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Sample records for sinkholes springs caves

  1. Engineering geologic conditions at the sinkhole entrance to Logan Cave, Benton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Logan Cave, located in Benton County, Arkansas, is inhabited by several endangered and threatened species. The cave and surrounding area was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1989. Cave researchers access the cave through a steep-sided sinkhole entrance, which also is one of the two access points used by endangered bats. There is evidence of instability of one of the entrance slopes that has raised concerns that the entrance could close if slope failure was to occur. At the request of USFWS, we performed an engineering geologic investigation of the sinkhole to evaluate stability of this slope, which is comprised of soil, and other mechanisms of sediment transport into the cave entrance. The investigation included engineering geologic mapping, sampling and laboratory testing of subsurface geologic materials, and slope-stability analysis. We found that the sinkhole slope that extends into the entrance of the cave is comprised of sandy and gravelly soil to the depths explored (6.4 meters). This soil likely was deposited as alluvium within a previous, larger sinkhole. Based on properties of the alluvium, geometry of the slope, and results of finite-element slope-stability analyses, we conclude that the slope is marginally stable. Future failures of the slope probably would be relatively thin and small, thus several would be required to completely close the cave entrance. However, sediment is accumulating within the cave entrance due to foot traffic of those accessing the cave, surface-water erosion and transport, and shallow slope failures from the other sinkhole slopes. We conclude that the entrance will be closed by sediment in the future, similar to another entrance that we identified that completely closed in the past. Several measures could be taken to reduce the potential for closure of the cave entrance, including periodic sediment removal, installation of materials that reduce erosion by

  2. Sinkholes

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    Kaufmann, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Sinkholes are a common feature in Missouri where limestone and dolomite outcrop. Though often considered a benign nuisance, sudden, catastrophic collapses can destroy property, delay construction projects, and contaminate ground water resources.

  3. Investigation on the possible interconnection between Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and springs of Argos area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leontiadis, I.; Dimitroulas, C.; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, A.; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    /sup 51/Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of possible interconnection between the sinkhole Kanata, on the high Plateau of Tripolis, and springs of the areas of Argos, Achladokambos and Kinouria. By this experiment, the interconnection between the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios Achladokambos river, is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc., have been calculated.

  4. Investigation on the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of Argos areas (Peloponnese, Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, Ioannis L.; Dimitroulas, Christos; Zouridakis, N.; Dounas, Athanasios; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1984-07-01

    51 Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer for the investigation of the possible interconnection of the Kanata sinkhole, on the high plateau of Tripolis, and the springs of the Argos areas Achladokampos and Kinouria. By this experiment the interconnection of the sinkhole and the submarine spring of Kiveri, as well as the springs of Xovrios river (Achladokampos) is proved. Furthermore, the percentage of connection between the sinkhole and the springs, the mean transit time of the water from the sinkhole to the springs, the volume of the underground reservoir feeding the springs, etc. have been calculated. (author)

  5. Reply to Discussion by Zekai Șen on "Modeling karst spring hydrograph recession based on head drop at sinkholes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Malcolm S.; Goldscheider, Nico; Li, Guangquan

    2018-02-01

    We are pleased to learn that the model presented in our paper dealing with the "modeling karst spring hydrograph recession based on head drop at sinkholes," published in the Journal of Hydrology in 2016 (Li et al., 2016), is of interest to readers of this journal. Our study presented a new non-exponential model for assessing spring hydrographs in terms of head drop at flooded sinkholes, as an extension of an earlier model proposed by Li and Field (2014). In both papers, we used two spring hydrographs measured in the St. Marks Karst Watershed in northwest Florida to test the applicability and to verify the validity of our models.

  6. Investigation of the possible interconnection of the sinkhole of Taka Lake and various springs of the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontiadis, I.L.; Dimitroulas, Christos; Zouridakis, N.; Morfis, A.; Paraskevopoulou, P.

    1987-09-01

    51 Cr-EDTA has been used as tracer to investigate the possible interconnection of the sinkhole of Taka Lake (high plateau of Tripolis) and a number of springs in Arkadia and Lakonia (Peloponnese). For the same purpose analyses of the isotopic composition of the water of the same springs, as well as of that of Taka Lake have been performed. The results of this research reconfirm the contribution of the water entering the sinkhole of Taka Lake to the feeding of Astros Anavalos spring, this contribution being apparent only during the low flow period. The common origin of Loukou, Valtos, Moustos and Aghios Andreas spring water was also proved and determined. The origin of the water of Zorros spring (Lakonia) was determined as well. (author)

  7. DNA analysis of fecal bacteria to augment an epikarst dye trace study at Crump's Cave, Kentucky

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    A rainfall simulation experiment was performed to investigate the transport behavior of fecal-derived bacteria through shallow karst soils and through the epikarst. The experiment was conducted at Cave Springs Cavern located just south of Mammoth Cave National Park on the Sinkhole Plain of South Cen...

  8. Microbially induced iron precipitation associated with a neutrophilic spring at Borra Caves, Vishakhapatnam, India.

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    Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, Ramanathan; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Ovreås, Lise; Pedersen, Rolf B

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation uncovers various pieces of evidence for the possible biologically induced mineralization in iron mats associated with a pH-neutral spring in the Borra caves, Vishakhapatnam, India. Electron microscopy [scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)] demonstrated large numbers of (i) hollow tubes (diameter ∼1 μm) resembling sheaths of the iron-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix, (ii) thin (diameter springs. Understanding biogenic iron oxides in caves has important astrobiological applications as it provides a potential tool for the detection of extraterrestrial life.

  9. Forensic Fluid Dynamics and the Indian Spring (1991) cave collapse problem

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    Nof, D.

    2013-05-01

    The collapse of the Indian spring cave (Florida) in 1991 was unique because it occurred while cave divers were in the cave. For the most part, the submerged cave is large enough to accommodate a passing truck so the cave divers were not in touch with its walls and it is hard to imagine why would it naturally collapse just when the divers were in it. Recently, Nof and Paldor (2010) resolved this apparent paradox by suggesting that resonance in the air pockets in the cavern, created by breathing (open circuit) divers, may have contributed to the collapse. In this scenario, divers present in the cavern during the dive may have (unknowingly) caused the collapse through the pressurized air/gas that they release with each breath. When the breathing period of the diver(s) matches the natural oscillations period of the "cave oscillator", the ensuing resonance causes the air pressure in the pockets to increase uncontrollably. Here, we place the above theory on a more solid ground. To do so, we first extended the resonance theory from our original two-pockets, symmetrical U-tube model (with two identical branches that were not specifically identified within the cave system) to a one (identified) pocket in the cavern and a very broad basin (identified, of course) that serves as the other branch of the U-tube. Our methodology is to apply familiar fluid dynamics principles to the situation that occurred in the cave. We did so, step-by-step, on the basis of our interviews with four out of the five surviving cave-divers. Namely, we dissected their testimonies to arrive at a physically plausible scenario determined on basis of a fluid dynamics application to the natural flow in the cave and the flow induced by the compressed air released by the divers as well as the collapsed mud. We found that the oscillation period was larger than what we earlier calculated (still relevant to the case, nevertheless), and that, in contrast to what most cave divers believe, there was a temporary

  10. Simulated effects of increased groundwater withdrawals in the Cave Springs area, Hixson, Tennessee

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    Haugh, Connor J.

    2014-01-01

    Concern for future water supplies in Tennessee has grown in recent years as a result of increased awareness of competing needs, the impact of droughts, and the need for more water to support growing populations. The U.S. Geological Survey conducts investigations to improve the knowledge about interactions of geology, climate, humans, and ecosystems with the water cycle, which is critical to understanding and optimizing water availability. The Hixson Utility District in Hamilton County, Tennessee, uses groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area as a water supply, withdrawing water from two well fields located at Cave Springs and Walkers Corner. Historically, Hixson Utility District has withdrawn about 5 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) at the Cave Springs well field and between 2 and 3 Mgal/d at the Walkers Corner well field. To assess the capacity of the groundwater resources in the Cave Springs area to meet future demands, four different scenarios of increased groundwater withdrawals were analyzed using computer model simulations.

  11. Anthropogenic infilling of a Bermudian sinkhole and its impact on sedimentation and benthic foraminifera in the adjacent anchialine cave environment

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    Jacquelyn N. Cresswell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-20th century, an inland brackish pond from Bermuda, known as Eve’s Pond, was filled with marine sediment from an adjacent coastal lagoon. At this time, an eyewitness reported “…sediment billowing out of the Green Bay Cave for days…”, which is a marine-dominated anchialine cave located proximal to the former location of Eve’s Pond (~200 m. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of this infilling event on cave sedimentation and benthic meiofaunal communities, as proxied by the unicellular protists foraminifera that remain preserved in the sediment record. Eight sediment cores were collected from an underwater passage in Green Bay Cave in a transect towards the location where Eve’s Pond was surveyed in 1901 CE. The sediment cores were analyzed for visual and density changes (photography, X-radiography, textural variability, benthic foraminifera fauna and diversity, and radiocarbon dating. The recovered sediment cores mostly sampled a late Holocene carbonate mud facies that had been described during previous research in the cave, with benthic foraminiferal assemblages post-dating the onset of seawater circulating between the saline groundwater flooding the cave and the adjacent Harrington Sound ~1,900 years ago. However, two cores located further into the cave (cores 13 and 17 contain a carbonate sand layer with lagoon foraminifera that is anomalous with respect to the Holocene depositional history of the cave and is most likely related to the mid-20th century infilling of Eve’s Pond. Examination of these two cores showed that after the infilling event, the community of benthic foraminifera rapidly reverted to pre-impact assemblages with foraminiferal stygophiles (e.g., Spirophthalmidium emaciatum, Sigmoilina tenuis, which were not displaced by new colonizers introduced into the cave by the dredge spoils. We caution that the results cannot be extrapolated to the pelagic crustacean community, but the

  12. Seasonal variations of CO2 and 222Rn in a mediterranean sinkhole - spring (Causse d’Aumelas, SE France

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    Batiot-Guilhe Christelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide and 222Rn monitoring of the atmosphere of a Mediterranean sink hole - spring (SE France during two hydrological cycles (from September 2004 to September 2006 showed seasonal variations with very high concentrations during summer (greater than 6% and 20 000 Bq/m3, respectively. Gas dynamics in caves often show seasonal variations.Meteorological parameters (barometric pressure and temperature mainly, cave geometry and fracture networks control exchanges between the cavity and outside atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and 222Rn may have different sources (atmosphere, soil, bedrock, deep gas diffusion, in situ oxidation of organic matter and, in some caves, the key role of swift underground streams.For a CO2 origin, 13C measurements on water and gas samples taken into the cavity suggest a superficial origin. Radon-222 appears to be locally produced and transported by biogenic CO2. Further investigations will be carried out in order to study the relationship of gas-level variations with barometric pressure variations and piezometric level fluctuations within the aquifer.

  13. Geologic context of large karst springs and caves in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

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    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.

    2016-01-01

    The ONSR is a karst park, containing many springs and caves. The “jewels” of the park are large springs, several of first magnitude, that contribute significantly to the flow and water quality of the Current River and its tributaries. Completion of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping of the park and surrounding river basin, along with synthesis of published hydrologic data, allows us to examine the spatial relationships between the springs and the geologic framework to develop a conceptual model for genesis of these springs. Based on their similarity to mapped spring conduits, many of the caves in the ONSR are fossil conduit segments. Therefore, geologic control on the evolution of the springs also applies to speleogenesis in this part of the southern Missouri Ozarks.Large springs occur in the ONSR area because: (1) the Ozark aquifer, from which they rise, is chiefly dolomite affected by solution via various processes over a long time period, (2) Paleozoic hypogenic fluid migration through these rocks exploited and enhanced flow-paths, (3) a consistent and low regional dip of the rocks off of the Salem Plateau (less than 2° to the southeast) allows integration of flow into large groundwater basins with a few discreet outlets, (4) the springs are located where the rivers have cut down into structural highs, allowing access to water from stratigraphic units deeper in the aquifer thus allowing development of springsheds that have volumetrically larger storage than smaller springs higher in the section, and (5) quartz sandstone and bedded chert in the carbonate stratigraphic succession that are locally to regionally continuous, serve as aquitards that locally confine groundwater up dip of the springs creating artesian conditions. This subhorizontal partitioning of the Ozark aquifer allows contributing areas for different springs to overlap, as evidenced by dye traces that cross adjacent groundwater basin boundaries, and possibly contributes to alternate flow routes

  14. Temperature as a tracer of hydrological dynamics in an anchialine cave system with a submarine spring

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    Domínguez-Villar, David; Cukrov, Neven; Krklec, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Although temperature is a nonconservative tracer, it often provides useful information to understand hydrological processes. This study explores the potential of temperature to characterize the hydrological dynamics of a submarine spring and its coastal karst aquifer in Krka Estuary (Croatia). The estuary is well stratified and its water column has a clear thermocline. A network of loggers was designed to monitor the temperature along vertical profiles in the estuary and the coastal aquifer, taking advantage of an anchialine cave that enabled access to the subterranean estuary. The location of the thermocline in the groundwater, which defines the upper boundary of the saline intrusion, depends on (1) the recharge of the aquifer via infiltration of precipitation, (2) the evolution of the thermocline in the estuary, and (3) the tidal oscillations. The sources of water flowing though the anchialine cave were identified: brackish water from the estuary above the thermocline, saline water from the estuary below the thermocline, and freshwater from infiltrated precipitation. A conceptual model is described that characterizes the hydrological dynamics of this coastal aquifer and its interactions with the estuary. Thus, at least for some hydrological settings, temperature is a valid tracer to characterize the main hydrological processes. The measurement of temperature is inexpensive compared to other (conservative) tracers. Therefore, for those hydrological settings that have water masses with distinct temperatures, the use of temperature as a tracer to establish conceptual models of the hydrological dynamics is encouraged.

  15. Metagenomics of Bacterial Diversity in Villa Luz Caves with Sulfur Water Springs

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    Giuseppe D’Auria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnology applications require in-depth preliminary studies of biodiversity. The methods of massive sequencing using metagenomics and bioinformatics tools offer us sufficient and reliable knowledge to understand environmental diversity, to know new microorganisms, and to take advantage of their functional genes. Villa Luz caves, in the southern Mexican state of Tabasco, are fed by at least 26 groundwater inlets, containing 300–500 mg L-1 H2S and <0.1 mg L-1 O2. We extracted environmental DNA for metagenomic analysis of collected samples in five selected Villa Luz caves sites, with pH values from 2.5 to 7. Foreign organisms found in this underground ecosystem can oxidize H2S to H2SO4. These include: biovermiculites, a bacterial association that can grow on the rock walls; snottites, that are whitish, viscous biofilms hanging from the rock walls, and sacks or bags of phlegm, which live within the aquatic environment of the springs. Through the emergency food assistance program (TEFAP pyrosequencing, a total of 20,901 readings of amplification products from hypervariable regions V1 and V3 of 16S rRNA bacterial gene in whole and pure metagenomic DNA samples were generated. Seven bacterial phyla were identified. As a result, Proteobacteria was more frequent than Acidobacteria. Finally, acidophilic Proteobacteria was detected in UJAT5 sample

  16. Relations between sinkhole density and anthropogenic contaminants in selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States

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    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Katz, Brian G.; Berndt, Marian P.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The relation between sinkhole density and water quality was investigated in seven selected carbonate aquifers in the eastern United States. Sinkhole density for these aquifers was grouped into high (>25 sinkholes/100 km2), medium (1–25 sinkholes/100 km2), or low (2) categories using a geographical information system that included four independent databases covering parts of Alabama, Florida, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. Field measurements and concentrations of major ions, nitrate, and selected pesticides in samples from 451 wells and 70 springs were included in the water-quality database. Data were collected as a part of the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Areas with high and medium sinkhole density had the greatest well depths and depths to water, the lowest concentrations of total dissolved solids and bicarbonate, the highest concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and the lowest partial pressure of CO2 compared to areas with low sinkhole density. These chemical indicators are consistent conceptually with a conduit-flow-dominated system in areas with a high density of sinkholes and a diffuse-flow-dominated system in areas with a low density of sinkholes. Higher cave density and spring discharge in Pennsylvania also support the concept that the high sinkhole density areas are dominated by conduit-flow systems. Concentrations of nitrate-N were significantly higher (p sinkhole density than in low sinkhole-density areas; when accounting for the variations in land use near the sampling sites, the high sinkhole-density area still had higher concentrations of nitrate-N than the low sinkhole-density area. Detection frequencies of atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, prometon, and the atrazine degradate deethylatrazine indicated a pattern similar to nitrate; highest pesticide detections were associated with high sinkhole-density areas. These patterns generally persisted when analyzing the detection frequency by land

  17. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

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    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Identification, prediction, and mitigation of sinkhole hazards in evaporite karst areas

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    Gutierrez, F.; Cooper, A.H.; Johnson, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    Sinkholes usually have a higher probability of occurrence and a greater genetic diversity in evaporite terrains than in carbonate karst areas. This is because evaporites have a higher solubility and, commonly, a lower mechanical strength. Subsidence damage resulting from evaporite dissolution generates substantial losses throughout the world, but the causes are only well understood in a few areas. To deal with these hazards, a phased approach is needed for sinkhole identification, investigation, prediction, and mitigation. Identification techniques include field surveys and geomorphological mapping combined with accounts from local people and historical sources. Detailed sinkhole maps can be constructed from sequential historical maps, recent topographical maps, and digital elevation models (DEMs) complemented with building-damage surveying, remote sensing, and high-resolution geodetic surveys. On a more detailed level, information from exposed paleosubsidence features (paleokarst), speleological explorations, geophysical investigations, trenching, dating techniques, and boreholes may help in investigating dissolution and subsidence features. Information on the hydrogeological pathways including caves, springs, and swallow holes are particularly important especially when corroborated by tracer tests. These diverse data sources make a valuable database-the karst inventory. From this dataset, sinkhole susceptibility zonations (relative probability) may be produced based on the spatial distribution of the features and good knowledge of the local geology. Sinkhole distribution can be investigated by spatial distribution analysis techniques including studies of preferential elongation, alignment, and nearest neighbor analysis. More objective susceptibility models may be obtained by analyzing the statistical relationships between the known sinkholes and the conditioning factors. Chronological information on sinkhole formation is required to estimate the probability of

  19. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

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    Nieves-Rivera Angel M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwesternPuerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species. The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo, Cueva de Malano(Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán, and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas. The mostconspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales. Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guanoincubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water at ambient laboratory conditions.Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramariasp. and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana were also recorded. They were foundon soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.

  20. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

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    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  1. Formation of regolith-collapse sinkholes in southern Illinois: Interpretation and identification of associated buried cavities

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    Panno, S.V.; Wiebel, C.P.; Heigold, P.C.; Reed, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Three regolith-collapse sinkholes formed near the Dongola Unit School and the Pentecostal Church in the southern Illinois village of Dongola (Union County) during the spring of 1993. The sinkholes appeared over a three-month period that coincided with development of a new municipal well. The new well was drilled through clay-rich, valley-fill sediment into karstified limestone bedrock. The piezometric surface of the limestone aquifer is above land surface, indicating the presence of an upward hydraulic gradient in the valley and that the valley fill is acting as a confining unit. Pumping during development of the well lowered the piezometric surface of the limestone aquifer to an elevation below the base of the valley fill. It is hypothesized that drainage of water from the sediments, the resulting loss of hydrostatic pressure and buoyant force in overlying sediments, increased intergranular pressure, and the initiation of groundwater flow toward the well resulted in rapid sediment transport, subsurface erosion, and collapse of the valley-fill sediment. The sinkholes follow an approximately east-west alignment, which is consistent with one of the two dominant alignments of passages of nearby joint-controlled caves. A constant electrode-separation resistivity survey of the school playground was conducted to locate areas that might contain incipient sinkholes. The survey revealed a positive resistivity anomaly trending N75E in the southern part of the study area. The anomaly is linear, between 5 and 10 m wide, and its trend either intersects or is immediately adjacent to the three sinkholes. The anomaly is interpreted to be a series of pumping-induced cavities in the valley-fill sediments that formed over a preexisting crevice in the karstified bedrock limestone. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Reconnaissance of the hydrology, water quality, and sources of bacterial and nutrient contamination in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system and Cave Springs Branch of Honey Creek, Delaware County, Oklahoma, March 1999-March 2000

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    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2000-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of hydrology and water quality was conducted to evaluate possible sources of bacteria and nutrient contamination in the Cave Springs Branch basin and the underlying karstic Ozark Plateau aquifer system. Objectives were to: (1) determine the directions of ground-water flow in the basin and determine whether Cave Springs Branch interacts with ground water, (2) compare water quality in Cave Springs Branch with water quality in nearby wells to determine whether the stream is contaminating nearby wells, and (3) determine sources of fecal coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination in Cave Springs Branch and ground water. Potential sources of bacteria and nitrate in the area include cultivated agriculture, cow and horse on pasture, poultry production, households, and wildlife. Presence of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria directly indicate fecal contamination and the potential for the presence of other pathogenic organisms in a water supply. Nitrate in drinking water poses health risks and may indicate the presence of additional contaminants. Fecal coliform bacteria colony counts were least in wells, intermediate in the poultry-processing plant wastewater outfall and Honey Creek above the confluence with Cave Springs Branch, and greatest in Cave Springs Branch. Bacteria strains and resistance to antibiotics by some bacteria indicate that livestock may have been sources of some bacteria in the water samples. Multiple antibiotic resistances were not present in the isolates from the water samples, indicating that the bacteria may not be from human or poultry sources. Ribotyping indicates that Escherichia coli bacteria in water samples from the basin were from bird, cow, horse, dog, deer, and human sources. The presence of multiple ribotypes from each type of animal source except bird indicates that most of the bacteria are from multiple populations of source animals. Identifiable sources of bacteria in Cave Springs Branch at the

  3. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

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    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  4. Sinkhole occurrence in consequence of heavy rainstorms

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    Parise, Mario; Pisano, Luca; Vennari, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    Sinkholes, the most typical geological hazard in karst, are widespread in Apulia (south-eastern Italy), due to the presence in about the whole region of soluble rocks. Sinkholes can cause damage to private property and civil infrastructures such as buildings and roads. Detailed mapping of sinkholes is critical in understanding the hydrological processes, beside being extremely useful to mitigate the related geological risk. Sinkholes typically function as a major connection between the water flowing at the surface and the groundwaters, by collecting rainfall and rapidly draining it within the bedrock. In Apulia, the main risk to the humans is generally linked to anthropogenic sinkholes, with the possibility of collapses related to man-made caves (quarries, mines, civil settlements, etc.; see Parise, 2012, 2015a). Natural sinkholes are less frequent, or appears at least to be less reported, since they generally occur in rural areas, and often are rapidly canceled by landowners. During the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (northern Apulia) was affected by an intense storm, characterized by rainfall cumulates well above the seasonal mean values. The total amount of measured rainfall for the whole event (covering the period from September 1, to September 6, 2014) reached a peak of over 500 mm (Martinotti et al., 2015). As a response to the storm, and due to peculiarity of the Gargano karst setting, several geo-hazards (different types of slope failures, floods and sinkholes) were recorded over an area of 2300 km2. As regards sinkholes, during the September 2014 storm, at least a dozen of phenomena, mostly of small size, were documented. These are prevailingly concentrated in two areas in the surroundings of the towns of San Marco in Lamis and Monte Sant'Angelo. In particular, at San Marco in Lamis, four sinkholes (the deepest about 6 m-deep and 5 m-wide, showing at the bottom the upper portion of the epikarst, with pinnacles of limestone rocks

  5. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  6. Sinkholes - a trapping mechanism for oil and gas in the Ordovician of Kent an Essex counties, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, R. O.

    1997-06-01

    The stratigraphy and lithology of the Trenton and Black River carbonates were described and the geological and physical processes for the formation of caves and sinkholes were reviewed, using modern examples. The existence of sinkholes was demonstrated with three examples from wells drilled into the Trenton and Black River groups. Using this information as the basis, the sequence of events for the accumulation of hydrocarbons in the brecciated (fragmented rock) segment of a sinkhole was presented. It was concluded that sinkholes provide an excellent trapping mechanism for hydrocarbons. 13 refs., 23 figs.

  7. Florida sinkhole index

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Steven; Lane, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The following data were compiled from the Florida Sinkhole Research Institute data base. That database, which contains approximately 1900 sinkholes, is available from the Florida Geological Survey upon request. The data are arranged alphabetically by county. The first two digits of the identification number represents the county. These numbers correspond to the Florida Department of Transportation county numbering system. Following the county number are three numbers which represe...

  8. A generalized genetic framework for the development of sinkholes and Karst in Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Barry F.

    1986-03-01

    Karst topography in Florida is developed on the Tertiary limestones of the Floridan aquifer Post-depositional diagenesis and solution have made these limestones highly permeable, T=ca. 50,000 m2/d. Zones of megaporosity have formed at unconformities, and dissolution has enlarged joints and fractures Erosion of the overlying clastic Miocene Hawthorn group strata on one flank of a structural arch has exposed the limestone The elevated edge of the Hawthorn cover forms the Cody scarp Ubiquitous solution pipes have previously formed at joint intersections and are now filled Downwashing of the fill deeper into solution cavities in the limestone and subsidence of the overlying unconsolidated sediments causes surface collapse a subsidence doline or sinkhole This process may penetrate up to 60 m of the semi-consolidated Hawthorn cover, as occurred when the Winter Park sinkhole developed Dense clusters of solution pipes may have formed cenotes which are now found on the exposed limestone terrain Groundwater moves laterally as diffuse flow except where input or outflow is concentrated. At sinking streams, vertical shafts, and springs, karst caves have formed, but only the major sinking streams form through-flowing conduit systems Shaft recharge dissipates diffusely. Spring discharge is concentrated from diffuse flow In both cases, conduits taper and merge into a zone of megaporosity

  9. Sinkhole genesis and evolution in Apulia, and their interrelations with the anthropogenic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Delle Rose

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinkhole development occurs in many areas of the world where soluble rocks crop out. Sinkholes are generally the surface expression of the presence of caves and other groundwater flow conduits in carbonate rocks, which are solutionally enlarged secondary permeability features. Their formation may be either natural or caused by man's activities. In both cases, heavy consequences have to be registered on the anthropogenic environment and related infrastructures. Knowledge of the mechanism of formation of this subtle geohazard is therefore necessary to planners and decision makers for performing the most appropriate and suitable programs of land use and development. The Apulia region of southern Italy is characterized for most of its extension by carbonate rocks, which makes it one of the most remarkable example of karst in the Mediterranean Basin. Based on analysis of literature and in situ surveys, including caving explorations, we have identified in Apulia three main types of possible mechanisms for sinkhole formation: 1 collapse of a chamber in a natural cave or in man-made cavities; 2 slow and gradual enlargement of doline through dissolution; 3 settlement and internal erosion of filling deposits of pre-existing dolines. Since sinkhole formation very often affects directly the human settlements in Apulia, and have recently produced severe damage, some considerations are eventually presented as regards the interrelationships between sinkholes and the anthropogenic environment.

  10. A WEB BASED SERVICE APPLICATION FOR VISUAL SINKHOLE INVENTORY INFORMATION SYSTEM; CASE STUDY OF KONYA CLOSED BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN, Osman; YAKAR, Murat; KIRTILOĞLU, Osman Sami

    2017-01-01

    Sinkholes are commonly defined as deep pits giving the appearance of a chimney or well resulting by collapsing of underground rivers in horizontal or near-bedded lime stones or active cave ceilings. Sinkholes appear as deep pits in the so-called karst land, usually on limestones and carbonates that are easily rinsed with water. The sinkhole occurrences in our country are very often seen on the Obruk Plateau in the Konya Closed Basin. In Karapinar region and its surroundings located in this pl...

  11. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of the extremophile viviparous teleost Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae) from an active sulfur spring cave in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Aarón; Hernández-Franyutti, Arlette; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the ovary and oogenesis of Poecilia mexicana from an active sulfur spring cave is documented. Poecilia mexicana is the only poeciliid adapted to a subterranean environment with high hydrogen sulfide levels and extreme hypoxic conditions. Twenty females were captured throughout one year at Cueva del Azufre, located in the State of Tabasco in Southern Mexico. Ovaries were processed with histological techniques. P. mexicana has a single, ovoid ovary with ovigerous lamella that project to the ovarian lumen. The ovarian wall presents abundant loose connective tissue, numerous melanomacrophage centers and large blood vessels, possibly associated with hypoxic conditions. The germinal epithelium bordering the ovarian lumen contains somatic and germ cells forming cell nests projecting into the stroma. P. mexicana stores sperm in ovarian folds associated with follicles at different developmental phases. Oogenesis in P. mexicana consisted of the following stages: (i) oogonial proliferation, (ii) chromatin nucleolus, (iii) primary growth, subdivided into: (a) one nucleolus, (b) multiple nucleoli, (c) droplet oils-cortical alveoli steps; (iv) secondary growth, subdivided in: (a) early secondary growth, (b) late secondary growth, and (c) full grown. Follicular atresia was present in all stages of follicular development; it was characterized by oocyte degeneration, where follicle cells hypertrophy and differentiate in phagocytes. The ovary and oogenesis are similar to these seen in other poeciliids, but we found frequent atretic follicles, melanomacrophage centers, reduced fecundity and increased of offspring size. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Passive sampling of bioavailable organic chemicals in Perry County, Missouri cave streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Tyler; Adams, Ginny; Sharum, Martin; Steelman, Karen L

    2010-12-01

    Two types of passive samplers--semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS)--were deployed in spring 2008 to assess bioavailable concentrations of aquatic contaminants in five cave streams and resurgences in Perry County, Missouri. Study sites represent areas of high cave biodiversity and the only known habitat for grotto sculpin (Cottus carolinae). Time-weighted average (TWA) water concentrations were calculated for 20 compounds (n = 9 SPMDs; n = 11 POCIS) originating primarily from agricultural sources, including two organochlorine insecticides, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which were found at levels exceeding U.S. EPA criteria for the protection of aquatic life. GIS data were used to quantify and map sinkhole distribution and density within the study area. Infiltration of storm runoff and its influence on contaminant transport were also evaluated using land cover and hydrological data. This work provides evidence of cave stream contamination by a mix of organic chemicals and demonstrates the applicability of passive samplers for monitoring water quality in dynamic karst environments where rapid transmission of storm runoff makes instantaneous water sampling difficult.

  13. Current Sinkhole Boundaries in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset is a polygon coverage of the sinkhole boundaries as determined by using LiDAR data. The polygons relate to the point coverage using the KPolyID field in...

  14. The biogeochemistry of anchialine caves: Progress and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations of anchialine caves and sinkholes have identified complex food webs dependent on detrital and, in some cases, chemosynthetically produced organic matter. Chemosynthetic microbes in anchialine systems obtain energy from reduced compounds produced during organic matter degradation (e.g., sulfide, ammonium, and methane), similar to what occurs in deep ocean cold seeps and mud volcanoes, but distinct from dominant processes operating at hydrothermal vents and sulfurous mineral caves where the primary energy source is mantle derived. This review includes case studies from both anchialine and non-anchialine habitats, where evidence for in situ chemosynthetic production of organic matter and its subsequent transfer to higher trophic level metazoans is documented. The energy sources and pathways identified are synthesized to develop conceptual models for elemental cycles and energy cascades that occur within oligotrophic and eutrophic anchialine caves. Strategies and techniques for testing the hypothesis of chemosynthesis as an active process in anchialine caves are also suggested.

