries are intended to trace his development as a scientist rather than evaluate the work
In this Volume 1 of “Papers”, 20 papers published from 1962 to 1985 are presented. The papers are reproduced by using scanning techniques and retyping of equations. During this work, small modifications and corrections have been made. Unfortunately, new errors may have been introduced. This is my...
Li Lixiang; Peng Haipeng; Wang Xiangdong; Yang Yixian
This Letter comments on two papers of chaotic synchronization, namely [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 (1996) 1232] and [Phys. Lett. A 321 (2004) 50]. We find that some statements in the two papers are incorrect by numerical simulations. The consequence of the incorrectness is analyzed as well
J.M. Considine; W. Skye; W. Chen; D. Matthys; David W. Vahey; K. Turner; R. Rowlands
Poor formation in paper, as denoted by large local variation of mass, tends to reduce maximum tensile strength but has not been well characterized. The effect of grammage variation on tensile strength was studied by introducing carefully placed holes in tensile specimens made of three different paper materials. Previous researchers demonstrated that the point-stress...
Describes a research paper assignment in which students choose a controversial news event reported by six to eight newspapers and arrive at a thesis by comparing the accounts. Notes that students become truly engaged with the assignment and that engagement shows itself strongly in the intelligence and life of the papers. (RS)
Baruah, Sunandan; Jaisai, Mayuree; Imani, Reza; Nazhad, Mousa M; Dutta, Joydeep
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were grown on a paper support prepared from soft wood pulp. The photocatalytic activity of a sheet of paper with ZnO nanorods embedded in its porous matrix has been studied. ZnO nanorods were firmly attached to cellulose fibers and the photocatalytic paper samples were reused several times with nominal decrease in efficiency. Photodegradation of up to 93% was observed for methylene blue in the presence of paper filled with ZnO nanorods upon irradiation with visible light at 963 Wm -2 for 120 min. Under similar conditions, photodegradation of approximately 35% was observed for methyl orange. Antibacterial tests revealed that the photocatalytic paper inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli under room lighting conditions.
Otero D'Almeida, Maria Luiza; Medeiros Barbosa, Patricia de Souza; Boaratti, Marcelo Fernando Guerra; Borrely, Sueli Ivone
Books and documents attacked by fungi and insects have already been treated by radiation for disinfestations purposes. However, there is still need to investigate the influence of radiation on the cellulose paper structure. The aim of this research was to study the effects of radiation on paper properties, especially those related to strength and appearance. Paper sheets for this study were prepared in the laboratory, using bleached eucalyptus pulp as raw material. No additives were used to concentrate the attention only on the effects of irradiation on the pure cellulose matrix. The samples were irradiated at IPEN's 60 Co Gammacell irradiator with six radiation doses, from 3 to 15 kGy at the dose rate 0.817 Gy/s. The properties of paper sheets were tested after irradiation and compared with unirradiated samples according to ISO methods. No significant changes were detected in paper samples irradiated up to 15 kGy.
Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper has always been and it remains to be the primary information carrier though only 0.1 % of the total information is recorded on this media. The paper production industry has a great impact on the environment which is mostly due to the use of raw materials (wood of conifers and deciduous trees, fillers (CaCO 3, additional materials (dyes, glue, binders, retentionaids, and chemicals (acids and bases. However, the greatest impact on the environmentis caused by the extensive water consumption. To produce 1 ton of paper up to 60 m3 of freshwater are necessary. The water is not the only resource needed in the production cycle. Besides, the consumption of electrical energy (approximately 10,000 MJ/t pap, waste paper (paper represents 35 % of waste, and air pollution (paper production and transport should be taken into consideration. In spite of the above mentioned environmental threats the paper still remains an important element of the everyday life and the use of modern information technology (personal computers, telefax, Internet has increased its demand and consumption. It is important that the paper is produced from natural materials which are later released into environment without significant environmental consequences. The technology of paper recycling and re-use is widely known and a must of any responsible and professional social environment. Digitisation has increased the consumption of electrical energy as a consequence of production, use and reprocessing of different devices. Unlike a written record, a digital record has no permanent value and the electromagnetic field has a negative effect on the digital records. Digital records have to be constantly updated and adjusted to the computer software and hardware. A book and its content represent a treasure and an invaluable part of the cultural heritage. To use a book it is necessary to learn the alphabet whereas to read digital records we need to be computer and
A simple and scalable direct laser machining process to fabricate MXene-on-paper coplanar microsupercapacitors is reported. Commercially available printing paper is employed as a platform in order to coat either hydrofluoric acid-etched or clay-like 2D Ti3C2 MXene sheets, followed by laser machining to fabricate thick-film MXene coplanar electrodes over a large area. The size, morphology, and conductivity of the 2D MXene sheets are found to strongly affect the electrochemical performance due to the efficiency of the ion-electron kinetics within the layered MXene sheets. The areal performance metrics of Ti3C2 MXene-on-paper microsupercapacitors show very competitive power-energy densities, comparable to the reported state-of-the-art paper-based microsupercapacitors. Various device architectures are fabricated using the MXene-on-paper electrodes and successfully demonstrated as a micropower source for light emitting diodes. The MXene-on-paper electrodes show promise for flexible on-paper energy storage devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available Paper documents and products are very susceptible to microbial contamination and damage. Fungi are mainly responsible for those biodeterioration processes. Traditional microbicidal strategies constitute a serious health risk even when microbes are dead. Ideal methods should not be toxic to humans and should have no adverse effects on paper, but should own a broad spectrum, good chemical stability and low cost. In this work, we utilize an advanced antimicrobial strategy of surface stereochemistry by applying a coating of a shallow layer of polyborneolacrylate (PBA, resulting in the desired antifungal performance. The PBA-coated paper is challenged with the most common air-borne fungi growing on paper, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. Ten percent by weight of the coating concentration or a 19-μm infiltration of PBA is sufficient to keep the paper spotless. The PBA coating also exhibits significant inhibition of spores’ germination. After PBA coating, both physicochemical properties (paper whiteness, pH, mechanical strength and inking performance display only slight changes, which are acceptable for general utilization. This PBA coating method is nontoxic, rapid and cost-effective, thus demonstrating great potential for applications in paper products.
Full Text Available The subject of this paper was to consider the possibilities of economical paper production with rationalization of water consumption. In accordance with the principles of viable development. The pulp & paper industry has had to face global market needs and strict regulation concerning the environment. The basic motive was to provide consistent and high product quality, which is competitive on the market. The pulp & paper industry is one of the largest consumers and pollutants of natural resources. In that light, the rationalization of raw material, water, energy and chemicals consumption with minimization of environmental impact is essential. The European directive on environmental protection obliges producers of pulp & paper to decrease the volume of wastewater and to increase the efficiency treatment. Pulp and paper industry in Serbia and Montenegro will also be faced with the demands for environmental protection. Numerous examples of water consumption rationalization and improvement of water quality in the pulp & paper industry could be found in different literature sources. It is necessary to increase water system closure and implement up-to-date treatment methods. The possibilities for water consumption rationalization, in a real system the paperboard mill UMKA, were examined.
Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka
At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B
Paper-based electrochemical biosensors are a promising technology that enables rapid, quantitative measurements on an inexpensive platform. However, the control of liquids in paper networks is generally limited to a single sample delivery step. Here, we propose a simple method to automate the loading and delivery of liquid samples to sensing electrodes on paper networks by stacking multiple layers of paper. Using these stacked paper devices (SPDs), we demonstrate a unique strategy to fully immerse planar electrodes by aqueous liquids via capillary flow. Amperometric measurements of xanthine oxidase revealed that electrochemical sensors on four-layer SPDs generated detection signals up to 75% higher compared with those on single-layer paper devices. Furthermore, measurements could be performed with minimal user involvement and completed within 30 min. Due to its simplicity, enhanced automation, and capability for quantitative measurements, stacked paper electrochemical biosensors can be useful tools for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.
The objective of this research is to study the possibility of using photographic paper, available on the market, for x-ray radiography instead of x-ray film which is more expensive and more complicate to develop. This research concerned about (1) the method and the limitation of x-ray radiography by using 3 types of photographic paper, namely, F2, F3 and F4 distributed by the Kodak Company, as the screen with 3 different kinds of intensifying screens produced by the Phillips Company, Toshiba Company and Picker Company to increase photographic efficiency; (2) correction factor between these 3 types of photographic paper and intensifying screens; (3) the most suitable combination of photographic paper and intensifying screens used; (4) the result of using photographic paper and x-ray film in x-ray radiography regarding quality, cost and film developing. From the research, it was found that (1) the combination of intensifying screen from Picker Company and Kodak photographic paper No. F4 coating with silver bromide with a little mixture of silver iodide resulted in higher sensitivity and more contrast than other combination; (2) photographic papers had more limitation than x-ray film in the sense that it could be used with the iron test piece no thicker than 3 cm.with the x-ray energy of 220 k Vp; (3) photographic papers would give almost the same degree of contrast and sensitivity as x-ray film when used with thin test specimens. For instance the smallest wire No.12 of DIN 62 FE could be seen in the photographic paper at 220 k Vp while it could be seen in the x-ray film at 200 k Vp while it could be seen in the x-ray film at 200 k Vp. The exposure of photographic paper would be in vicinity of x-ray film when it was used with thin test specimens. Photographic paper would produce sharpness definition, density and contrast picture and also details of the picture closely to what given by x-ray film. It is concluded that if the test specimens are thin, photographic papers
Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan
This paper concerns the responsibility of co-authors in cases of scientific misconduct. Arguments in research integrity guidelines and in the bioethics literature concerning authorship responsibilities are discussed. It is argued that it is unreasonable to claim that for every case where a research paper is found to be fraudulent, each author is morally responsible for all aspects of that paper, or that one particular author has such a responsibility. It is further argued that it is more constructive to specify what task responsibilities come with different roles in a project and describe what kinds of situations or events call for some kind of action, and what the appropriate actions might be.
Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Cao, Xianyi
in electrochemical sensors and energy technologies amongothers. In this chapter, we present some examples to overview recent advances in theresearch and development of two-dimensional (2D) graphene papers as new materialsfor electrochemical sensors. The chapter covers the design, fabrication, functionalizationand...... functionalization ofgraphene papers with polymer and nanoscale functional building blocks for electrochemical-sensing purposes. In terms of electrochemical-sensing applications, the emphasis ison enzyme-graphene and nanoparticle-graphene paper-based systems for the detectionof glucose. We finally conclude...
This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1992 through November 1993. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 11th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.
This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1993 through October 1994. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the 12th such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document.
At the Computing in High Energy Physics conference, CHEP92 Annecy 21st - 25th September 1992, the ZEUS data acquisition groups contributed a number of papers, as a result of plenary, parallel and poster session contributions. These papers are appended after the index list and a figure which gives a schematic overview of the acquisition system. The papers give up-to-date information concerning the ZEUS data acquisition system and the experience gained during the first HERA running period in 1992. (orig.)
Helton, Jon Craig; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.
This report describes key ideas underlying the application of Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) to nuclear weapons stockpile lifecycle decisions at Sandia National Laboratories. While QMU is a broad process and methodology for generating critical technical information to be used in stockpile management, this paper emphasizes one component, which is information produced by computational modeling and simulation. In particular, we discuss the key principles of developing QMU information in the form of Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty, the need to separate aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in QMU, and the risk-informed decision making that is best suited for decisive application of QMU. The paper is written at a high level, but provides a systematic bibliography of useful papers for the interested reader to deepen their understanding of these ideas.
Howard, Z R; Donalson, L M; Kim, W K; Li, X; Zabala Díaz, I; Landers, K L; Maciorowski, K G; Ricke, S C
Because food and poultry industries are demanding an improvement in written communication skills among graduates, research paper writing should be an integral part of a senior undergraduate class. However, scientific writing assignments are often treated as secondary to developing the technical skills of the students. Scientific research paper writing has been emphasized in an undergraduate course on advanced food microbiology taught in the Poultry Science Department at Texas A& M University (College Station, TX). Students' opinions suggest that research paper writing as part of a senior course in Poultry Science provides students with scientific communication skills and useful training for their career, but more emphasis on reading and understanding scientific literature may be required.
Bakhshaeekia, Alireza; Hosseini, Seyed M.V; Razmi, Tannaz; Shamsaeefar, Alireza
Many of the abdominal foreign bodies are due to accidental ingestion. Our objective in this case report is to emphasize the importance of the enquiry about the foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of bowel perforation caused by paper ingestion. A 14-year-old boy with abdominal pain underwent exploratory laparotomy and was found to have abdominal pus and ileal perforation. A crumpled paper was found at the site of perforation. Postoperative enquiry revealed that the patient had ingested 10 crumpled papers. We highlight that recording the history is an important aspect in the management of patients with acute abdominal pain and that foreign bodies should be included in its differential diagnosis. (author)
Vinggaard, Anne; Körner, Wolfgang; Lund, Kirsten H.
The use of recycled paper for the manufacture of food contact materials is widespread, but very little is known about the presence of potential contaminants in the paper. The purpose of this study was to assess the worst-case migration of estrogenic active compounds using extracts of paper...... contain bisphenol A and other xenoestrogens may apply to other types of recycled paper used for food packaging and emphasize the importance of identifying this and other contaminants in recycled paper in general. These data indicate that bisphenol A may be useful as a purity indicator for recycled paper....
The standard relates to the determination of radiochemical impurities in labelled compounds using paper chromatography. The basic terms are given as is the description of procedure and evaluation of chromatograms. (E.S.)
Following years of development, electronic paper is now entering ebooks, mobile phones and signs, and, as Duncan Graham-Rowe reports, is starting to gain the market acceptance that it has long strived for.
During the lecture meeting of the working committee for waste water problems of the German Fishery Association, papers were presented on current problems of waste pollution and on the potential effects of climate changes on the fishing industry. (EF) [de
Lanamäki, Arto; Persson, John Stouby
Information Systems (IS) research has both a journal-oriented publication culture and a rich plethora of conferences. It is unclear why IS researchers even bother with conference publishing given the high focus on journals. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this paper is to increase our...... understanding of conference papers in IS and the role they play for the authoring researchers. We present the first analysis of the papers published during the first six years (2010-2015) in the Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems (SCIS). We conducted interviews with ten SCIS authors. Following...... a framework adopted from Åkerlind , we identified how SCIS papers have the roles of fulfilling requirements, establishing oneself, developing personally, enabling change, and other roles. This article contributes to the reflection literature on the IS field by applying a practice lens to understand...
Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 26 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.
Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.
Heukerott, Pamela Beth
Describes origami, the oriental art of paper folding as an activity to teach upper elementary students concepts and skills in geometry involving polygons, angles, measurement, symmetry, and congruence. (PK)
The other three papers of the Series focus on the issues of institutional structures ... Any approach that relates WDM to poverty and equity requires a set of working ..... If local irrigation system operation and maintenance investments and.
The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...
In the first instalment of the Words of Advice series, we feature the essentials of good manuscript writing with practical tips on how to plan, organise and write a standout scientific paper. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik
comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...
.... We are not concerned here whether the paper is used as sign or mark carrier (signs or marks: handwriting or typing, drawing, pictures, superposition of substances, erasure, or other mechanical action, etc...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for the 9 figures contained in the paper, A SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS TO DISASTERS WITH AN EXAMPLE EARTHQUAKE...
Papers were presented under the following headings: supply and demand for coal; government policies - coal development; mining finance and taxation; Australian coal mining practices; research and development; infrastructure and transportation; legislation and safe working practices; and industrial relations.
Cellulose Nanofibers (CNF) are materials that can be obtained by the mechanical breakdown of natural fibers. CNF have the potential to be produced at low cost in a paper mill and may provide novel properties to paper, paper coatings, paints, or other products. However, suspensions have a complex rheology even at low solid contents. To be able to coat, pump, or mix CNF at moderate solids, it is critical to understand the rheology of these suspensions and how they flow in process equipment; current papers only report the rheology up to 6% solids. Few publications are available that describe the coating of CNF onto paper or the use of CNF as an additive into a paper coating. The rheology of CNF suspensions and coatings that contain CNF were characterized with parallel-disk geometry in a controlled stress rheometer. The steady shear viscosity, the complex viscosity, the storage modulus, and the yield stress were determined for the range of solids or concentrations (2.5-10.5%). CNF were coated onto paper with a laboratory rod coater, a size press and a high speed cylindrical laboratory coater (CLC). For each case, the coat weights were measures and the properties of the papers were characterized. CNF water base suspension was found to be a shear thinning with a power law index of around 0.1. Oscillatory tests showed a linear viscoelastic region at low strains and significant storage and loss moduli even at low solids. The Cox Merz rule does not hold for CNF suspensions or coating formulations that contain CNF with complex viscosities that are about 100 times larger than the steady shear viscosities. Paper coating formulations that contain CNF were found to have viscosities and storage and loss moduli that are over ten times larger than coatings that contain starch at similar solids. CNF suspensions were coated on papers with low amount transferred on paper either at high solids or high nip loadings. The amount transferred appears to be controlled by an interaction of
This strategy paper considers how the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) might incorporate goals to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, prepare for climate change impacts on transportation systems, and reduce energy with in the GO TO ...
Hu, Liangbing; Zheng, Guangyuan; Yao, Jie; Liu, Nian; Weil, Ben; Eskilsson, Martin; Karabulut, Erdem; Ruan, Zhichao; Fan, Shanhui; Bloking, Jason T.; McGehee, Michael D.; Wå gberg, Lars; Cui, Yi
Here we report on a novel substrate, nanopaper, made of cellulose nanofibrils, an earth abundant material. Compared with regular paper substrates, nanopaper shows superior optical properties. We have carried out the first study on the optical
Esser, Birgit; Mirica, Katherine; Weis, Jonathan Garrett; Schnorr, Jan Markus; Swager, Timothy Manning
This communication describes a simple solvent-free method for fabricating chemoresistive gas sensors on the surface of paper. The method involves mechanical abrasion of compressed powders of sensing materials on the fibers of cellulose. We illustrate this approach by depositing conductive layers of several forms of carbon (e.g., single-walled carbon nanotubes [SWCNTs], multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphite) on the surface of different papers (Figure 1, Figure S1). The resulting sensors ...
This briefing paper outlines the rationale for and development of the new Core Maths qualifications, the characteristics of Core Maths, and why Core Maths is important for higher education. It is part of a communication to university vice-chancellors from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) comprising this paper and a joint Ministerial letter from Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities and Science in BIS, and Nick Gibb, Minister of State for Schools in the Departm...
This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia.......This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia....
ESI Energy paper is called 'Issue Paper' awarded by think-tank Energy Security Institute. The second issue focuses on the energy security of countries from the perspective of Renaissance of construction of nuclear power plants. Topicality is documented by fluctuations in fossil fuel prices on the world commodity markets and by extortionate potential, disposed by their main producers. The Slovak Republic is actively engaged into international dialogue on the need for the development of nuclear energy.
This book presents papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal Sugaku. The papers fall into the general area of mathematical analysis as it pertains to probability and statistics, dynamical systems, differential equations and analytic function theory. Among the topics discussed are: stochastic differential equations, spectra of the Laplacian and Schrödinger operators, nonlinear partial differential equations which generate dissipative dynamical systems, fractal analysis on self-similar sets and the global structure of analytic functions.