  15. Some deep caves in Biokovo Mountain (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mladen; Garasic, Davor

    2014-05-01

    an intensive chemical action on the surrounding rocks (corrosion), which results in formation of underground karrens. Smaller parts of these caverns are covered with speleothems (dripstone formations). The palaeo-hydrogeological function of these caves is characterized by sinkholes on the ground surface (although their entrances are most probably now caved-in or yet undiscovered), and perhaps by a part of cave canals of a swallow hole (ponor) in the Biokovo hinterland (which is less probable because of intensive neotectonic uplift of this mountainous mass). Inaccessible bottom, northern and eastern parts of the cavern might be linked with the speleological system of caverns passing through Biokovo and participating in formation of submarine springs in the sea below Biokovo. In fact, the ground water found in these speleological sites has to pass either below or through the Sveti Ilija Tunnel, as it re-emerges from numerous submarine springs in the coastal area of Makarska (from Dubac to Podgora and Drašnica) (Alfirević, 1969). The depth of karstification (weathering) in the zone of this speleological site is estimated at several hundreds of meters, with an estimated maximum of 1500 meters, while the zone of vertical circulation ranges from 500 meters to 1700 meters. This is followed by the zone of inclined or horizontal circulation through which the water is carried toward the Adriatic Sea. Impermeable Triassic and maybe even Palaeozoic clastite or dolomite formations are situated in the substratum. As Triassic dolomites are from the hydrogeological standpoint permeable, due to intensive secondary porosity (jointing), it can reasonably be expected that several similar and genetically correspondent joints, formed in the anticline due to general subduction, are situated in continuation of these sites (or are parallel to them). These possible caves are not accessible from the surface and might be linked to the mentioned hydrogeological system in the lower parts of

  16. Use of sinkhole and specific capacity distributions to assess vertical gradients in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K.J.; Kozar, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The carbonate-rock aquifer in the Great Valley, West Virginia, USA, was evaluated using a database of 687 sinkholes and 350 specific capacity tests to assess structural, lithologic, and topographic influences on the groundwater flow system. The enhanced permeability of the aquifer is characterized in part by the many sinkholes, springs, and solutionally enlarged fractures throughout the valley. Yet, vertical components of subsurface flow in this highly heterogeneous aquifer are currently not well understood. To address this problem, this study examines the apparent relation between geologic features of the aquifer and two spatial indices of enhanced permeability attributed to aquifer karstification: (1) the distribution of sinkholes and (2) the occurrence of wells with relatively high specific capacity. Statistical results indicate that sinkholes (funnel and collapse) occur primarily along cleavage and bedding planes parallel to subparallel to strike where lateral or downward vertical gradients are highest. Conversely, high specific capacity values are common along prominent joints perpendicular or oblique to strike. The similarity of the latter distribution to that of springs suggests these fractures are areas of upward-convergent flow. These differences between sinkhole and high specific capacity distributions suggest vertical flow components are primarily controlled by the orientation of geologic structure and associated subsurface fracturing. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Groundwater fluxes into a submerged sinkhole area, Central Italy, using radon and water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuccimei, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita ' Roma Tre' , Largo San Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: tuccimei@uniroma3.it; Salvati, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita ' Roma Tre' , Largo San Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Rome (Italy); Capelli, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita ' Roma Tre' , Largo San Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Rome (Italy); Delitala, M.C. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita ' Roma Tre' , Largo San Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Rome (Italy); Primavera, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita ' Roma Tre' , Largo San Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    The groundwater contribution into Green Lake and Black Lake (Vescovo Lakes Group), two cover collapse sinkholes in Pontina Plain (Central Italy), was estimated using water chemistry and a {sup 222}Rn budget. These data can constrain the interactions between sinkholes and deep seated fluid circulation, with a special focus on the possibility of the bedrock karst aquifer feeding the lake. The Rn budget accounted for all quantifiable surface and subsurface input and output fluxes including the flux across the sediment-water interface. The total value of groundwater discharge into Green Lake and Black Lake ({approx}540 {+-} 160 L s{sup -1}) obtained from the Rn budget is lower than, but comparable with historical data on the springs group discharge estimated in the same period of the year (800 {+-} 90 L s{sup -1}). Besides being an indirect test for the reliability of the Rn-budget 'tool', it confirms that both Green and Black Lake are effectively springs and not simply 'water filled' sinkholes. New data on the water chemistry and the groundwater fluxes into the sinkhole area of Vescovo Lakes allows the assessment of the mechanism responsible for sinkhole formation in Pontina Plain and suggests the necessity of monitoring the changes of physical and chemical parameters of groundwater below the plain in order to mitigate the associated risk.

  18. Groundwater fluxes into a submerged sinkhole area, Central Italy, using radon and water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuccimei, P.; Salvati, R.; Capelli, G.; Delitala, M.C.; Primavera, P.

    2005-01-01

    The groundwater contribution into Green Lake and Black Lake (Vescovo Lakes Group), two cover collapse sinkholes in Pontina Plain (Central Italy), was estimated using water chemistry and a 222 Rn budget. These data can constrain the interactions between sinkholes and deep seated fluid circulation, with a special focus on the possibility of the bedrock karst aquifer feeding the lake. The Rn budget accounted for all quantifiable surface and subsurface input and output fluxes including the flux across the sediment-water interface. The total value of groundwater discharge into Green Lake and Black Lake (∼540 ± 160 L s -1 ) obtained from the Rn budget is lower than, but comparable with historical data on the springs group discharge estimated in the same period of the year (800 ± 90 L s -1 ). Besides being an indirect test for the reliability of the Rn-budget 'tool', it confirms that both Green and Black Lake are effectively springs and not simply 'water filled' sinkholes. New data on the water chemistry and the groundwater fluxes into the sinkhole area of Vescovo Lakes allows the assessment of the mechanism responsible for sinkhole formation in Pontina Plain and suggests the necessity of monitoring the changes of physical and chemical parameters of groundwater below the plain in order to mitigate the associated risk

  19. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  20. Profiling bacterial diversity in a limestone cave of the western Loess Plateau of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng eWu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and archaea sustain subsurface cave ecosystems by dominating primary production and fueling biogeochemical cyclings, despite the permanent darkness and shortage of nutrients. However, the heterogeneity and underlying mechanism of microbial diversity in caves, in particular those well connect to surface environment are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the bacterial abundance and composition in Jinjia Cave, a small and shallow limestone cave located on the western Loess Plateau of China, by enumerating and pyrosequencing small subunit (SSU rRNA genes. The results clearly reveal the contrasting bacterial community compositions in relation to cave habitat types, i.e., rock wall deposit, aquatic sediment and sinkhole soil, which are differentially connected to the surface environment. The deposits on the cave walls were dominated by putative cave-specific bacterial lineages within the -Proteobacteria or Actinobacteria that are routinely found on cave rocks around the world. In addition, sequence identity with known functional groups suggests enrichments of chemolithotrophic bacteria potentially involved in autotrophic C fixation and inorganic N transformation on rock surfaces. By contrast, bacterial communities in aquatic sediments were more closely related to those in the overlying soils. This is consistent with the similarity in elemental composition between the cave sediment and the overlying soil, implicating the influence of mineral chemistry on cave microhabitat and bacterial composition. These findings provide compelling molecular evidence of the bacterial community heterogeneity in an East Asian cave, which might be controlled by both subsurface and surface environments.

  1. First assessment on the air CO2 dynamic in the show caves of tropical karst, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc A. Trinh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air, water, and host rock in show caves in a Vietnam’s karst region was monitored and analyzed to identify the ventilation regime and track the cave air CO2 sources. In general, the studied caves are well ventilated. In dynamic – multiple entrance caves, air ventilation is described with the use of U shape model. In static – single entrance cave, air circulation is explained by cold air trap model. Both ventilation models suggest that air is more circulated in winter than in summer. Seasonally, the cave air CO2 increases from early spring to summer. Value in the deepest part of the single-entrance cave is approximately 1,000 ppmv and 8,000 ppmv in early spring and summer, respectively. In multiple-entrance and wet caves, CO2 level is fairly constant all over the show section, increasing from 500 ppmv in early spring to 2,000 ppmv in summer. Data of microclimate, CO2 content, and particularly δ13C show that cave air, particularly in single entrance cave, has higher CO2 concentration during summer due to a stagnation of cave air circulation and an elevated CO2 input from soil and epikarst. The cave air CO2 increase is also observed after intense rainfalls. A factor that increase cave air CO2 in show caves during the festive days could probably be huma n exhaling but the extent of human factor in these studied cave systems should be further investigated. Cave waters including cave pools and streams mediate CO2 level in wet caves. Above all, the atmospheric fraction of CO2 is always dominant (>60% in all cave sections.

  2. Natural and human-induced sinkholes in gypsum terrain and associated environmental problems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Del Campo, P. Pérez; Gutiérrez-Elorza, M.; Sancho, C.

    1995-04-01

    The central Ebro Basin comprises thick evaporite materials whose high solubility produces typically karstic landforms. The sinkhole morphology developed in the overlying alluvium has been studied using gravimetry and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) on stream terraces, as well as analyzing the evolution of sinkhole morphologies observed in aerial photographs taken in 1928, 1957, and 1985. The sinkhole morphologies give some idea of possible subsurface processes as well as an indication of the final mechanisms involve in sinkhole development. On stream terraces and cover pediments the most commonly encountered dolines are bowl-shaped in their morphology with both diffuse and scarped edges. In contrast, dolines developed in the gypsiferous silt infilled valleys have a funnel and well-shaped morphology. The diffuse-edged bowl-shaped dolines are developed through the progressive subsidence of the alluvial cover, due to washing down of alluvial particles through small voids and cracks into deeper subsurface caves, resulting in a decrease alluvial density. Future compaction of the alluvial cover will produce surface subsidences. This type of dolines are associated with negative gravity anomalies. In contrast, the scarped-edge dolines are formed by the sudden collapse of a cavity roof. The cavities and cracks formed in the gypsum karst may migrate to the surface through the alluvial deposits by piping, and they may subsequently collapse. In this instance, the cavities can be detected by both gravity and GPR anomalies where the voids are not deeper than 4 5 m from the surface. These processes forming sinkholes can be enhanced by man-induced changes in the groundwater hydrologic regime by both inflows, due to irrigation, ditch losses, or pipe leakages, and by outflows from pumping activities.

  3. Florida Sinkholes and Grout Injection Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Hunt Griffith II

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Florida has a major problem when it comes to sinkholes. These sinkholes can become very hazardous to people, homes, and to the landscape as a whole. Florida sits on a carbonate platform which is highly indicative of sinkholes. There are three main types of sinkholes which occur in Florida: dissolution, cover subsidence, and cover collapse. I will compare these types of sinkholes to the underlying formation beneath Florida to see if there is a connection between the types of sinkholes that occur. I will also create a 3D model of grout injection stabilization and calculate its volume to compare to the actual volume placed under the house. This information will help inform and bring attention to the problem in Florida and in turn, may help alleviate the problem if we can understand what causes these sinkholes. The 3D model may help engineering companies become more efficient in predicting the projected amount of volume to stabilize a house that may be in danger.

  4. Cave age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the age of a cave we have to determine the age of elements which were created at the same moment when the cave was. Usually a cave is dug out by infiltration of acid waters. During this alteration process rocks free some aluminium and potassium ions. In Carlsbad and Lechuguilla caves, scientists have found alunite, this aluminium and potassium sulfate can be dated by using the carbon method of age determination. (A.C.)

  5. Radon survey in caves from Mallorca Island, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, Oana A. [Department of Geology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Kogălniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Onac, Bogdan P. [School of Geosciences, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., NES 107 Tampa (United States); Fornós, Joan J. [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Cosma, Constantin [Environmental Radioactivity and Nuclear Dating Center, Babeș-Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ginés, Angel; Ginés, Joaquín [Departament de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Crta. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma (Mallorca) (Spain); Merino, Antoni [Grup Espeleològic de Llubí, Federació Balear d' Espeleologia, c/Uruguai s/n, Palma Arena, 07010 Palma, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    This study reports radon concentration in the most representative caves of Mallorca, identifying those in which the recommended action level is exceeded, thus posing health risks. Two show caves (Campanet and Artà) and three non-touristic caves (Font, Drac, Vallgornera) were investigated. Data were collected at several locations within each cave for three different periods, from March 2013 to March 2014. Except for Vallgornera, where only one monitoring period was possible, and Artà in which low values were recorded throughout the year, a clear seasonal variability, with higher values during the warm seasons and lower during winter time is prominent. Radon concentrations differed markedly from one cave to another, as well as within the same cave, ranging from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. The results of this study have significant practical implications, making it possible to provide some recommendation to cave administrators and other agencies involved in granting access to the investigated caves. - Highlights: • A survey of radon was carried out in caves from Mallorca, Spain using CR 39 detectors. • Three different seasons are covered: spring, summer, and winter. • Radon level ranges from below detection limit up to 3060 Bq·m{sup −3}. • Seasonal variation is evident (higher values in summer and lower during winter). • Particular recommendations were made to each cave administration.

  6. Detection of sinkholes using 2D electrical resistivity imaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Sinkholes in dolomitic areas are notoriously difficult geophysical targets, and selecting an appropriate geophysical solution is not straightforward. Electrical resistivity imaging or tomography (RESTOM) is well suited to mapping sinkholes because...

  7. Geology, Surficial - MO 2012 Springfield 100Yr Flood Sinkholes (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — The layer "100 Yr Flood Sinkholes" is an shapefile feature showing the location of many of the sinkholes found in the Springfield Missouri area. Each of the polygons...

  8. Potential of sinkhole precursor detection through interferometric SAR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, Andre

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sinkholes are an unpredictable geohazard that endangers life and structures in susceptible areas globally. Subsidence sinkholes occur above cavernous bedrock comprised of highly soluble evaporates or calcium carbonates such as dolomite or limestone...

  9. Into the Abyss: The Case of the Collapsing Sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsvath, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a case study to teach about the relationship between sinkhole development and groundwater levels in Orlando, Florida. Discusses the relationship between groundwater levels and sinkhole formation in a karst terrane. Includes discussion questions. (YDS)

  10. Monitoring the snowpack volume in a sinkhole on Mount Lebanon using time lapse Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, C.; Gascoin, S.; Somma, J.; Drapeau, L.; Fanise, P.

    2017-12-01

    Lebanon is one of the richest country in the Middle East for water resources, thanks to its mountain ranges that trigger precipitation from the moist air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea. Snowpack acts as natural water storage in winter and supply fresh water during spring and summer. Yet, Lebanon is facing a serious water scarcity problem due to: i) decreasing amount of precipitation and climate change; ii) major growth of population of original residence and large number of refugees during regional wars. Therefore, continuous and systematic monitoring of the Lebanese water resources is becoming crucial. The Mount Lebanon is made of karstic depressions named "sinkholes". It is important to monitor the snowmelt process inside these sinkholes because of their key role as "containers" of seasonal snow. By isolating the snowpack from sun radiation and wind, they slow down the natural melting process and sublimation, thus delaying as well the low water flow period. An observatory is set up to monitor the snowpack evolution in a pilot sinkhole located in Mount Lebanon. The system uses three time-lapse cameras and structure-from-motion principles to reconstruct the snow volume within the sinkhole. The approach is validated by standard topographic surveys. The results indicate that snow depth can be retrieved with an accuracy between 20 and 60 cm (residuals standard deviation) and a low bias of 50 cm after coregistration of the digital elevation models.

  11. Inception horizon concept as a basis for sinkhole hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J.; Jeannin, P.-Y.; Kopp, L.; Chantry, R.

    2012-04-01

    The office for natural hazards of the Vaud canton (Switzerland) is interested for a pragmatic approach to map sinkhole hazard in karst areas. A team was created by merging resources from a geoengineering company (CSD) and a karst specialist (SISKA). Large areas in Vaud territory are limestone karst in which the collapse hazard is essentially related to the collapse of soft-rocks covering underground cavities, rather than the collapse of limestone roofs or underground chambers. This statement is probably not valid for cases in gypsum and salt. Thus, for limestone areas, zones of highest danger are voids covered by a thin layer of soft-sediments. The spatial distributions of void and cover-thickness should therefore be used for the hazard assessment. VOID ASSESSMENT Inception features (IF) are millimetre to decimetre thick planes (mainly bedding but also fractures) showing a mineralogical, a granulometrical or a physical contrast with the surrounding formation that make them especially susceptible to karst development (FILIPPONI ET AL., 2009). The analysis of more than 1500 km of cave passage showed that karst conduits are mainly developed along such discrete layers within a limestone series. The so-called Karst-ALEA method (FILIPPONI ET AL., 2011) is based on this concept and aims at assessing the probability of karst conduit occurrences in the drilling of a tunnel. This approach requires as entries the identification of inception features (IF), the recognition of paleo-water-table (PWT), and their respective spatial distribution in a 3D geological model. We suggest the Karst-ALEA method to be adjusted in order to assess the void distribution in subsurface as a basis for sinkhole hazard mapping. Inception features (horizons or fractures) and paleo-water-tables (PWT) have to be first identified using visible caves and dolines. These features should then be introduced into a 3D geological model. Intersections of HI and PWT located close to landsurface are areas with a

  12. Numerical simulation of formation and preservation of Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Shi, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Ice caves exist in locations where annual average air temperature is higher than 0 °C. An example is Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi Province, the largest ice cave in China. In order to quantitatively investigate the mechanism of formation and preservation of the ice cave, we use the finite-element method to simulate the heat transfer process at this ice cave. There are two major control factors. First, there is the seasonal asymmetric heat transfer. Heat is transferred into the ice cave from outside very inefficiently by conduction in spring, summer and fall. In winter, thermal convection occurs that transfers heat very efficiently out of the ice cave, thus cooling it down. Secondly, ice-water phase change provides a heat barrier for heat transfer into the cave in summer. The calculation also helps to evaluate effects of global warming, tourists, colored lights, climatic conditions, etc. for sustainable development of the ice cave as a tourism resource. In some other ice caves in China, managers have installed airtight doors at these ice caves' entrances with the intention of "protecting" these caves, but this in fact prevents cooling in winter and these cave ices will entirely melt within tens of years.

  13. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  14. Sinkhole remediation at Swinging Bridge Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. [Devine Tarbell and Associates, Portland, ME (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This case history summary described a piping-related sinkhole that occurred after a flood at the Swinging Bridge Dam. The earth-filled embankment dam was constructed using a hydraulic fill technique. A foundation drilling and grouting program was constructed in areas of the dam founded on jointed sandstone and shale. The storage volumes of the reservoir is 32,000 acre-feet. A sinkhole 25 to 300 feet in diameter was observed on May 5, 2005 along the edge of the dam crest. The sinkhole extended to within 10 feet of the reservoir and was separated by a shallow berm of soil and driftwood. Cracking of the crest extended across an area of 180 feet. Operations staff notified the appropriate agencies, implemented a monitoring program, and mobilized construction equipment and sands for use as emergency sinkhole filler. An increase in tailrace turbidity was observed. Historical records for the dam showed significant cracking during the initial filling of the reservoir. Failure modes included increased pore pressures and seepages resulting in the piping of soil along the outside of the dam conduit. Emergency repairs included chemical grouting and weld repairs in the penstocks. A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is currently addressing safety issues associated with conduits through dams. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Benthic bacterial diversity in submerged sinkhole ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Stephen C; Pangborn, Joseph B; Zajack, Heidi A; Kendall, Scott T; Rediske, Richard R; Biddanda, Bopaiah A

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities.

  16. Sinkhole flooding in Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg Edward

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, conducted an investigation from January 2001 through April 2002 to delineate sinkholes and sinkhole watersheds in the Murfreesboro area and to characterize the hydrologic response of sinkholes to major rainfall events. Terrain analysis was used to define sinkholes and delineate the sinkhole drainage areas. Flooding in 78 sinkholes in three focus areas was identified and tracked using aerial photography following three major storms in February 2001, January 2002, and March 2002. The three focus areas are located to the east, north, and northwest of Murfreesboro and are underlain primarily by the Ridley Limestone with some outcrops of the underlying Pierce Limestone. The observed sinkhole flooding is controlled by water inflow, water outflow, and the degree of the hydraulic connection (connectivity) to a ground-water conduit system. The observed sinkholes in the focus areas are grouped into three categories based on the sinkhole morphology and the connectivity to the ground-water system as indicated by their response to flooding. The three types of sinkholes described for these focus areas are pan sinkholes with low connectivity, deep sinkholes with high connectivity, and deep sinkholes with low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system. Shallow, broad pan sinkholes flood as water inflow from a storm inundates the depression at land surface. Water overflow from one pan sinkhole can flow downgradient and become inflow to a sinkhole at a lower altitude. Land-surface modifications that direct more water into a pan sinkhole could increase peak-flood altitudes and extend flood durations. Land-surface modifications that increase the outflow by overland drainage could decrease the flood durations. Road construction or alterations that reduce flow within or between pan sinkholes could result in increased flood durations. Flood levels and durations in the deeper sinkholes observed in

  17. Sinkholes, subsidence and subrosion on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea as revealed by a close-range photogrammetric survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Saberi, Leila; Alrshdan, Hussam; Sawarieh, Ali; Closson, Damien; Walter, Thomas R.; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-05-01

    Ground subsidence and sinkhole collapse are phenomena affecting regions of karst geology worldwide. The rapid development of such phenomena around the Dead Sea in the last four decades poses a major geological hazard to the local population, agriculture and industry. Nonetheless many aspects of this hazard are still incompletely described and understood, especially on the eastern Dead Sea shore. In this work, we present a first low altitude (sinkhole area of Ghor Al-Haditha, Jordan. We provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of a new, high resolution digital surface model (5 cm px-1) and orthophoto of this area (2.1 km2). We also outline the factors affecting the quality and accuracy of this approach. Our analysis reveals a kilometer-scale sinuous depression bound partly by flexure and partly by non-tectonic faults. The estimated minimum volume loss of this subsided zone is 1.83 ṡ 106 m3 with an average subsidence rate of 0.21 m yr-1 over the last 25 years. Sinkholes in the surveyed area are localized mainly within this depression. The sinkholes are commonly elliptically shaped (mean eccentricity 1.31) and clustered (nearest neighbor ratio 0.69). Their morphologies and orientations depend on the type of sediment they form in: in mud, sinkholes have a low depth to diameter ratio (0.14) and a long-axis azimuth of NNE-NE. In alluvium, sinkholes have a higher ratio (0.4) and are orientated NNW-N. From field work, we identify actively evolving artesian springs and channelized, sediment-laden groundwater flows that appear locally in the main depression. Consequently, subrosion, i.e. subsurface mechanical erosion, is identified as a key physical process, in addition to dissolution, behind the subsidence and sinkhole hazard. Furthermore, satellite image analysis links the development of the sinuous depression and sinkhole formation at Ghor Al-Haditha to preferential groundwater flow paths along ancient and current wadi riverbeds.

  18. Clastic cave deposits in Botovskaya cave (Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Lisá, Lenka; Hercman, H.; Osintsev, A.; Oberhänsli, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2008), s. 142-155 ISSN 1090-6924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * mineral magnetism * Botovskaya Cave Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.532, year: 2008 http://www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_70.htm

  19. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  20. Catastrophic sinkhole formation in Kansas: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, J.L.; Miller, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Sinkholes represent a hazard to property and human safety in a wide variety of geologic settings across the globe. In most cases, the subsidence rate of a sinkhole represents the most significant potential impact and risk to public safety. Since 1979, the Kansas Geological Survey has studied numerous sinkholes using high-resolution seismic reflection in an attempt to better understand the mechanisms that control their formation. Most sinkholes in central Kansas form as a result of dissolution of the Permian Hutchinson salt (Figure 1). The fluid source and associated pathway responsible for leaching these bedded evaporites have been natural, anthropogenic, and a combination of both. Sinkholes have been a part of the landscape in the North American midcontinent long before modern oil, gas, and mineral exploration, but clearly the activities of man have played a significant role in both increasing the number of sinkholes and affecting their subsidence rates.

  1. Urang Cave Karst Environmental Development, as Tourism Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijono Srijono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst environment become an alternative tourist destination as well as to boost local revenues. In karst environments in Grobogan District, Central Java Province, formed Urang Cave, with an interesting endokarst phenomenon. This study aims to do zoning district Urang Cave as tourist sites. The research method is using contour maps as a base map of Urang Cave karst environment geomorphological mapping. Geomorphological data processing is using ArcView GIS 3.3 program. Land use map refers to RBI, scale 1:25.000. Geomorphological analysis refers to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 1456.K/20/MEM/2000, and petrography. Each development zone is analyzed its geophysical environmental element, then set scoring and value summation. For comprehensive environmental element analysis, chemical analysis of rocks, and water-soil chemistry. In reference to Minister of Energy Mineral Resource decrees No. 1456/K/20/MEM/2000, Urang Cave zoning defined into 3 (three zone, as follow: the Protected Zone, Cultivation Zone 1, and Cultivation Zone 2. Protected Zone, consists of Urang Cave tunnel/hallway with a unique spheleothem in it. This zone as a cave tracking site tourism, potential to produce karst water as a decent drinking water while maintaining hardness. Cultivation Zone 1 is spreading about 200 m in distance from outer appearance of spring around the cave hallway. In this zone mining of cave sediments may be done in the inactive form caves, without changing the state of the existing major exokarst morphology. Cultivation Zone 2, an outer zone, located farthest from the tunnel/hallway Urang Cave. Utilization of this zone as a limestone mining quarry, although only on a small scale.

  2. Sinkhole susceptibility in carbonate rocks of the Apulian karst (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Antonio; Fazio, Nunzio L.; Fiore, Antonio; Lollino, Piernicola; Luisi, Michele; Miccoli, Maria N.; Pagliarulo, Rosa; Parise, Mario; Perrotti, Michele; Pisano, Luca; Spalluto, Luigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    Apulia region, the foreland of the southern Italian Apennines, is made up of a 6-7 km-thick succession of Mesozoic shallow-water limestones and dolostones, locally covered by thin and discontinuous Tertiary and Quaternary carbonate and clastic deposits. Due to their long subaerial exposure, the Mesozoic carbonate bedrock recorded the development in the subsurface of a dense network of karst cavities, mostly controlled by tectonic discontinuities. As a result, a strong susceptibility to natural sinkholes has to be recorded in Apulia. In addition, the possibility of occurrence of other problems related to the high number of man-made cavities has to be added in the region. A great variety of different typologies of artificial cavities (mostly excavated in the Plio-Pleistocene soft calcarenites) is actually present, including underground quarries, worship sites, oil mills, civilian settlements, etc. Overall, 2200 natural and 1200 artificial cavities, respectively, have been so far surveyed in Apulia. Following the urban development in the last century in Apulia, many of these cavities lie nowadays below densely populated neighborhoods, roads or communication routes. These conditions are at the origin of the main geomorphological hazard for the human society in Apulia, which requires a careful evaluation, aimed at protecting and safeguarding the human life, and at providing the necessary information for a correct land use planning and management. The importance of the sinkhole hazard is further testified by the worrying increase in the number of events during the last 5-6 years. In response to these situations, joint research activities were started by the Institute of Research for Hydrological Protection of the National Research Council (CNR-IRPI) and the Basin Authority of Apulia, aimed at several goals, that include (but are not limited to) the collection of information on natural and anthropogenic sinkholes in Apulia, the implementation of numerical analyses for

  3. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  4. Energy expenditure in caving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Antoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy expenditure of a group of cavers of both genders and different ages and experience during a 10 hour subterranean exploration, using portable metabolimeters. The impact of caving activity on body composition and hydration were also assessed through bioelectrical impedance, and nutritional habits of cavers surveyed. During cave activity, measured total energy expenditure (TEE was in the range 225-287 kcal/h for women-men (MET = 4.1, respectively; subjects had an energy intake from food in the range 1000-1200 kcal, thus inadequate to restore lost calories. Bayesian statistical analysis estimated the effect of predictive variables on TEE, revealing that experienced subjects had a 5% lower TEE than the less skilled ones and that women required a comparatively larger energy expenditure than men to perform the same task. BIVA (bioelectrical impedance vector analysis showed that subjects were within the range of normal hydration before and after cave activity, but bioelectrical changes indicated a reduction of extracellular water in men, which might result in hypo-osmolal dehydration in the case of prolonged underground exercise. All these facts should be considered when planning cave explorations, preparing training programs for subjects practising caving, and optimizing a diet for cavers. Further, information gathered through this study could be of value to reduce accidents in caves related to increase in fatigue.

  5. Cryogenic Cave Pearls In the Periglacial Zones of Ice Caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Karel; Orvošová, M.; Filippi, Michal; Vlček, M.; Onac, B. P.; Persoiu, A.; Rohovec, Jan; Světlík, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2013), s. 207-220 ISSN 1527-1404 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/1760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : caves * cryogenic caves * ice caves * periglacial zones Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.943, year: 2013

  6. Growth of a sinkhole in a seismic zone of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Alessandro; Pagli, Carolina; Molli, Giancarlo; Casu, Francesco; Luca, Claudio; Pieroni, Amerino

    2018-01-01

    Sinkhole collapse is a major hazard causing substantial social and economic losses. However, the surface deformations and sinkhole evolution are rarely recorded, as these sites are known mainly after a collapse, making the assessment of sinkholes-related hazard challenging. Furthermore, 40 % of the sinkholes of Italy are in seismically hazardous zones; it remains unclear whether seismicity may trigger sinkhole collapse. Here we use a multidisciplinary dataset of InSAR, surface mapping ...

  7. Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; Zabramawi, Yasser A; El-Kaliouby, Hesham

    2012-01-01

    Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole–dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole. (paper)

  8. WAC Bennett Dam - the characterization of a crest sinkhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, R.A.; Gaffran, P.C. [British Columbia Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Watts, B.D. [Klohn-Crippen Consultants Ltd., Richmond, BC (Canada); Sobkowicz, J.C. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kupper, A.G. [AGRA Earth and Environmental, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    In June, 1996, a small hole was discovered in the asphaltic concrete road on the crest of the 183 m high WAC Bennett Dam on the Peace River in northeastern British Columbia. Examination of the hole resulted in a sinkhole on the dam crest. The sinkhole was 2.5 m in diameter and 7 m deep. Speculation was that the cavity was likely associated in some way with a buried survey benchmark tube. An investigation was immediately planned and executed to characterize the sinkhole, to determine the extent of damage and the safety status of this very large dam. British Columbia`s Dam Safety Regulator made the decision to lower the reservoir level. During the reservoir drawdown, various surface geophysical techniques were used to investigate the condition of the dam beyond the sinkholes. Intrusive investigations of the sinkhole were also planned. This involved trial drilling and downhole geophysical surveys in intact portions of the core at locations far from the sinkhole. The objectives and criteria developed for the investigation program are summarized. Scope of key activities at the sinkhole and important lessons learned during the investigation are also described. 9 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Climate change in southern Illinois, USA, based on the age and δ13C of organic matter in cave sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, Samuel V.; Curry, B. Brandon; Wang, Hongfang; Hackley, Keith C.; Liu, Chao-Li; Lundstrom, Craig; Zhou, Juanzuo

    2004-01-01

    Matrix-supported diamicton and uniform to laminated, silty, fine-grained sediment deposited from about 42,500 to 27,600 cal yr B.P. under slackwater conditions nearly filled two caves in southwestern Illinois. At some point, most of the sediment was flushed from the caves and from about 22,700 to 4000 cal yr B.P., floods deposited a drape of sandy and silty sediment on remnant slackwater successions, cobbly alluvium, and bedrock (especially from 7700 to 4000 cal yr B.P.). Clay mineral analyses of the slackwater cave sediment reveal a provenance of chiefly Petersburg Silt, a smectite- and illite-rich proglacial lacustrine unit present in the overlying Illinois Episode glacial succession. Today, remnants of the ancient subterranean slackwater deposits nearly fill several secondary passages and, in at least two locations, cover a cobble-mantled strath terrace 1.3 to 1.5 m above active stream channels. Slumping and sinkhole formation appear to have been important mechanisms for deposition of the ancient subterranean deposits. Slumping of these surficial deposits and associated vegetation can occur along the flanks of sinkholes (in addition to sinkhole formation) and enter caves; however, the finer organics, some of them comminuted during transport into the caves, become part of the cave alluvium. This finer organic fraction is the modern analog of the humified organic matter disseminated in slackwater sediment dated in this investigation by radiocarbon methods. Twenty-four 14C ages on humified organic matter provide chronologic control. The ??13C values of the organic matter reflect the proportion of C4-type to C3-type vegetation growing in and around swallets and sinkholes at the time of redeposition. Drought-tolerant C4-type vegetation was more prevalent relative to C3-type vegetation from 42,500 to 31,200 cal yr B.P. compared to conditions from 28,800 cal yr B.P. to the present. The ??13C values are consistent with the results from other investigations of

  10. Results of Integrated Investigation of Collapse Sinkhole in Sarkayevo Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Kovin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The integrated investigations of karstic collapse sinkhole were conducted at the area of Sarkayevo village. The obtained hydrogeologic data show the local concentration of underground water flow at the investigated site, and high sulfate ion content in the water samples that suggests that a sinkhole is karstic in nature. Geophysical investigations allowed determining basic parameters of the site geological structure, to reveal the depth distribution of the disturbed ground in vicinity of the sinkhole, and delineate zones of different soil compaction. The recommendations for detail site study, aimed to the mitigation of further karst development hazards, are presented.

  11. 2D and 3D seismic measurements to evaluate the collapse risk of an important prehistoric cave in soft carbonate rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara

    2015-02-01

    The southern part of the Apulia region (the Salento peninsula) has been the site of at least fifteen collapse events due to sinkholes in the last twenty years. The majority of these occurred in "soft" carbonate rocks (calcarenites). Man-made and/or natural cavities are sometimes assets of historical and archaeological significance. This paper provides a methodology for the evaluation of sinkhole hazard in "soft" carbonate rocks, combining seismic and mine engineering methods.Acase study of a natural cavity which is called Grotta delle Veneri is illustrated. For this example the approach was: i) 2D and 3D seismic methods to study the physical-mechanical characteristics of the rock mass that constitutes the roof of the cave; and ii) scaled span empirical analysis in order to evaluate the instability of the crown pillar's caves.

  12. Current and Historic Sinkhole and Depression locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset is all of the sinkholes and depressions that originated from the SSURGO spot data, and has been updated using LiDAR and historic photography to capture...

  13. A remote sensing evaluation of potential for sinkhole occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, J.; Ruth, B.; Degner, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between lowering of the water table and sinkhole development in Pierson and in Hillsborough County, Florida was investigated. The locations of recently developed (1973) collapses were examined with respect to lineaments or fracture traces that are expressed in the terrain and visible in aerial photography and satellite imagery. It was anticipated that these relationships would provide the basis for establishment of criteria for mapping those land areas that have the greatest potential for sinkhole development. A very good correlation was found between mapped lineament intersections and known location of sinkhole occurrences for both study areas. This indicates that lineament and fracture trace mapping may be very useful in locating zones with the greatest potential for sinkhole development. It is further shown that this information is quite beneficial in land use planning applications.

  14. Detection of sinkholes or anomalies using full seismic wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This research presents an application of two-dimensional (2-D) time-domain waveform tomography for detection of embedded sinkholes and anomalies. The measured seismic surface wave fields were inverted using a full waveform inversion (FWI) technique, ...

  15. A geomechanical model of a sinkhole formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchiv, Alexandru; Zamfirescu, Florian; Mocuta, Marius; Popa, Iulian; Zlibut, Alexandru; Huggenberger, Peter; Zechner, Eric; Dresmann, Horst; Scheidler, Stefan; Wiesmeier, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    On December 2010 a sinkhole was suddenly formed close to the eastern flank of Ocna-Mures salt dome. Soon after the collapse the sinkhole was filled with brine forming a salt lake called Plus Lake. The total volume of sinkhole of about 100000 m3 remained constant since February 2011. The Ocna Mures salt dome is situated on the western border of the Transylvanian basin (Romania) and has been exploited for a long time. The ceilings of some shallow mine chambers are now collapsed and filled with brine. Along the eastern flank of the salt dome there is a disturbed zone due to diapirism. Its presence is suggested by the strong fragmentation of rock in the boreholes drilled along the salt-sterile contact, as it resulted from the low values of RQD index. The sinkhole is probably due to a pressure increase along the diapir flank. The causes of this sudden increase of pressure are not well known. Most probably it is due to the damage of the tubing of a flank borehole as mentioned in a technical report of the exploiting company. The injected fresh water expelled through the breaches of the damaged borehole and, due to the high pressure flushed up the crushed material of the disturbed zone. In order to better understand the setting up of the Plus Lake joint research efforts were performed by teams from Bucharest and Basel Universities since 2013. For the geomechanical approach a numerical model was performed using the Flac 7.0 code. In a first stage the creep behavior of salt was analyzed considering a Norton creep law. It resulted that after 100 years the salt reached equilibrium, the creep could be neglected and in a first approximation mechanical equilibrium could be analyzed considering only an elasto-plastic behavior of both the salt and the sterile. For both the salt and the surrounding sedimentary rocks the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was considered. The properties of sterile rocks were estimated following the GSI system. Due to poor rock quality the strength parameters have

  16. Safety Valve or Sinkhole? Vocational Schooling in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pugatch, Todd

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative to traditional academic schooling, vocational schooling in South Africa may serve as a safety valve for students encountering difficulty in the transition from school to work. Yet if ineffective, vocational schooling could also be a sinkhole, offering little chance for success on the labor market. After defining the terms "safety valve" and "sinkhole" in a model of human capital investment with multiple schooling types, I test for evidence of these characteristics using a pa...

  17. Quantifying potential recharge in mantled sinkholes using ERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin F; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2009-01-01

    Potential recharge through thick soils in mantled sinkholes was quantified using differential electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Conversion of time series two-dimensional (2D) ERT profiles into 2D volumetric water content profiles using a numerically optimized form of Archie's law allowed us to monitor temporal changes in water content in soil profiles up to 9 m in depth. Combining Penman-Monteith daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) and daily precipitation data with potential recharge calculations for three sinkhole transects indicates that potential recharge occurred only during brief intervals over the study period and ranged from 19% to 31% of cumulative precipitation. Spatial analysis of ERT-derived water content showed that infiltration occurred both on sinkhole flanks and in sinkhole bottoms. Results also demonstrate that mantled sinkholes can act as regions of both rapid and slow recharge. Rapid recharge is likely the result of flow through macropores (such as root casts and thin gravel layers), while slow recharge is the result of unsaturated flow through fine-grained sediments. In addition to developing a new method for quantifying potential recharge at the field scale in unsaturated conditions, we show that mantled sinkholes are an important component of storage in a karst system.

  18. Tamarugite from Diana Cave (SW Romania) -first true karst occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pušcaš, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povarǎ, I.

    2012-04-01

    Diana Cave is located within the town limits of Baile Herculane (SW Romania) and develops as a 14 m long, westward oriented, unique passage guided by the Diana fault [1]. At the far end of the cave, the thermo-mineral Diana Spring wells forth. In the early 1970s a mine gallery that intersected the cave was created to drain the water into a pumping station and the original cave passage was somewhat altered and reinforced with concrete. Today the concrete and the silty limestone cave walls are heavily corroded by H2SO4 outgassing from the hot water (ca. 50°C) and display abundant gypsum crusts, soggy aggregates of native S, and a variety of more exotic sulfates. Among them, a mineral that has been previously identified in caves only in connection to volcanic activity, either as thermal springs or fumaroles [2]: tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)26H2O]. It was [3] that first mentioned the occurrence of this Na and Al sulfate in Diana Cave, our research aiming to give a detailed description of this mineral, its paragenesis, and mechanisms of precipitation. Recently, tamarugite has also been identified in a sulfuric acid cave from Greece [4]. Along with powder X-ray diffractions coupled with Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscope, and electron probe micro-analysis, δ18O and δ34S compositions of the sulfate mineral as well as precipitates from the water were analyzed to identify and better constrain the genesis of this rare sulfate. Regrettably, the crystal size of our specimens is inappropriate for identification by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Physical and chemical parameters of Diana Spring were as well measured on several occasions. Geochemical analysis suggests that the minute, white tamarugite flakes precipitated in Diana Cave as a result of the interactions between the thermo-mineral water or water vapor and the original limestone bedrock and concrete that blankets the mine gallery. [1] Povara, I., Diaconu, G., Goran, C. (1972). Observations pr

  19. Mapping subsurface in proximity to newly-developed sinkhole along roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    MS&T acquired electrical resistivity tomography profiles in immediate proximity to a newly-developed sinkhole in Nixa Missouri : The sinkhole has closed a well-traveled municipal roadway and threatens proximal infrastructure. The intent of this inves...

  20. Bayou Corne sinkhole : control measurements of State Highway 70 in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The sinkhole located in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, threatens the stability of Highway 70, a state maintained route. In order to : mitigate the potential damaging e ects of the sinkhole on this infrastructure, the Louisiana Department of Transpo...

  1. ERT-based Investigation of a Sinkhole in Greene County, Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra V. Varnavina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating sinkhole morphology and formation mechanisms is key to understanding their long term impact and susceptibility to development, and aids in the design of effective mitigation measures. In this study, ERT (electrical resistivity tomography, MASW (multichannel analysis of surface waves and borehole data were used to image the subsurface morphology of an active sinkhole in Greene County, Missouri. The study reveals that the sinkhole developed along a natural surface drainage pathway above a pervasively fractured limestone. The subsurface image of the sinkhole depicts a zone of near-vertical water seepage and soil piping. Based on the nature of the overburden material, and the morphology and current/past surface expression of the sinkhole, it is concluded that the sinkhole is predominantly a cover subsidence type of sinkhole. However, it is possible that minor cover collapse occurred locally and in an area slightly to the north of the current active sinkhole.

  2. CORS 911 : continuously operating reference stations for the Bayou Corne sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The sinkhole located near the Napoleonville Salt Dome in Assumption Parish, Louisiana : threatens the stability of LA 70 a state maintained route. In order to mitigate the : possible damaging eff ects of the sinkhole to the route and address publ...

  3. Survey and hydrogeology of Carroll Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll Cave, located in Camden County, Missouri, is the largest known cave formed in the Gasconade Dolomite of the Salem Plateau. Despite extensive visitation over the last 50 years and multiple survey efforts, a comprehensive map of the cave has never been produced. In 2002, the Carroll Cave Conse...

  4. Bubbles, Bubbles, Tremors & Trouble: The Bayou Corne Sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In May 2012, thermogenic methane bubbles were first observed in Bayou Corne in Assumption Parish, Louisiana. As of July 2013, ninety one bubbling sites have been identified. Gas was also found in the top of the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA) about 125 ft below the surface. Vent wells drilled into the MRAA have flared more 16 million SCF of gas. Trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide also have been detected. Bayou Corne flows above the Napoleonville salt dome which has been an active area for oil and gas exploration since the 1920s. The dome is also a site of dissolution salt mining which has produced large caverns with diameters of up to 300 ft and heights of 2000 ft. Some caverns are used for storage of natural gas. Microseismic activity was confirmed by an Earthscope seismic station in White Castle, LA in July 2012. An array of microseismic stations set up in the area recorded more than 60 microseismic events in late July and early August, 2012. These microseismic events were located on the western side of the dome. Estimated focal depths are just above the top of salt. In August 2012, a sinkhole developed overnight just to the northwest of a plugged and abandoned brine filled cavern (see figure below). The sinkhole continues to grow in area to more than 20 acres and has consumed a pipeline right of way. The sinkhole is more than 750 ft deep at its center. Microseismic activity was reduced for several months following the formation of the sinkhole. Microseismic events have reoccurred episodically since then with periods of frequent events preceding slumping of material into the sinkhole or a 'burp' where fluid levels in the sinkhole drop and then rebound followed by a decrease in microseismic activity. Some gas and/or oil may appear at the surface of the sinkhole following a 'burp'. Very long period events also have been observed which are believed to be related to subsurface fluid movement. A relief well drilled into the abandoned brine cavern found that

  5. Nitrate and herbicide loading in two groundwater basins of Illinois' sinkhole plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, S.V.; Kelly, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was designed to estimate the mass loading of nitrate (NO3-) and herbicides in spring water discharging from groundwater basins in an agriculturally dominated, mantled karst terrain. The loading was normalized to land use and NO3- and herbicide losses were compared to estimated losses in other agricultural areas of the Midwestern USA. Our study area consisted of two large karst springs that drain two adjoining groundwater basins (total area of 37.7 km2) in southwestern Illinois' sinkhole plain, USA. The springs and stream that they form were monitored for almost 2 years. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations at three monitoring sites were almost always above the background concentration (1.9 mg/l). NO3-N concentrations at the two springs ranged from 1.08 to 6.08 with a median concentration of 3.61 mg/l. Atrazine and alachlor concentrations ranged from <0.01 to 34 ??g/l and <0.01 to 0.98 ??g/l, respectively, with median concentrations of 0.48 and 0.12 ??g/l, respectively. Approximately 100,000 kg/yr of NO3-N, 39 kg/yr of atrazine, and 2.8 kg/yr of alachlor were discharged from the two springs. Slightly more than half of the discharged NO3- came from background sources and most of the remainder probably came from fertilizer. This represents a 21-31% loss of fertilizer N from the groundwater basins. The pesticide losses were 3.8-5.8% of the applied atrazine, and 0.05-0.08% of the applied alachlor. The loss of atrazine adsorbed to the suspended solid fraction was about 2 kg/yr, only about 5% of the total mass of atrazine discharged from the springs. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping and predicting sinkholes by integration of remote sensing and spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, N.; Basson, U.; Azaria, I.

    2013-08-01

    The Dead Sea coastal area is exposed to the destructive process of sinkhole collapse. The increase in sinkhole activity in the last two decades has been substantial, resulting from the continuous decrease in the Dead Sea's level, with more than 1,000 sinkholes developing as a result of upper layer collapse. Large sinkholes can reach 25 m in diameter. They are concentrated mainly in clusters in several dozens of sites with different characteristics. In this research, methods for mapping, monitoring and predicting sinkholes were developed using active and passive remote-sensing methods: field spectrometer, geophysical ground penetration radar (GPR) and a frequency domain electromagnetic instrument (FDEM). The research was conducted in three stages: 1) literature review and data collection; 2) mapping regions abundant with sinkholes in various stages and regions vulnerable to sinkholes; 3) analyzing the data and translating it into cognitive and accessible scientific information. Field spectrometry enabled a comparison between the spectral signatures of soil samples collected near active or progressing sinkholes, and those collected in regions with no visual sign of sinkhole occurrence. FDEM and GPR investigations showed that electrical conductivity and soil moisture are higher in regions affected by sinkholes. Measurements taken at different time points over several seasons allowed monitoring the progress of an 'embryonic' sinkhole.

  7. The role of natural ventilation in the exposure to radon in the Postojna Cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, A.; Smerajec, M.; Vaupotič, J.

    2012-04-01

    periods (spring and autumn), focusing on the unattached fraction of RnDP (fun), a key parameter in radon dosimetry. Dose conversion factors (DCF) were calculated (using Porstendörfer approach) from measured fun for the four periods and compared with recommended DCF, based on the results of epidemiological studies. Results of calculated DCF are in the range from 8-18 mSV WLM-1, much higher that recommended values, and differ significantly for summer and winter period. The lowest value of DCF was calculated for winter period, when the enhanced inflow of cold outside air introduces outdoor aerosols into the cave and consequently lowers fun. On the other hand, calculated DCF during summer period was significantly higher, caused by high fun, which is the consequence of very low particle concentration in cave air during summer ventilation regime. Taking into account also significantly higher radon concentration during summer, when about 70 % of visits is recorded, it is evident, that personnel receives the highest annual dose during summer months.

  8. Spiders in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Isaia, Marco

    2017-04-26

    World experts of different disciplines, from molecular biology to macro-ecology, recognize the value of cave ecosystems as ideal ecological and evolutionary laboratories. Among other subterranean taxa, spiders stand out as intriguing model organisms for their ecological role of top predators, their unique adaptations to the hypogean medium and their sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance. As the description of the first eyeless spider ( Stalita taenaria ), an array of papers on subterranean spider biology, ecology and evolution has been published, but a comprehensive review on these topics is still lacking. We provide a general overview of the spider families recorded in hypogean habitats worldwide, we review the different adaptations of hypogean spiders to subterranean life, and we summarize the information gathered so far about their origin, population structure, ecology and conservation status. Finally, we point out the limits of the knowledge we currently have regarding hypogean spiders, aiming to stimulate future research. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Sinkhole formation by groundwater withdrawal: far west rand, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foose, R M

    1967-09-01

    Sinkholes up to 125 meters wide and 50 meters deep have developed catastrophically in thick unconsolidated debris above pinnacle-weathered dolomite after lowering of the groundwater surface by at least 160 meters. They are caused by shrinkage of desiccated debris, downward migration of debris into bedrock openings, and upward growth of multiple debris "caverns" by roof spalling.

  10. Benthic Bacterial Diversity in Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystems▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nold, Stephen C.; Pangborn, Joseph B.; Zajack, Heidi A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Rediske, Richard R.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities. PMID:19880643

  11. Monitoring upstream sinkhole development by detailed sonar profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigbey, S. [Acres International Ltd., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the development and use of a simple sonar system that has been used by engineers for routine monitoring of small sinkholes on the upstream face of a distressed earth dam. Improper construction of the dam led to the development of several sinkholes measuring 10 to 20 m in diameter upstream from the dam which is founded on deep alluvial sands and gravels. The dam has a central core of silt and leakage varies between 200 and 500 l/s, depending on the water level of the reservoir. The main issues with the upstream blanket are: improper fill placement due to the inability to dewater the area properly; omission of a filter material between the blanket and the alluvium foundation; thin placement of fill and runnelling of the blanket prior to impoundment; and, short upstream extent of the blanket. A downstream weighting toe of material was placed to address the seepage and piping that developed immediately following impounding. Other incidents continued over the years, such as downstream sinkholes, slumping of the crest and repairs about 12 years after construction. An inverter filter was also constructed to better control the seepage. Simple bathymetric surveys conducted by sounding the bottom of the reservoir from the ice surface each winter revealed the presence of several large sinkholes. Although infilling programs were conducted, sinkholes redeveloped after each program. The bathymetric surveys were found to be limited in accuracy and repeatability. Therefore, it was not possible to monitor small developments on a yearly basis. A 3-dimensional seepage model was developed to reconcile some of the unexplained piezometric patterns and to better understand the seepage patterns. However, this was also unsuccessful on its own. A trial sonar survey was then undertaken in 2002 by a Vancouver-based sonar company using an Imagenix profiling sonar head. It was successful in locating a small, previously unknown sinkhole measuring a few metres in diameter at

  12. Sinkhole development induced by underground quarrying, and the related hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, M.; Delle Rose, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sinkholes are extremely widespread in Apulia, a very flat and carbonate region, that acted as the foreland during the phases of building up of the Southern Apenninic Chain in Miocene time. This is due to the presence of soluble rocks throughout the region, that highly predispose the area to this very subtle natural hazard. In addition to the natural setting, which favours their development, sinkholes may also be induced by anthropogenic activities. In the latter sense, underground quarrying represents one of the most dangerous activities in karst areas. Apulia has a long history of quarrying. Since the roman time, the local rocks, from the Cretaceous micritic limestones to the Quaternary calcarenites, have been intensely quarried and used as building and ornamental materials. In several settings of the region, the rocks with the best petrographic characteristics are located at depths ranging from a few to some tens of meters. This caused the opening of many underground quarries, and the development of a complex network of subterranean galleries. Underground quarrying had a great impulse at the turn between the XIX and the XX century, when a large number of quarries was opened. Later on, after the Second World War, most of the quarries were progressively abandoned, even because of the first signs of instability, both underground and at the ground surface. With time, the memory of the presence and development of the underground quarries was progressively lost, with severe repercussions on the safety of the land above the excavated areas. Lack of knowledge of the subterranean pattern of galleries, combined with the expansion of the built-up areas at the surface, resulted in increasing significantly the vulnerability of exposed elements at risk. Events such as the 29 March, 2007, at Gallipoli only by chance did not result in any casualties, when a 15-mt wide and 5-mt deep sinkhole opened in a few hours at a road crossing, above the site of an old underground quarry

  13. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.

  14. Applying a weighted random forests method to extract karst sinkholes from LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Pierskalla, William P.

    2016-02-01

    Detailed mapping of sinkholes provides critical information for mitigating sinkhole hazards and understanding groundwater and surface water interactions in karst terrains. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measures the earth's surface in high-resolution and high-density and has shown great potentials to drastically improve locating and delineating sinkholes. However, processing LiDAR data to extract sinkholes requires separating sinkholes from other depressions, which can be laborious because of the sheer number of the depressions commonly generated from LiDAR data. In this study, we applied the random forests, a machine learning method, to automatically separate sinkholes from other depressions in a karst region in central Kentucky. The sinkhole-extraction random forest was grown on a training dataset built from an area where LiDAR-derived depressions were manually classified through a visual inspection and field verification process. Based on the geometry of depressions, as well as natural and human factors related to sinkholes, 11 parameters were selected as predictive variables to form the dataset. Because the training dataset was imbalanced with the majority of depressions being non-sinkholes, a weighted random forests method was used to improve the accuracy of predicting sinkholes. The weighted random forest achieved an average accuracy of 89.95% for the training dataset, demonstrating that the random forest can be an effective sinkhole classifier. Testing of the random forest in another area, however, resulted in moderate success with an average accuracy rate of 73.96%. This study suggests that an automatic sinkhole extraction procedure like the random forest classifier can significantly reduce time and labor costs and makes its more tractable to map sinkholes using LiDAR data for large areas. However, the random forests method cannot totally replace manual procedures, such as visual inspection and field verification.

  15. Integrated geophysical investigations of Main Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribudak, By Mustafa; Hauwert, Nico M.

    2017-03-01

    Barton Springs is a major discharge site for the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and is located in Zilker Park, Austin, Texas. Barton Springs actually consists of at least four springs. The Main Barton Springs discharges into the Barton Springs pool from the Barton Springs fault and several outlets along a fault, from a cave, several fissures, and gravel-filled solution cavities on the floor of the pool west of the fault. Surface geophysical surveys [resistivity imaging, induced polarization (IP), self-potential (SP), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR)] were performed across the Barton Springs fault and at the vicinity of the Main Barton Springs in south Zilker Park. The purpose of the surveys was two-fold: 1) locate the precise location of submerged conduits (caves, voids) carrying flow to Main Barton Springs; and 2) characterize the geophysical signatures of the fault crossing Barton Springs pool. Geophysical results indicate significant anomalies to the south of the Barton Springs pool. A majority of these anomalies indicate a fault-like pattern, in front of the south entrance to the swimming pool. In addition, resistivity and SP results, in particular, suggest the presence of a large conduit in the southern part of Barton Springs pool. The groundwater flow-path to the Main Barton Springs could follow the locations of those resistivity and SP anomalies along the newly discovered fault, instead of along the Barton Springs fault, as previously thought.

  16. Microbial communities and organic biomarkers in a Proterozoic-analog sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T L; Welander, P V; Albrecht, H L; Fulton, J M; Schaperdoth, I; Bird, L R; Summons, R E; Freeman, K H; Macalady, J L

    2017-11-01

    Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, FL, USA) is a sinkhole with groundwater vents at ~77 m depth. The entire water column experiences sulfidic (~50 μM) conditions seasonally, resulting in a system poised between oxic and sulfidic conditions. Red pinnacle mats occupy the sediment-water interface in the sunlit upper basin of the sinkhole, and yielded 16S rRNA gene clones affiliated with Cyanobacteria, Chlorobi, and sulfate-reducing clades of Deltaproteobacteria. Nine bacteriochlorophyll e homologues and isorenieratene indicate contributions from Chlorobi, and abundant chlorophyll a and pheophytin a are consistent with the presence of Cyanobacteria. The red pinnacle mat contains hopanoids, including 2-methyl structures that have been interpreted as biomarkers for Cyanobacteria. A single sequence of hpnP, the gene required for methylation of hopanoids at the C-2 position, was recovered in both DNA and cDNA libraries from the red pinnacle mat. The hpnP sequence was most closely related to cyanobacterial hpnP sequences, implying that Cyanobacteria are a source of 2-methyl hopanoids present in the mat. The mats are capable of light-dependent primary productivity as evidenced by 13 C-bicarbonate photoassimilation. We also observed 13 C-bicarbonate photoassimilation in the presence of DCMU, an inhibitor of electron transfer to Photosystem II. Our results indicate that the mats carry out light-driven primary production in the absence of oxygen production-a mechanism that may have delayed the oxygenation of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon. Furthermore, our observations of the production of 2-methyl hopanoids by Cyanobacteria under conditions of low oxygen and low light are consistent with the recovery of these structures from ancient black shales as well as their paucity in modern marine environments. © 2017 The Authors. Geobiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparison of a new GIS-based technique and a manual method for determining sinkhole density: An example from Illinois' sinkhole plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, J.C.; Nelson, D.O.; Panno, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    A new Geographic Information System (GIS) method was developed as an alternative to the hand-counting of sinkholes on topographic maps for density and distribution studies. Sinkhole counts were prepared by hand and compared to those generated from USGS DLG data using ArcView 3.2 and the ArcInfo Workstation component of ArcGIS 8.1 software. The study area for this investigation, chosen for its great density of sinkholes, included the 42 public land survey sections that reside entirely within the Renault Quadrangle in southwestern Illinois. Differences between the sinkhole counts derived from the two methods for the Renault Quadrangle study area were negligible. Although the initial development and refinement of the GIS method required considerably more time than counting sinkholes by hand, the flexibility of the GIS method is expected to provide significant long-term benefits and time savings when mapping larger areas and expanding research efforts. ?? 2004 by The National Speleological Society.

  18. Exposure to radon in Cuban tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge; Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Gil Castillo, Reinaldo; Molerio Leon, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    With the objective of estimating the dose, due to Radon-222, received by tour guides and other people who work inside some of the most important tourist caves in the Republic of Cuba, measurements of radon concentrations were carried out in four of these caves: Santo Tomas Cave, Tapiada Cave, Del Indio Cave and Jose Miguel Cave. All these caves are located in the Vinales Valley (Pinar del Rio City), a very important tourist area in the country. The relationship among radon concentration, the concentration of natural radionuclides inside the caves and the geologic characteristics of the specific locations was analyzed. In order to select the most appropriates measurement places, different criteria were taken into account: representatives points of the geology of the caves, level of gamma radiation, exchange of air, places of work inside the caves (cafeterias, restaurants and shops) and places more frequently visited by tour guides. The maximum radon concentration was found in Jose Miguel Cave with a value of 220 Bq/m 3 . The measurement of gamma dose rate inside the caves was carried out with a scintillation detector type Scintrex BGS-3 previously calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The radon concentrations were measured with the equipment Alpha Guard PQ2000/MC50 and SARAD RM2000, both also calibrated at SSI, Sweden. The obtained results indicated that, in the studied caves, the annual dose is not greater than 1 mSv considering a work year of 2000 hours. (author)

  19. Distinct Element modeling of geophysical signatures during sinkhole collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Taheri, Abbas; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    A sinkhole forms due to the collapse of rocks or soil near the Earth's surface into an underground cavity. Such cavities represent large secondary pore spaces derived by dissolution and subrosion in the underground. By changing the stress field in the surrounding material, the growth of cavities can lead to a positive feedback, in which expansion and mechanical instability in the surrounding material increases or generates new secondary pore space (e.g. by fracturing), which in turn increases the cavity size, etc. A sinkhole forms due to the eventual subsidence or collapse of the overburden that becomes destabilized and fails all the way to the Earth's surface. Both natural processes like (sub)surface water movement and earthquakes, and human activities, such as mining, construction and groundwater extraction, intensify such feedbacks. The development of models for the mechanical interaction of a growing cavity and fracturing of its surrounding material, thus capturing related precursory geophysical signatures, has been limited, however. Here we report on the advances of a general, simplified approach to simulating cavity growth and sinkhole formation by using 2D Distinct Element Modeling (DEM) PFC5.0 software and thereby constraining pre-, syn- and post-collapse geophysical and geodetic signatures. This physically realistic approach allows for spontaneous cavity development and dislocation of rock mass to be simulated by bonded particle formulation of DEM. First, we present calibration and validation of our model. Surface subsidence above an instantaneously excavated circular cavity is tracked and compared with an incrementally increasing dissolution zone both for purely elastic and non-elastic material.This validation is important for the optimal choice of model dimensions and particles size with respect to simulation time. Second, a cavity growth approach is presented and compared to a well-documented case study, the deliberately intensified sinkhole collapse at

  20. Evaluation of sinkhole occurrence in the Valley and Ridge Province, East Tennessee: Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-11-01

    Data from a reconnaissance-type inventory of sinkhole occurrence and from more detailed inventories in selected areas were used to determine regional density and frequency of sinkhole occurrence in the Valley and Ridge Province, Tennessee. The overall database consisted of 333 sinkholes of which 211, or 63 percent of the total, were classified as induced. Almost all induced sinkholes resulted from construction activities, such as grading, ditching, and impoundment of water. Extrapolation of data to provide estimates of regional sinkhole density necessitated adjustment of the reconnaissance inventory. Adjustment factors were calculated by comparing reconnaissance inventories from selected areas with those obtained from detailed inventories in the same areas. The number of sinkholes in the detailed inventories was 5 and 8.5 times greater than the number in the reconnaissance inventories

  1. GEOMORPHIC ANALYSIS OF MAWSMAI CAVE, MEGHALAYA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Chandra Jha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Caving is an art which can be best experienced in the mystic Mawsmai Cave of Meghalaya. This Cave is fast becoming a hot tourist’s destination offering great adventurous opportunity to the tourists. The cave is located in the East Khasi Hill region near Cherrapunjee and is made of limestone. The emotion of thrill heightens after entering the cave. The entrance has a narrow vertical opening and is well lit. Due to its location in the world’s largest rainfall region, dripping of water from the cave roofs occurs almost throughout the year. The formation of stalactites and stalagmites create wonderful phenomena specially found in this caves. The conspicuous pillars formed due to the joining of the roof and the floors are an awe-inspiring creativity of the creator of this world. Keywords: Cave, Limestone, Stalactite, Stalagmite, Pillar, Solution.

  2. ERT-based Investigation of a Sinkhole in Greene County, Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra V. Varnavina; Evgeniy V. Torgashov; Neil L. Anderson; Shishay T. Kidanu

    2016-01-01

    Investigating sinkhole morphology and formation mechanisms is key to understanding their long term impact and susceptibility to development, and aids in the design of effective mitigation measures. In this study, ERT (electrical resistivity tomography), MASW (multichannel analysis of surface waves) and borehole data were used to image the subsurface morphology of an active sinkhole in Greene County, Missouri. The study reveals that the sinkhole developed along a natural surface drainage pathw...

  3. Plant distribution-altitude and landform relationships in karstic sinkholes of Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Kürsad; Gulsoy, Serkan; Mert, Ahmet; Ozturk, Munir; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the plant distribution and the altitude-shape-size characteristics of sinkholes, and the landform characteristics inside sinkholes in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Block kriging, Factor analysis, Cluster Analysis and Detrended Correspondence Analysis were performed. The sinkhole type and altitudinal zone were found to be the significant factors affecting the plant distribution. However, the sinkhole type was more important than the altitudinal zone. Hence, the sinkholes were first subdivided into groups according to types and then the groups were divided into subgroups according to the altitudinal zones. Consequently, 4 groups were defined; A-type sinkholes [1400-1550 m (A1), 1550-1700 m (A2)] and B-type sinkholes [1400-1550 (B1), 1550-1700 m (B2)]. The B-type was wider vertically and shorter horizontally than A-type sinkholes. Significant differences were found between the plant distribution and slope position inside the sinkholes. Plant distribution in the lower slopes was different from that in the flats and ridges in the B1 sub-type of B-type. Plant distribution in B2 subtype was different among the slope positions (ridge, middle slope, lower slope, and flat). Although distribution of plants is different in different parts (ridges, upper slope, middle slope, lower slope and basal flats) of A sinkhole, the differences between the parts of intermediate slope position are not significant. A high plant variability along short distances in the sinkholes was observed in the study area. That is why the site of sinkholes have a big potential for the distribution of many species. Hence, the area must be separated as strictly protected zone.

  4. Global warming causes sinkhole collapse – Case study in Florida, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Yan; Jia, Long

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence frequency and intensity of many natural geohazards, such as landslides, debris flows and earthquakes, have increased in response to global warming. However, the effects of such on development and spread of sinkholes has been largely overlooked. Most research shows that water pumping and related drawdown is the most important factor in sinkhole development, but in this paper evidence is presented which highlights the role played by global warming in causing sinkholes. The state ...

  5. The future of the CAVE

    KAUST Repository

    DeFanti, Thomas; Acevedo-Feliz, Daniel; Ainsworth, Richard; Brown, Maxine; Cutchin, Steven; Dawe, Gregory; Doerr, Kai-Uwe; Johnson, Andrew; Knox, Christopher; Kooima, Robert; Kuester, Falko; Leigh, Jason; Long, Lance; Otto, Peter; Petrovic, Vid; Ponto, Kevin; Prudhomme, Andrew; Rao, Ramesh; Renambot, Luc; Sandin, Daniel; Schulze, Jurgen; Smarr, Larry; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Weber, Philip; Wickham, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    The CAVE, a walk-in virtual reality environment typically consisting of 4–6 3 m-by-3 m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens, was first conceived and built in 1991. In the nearly two decades since its conception, the supporting technology has improved so that current CAVEs are much brighter, at much higher resolution, and have dramatically improved graphics performance. However, rear-projection-based CAVEs typically must be housed in a 10 m-by-10 m-by-10 m room (allowing space behind the screen walls for the projectors), which limits their deployment to large spaces. The CAVE of the future will be made of tessellated panel displays, eliminating the projection distance, but the implementation of such displays is challenging. Early multi-tile, panel-based, virtual-reality displays have been designed, prototyped, and built for the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. New means of image generation and control are considered key contributions to the future viability of the CAVE as a virtual-reality device.

  6. Sinkhole investigated at B.C. Hydro's Bennett Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The cause of a sinkhole which appeared in a roadway crossing an earth filled dam in B. C., was discussed. The hole measured 6 ft. across and 20 ft. deep, and occurred in B.C. Hydro's W.A.C. Bennett Dam which measures 600 ft. high, 2,600 ft. wide at the base and 35 ft. wide at the crest. The cause of the sinkhole is not known, but it is believed that a weakness in the dam may have found its way to the surface via a pipe connected to a bedrock settlement gauge buried within the dam. Sonar and ground penetrating radar were used to examine the area. The hole has been filled with gravel and monitoring continues. Experts do not anticipate immediate risk of dam failure. 1 fig

  7. Tamarugite in the Steam-Condensate Alteration Paragenesis in Diana Cave (SW Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscas, C. M.; Onac, B. P.; Effenberger, H. S.; Povară, I.

    2012-12-01

    The double-salt hydrate tamarugite [NaAl(SO4)2 6H2O] is an uncommon mineral in the cave environment, forming as a result of chemical reactions between water and bedrock only under very specific conditions. The Diana Cave hosts a unique tamarugite occurrence, the first one to be reported from a typical karst environment. The cave is located within the limits of Băile Herculane township in the Cerna Mountains, SW Romania. It consists of a 14 m long, westward-oriented single passage, developed along the Diana Fault. In 1974 a concrete-clad mine gallery was created to channel the thermal water (Diana 1+2 Spring) flowing through the cave to a pumping station. The spring's chemical and physical parameters fluctuated through time, averaging 51.98° C, discharge of 0.96 Ls-1, pH of 7.46, 5768.66 ppm TDS, 9303 μScm-1 conductivity, 5.02 salinity. The major chemical components of the thermo-mineral water in Diana Cave are, Na+ (1392.57 ppm), K+ (58.55 ppm), Ca2+ (725.16 ppm), Mg2+ (10.78 ppm), Cl- (3376.83 ppm), and SO42- (92.27 ppm), and H2S (24.05 ppm), with traces of Si, Fe2+, Br+, I-, and Li+. The general air circulation pattern within the cave is fairly simple: cold air from the outside sweeps into the cave along the floor, heats up at the contact with the thermo-mineral water, ascends, and exists the cave along the ceiling. At the contact with the cold walls of the Diana Cave, the hot steam condenses and gives rise to a rich and exotic sulfate-mineral paragenesis (including halotrichite-series minerals, gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite, epsomite, alunite, halite, native sulfur, etc.). The most exotic minerals precipitate at or below the contact between the Tithonic - Neocomian limestone and the overlaying Cretaceous shaly limestone, as a result of steam-condensate alteration. Minerogenetic mechanisms responsible for the peculiar sulfate mineral assemblage in Diana Cave are evaporation, oxidation, hydrolysis, double exchange reactions, and deposition from vapours or

  8. Winter distribution and use of high elevation caves as foraging sites by the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Todd, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine altitudinal movements involving unusual use of caves by Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, during winter and spring in the Mauna Loa Forest Reserve (MLFR), Hawai‘i Island. Acoustic detection of hoary bat vocalizations, were recorded with regularity outside 13 lava tube cave entrances situated between 2,200 to 3,600 m asl from November 2012 to April 2013. Vocalizations were most numerous in November and December with the number of call events and echolocation pulses decreasing through the following months. Bat activity was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed. Visual searches found no evidence of hibernacula nor do Hawaiian hoary bats appear to shelter by day in these caves. Nevertheless, bats fly deep into caves as evidenced by numerous carcasses found in cave interiors. The occurrence of feeding buzzes around cave entrances and visual observations of bats flying in acrobatic fashion in cave interiors point to the use of these spaces as foraging sites. Peridroma moth species (Noctuidae), the only abundant nocturnal, flying insect sheltering in large numbers in rock rubble and on cave walls in the MLFR, apparently serve as the principal prey attracting hoary bats during winter to lava tube caves in the upper MLFR. Caves above 3,000 m on Mauna Loa harbor temperatures suitable for Pseudogymnoascus destructansfungi, the causative agent of White-nose Syndrome that is highly lethal to some species of North American cave-dwelling bats. We discuss the potential for White-nose Syndrome to establish and affect Hawaiian hoary bats.