Lew Lommers; George Honma
This white paper is one in a series of white papers that address key generic issues of the combined construction and operating license (COL) pre-application program key generic issues for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant reactor using the prismatic block fuel technology. The purpose of the pre-application program interactions with the NRC staff is to reduce the time required for COL application review by identifying and addressing key regulatory issues and, if possible, obtaining agreements for their resolution
Paper occupies a special place in histories of knowledge. It is the substrate of communication, the stuff of archives, the bearer of marks that make worlds. For the early-modern period in particular we now have a wealth of studies of 'paper tools', of the ways in which archives were assembled and put to use, of the making of lists and transcribing of observations, and so on. In other fields, too, attention has turned to the materiality of information. How far is it possible to draw a stable methodology out of the insights of literary and book historians, bibliographers, anthropologists, and those working in media studies? Do these diverse fields in fact refer to the same thing when they talk of paper, its qualities, affordances and limitations? In attempting to answer these questions, the present essay begins in the rich territory of early-modern natural philosophy - but from there opens out to take in recent works in a range of disciplines. Attending to the specific qualities of paper is only possible, I argue, if it is understood that paper can be both transparent and opaque depending on the social world it inhabits and helps to constitute. Paper flickers into and out of view, and it is precisely this quality that constitutes its sociomateriality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karademir, Arif; Aydemir, Cem; Tutak, Dogan; Aravamuthan, Raja
In our contemporary world, while part of the fibers used in the paper industry is obtained from primary fibers such as wood and agricultural plants, the rest is obtained from secondary fibers from waste papers. To manufacture paper with high optical quality from fibers of recycled waste papers, these papers require deinking and bleaching of fibers at desired levels. High efficiency in removal of ink from paper mass during recycling, and hence deinkability, are especially crucial for the optical and printability quality of the ultimate manufactured paper. In the present study, deinkability and printability performance of digitally printed paper with toner or inkjet ink were compared for the postrecycling product. To that end, opaque 80 g/m 2 office paper was digitally printed under standard printing conditions with laser toner or inkjet ink; then these sheets of paper were deinked by a deinking process based on the INGEDE method 11 p. After the deinking operation, the optical properties of the obtained recycled handsheets were compared with unprinted (reference) paper. Then the recycled paper was printed on once again under the same conditions as before with inkjet and laser printers, to monitor and measure printing color change before and after recycling, and differences in color universe. Recycling and printing performances of water-based inkjet and toner-based laser printed paper were obtained. The outcomes for laser-printed recycled paper were better than those for inkjet-printed recycled paper. Compared for luminosity Y, brightness, CIE a* and CIE b* values, paper recycled from laser-printed paper exhibited higher value than paper recycled from inkjet-printed paper.
Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida
Even though gamma radiation application, also at the minimum dosage required for disinfection, causes depolymerization and degradation of the paper substrate, recently published papers seemed, instead, to suggest that γ-rays application could be envisaged in some conditions for Cultural Heritage original documents and books. In some of the published papers, the possible application of γ-rays was evaluated mainly by using mechanical tests that scarcely reflect the chemical modifications induced in the cellulosic support. In the present article the effect of low dosage γ-irradiation on cellulosic substrates was studied and monitored applying different techniques: colorimetry, spectroscopic measurements, carbonyl content and average viscometric degree of polymerization. Two different papers were investigated, a non-sized, non-filled cotton paper, and a commercial permanent paper. To simulate a real deteriorated document, which could need γ-rays irradiation, some samples were submitted to a hydrolysis treatment. We developed a treatment based on the exposition of paper to hydrochloric acid vapors, avoiding any contact of the samples with water. This method induces a degradation similar to that observed on original documents. The samples were then irradiated with 3 kGy γ-rays at a 5258 Gy/h rate. The aforementioned analyses were performed on the samples just irradiated and after artificial ageing. All tests showed negative effects of gamma irradiation on paper. Non-irradiated paper preserves better its appearance and chemical properties both in the short term and after ageing, while the irradiated samples show appreciable color change and higher oxidation extent. Since the Istituto centrale restauro e conservazione patrimonio archivistico e librario is responsible for the choice of all restoration treatments that could be applied on library and archival materials under the protection of the Italian State (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/DM-7
Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating materials at the atomic and molecular level to develop new or enhanced materials and products. In December 2004, EPA’s Science Policy Council created a cross-Agency workgroup to identify and describe the issues EPA must address to ensure protection of human health and the environment as this new technology is developed. The draft white paper on nanotechnology is the product of the workgroup. The draft white paper describes the technology, and provides a discussion of the potential environmental benefits of nanotechnology and its applications that can foster sustainable use of resources. Risk management issues and the Agency’s statutory mandates are outlined, followed by an extensive discussion of risk assessment issues. The paper identifies research needs for both environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology and concludes with recommendations on next steps for addressing science policy issues and research needs. Supplemental information is provided in a number of appendices. The Agency will use the white paper to address research needs and risk assessment issues concerning nanotechnology. The draft white paper will undergo independent expert review, which will be conducted in the February time frame. All public comments received by January 31, 2006 will be submitted to the external review panel for their consideration. Comments received beyond that time will be considered by EPA. Follo
A paper reviewing recent cold fusion claim, written by the author in 2004, has been rejected (without sending it to referees and without offering any criticism) by editors of seven journals, namely, Physics Today (USA), American Scientist (USA), Scientific American (USA), Nature (UK), New Scientist (UK), The Physics Teacher (USA), Science (USA). The present paper has the following contents: 1. Here is how my paper was introduced to the editor of one of the above journals. Other accompanied letters were similar; 2. In rejecting my paper the editor of Physics Today wrote; 3. And here how the editor of American Scientist responded to my submission; 4. Responding to the above I wrote; 5. Seek not the golden egg, seek the goose; 6. In a subsequent reply I wrote; 7. The manuscript was submitted to Scientific American; 8. I then tried to publish the paper in Nature; 9. I then tried another UK journal, New Scientist; 10. My immediate reply; 11. The manuscript was then submitted to the Editor in chief of Science
Kowalski, Ludwik [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Montclair State University, 341, Brook Avenue, Passaic NJ, 07055 (United States)
A paper reviewing recent cold fusion claim, written by the author in 2004, has been rejected (without sending it to referees and without offering any criticism) by editors of seven journals, namely, Physics Today (USA), American Scientist (USA), Scientific American (USA), Nature (UK), New Scientist (UK), The Physics Teacher (USA), Science (USA). The present paper has the following contents: 1. Here is how my paper was introduced to the editor of one of the above journals. Other accompanied letters were similar; 2. In rejecting my paper the editor of Physics Today wrote; 3. And here how the editor of American Scientist responded to my submission; 4. Responding to the above I wrote; 5. Seek not the golden egg, seek the goose; 6. In a subsequent reply I wrote; 7. The manuscript was submitted to Scientific American; 8. I then tried to publish the paper in Nature; 9. I then tried another UK journal, New Scientist; 10. My immediate reply; 11. The manuscript was then submitted to the Editor in chief of Science.
Vibhore Kumar Rastogi
Full Text Available The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and polyesters can be used to formulate new pathways for fully bio-based paper coatings. However, difficulties in processing of most biopolymers may arise due to hydrophilicity, crystallization behavior, brittleness or melt instabilities that hinder a full exploitation at industrial scale. Therefore, blending with other biopolymers, plasticizers and compatibilizers is advantageous to improve the coating performance. In this paper, an overview of barrier properties and processing of bio-based polymers and their composites as paper coating will be discussed. In particular, recent technical advances in nanotechnological routes for bio-based nano- composite coatings will be summarized, including the use of biopolymer nanoparticles, or nanofillers such as nanoclay and nanocellulose. The combination of biopolymers along with surface modification of nanofillers can be used to create hierarchical structures that enhance hydrophobicity, complete barrier protection and functionalities of coated papers.
Zhang, Lingling; Zhou, Ming; Wen, Dan; Bai, Lu; Lou, Baohua; Dong, Shaojun
In this work, we demonstrated a novel paper-based mediator-less and compartment-less biofuel cell (BFC) with small size (1.5 cm × 1.5 cm). Ionic liquid functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs-IL) nanocomposite was used as support for both stably confining the anodic biocatalyst (i.e., NAD(+)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, GDH) for glucose electrooxidation and for facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e., bilirubin oxidase, BOD) for O(2) electroreduction. Such BFC provided a simple approach to fabricate low-cost and portable power devices on small-size paper, which can harvest energy from a wide range of commercial beverages containing glucose (e.g., Nescafe instant coffee, Maidong vitamin water, Watermelon fresh juice, and Minute Maid grape juice). These made the low-cost paper-based biodevice potential for broad energy applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund
The significance of technical data, as well as the significance of system boundary choices, when modelling the environmental impact from recycling and incineration of waste paper has been studied by a life cycle assessment focusing oil global warming potentials. The consequence of choosing...... results. The modelling showed that recycling of paper, from a life cycle point of view, is environmentally equal or better than incineration with energy recovery only when the recycling technology is at a high environmental performance level. However, the modelling also showed that expanding the system...... a specific set of data for the reprocessing technology, the virgin paper manufacturing technology and the incineration technology, as well as the importance of the recycling rate Was Studied. Furthermore, the system was expanded to include forestry and to include fossil fuel energy substitution from saved...
Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.
This article examines how well one can predict the importance of a current paper (a paper that is recently published in the literature). We look at three factors--journal importance, reference importance and author reputation. Citation-based measures of importance are used for all variables. We find that journal importance is the best predictor (explaining 22.3% out of a potential 29.1% of the variance in the data), and that this correlation value varies significantly by discipline. Journal importance is a better predictor of citation in Computer Science than in any other discipline. While the finding supports the present policy of using journal impact statistics as a surrogate for the importance of current papers, it calls into question the present policy of equally weighting current documents in text-based analyses. We suggest that future researchers take into account the expected importance of a document when attempting to describe the cognitive structure of a field.
A collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period November 1989 through October 1990 is presented. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography. The seven presented papers are grouped into four major categories: (1) experimental research and evaluation of software measurement; (2) studies on models for software reuse; (3) a software tool evaluation; and (4) Ada technology and studies in the areas of reuse and specification.
This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from Oct. 1991 - Nov. 1992. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. Additional information about the SEL and its research efforts may be obtained from the sources listed in the bibliography at the end of this document. For the convenience of this presentation, the 11 papers contained here are grouped into 5 major sections: (1) the Software Engineering Laboratory; (2) software tools studies; (3) software models studies; (4) software measurement studies; and (5) Ada technology studies.
Kallestinova, Elena D
Writing a research manuscript is an intimidating process for many novice writers in the sciences. One of the stumbling blocks is the beginning of the process and creating the first draft. This paper presents guidelines on how to initiate the writing process and draft each section of a research manuscript. The paper discusses seven rules that allow the writer to prepare a well-structured and comprehensive manuscript for a publication submission. In addition, the author lists different strategies for successful revision. Each of those strategies represents a step in the revision process and should help the writer improve the quality of the manuscript. The paper could be considered a brief manual for publication. Copyright © 2011.
Mack, Chris A
Many scientists and engineers consider themselves poor writers or find the writing process difficult. The good news is that you do not have to be a talented writer to produce a good scientific paper, but you do have to be a careful writer. In particular, writing for a peer-reviewed scientific or engineering journal requires learning and executing a specific formula for presenting scientific work. This book is all about teaching the style and conventions of writing for a peer-reviewed scientific journal. From structure to style, titles to tables, abstracts to author lists, this book gives practical advice about the process of writing a paper and getting it published.
Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich
Collected Papers of P. L. Kapitza, Volume I compiles the scientific papers written between 1916 and 1934 by Piotr Leonidovich Kapitza, a leading Soviet physicist and Nobel laureate. This book begins by introducing the life and career of P. L. Kapitza, which includes his studies and investigations of nuclear physics, strong magnetic fields, liquefaction, liquid helium, and high-power electronics. Other topics discussed include electron inertia in molecular ampere currents; Koch recording microphotometer; metallic conductivity and its change in a magnetic field; and methods of experimenting in s
After the description of the fluorometallic screens and their spectral sensitivity their sensitometric properties are reviewed. Characteristic curves and exposure charts were computed for the structurix IC paper, exposed with ordinary fluorescent IC 2 as well as luorometallic RCF screens. From them relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed. Radiographic image quality was investigated using ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrometers and the constant exposure methods. The investigation has shown that it is possible and advantageous to use fluorometallic screens for paper radiography, especially above the low kilovoltage range. (author)
The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)
Güthner, Karlheinz; Peipe, Jürgen
A PC-based system for machine translation of photogrammetric papers from the English into the German language and vice versa is described. The computer-assisted translating process is not intended to create a perfect interpretation of a text but to produce a rough rendering of the content of a paper. Starting with the original text, a continuous data flow is effected into the translated version by means of hardware (scanner, personal computer, printer) and software (OCR, translation, word processing, DTP). An essential component of the system is a photogrammetric microdictionary which is being established at present. It is based on several sources, including e.g. the ISPRS Multilingual Dictionary.
What makes one author a good communicator and another a poor one? What turns out one manuscript a swift editorial task, and another an editorial nightmare? Based on direct experience from the manuscripts of the lectures and papers presented during this school, advice is given on what to do and on what to avoid when writing a scientific paper. Some feedback recommendation is also provided on how to prepare manuscripts, handle copyright and permissions to reproduce, how to anticipate plagiarism, how to deal with editors and referees, and how to avoid common errors. A few illustrations of English grammar and style for the foreign author are given.
All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described which can be prepared by a process that includes coating, using a screen printer, one or more areas of a paper substrate (102) with a conductor material (104), such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode, depositing, with an ink jet printer, a layer of resistance switching insulator material (106), such as titanium dioxide, over one or more areas of the conductor material, and depositing, with an ink jet printer, a layer of metal (108), such as silver, over one or more areas of the titanium dioxide to form a second electrode.
Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Thach, Kevin G [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL
This paper discusses the business, administration, reliability, and usability aspects of storage systems at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The OLCF has developed key competencies in architecting and administration of large-scale Lustre deployments as well as HPSS archival systems. Additionally as these systems are architected, deployed, and expanded over time reliability and availability factors are a primary driver. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Spider parallel Lustre file system as well as the implementation of the HPSS archive at the OLCF.
Bouveng, H O
Today phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) is used in the paper and pulp industry for two purposes: slime control in paper machine systems and impregnation of wet mechanical pulp. PMA is a commonly used slimicide. It is used for slime control in such a way that a minor part (5-20% depending on mill operation) will reach the watercourse with the waste water and contaminate aquatic life. PMA used for impregnation concerns wet mechanical pulp produced for export as raw material, mostly for newsprint. Treatment of this pulp with PMA is necessary to avoid changes caused by molds and rot fungi.
Hearne, Betsy, Ed.; Del Negro, Janice M., Ed.; Jenkins, Christine, Ed.; Stevenson, Deborah, Ed.
The papers included in this volume emphasize the need to connect the child and the narrative as a way to affect children's development in evaluating literature and information in all forms. Children are lively agents who create meaning as readers, viewers, and listeners. These proceedings address the myriad aspects of storytelling--practical,…
Full Text Available We examined changes in the number of authors per paper for science and technology papers (agricultural sciences, engineering and technologies, medical sciences, and natural sciences in Korea. We employed the Scopus database to examine the change in the number of authors in papers, which were published from 2000 to 2015 in the 234 Korean academic journals indexed on Scopus. We found that the global trend of growth in the number of authors per paper is evident in Korea as well. While there was little evidence of a correlation with the citation per paper, a positive correlation was found between with the field-weighted citation impact, another measure of a paper’s impact, in medical and natural science papers. In terms of the type of collaboration, we found that international collaboration papers had the highest number of authors, followed by national and institutional collaborations. The number of authors per paper was highest for those published in the top 10% journals by Source Normalized Impact per Paper, followed by Scopus-indexed journals, while papers published in Korea Citation Index had the lowest number of authors per paper. We propose that the rise in the number of authors per paper in Korean papers may be ascribed to many Korean research programs encouraging group research and the widespread availability of the internet, which has stimulated joint research efforts and encouraged international collaboration.
Empresarios Agrupados (EA) is a leading engineering organization in Spain with significant international experience. EA provides consulting, engineering, procurement, construction management and operation support services for the power industry, power generation and transmission and other engineering areas. These paper are a collection of presentations made on conferences and congresses in 1992
In this paper, I hope to show how a recent theory in the philosophy of mind concerning how we 'read' the minds of others—namely, Heal's version of simulation theory—is consistent with the view that the kind of understanding we bring to bear on the irrational is different in kind from the way we understand one another in the ...
Sage, George H., Ed.
This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…
The double-wall paper cup is an everyday object that can be used in the laboratory to study heat transfer. The experiment described here has been done by physics students aged 12-13 years; it can also be used in a different context to prompt debate about environmental issues.
Full Text Available We are pleased to announce the Energies Best Papers awards for 2015. Energies is an open access journal of energy-related scientific research, technology development, and policy and management studies. It publishes reviews, regular research articles, and communications in a number of fields related to the procurement, conversion and final uses of energy.[...
Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Paradigma En Parodie. HHJ Snyman. Abstract.
Tron, Esther O.; And Others
The three papers in this volume describe exploratory efforts to adjust state aid to local school districts so as to reflect differences in local costs unrelated to school program content. Each study is limited to an analysis of relevant data for one of the three states considered--Michigan, California, and Florida. The underlying assumption is…
The paper deals with the assessment of the nuclear fuel cycle under different aspects: Assured energy supply, economy, environmental aspects, and non-proliferation philosophy. The results of an assessment of nuclear fuel variants along these lines for several types of commercial reactors (light-water reactors, heavy-water reactors, high-temperature reactors, and fast breeders) are presented in tables
Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.
This paper begins by isolating the reductive component of Brandom's inferentialism. In order to assess to what extent the reductive component is supported by the considerations Brandom marshals in its defense, I assess the comparative degree of support these considerations provide for a non-reductive counterpart of ...
Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: email@example.com. Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...
In this paper I discuss Polycarp Ikuenobe's view that it is rational to believe, in an African context, in the existence of witches and witchcraft. First, I attempt to show that it is not possible to prove empirically that witches and witchcraft are real, as Ikuenobe assumes. I argue that even though witches and witchcraft are part of the ...
This paper aims to describe an objective account of sexual perversion. That is, it seeks to characterize sexual perversion as something which is not simply a deviation from a statistical norm but rather as something which violates an objective naturalistic norm. The central point is that perversion consists in the introduction of ...
The most serious difficulty is that of providing criteria for when a rival alternative to a claim is relevant. Without such criteria, the theory is ad hoc. I argue that most other externalist theories of knowledge, including Sosa's own, fall victim to this criticism. At the end of the paper I make a suggestion as to why Sosa's objection ...
I claim that there is nothing so unusual in the interleaving of myth or fiction and history that Williams finds in Herodotus. I also reflect on the difficulty of separating acceptance of truth from acceptance of myth, metaphor, and model, not only in history but also in science. Philosophical Papers Vol.32(3) 2003: 243-260 ...
Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wu, Yonghui; Wang, Jingqi; Dong, Xiao; Xu, Hua
In scientific writing, positive credits and negative criticisms can often be seen in the text mentioning the cited papers, providing useful information about whether a study can be reproduced or not. In this study, we focus on citation sentiment analysis, which aims to determine the sentiment polarity that the citation context carries towards the cited paper. A citation sentiment corpus was annotated first on clinical trial papers. The effectiveness of n-gram and sentiment lexicon features, and problem-specified structure features for citation sentiment analysis were then examined using the annotated corpus. The combined features from the word n-grams, the sentiment lexicons and the structure information achieved the highest Micro F-score of 0.860 and Macro-F score of 0.719, indicating that it is feasible to use machine learning methods for citation sentiment analysis in biomedical publications. A comprehensive comparison between citation sentiment analysis of clinical trial papers and other general domains were conducted, which additionally highlights the unique challenges within this domain.
This paper provides an introduction to a particular systems-theoretical approach to problem-solving in the management of education usually referred to as soft-systems methodology (SSM), developed by Peter Checkland in the 1970s. SSM should provide a powerful tool for managers in education at any level who have a strategic role because it can be…
This paper is intended to present and to analyze the concept of the Intelligent Supply Chain (ISC). The purpose of the paper is to: 1) Clarify the concept of the intelligent supply chain; 2) Identify emerging research opportunities; and 3) Specify a research engagement model for further explorati...... of intelligent supply chains. It is concluded that information management is critical to intelligent supply chains and a research agenda is outlined.......This paper is intended to present and to analyze the concept of the Intelligent Supply Chain (ISC). The purpose of the paper is to: 1) Clarify the concept of the intelligent supply chain; 2) Identify emerging research opportunities; and 3) Specify a research engagement model for further exploration...... the concept of Intelligent Supply Chain and to establish an overall perspective based on information management. The claim made here is that the notion of the intelligent enterprise contributes with a new perspective on supply chain management that addresses the current challenges in an industrial supply...
... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the...), entitled Paper Clips from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-663 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...
Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.
Spalart, P. R.
The speaker for this paper describes and evaluates a k-epsilon model for calculating Samuel-Joubert flow. He proceeds to present both Boeing's and his positions on the state-of-the-art in this area and future goals. Finally, presented is a one equation mathematical model for calculating Samuel-Joubert flow. All results are presented in viewgraph format.