  9. Development of sinkholes resulting from man's activities in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Development of induced sinkholes in carbonate terranes in the Eastern United States has resulted in costly damage and water pollution. Previously, detailed investigations of sinkholes were limited to Alabama and Missouri, with the most comprehensive being in Alabama. An investigation of the remainder of the area was made in 1981 to regionalize previous findings. More than 850 sites of sinkhole development have been identified in 19 States. It is estimated that more than 6,500 sinkholes or related features have formed at these sites. Most have occurred since 1950. Based on information available, States most impacted are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee.

  10. Using InSAR to Observe Sinkhole Activity in Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Cabrera, T.; Wdowinski, S.; Kruse, S.; Kiflu, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    Sinkhole collapse in Florida is a major geologic hazard, threatening human life and causing substantial damage to property. Detecting sinkhole deformation before a collapse is an important but difficult task; most techniques used to monitor sinkholes are spatially constrained to relatively small areas (tens to hundred meters). To overcome this limitation, we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which is a very useful technique for detecting localized deformation while covering vast areas. InSAR results show localized deformation at several houses and commercial buildings in different locations along the study sites. We use a subsurface imaging technique, ground penetrating radar, to verify sinkhole existence beneath the observed deforming areas.

  11. Evaluating susceptibility of karst dolines (sinkholes) for collapse in Sango, Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siska, Peter P.; Goovaerts, Pierre; Hung, I-K

    2016-01-01

    Dolines or sinkholes are earth depressions that develop in soluble rocks complexes such as limestone, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, and halite; dolines appear in a variety of shapes from nearly circular to complex structures with highly curved perimeters. The occurrence of dolines in the studied karst area is not random; they are the results of geomorphic, hydrologic, and chemical processes that have caused partial subsidence, even the total collapse of the land surface when voids and caves are present in the bedrock and the regolith arch overbridging these voids is unstable. In the study area, the majority of collapses occur in the regolith (bedrock cover) that bridges voids in the bedrock. Because these collapsing dolines may result in property damage and even cause the loss of lives, there is a need to develop methods for evaluating karst hazards. These methods can then be used by planners and practitioners for urban and economic development, especially in regions with a growing population. The purpose of this project is threefold: 1) to develop a karst feature database, 2) to investigate critical indicators associated with doline collapse, and 3) to develop a doline susceptibility model for potential doline collapse based on external morphometric data. The study has revealed the presence of short range spatial dependence in the distribution of the dolines’ morphometric parameters such as circularity, the geographic orientation of the main doline axes, and the length-to-width doline ratios; therefore, geostatistics can be used to spatially evaluate the susceptibility of the karst area for doline collapse. The partial susceptibility estimates were combined into a final probability map enabling the identification of areas where, until now, undetected dolines may cause significant hazards. PMID:27616807

  12. Sinkhole formation mechanism at Steinaker Dam : the complete story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dise, K. [United States Dept. of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States). Bureau of Reclamation

    2009-07-01

    This case history summary described an internal erosion event that occurred at a zoned earthfill dam located within the Ashley Creek watershed area of the Uinta Mountain uplift. The incident occurred under static loading. The rocks in the region are heavily fractured with close to moderately spaced joints along the bedding planes. The joints were not grouted during the dam's construction, and the foundation was not treated with dental concrete or slush grouting. The dam's core material consisted of a mixture of clay, silt and sand. A sinkhole area appeared on the downstream face of the dam and was filled. A second sinkhole appeared in 1965. Abutment grouting was performed. A core investigation study in 1992 showed that voids were present in the core. Deep dynamic compaction was used to densify the foundation materials. Voids in the gravel envelope were filled with fine sand. The investigation showed that the sinkholes were formed by seeps travelling through abutment bedrock fractures. The voids were large enough to provide an exit for the fine-grained foundation alluvial materials. It was concluded that grouting the abutment prevented higher velocity seepages that may have eventually initiated a dam breach. 6 figs.

  13. A study of sinkhole hazard at area of locked colliery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotyrba, A.

    2005-01-01

    Transformations of polish industry began the process of mine closures. Among various mines being in process of abandoning, there are a large number of collieries, which exploited coal since 17. century. The depth of mining openings ranged from some to hundreds meters. The height of primary mining openings ranged from 1 to 9 m. Mining operations have left in geological basement large number of cavities, which still create a hazard to the surface stability. Post mining deformations of the surface can take continuous and discontinuous forms. The last ones are the topic of paper. Although those deformations can take various forms, they are commonly called as sinkholes. In paper, the sinkholes hazard has been analyzed in a scale of selected one mine area, in regard to various parameters. The selected 'Siemianowice' mine is located in northern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. A database containing full set of sinkholes, recorded within area of mine in a period of 50 years, has been tested in geomechanical and statistical approaches. (author)

  14. A study of sinkhole hazard at area of locked colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotyrba, A. [Central Mining Institute, Gwarkow (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    Transformations of polish industry began the process of mine closures. Among various mines being in process of abandoning, there are a large number of collieries, which exploited coal since 17. century. The depth of mining openings ranged from some to hundreds meters. The height of primary mining openings ranged from 1 to 9 m. Mining operations have left in geological basement large number of cavities, which still create a hazard to the surface stability. Post mining deformations of the surface can take continuous and discontinuous forms. The last ones are the topic of paper. Although those deformations can take various forms, they are commonly called as sinkholes. In paper, the sinkholes hazard has been analyzed in a scale of selected one mine area, in regard to various parameters. The selected 'Siemianowice' mine is located in northern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. A database containing full set of sinkholes, recorded within area of mine in a period of 50 years, has been tested in geomechanical and statistical approaches. (author)

  15. Chronology of guitarrero cave, peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T F; Gillespie, R; Gowlett, J A; Hedges, R E

    1985-08-30

    Dating by accelerator mass spectrometry of wooden artifacts, cord, and charcoal samples from Guitarrero Cave, Peru, supports the antiquity of South America's earliest textiles and other perishable remains. The new dates are consistent with those obtained from disintegration counters and leave little doubt about the integrity of the lower Preceramic layers and their early cultivars. Re-evaluation of the mode of deposition suggests that most of the remains resulted from short-term use of the cave in the eighth millennium B.C., with a possible brief human visit as early as 12,560 years ago.

  16. 3N Cave: Longest salt cave in the world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Filippi, Michal; Zare, M.; Asadi, N.; Vilhelm, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2006), s. 10-18 ISSN 0027-7010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB301110501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : salt cave * salt karst * Iran * expedition Namak Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  17. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  18. Hydrogeology - SINKHOLE_DENSITY_KM2_IN_KY_2011: Density of sinkholes per square kilometer in southern Indiana and Kentucky, Derived from the 2011 Sinkhole Inventory (Indiana Geological Survey, 30-Meter TIFF Image)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This raster file was created to display in a geographic information systems (GIS) the density in square kilometers of mapped and modeled (indirectly mapped) sinkhole...

  19. Palaeoclimate Research in Villars Cave (Dordogne, SW-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genty Dominique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Villars Cave is a typical shallow cave from South-West France (45.44°N; 0.78°E; 175 m asl that has provided several speleothempalaeoclimatic records such as the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period and the Last Deglaciation. Monitoring theVillars cave environment over a 13-year period has helped in the understanding of the stable isotopic speleothem content and inthe hydrology. For example, it was demonstrated that most of the calcite CaCO3 carbon comes from the soil CO2, which explainsthe sensitivity of the δ13C to any vegetation and climatic changes. Drip rate monitoring, carried out under four stalactites from thelower and upper galleries, has shown a well marked seasonality of the seepage water with high flow rates during winter and spring.A time delay of about two months is observed between the water excess (estimated from outside meteorological stations and thedrip rate in the cave. A great heterogeneity in the flow rate amplitude variations and in the annual quantity of water between twonearby stalactites is observed, confirming the complexity of the micro-fissure network system in the unsaturated zone. At a dailyscale, the air pressure and drip rates are anti-correlated probably because of pressure stress on the fissure network. Cave air CO2concentration follows soil CO2 production and is correlated with its δ13C content. Since the beginning of the monitoring, the cave airtemperature, in both lower and upper galleries, displays a warming trend of ~+0.4°C±0.1/10yrs. This might be the consequence ofthe outside temperature increase that reaches the Villars Cave galleries through thermal wave conduction. Chemistry monitoringover a few years has shown that the seepage water of the lower gallery stations is significantly more concentrated in trace and minorelements (i.e. Sr, Mg, Ba, U than the upper stations, probably due to the 10-20 m depth difference between these galleries, whichimplies a different seepage pathway

  20. Hydrogeochemical processes controlling water and dissolved gas chemistry at the Accesa sinkhole (southern Tuscany, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 38.5 m deep Lake Accesa is a sinkhole located in southern Tuscany (Italy that shows a peculiar water composition, being characterized by relatively high total dissolved solids (TDS values (2 g L-1 and a Ca(Mg-SO4 geochemical facies. The presence of significant amounts of extra-atmospheric gases (CO2 and CH4, which increase their concentrations with depth, is also recognized. These chemical features, mimicking those commonly shown by volcanic lakes fed by hydrothermal-magmatic reservoirs, are consistent with those of mineral springs emerging in the study area whose chemistry is produced by the interaction of meteoric-derived waters with Mesozoic carbonates and Triassic evaporites. Although the lake has a pronounced thermocline, water chemistry does not show significant changes along the vertical profile. Lake water balance calculations demonstrate that Lake Accesa has >90% of its water supply from sublacustrine springs whose subterranean pathways are controlled by the local structural assessment that likely determined the sinking event, the resulting funnel-shape being then filled by the Accesa waters. Such a huge water inflow from the lake bottom (~9·106 m3 yr-1 feeds the lake effluent (Bruna River and promotes the formation of water currents, which are able to prevent the establishment of a vertical density gradient. Consequently, a continuous mixing along the whole vertical water column is established. Changes of the drainage system by the deep-originated waters in the nearby former mining district have strongly affected the outflow rates of the local mineral springs; thus, future intervention associated with the ongoing remediation activities should carefully be evaluated to preserve the peculiar chemical features of Lake Accesa.

  1. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj E. Williams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  2. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652 ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  3. WATER QUALITY OF THE VRELIĆ SPRING IN DONJE DUBRAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Trpčić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In one part of the groundwater flow in the Vrelić cave (near the village Donje Dubrave, during the explorations in 2003, oil pollution was perceived. During field prospection and contact with local population, few possible pollution sources were located. There was a strong possibility that the oil traces in the cave are the result of the railway accident in 1970. Because of the railway accident on Rijeka-Zagreb railroad, tank carriage sliped off from the tracks and the content of the dangerous cargo leaked onto the nearby valley, 800 meters away from the cave entrance. A spring, used sometimes for water supply by the local population is also located nearby. Sampling of the water from the cave and the spring was carried out several times during the next period with the intention of monitoring the pollution impact on water quality in different seasonal (climatic conditions. In the course of the laboratory analysis of the samples the following parameters were determined: Total hardness; Concentrations of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Chlorides and Nitrates; pH-value; TOC; colony-forming unit (CFU; total Coliform; fecal Streptococus; Proteus bacteria; Salmonella bacteria and Clostridium perfringens bacteria. Several of other parameters were also measured by mobile devices: Conductivity (EC, TDS, Redox-potential, pH-value and water temperature. Water tracing with Na-fluorescine was carried out before the analysis and the connection between groundwater flow in cave and the spring water was confirmed. After the creation of a topographical (speleological map of the cave and thanks to the surface (field measurements, the distance between the place of Na-fluorescine spill in the cave and the Vrelić spring was defined (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Jon E; Crim, Jackie F; Williard, Karl W J; Groninger, John W; Zaczek, James J; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees (Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year(-1) translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year(-1) from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year(-1)) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  5. Detection of sinkhole precursors along the Dead Sea, Israel by SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nof, Ran; Baer, Gidon; Ziv, Alon; Eyal, Yehuda; Raz, Eli; Atzori, Simone; Salvi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The water level of the Dead Sea (Israel and Jordan) has been dropping at an increasing rate since the 1960s, exceeding a meter per year during the last decade. This water-level drop has triggered the formation of sinkholes and widespread land subsidence along the Dead Sea shorelines, resulting in severe economic loss and infrastructural damage. In this study, sinkhole-related precursory subsidence and the effects of human activities on sinkhole development are examined through Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements and field surveys conducted in Israel during the year 2012. Interferograms were generated using the COSMO-SkyMed satellite images and a high-resolution (0.5 m/pixel) elevation model that was obtained from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Thanks to this unique integration of high-resolution datasets, mm-scale subsidence may be resolved in both undisturbed and human-disturbed environments. A few months long precursory subsidence occurred in all three sinkhole sites reported in this study. The centers of the subsiding areas and successive sinkholes in a specific site show lateral migration, possibly due to progressive dissolution and widening of the underlying cavities. Certain human activities, such as filling of newly formed sinkholes by gravel, or mud injections into nearby drill holes, seem to enhance land subsidence, widen existing sinkholes or even generate new sinkholes.

  6. Sinkhole development resulting from ground-water withdrawal in the Tampa area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, William C.

    1982-01-01

    The area of municipal well fields on the Gulf Coastal Plain north of tampa, Fla., is densely pitted with natural sinkholes and sinkhole lakes that have resulted from collapse of surficial sand and clay into solution cavities in the underlying carbonate rocks of the Floridan aquifer. Although solution of the underlying rocks is the ultimate cause of sinkholes, some have been induced by abrupt changes in ground-water levels caused by pumping. Declines in water levels cause loss of support to the bedrock roofs over cavities and to surficial material overlying openings in the top of bedrock. The volume of calcium, magnesium , and carbonate (the constituents of limestone and dolomite) in solution in the water withdrawn from four well fields near Tampa totaled about 240,000 cubic feet in 1978. Most induced solution takes place at the limestone surface however, and the area of induced recharge is so extensive that the effect of induced limestone solution on sinkhole development is negligible. Alinement of established sinkholes along joint patterns in the bedrock suggests that a well along these lineations might have direct hydraulic connection with a zone of incipient sinkholes. Therefore, pumping of large-capacity wells along such lineations would increase the probability of sinkhole development. Although sinkholes generally form abruptly in the study area, local changes such as vegetative stress, ponding of rainfall, misalinement of structures, and turbidity in well water are all indications that percollapse subsidence may be taking place. (USGS)

  7. Comparative study of acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities of closely related cave and surface Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda: Crustacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Jemec

    Full Text Available The freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus has recently been developed as an emerging invertebrate cave model for studying evolutionary and developmental biology. Mostly morphological and genetic differences between cave and surface A. aquaticus populations have been described up to now, while scarce data are available on other aspects, including physiology. The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of the physiological differences between cave A. aquaticus and its surface-dwelling counterparts. We sampled two surface populations from the surface section of the sinking Pivka River (central Slovenia, Europe, i.e. locality Pivka Polje, and locality Planina Polje, and one cave population from the subterranean section of the sinking Pivka River, i.e. locality Planina Cave. Animals were sampled in spring, summer and autumn. We measured the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and glutathione S-transferase (GST in individuals snap-frozen in the field immediately after collection. Acetylcholinesterase is likely related to animals' locomotor activity, while GST activity is related to the metabolic activity of an organism. Our study shows significantly lower AChE and GST activities in the cave population in comparison to both surface A. aquaticus populations. This confirms the assumption that cave A. aquaticus have lower locomotor and metabolic activity than surface A. aquaticus in their respective natural environments. In surface A. aquaticus populations, seasonal fluctuations in GST activity were observed, while these were less pronounced in individuals from the more stable cave environment. On the other hand, AChE activity was generally season-independent in all populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind conducted in A. aquaticus. Our results show that among closely related cave and surface A. aquaticus populations also physiological differences are present besides the morphological and genetic

  8. Bioaccumulation of eight heavy metals in cave animals from Dashui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    karst caves and water systems in the caves are well developed. So, heavy metals can contaminate cave envi- ronment and affect cave animals. Karst topography is widely distributed in Guizhou province, China, accounting for 73.8% of the total land area. So, the examination of heavy metal pollution in cave soil and water ...

  9. Environmental conditions of Borra Cave, Visakhapattanam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haraprasad Bairagya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caving is an art which can be best experienced in the mystic Borra of Eastern Ghats and ranked as the second largest cave of India just after Belum Caves situated in the same state Andhrapradesh, India. This Cave is fast becoming a hot tourist?s destination offering great adventurous opportunity to the tourists in the Eastern Ghats. The cave is located in the Ananthagiri hills of the Eastern Ghats region near Visakhapattanam and is made of limestone. The emotion of thrill heightens after entering the cave. The entrance has a narrow vertical opening and is well lit. Due to its location in the sub-equatorial region, dripping of water from the cave roofs occurs almost throughout the year. The formation of stalactites and stalagmites create wonderful phenomena specially found in this cave. The conspicuous pillars formed due to the joining of the roof and the floors are an awe-inspiring creativity of the creator of this world. Various viruses and bacteria are in the cave interior along with different other creatures. The Borra cave helps the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, India, to earn huge economic benefits for the sake of tourism industry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10526 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 150-166

  10. Quantitative assessment of pedodiversity and soil erosion within a karst sinkhole in the dry steppe subzone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, M. A.; Gennadiev, A. N.

    2017-08-01

    A detailed study of the soil cover of a sinkhole (300 m2) in the dry steppe landscape of the Bogdinsk-Baskunchak Natural Reserve in Astrakhan oblast has been performed, and the factors of its differentiation have been analyzed. The indices of pedodiversity have been calculated and compared for karst sinkholes in the dry steppe and northern taiga landscapes. Quantitative parameters of the lateral migration of solid soil substances on the slopes of the sinkhole have been determined. The rate of soil erosion decreases from the slope of southern aspect to the slopes of western, northern, and eastern aspects. On the average, it is estimated at 0.4 mm/yr. The average rate of accumulation of solid substances on the lower parts of the slopes and in the bottom of the sinkhole reaches 0.74 mm/yr. A comparative analysis of the soil properties attests to their dependence on the particular position of a given soil within the sinkhole. Downward the slopes of the sinkhole, full-profile brown arid soils (Cambic Calcisols) are replaced by sierozem-like soils (Haplic Calcisols), light-humus poorly developed soils (Luvisols), lithozems (Leptosols), and stratified soils (stratozems, or Colluvic Regosols). The soils within the upper ring-shape soil microzone are more diverse and contrasting with respect to their morphological, physical, chemical, and physicochemical properties. The degree of soil contrasts decreases down the slopes of the sinkhole towards its bottom. The studied sinkhole is characterized by considerable pedodiversity. Quantitative parameters of pedodiversity for the sinkhole in the dry steppe zone are higher than those form the sinkholes in the northern taiga zone.

  11. Sinkhole risk assessment by ERT: The case study of Sirino Lake (Basilicata, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, V.; Capozzoli, L.; Grimaldi, S.; Rizzo, E.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of natural or artificial lakes and reservoirs that can drain because of natural phenomena can generate catastrophic events affecting urban and agricultural areas next to the source area. Therefore, geophysical prospecting techniques have been applied in the study of Sirino Lake, which, during the last century, was affected by the sudden opening of small sinkholes, resulting in the almost total draining of the lake and in the sudden increase of water flow rates of distal springs. Two electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs) were carried out across the lake, using electrode arrays located on land and across the water body. Self-potential (SP) data were acquired around the lake shore and the surrounding area. The geophysical prospecting contributed significant data toward explaining the unique hydrogeological characteristics of the lake. Integration of geophysical, geological, hydrogeological, and geomorphological data allowed us to estimate the thickness of the lacustrine deposits beneath the lake, to describe the main patterns of the subsurface fluid flows in the area, and to identify possible water escape routes causing the piping phenomena.

  12. Water and dissolved gas geochemistry of the monomictic Paterno sinkhole (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Nocentini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the chemical and isotope features of water and dissolved gases from lake Paterno (max. depth 54 m, a sinkhole located in the NE sector of the S. Vittorino plain (Rieti, Central Italy, where evidences of past and present hydrothermal activity exists. In winter (February 2011 lake Paterno waters were almost completely mixed, whereas in summer time (July 2011 thermal and chemical stratifications established. During the stratification period, water and dissolved gas chemistry along the vertical water column were mainly controlled by biological processes, such as methanogenesis, sulfate-reduction, calcite precipitation, denitrification, and NH4 and H2 production. Reducing conditions at the interface between the bottom sediments and the anoxic waters are responsible for the relatively high concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe and manganese (Mn, likely present in their reduced oxidation state. Minerogenic and biogenic products were recognized at the lake bottom even during the winter sampling. At relatively shallow depth the distribution of CH4 and CO2 was controlled by methanotrophic bacteria and photosynthesis, respectively. The carbon isotope signature of CO2 indicates a significant contribution of deep-originated inorganic CO2 that is related to the hydrothermal system feeding the CO2-rich mineralized springs discharging in the surrounding areas of lake Paterno. The seasonal lake stratification likely controls the vertical and horizontal distribution of fish populations in the different periods of the year.

  13. Novel microbial diversity retrieved by autonomous robotic exploration of the world's deepest vertical phreatic sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahl, Jason W; Fairfield, Nathaniel; Harris, J Kirk; Wettergreen, David; Stone, William C; Spear, John R

    2010-03-01

    The deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX) is an autonomous underwater vehicle designed to navigate an unexplored environment, generate high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) maps, collect biological samples based on an autonomous sampling decision, and return to its origin. In the spring of 2007, DEPTHX was deployed in Zacatón, a deep (approximately 318 m), limestone, phreatic sinkhole (cenote) in northeastern Mexico. As DEPTHX descended, it generated a 3-D map based on the processing of range data from 54 onboard sonars. The vehicle collected water column samples and wall biomat samples throughout the depth profile of the cenote. Post-expedition sample analysis via comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a wealth of microbial diversity. Traditional Sanger gene sequencing combined with a barcoded-amplicon pyrosequencing approach revealed novel, phylum-level lineages from the domains Bacteria and Archaea; in addition, several novel subphylum lineages were also identified. Overall, DEPTHX successfully navigated and mapped Zacatón, and collected biological samples based on an autonomous decision, which revealed novel microbial diversity in a previously unexplored environment.

  14. Method of predicting surface deformation in the form of sinkholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudek, M.; Arkuszewski, J.

    1980-06-01

    Proposes a method for predicting probability of sinkhole shaped subsidence, number of funnel-shaped subsidences and size of individual funnels. The following factors which influence the sudden subsidence of the surface in the form of funnels are analyzed: geologic structure of the strata between mining workings and the surface, mining depth, time factor, and geologic disolocations. Sudden surface subsidence is observed only in the case of workings situated up to a few dozen meters from the surface. Using the proposed method is explained with some examples. It is suggested that the method produces correct results which can be used in coal mining and in ore mining. (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  15. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  16. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  17. Measurements of radon levels inside Mexican caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borau, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.

    1993-01-01

    Living animal species on earth have been exposed to environmental radon from the very beginning of time. The effects of radiation, combined with other natural parameters such as temperature, humidity, salt contents, etc., have most likely influenced the evaluation of different species. Thus, it is important to know and to evaluate the radon levels, among other radioactive elements present in enclosed environments such as caves, especially since those caves were also the dwellings and refuge of the predecessor of man. In this work we present radon level measurements inside some caves with vestiges of ancient inhabitats and some recently discovered natural caves, using Nuclear Track Detectors. (author)

  18. Sinkhole Susceptibility Analysis for Karapinar/konya via Multi Criteria Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, F.

    2017-11-01

    Sinkholes are being a natural hazard which threads economic and human life. Sudden occurrence characteristic of sinkholes make it unable to escape. There are a lot of factor that activate sinkholes such as geology, irrigation, land use and human related factors. In Karapınar, Konya, there are over 200 sinkholes and this count is getting increased in recent years. Especially active agricultural lands, decreasing ground water level, extreme irrigation by 55267 water wells increase the risk factor of Karapınar. Nowadays, considering the economic contribution of Karapınar to Turkey economy in the field of agriculture, solar energy fields and thermal reactor which will be planned in next few years, prediction of sinkholes and searching for preventation ways are being more important issue. In this study, sinkhole susceptibility map via AHP was carried out for Karapınar in Konya. Slope, land use, elevation, geology, water wells, distance to roads and settlements criteria are included to determine susceptibility. The weights are calculated with AHP for each criterion and generated susceptibility map is overlapped with existing sinkholes. Suggestions and results are shared for this study.

  19. SINKHOLE SUSCEPTIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR KARAPINAR/KONYA VIA MULTI CRITERIA DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sarı

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sinkholes are being a natural hazard which threads economic and human life. Sudden occurrence characteristic of sinkholes make it unable to escape. There are a lot of factor that activate sinkholes such as geology, irrigation, land use and human related factors. In Karapınar, Konya, there are over 200 sinkholes and this count is getting increased in recent years. Especially active agricultural lands, decreasing ground water level, extreme irrigation by 55267 water wells increase the risk factor of Karapınar. Nowadays, considering the economic contribution of Karapınar to Turkey economy in the field of agriculture, solar energy fields and thermal reactor which will be planned in next few years, prediction of sinkholes and searching for preventation ways are being more important issue. In this study, sinkhole susceptibility map via AHP was carried out for Karapınar in Konya. Slope, land use, elevation, geology, water wells, distance to roads and settlements criteria are included to determine susceptibility. The weights are calculated with AHP for each criterion and generated susceptibility map is overlapped with existing sinkholes. Suggestions and results are shared for this study.

  20. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  1. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  2. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  3. The mass and energy balance of ice within the Eisriesenwelt cave, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Obleitner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological measurements were performed in a prominent ice cave (Eisriesenwelt, Austria during a full annual cycle. The data show the basic features of a dynamically ventilated cave system with a well distinguished winter and summer regime.

    The calculated energy balance of the cave ice is largely determined by the input of long-wave radiation originating at the host rock surface. On average the turbulent fluxes withdraw energy from the surface. This is more pronounced during winter due to enhanced circulation and lower humidity. During summer the driving gradients reverse sign and the associated fluxes provide energy for melt.

    About 4 cm of ice were lost at the measurement site during a reference year. This was due to some sublimation during winter, while the major loss resulted from melt during summer. Small amounts of accumulation occurred during spring due to refreezing of seepage water.

    These results are largely based on employing a numerical mass and energy balance model. Sensitivity studies prove reliability of the calculated energy balance regarding diverse measurement uncertainties and show that the annual mass balance of the ice strongly depends on cave air temperature during summer and the availability of seepage water in spring.

  4. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in caves of the mainland and the island of Madeira has provided new data about the distribution and diversity of millipedes. A review of millipedes from caves of Portugal is presented, listing fourteen species belonging to eight families, among which six species are considered troglobionts...

  5. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  6. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km 2 . The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  7. Bayou Corne sinkhole : control measurements of State Highway 70 in Assumption Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This project measured and assessed the surface stability of the portion of LA Highway 70 that is : potentially vulnerable to the Assumption Parish sinkhole. Using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) : enhanced by a real-time network (RTN) of continuousl...

  8. Bayou Corne Sinkhole: Control Measurements of State Highway 70 in Assumption Parish, Louisiana : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The sinkhole located in northern Assumption Parish, Louisiana, threatens : the stability of Highway 70, a state-maintained route. In order to monitor : and mitigate potential damage eff ects on this infrastructure, the Louisiana : Department of Trans...

  9. Multi-sensor technologies for analyzing sinkholes in Hamedan, west Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajedian, Sanaz; Motagh, Mahdi; Hojati, Ahmad; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Dissolution of the carbonate beds such as limestone, dolomite or gypsum by acidic groundwater flowing through fractures and joints in the bedrock alters land surface and enhances the development of sinkholes. Sinkhole formation causes the surface to subside or even collapse suddenly without any prior warning, leading to extensive damage and sometimes loss of life and property, in particular in urban areas. Delineating sinkholes is critical for understanding hydrological processes and mitigating geological hazards in karst areas. The recent availability of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM) from TanDEM-X (TDX) mission enables us to delineate and analyze geomorphologic features and landscape structures at an unprecedented level of details, in comparison to previous missions such as c-band and x-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In this study, we develop an adaptive sinkhole-delineating method based on photogrammetry techniques to detect karst sinkholes in Hamedan , west Iran, using TDX-derived DEMs. We apply automatic feature extraction using watershed algorithm in order to detect depression areas. We show that using high-resolution TDX data from different geometries and time periods we could effectively distinguish sinkholes from other depression features of the basin. We also use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique with SAR data acquired from a variety of sensors including Envisat, ALOS, TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1 to quantify long-term subsidence in areas prone to sinkhole formation. Our results indicate that the formation of a lot of sinkholes is influenced by land subsidence, affecting the region over 100 km with the maximum rate of 4-5 cm/yr during 2003 to 2016.

  10. SINKHOLE SUSCEPTIBILITY HAZARD ZONES USING GIS AND ANALYTICAL HIERARCHICAL PROCESS (AHP: A CASE STUDY OF KUALA LUMPUR AND AMPANG JAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. M. Rosdi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sinkhole is not classified as new phenomenon in this country, especially surround Klang Valley. Since 1968, the increasing numbers of sinkhole incident have been reported in Kuala Lumpur and the vicinity areas. As the results, it poses a serious threat for human lives, assets and structure especially in the capital city of Malaysia. Therefore, a Sinkhole Hazard Model (SHM was generated with integration of GIS framework by applying Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP technique in order to produced sinkhole susceptibility hazard map for the particular area. Five consecutive parameters for main criteria each categorized by five sub classes were selected for this research which is Lithology (LT, Groundwater Level Decline (WLD, Soil Type (ST, Land Use (LU and Proximity to Groundwater Wells (PG. A set of relative weights were assigned to each inducing factor and computed through pairwise comparison matrix derived from expert judgment. Lithology and Groundwater Level Decline has been identified gives the highest impact to the sinkhole development. A sinkhole susceptibility hazard zones was classified into five prone areas namely very low, low, moderate, high and very high hazard. The results obtained were validated with thirty three (33 previous sinkhole inventory data. This evaluation shows that the model indicates 64 % and 21 % of the sinkhole events fall within high and very high hazard zones respectively. Based on this outcome, it clearly represents that AHP approach is useful to predict natural disaster such as sinkhole hazard.

  11. Sinkhole Susceptibility Hazard Zones Using GIS and Analytical Hierarchical Process (ahp): a Case Study of Kuala Lumpur and Ampang Jaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdi, M. A. H. M.; Othman, A. N.; Zubir, M. A. M.; Latif, Z. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.

    2017-10-01

    Sinkhole is not classified as new phenomenon in this country, especially surround Klang Valley. Since 1968, the increasing numbers of sinkhole incident have been reported in Kuala Lumpur and the vicinity areas. As the results, it poses a serious threat for human lives, assets and structure especially in the capital city of Malaysia. Therefore, a Sinkhole Hazard Model (SHM) was generated with integration of GIS framework by applying Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) technique in order to produced sinkhole susceptibility hazard map for the particular area. Five consecutive parameters for main criteria each categorized by five sub classes were selected for this research which is Lithology (LT), Groundwater Level Decline (WLD), Soil Type (ST), Land Use (LU) and Proximity to Groundwater Wells (PG). A set of relative weights were assigned to each inducing factor and computed through pairwise comparison matrix derived from expert judgment. Lithology and Groundwater Level Decline has been identified gives the highest impact to the sinkhole development. A sinkhole susceptibility hazard zones was classified into five prone areas namely very low, low, moderate, high and very high hazard. The results obtained were validated with thirty three (33) previous sinkhole inventory data. This evaluation shows that the model indicates 64 % and 21 % of the sinkhole events fall within high and very high hazard zones respectively. Based on this outcome, it clearly represents that AHP approach is useful to predict natural disaster such as sinkhole hazard.