Nelhans, Gustaf; Lorentzen, David Gunnarsson
Introduction: This paper deals with what academic texts and datasets are referred to and discussed on Twitter. We used document object identifiers as references to these items. Method: We streamed tweets from the Twitter application programming interface including the strings "dx" and "doi" while simultaneously streaming tweets…
Don Ihde’s paper “Stretching the in-between: Embodiment and beyond” appears to me as a stimulating, topical text with a number of important arguments about human embodiment as a dynamic and epistemically relevant dimension to scientific knowledge production. But, indirectly, the text also raises...
Saunders, Mary Anne
A key element in a research paper writing assignment modified for students of English as a second language to assure their success is teacher control over most of the process. A chronological plan for action for the micro research project includes these steps: creating an awareness of current events and controversial issues, practicing necessary…
Patrick, John J.; And Others
A collection of resources for high school history and government teachers and their students, this volume treats core ideas on constitutional government in the United States. James Madison's ideas as found in "The Federalist Papers" are examined in conjunction with their counterpoints in essays of the Anti-Federalists. This volume…
Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Witten, I.; Akscyn, R.; Shipman, F.M.
In this contribution we identify the different structures to encounterin a hyperdocument. Methods are described for deriving those structures from scanned paper originals. The content and structure of the document is then made available in a form suited for an Internet browser. It provides
Boer, de J. (Johannes)
This paper, presented at the Persuasive Conference 2014 (21-23 May, Padua, Italy) describes an experiment in which the particpants daily received a SMS message. De SMS message was meant was meant to trigger participants on safety awareness, cleaning behaviour, and quick and instant tasks.
International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).
Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low…
Ivan Simkovic; Anne Fuller; Robert White
Paper sheets impregnated with flame retardants made from agricultural residues and other additives were studied with the cone calorimeter. The use of sugar beet ethanol eluent (SBE), CaCl2, and ZnCl2 lowered the peak rate of heat release (PRHR) the most in comparison to water treated material. The average effective heat of...
Xu, Zhao; Dong, Zhao Yang; Wong, Kit Po
This paper describes a transmission expansion planning method based on multi-objective optimization (MOOP). The method starts with constructing a candidate pool of feasible expansion plans, followed by selection of the best candidates through MOOP, of which multiple objectives are tackled...
Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Aagaard Madsen, Helge
The paper describes the development and description of the aerodynamic models used to estimate the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine constructions. This includes a status of the capabilities of computation fluid dynamics and the need for reliable airfoil data for the simpler engineering models...
Kádár, Z.; Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Szengyel, Z.; Reczey, K.; Claassen, P.A.M.
The main objective of this study was to develop a system for the production of 'renewable' hydrogen. Paper sludge is a solid industrial waste yielding mainly cellulose, which can be used, after hydrolysis, as a feedstock in anaerobic fermentation by (hyper)thermophilic organisms, such as Thermotoga
Svinicki, Marilla D.
Because instructors are very concerned about how to motivate their students, this paper describes some of the most prominent and practically relevant contemporary theories of motivation, specifically expectancy value theory, goal orientation theory, and self-determination theory. After describing each theory and its basic components, suggestions…
Blagosklonny, Mikhail V; Campisi, Judy; Sinclair, David A
The Editorial Board of Aging reviews research papers published in 2009, which they believe have or will have significant impact on aging research. Among many others, the topics include genes that accelerate aging or in contrast promote longevity in model organisms, DNA damage responses and telome...
Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...
Theories are metaphysically equivalent just if there is no fact of the matter that could render one theory true and the other false. In this paper I argue that if we are judiciously to resolve disputes about whether theories are equivalent or not, we need to develop testable criteria that will give us epistemic access to the obtaining ...
Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA. Microcomputing Program.
During the academic year 1983-84, Drexel University instituted a new policy requiring all incoming students to have access to a microcomputer. The computer chosen to fulfill this requirement was the Macintosh from Apple Computer, Inc. This paper provides a brief description of the process undertaken to select the appropriate computer (i.e.,…
This document is a collection of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) from November 1990 through October 1991. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. This is the ninth such volume of technical papers produced by the SEL. Although these papers cover several topics related to software engineering, they do not encompass the entire scope of SEL activities and interests. For the convenience of this presentation, the eight papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) software models studies; (2) software measurement studies; and (3) Ada technology studies. The first category presents studies on reuse models, including a software reuse model applied to maintenance and a model for an organization to support software reuse. The second category includes experimental research methods and software measurement techniques. The third category presents object-oriented approaches using Ada and object-oriented features proposed for Ada. The SEL is actively working to understand and improve the software development process at GSFC.
Uranium conversion and enrichment are discussed in 5 papers by representatives of the USA, Great Britain and Switzerland. The state of the art is reviewed, and future prospects are given. Supply assurance is directly related to the necessary production capacities and the supply agreements
Kedney, R. J.; Saunders, R.
This paper provides practical advice on reviewing and designing disciplinary procedures and is set in the context of incorporation of further education and sixth form colleges in England. Reasons are provided for having disciplinary rules, based on the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service's (ACAS) Code of Practice. Relevant English…
Keating, Joseph P.
In preparation for the 1987 demise of the current community college funding mechanism in California, this discussion paper reviews the current fiscal situation in the state and considers the needs that should be addressed in the finance mechanism that would become effective in July 1987. Background information is presented on the history of the…
Full Text Available Aim of study: The purpose of this study is to analyze how paper recycling activities in Europe can be extended through different improvements along the paper value chain. The importance of this study lies in the identification of the present barriers in paper recycling and how they can be overcome.Area of study: Europe.Material and Methods: All the main stages along the paper value chain have been analyzed for possible improvements: collection of recovered paper (availability and quality, sorting of recovered paper, paper production, and printing and converting activities.Main results: To increase paper recycling in Europe the following improvements are necessary. First, it is mandatory to increase the availability of recovered paper through more efficient collection systems (avoiding the use of commingled collection systems and limiting the competition with energy purposes and the exports. Second, it is necessary to extend sorting activities, which can be achieved by reducing sorting costs by the use of automatized sorting systems. Third, there is a need to increase the recyclability of paper products by the commitment of printing and converting industries to use recycling-friendly printing inks and adhesives. Finally, environmental awareness of the citizens is still an important driver for increasing recycling activities, affecting not only recovery but to all the stages along the paper recycling chain.Research highlights: Although the recycling rate in Europe is already very high (68.9%, there is still room to further extend paper recycling activities through different improvements along the paper value chain.Keywords: paper recycling; sustainability; paper value chain; recovered paper; environmental awareness.
Rentrop, C.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Lelieveld, R.; Sandberg, H.
The ROPAS project (Roll-to-roll paper sensors) combines high end electronics and wireless sensors with low cost paper substrates and processing techniques that can be applied on a large scale. Paper is the next step in the printed electronics roadmap of utilising cheaper substrate materials as a
Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G. [eds.] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)
This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.
A collection is presented of selected technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period Dec. 1988 to Oct. 1989. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. For the convenience of this presentation, the seven papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) Software Measurement and Technology Studies; (2) Measurement Environment Studies; and (3) Ada Technology Studies. The first category presents experimental research and evaluation of software measurement and technology; the second presents studies on software environments pertaining to measurement. The last category represents Ada technology and includes research, development, and measurement studies.
A collection is presented of technical papers produced by participants in the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) during the period 1 Jun. 1987 to 1 Jan. 1989. The purpose of the document is to make available, in one reference, some results of SEL research that originally appeared in a number of different forums. For the convenience of this presentation, the twelve papers contained here are grouped into three major categories: (1) Software Measurement and Technology Studies; (2) Measurement Environment Studies; and (3) Ada Technology Studies. The first category presents experimental research and evaluation of software measurement and technology; the second presents studies on software environments pertaining to measurement. The last category represents Ada technology and includes research, development, and measurement studies.
Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources
This white paper explains the state of nuclear energy from June 19, 1998, to September, 2003. It consists of text and material. The text contains two chapters, of which the first chapter includes nuclear power plant, recovery of reliance, nuclear fuel cycle, development of research, international trend and evaluation of policy, and the second chapter nuclear energy administration of Japan, consensus of citizen and nuclear energy, nuclear power plant and nuclear fuel cycle, various kinds of development of nuclear energy technologies, radiation use for national life, consensus of international society and nuclear energy and propulsive basis of research, development and use of nuclear energy. Material collects determination of committee, budget on nuclear energy and chronological tables. This paper contains only the fundamental items related to the nuclear energy policy except nuclear energy safety. (S.Y.)
More, E.; Phaal, R. [Institute for Manufacturing IfM, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Londo, H.M.; Wurtenberger, L.; Cameron, L.R. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
This background paper reports on the use of technology roadmaps (TRMs) related to climate change mitigation and adaptation technologies. The study is motivated by the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (CoP) request to the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) to catalyse the development and use of TRMs as facilitative tools for action on mitigation and adaptation. Having originated in industry, TRMs are now used extensively in policy settings too, however their widespread use across sectors and by different stakeholders has resulted in a lack of understanding of their real value to help catalyse cooperation towards technological solutions to the problems presented by climate change. Consequently this background paper presents (1) an overview of different TRM methods, (2) an initial analysis of gaps and barriers in existing TRMs, and (3) a review of current TRM good practices.
Barkenbus, J.N.; Freeman, S.D.; Weinberg, A.M.
The four papers contained in this report are titled: (1) From Prescriptive to Performance-Based Regulation of Nuclear Power; (2) Nuclear Regulatory Reform: A Technology-Forcing Approach; (3) Improving the Regulation of Nuclear Power; and (4) Science and Its Limits: The Regulators' Dilemma. These four papers investigate issues relating to the long-term regulation of nuclear energy. They were prepared as part of the Institute for Energy Analysis' project on Nuclear Regulation funded by a grant from the Mellon Foundation and a smaller grant by the MacArthur Foundation. Originally this work was to be supplemented by contributions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and from the Department of Energy. These contributions were not forthcoming, and as a result the scope of our investigations was more restricted than we had originally planned
Barkenbus, J.N.; Freeman, S.D.; Weinberg, A.M.
The four papers contained in this report are titled: (1) From Prescriptive to Performance-Based Regulation of Nuclear Power; (2) Nuclear Regulatory Reform: A Technology-Forcing Approach; (3) Improving the Regulation of Nuclear Power; and (4) Science and Its Limits: The Regulators' Dilemma. These four papers investigate issues relating to the long-term regulation of nuclear energy. They were prepared as part of the Institute for Energy Analysis' project on Nuclear Regulation funded by a grant from the Mellon Foundation and a smaller grant by the MacArthur Foundation. Originally this work was to be supplemented by contributions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and from the Department of Energy. These contributions were not forthcoming, and as a result the scope of our investigations was more restricted than we had originally planned.
Kennedy, Robert E
Our understanding of the physical universe underwent a revolution in the early twentieth century - evolving from the classical physics of Newton, Galileo, and Maxwell to the modern physics of relativity and quantum mechanics. The dominant figure in this revolutionary change was Albert Einstein. In a single year, 1905, Einstein produced breakthrough works in three areas of physics: on the size and the effects of atoms; on the quantization of the electromagnetic field; and on the special theory of relativity. In 1916 he produced a fourth breakthrough work, the general theory of relativity. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers focuses on Einstein's contributions, setting his major works into their historical context, and then takes the reader through the details of each paper, including the mathematics. This book helps the reader appreciate the simplicity and insightfulness of Einstein's ideas and how revolutionary his work was, and locate it in the evolution of scientific thought begun by the ancient...
Kaczmarski, Jakub; Borysiewicz, Michał A.; Piskorski, Krzysztof; Wzorek, Marek; Kozubal, Maciej; Kamińska, Eliana
With the development of novel device applications, e.g. in the field of robust and recyclable paper electronics, came an increased demand for the understanding and control of IGZO Schottky contact properties. In this work, a fabrication and characterization of flexible Ru-Si-O/IGZO Schottky barriers on paper is presented. It is found that an oxygen-rich atomic composition and microstructure of Ru-Si-O containing randomly oriented Ru inclusions with diameter of 3-5 nm embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix are effective in preventing interfacial reactions in the contact region, allowing to avoid pre-treatment of the semiconductor surface and fabricate reliable diodes at room temperature characterized by Schottky barrier height and ideality factor equal 0.79 eV and 2.13, respectively.
Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources
Here we report on a novel substrate, nanopaper, made of cellulose nanofibrils, an earth abundant material. Compared with regular paper substrates, nanopaper shows superior optical properties. We have carried out the first study on the optical properties of nanopaper substrates. Since the size of the nanofibrils is much less than the wavelength of visible light, nanopaper is highly transparent with large light scattering in the forward direction. Successful depositions of transparent and conductive materials including tin-doped indium oxide, carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires have been achieved on nanopaper substrates, opening up a wide range of applications in optoelectronics such as displays, touch screens and interactive paper. We have also successfully demonstrated an organic solar cell on the novel substrate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.
Rock-Paper-Scissors (RPS), a game of cyclic dominance, is not merely a popular children's game but also a basic model system for studying decision-making in non-cooperative strategic interactions. Aimed at students of physics with no background in game theory, this paper introduces the concepts of Nash equilibrium and evolutionarily stable strategy, and reviews some recent theoretical and empirical efforts on the non-equilibrium properties of the iterated RPS, including collective cycling, conditional response patterns and microscopic mechanisms that facilitate cooperation. We also introduce several dynamical processes to illustrate the applications of RPS as a simplified model of species competition in ecological systems and price cycling in economic markets.
International Monetary Fund
Croatia’s economic vulnerability is discussed in this study. Using the balance sheet approach (BSA), this paper analyzes Croatia’s overall and sectoral vulnerabilities. Croatia’s financial sector balance sheet is exposed to liquidity, contagion, and currency risks. With strong pre-crisis prudential policies and parent banks’ willingness to keep or even increase exposures, the economy’s capacity to tackle another major macroeconomic or financial shock is limited. Given the stable exchange rate...
Anamika Modi*; Ayush Jaiswal; Princy Jain
This report provides a short study of the field of virtual reality, highlighting application domains, technological requirements, and currently available solutions. In today’s market, virtual reality is playing an crucial role for the humans. If we consider the foreign countries than using virtual reality they try to create the same feelings not only for the school children’s as well as for the upper education. In this paper, we have study the technologies used in virtual reality.
Mitchell, H.; Haigh, G.W.R.; Jenkins, E.
The topics raised in the discussion covered: the accuracy of the cost estimates for the project; the number of sluices to be used; factors controlling the selection of steel or concrete for caisson construction and the design life of the caissons; the type of gates and lock mechanism; shipping traffic forecasts; and the effect of the barrage on port operations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the two papers under discussion. (UK)
Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Yao, Xu; Wang, Bo; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Nan; Liu, Kang; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun
A paper-based active tactile sensor -array (PATSA) with a dynamic sensitivity of 0.35 V N(-1) is demonstrated. The pixel position of the PATSA can be routed by analyzing the real-time recording voltages in the pressing process. The PATSA performance, which remains functional when removing partial areas, reveals that the device has a potential application to customized electronic skins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Little, William; Tully-Hanson, Benjamin
The Virtual Control Room (VCR) Proof of Concept (PoC) project is the result of an award given by the Fourth Annual NASA T&I Labs Challenge Project Call. This paper will outline the work done over the award period to build and enhance the capabilities of the Augmented/Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to create the VCR.
Juan Carlos Carmona Sandoval
Full Text Available This essay attempts to show that the ancient rhetorical theory has explanatory capabilities to understand and learn to write modern texts and to analyze them in order to understand their communication skills, as in the scientific article, one of the most prestigious forms on scientific communication. It starts with the notion of discourse in the field of scientific communication and then address the rhetorical dimension of the paper.
International Monetary Fund
This paper examines the Progress Report for Albania’s National Strategy for Socio-Economic Development (NSSED). 2002 was the first year of implementing the NSSED. The implementation process has been oriented toward achieving the annual objectives and in accordance with the program of public priority measures for 2002–04. The experience gained in NSSED implementation, the definition and improvements to objectives and medium-term NSSED measures, the Millennium Development Goals, and Albania’s E...
Boer, de, J. (Johannes)
This paper, presented at the Persuasive Conference 2014 (21-23 May, Padua, Italy) describes an experiment in which the particpants daily received a SMS message. De SMS message was meant was meant to trigger participants on safety awareness, cleaning behaviour, and quick and instant tasks. The experiment was part of the Safety at Work project of Saxion University of Applied Sciences.
Chambers, David W
Digital communication offers advantages and challenges to dental practice. As dentistry becomes comfortable with this technology, it is essential that commercial and other values not be accepted on a par with professional ones and that the traditional dentist-patient relationship not be compromised by inserting third parties that introduce nonprofessional standards. The Officers and Regents of the American College of Dentist have prepared this background and position paper as a guide to the ethical use of digital communication in dental practice.
Muñoz-Alonso López, Gemma
El artículo propone unificar los criterios para citar y elaborar bibliografías en la investigación en filosofía y en ciencias humanas. Se analizan las ventajas y los inconvenientes del sistema tradicional y del sistema Harvard.The paper attempts to unify criteria for referencing documents and elaborating bibliographies in philosophy and human sciences research. The advantages and disadvantages of the Harvard system are confronted with more traditional methods.
Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Maeno, Misato
Publications and presentations are important in academic medicine. The ability to present information in a standard fashion is critically important. Papers, posters, and slides must be prepared appropriately to maximize their chance of being accepted. The first step is to use word processing software correctly. English language usage must conform to standard scientific English usage. Abbreviations should be avoided as much as possible. Numerical data must be presented with the appropriate number of significant figures. The first step in preparing a paper is to decide the target journal. Papers should always be written in 12 point Times New Roman font, while slides and posters should be in Arial or Helvetica. The Results section must contain actual data with appropriate statistical analysis. Take great care to prepare figures and tables according to the journal's instructions. Posters must be prepared to allow easy reading at a distance of 2m. Use a white background and dark letters. The majority of the area of your poster should be Results, and there is no need to include the abstract or references on a poster. Slide presentations should be limited to about one slide for each minute of the talk. Avoid the use of animations and excessive use of color. Do not use abbreviations on slides. Following these simple guidelines will meet the requirements of most journals and allow your audience to appreciate the data on your posters and slides. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flexible electronics will form the basis of many next-generation technologies, such as wearable devices, biomedical sensors, the Internet of things, and more. However, most flexible devices can bear strains of less than 300% as a result of stretching. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and low-cost paper-based photodetector array featuring superior deformability using printable ZnO nanowires, carbon electrodes, and origami-based techniques. With a folded Miura structure, the paper photodetector array can be oriented in four different directions via tessellated parallelograms to provide the device with excellent omnidirectional light harvesting capabilities. Additionally, we demonstrate that the device can be repeatedly stretched (up to 1000% strain), bent (bending angle ±30°), and twisted (up to 360°) without degrading performance as a result of the paper folding technique, which enables the ZnO nanowire layers to remain rigid even as the device is deformed. The origami-based strategy described herein suggests avenues for the development of next-generation deformable optoelectronic applications.
Kim, Y S
According to Richard Feynman, the adventure of our science of physics is a perpetual attempt to recognize that the different aspects of nature are really different aspects of the same thing. It is therefore interesting to combine some, if not all, of Feynman's papers into one. The first of his three papers is on the 'rest of the universe' contained in his 1972 book on statistical mechanics. The second idea is Feynman's parton picture which he presented in 1969 at the Stony Brook conference on high-energy physics. The third idea is contained in the 1971 paper he published with his students, where they show that the hadronic spectra on Regge trajectories are manifestations of harmonic-oscillator degeneracies. In this report, we formulate these three ideas using the mathematics of two coupled oscillators. It is shown that the idea of entanglement is contained in his rest of the universe, and can be extended to a space-time entanglement. It is shown also that his parton model and the static quark model can be combined into one Lorentz-covariant entity. Furthermore, Einstein's special relativity, based on the Lorentz group, can also be formulated within the mathematical framework of two coupled oscillators
Stewart, B M
Founded in 1992, is an independent grassroots organization whose goal is to assist community development, health, education, clean water and income generation. The Q'eqchi' Maya Indians constitute the fourth largest indigenous group located on the banks of Rio Dulce, in the eastern rainforest of Guatemala. Project Ak'Tenamit helped the Q'eqchi' people revive their ancient art of paper making as a viable and self-sustainable source of income. As the material used by the ancient Maya--cork husk and banana stalks--are still abundant, it was decided that this art could be successfully re-introduced. With papermaking, the Q'eqchi women were able to earn money from their own production without even compromising their respective households. Ak'Tenamit was responsible for the distribution of paper making products in stores throughout Guatemala. Although there are still many obstacles confronting these women, the paper making cooperative provides employment opportunities and is indeed a great help to them. They produce a total of 15 different products including bowls, cards, and bookmarks.