  12. Ongoing Deformation of Sinkholes in Wink, Texas, Observed by Time-Series Sentinel-1A SAR Interferometry (Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal deformation of existing sinkholes and the surrounding region in Wink, TX are probed using time-series interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR methods with radar images acquired from the Sentinel-1A satellite launched in April 2014. The two-dimensional deformation maps, calculated using InSAR observations from ascending and descending tracks, reveal that much of the observed deformation is vertical. Our results indicate that the sinkholes are still influenced by ground depression, implying that the sinkholes continue to expand. Particularly, a region 1 km northeast of sinkhole #2 is sinking at a rate of up to 13 cm/year, and its aerial extent has been enlarged in the past eight years when compared with a previous survey. Furthermore, there is a high correlation between groundwater level and surficial subsidence during the summer months, representing the complicated characteristics of sinkhole deformation under the influence of successive roof failures in underlying cavities. We also modeled the sinkhole deformation in a homogenous elastic half-space with two dislocation sources, and the ground depression above cavities could be numerically analyzed. Measurements of ongoing deformation in sinkholes and assessments of the stability of the land surface at sinkhole-prone locations in near real-time, are essential for mitigating the threat posed to people and property by the materialization of sinkholes.

  13. PIXE analysis of cave sediments, prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from Baja California Sur caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Oliver, A.; Dacal, A.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.; Cruz, F.; Ortiz, M.E.; Vinas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental PIXE analysis of cave sediments, minerals, pigments of the prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from caves in Baja California Sur has been carried out with a 0.7 MeV proton beam. The elements analysed in this sample set (Al to Co) provide an idea of the environment of the caves. The obsidian data analysis suggests that the human communities who made these painting used more than one obsidian source to manufacture cutting tools. (orig.)

  14. Bacterial community survey of sediments at Naracoorte Caves, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Andrew S.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diversity in sediments at UNESCO World Heritage listed Naracoorte Caves was surveyed as part of an investigation carried out in a larger study on assessing microbial communities in caves. Cave selection was based on tourist accessibility; Stick Tomato and Alexandra Cave (> 15000 annual visits and Strawhaven Cave was used as control (no tourist access. Microbial analysis showed that Bacillus was the most commonly detected microbial genus by culture dependent and independent survey of tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of show (tourist accessible and control caves. Other detected sediment bacterial groups were assigned to the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The survey also showed differences in bacterial diversity in caves with human access compared to the control cave with the control cave having unique microbial sequences (Acinetobacter, Agromyces, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. The show caves had higher bacterial counts, different 16S rDNA based DGGE cluster patterns and principal component groupings compared to Strawhaven. Different factors such as human access, cave use and configurations could have been responsible for the differences observed in the bacterial community cluster patterns (tourist accessible and inaccessible areas of these caves. Cave sediments can therefore act as reservoirs of microorganisms. This might have some implications on cave conservation activities especially if these sediments harbor rock art degrading microorganisms in caves with rock art.

  15. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  16. NAK WP-Cave project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svemar, C.

    1985-11-01

    WP-Cave is designed as an egg-shaped underground structure for intermediate storing and final disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Its height, when storing 1600 tonnes of spent fuel, is about 250 m and its diameter 110 m at mid-height. The waste storage has a compact layout and is surrounded by two engineered barriers. The innermost one is a 5 m-wide shield consisting of a mixture of bentonite clay and same which has a low hydraulic conductivity. This shield is surrounded by a so-called hydraulic cage, which initially drains the storage rock mass and, in the long-term diverts, the ground water flow past the storage. In this way an initial dry supervision period can be maintained. After sealing-off the storage and after water-filling, a stagnant chemical environment is established inside the bentonite-sand barrier preventing the disposed waste from being dissolved and from migrating to the geosphere. The programme, as outlined by the Project Board, has considered R and D questions with specific relation to the WP-Cave such as: properties of low-graded bentonite mixtures, function of the hydraulic cage, full-face boring of the storage, geomechanics of the storage and the bentonite-sand barrier, dry ventilation of the storage, temperature distributions and thermal stresses. An initial safety analysis has also been conducted. The hydraulic conductivity of low-grade bentonite mixtures has been measured in laboratory tests and found to be higher than expected. Tests of gas conductivity, for instance, confirm that only low gas pressures would build up inside the bentonite-sand barrier. The initial safety analysis indicates that a compact storage, such as that presented, would allow for the safe isolation of the spent nuclear fuel and would fulfull the radiation protection criterion of 0.1 mSv/year. With 27 refs. (Author)

  17. [Transport and differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air from Dashiwei karst Sinkholes in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Sheng; Qi, Shi-Hua; Sun, Qian; Huang, Bao-Jian

    2012-12-01

    The typical karst Dashiwei Sinkholes located in Leye County, Guangxi were chosen as the study object. The air samples from the opening of Dashiwei Sinkholes to the underground river profiles were collected by polyurethane foam passive samplers (PUF-PAS), and the meteorological parameters were observed. The 16 PAHs were analyzed using GC-MS. The results showed that the total PAHs concentration in air in Dashiwei Sinkholes ranged from 33.76 ng x d(-1) to 150.86 ng x d(-1), with an average of 80.36 ng x d(-1). The mean concentrations in the cliff, the bottom and the underground river profiles were 67.17, 85.36 and 101.67 ng x d(-1), respectively. The 2-3 rings PAHs (including phenanthrene, anthracene, napnthalene and fluorene) accounted for 87.97% of the total of PAHs. The transport and accumulation processes of PAHs in air in Dashiwei Sinkholes were: the ground to the cliff section to the bottom section and then to the underground river, and the total PAHs concentrations showed an obvious increasing tendency with the decrease in altitude or increase in the length of the underground river. Low molecular weight PAHs compounds (including phenanthrene, anthracene, flourene and fluoranthene) in air went through differentiation at the bottom of the west peak, the bottom of the sinkhole and the underground river. The primary sources of PAHs were pyrogenic sources with atmosphere transport. Ambient temperature was the predominating factor influencing the transport and accumulation of gas phase PAHs in Dashiwei Sinkholes, following by wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity. Relative humidity and the temperature were the predominating factors influencing the differentiation, following by wind speed and wind direction. As a whole, a "cold trapping effect" of POPs was showed obviously in Dashiwei Sinkholes.

  18. Urbanisation of Suweimeh area, Jordan, versus sinkholes and landslides proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib

    2013-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake whose level lowers each year of about one meter per year since more than one decade. This is caused mainly by the diversion of surface waters from its watershed. Currently, 1/10 of the Jordan River still reaches the salt lake. The rapid lowering of the lake level does not allow all the surrounding groundwater tables to adjust their level to that of the Dead Sea. This imbalance causes an always faster migration of a part of the groundwater causing underground erosion leading to the formation of sinkholes along the coast, especially where discontinuities, such as faults, are present. The first collapses occurred in the years 1980-90. From the 2000s, in Jordan, they have proliferated to the point of causing serious damages to the facilities of the Arab Potash Company, the agricultural area of Ghor Al Haditha, and more recently the touristic region of Suweimeh. Aware of the problem and the need for gradual rising of the lake level, the Jordanian authorities attended from 2009 to 2011 to the feasibility study of the Red Sea - Dead Sea conduit. Currently, on the one hand, the growing environmental imbalance, and, on the other hand, the desires to develop economic activities along the coast, imply that more goods will be exposed to damages. For example, the area of Wadi Mujib Bridge was rebuilt completely in the late 2000s. It is the same for the 12 km of the dam 18 of an evaporation pond Arab Potash Company. The Numeira Salt Factory was completely destroyed in Ghor Al Haditha and was relocated to Safi. In August 2012, during touristic period, a landslide destroyed half of the Holiday Inn front beach, Suweimeh area ... End of December 2012, a team lead by Prof. Najib Abou Karaki warned the Arab Potash Company of the presence of a circular depression 250 m in diameter within the evaporation pond SP-0A. Although the dike of this saltpan is closely monitored, the exact location and shape of this large sinkhole were not known to the security

  19. Visualization framework for CAVE virtual reality systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Akira; Tomiyama, Asako

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a software framework for scientific visualization in immersive-type, room-sized virtual reality (VR) systems, or Cave automatic virtual environment (CAVEs). This program, called Multiverse, allows users to select and invoke visualization programs without leaving CAVE’s VR space. Multiverse is a kind of immersive “desktop environment” for users, with a three-dimensional graphical user interface. For application developers, Multiverse is a software framework with useful class ...

  20. Stress analysis of longwall top coal caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alehossein, H.; Poulsen, B.A. [CSIRO Exploration & Mining, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) is a relatively new method of mining thick coal seams that is currently achieving high productivity and efficiency. The technique is similar to traditional longwall mining in that a cutting head slices coal from the lower section of the coal seam onto a conveyor belt installed in front of the hydraulic support near the cutting face. In modern LTCC an additional rear conveyor belt is located behind the support, to which the flow of the caved coal from the upper part of the seam can be controlled by a moveable flipper attached to the canopy of the support. The mining method relies on the fracturing of the top coal by the front abutment pressure to achieve satisfactory caving into the rear conveyor. This paper develops a yield and caveability criterion based on in situ conditions in the top coal in advance of the mining face (yield) and behind the supports (caveability). Yielding and caving effects are combined into one single number called caving number (CN), which is the multiplication result of caving factor (CF) and yield factor (YF). Analytical derivations are based on in situ stress conditions, Mohr-Coulomb and/or Hoek-Brown rock failure criteria and an on-associated elastoplastic strain softening material behaviour. The yield and caveability criteria are in agreement with results from both numerical studies and mine data. The caving number is normalised to mining conditions of a reference Chinese mine (LMX mine) and is used to assess LTCC performance at fourteen other Chinese working longwalls that have had varying success with the LTCC technology. As a predictive model, results of this analytical/numerical study are useful to assess the potential success of caving in new LTCC operations and in different mining conditions.

  1. Distinction between epigenic and hypogenic maze caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Arthur N.

    2011-11-01

    Certain caves formed by dissolution of bedrock have maze patterns composed of closed loops in which many intersecting fractures or pores have enlarged simultaneously. Their origin can be epigenic (by shallow circulation of meteoric groundwater) or hypogenic (by rising groundwater or production of deep-seated solutional aggressiveness). Epigenic mazes form by diffuse infiltration through a permeable insoluble caprock or by floodwater supplied by sinking streams. Most hypogenic caves involve deep sources of aggressiveness. Transverse hypogenic cave origin is a recently proposed concept in which groundwater of mainly meteoric origin rises across strata in the distal portions of large flow systems, to form mazes in soluble rock sandwiched between permeable but insoluble strata. The distinction between maze types is debated and is usually based on examination of diagnostic cave features and relation of caves to their regional setting. In this paper, the principles of mass transfer are applied to clarify the limits of each model, to show how cave origin is related to groundwater discharge, dissolution rate, and time. The results show that diffuse infiltration and floodwater can each form maze caves at geologically feasible rates (typically within 500 ka). Transverse hypogenic mazes in limestone, to enlarge significantly within 1 Ma, require an unusually high permeability of the non-carbonate beds (generally ≥ 10-4 cm/s), large discharge, and calcite saturation no greater than 90%, which is rare in deep diffuse flow in sedimentary rocks. Deep sources of aggressiveness are usually required. The origin of caves by transverse hypogenic flow is much more favorable in evaporite rocks than in carbonate rocks.

  2. Hypogene caves of the central Appalachian Shenandoah Valley in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Wil

    2017-01-01

    Several caves in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia show evidence for early hypogenic conduit development with later-enhanced solution under partly confined phreatic conditions guided by geologic structures. Many (but not all) of these caves have been subsequently invaded by surface waters as a result of erosion and exhumation. Those not so affected are relict phreatic caves, bearing no relation to modern drainage patterns. Field and petrographic evidence shows that carbonate rocks hosting certain relict phreatic caves were dolomitized and/or silicified by early hydrothermal fluid migration in zones that served to locally enhance rock porosity, thus providing preferential pathways for later solution by groundwater flow, and making the surrounding bedrock more resistant to surficial weathering to result in caves that reside within isolated hills on the land surface. Features suggesting that deep phreatic processes dominated the development of these relict caves include (1) cave passage morphologies indicative of ascending fluids, (2) cave plans of irregular pattern, reflecting early maze or anastomosing development, (3) a general lack of cave breakdown and cave streams or cave stream deposits, and (4) calcite wall and pool coatings within isolated caves intersecting the local water table, and within unroofed caves at topographic locations elevated well above the local base level. Episodes of deep karstification were likely separated by long periods of geologic time, encompassing multiple phases of sedimentary fill and excavation within caves, and reflect a complex history of deep fluid migration that set the stage for later shallow speleogenesis that continues today.

  3. Exposure to radon in Australian tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Lyons, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP) produced guidelines and recommendations dealing with workplace exposure to elevated background radiation, in particular, the risk associated with the inhalation of radon and radon progeny. An intervention level of 1000 Bq m -3 has been proposed. Australia has over 40 tourist caves, under the management of the various State Departments or private groups. The limited data available on radon levels in Australian caves would suggest that some of these caves may be in excess of the proposed intervention level, thus presenting a potential health risk for the cave guides. This paper summarises the current information on radon in Australian caves and describes the proposed methodologies to be used for a Worksafe Australia-funded survey of radon levels in Tourist caves within Australia. This survey is to be carried out jointly by researchers at the Australian Radiation Laboratory, University of Auckland and the University of Sydney, during 1994 and 1995. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  5. Integrated approach for sinkhole evaluation and evolution prediction in the Central Ebro Basin (NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pueyo Anchuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of karst hazards benefits from the integration of different techniques, methodologies and approaches. Each one presents a different signature and is sensitive to certain indicators related to karst hazards. In some cases, detailed analysis permits the evaluation of representativeness either from isolated approaches or by means of integrated analyses. In this study, we present the evaluation of an area with high density of karstic collapses at different evolutionary stages through the integration of surficial, historical, geomorphological and geophysical data in order to finally define the evolutionary model for karst activity development. The obtained dataset permits to identify different steps in sinkhole evolution: (i cavities and open sinkholes, (ii filling of these cavities, with materials having different signatures, (iii the progression from collapses to subsidence sinkholes and (iv enlargement through collapses in marginal areas of previous sinkholes. The presence of different stages of this evolutionary model permits to determine their own signatures that can be of application in contexts where analysis cannot be so systematic and also to evaluate the definition of the marginal areas of previous sinkholes as the most hazardous sectors.

  6. Eleven bones: More fossil remains of Cave Lions and Cave Hyaenas from the North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Six fossil Cave Lion bones and five fossil Cave Hyaena bones are described. One lion bone and one hyaena bone were dredged from the Westerschelde ( = Western Scheldt, southwestern part of the Netherlands). The other specimens were recovered from the bottom of the North Sea, in the area West and

  7. The Mammoth Cave system, Kentucky, USA; El sistema de la Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Mammoth Cave is the main attraction of Mammoth Cave National Park. For several decades it has been the longest known cave in the world and currently contains 652 km in 2016 of surveyed passages. It is located in the heart of an extensive karst plateau, in which the stratal dip averages only one degree. The cave is part of a drainage basin of more than 200 km{sup 2}. The cave has been known to local inhabitants for several millennia and contains a rich trove of archaeological and historical artifacts. It contains many speleo biota including several rare and endangered species and has been designated a World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO). Its many passage levels and sediments contain a record of the fluvial history of most of south-eastern North America. (Author)

  8. High Resolution Time Series Cave Ventilation Processes and the Effects on Cave Air Chemistry and Drip Waters: Speleoclimatology and Proxy Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczk, A. J.; Froelich, P. N.; Gaffka, C.; Tremaine, D.

    2008-12-01

    Continuous high resolution (sub-hourly), long-term (Nov 2007-present) monitoring of cave air chemistry (Temperature, Relative Humidity, Barometric Pressure, Radon-222, CO2, Air flow, Wind speed and direction) in a shallow subtropical cave (Hollow Ridge) in N Florida reveals two major ventilation mechanisms: 1) ventilation driven by winds across the cave entrances, and 2) ventilation driven by density differences between atmospheric and cave air. The degree and type of ventilation strongly influence the 222Rn and CO2 of cave air, which in turn affects the timing and extent of calcite deposition in speleothems. The degree of ventilation is estimated using a cave air CO2-δ13CO2 Keeling Plot, or a simple radon deficiency model. Results show cave air has an atmospheric component ranging from 10-90%. During fall and winter, average CO2 (700 ppmv) and 222Rn (50-100 dpm/L) are lower than in spring and summer (CO2 = 1200 ppmv; 222Rn = 1000 dpm/L) due to increased winter ventilation. Decreased ventilation during the summer allows CO2 and 222Rn levels to rise. Winter daily ventilation is primarily a function of density gradients between cave air and atmospheric air, while summer daily ventilation is primarily a function of late morning NW-NE winds above the cave. Stable isotope analyses of drip water (fracture drip and pore flow drip) and aquifer water from Hollow Ridge agree with previous isotope studies of drip water at Florida Caverns State Park, 2 km to the NE. During summer, isotopic composition of pore flow drip water (δ18O -3.8 to -4.0 per mil; δD -17.3 to -20.2 per mil VSMOW) and aquifer water (δ18O -4.0 per mil; δD -18.0 to -21.1 per mil) are similar to average annual weighted isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18O -3.6 per mil) while fracture drip waters (δ18O -3 to -3.4 per mil; δD -11.9 to -14.3 per mil) likely reflect the isotopic composition of individual precipitation events. Pore flow drip waters δ18O are weakly correlated with drip rates

  9. Application of Geophysical Techniques for 3D Geohazard Mapping to Delineate Cavities and Potential Sinkholes in the Northern Part of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Bakhshipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the application of the electrical resistivity (ER method to delineating subsurface structures and cavities in Kuala Lumpur Limestone within the Batu Cave area of Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. In all, 17 ER profiles were measured by using a Wenner electrode configuration with 2 m spacing. The field survey was accompanied by laboratory work, which involves taking resistivity measurements of rock, soil, and water samples taken from the field to obtain the formation factor. The relationship between resistivity and the formation factor and porosity for all the samples was established. The porosity values were plotted and contoured. A 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional representation of the subsurface topography of the area was prepared through use of commercial computer software. The results show the presence of cavities and sinkholes in some parts of the study area. This work could help engineers and environmental managers by providing the information necessary to produce a sustainable management plan in order to prevent catastrophic collapses of structures and other related geohazard problems.

  10. The show cave of Diros vs. wild caves of Peloponnese, Greece - distribution patterns of Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Lamprinou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The karst cave ‘Vlychada’of Diros, one of the oldest show caves in Peloponnese, sustains extended phototrophic biofilms on various substrata – on rocks inside the cave including speleothems, and especially near the artificial lighting installation (‘Lampenflora’. After a survey of the main abiotic parameters (Photosynthetically Active Radiation -PAR, Temperature -T, Relative Humidity -RH, Carbon Dioxide -CO2 three clusters of sampling sites were revealed according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA: i the water gallery section predominately influenced by CO2, ii the dry passages influenced by RH and PAR, and iii the area by the cave exit at the dry section influenced by temperature. The collected samples from the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave revealed a total of 43 taxa of Cyanobacteria, with the unicellular/colonial forms being the most abundant. The applied non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling Ordination (nMDS of the cumulative species composition showed a clear distinction between the water gallery section and the dry passages of the cave. Further comparison with previous data from other wild caves of Peloponnese (‘Kastria’, ‘Francthi’, and ‘Selinitsa’ was conducted revealing a distinction between the show cave and the wild ones. Apart from the human impact on cave ecosystems – through aesthetic alteration (‘greening’ of cave decorations by the ‘Lampenflora’, and by the cleaning treatments and restoration projects on the speleothems – identification of the organisms constituting the ‘Lampenflora’ might provide taxonomically and ecologically significant taxa.

  11. Dating the Lascaux cave gour formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genty, D.; Touma, M.; Konik, S.; Konik, S.; Valladas, H.; Hellstrom, J.; Moreau, C.; Dumoulin, J.P.; Nouet, J.; Dauphin, Y.; Weil, R.

    2011-01-01

    Lascaux Cave is renowned for its outstanding prehistoric paintings, strikingly well-preserved over about 18,000 yr. While stalagmites and stalactites are almost absent in the cave, there is an extensive calcite flow-stone that covered a large part of the cave until its opening for tourists during the 1950's. The deposit comprises a succession of calcite rims, or 'gours', which allowed seepage water to pond in large areas in the cave. Their possible role in preservation of the cave paintings has often been evoked, but until now this deposit has not been studied in detail. Here, we present 24 new radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and 6 uranium-thorium (U-Th) analyses from the calcite of the gours, 4 AMS 14 C dates from charcoals trapped in the calcite, and 4 AMS 14 C analyses on organic matter extracted from the calcite. Combining the calibrated 14 C ages obtained on charcoals and organic matter and U-Th ages from 14 C analyses made on the carbonate, has allowed the calculation of the dead carbon proportion (dcp) of the carbonate deposits. The latter, used with the initial atmospheric 14 C activities reconstructed with the new IntCal09 calibration data, allows high-resolution age estimation of the gour calcite samples and their growth rates. The carbonate deposit grew between 9530 and 6635 yr cal BP (for dcp = 10.7 ± 1.8%; 2 s) or between 8518 and 5489 yr cal BP (for dcp = 20.5 ± 1.9%; 2 s). This coincides with humid periods that can be related to the Atlantic period in Europe and to Sapropel 1 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. However, geomorphological changes at the cave entrance might also have played a role in the gour development. In the 1940's, when humans entered the cave for the first time since its prehistoric occupation, the calcite gours had already been inactive for several thousand years. (authors)

  12. Effect of an offshore sinkhole perforation in a coastal confined aquifer on submarine groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratesi, S.E.; Leonard, V.; Sanford, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore submarine groundwater discharge in the vicinity of karst features that penetrate the confining layer of an offshore, partially confined aquifer, we constructed a three-dimensional groundwater model using the SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated TRAnsport) variable-density groundwater flow model. We ran a parameter sensitivity analysis, testing the effects of recharge rates, permeabilities of the aquifer and confining layer, and thickness of the confining layer. In all simulations, less than 20% of the freshwater recharge for the entire model exits through the sinkhole. Recirculated seawater usually accounts for 10-30% of the total outflow from the model. Often, the sinkhole lies seaward of the transition zone and acts as a recharge feature for recirculating seawater. The permeability ratio between aquifer and confining layer influences the configuration of the freshwater wedge the most; as confining layer permeability decreases, the wedge lengthens and the fraction of total discharge exiting through the sinkhole increases. Copyright ?? 2007 IAHS Press.

  13. Multi-modality imaging findings of huge intrachoroidal cavitation and myopic peripapillary sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yutong; Ma, Xiaoli; Hua, Rui

    2018-02-02

    Peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation was described as the presence of an asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, yellow-orange, peripapillary lesion at the inferior border of the myopic conus in eyes with high myopia. A 66-year-old myopic Chinese man was enrolled and his multi-color imaging examination showed a well-circumscribed, caesious, peripapillary lesion coalesced with the optic nerve head vertically rotated and obliquely tilted, together with an inferotemporal sinkhole in the myopic conus. The optical coherence tomography images showed an intrachoroidal hyporeflective space, schisis, an intracavitary septum located below the retinal pigment epithelium and inserted beneath the optic nerve head, as well as a sinkhole between the peripapillary intrachoroidal cavitation and the vitreous space. Both myopic colobomas and sinkhole in myopic conus may contribute the coalescence of intrachoroidal cavitation with optic nerve head. These qualitative and quantitative new findings will be beneficial for understanding its pathomorphological mechanism, and the impact on optic nerve tissue of myopic patients.

  14. Comparison of 3D point clouds produced by LIDAR and UAV photoscan in the Rochefort cave (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Kaufmann, Olivier; Le Mouelic, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    for each modeled voxel and interpolated vertices that can be a useful attributes for clustering during data treatment. We thus illustrate such applications to the Rochefort cave by using both sources of 3D information to quantify the orientation of inaccessible geological structures (e.g. faults, tectonic and gravitational joints, and sediments bedding), cluster these structures using color information gathered from UAV's 3D point cloud and compare these data to structural data surveyed on the field. An additional drone photoscan was also conducted in the surface sinkhole giving access to the surveyed underground cavity to seek geological bodies' connections.

  15. Solar activity influence on air temperature regimes in caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey

    Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave air is connected with the most general circulation of the air in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the air of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave air temperature response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. Temperatures of the air in the zone of constant temperatures (ZCT) are compared with surface temperatures recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave air temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. Air temperatures of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface air temperatures. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface temperature trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between temperatures inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the air temperatures in caves

  16. Cave Tourism: The Potential of Asar Cave as a Natural Tourism Asset at Lenggong Valley, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindam Main

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lenggong Valley, from a standpoint of natural tourism research, presents strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges that can be utilized to help increase the opportunities for the local community to increase their standard of living. Asar Cave comprises one of the caves that are found in Lenggong. A series of external studies have been done on Asar Cave in order to measure its potential for natural tourism in Lenggong. The objective of this study is to discuss caves as a natural resource that has great potential in the growth of the economy of the residents of the Lenggong Valley. Marketing caves as a source of nature tourism helps the government’s achievements in National Key Result Areas, apart from being a form of environmental control as well as helping to increase awareness about environmental education, specifically those associated with caves. The research results find that SWOT analysis presents huge potential for caves to become a source of nature tourism development in Lenggong. Great potential can also be seen from a standpoint of increasing the standard of living of its residents through their involvement in the tourism sector based on local natural assets.

  17. Črna Jama as a cold air trap cave within Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebela, Stanka; Turk, Janez

    2017-10-01

    Črna Jama is the coldest section of cave within the Postojna Cave System. Mean annual air temperatures at the Črna Jama 2 site are 5.6 °C (2015) and 5.7 °C (2016), and at the Črna Jama 3 site 7.1 °C (2015) and 7.2 (2016), whereas the mean external air temperature was 10.3 °C (2015) and 10.0 °C (2016). In Lepe Jame, the passage most heavily visited by tourists, the mean cave-air temperature is 10.7 °C (2014-2017). Črna Jama exhibits winter and summer temperature regimes. During warm periods (Tcave Tout), ventilation takes place and dense, cold, outside air sinks into Črna Jama because of the favourable cave entrance morphology. Recent Črna Jama air temperature data (2014-2017) indicate a < 0.5 °C higher temperature than that recorded in historical data since 1933. Črna Jama is the most appropriate place within the Postojna Cave System to study long-term climatic changes. There are hardly any tourist visits to the cave, and human impacts on the cave climate are essentially reduced.

  18. Seasonal variations of {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: minami@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kato, Tomomi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Horikawa, Keiji [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Toyama University, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem {sup 14}C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric {sup 14}C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of {sup 14}C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem {sup 14}C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO{sub 2}. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different {sup 14}C concentrations and δ{sup 13}C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO{sub 2}, and flow paths. Further, the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The {sup 14}C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: {sup 14}C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in {sup 14}C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using {sup 14}C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  19. Crveno jezero - the biggest sinkhole in Dinaric Karst (Croatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, M.

    2012-04-01

    fascinating and has been measured on a number of occasions. Valuable and interesting data about the lake depth, as presented by academician Milivoj Petrik in 1955, show that the lake is about 250 meters deep, which discouraged any attempts to dive to the bottom of the lake. During the 5th International Congress of Speleology held in Stuttgart in Germany, Croatian cavers and speleologists have tried to add the Red Lake to the list of deepest pits in the world, as its real depth amounted to 518 meters at the time. However, the response of the documentation committee was that the depth had not been duly documented, that no man has been at such depth etc., although in reality it is a real pit one half of which is filled with water. In late 1970's and early 1980's the speleodiving activities rapidly gathered momentum in all parts of the world and it is in this period that deepest dives were made at the source called Fontaine de Vaucluse. At that time, a special underwater vehicle, the so called "Speleonaut", attained (without crew) the depth of 315 meters. Similar vehicle called Hyball descended down to the depth of 165 meters in Hranicke propasti in Czech Republic. These speleological structures are therefore considered as sufficiently documented and, as such, they have been added to the list of the world's deepest water structures. In 1980's speleodiving has became an increasingly popular cave exploration method in Croatia. Thus, the decision was made to contact the world's best speleodivers and invite them to investigate the Red Lake. In 1981, during their stay in the USA, Dr. Mladen Garašić contacted Mr. Jochan Hassenmayer who was at that time the best speleodiver of the world. However, because of political climate that prevailed in that period, Mr. Hassenmayer finally decided not to come to our country. In an unfortunate turn of events, this diver was later affected with a permanent disability. In the course of 1989 and 1990, Dr. Garašić established contact with Mr. Sheck

  20. Cave dwellings in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viedma Urdiales Eugenia María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of subterranean caves for different functions has been relatively commonplace throughout history in different regions around the world, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Some of them are still standing at the beginning of the 21st century, and are a good example of adaptation to the geographic environment, and a part of the historical heritage. Following a short overview of the different Mediterranean countries, this work pays special attention to the present use of caves as dwelling spaces in Italy, and particularly in Spain where the caves are currently in an interesting process of renovation to meet the needs of the present population. This process is helping to boost the local economy, and it is funded by both private and public sources in several towns in Andalusia (Spain.

  1. Radon in New Zealand tourist caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, R.G.; Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal average radon concentrations in 112 sites in 22 NZ tourist caves have been measured using track etch detectors over an annual cycle. Values ranged from -3 to nearly 10,000 Bq m -3 . Seasonal variation was also very marked with factors of over 50 for the same site in different seasons being recorded. Thirty six percent of the sites exceeded the ICRP guideline of 1000 Bq m -3 at which action to reduce exposure is recommended. Caves are fragile ecological and chemical systems, therefore, may be seriously adversely affected by standard techniques to reduce radon concentrations. They are also complex physical systems, and an understanding of the principles and parameters governing cave aerodynamics is essential when considering options to reduce exposure. This paper discusses possible causes for variations in radon concentrations observed in this study and the implications for viable actions

  2. Snow cover volumes dynamic monitoring during melting season using high topographic accuracy approach for a Lebanese high plateau witness sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Charbel; Somma, Janine; Elali, Taha; Drapeau, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and its negative impact on water resource is well described. For countries like Lebanon, undergoing major population's rise and already decreasing precipitations issues, effective water resources management is crucial. Their continuous and systematic monitoring overs long period of time is therefore an important activity to investigate drought risk scenarios for the Lebanese territory. Snow cover on Lebanese mountains is the most important water resources reserve. Consequently, systematic observation of snow cover dynamic plays a major role in order to support hydrologic research with accurate data on snow cover volumes over the melting season. For the last 20 years few studies have been conducted for Lebanese snow cover. They were focusing on estimating the snow cover surface using remote sensing and terrestrial measurement without obtaining accurate maps for the sampled locations. Indeed, estimations of both snow cover area and volumes are difficult due to snow accumulation very high variability and Lebanese mountains chains slopes topographic heterogeneity. Therefore, the snow cover relief measurement in its three-dimensional aspect and its Digital Elevation Model computation is essential to estimate snow cover volume. Despite the need to cover the all lebanese territory, we favored experimental terrestrial topographic site approaches due to high resolution satellite imagery cost, its limited accessibility and its acquisition restrictions. It is also most challenging to modelise snow cover at national scale. We therefore, selected a representative witness sinkhole located at Ouyoun el Siman to undertake systematic and continuous observations based on topographic approach using a total station. After four years of continuous observations, we acknowledged the relation between snow melt rate, date of total melting and neighboring springs discharges. Consequently, we are able to forecast, early in the season, dates of total snowmelt and springs low

  3. Diurnal Variation of Radon Concentration in the Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, A.; Vaupotic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Postojna Cave, with 20 km of galleries, is the longest known cave system and also the largest of about 20 show caves in Slovenia and one of the most visited show caves in the world. It is well known that high concentrations of radon are common in karstic caves, although quantities of uranium (238U) in limestone are rather low. The reason for this is low natural ventilation of the underground cavities. Tectonic faults constitute an additional source of radon. Variations of radon concentration in cave air arise from a balance of the emission from cave surfaces and drip waters, decay in cave air, and exchange with the outside atmosphere. Because of its elevated radon concentrations, Postojna Cave has been under permanent radon survey since 1995. The influence of meteorological conditions on the radon levels and their temporal variations depends mostly on the shape of the cave, and the number and directions of cracks, corridors and fissures connecting the cave rooms with the outside atmosphere. The driving force for air movement in horizontal caves, and thus the inflow of fresh air and release of the cave air to the atmosphere, is the temperature difference between the cave air and outdoors, which causes seasonal pattern of radon concentration in the cave with high levels in summer and low in winter. However, on a daily scale different behaviour of radon can be observed at different locations in the cave. In this paper diurnal variation of radon concentration at two locations is presented and discussed. Postojna Cave is a horizontal cave with a stable yearly temperature around 10 degrees of @C. Continuous measurements of radon concentration were carried out from 2005 to 2010 at two locations along the guided tourist trail. Radon concentration was measured with Radim 5 WP monitors (SMM Company, Prague, Czech Republic) with sampling frequency once an hour. The evaluation of five-year radon monitoring at two sites in the Postojna Cave reveals significant diurnal and

  4. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  5. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Choe, K.; Kim, J.C.; Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M.; Jang, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14 C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  6. Chemical deposits in volcanic caves of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benedetto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last Conference of the FEALC (Speleological Federation of Latin America and Caribbean Islands which was held in the town of Malargue, Mendoza, in February 1997, two volcanic caves not far from that town were visited and sampled for cave mineral studies. The first cave (Cueva del Tigre opens close to the Llancanelo lake, some 40 kms far from Malargue and it is a classical lava tube. Part of the walls and of the fallen lava blocks are covered by white translucent fibres and grains. The second visited cave is a small tectonic cavity opened on a lava bed some 100 km southward of Malargue. The cave “El Abrigo de el Manzano” is long no more than 10-12 meters with an average width of 3 meters and it hosts several bird nests, the larger of which is characterized by the presence of a relatively thick pale yellow, pale pink flowstone. Small broken or fallen samples of the secondary chemical deposits of both these caves have been collected in order to detect their mineralogical composition. In the present paper the results of the detailed mineralogical analyses carried out on the sampled material are shortly reported. In the Cueva del Tigre lava tube the main detected minerals are Sylvite, Thenardite, Bloedite and Kieserite, all related to the peculiar dry climate of that area. The flowstone of “El Abrigo de el Manzano” consists of a rather complex admixture of several minerals, the large majority of which are phosphates but also sulfates and silicates, not all yet identified. The origin of all these minerals is related to the interaction between bird guano and volcanic rock.