Sargeant, A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH 45810 (United States); Goswami, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH 45810 (United States)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Total hip-joint arthroplasty is performed in increasing numbers where it translates to about 0.16-0.2% of population per year in industrial countries. In most cases, an implant is a metallic component articulating with a metal, ceramic or poly-ethylene liner as seen in the case of hip, knee and spine. The metal implants release ions in vivo. Therefore, there is a need to study metallic implants and ions released as a result. Toxic concentrations of ions can lead to many adverse physiological effects, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and metal sensitivity. There is a need to map ion concentrations establishing boundaries between normal and toxic levels; which however, does not exist. Reference levels of ion concentrations in body fluids and tissues determined by many studies are compiled, reviewed, and presented in this paper. The concentrations of ions released from different alloys, including cobalt, chromium, nickel, molybdenum titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, are presented in this paper. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to clinical data on metal ion concentrations in patients with metal joint prostheses, and laboratory data on the physiological effects of the metals.
Today, it is apparent that science and technology are major driving force for nation's economic growth. Japan is utilizing its scientific and technological ability to produce superior products. Thus Japan has become an economic giant. The citizenry of Japan are enjoying the benefits of these scientific and technological advances. In recent years, the socioeconomic situation in the country has improved. As a result, the people of Japan want the quality of life in addition to material goods. There are expectations for improving the quality of life, while at the same time, solving such problems as the aging of the society and global environmental concerns. From these perspectives, in this paper, how science and technology have contributed to improve the quality of life and how those have been applied are analyzed. It is hoped that this paper is useful as a basic reference in considering Japanese socioeconomic goals for the 21st century. Furthermore, the government tries to address the problems pointed out in this paper, and promote the advancement of Japanese science and technology. The status of Japanese science and technology, expectations for science and technology and the science and technology policy in foreign countries and Japan are described. (K.I.)
Full Text Available Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD, was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The device was fabricated using the following methods: (1 cellulose-based paper was patterned using a wax printer, (2 electrical connection was made using a silver ink-based circuit printer, and (3 three electrodes were stacked on a 2D Origami cell. Electrochemical behavior was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. We believe that this platform could attract a great deal of interest for use in various chemical and biomedical applications.
The aim of this paper is to explore the role of institutional capacity in selecting the most appropriate climate actions. More specifically, it investigates why, for some countries, institutional capacity may need to be considered as an important criterion for selecting future climate actions, alongside environmental, economic and/or political considerations. This paper is a synthesis of results of an OECD/IEA project undertaken in 2003 for the Annex I Expert Group, which led to several publications, namely a framework paper on Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions, three national cases studies, respectively on Mexico, India and Bulgaria, as well as a paper assessing the status of national inventory preparation in Annex I and non-Annex I Parties (OECD/IEA, 2003). The paper argues that the very nature of a country's institutional development suggests a progressive approach to climate actions, which takes into account the specificity of a country's existing institutional setting. More specifically, substantial changes in a country's existing institutions are likely to be required when particular levels or types of institutional capacities need to be developed, for example when these changes affect public governance as a whole. Finally, particular forms of actions may require significant changes in a country's institutional setting. For example, legally-binding quantified national targets tend to require significant institutional development in all functions of climate policy. With other approaches, such as those based on non-binding targets, sectoral targets or policies and measures, institutional development may be more progressive and targeted. Thus, when considering particular forms of climate actions, countries might benefit from investigating what kind of institutions are likely to be needed and whether they will be able to develop sufficient capacity in time to implement these actions. Overall, this analysis suggests a step-by-step, dynamic model for
Improving fundamental movement skills in Hong Kong students through an assessment for learning intervention that emphasizes fun, mastery, and support: the A + FMS randomized controlled trial study protocol.
Chan, Cecilia; Ha, Amy; Ng, Johan Y Y
Assessment for learning has been identified as an effective strategy to help children learn more effectively. Developing children to master basic movement skills in primary school requires formative assessments to inform instruction and learning. This study reports the rationale and methods for an assessment-based intervention that emphasizes fun, mastery and support (A + FMS) designed to improve fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency of primary schoolchildren. Utilizing a cluster randomized controlled trial, the A + FMS intervention was designed to improve FMS proficiency of Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren. A target sample of 282 students or more from 10 Grade 3 classes (from five schools) will be recruited and randomly assigned into an experimental group or a wait-list control group. Competence motivation theory provided a framework for the intervention that emphasizes fun activities to develop basic fundamentals, improving mastery of movement, and providing support for teaching and learning skills. Primary outcome measures are the raw scores of six objectively measured FMS (i.e., jump, hop, skip, dribble, catch, and overhand throw). Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures: enjoyment in physical education, perceived physical competence, perceived skill competence, and perceived social support. Teachers in the experimental group are required to attend a six-h training workshop and integrate 550 min of assessment for learning strategies into their physical education lessons. Resources such as videos, skills checklists, and equipment will also be provided to support children to accumulate extra learning and practice time after school. The rate of changes in primary and secondary outcomes across the experimental and control groups will be compared to determine the effectiveness of the program. The A + FMS is an innovative school-based intervention targeting improvements in movement mastery by supporting physical education teachers in FMS
Blaylock, Russell Lane
In recent years, we have witnessed a decline in civility in the public arena when various socially sensitive issues are being presented. Those of us engaged in the publishing of scientific papers and in our comments on these papers, need to be cognizant of the social graces, courteous demeanor, and chivalry. Debates are essential to our learning and in being able to ferret out the essentials of various scientific issues that are of value. Because of the amount of time and effort connected with analyzing the complex problems and the years invested in such endeavors, we often resort to the behavior, that is, contentious and at times even quite insulting to our opponents during our defense. This is the part of human nature but as civilized human beings, we must strive to maintain the courtesy and a calm demeanor during such discussions and debates. I have yielded to such temptations myself but am striving to repent of my sins. The medical and scientific history should have taught us that in defending our ideas we learn and sometimes come to the realization that our paradigm or hypothesis is wrong, either in part or whole. Such debates allow us to fine tune our ideas and correct our errors in thinking, which are easily, consciously, or subconsciously sublimated by our enthusiasm. The glyphosate papers presented ideas that, while well supported by the scientific studies and logical conclusions, also contained some possible errors in its suppositions. Dr. Miguel Faria challenged some of these concepts and was met with some degree of derision by one of the authors. This editorial comment is in response to these issues.
Ju, Qiang; Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J
Point-of-care and in-field technologies for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of molecular biomarkers have attracted much interest. Rugged bioassay technology capable of fast detection of markers for pathogens and genetic diseases would in particular impact the quality of health care in the developing world, but would also make possible more extensive screening in developed countries to tackle problems such as those associated with water and food quality, and tracking of infectious organisms in hospitals and clinics. Literature trends indicate an increasing interest in the use of nanomaterials, and in particular luminescent nanoparticles, for assay development. These materials may offer attributes for development of assays and sensors that could achieve improvements in analytical figures of merit, and provide practical advantages in sensitivity and stability. There is opportunity for cost-efficiency and technical simplicity by implementation of luminescent nanomaterials as the basis for transduction technology, when combined with the use of paper substrates, and the ubiquitous availability of cell phone cameras and associated infrastructure for optical detection and transmission of results. Luminescent nanoparticles have been described for a broad range of bioanalytical targets including small molecules, oligonucleotides, peptides, proteins, saccharides and whole cells (e.g., cancer diagnostics). The luminescent nanomaterials that are described herein for paper-based bioassays include metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and lanthanide-doped nanocrystals. These nanomaterials often have broad and strong absorption and narrow emission bands that improve opportunity for multiplexed analysis, and can be designed to provide emission at wavelengths that are efficiently processed by conventional digital cameras. Luminescent nanoparticles can be embedded in paper substrates that are designed to direct fluid flow, and the resulting combination of technologies can offer
The core of this volume is formed by four chapters (2–5) with detailed reconstructions of the arguments and derivations in four of Einstein's most important papers, the three main papers of his annus mirabilis 1905 (on the light quantum, Brownian motion, and special relativity) and his first systematic exposition of general relativity of 1916. The derivations are given in sufficient detail and in sufficiently modernized notation (without any serious distortion of the originals) for an undergraduate physics major to read and understand them with far less effort than it would take him or her to understand (English translations of) Einstein's original papers. Each of these four papers is accompanied by a detailed introduction, which covers the conceptual development of the relevant field prior to Einstein's contribution to it and corrects some of the myths surrounding these papers that still have not been fully eradicated among physicists. (One quibble: though Kennedy correctly points out that the goal of the light quantum paper was not to explain the photoelectric effect, it is also not quite right to say that 'it was written to explain the Wien region of blackbody radiation' (p. xv). Einstein used this explanatory feat as the central argument for his light quantum hypothesis.) These four chapters then are the most valuable part of the volume. They could be used, independently of one another, but preferably in conjunction with Einstein's original texts, in courses on quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity, respectively, to add a historical component to such courses. As a historian of science embedded in a physics department who is regularly called upon to give guest lectures in such courses on the history of their subjects, I can highly recommend the volume for this purpose. However, I would not adopt this volume as (one of) the central text(s) for a course on the history of modern physics. For one thing, chapter 1, which
de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien
Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.
Six classic papers on stochastic process, selected to meet the needs of physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers. Contents: 1.Chandrasekhar, S.: Stochastic Problems in Physics and Astronomy. 2. Uhlenbeck, G. E. and Ornstein, L. S.: On the Theory of the Browninan Motion. 3. Ming Chen Wang and Uhlenbeck, G. E.: On the Theory of the Browninan Motion II. 4. Rice, S. O.: Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. 5. Kac, Mark: Random Walk and the Theory of Brownian Motion. 6. Doob, J. L.: The Brownian Movement and Stochastic Equations. Unabridged republication of the Dover reprint (1954). Pre
The Cyprus Coal Co. introduced the use of computer-aided design in planning and mapping operations at the company's Star Point No. 2 mine located south of Price, Utah and at the Orchard Valley mine near Craig, Colorado. CAD software is installed on a VAX 11/780 computer system. The process of converting large mine maps from paper to CAD files is described - the maps had to be broken down into layers. The CAD system has also introduced direct savings in mine planning and coal production by reducing engineering and surveying time at the mines and allowing a cost-effective response to government regulatory demands. 4 figs.
Hyde, Alexander; Batishchev, Oleg
An experiment studying the physical principles of electrophoresis in liquids was developed for an undergraduate laboratory. We have improved upon the standard agarose gel electrophoresis experimental regime with a straightforward and cost-effective procedure, in which drops of widely available black food coloring were separated by electric field into their dye components on strips of chromatography paper soaked in a baking soda/water solution. Terminal velocities of seven student-safe dyes were measured as a function of the electric potential applied along the strips. The molecular mobility was introduced and calculated by analyzing data for a single dye. Sources of systematic and random errors were investigated.
Full Text Available This article examines Lucas Pope’s independent game Papers, Please as an instantiation of critical making within the discipline of the digital humanities. By confronting the player with moral decisions in their capacity as an immigration officer allowing or denying entry to immigrants within a totalitarian state, the game introduces an expressive form of game design in which conceptual practices are used to examine political and social realities. This type of critical media practice introduces a political ethic to the digital humanities that is arguably scarce within the discipline.
James S Cybulski
Full Text Available Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education.
Chyu, Ming-Chien; Austin, Tony; Calisir, Fethi; Chanjaplammootil, Samuel; Davis, Mark J; Favela, Jesus; Gan, Heng; Gefen, Amit; Haddas, Ram; Hahn-Goldberg, Shoshana; Hornero, Roberto; Huang, Yu-Li; Jensen, Øystein; Jiang, Zhongwei; Katsanis, J S; Lee, Jeong-A; Lewis, Gladius; Lovell, Nigel H; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo; Morales, George G; Matis, Timothy; Matthews, Judith T; Mazur, Lukasz; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Oommen, K J; Ormand, Kevin; Rohde, Tarald; Sánchez-Morillo, Daniel; Sanz-Calcedo, Justo García; Sawan, Mohamad; Shen, Chwan-Li; Shieh, Jiann-Shing; Su, Chao-Ton; Sun, Lilly; Sun, Mingui; Sun, Yi; Tewolde, Senay N; Williams, Eric A; Yan, Chongjun; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhang, Yuan-Ting
Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term "Healthcare Engineering" has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of "Healthcare Engineering" remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.
Garcia, Carla Costa; Martrucelli, Cristina Ribeiro Nabuco; Rossilho, Marilisa de Melo Freire; Denardin, Odilon Victor Porto
The dissemination of the practice of collaborative authorship (coauthorship) in Brazil and in the international scientific community has been accompanied by an increasing occurrence of frauds, manipulations and other deviations in the assignment of responsibility for a scientific paper. This article discusses the criteria for authorship attribution, the reasons for the growing indices of coauthorship and the challenges to determine authorship in electronic journals. Through literature review and case study (bibliographic search in scientific database), it shows ways to avoid that "misbehaviors" related to the authorship attribution affect the credibility of science.
The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on the configuration of the primary ventilation system. This configuration will be used on the waste storage tanks currently being designed for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The primary ventilation system provides a single treatment train and exhaust fan for each waste storage tank. The ventilation systems from each of two tanks are grouped with an additional treatment train and exhaust fan that function as backup to either of the two systems
This article revalues the hierarchy of paper waste management policies in a dynamic general equilibrium model. Incineration, material recycling and the distinction between non-renewable fossil fuels and renewable forest assets are incorporated. By comparing the first order conditions from the command optimum with the conditions from the market model, it is discovered that the unregulated market fails to create an optimal resource allocation. To see how the market behaves, in absence of environmental policy, compared to the first best solution a numerical model is used. Pigouvian taxes and subsidies are derived to correct for the externalities
Cook, Roy T
This volume collects together a number of important papers concerning both the method of abstraction generally and the use of particular abstraction principles to reconstruct central areas of mathematics along logicist lines. Gottlob Frege's original logicist project was, in effect, refuted by Russell's paradox. Crispin Wright has recently revived Frege's enterprise, however, providing a philosophical and technical framework within which a reconstruction of arithmetic is possible. While the Neo-Fregean project has recieved extensive attention and discussion, the present volume is unique in pre
The book is a collection of abstracts submitted to the International Nuclear Physics Conference held in August 21-26 1995 in Beijing, China. The conference is organized by China Institute of Atomic Energy. The main topics of the conference are: relativistic nuclear collisions, mesons and baryons in nuclei, hadron structure and quarks in nuclei, formation and properties of hot nuclei, nuclear reactions at low and intermediate energies, nuclear structure, radioactive nuclear beams, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental interaction and symmetries, applied nuclear physics. This second part contains papers about nuclear reactions at low and intermediate energies, nuclear structure, radioactive nuclear beams, nuclear astrophysics, fundamental interaction and symmetries, applied nuclear physics, and the author index
Full Text Available Engineering has been playing an important role in serving and advancing healthcare. The term “Healthcare Engineering” has been used by professional societies, universities, scientific authors, and the healthcare industry for decades. However, the definition of “Healthcare Engineering” remains ambiguous. The purpose of this position paper is to present a definition of Healthcare Engineering as an academic discipline, an area of research, a field of specialty, and a profession. Healthcare Engineering is defined in terms of what it is, who performs it, where it is performed, and how it is performed, including its purpose, scope, topics, synergy, education/training, contributions, and prospects.
Cha, Ruitao; Wang, Chengyu; Cheng, Shaoling; He, Zhibin; Jiang, Xingyu
Specialty paper (e.g. cigarette paper and battery diaphragm paper) requires extremely high strength properties. The addition of strength agents plays an important role in increasing strength properties of paper. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), or cellulose whiskers, has the potential to enhance the strength properties of paper via improving inter-fibers bonding. This paper was to determine the potential of using carboxylated nanocrystalline cellulose (CNCC) to improve the strength properties of paper made of cellulosic fiber or poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber. The results indicated that the addition of CNCC can effectively improve the strength properties. At a CNCC dosage of 0.7%, the tear index and tensile index of the cellulosic paper reached the maximum of 12.8 mN m2/g and 100.7 Nm/g, respectively. More importantly, when increasing the CNCC dosage from 0.1 to 1.0%, the tear index and tensile index of PVA fiber paper were increased by 67.29%, 22.55%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Colletes, T C; Garcia, P T; Campanha, R B; Abdelnur, P V; Romão, W; Coltro, W K T; Vaz, B G
The analytical performance for paper spray (PS) using a new insert sample approach based on paper with paraffin barriers (PS-PB) is presented. The paraffin barrier is made using a simple, fast and cheap method based on the stamping of paraffin onto a paper surface. Typical operation conditions of paper spray such as the solvent volume applied on the paper surface, and the paper substrate type are evaluated. A paper substrate with paraffin barriers shows better performance on analysis of a range of typical analytes when compared to the conventional PS-MS using normal paper (PS-NP) and PS-MS using paper with two rounded corners (PS-RC). PS-PB was applied to detect sugars and their inhibitors in sugarcane bagasse liquors from a second generation ethanol process. Moreover, the PS-PB proved to be excellent, showing results for the quantification of glucose in hydrolysis liquors with excellent linearity (R(2) = 0.99), limits of detection (2.77 mmol L(-1)) and quantification (9.27 mmol L(-1)). The results are better than for PS-NP and PS-RC. The PS-PB was also excellent in performance when compared with the HPLC-UV method for glucose quantification on hydrolysis of liquor samples.
Zhang, Zhiping; Xu, Wei; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng
Paper spray is a newly developed ambient ionization method that has been applied for direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological samples. The properties of the paper substrate and spray solution have a significant impact on the release of chemical compounds from complex sample matrices, the diffusion of the analytes through the substrate, and the formation of ions for mass spectrometry analysis. In this study, a commercially available silica-coated paper was explored in an attempt to improve the analysis of therapeutic drugs in dried blood spots (DBS). The dichloromethane/isopropanol solvent has been identified as an optimal spray solvent for the analysis. The comparison was made with paper spray using chromatography paper as substrate with methanol/water as solvent for the analysis of verapamil, citalopram, amitriptyline, lidocaine and sunitinib in dried blood spots. It has been demonstrated the efficiency of recovery of the analytes was notably improved with the silica coated paper and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for the drug analysis was 0.1 ng mL−1 using a commercial triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The use of silica paper substrate also resulted in a sensitivity improvement of 5-50 fold in comparison with chromatography papers, including the Whatmann ET31 paper used for blood card. Analysis using a handheld miniature mass spectrometer Mini 11 gave LOQs of 10~20 ng mL−1 for the tested drugs, which is sufficient to cover the therapeutic ranges of these drugs. PMID:22145627
Since the publication of its last White Paper on Nuclear Energy in 2003, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan (AEC) summarized trends covering all aspects of nuclear energy over the period up to December 2004. This paper is comprised of a main document and supplementary materials. The first chapter of the main document summarizes the current activities toward national and international understanding and trust promotion of nuclear energy divided along the topics of 'Restoring trust', 'Structuring trust toward new enterprise implementation', 'Establishment of understanding and trust of international society', 'AEC's activities toward creation of new Long-Term Program', and 'Establishment of future understanding and trust. 'The second chapter summarized recent trends of national and private activities based on the Long-Term Program created in November 2000, covering the topics 'Nuclear Energy Policy in Japan', 'Harmony between People, Society and Nuclear Energy', 'Nuclear Power Generation and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle', 'Diversified Development of Nuclear Science and Technology', 'Utilization of Radiation Contributing to People's Lives', 'Harmony between International Society and Nuclear Energy', and 'Foundation to Promote Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. The supplementary materials include lists of AEC decisions, nuclear energy budgets, year-by-year data tables, and other such similar materials. (T. Tanaka)