  7. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  8. Investigation of clay sediments and bedrock morphology in caves with seismic traveltime tomography: an application at Alepotrypa Cave (Diros, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaros Polymenakos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of unconsolidated clay sediments in caves, in relation to the buried morphology of the karstic conduit, are important parameters for the study of cave evolution. We introduce the application of an active seismic imaging technique to investigate the clay deposits and bedrock morphology in caves. Seismic traveltime tomography, applied for the first time in cave studies, can assist with the interpretation of cave geomorphology. Utilizing the P-wave velocity contrast between the clay sediments and the surrounding rock mass, we map the buried rock surface and significant sediment interfaces and provide an estimate of the sediment thickness and volume. Our study focuses on the Alepotrypa Cave located in Diros (Peloponnese, Greece, revealing important information for the evolution of the cave. The proposed technique could be applied in caves with significant clay deposits, in order to constrain the clay volume and reconstruct the buried floor shape of the cave. The technique exploits fully the ground morphology and access points in a cave, so it is suitable for a detailed three-dimensional exploration of cave deposits and the underlying cave morphology.

  9. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  10. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m-thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analyzed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb-derived tritium removing any ice accumulated since, at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses rendered radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a basal ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 2 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cryocalcite layers, extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  11. Direct Push supported geotechnical and hydrogeological characterisation of an active sinkhole area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippelt, Thomas; Vienken, Thomas; Kirsch, Reinhard; Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes represent a natural geologic hazard in areas where soluble layers are present in the subsurface. A detailed knowledge of the composition of the subsurface and its hydrogeological and geotechnical properties is essential for the understanding of sinkhole formation and propagation. This serves as base for risk evaluation and the development of an early warning system. However, site models often depend on data from drillings and surface geophysical surveys that in many cases cannot resolve the spatial distribution of relevant hydrogeological and geotechnical parameters sufficiently. Therefore, an active sinkhole area in Münsterdorf, Northern Germany, was investigated in detail using Direct Push technology, a minimally invasive sounding method. The obtained vertical high-resolution profiles of geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics, in combination with Direct Push based sampling and surface geophysical measurements lead to a strong improvement of the geologic site model. The conceptual site model regarding sinkhole formation and propagation will then be tested based on the gathered data and, if necessary, adapted accordingly.

  12. Detection of sinkholes or anomalies using full seismic wave fields : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Sinkholes are a common feature of Floridas geology. The limestone that runs throughout the state is acted upon by the constant flow of water, both above and below ground, that changes with wet and dry seasons. Subsurface voids can form, causing ov...

  13. A Multi-Sensor Approach to Documenting a Large Collapse Sinkhole in West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L. D.; Kiflu, H. G.; Robinson, T.; Doering, T.; Eilers, D.; Rodgers, M.; Kruse, S.; Landry, S.; Braunmiller, J.; Speed, G.; Gonzalez, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Saxon Lake sinkhole collapse of July 14, 2017 in Land O Lakes, Florida, caused the destruction of two homes and the evacuation of nine additional residences. The sinkhole is slightly oval with dimensions of approximately 51 meters east-west and 42 meters north-south, and it is reportedly 15 meters deep. This is presumably the largest sinkhole to form in Pasco County during the last 30 years. The surface collapse happened rapidly and continued over three days, with slumping and erosion increasing the size. The site is located near two natural lakes in a housing development from the late 1960s. This occurrence is within an area of well-developed karst, with a number of natural lakes. We present preliminary analysis of the sequence of deformation, sinkhole geometry, surrounding subsurface structures, and seismic activity. Data are assembled from terrestrial and aerial LiDAR, UAS survey and PhoDAR modeling, aerial imagery, ground penetrating radar, lake-bottom profiling, and seismic monitoring. Additionally, multi-sensor data were brought together in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and included an analysis of georeferenced historic imagery and maps. These spatial data indicate historic land use change and development alterations that included lake shore reconfiguration, canal construction, and connection of lake water systems in the area of impact. Three subsidence reports from the 1980s are also recorded within 500 meters of the collapse.

  14. Automatic detection of karstic sinkholes in seismic 3D images using circular Hough transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parchkoohi, Mostafa Heydari; Farajkhah, Nasser Keshavarz; Delshad, Meysam Salimi

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of hydrocarbon reservoirs are reported in carbonates that mostly include evidence of fractures and karstification. Generally, the detection of karstic sinkholes prognosticate good quality hydrocarbon reservoirs where looser sediments fill the holes penetrating hard limestone and the overburden pressure on infill sediments is mostly tolerated by their sturdier surrounding structure. They are also useful for the detection of erosional surfaces in seismic stratigraphic studies and imply possible relative sea level fall at the time of establishment. Karstic sinkholes are identified straightforwardly by using seismic geometric attributes (e.g. coherency, curvature) in which lateral variations are much more emphasized with respect to the original 3D seismic image. Then, seismic interpreters rely on their visual skills and experience in detecting roughly round objects in seismic attribute maps. In this paper, we introduce an image processing workflow to enhance selective edges in seismic attribute volumes stemming from karstic sinkholes and finally locate them in a high quality 3D seismic image by using circular Hough transform. Afterwards, we present a case study from an on-shore oilfield in southwest Iran, in which the proposed algorithm is applied and karstic sinkholes are traced. (paper)

  15. River Intrusion in Karst Springs in Eogenetic Aquifers: Implications for Speleogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Gulley, J.; Screaton, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    Conceptual models of speleogenesis generally assume uni-directional transport in integrated conduit systems from discrete recharge points to discharge at karst springs. Estavelles, however, are karst springs that function intermittently as discrete recharge points when river stage rises more rapidly than local aquifer heads. As river water chemistry changes between baseflow and floods, estavelles should influence mass transport through (e.g. organic carbon, nutrients, and oxygen) and speleogenesis within karst systems. Estavelles are common in our study area in north-central Florida, particularly along the lower reaches of the Santa Fe River, where it flows across the unconfined karstic Floridan aquifer. River stage in this unconfined region can rise much faster than aquifer heads when large amounts of rain fall on the confined regions in its upper reaches. Backflooding into the estavelles during elevated river stage drives river water into the ground, causing some springs to reverse and other springs to recirculate large volumes of river water. Floodwaters originating in the confined region are highly undersaturated with respect to calcite, and thus river water transitions from slightly supersaturated to highly undersaturated with respect to calcite during flood events. As a result, conduits connected to estavelles are continuously enlarged as springs reverse or recirculate calcite-undersaturated river water. It has been suggested that currently flooded caves (i.e. karst conduits) associated with springs in Florida formed entirely underwater because speleothems, which are prevalent in flooded caves in the Yucatan and Bahamas, have not been observed by cave divers. Results of this study indicate that the absence of speleothems does not necessarily provide evidence of a continuous phreatic history for underwater caves. Instead speleothems that formed in caves while dry could have been dissolved by backflooding of estavelles with undersaturated water

  16. Deformation analysis of a sinkhole in Thuringia using multi-temporal multi-view stereo 3D reconstruction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petschko, Helene; Goetz, Jason; Schmidt, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes are a serious threat on life, personal property and infrastructure in large parts of Thuringia. Over 9000 sinkholes have been documented by the Geological Survey of Thuringia, which are caused by collapsing hollows which formed due to solution processes within the local bedrock material. However, little is known about surface processes and their dynamics at the flanks of the sinkhole once the sinkhole has shaped. These processes are of high interest as they might lead to dangerous situations at or within the vicinity of the sinkhole. Our objective was the analysis of these deformations over time in 3D by applying terrestrial photogrammetry with a simple DSLR camera. Within this study, we performed an analysis of deformations within a sinkhole close to Bad Frankenhausen (Thuringia) using terrestrial photogrammetry and multi-view stereo 3D reconstruction to obtain a 3D point cloud describing the morphology of the sinkhole. This was performed for multiple data collection campaigns over a 6-month period. The photos of the sinkhole were taken with a Nikon D3000 SLR Camera. For the comparison of the point clouds the Multiscale Model to Model Comparison (M3C2) plugin of the software CloudCompare was used. It allows to apply advanced methods of point cloud difference calculation which considers the co-registration error between two point clouds for assessing the significance of the calculated difference (given in meters). Three Styrofoam cuboids of known dimensions (16 cm wide/29 cm high/11.5 cm deep) were placed within the sinkhole to test the accuracy of the point cloud difference calculation. The multi-view stereo 3D reconstruction was performed with Agisoft Photoscan. Preliminary analysis indicates that about 26% of the sinkhole showed changes exceeding the co-registration error of the point clouds. The areas of change can mainly be detected on the flanks of the sinkhole and on an earth pillar that formed in the center of the sinkhole. These changes describe

  17. Cryogenic Minerals in Caves of the Vizhay River (Northern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Bazarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New information on the cryogenic mineral formations at the two Vizhay River caves (Northern Urals is given.   Calcite with the insignificant gypsum admixture predominates in the cryogenic material composition from both caves. In addition, the metastable phases of calcite, such as monohydrocalcite and ikaite were found. In the Saksofon Cave, calcite forms both spherulites and complanate grains. In Lednikovaya Cave, the major part of cryomaterial is presented by spherulites, which may suggests the significant supersaturation of solution. In Lednikovaya Сave, the distinct concentric structure with the growth zones denotes the cryogenic material formation in a thin water film under the partial thawing of upper part of long-term ice mound in summer. In Saksofon Cave the growth zones in crystals are poorly developed that probably caused by the seasonal glaciation in the cave and cryogenic minerals are younger than those in the Lednikovaya Cave.

  18. Instrumenting caves to collect hydrologic and geochemical data: case study from James Cave, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Madeline E.; Schwartz, Benjamin F.; Orndorff, William; Doctor, Daniel H.; Eagle, Sarah D.; Gerst, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Karst aquifers are productive groundwater systems, supplying approximately 25 % of the world’s drinking water. Sustainable use of this critical water supply requires information about rates of recharge to karst aquifers. The overall goal of this project is to collect long-term, high-resolution hydrologic and geochemical datasets at James Cave, Virginia, to evaluate the quantity and quality of recharge to the karst system. To achieve this goal, the cave has been instrumented for continuous (10-min interval) measurement of the (1) temperature and rate of precipitation; (2) temperature, specific conductance, and rate of epikarst dripwater; (3) temperature of the cave air; and (4) temperature, conductivity, and discharge of the cave stream. Instrumentation has also been installed to collect both composite and grab samples of precipitation, soil water, the cave stream, and dripwater for geochemical analysis. This chapter provides detailed information about the instrumentation, data processing, and data management; shows examples of collected datasets; and discusses recommendations for other researchers interested in hydrologic and geochemical monitoring of cave systems. Results from the research, briefly described here and discussed in more detail in other publications, document a strong seasonality of the start of the recharge season, the extent of the recharge season, and the geochemistry of recharge.

  19. Helium Isotopes and Noble Gas Abundances of Cave Dripping Water in Three Caves in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A. T.; Shen, C. C.; Tan, M.; Li, T.; Uemura, R.; Asami, R.

    2015-12-01

    Paleo-temperature recorded in nature archives is a critical parameter to understand climate change in the past. With advantages of unique inert chemical characteristics and sensitive solubilities with temperature, dissolved noble gases in speleothem inclusion water were recently proposed to retrieve terrestrial temperature history. In order to accurately apply this newly-developed speleothem noble gas temperature (NGT) as a reliable proxy, a fundamental issue about behaviors of noble gases in the karst should be first clarified. In this study, we measured noble gas contents in air and dripping water to evaluate any ratio deviation between noble gases. Cave dripping water samples was collected from three selected caves, Shihua Cave in northern China, Furong Cave in southwestern, and Gyukusen Cave in an island located in the western Pacific. For these caves are characterized by a thorough mixing and long-term storage of waters in a karst aquifer by the absence of seasonal oxygen isotope shifts. Ratios of dripping water noble gases are statistically insignificant from air data. Helium isotopic ratios in the dripping water samples match air value. The results indicate that elemental and isotopic signatures of noble gases from air can be frankly preserved in the epikarst and support the fidelity of NGT techniques.

  20. Is radon emission in caves causing deletions in satellite DNA sequences of cave-dwelling crickets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Allegrucci

    Full Text Available The most stable isotope of radon, 222Rn, represents the major source of natural radioactivity in confined environments such as mines, caves and houses. In this study, we explored the possible radon-related effects on the genome of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae sampled in caves with different concentrations of radon. We analyzed specimens from ten populations belonging to two genetically closely related species, D. geniculata and D. laetitiae, and explored the possible association between the radioactivity dose and the level of genetic polymorphism in a specific family of satellite DNA (pDo500 satDNA. Radon concentration in the analyzed caves ranged from 221 to 26,000 Bq/m3. Specimens coming from caves with the highest radon concentration showed also the highest variability estimates in both species, and the increased sequence heterogeneity at pDo500 satDNA level can be explained as an effect of the mutation pressure induced by radon in cave. We discovered a specific category of nuclear DNA, the highly repetitive satellite DNA, where the effects of the exposure at high levels of radon-related ionizing radiation are detectable, suggesting that the satDNA sequences might be a valuable tool to disclose harmful effects also in other organisms exposed to high levels of radon concentration.

  1. Food sources of selected terrestrial cave arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Šustr, Vladimír; Lukešová, Alena; Tajovský, Karel; Nováková, Alena; Režňáková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-46 ISSN 1768-1448 Grant - others:Vega(SK) 1/0139/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * caves * Collembola * Diplopoda * feeding habits * Isopoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  2. Measurements of Aerosol Characteristics in Skocjan Caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration and radon progeny concentration (attached and unattached) have been performed in Skocjan caves. In the same time also aerosol concentration (PM 10 ), aerosol size distribution with ten stage Hauke impactor and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer - SMPS have been performed. The idea was to find impact of outer air and visitors to the aerosol characteristics of cave air. Measurements with impactor have been implemented in summer and winter period, with SMPS only in summer period. Radon concentrations ranged in winter period in region from 500 to 1000 Bq/m 3 , equilibrium factor was about 55 %. In summer period radon concentration increased up to 10 kBq/m 3 , equilibrium factor was about 45 %, and unattached fraction went up to 20 %. Measurements of aerosol size distribution show lower aerosol sizes in winter season (around 1 μm) and bigger aerosol sizes in summer season (around 3 - 6 μm). We could not find good correlation between unattached fraction and aerosol size distribution. Also we could not find clear impact of visitors to the air characteristics in cave. Probably our measuring location was too close to the entrance and the impact of outer air was too high. We will repeat measurements deeper in cave to find better results.(author)

  3. An absolutely dated high-resolution stalagmite record from Lianhua Cave in central China: Climate forcing and comparison with Wanxiang Cave and Dongge Cave records over the past 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Chun; Yin, Jian-Jun; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Mii, Horng-Sheng; Li, Ting-Yong

    2015-04-01

    A 33-cm long aragonite stalagmite (LHD-1) from Lianhua Cave has been dated by MC-ICPMS 230Th/U method on 41 horizons. Very high U contents (1~6ppm) and low Th contents yield excellent 230Th/U dates which provide reliable chronology of the stalagmite on sub-decadal time scale over the past 3350 years. A total of 1716 samples have been measured for δ18O and δ13C, spanning annual resolution over the past 1820 years. The stalagmite δ18O is not only influenced by the 'amount effect', but also affected by the moisture source. Enhanced the tropical monsoon trough under strong EASM brings higher spring quarter rainfall with isotopically light monsoonal moisture in the cave site, resulting in lighter stalagmite δ18O. On decadal or longer time scales, increased solar activity produces warmer condition and stronger summer monsoon which lead to wet climates. On interannual-to-decadal scales, the Walker Circulation under El Niño conditions during cold periods will shift toward the central Pacific and result in weakening of EASM. Under such a circumstance, dry climates will be prevailed in the study area. Based on the δ18O and δ13C records, we have deciphered climatic and vegetation changes of the study area in decadal scales. The highly precise dated LHD-1 record has been compared with previous published Wanxiang Cave and Dongge Cave records. Although some similarities can be found, there are major discrepancies among the three well-dated records, especially during AD 500-700 and AD 1300-1600. In additional, the major weak monsoon periods defined in the Wanxiang Cave record during late Tang Dynasty, late Yuan Dynasty and late Ming Dynasty are not supported by the LHD-1 record. The heaviest δ18O peaks (more than five continuous heavy values) over the past 2000 years appeared around AD 1990-2003, 1657-1662, 1220-1228, 663-669, 363-370, and 1082-1090 (in the order of heavy to light). None of these periods occurred Chinese dynasty collapse.

  4. THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA FROM THE UPPER PLEISTOCENE VERTEBRATE-BEARING DEPOSITS OF S. TEODORO CAVE (NORTH-EASTERN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ESU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with terrestrial, freshwater and marine molluscs collected in the upper Pleistocene deposits of clay, sands and gravels of S. Teodoro Cave (North-eastern Sicily. Beginning from 1998 two trenches have been excavated (1998 and 2002-2004. A highly diversified assemblage of endemic and not endemic vertebrates (elephant, horse, wild ox, deer, wild boar, hyaena, fox, mouse, ground vole, shrew, hedgehog, bats, birds, reptiles, invertebrates (molluscs and vegetal remains have been collected from the two trenches. The molluscan fauna is represented by poor to rich-species assemblages of land and freshwater gastropods and bivalves with Mediterranean-European character. Some species have been found for the first time as fossils in Sicily. The land snails prevail in the 1998 trench showing a persistent arid environment during the time of the sediment deposition. The freshwater species, characteristic of slow-running water, point to the presence of a small water body (stream or spring inside the cave, probably more consistent in the 2002-2004 trench where this fauna prevails. The dispersal of the molluscan fauna of S. Teodoro Cave from the mainland during the low stand sea-level phases of the upper Pleistocene probably belongs to the same dispersal events following the Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e which introduced into the island not endemic faunal elements which are associated with endemic faunal elements in S. Teodoro Cave. Littoral marine reworked molluscs found in the cave deposits probably come from the sedimentary cover of a middle Pleistocene terrace which overlies the roof of the cave. SHORT NOTE

  5. Snežna jama (Slovenia): Interdisciplinary dating of cave sediments and implication for landscape evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häuselmann, Philipp; Mihevc, Andrej; Pruner, Petr; Horáček, Ivan; Čermák, Stanislav; Hercman, Helena; Sahy, Diana; Fiebig, Markus; Hajna, Nadja Zupan; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-10-15

    Caves are important markers of surface evolution, since they are, as a general rule, linked with ancient valley bottoms by their springs. However, caves can only be dated indirectly by means of the sediments they contain. If the sediment is older than common dating methods, one has to use multiple dating approaches in order to get meaningful results. U/Th dating, palaeomagnetic analysis of flowstone and sediment profiles, cosmogenic dating of quartz pebbles, and mammalian dating allowed a robust estimate of speleogenesis, sediment deposition, climatic change at the surface, and uplift history on the Periadriatic fault line during the Plio-Pleistocene. Our dates indicate that Snežna jama was formed in the (Upper) Miocene, received its sedimentary deposits during the Pliocene in a rather low-lying, hilly landscape, and became inactive due to uplift along the Periadriatic and Sava faults and climatic changes at the beginning of the Quaternary. Although it is only a single cave, the information contained within it makes it an important site of the Southern Alps.

  6. Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting stable oxygen isotope (δ18O records from stalagmites is still one of the complex tasks in speleothem research. Here, we present a novel model-based approach, where we force a model describing the processes and modifications of δ18O from rain water to speleothem calcite (Oxygen isotope Drip water and Stalagmite Model – ODSM with the results of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model enhanced by explicit isotope diagnostics (ECHAM5-wiso. The approach is neither climate nor cave-specific and allows an integrated assessment of the influence of different varying climate variables, e.g. temperature and precipitation amount, on the isotopic composition of drip water and speleothem calcite.

    First, we apply and evaluate this new approach under present-day climate conditions using observational data from seven caves from different geographical regions in Europe. Each of these caves provides measured δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite to which we compare our simulated isotope values. For six of the seven caves modeled δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite are in good agreement with observed values. The mismatch of the remaining caves might be caused by the complexity of the cave system, beyond the parameterizations included in our cave model.

    We then examine the response of the cave system to mid-Holocene (6000 yr before present, 6 ka climate conditions by forcing the ODSM with ECHAM5-wiso results from 6 ka simulations. For a set of twelve European caves, we compare the modeled mid-Holocene-to-modern difference in speleothem calcite δ18O to available measurements. We show that the general European changes are simulated well. However, local discrepancies are found, and might be explained either by a too low model resolution, complex local soil-atmosphere interactions affecting evapotranspiration or by cave specific factors

  7. Seismic surface-wave prospecting methods for sinkhole hazard assessment along the Dead Sea shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezersky, M.; Bodet, L.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Camerlynck, C.; Dhemaied, A.; Galibert, P.-Y.; Keydar, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Dead Sea's coastal areas have been dramatically hit by sinkholes occurrences since around 1990 and there is an obvious potential for further collapse beneath main highways, agricultural lands and other populated places. The sinkhole hazard in this area threatens human lives and compromise future economic developments. The understanding of such phenomenon is consequently of great importance in the development of protective solutions. Several geological and geophysical studies tend to show that evaporite karsts, caused by slow salt dissolution, are linked to the mechanism of sinkhole formation along both Israel and Jordan shorelines. The continuous drop of the Dead Sea level, at a rate of 1m/yr during the past decade, is generally proposed as the main triggering factor. The water table lowering induces the desaturation of shallow sediments overlying buried cavities in 10 to 30 meters thick salt layers, at depths from 25 to 50 meters. Both the timing and location of sinkholes suggest that: (1) the salt weakens as result of increasing fresh water circulation, thus enhancing the karstification process; (2) sinkholes appear to be related to the decompaction of the sediments above karstified zones. The location, depth, thickness and weakening of salt layers along the Dead Sea shorelines, as well as the thickness and mechanical properties of the upper sedimentary deposits, are thus considered as controlling factors of this ongoing process. Pressure-wave seismic methods are typically used to study sinkhole developments in this area. P-wave refraction and reflection methods are very useful to delineate the salt layers and to determine the thickness of overlying sediments. But the knowledge of shear-wave velocities (Vs) should add valuable insights on their mechanical properties, more particularly when the groundwater level plays an important role in the process. However, from a practical point of view, the measurement of Vs remains delicate because of well-known shear

  8. Response of surface springs to longwall coal mining Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadnuck, L.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    High-extraction longwall coal mining creates zones in the overburden where strata bend, fracture, or cave into the mine void. These physical alterations to the overburden stratigraphy have associated effects on the hydrologic regime. The US Bureau of Mines (SBM) studied impacts to the local hydrologic system caused by longwall mining in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Surface springs in the vicinity of two coal mines were evaluated for alterations in flow characteristics as mining progressed. Fourteen springs located above the mines were included in the study. Eight of the springs were located over longwall panels, four were located over barrier pillars and mains, and two ere located outside the area disturbed by mining. Flow hydrographs for each spring were compared to climatic data and time of undermining to assess if mining in the vicinity had influenced flow. Heights of fracturing and caving in the overburden resulting from seam extraction were calculated using common subsidence formulas, and used in conjunction with elevations of springs to assess if fracturing influenced the water-bearing zones studied. One spring over a panel exhibited a departure from a normally-shaped hydrograph after being undermined. Springs located over other mine structures, or outside the mine area did not show discernible effects from mining. The limited response of the springs was attributed to site-specific conditions that buffered mining impacts including the elevation of the springs above the mine level, and presence of massive sandstones and swelling clays in the overburden materials

  9. Fish mitigate trophic depletion in marine cave ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Egea, Lea; Fanelli, Emanuela; Lejeusne, Christophe; Musco, Luigi; Navarro-Barranco, Carlos; Pey, Alexis; Planes, Serge; Vieux-Ingrassia, Jean Vincent; Guidetti, Paolo

    2018-06-15

    Dark marine habitats are often characterized by a food-limited condition. Peculiar dark habitats include marine caves, characterized by the absence of light and limited water flow, which lead to reduced fluxes of organic matter for cave-dwelling organisms. We investigated whether the most abundant and common cave-dwelling fish Apogon imberbis has the potential to play the role of trophic vector in Mediterranean marine caves. We first analysed stomach contents to check whether repletion changes according to a nycthemeral cycle. We then identified the prey items, to see whether they belong to species associated with cave habitats or not. Finally, we assessed whether A. imberbis moves outside marine caves at night to feed, by collecting visual census data on A. imberbis density both inside and outside caves, by day and by night. The stomach repletion of individuals sampled early in the morning was significantly higher than later in the day. Most prey were typical of habitats other than caves. A. imberbis was on average more abundant within caves during the day and outside during the night. Our study supports the hypothesis regarding the crucial trophic role of A. imberbis in connecting Mediterranean marine caves with external habitats.

  10. Book Review: Caves and Karst of the Yorkshire Dales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, Rob

    2015-10-01

    The British Cave Research Association (BCRA) is the research division of the British Caving Association (BCA), itself the principal society in Britain for those interested in caving, with activities including provision of training and safety certification for cavers and managing access to caves. Although some UK cave-related research is carried out by academics, this tends to be restricted to archaeological investigations of caves that have served as human habitations, and to be focused more on the occupants than the caves themselves. In contrast, most cave exploration is undertaken as a leisure activity, under the auspices of clubs affiliated to the BCA/BCRA, this being indeed virtually the only field of Earth science where amateur investigators can continue to make significant discoveries. Many cave explorers are also affiliated with academic researchers, such as managers of dating laboratories; the synergy between these two groups is highly productive, having resulted for instance in the discovery and exploration in recent years of the vast Ogof Draenen cave system in South Wales, which probably dates back to the Early Pleistocene (e.g., Farrant et al., 2014).

  11. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  12. Contextualizing Cave Maps as Geospatial Information: Case Study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, H.

    2017-12-01

    Caves are the result of solution processes. Because they are happened from geochemical and tectonic activity, they can be considered as geosphere phenomena. As one of the geosphere phenomena, especially at karst landform, caves have spatial dimensions and aspects. Cave’s utilizations and developments are increasing in many sectors such as hydrology, earth science, and tourism industry. However, spatial aspects of caves are poorly concerned dues to the lack of recognition toward cave maps. Many stakeholders have not known significances and importance of cave maps in determining development of a cave. Less information can be considered as the cause. Therefore, it is strongly necessary to put cave maps into the right context in order to make stakeholders realize the significance of it. Also, cave maps will be officially regarded as tools related to policy, development, and conservation act of caves hence they will have regulation in the usages and applications. This paper aims to make the contextualization of cave maps toward legal act. The act which is used is Act Number 4 Year 2011 About Geospatial Information. The contextualization is done by scrutinizing every articles and clauses related to cave maps and seek the contextual elements from both of them. The results are that cave maps can be regarded as geospatial information and classified as thematic geospatial information. The usages of them can be regulated through the Act Number 4 Year 2011. The regulations comprised by data acquisition, database, authorities, surveyor, and the obligation of providing cave maps in planning cave’s development and the environment surrounding.

  13. Minerogenetic mechanisms occurring in the cave environment: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forti Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps man’s first motivation to explore caves, beyond using them as shelter, was the search for substances that were not availableelsewhere: most of them were minerals. However, for a long time it was believed that the cave environment was not very interestingfrom the mineralogical point of view. This was due to the fact that most cave deposits are normally composed of a singlecompound: calcium carbonate. Therefore, the systematic study of cave mineralogy is of only recent origin. However, although onlya limited number of natural cavities have been investigated in detail, about 350 cave minerals have already been observed, someof which are new to science. The presence of such unexpected richness is a direct consequence of the variety of rocks traversedby water or other fluids before entering a cave and the sediments therein. Different cave environments allow the development ofvarious minerogenetic mechanisms, the most important of which are double exchange reactions, evaporation, oxidation, hydrationdehydration,sublimation, deposition from aerosols and vapors, and segregation. The cave temperature and pH/Eh strictly controlmost of them, although some are driven by microorganisms. The cave environment, due to its long-term stability, can sometimesallow for the development of huge euhedral crystals, such as those found in the Naica caves (Mexico, but the presence of extremelysmall yet complex aggregates of different minerals is far more common. Future development in the field of cave mineralogy will likelybe focused mainly on hydrothermal and sulfuric-acid caves and on the role played by micro-organisms in controlling some of the mostimportant minerogenetic processes in caves.

  14. The sinkhole of Schmalkalden, Germany - Imaging of near-surface subrosion structures and faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja H.; Tschache, Saskia; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    In November 2010 a sinkhole of 30 m diameter and 20 m depth opened in a residential area in the village Schmalkalden, Germany, which fortunately led to damage of buildings and property only. The collapse was caused by leaching of soluble rocks in the subsurface, called subrosion. For an improved understanding of the processes leading to subrosion and sinkhole development a detailed characterization of the subsurface structures and elastic parameters is required. We used shear wave reflection seismic, which has proven to be a suitable method for high-resolution imaging of the near-surface. The village Schmalkalden is located in southern Thuringia in Germany. Since the Upper Cretaceous the area is dominated by fault tectonics, fractures and joints, which increase the rock permeability. The circulating groundwater leaches the Permian saline deposits in the subsurface and forms upward migrating cavities, which can develop into sinkholes, if the overburden collapses. In the direct vicinity of the backfilled sinkhole, five 2-D shear wave reflection seismic profiles with total length of ca. 900 m and a zero-offset VSP down to 150 m depth were acquired. For the surface profiles a 120-channel landstreamer attached with horizontal geophones and an electrodynamic micro-vibrator, exciting horizontally polarized shear waves, were used. For the VSP survey an oriented borehole probe equipped with a 3C-geophone and electrodynamic and hydraulic vibrators, exciting compression- and shear waves, were utilized. The seismic sections show high-resolution images from the surface to ca. 100 m depth. They display heterogeneous structures as indicated by strong vertical and lateral variations of the reflectors. In the near-surface, depressions are visible and zones of low seismic velocities sinkhole. The VSP data shows anomalies of the Vp-Vs ratio with values above 2,5. This indicates unstable zones correlated with the anomalies revealed by the 2-D sections. Possible factors for the

  15. Basic processes and factors determining the evolution of collapse sinkholes: a sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Douchko; Kaufmann, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Collapse sinkholes appear as closed depressions at the surface. The origin of these karst features is related to the continuous dissolution of the soluble rock caused by a focussed sub-surface flow. Water flowing along a preferential pathway through fissures and fractures within the phreatic part of a karst aquifer is able to dissolve the rock (limestone, gypsum, anhydrite). With time, the dissolved void volume increases and part of the ceiling above the stream can become unstable, collapses, and accumulates as debris in the flow path. The debris partially blocks the flow and thus activates new pathways. Because of the low compaction of the debris (high hydraulic conductivity), the flow and the dissolution rates within this crushed zone remain high. This allows a relatively fast dissolutional and erosional removal of the crushed material and the development of new empty voids. The void volume expands upwards towards the surface until a collapse sinkhole is formed. The collapse sinkholes exhibit a large variety of shapes (cylindrical, cone-, bowl-shaped), depths (from few to few hundred meters) and diameters (meters up to hundreds of meters). Two major processes are responsible for this diversity: a) the karst evolution of the aquifer - responsible for the dissolutional and erosional removal of material; b) the mechanical evolution of the host rock and the existence of structural features, faults for example, which determine the stability and the magnitude of the subsequent collapses. In this work we demonstrate the influence of the host rock type, the hydrological and geological boundary conditions, the chemical composition of the flowing water, and the geometry and the scale of the crushed zone, on the location and the evolution of the growing sinkhole. We demonstrate the ability of the karst evolution models to explain, at least qualitatively, the growth and the morphology of the collapse sinkholes and to roughly predict their shape and location. Implementing

  16. Towards an integrated approach for characterization of sinkhole hazards in urban environments: the unstable coastal site of Casalabate, Lecce, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delle Rose, Marco; Leucci, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Sinkholes occur in many areas of the world, especially where carbonate rocks crop out. They are formed due to natural processes or caused by man's activities. In both cases, severe consequences have to be registered on the anthropogenic environment and related infrastructures. Knowledge of both the mechanism of the sinkhole formation and the localization of this subtle geohazard is therefore necessary for planners and decision makers to perform the most appropriate and suitable programs of land use and development. The Apulia region of southern Italy is characterized for most of its extension by carbonate rocks, which makes it one of the most remarkable examples of karst in the Mediterranean basin. The sinkhole formation in Apulia urban areas has recently produced severe damages, especially along its coastal planes, where different types of sinkholes occur. The detection of cavities, that could collapse and create a sinkhole, in an urban environment presents numerous difficulties (buried networks, reworked soils, etc). A methodology has been developed to respond to this need based on the integration of four complementary methods: geological analysis of outcrops and existing borehole descriptions, aerophotogrammetric interpretation of aerial photos, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The combination of these methods, applied to a test sector in the city of Casalabate, made it possible to locate the principal karstic conduits beneath the study area and identify a zone of high sinkhole geohazard associated with one such feature

  17. Rapid subsidence in damaging sinkholes: Measurement by high-precision leveling and the role of salt dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desir, G.; Gutiérrez, F.; Merino, J.; Carbonel, D.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Guerrero, J.; Fabregat, I.

    2018-02-01

    Investigations dealing with subsidence monitoring in active sinkholes are very scarce, especially when compared with other ground instability phenomena like landslides. This is largely related to the catastrophic behaviour that typifies most sinkholes in carbonate karst areas. Active subsidence in five sinkholes up to ca. 500 m across has been quantitatively characterised by means of high-precision differential leveling. The sinkholes occur on poorly indurated alluvium underlain by salt-bearing evaporites and cause severe damage on various human structures. The leveling data have provided accurate information on multiple features of the subsidence phenomena with practical implications: (1) precise location of the vaguely-defined edges of the subsidence zones and their spatial relationships with surveyed surface deformation features; (2) spatial deformation patterns and relative contribution of subsidence mechanisms (sagging versus collapse); (3) accurate subsidence rates and their spatial variability with maximum and mean vertical displacement rates ranging from 1.0 to 11.8 cm/yr and 1.9 to 26.1 cm/yr, respectively; (4) identification of sinkholes that experience continuous subsidence at constant rates or with significant temporal changes; and (5) rates of volumetric surface changes as an approximation to rates of dissolution-induced volumetric depletion in the subsurface, reaching as much as 10,900 m3/yr in the largest sinkhole. The high subsidence rates as well as the annual volumetric changes are attributed to rapid dissolution of high-solubility salts.

  18. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kobal

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM, which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  19. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  20. Using Lidar Data to Analyse Sinkhole Characteristics Relevant for Understory Vegetation under Forest Cover—Case Study of a High Karst Area in the Dinaric Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts. PMID:25793871

  1. Cave Entrance dependent Spore Dispersion of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Various Sediments of Iron Ore Cave in Brazil: a colloquy on human threats while caving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of fungi. The fungal community present in a cave also includes pathogenic and opportunistic species out of which some are also served as energy sources in such energy stared ecosystems. Studies on microbial diversity and their role on such energy starved ecosystem are scarce. The present study was aimed to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi present in the various sediment of an iron ore cave and to recognize them as pathogenic and/or opportunistic species. Further the impact of cave entrance on the spore depositions on various distances dependent sediments were analyzed. The results suggest a diverse microbial community inhabiting the cave and an influence of cave entrance over spore deposition on various sediments. We counted a total of 4,549 filamentous fungi that included 34 species of 12 genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Paecilomyces, Purpureocillium, Penicillium, Torula, Trichoderma, Mucor and Rhizopus. A positive significant relation was observed between spore deposition and distance from cave entrance (p= 0.001. Areas of potential mycoses risks were recognized. This is the first study on microbiological community of an iron ore cave in the country.

  2. Hotspot mitigation in the StarCAVE

    KAUST Repository

    Rhee, Jordan; Schulze, Jurgen; DeFanti, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Rear-projected screens such as those in Digital Light Projection (DLP) televisions suffer from an image quality problem called hot spotting, where the image is brightest at a point dependent on the viewing angle. In rear-projected mulit-screen configurations such as the StarCAVE at Calit2, this causes discontinuities in brightness at the edges where screens meet, and thus in the 3D image perceived by the user. In the StarCAVE we know the viewer's position in 3D space and we have programmable graphics hardware, so we can mitigate this effect by performing post-processing in the inverse of the pattern, yielding a homogenous image at the output. Our implementation improves brightness homogeneity by a factor of 4 while decreasing frame rate by only 1-3 fps.

  3. Hotspot mitigation in the StarCAVE

    KAUST Repository

    Rhee, Jordan

    2010-01-27

    Rear-projected screens such as those in Digital Light Projection (DLP) televisions suffer from an image quality problem called hot spotting, where the image is brightest at a point dependent on the viewing angle. In rear-projected mulit-screen configurations such as the StarCAVE at Calit2, this causes discontinuities in brightness at the edges where screens meet, and thus in the 3D image perceived by the user. In the StarCAVE we know the viewer\\'s position in 3D space and we have programmable graphics hardware, so we can mitigate this effect by performing post-processing in the inverse of the pattern, yielding a homogenous image at the output. Our implementation improves brightness homogeneity by a factor of 4 while decreasing frame rate by only 1-3 fps.

  4. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  5. Calcium carbonate concretions in caves : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewelt, M.; Ek, C.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific work of the last twenty years on calcium carbonate cave deposits (dripstones and flowstones) is presented. Recent studies on speleothems composition, growth, age and paleoclimatic environment are examined. Main new results are related with the development of isotopic and radiometric dating methods. Increasing numbers of dates allow for statistical speleothem repartition studies which could be related with paleoclimates. Two new frequency curves of U-series ages data of speleothems are given. (M.C.B.)

  6. Sinkhole investigated at B.C. Hydro`s Bennett Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-07-01

    The cause of a sinkhole which appeared in a roadway crossing an earth filled dam in B. C., was discussed. The hole measured 6 ft. across and 20 ft. deep, and occurred in B.C. Hydro`s W.A.C. Bennett Dam which measures 600 ft. high, 2,600 ft. wide at the base and 35 ft. wide at the crest. The cause of the sinkhole is not known, but it is believed that a weakness in the dam may have found its way to the surface via a pipe connected to a bedrock settlement gauge buried within the dam. Sonar and ground penetrating radar were used to examine the area. The hole has been filled with gravel and monitoring continues. Experts do not anticipate immediate risk of dam failure. 1 fig.

  7. 76 FR 42654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Petition To List Grand Canyon Cave Pseudoscorpion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... from 1977 to 1978. Eight caves were examined including Babylon Cave, Crystal Forest Cave, Land's End...) describes examining the walls, ceilings, and floors for animals and invertebrates. He identified 12...

  8. Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rowberry, Matthew David; Martí, Xavier; Frontera, C.; Van De Wiel, M.J.; Briestenský, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, JUN (2016), 16-26 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : cave radon concentration * cave radon flux * cave ventilation * radioactive decay * fault slip * numerical modelling Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure; BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2016

  9. Depth Perception in Cave and Panorama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Strojan, Tadeja Zupancic

    2004-01-01

    This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three environme......, learning and training in virtual environments; in architectural education; and participatory design processes, in which the dialogue between real and imagined space may take place in virtual . reality environments...... environments and then locate them and identify their shape on scaled drawings.  Results are presented together with statistical analysis. In a discussion of the results, the paper addresses the two hypothetical assertions ? that depth perception in physical reality and its virtual representations in CAVE......This study compares aspects of spatial perception in a physical environment and its virtual representations in a CAVE and Panorama, derived from recent research. To measure accuracy of spatial perception, participants in an experiment were asked to look at identical objects in the three...

  10. Radiocarbon intercomparison program for Chauvet Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuzange, M.T.; Delque-Kolic, E.; Oberlin, C.; Goslar, T.; Grootes, P.M.; Nadeau, M.J.; Higham, T.; Ramsey, C.B.; Kaltnecker, E.; Paterne, M.; Valladas, H.; Van der Plicht, J.; Van der Plicht, J.; Clottes, J.; Geneste, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon intercomparison program on 3 different charcoal samples collected in one of the hearths of the Megaceros gallery of Chauvet Cave (Ardeche, France). This cave, rich in parietal decoration, is important for the study of the appearance and evolution of prehistoric art because certain drawings have been 14 C dated to the Aurignacian period at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. The new dates indicate an age of about 32,000 BP, which is consistent with this attribution and in agreement with the results from the same sector of the cave measured previously at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). Six laboratories were involved in the intercomparison. Samples were measured in 4 AMS facilities: Center for Isotope Research, Groningen University, the Netherlands; the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, UK; the Centre de datation par le carbone 14, Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France (measured by AMS facilities of Poznan University, Poland); and the LSCE, UMR CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, France (measured by the Leibniz-Labor of Christian-Albrechts-Universitat Kiel, Germany). (authors)

  11. An Investigation of Meromixis in Cave Pools, Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Levy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of permanent stratification in cave pools (meromixis may provide insight into the geochemical origin and evolution of cave pool waters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that some pools in Lechuguilla Cave may be subject to ectogenic meromixis, where permanent chemical stratification is induced by input of relatively saline or fresh water from an external source. However, because organic C concentrations in Lechuguilla waters are low (typically 0.9 m, and are probably the result of localized and transient atmospheric CO2(g concentrations. At LOBG, an EC increase of 93 µS cm-1 at the 0.9-m depth suggests meromictic conditions which are ectogenic, possibly due to surface inflow of fresh water as drips or seepage into a pre-existing layer of higher salinity.

  12. Exploring structures of the Rochefort Cave (Belgium) with 3D models from LIDAR scans and UAV photoscans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Kaufmann, O.; Le Mouelic, S.

    2016-12-01

    Amongst today's techniques that are able to produce 3D point clouds, LIDAR and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry are probably the most commonly used. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations. LIDAR scans create high resolution and high precision 3D point clouds, but such methods are generally costly, especially for sporadic surveys. Compared to LIDAR, UAV (e.g. drones) are cheap and flexible to use in different types of environments. Moreover, the photogrammetric processing workflow of digital images taken with UAV becomes easier with the rise of many affordable software packages (e.g., Agisoft PhotoScan, MicMac, VisualSFM). In this canvas, we present a challenging study made at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (South Belgium) comprising surface and underground surveys. The main chamber of the cave ( 10000 m³) was the principal target of the study. A LIDAR scan and an UAV photoscan were acquired underground, producing respective 3D models. An additional 3D photoscan was performed at the surface, in the sinkhole in direct connection with the main chamber. The main goal of the project is to combine this different datasets for quantifying the orientation of inaccessible geological structures (e.g. faults, tectonic and gravitational joints, and sediments bedding), and for comparing them to structural data surveyed on the field. To go through structural interpretations, we used a subsampling method merging neighboured model polygons that have similar orientations, allowing statistical analyses of polygons spatial distribution. The benefit of this method is to verify the spatial continuity of in-situ structural measurements to larger scale. Roughness and colorimetric/spectral analyses may also be of great interest for several geosciences purposes by discriminating different facies among the geological beddings. Amongst others, this study was helpful to precise the local petrophysical properties associated with particular geological layers, what

  13. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529–846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  14. Discovery of a diverse cave flora in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Alexandre K; Bystriakova, Nadia; Fu, Longfei; Wen, Fang; Wei, Yigang

    2018-01-01

    Few studies document plants in caves. Our field observations of a widespread and seemingly angiosperm-rich cave flora in SW China lead us to test the following hypotheses, 1) SW China caves contain a diverse vascular plant flora, 2) that this is a relic of a largely absent forest type lacking endemic species, and 3) that the light environment plants occupy in caves is not distinct from non-cave habitats. To do so we surveyed 61 caves and used species accumulation curves (SAC) to estimate the total diversity of this flora and used a subsample of 14 caves to characterise the light environment. We used regional floras and existing conservation assessments to evaluate the conservation value of this flora. We used observations on human disturbance within caves to evaluate anthropogenic activities. Four-hundred-and-eighteen vascular plant species were documented with SACs predicting a total diversity of 529-846. Ninety-three percent of the species documented are known karst forest species, 7% are endemic to caves and 81% of the species are angiosperms. We demonstrate that the light environment in caves is distinct to that of terrestrial habitats and that a subset of the flora likely grow in the lowest light levels documented for vascularised plants. Our results suggest that the proportion of species threatened with extinction is like that for the terrestrial habitat and that almost half of the entrance caverns sampled showed signs of human disturbance. We believe that this is the first time that such an extensive sample of cave flora has been undertaken and that such a diverse vascular plant flora has been observed in caves which we predict occurs elsewhere in SE Asia. We argue that the cave flora is an extension of the karst forest understory present prior to catastrophic deforestation in the 20thC. We suggest that within SW China caves serve as both refuges and a valuable source of germplasm for the restoration of karst forest. We also propose that caves represent a

  15. Radon in an underground cave system in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedt, J.C.; Boal, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radon levels in a cave system in Victoria have been measured. The variation of radon and radon progeny levels with time, position throughout the cave and season have been determined. The radiation exposure of tour guides were estimated. The data is being used to develop a radiation management plan for the tour guides. Radon concentration within a cave system was proven to be dependent to a large extent upon the rate of air exchange with outside. Cave ventilation is the single most important factor in determining if there is diurnal variation in the radon concentration

  16. Caves as observatories for atmospheric thermal tides: an example from Ascunsă Cave, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Drăgușin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a microclimate study at Ascunsă Cave, Romania, we used Gemini Tinytag Plus 2 data loggers to record cave air temperature variability. At one of the monitoring points we recognized the presence of semidiurnal cycles on the order of a few thousands of a degree Celsius that could be produced under the influence of the semidiurnal tidal components of the Sun (S2 or the Moon (M2. Using a Gemini Tinytag Plus 2 data logger with an external probe we measured core rock temperature and showed that it does not influence the cave air temperature on such short time scales. We thus rejected the possibility that Earth tides, mostly produced by the lunar tidal influence on the Earth’s crust, would have had a semidiurnal influence on cave air temperature. Moreover, time series analysis revealed a 12.00-hour periodicity in temperature data, specific for the S2, allowing us to assign these variations to the influence of the thermo-tidal action of the Sun. Using the Ideal Gas Law and assuming a constant volume and amount of air, we calculated that a theoretical change in atmospheric pressure of around 40 Pa was needed to produce the temperature changes we observed. This agrees with published values of atmospheric pressure changes induced by the semidiurnal solar component of the thermal tides (S2(t. We thus can assign the observed temperature changes to semidiurnal atmospheric pressure changes (S2(p induced by the thermal excitation of the Sun. Our study signals the possibility that readily available data from cave monitoring studies around the world could be used in the study of atmospheric tides. Moreover, it appears that Ascunsă Cave acts as a natural meteorological filter on a short time scale, removing the direct thermal influences of the Sun (especially night and day differences and preserving only the barometric information from the surface.

  17. Intrusion Detection Algorithm for Mitigating Sinkhole Attack on LEACH Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeeth Kumar Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor network (WSN, the sensors are deployed and placed uniformly to transmit the sensed data to a centralized station periodically. So, the major threat of the WSN network layer is sinkhole attack and it is still being a challenging issue on the sensor networks, where the malicious node attracts the packets from the other normal sensor nodes and drops the packets. Thus, this paper proposes an Intrusion Detection System (IDS mechanism to detect the intruder in the network which uses Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH protocol for its routing operation. In the proposed algorithm, the detection metrics, such as number of packets transmitted and received, are used to compute the intrusion ratio (IR by the IDS agent. The computed numeric or nonnumeric value represents the normal or malicious activity. As and when the sinkhole attack is captured, the IDS agent alerts the network to stop the data transmission. Thus, it can be a resilient to the vulnerable attack of sinkhole. Above all, the simulation result is shown for the proposed algorithm which is proven to be efficient compared with the existing work, namely, MS-LEACH, in terms of minimum computational complexity and low energy consumption. Moreover, the algorithm was numerically analyzed using TETCOS NETSIM.

  18. CORS911:Real-Time Subsidence Monitoring of the Napoleonville Salt Dome Sinkhole Using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The sinkhole associated with the Napoleonville salt dome in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, threatens the stability of Highway 70 - a state maintained route. To mitigate the potential damaging effects to the highway and address issues of public safety, a program of research and decision support has been implemented to provide long-term measurements of the surface stability using continuous operating GPS reference stations (CORS). Four CORS sites were installed in the vicinity of the sinkhole to measure the horizontal and vertical motions of each site relative to each other and a fixed location outside the study area. Differential motions measured by a integrity monitoring software are summarized for response agencies tasked with ensuring public safety and stability of the Highway, a designated hurricane evacuation route. Implementation experience and intermediate findings will be shared and discussed. Strategies for monitoring random and systematic biases detected in the system are presented. Figure depicting the location of CORS sites used to monitor surface stability along Highway 70 near the Bayou Corne Sinkhole.

  19. Hydrological characterization of cave drip waters in a porous limestone: Golgotha Cave, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Kashif; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Baker, Andy; Treble, Pauline C.

    2018-02-01

    Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a lidar-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with the least possible sampling artifacts. With the optimum sampling frequency, most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month, typically much longer, indicating ample storage of water feeding all stalactites investigated. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter-than-average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. The hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst flow paths when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the coefficient of variation (COV) between flow classification types, probably reflecting the ample storage due to the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type. Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling (MDS) and clustering by k means is used to classify similar drip types based on time series

  20. Hydrological characterization of cave drip waters in a porous limestone: Golgotha Cave, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mahmud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a lidar-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with the least possible sampling artifacts. With the optimum sampling frequency, most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month, typically much longer, indicating ample storage of water feeding all stalactites investigated. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter-than-average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. The hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst flow paths when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the coefficient of variation (COV between flow classification types, probably reflecting the ample storage due to the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type. Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling (MDS and clustering by k means is used to classify similar drip

  1. Identification of karst sinkholes in a forested karst landscape using airborne laser scanning data and water flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofierka, Jaroslav; Gallay, Michal; Bandura, Peter; Šašak, Ján

    2018-05-01

    Karst sinkholes (dolines) play an important role in a karst landscape by controlling infiltration of surficial water, air flow or spatial distribution of solar energy. These landforms also present a limiting factor for human activities in agriculture or construction. Therefore, mapping such geomorphological forms is vital for appropriate landscape management and planning. There are several mapping techniques available; however, their applicability can be reduced in densely forested areas with poor accessibility and visibility of the landforms. In such conditions, airborne laser scanning (ALS) provides means for efficient and accurate mapping of both land and landscape canopy surfaces. Taking the benefits of ALS into account, we present an innovative method for identification and evaluation of karst sinkholes based on numerical water flow modelling. The suggested method was compared to traditional techniques for sinkhole mapping which use topographic maps and digital terrain modelling. The approach based on simulation of a rainfall event very closely matched the reference datasets derived by manual inspection of the ALS digital elevation model and field surveys. However, our process-based approach provides advantage of assessing the magnitude how sinkholes influence concentration of overland water flow during extreme rainfall events. This was performed by calculating the volume of water accumulated in sinkholes during the simulated rainfall. In this way, the influence of particular sinkholes on underground geomorphological systems can be assessed. The method was demonstrated in a case study of Slovak Karst in the West Carpathians where extreme rainfalls or snow-thaw events occur annually. We identified three spatially contiguous groups of sinkholes with a different effect on overland flow concentration. These results are discussed in relation to the known underground hydrological systems.

  2. A geochronological approach for cave evolution in the Cantabrian Coast (Pindal Cave, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Sanchez, M.; Bischoff, J.L.; Stoll, H.; Aranburu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the oldest speleothems in the North Cantabrian Coast (Spain) are reported for the first time in this work. Pindal Cave is developed at 24 m above sea level, in a karstic massif reaching its highest surface in a marine terrace (rasa) located at 50-64 m above the present sea level. Several phases of evolution were previously recognized into the cave, including block collapse of the roof, episodic flooding and detrital sedimentation, and chemical precipitation of at least four speleothem generations over both alluvial and collapse deposits. Three of these speleothem generations have been dated by U/Th. The first generation yielded ages from 124,2 ?? 1, 5 ka BP to 73,1 ?? 0,9 ka BP, giving a minimum age for the main detritic sediments in the cave. The second one is not dated. The third generation gives an age of 3,71 ?? 0,4 ka BP (mathematically corrected to 2.7 ?? 0.5 ka BP), while for the youngest generation, with actively growing stalagmites in the cave, basal ages of 200 years BP are estimated by counting annual laminae. The data suggest a tentative maximum elevation rate close to 0, 2 mm/yr for the Cantabrian Margin in this area, although further chronological studies will be needed to check this hypothesis. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  3. Environmental record in detrital cave sediments in the Botovskaya and Dolganskaya Jama caves (Russian Federation)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisá, Lenka; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Chadima, Martin; Hercman, H.; Oberhansli, H.; Osincev, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), A10273-A10273 ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 02.04.2006-07.04.2006, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave * sediments * micromorphology * magnetic properties * provenance Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU06/10273/EGU06-J-10273-2.pdf

  4. World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS: a new Thematic Species Database for marine and anchialine cave biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Gerovasileiou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant information remains fragmented in isolated publications and databases. This fragmentation makes assessing the conservation status of marine cave species especially problematic, and this issue should be addressed urgently given the stresses resulting from planned and rampant development in the coastal zone worldwide. The goal of the World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS initiative is to create a comprehensive taxonomic and ecological database of known species from marine caves and anchialine systems worldwide and to present this as a Thematic Species Database (TSD of the World Register of marine Species (WoRMS. WoRCS will incorporate ecological data (e.g., type of environment, salinity regimes, and cave zone as well as geographical information on the distribution of species in cave and anchialine environments. Biodiversity data will be progressively assembled from individual database sources at regional, national or local levels, as well as from literature sources (estimate: >20,000 existing records of cave-dwelling species scattered in several databases. Information will be organized in the WoRCS database following a standard glossary based on existing terminology. Cave-related information will be managed by the WoRCS thematic editors with all data dynamically linked to WoRMS and its team of taxonomic editors. In order to mobilize data into global biogeographic databases, a Gazetteer of the Marine and Anchialine Caves of the World will be established. The presence records of species could be eventually georeferenced for submission to the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS and constitute an important dataset for biogeographical and

  5. Mesolithic burial place in La Martina Cave (Dinant, Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, M.; Gilot, E.; Groessens-Van-Dyck, M.C.; Cordy, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The ''La Martina'' cave is located near Dinant (Belgium). Although the sediments had been shoveled out in the mid XIXth century, a calcic breccia has provided prehistoric bones. We can distinguish a Pleistocene fauna with cave bear, one Mesolithic burial place with two cromagnoid skeletons, from the 6th millennium BC, and some Holocene faunal remains. (authors). 7 refs

  6. Radon Exposures in the Caves of Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinza-Molina, C.; Alcaide, J.M.; Rodriques-Bethencourt, R.; Hernandez-Armas, J.

    1999-01-01

    There are more than a hundred volcanic caves and pits of various lengths on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The results are presented of atmospheric radon measurements performed in three of these caves and in three pits. One of the caves selected, El Viento Cave, is nearly 20 km in length and is the longest volcanic tube in the Canarian archipelago and the second longest in the world. The measurements were performed over two distinct periods during the year using passive polycarbonate detectors. The mean radon concentrations range between 0.3 and 8 kBq.m -3 , the maximum value corresponds to a site located at 1850 m from the mouth of El Viento Cave. Possible touristic development of these caves has been taken into account in estimating the effective doses for visitors and guides (considered separately). The values obtained range from 0.3 to 100 μSv per visit for visitors. The largest effective dose would correspond to that for guides at 41 mSv.y -1 in the Viento Cave. This result would make protection against radiological hazards obligatory if the cave were to be developed as a site for tourism. (author)

  7. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting {alpha} particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 {approx} 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m{sup 3}. With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m{sup 3} and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m{sup 3} suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor.

  8. Measurements of radon concentrations at caves in Jeju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Jung, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas emitting α particles. It is chemically stable due to its inert characteristic. While its daughter products, 218 Po, 214 Bi, 214 Pb and 214 Po, attached with aerosol particles, is known to cause lung cancer. As radon is produced from uranium and thorium, it accumulates in poorly ventilative underground voids such as caves and mine. Radon concentrations at caves in Jeju were measured in this study. The measurements were made by setting three CR-39 detectors for 70 days at 2 ∼ 4 positions in Manjang, Hyupjae and Ssangyong caves. The radon levels of the caves spread 403.1 . 606.7 Bq/m 3 . With these results, it is concluded that the Jeju caves have 6 times higher radon concentrations than ordinary house of 65.3 Bq/m 3 and that they are higher than Seoul subway stations due to poor ventilation. While, the caves in Jeju have lower radon concentrations than limestone caves of Robin Hood. The radon concentration in the middle of Manjang cave is slightly higher than the action level in the work place of 500 Bq/m 3 suggested by the ICRP. The measurement errors are estimated to be less than 5 % from its calibration factor

  9. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  10. Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Fadi H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon. The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes. The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show δ18OV-PDB values of about -5.0‰ and δ13C V-PDB values of -11.8‰, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in δ18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2‰, and δ13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1‰. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals ‘invading’ the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes, and the slight depletion in δ18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated δ18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2‰ matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

  11. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  12. A cave response to environmental changes in the Late Pleistocene: a study of Budimirica Cave sediments, Macedonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Temovski, M.; Pruner, Petr; Hercman, H.; Bosák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2016), s. 307-316 ISSN 1330-030X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : cave sediments * palaeoenvironmental changes * Late Pleistocene * Budimirica Cave * Macedonia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.595, year: 2016 http://www. geologia -croatica.hr/ojs/index.php/GC

  13. World Register of marine Cave Species (WoRCS): a new Thematic Species Database for marine and anchialine cave biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Martínez, Alejandro; Álvarez, Fernando; Boxshall, Geoff; Humphreys, William F.; Jaume, Damià; Becking, L.E.; Muricy, Guilherme; Hengstum, van Peter J.; Dekeyzer, Stefanie; Decock, Wim; Vanhoorne, Bart; Vandepitte, Leen; Bailly, Nicolas; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific exploration of marine cave environments and anchialine ecosystems over recent decades has led to outstanding discoveries of novel taxa, increasing our knowledge of biodiversity. However, biological research on underwater caves has taken place only in a few areas of the world and relevant

  14. A Centralized Detection of Sinkhole Attacks Based on Energy Level of the Nodes on Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Nilay Aydın

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks is consist of thousands of small and low-cost devices, which communicate over wireless medium. Due to locating in harsh environment and having limited resources, WSN is prone to various attacks. One of the most dangerous attacks threatening WSN is the sinkhole attack. In this paper, sinkhole attack is modelled on a cluster-based WSN, and a centralized detection algorithm based on the remaining energies of the nodes is proposed. The simulations were run for different values of energy thresholds and various numbers of nodes. The performance of the system was investigated over total energy consumption in the system, the number of packets arrived at base station and true detection rate of the sinkhole node(s. The results showed that the proposed method is energy-efficient and detects the malicious nodes with a 100% accuracy for all number of nodes.

  15. Integrating geomorphological mapping, InSAR, GPR and trenching for the identification and investigation of buried sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Lucha, Pedro; Bonachea, Jaime; Castañeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    The first and most important step in sinkhole hazard analysis is the construction of a cartographic sinkhole inventory. The effectiveness of the mitigation measures and the reliability of the susceptibility and hazard maps will depend on the completeness and accuracy of the sinkhole inventories on which they are based. Sinkhole data bases preferably should include information on the following aspects: (1) Precise location of the sinkholes edges. (2) Morphometric parameters. (3) Geomorphological and hydrological context. (4) Genetic type; that is subsidence mechanisms and material affected by subsidence. (5) Chronology; this information is essential to calculate probability of occurrence values. (6) Active or inactive character. (7) Kinematical regime (gradual, episodic or mixed). (8) Current and/or long-term subsidence rates. (9) Evolution of the subsidence and its relationship with causal factors. Sinkholes are generally mapped using conventional geomorphological methods like aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. However, the usefulness of these methods may be limited in areas where the geomorphic expression of sinkholes has been obliterated by natural processes or anthropogenic fill. Additionally, gaining data on some of the practical aspects indicated above requires the application of other techniques. In this contribution we present the main findings learnt through the construction of a sinkhole inventory in a terrace of the Ebro River valley (NE Spain). The study area covers around 27.5 ha and is located west of Zaragoza city. The bedrock consists of subhorizontal evaporites including gypsum, halite and glauberite. The terrace is situated at 7-10 m above the channel and the alluvium, 10-30 m thick, is composed of unconsolidated gravels and subordinate fines. Previous studies carried out in this sector of the valley reveal that: (1) Three main types of sinkholes may be differentiated: cover collapse, cover and bedrock collapse, and cover and

  16. Seven Possible Cave Skylights on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Seven very dark holes on the north slope of a Martian volcano have been proposed as possible cave skylights, based on day-night temperature patterns suggesting they are openings to subsurface spaces. These six excerpts of images taken in visible-wavelength light by the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter show the seven openings. Solar illumination comes from the left in each frame. The volcano is Arsia Mons, at 9 degrees south latitude, 239 degrees east longitude. The features have been given informal names to aid comparative discussion (see figure 1). They range in diameter from about 100 meters (328 feet) to about 225 meters (738 feet). The candidate cave skylights are (A) 'Dena,' (B) 'Chloe,' (C) 'Wendy,' (D) 'Annie,' (E) 'Abby' (left) and 'Nikki,' and (F) 'Jeanne.' Arrows signify north and the direction of illumination. Mars Odyssey is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The orbiter's Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, Santa Barbara, Calif., and is operated by Arizona State University.

  17. Overview of the geophysical studies in the Dead Sea coastal area related to evaporite karst and recent sinkhole development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Ezersky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 80s, a progressively increasing number of sinkholes appeared along the Dead Sea coastal line. It has been found that their appearance is strongly correlating with the lowering of the Dead Sea level taking place with the rate of approximately 1 m/yr. Location of areas affected by sinkhole development corresponds to location of the salt formation deposited during the latest Pleistocene, when the Lake Lisan receded to later become the Dead Sea. Water flowing to the Dead Sea from adjacent and underlying aquifers dissolves salt and creates caverns that cause ground subsidence and consequent formation of sinkholes. Before subsidence, these caverns are not visible on the surface but can be investigated with surface geophysical methods. For that, we applied Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR, Transient Electromagnetic (TEM Seismic refraction and reflection, Multichannel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW, microgravity and magnetic surveys and their combinations. Our geophysical results allowed us to locate the salt formation and to detect caverns in salt thus contributing to better understanding sinkhole development mechanisms. Comparison of sinkhole appearance along the western DS shore derived from the recent database (2017 shows that predictions made on the base of geophysical data (2005-2008 are now confirmed thus demonstrating efficiency of our study. In this paper, we briefly present a summary of up to date knowledge of the geology and hydrogeology of Dead Sea basin, of the physical properties of the salt rock and the most popular models explaining mechanisms of sinkhole development. We also share our experience gained during geophysical studies carried out in the framework of national and international research projects in this area for the last 20 years.

  18. Advances in detecting localized road damage due to sinkholes induced by engineering works using high resolution RASARSAT-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Zebker, H. A.; Lakshmi, V.

    2016-12-01

    Sinkholes often occur in karst terrains such as found in central and eastern Pennsylvania. Voids produced by dissolution of carbonate rocks can result in soil transport leading to localized, gradual or rapid, sinking of the land surface. A cluster of sinkholes developed in 2000 around a small rural community beside Bushkill creek near a limestone quarry, and severely destroyed road bridges and railway tracks. At a cost of $6 million, the Pennsylvania DoT replaced the bridge, which was damaged again in 2004 by newly developed sinkholes likely associated with quarry's pumping activity. Here we present high-resolution spaceborne interferometric radar images of sinkhole development on this community. We show that this technique may be used to monitor regions with high sinkhole damage risk and assist future infrastructure route planning, especially in rural areas where hydrogeologic information is limited. Specifically, we processed 66 RADARSAT-2 interferograms to extract deformation occurred over Bushkill creek between Jun. 2015 and Mar. 2016 with a temporal resolution of 24 days. We advanced recent persistent scatterer techniques to preserve meter-level spatial resolution in the interferograms while minimizing temporal decorrelation and phase unwrapping error. We observe periodic deformation due to pumping activity at the quarry and localized subsidence along Bushkill creek that is co-located with recent reported sinkholes. We plan to use the automatic processing techniques developed for this study to study road damage in another region in Pennsylvania, along Lewiston Narrows, and also to monitor urban infrastructure improvements in Seattle, both again with RASARSAT-2 data. Our results demonstrate that recent advances in satellite geodesy can be transferred to benefit society beyond the science community.

  19. The Investigation of a Sinkhole Area in Germany by Near-Surface Active Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschache, S.; Becker, D.; Wadas, S. H.; Polom, U.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    In November 2010, a 30 m wide and 17 m deep sinkhole occurred in a residential area of Schmalkalden, Germany, which fortunately did not harm humans, but led to damage of buildings and property. Subsequent geoscientific investigations showed that the collapse was naturally caused by the subrosion of sulfates in a depth of about 80 m. In 2012, an early warning system was established including 3C borehole geophones deployed in 50 m depth around the backfilled sinkhole. During the acquisition of two shallow 2D shear wave seismic profiles, the signals generated by a micro-vibrator at the surface were additionally recorded by the four borehole geophones of the early warning system and a VSP probe in a fifth borehole. The travel time analysis of the direct arrivals enhanced the understanding of wave propagation in the area. Seismic velocity anomalies were detected and related to structural seismic images of the 2D profiles. Due to the promising first results, the experiment was further extended by distributing vibration points throughout the whole area around the sinkhole. This time, micro-vibrators for P- and S-wave generation were used. The signals were recorded by the borehole geophones and temporary installed seismometers at surface positions close to the boreholes. The travel times and signal attenuations are evaluated to detect potential instable zones. Furthermore, array analyses are performed. The first results reveal features in the active tomography datasets consistent with structures observed in the 2D seismic images. The advantages of the presented method are the low effort and good repeatability due to the permanently installed borehole geophones. It has the potential to determine P-wave and S-wave velocities in 3D. It supports the interpretation of established investigation methods as 2D surface seismics and VSP. In our further research we propose to evaluate the suitability of the method for the time lapse monitoring of changes in the seismic wave

  20. Eogenetic caves in conglomerate: an example from Udin Boršt, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipar Matej

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Udin Boršt is a karstified terrace of carbonate rock, which is of fluvioglacial origin, and is situated in the north-western part of Slovenia. There are 15 registered caves, which have been interpreted as caves in conglomerate, while karst of Udin Boršt itself was interpreted as conglomerate karst, shallow karst or isolated karst. In this article, caves in Udin Boršt have been interpreted as eogenetic caves. Based on porosity and bedding material, different types of caves and cave passages have developed. Four general types of eogenetic caves found in Udin Boršt are; linear stream caves, shelter caves, breakdown caves and vadose shafts.

  1. Seasonal variation of fatty acids from drip water in Heshang Cave, central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiuli; Wang Canfa; Huang Junhua; Hu Chaoyong; Xie Shucheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A 2-year monitoring to investigate the seasonal variation of fatty acids in cave drip water. → Microbes are the dominant source for fatty acids in drip water. → The relative abundance of mono-unsaturated responds negatively with external air temperature. - Abstract: In order to investigate how lipids in cave water respond to seasonal climate change, drip water samples were collected from 2006 to 2008 in Heshang Cave, central China for fatty acid analysis. These lipids are abundant in the drip water. Their compositions are dominated by lower-molecular-weight nC16:0, nC18:0 and nC14:0 acids, together with mono-unsaturated nC18:1, nC16:1 and nC14:1. Analysis of one water sample revealed marked differences between the dissolved and particulate fractions. The dissolved fraction contains total fatty acids one order of magnitude higher than that of the particulate fraction. The distributional patterns of the fatty acids suggest that microbes living in the overlying soils and/or groundwater system contribute most fatty acids to the drip water. This 2-a monitoring experiment reveals that the abundance of mono-unsaturated fatty acids relative to the saturated homologues (nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0) relate inversely to the changes of synchronous external air temperature. Higher values occur under cold conditions (winter/spring), while lower values appear in warm intervals (summer). Further studies are needed to elucidate the dynamic processes by which the external temperature affects fatty acids in drip water and to confirm the potential application of fatty acid ratios such as nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0 in paleotemperature reconstructions.

  2. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  3. Radon in the Creswell Crags Permian limestone caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillmore, G.K.; Phillips, P.S.; Denman, A.R.; Gilbertson, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of radon levels in the caves of Creswell Crags, Derbyshire, an important Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) shows that the Lower Magnesian Limestone (Permian) caves have moderate to raised radon gas levels (27-7800 Bq m -3 ) which generally increase with increasing distance into the caves from the entrance regions. This feature is partly explained in terms of cave ventilation and topography. While these levels are generally below the Action Level in the workplace (400 Bq m -3 in the UK), they are above the Action Level for domestic properties (200 Bq m -3 ). Creswell Crags has approximately 40,000 visitors per year and therefore a quantification of effective dose is important for both visitors and guides to the Robin Hood show cave. Due to short exposure times the dose received by visitors is low (0.0016 mSv/visit) and regulations concerning exposure are not contravened. Similarly, the dose received by guides is fairly low (0.4 mSv/annum) due in part to current working practice. However, the risk to researchers entering the more inaccessible areas of the cave system is higher (0.06 mSv/visit). This survey also investigated the effect of seasonal variations on recorded radon concentration. From this work summer to winter ratios of between 1.1 and 9.51 were determined for different locations within the largest cave system

  4. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France-both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  5. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.

    2005-01-01

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm -3 . The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm -3 . However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm -3 . Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  6. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

  7. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  8. Uranium-series dating of fossil bones from alpine caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner-Wild, E.; Steffan, I.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of an investigation of fossil cave bear populations the uranium-series method for absolute age determination has been applied to bone material. The applicability of the method to bone samples from alpine caves is demonstrated by the concordance of U/Th and U/Pa ages and cross-checks with the radiocarbon method. Stratigraphic agreement between bone ages and carbonate speleothem ages also indicates the potential of the uranium-series method as a suitable tool for the age determination of fossil bones from alpine cave environments. (Author)

  9. ComputerApplications and Virtual Environments (CAVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) can provide cost effective methods to design and evaluate components and systems for maintenance and refurbishment operations. The Marshall Space Flight Centerr (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama began to utilize VR for design analysis in the X-34 experimental reusable space vehicle. Analysts at MSFC's Computer Applications and Virtual Environments (CAVE) used Head Mounted Displays (HMD) (pictured), spatial trackers and gesture inputs as a means to animate or inhabit a properly sized virtual human model. These models were used in a VR scenario as a way to determine functionality of space and maintenance requirements for the virtual X-34. The primary functions of the virtual X-34 mockup was to support operations development and design analysis for engine removal, the engine compartment and the aft fuselage. This capability provided general visualization support to engineers and designers at MSFC and to the System Design Freeze Review at Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The X-34 program was cancelled in 2001.

  10. A geosynthetic reinforcement solution to prevent the formation of localized sinkholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, P.; Gourc, J. P.; Giraud, H. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LIRIGM, Grenoble (France)

    2000-10-01

    A research program to guard against the risk of accidents linked to the presence of small diameter cavities under both road and railway lines is described. The program involves study of the complex behaviour of the overlying fill in the event of sinkhole formation, given that the deformation of the geosynthetic membrane results from the progressive loading of the overlying soil layer and not from the collapse of the underlying soil. Full-scale tests were carried out on reinforced, instrumented road and railway structures subjected to localized collapse. Experimental work was accompanied by a numerical study of the mechanics involved in sinkhole formation. Experimental results were analyzed and compared with the results of the three-dimensional finite element modeling. Similarity of the results suggests that formation of a stable arch for two metre cavities and an unstable arch for four metre cavities, filled with 1.5 m thick fill consisting of large grain size granular material, is satisfactory for small diameter cavities at moderate depths. However, this solution is not suitable for large large diameter cavities at moderate depths. 18 refs., 22 figs.

  11. Sinkhole formation and hydrogeological situation at the salt mining area of Solotvyno, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, L.; Banks, V.

    2017-12-01

    In Solotvyno, Ukraine, several salt mines were unexpectedly flooded in the recent past. As a result, dozens of sinkholes formed and are still forming with diameters up to 250 m. A one month advisory mission by the European Commission was launched in fall 2016 to conduct a risk assessment. The former mining area is situated in close vicinity to the river Theiss, which is the largest contributory of the largest river in Europe: the Danube. As river contamination by the release of large quantities of saltwater would lead to an international disaster, hydrogeological measurements were taken on-site to study the system. Saturated (hyper-saline) water as well as fresh surface and groundwater were encountered in different locations of the former mining area. Water samples were analyzed for chemistry and stable isotopes at BGR revealing insight into groundwater flow dynamics. Satellite imaging and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were applied to study ground movements and evaluate the risk of further collapses. A resulting conceptual model explains the processes of sinkhole formation as well as the natural restoration of the salt dome prior to mining operations. This study shows the advantage of an interdisciplinary approach to conduct a risk assessment in the case of large mine collapses.

  12. Structural analysis of S-wave seismics around an urban sinkhole: evidence of enhanced dissolution in a strike-slip fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja H.; Tanner, David C.; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-12-01

    In November 2010, a large sinkhole opened up in the urban area of Schmalkalden, Germany. To determine the key factors which benefited the development of this collapse structure and therefore the dissolution, we carried out several shear-wave reflection-seismic profiles around the sinkhole. In the seismic sections we see evidence of the Mesozoic tectonic movement in the form of a NW-SE striking, dextral strike-slip fault, known as the Heßleser Fault, which faulted and fractured the subsurface below the town. The strike-slip faulting created a zone of small blocks ( sinkholes and dissolution-induced depressions. Since the processes are still ongoing, the occurrence of a new sinkhole cannot be ruled out. This case study demonstrates how S-wave seismics can characterize a sinkhole and, together with geological information, can be used to study the processes that result in sinkhole formation, such as a near-surface fault zone located in soluble rocks. The more complex the fault geometry and interaction between faults, the more prone an area is to sinkhole occurrence.

  13. Raw data report: Cave Valley orientation study, Lund 10 x 20 NTMS area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchlik, K.P.; Holder, B.E.; Smith, C.F.

    1977-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Cave Valley, Nevada, orientation study in the Lund 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle of the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS). Wet, dry, and playa sediment samples were collected throughout the 360 km 2 semi-arid, closed basin. Water samples were collected at the few available streams and springs. In addition to neutron activation analysis for uranium and 15 to 20 trace elements on all samples, field and laboratory measurements were made on water samples. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tabular hardcopy and fiche format. Four full-size overlays for use with the Lund NTMS 1:250,000 quadrangle are included. Water site locations, water sample uranium concentration, sediment site locations, and sediment sample total uranium concentration are shown on the separate overlays. A general description of the area and the rock type distribution is presented

  14. Detection and localization capability of an urban seismic sinkhole monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Dirk; Dahm, Torsten; Schneider, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    Microseismic events linked to underground processes in sinkhole areas might serve as precursors to larger mass dislocation or rupture events which can cause felt ground shaking or even structural damage. To identify these weak and shallow events, a sensitive local seismic monitoring network is needed. In case of an urban environment the performance of local monitoring networks is severely compromised by the high anthropogenic noise level. We study the detection and localization capability of such a network, which is already partly installed in the urban area of the city of Hamburg, Germany, within the joint project SIMULTAN (http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/en/section/near-surface-geophysics/projects/simultan/). SIMULTAN aims to monitor a known sinkhole structure and gain a better understanding of the underlying processes. The current network consists of six surface stations installed in the basement of private houses and underground structures of a research facility (DESY - Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron). During the started monitoring campaign since 2015, no microseismic events could be unambiguously attributed to the sinkholes. To estimate the detection and location capability of the network, we calculate synthetic waveforms based on the location and mechanism of former events in the area. These waveforms are combined with the recorded urban seismic noise at the station sites. As detection algorithms a simple STA/LTA trigger and a more sophisticated phase detector are used. While the STA/LTA detector delivers stable results and is able to detect events with a moment magnitude as low as 0.35 at a distance of 1.3km from the source even under the present high noise conditions the phase detector is more sensitive but also less stable. It should be stressed that due to the local near surface conditions of the wave propagation the detections are generally performed on S- or surface waves and not on P-waves, which have a significantly lower amplitude. Due to the often

  15. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  16. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering residues from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area of perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  17. Urban landscape and architectural workshop Škocjan Caves 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Mahovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aim and purpose of the Škocjan Caves 2007 student workshop was for students participating in the seminar of the Faculty of Architecture in Ljubljana to recognise and address some specific spatial and design issues for the further sustainable development of the Škocjan Caves. The working hypothesis of the workshop was that, in spite of significant results in the protection and development of the Caves which have been achieved in the past ten years, it is still necessary to address some spatial issues through an academic process, and to offer different architectural and spatial solutions. The aforesaid is even more important as the Caves are recognised as the only natural and cultural heritage of the Republic of Slovenia to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1986.

  18. Center for Advanced Energy Studies: Computer Assisted Virtual Environment (CAVE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The laboratory contains a four-walled 3D computer assisted virtual environment - or CAVE TM — that allows scientists and engineers to literally walk into their data...

  19. Luminescence dating at Rose cottage cave: a progress report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Woodborne, S

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Deal with infrared-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence dates from Rose Cottage Cave in South Africa. Discrepancy between luminescence and radiocarbon dates; Concentration of radioactive elements in sediments before and after leaching...

  20. Ancient photosynthetic eukaryote biofilms in an Atacama Desert coastal cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azua-Bustos, A.; Gonzalez-Silva, C.; Mancilla, R.A.; Salas, L.; Palma, R.E.; Wynne, J.J.; McKay, C.P.; Vicuna, R.

    2009-01-01

    Caves offer a stable and protected environment from harsh and changing outside prevailing conditions. Hence, they represent an interesting habitat for studying life in extreme environments. Here, we report the presence of a member of the ancient eukaryote red algae Cyanidium group in a coastal cave of the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This microorganism was found to form a seemingly monospecific biofilm growing under extremely low photon flux levels. Our work suggests that this species, Cyanidium sp. Atacama, is a new member of a recently proposed novel monophyletic lineage of mesophilic "cave" Cyanidium sp., distinct from the remaining three other lineages which are all thermo-acidophilic. The cave described in this work may represent an evolutionary island for life in the midst of the Atacama Desert. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  1. Simultaneous caving and surface restoration system for oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allsman, P.T.

    1968-10-01

    A modified caving method is introduced for mining oil shale and simultaneous restoration of the land surface by return of spent shale onto the subsided area. Other methods have been designed to mine the relatively thin richer beds occurring near outcrops in the Piceance Creek Basin of NW. Colorado. Since the discovery of the much thicker beds in the N.-central part of the basin, some attention has focused on in situ and open-pit methods of recovery. Although caving has been recognized as a possible means of mining shale, most people have been skeptical of its success. This stems from the unknown and salient factors of cavability and size of broken rock with caving. Wisdom would seem to dictate that serious evaluation of the caving method be made along with the other methods.

  2. Minerals cave, Volcan Irazu, Costa Rica: description, mineralogy and origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Andres; Campos-Fernandez, Cristian S.; Rojas, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Two caves are found in the NW sector of the main crater of the Volcan Irazu at the base of the crown of a glide. The caves are located in an area of structural weakness of the massif developed in sequences of pyroclasts with hydrothermal alteration. Several explorations are organized for the recognition of the caves. The purpose has been of collecting samples and photographs for mineralogical and topographic analyses, through X-ray diffractometry. The minerals present in the samples are compared and identified by means of PDF-2 power x-ray diffraction database of the 2007 ICDD, International Center for Diffraction Data. The origin of the caves has been studied, and it is suggested to carry out other of complement studies [es

  3. Coordinated motility of cyanobacteria favor mat formation, photosynthesis and carbon burial in low-oxygen, high-sulfur shallow sinkholes of Lake Huron; whereas deep-water aphotic sinkholes are analogs of deep-sea seep and vent ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, B. A.; McMillan, A. C.; Long, S. A.; Snider, M. J.; Weinke, A. D.; Dick, G.; Ruberg, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial life in submerged sinkhole ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes is relatively understudied in comparison to seeps and vents of the deep-sea. We studied the filamentous benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes. Measured speed of individual filaments ranged from 50 µm minute-1 or 15 body lengths minute-1 to 215 µm minute-1 or 70 body lengths minute-1 - rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis towards pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield - suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon the mat in intact sediemnt cores were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles - likely facilitating the preservation of falling plankton debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats where life operates across sharp redox gradients. Analogous cyanobacterial motility in the shallow seas during Earth's early history, may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while favoring carbon burial. We are now eagerly mapping and exploring life in deep-water aphotic sinkholes of

  4. The cost of karst subsidence and sinkhole collapse in the United States compared with other natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Rocks with potential for karst formation are found in all 50 states. Damage due to karst subsidence and sinkhole collapse is a natural hazard of national scope. Repair of damage to buildings, highways, and other infrastructure represents a significant national cost. Sparse and incomplete data show that the average cost of karst-related damages in the United States over the last 15 years is estimated to be at least $300,000,000 per year and the actual total is probably much higher. This estimate is lower than the estimated annual costs for other natural hazards; flooding, hurricanes and cyclonic storms, tornadoes, landslides, earthquakes, or wildfires, all of which average over $1 billion per year. Very few state organizations track karst subsidence and sinkhole damage mitigation costs; none occurs at the Federal level. Many states discuss the karst hazard in their State hazard mitigation plans, but seldom include detailed reports of subsidence incidents or their mitigation costs. Most State highway departments do not differentiate karst subsidence or sinkhole collapse from other road repair costs. Amassing of these data would raise the estimated annual cost considerably. Information from insurance organizations about sinkhole damage claims and payouts is also not readily available. Currently there is no agency with a mandate for developing such data. If a more realistic estimate could be made, it would illuminate the national scope of this hazard and make comparison with costs of other natural hazards more realistic.

  5. Hydroregime prediction models for ephemeral groundwater-driven sinkhole wetlands: a planning tool for climate change and amphibian conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Greenberg; S. Goodrick; J. D. Austin; B. R. Parresol

    2015-01-01

    Hydroregimes of ephemeral wetlands affect reproductive success of many amphibian species and are sensitive to altered weather patterns associated with climate change.We used 17 years of weekly temperature, precipitation, and waterdepth measurements for eight small, ephemeral, groundwaterdriven sinkhole wetlands in Florida sandhills to develop a hydroregime predictive...

  6. Glacial origin for cave rhythmite during MIS 5d-c in a glaciokarst landscape, Picos de Europa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Giralt, Santiago; DeFelipe, Irene; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín

    2017-06-01

    Laminated slackwater deposits have been identified in many karst caves related to fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation. However, sedimentological evidence rarely supports a glacial origin for these deposits, which was proposed by previous studies. The Torca La Texa shaft is located in a glaciokarst area that comprises numerous slackwater-type deposits, piled up in fining-upward sequences. A basal sandy erosive layer and millimeter-sized laminated rhythmite with interbedded flowstone characterize these sequences. Fining-upward layers of carbonate silt, clay, and minor quartz sand deposited in flooded conduits define the rhythmite lamination. The presence of allochthonous minerals indicates that the rhythmite sediment comes from the glacial erosion of nearby carbonate mountains. Two 234U/230Th radiometric ages dated the rhythmite deposits around 109 and 95 ka, coinciding with relative cold periods included in the MIS 5d-c. These cold periods were marked by a high annual seasonality, immediately after the glacial local maximum extension, in agreement with a varve-type deposit. The combination of these sedimentological mineralogical, geomorphological and paleoclimate information indicates that the rhythmite should be introduced into the studied cave during the summer melting of the glaciers, which produced the recharge of the karst aquifer, triggering cave floods. In addition, punctual glacier collapses would also have their imprint in the slackwater sequences with thicker, coarser and erosive sand deposits and the spring blocking by glaciers may have promoted floods inside the cave. Therefore, the studied rhythmite can be interpreted as glacial varves decanted during the relatively cold climate conditions.

  7. Exposure of tour guides to Radon at the Cango caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pule, O.J.; Lindsay, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A study was commissioned by the National Nuclear Regulator of South Africa to investigate the radon levels in the Cango caves and the associated radiological exposure to tour guides. The Cango caves are about 1.3 km in length and are visited by about 300000 tourists per annum due to their natural beauty. This study followed an earlier investigation by the Department of Health which indicated levels in excess of 1000 Bqm -3 which could lead to excess exposure of the cave tour guides. Radon in the various cave chambers and radon exposure of tour guides was measured using RAD-7 continuous radon monitor, electrets ion chambers and personnel monitoring electrets respectively. The measurements in the cave were done during summer and winter seasons to determine any variations between the seasons. The occupancy time for individual guides and equilibrium factor were also investigated. The radon concentration in the cave range from 1000 Bqm -3 to more than 2000 Bqm -3 with equilibrium factor of approximately 0.4, and the variation between winter and summer measurements are insignificant. The radon exposure levels to tour guides differ due to various time periods they spent in the caves. The average dose to tour guides due to radon is 7 mSv -a and the highest exposure is about 10 mSv -a . The exposure to tourists is found to be insignificant due to time they spent in the cave. The regulatory authority is currently investigating what action is necessary to protect the tour guides. (author)

  8. Near surface geophysics techniques and geomorphological approach to reconstruct the hazard cave map in historical and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, M.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-04-01

    investigation has been carried out, integrating the method of ERT (a multielectrode system with a Wenner-Schlumberger array layout) with the GPR (profiles were obtained using a SIR 2000-GSSI system equipped with two antennas of 400 and 200 MHz, connected by fiber-optic cables to the control unit) profiling. During the field survey, four ERT measurements and eight GPR profiles were carried out along the road network of Rabatana. The field survey permitted to evidence, for the Rabatana historical site, about 100 caves for which it is possible to see clear entrances, while at least 300 other caves are located in Tursi urban area and surroundings. This survey excludes all the caves and cisterns not directly ispectionable, but well showed in geophysical data. Since 1973, this site was subjected to the evacuation of its inhabitants in a new urban site due to catastrophic landslides caused by intense rainfalls that occurred on January 1972. Starting from 1974, the Rabatana has been almost completely deserted. Recently, a renewed interest for this site has been developed to recover the historical center, removing the current constraint of total evacuation. However at present, the site is still characterized by a particular morphological history and environmental factors that generate widespread risk conditions for the inhabitants and built-up areas. Morphological evolution of the sandy hillslopes on which Tursi town rises is characterized by very intense erosive phenomena such as landslides, deep gullies, rills, and piping, which affect the whole perimeter of urban settlements and threaten the conservation of these sites. From the point of view of the process of physical degradation, the sandy facies are characterized by desiccation cracks to which the piping erosion and detachment blocks along the slopes are closely linked. In some cases large voids do not develop, but seepage erosion and running sand cause morphologically similar surface collapse phenomena (sinkholes). Outlets

  9. Hurricane Impact on Seepage Water in Larga Cave, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieten, Rolf; Warken, Sophie; Winter, Amos; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Scholz, Denis; Spötl, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    Hurricane-induced rainfall over Puerto Rico has characteristic δ18O values which are more negative than local rainfall events. Thus, hurricanes may be recorded in speleothems from Larga cave, Puerto Rico, as characteristic oxygen isotope excursions. Samples of 84 local rainfall events between 2012 and 2013 ranged from -6.2 to +0.3‰, whereas nine rainfall samples belonging to a rainband of hurricane Isaac (23-24 August 2012) ranged from -11.8 to -7.1‰. Cave monitoring covered the hurricane season of 2014 and investigated the impact of hurricane rainfall on drip water chemistry. δ18O values were measured in cumulative monthly rainwater samples above the cave. Inside the cave, δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples were analyzed and drip rates were recorded at six drip sites. Most effective recharge appears to occur during the wet months (April-May and August-November). δ18O values of instantaneous drip water samples ranged from -3.5 to -2.4‰. In April 2014 and April 2015 some drip sites showed more negative δ18O values than the effective rainfall (-2.9‰), implying an influence of hurricane rainfall reaching the cave via stratified seepage flow months to years after the event. Speleothems from these drip sites in Larga cave have a high potential for paleotempestology studies.

  10. Cave-dwelling pholcid spiders (Araneae, Pholcidae: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pholcidae are ubiquitous spiders in tropical and subtropical caves around the globe, yet very little is known about cave-dwelling pholcids beyond what is provided in taxonomic descriptions and faunistic papers. This paper provides a review based on a literature survey and unpublished information, while pointing out potential biases and promising future projects. A total of 473 native (i.e. non-introduced species of Pholcidae have been collected in about 1000 caves. The large majority of cave-dwelling pholcids are not troglomorphic; a list of 86 troglomorphic species is provided, including 21 eyeless species and 21 species with strongly reduced eyes. Most troglomorphic pholcids are representatives of only two genera: Anopsicus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1938 and Metagonia Simon, 1893. Mexico is by far the richest country in terms of troglomorphic pholcids, followed by several islands and mainland SE Asia. The apparent dominance of Mexico may partly be due to collectors’ and taxonomists’ biases. Most caves harbor only one pholcid species, but 91 caves harbor two and more species (up to five species. Most troglomorphic pholcids belong to two subfamilies (Modisiminae, Pholcinae, very few belong to Smeringopinae and Arteminae, none to Ninetinae. This is in agreement with the recent finding that within Pholcidae, microhabitat changes in general are concentrated in Modisiminae and Pholcinae.

  11. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  12. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  13. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  14. Cave monitoring in the Béke and Baradla caves (Northeastern Hungary: implications for the conditions for the formation cave carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Czuppon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to use speleothems in the reconstruction of past climate and environmental changes it is necessary to understand the environmental and hydrological processes that determine the physico-chemical conditions of carbonate precipitation and hence speleothem formation. Therefore, in this study an extended monitoring program was conducted in the Béke and Baradla caves located in the Aggtelek region (Northeastern Hungary. The studied caves are rich in speleothem and flowstone occurrences with great potential for paleoclimatology studies. The monitoring activity included measurements of atmospheric and cave temperatures, CO2 concentration in cave air, as well as chemical and isotopic compositions of water samples (drip water, precipitation and in situ carbonate precipitates. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of drip waters showed no seasonal variation at any of the collection sites, indicating a well-mixed karstic aquifer. This implies that the isotopic compositions of local speleothems were able to record multiannual isotopic changes inherited from stable isotopes in the drip water. CO2 concentration showed seasonality (high values in summer and low values in winter in both caves, likely affecting carbonate precipitation or corrosion and consequently stalagmite growth. Systematic variations among Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, Na/Ca, and Si/Ca element ratios were detected in the drip water suggesting Prior Calcite Precipitation (PCP. As PCP is characteristic of periods of reduced infiltration during drier weather conditions, the variations in drip water chemistry and drip rates indicate that the hydrological conditions also varied significantly during the studied period. This hydrological variability appears to affect not only trace element composition but also the isotopic composition of modern carbonate precipitates. In summary, these findings imply that the speleothems from the studied caves were able to record the hydrological changes

  15. Morphometry and distribution of isolated caves as a guide for phreatic and confined paleohydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Amos; Fischhendler, Itay

    2005-04-01

    Isolated caves are a special cave type common in most karst terrains, formed by prolonged slow water flow where aggressivity is locally boosted. The morphometry and distribution of isolated caves are used here to reconstruct the paleohydrology of a karstic mountain range. Within a homogenous karstic rock sequence, two main types of isolated caves are distinguished, and each is associated with a special hydrogeologic setting: maze caves form by rising water in the confined zone of the aquifer, under the Mt. Scopus Group (Israel) confinement, while chamber caves are formed in phreatic conditions, apparently by lateral flow mixing with a vadose input from above.

  16. The WP-CAVE concept for an underground high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, G.

    1984-02-01

    A central, nearly spherical cave, of diameter 40 m is excavated in rock and the waste fuel is placed in it. The fuel canisters are placed in cylindrical holes in large concrete balls which are stored at the bottom of a central stack in the cave. Other empty balls fill the rest of the cave. By natural convection, the heat is evenly distributed in the cave and the surrounding central rock body. A clay barrier, which completely surrounds the rock body, prevents ground water circulation for a very long time and protects the cave against tectonic movements. The cave can store approx. 350 tons of fuel after the 10 years of intermediate storage

  17. Cure from the cave: volcanic cave actinomycetes and their potential in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheeptham N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic caves have been little studied for their potential as sources of novel microbial species and bioactive compounds with new scaffolds. We present the f irst study of volcanic cave microbiology from Canada and suggest that this habitat has great potential for the isolation of novel bioactive substances. Sample locat ions were plot ted on a contour map that was compiled in ArcView 3.2. Over 400 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Helmcken Falls cave in Wells Gray Provincial Park, British Columbia. From our preliminary screen, of 400 isolates tested, 1% showed activity against extended spectrum ß-lactamase E. coli, 1.75% against Escherichia coli, 2.25% against Acinetobacter baumannii, and 26.50% against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, 10.25% showed activity against Micrococcus luteus, 2% against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 9.25% against Mycobacterium smegmatis, 6.25% Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 7.5% against Candida albicans. Chemical and physical characteristics of three rock wall samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy and f lame atomic absorption spectrometry. Calcium (Ca, iron (Fe, and aluminum (Al were the most abundant components while magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, and barium (Ba were second most abundant with cadmium (Cd and potassium (K were the least abundant in our samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the presence of microscopic life forms in all three rock wall samples. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 82 isolates revealed that 65 (79.3% of the strains belong to the Streptomyces genus and 5 (6.1% were members of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Nocardia and Erwinia genera. Interestingly, twelve (14.6% of the 16S rRNA sequences showed similarity to unidentif ied ribosomal RNA sequences in the library databases, the sequences of these isolates need to be further investigated using the EzTaxon-e database (http://eztaxon-e. ezbiocloud.net/ to determine whether

  18. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) related to the upwelling of acid water enriched in H2S and CO2 represents an unusual way of cave development. Since meteoric infiltration waters are not necessarily involved in speleogenesis, caves can form without the typical associated karst expressions (i.e. dolines) at the surface. The main mechanism of sulphuric acid dissolution is the oxidation of H2S (Jones et al., 2015) which can be amplified by bacterial mediation (Engel et al., 2004). In these conditions, carbonate dissolution associated with gypsum replacement, is generally believed to be faster than the normal epigenic one (De Waele et al., 2016). In Italy several SAS caves have been identified, but only few systems have been studied in detail: Frasassi and Acquasanta Terme (Marche)(Galdenzi et al., 2010), Monte Cucco (Umbria) (Galdenzi & Menichetti, 1995), and Montecchio (Tuscany) (Piccini et al., 2015). Other preliminary studies have been carried out in Calabria (Galdenzi, 2007) and Sicily (De Waele et al., 2016). Several less studied SAS cave systems located in South Italy, and in particular in Apulia (Santa Cesarea Terme), Sicily (Acqua Fitusa, Acqua Mintina) and Calabria (Mt. Sellaro and Cassano allo Ionio) have been selected in the framework of a PhD thesis on SAS caves and their speleogenesis. Using both limestone tablet weight loss (Galdenzi et al., 2012) and micro erosion meter (MEM) (Furlani et al., 2010) methods the dissolution rate above and under water in the caves will be quantified. Geomorphological observations, landscape analysis using GIS tools, and the analysis of gypsum and other secondary minerals (alunite and jarosite) (stable isotopes and dating) will help to reconstruct the speleogenetic stages of cave formation. Preliminary microbiological analysis will determine the microbial diversity and ecology in the biofilms. References Engel S.A., Stern L.A., Bennett P.C., 2004 - Microbial contributions to cave formation: New insight into sulfuric acid

  19. Determination of 222Rn in water by absorption in polydimethylsiloxane mixed with activated carbon and gamma-ray spectrometry: An example application in the radon budget of Paterno submerged sinkhole (Central Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polydimethylsiloxane and Activated Carbon were used as passive gas accumulator. ► Water-impermeable properties of PDMS combine with adsorptive properties of AC. ► PDMS–AC accumulators can be used to study 222 Rn in water. ► Measured 222 Rn specific activity in PDMS–AC matches the theoretical results. ► We used PDMS–AC in the radon budget of a submerged sinkhole. - Abstract: Passive gas accumulators made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixed with activated C (AC) were studied to measure their efficiency for sampling Rn in water. In this composite the water-impermeable properties of PDMS act synergistically with adsorptive properties of AC, even when the accumulators are immersed in water for many days. A series of tests where cylindrical shaped PDMS–AC disks were exposed to different 222 Rn-enriched waters showed that measured 222 Rn specific activity matches the theoretical results coming from the equation that describes the process of internal diffusion integrated with the Rn decay term. The linear relationship between 222 Rn in water and the accumulation process in PDMS–AC, the influence of temperature and the different sensitivity of the composite and its components were also studied and discussed. The high Rn volumetric enrichment factor in PDMS–AC disks respect to water resulted in about 206: 1, so lowering detection limits for 222 Rn in water to 20 Bq m −3 when the total activity of Rn progeny in disks is measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The use of PDMS–AC accumulators was tested at the Paterno submerged sinkhole, in central Italy. This study allowed the production of a detailed synchronous vertical profile of the Rn content in the middle of the lake and to define the Rn balance by assessing the discharge rate of submerged springs and the average residence time of the lake water

  20. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  1. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  2. A method of mapping sinkhole susceptibility using a geographic information system : a case study for interstates in the karst counties of Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to create a susceptibility map, pinpointing : regions in the karst counties of Virginia, in particular, along interstates, most susceptible to future sinkhole : development, determi...

  3. Parsimonious Hydrologic and Nitrate Response Models For Silver Springs, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Harald; Yaquian-Luna, Jose Antonio; Jawitz, James W.; Annable, Michael D.; Hatfield, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    hydrologic response model, frequency spectra of groundwater recharge and spring discharge suggest an exponential response model, which may explain a significant portion of spring discharge variability with only two fitting parameters (mean response time 2.4 years). For the transport model, direct use of nitrate data is confounded by inconsistent data and a strong trend. Instead, chloride concentrations in rainfall and at the spring are investigated as a surrogate candidate. Preliminary results indicate that the transport response function of the springshed as a whole may be of the gamma type, which possesses both a larger initial peak as well as a longer tail than the exponential response function. This is consistent with the large range of travel times to be expected between input directly into fast conduits connected to the spring (e.g., though sinkholes) and input or back-diffusion from the rock matrix. The result implies that reductions in nitrate input, especially at remote and hydraulically not well connected locations, will only manifest in a rather delayed and smoothed out form in concentration observed at the spring.

  4. Radon measurements using track detector in Wadi Sannur cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, F.; Eissa, M.F.; Mostafa, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The most important contributors to the committed effective dose received by population due to natural sources are the short-lived decay products of radon ( 222 Rn). In natural voids, such as caves, most radon will enter the system from diffusion across the rock-air interface. It is well known that factors such as air pressure and temperature control the distribution of radon. The radon concentration measurements in the Wadi Sannur cave in Beni-Suef governorate in the period from 14 th of July 2005 to 17 th of October 2005. The average radon concentrations in the right, left and whole first cave are 916.12 ± 179.09, 819.63 ± 54.72 and 873.90± 147.11 Bq m -3 respectively. The measurements were performed using track etch detector of type Cr-39. After exposure, all detectors were etched chemically in 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 C degrees for 6 h. The tracks were counted with an optical microscope magnifying 400 times. The average temperature inside the first cave during the period of measurements is 25-26 C degrees. The annual effective doses for the workers and visitors in the cave have been calculated. The average radon concentration in the Wadi Sannur cave, was 873.90 ± 147.11 Bq m -3 . The annual effective doses for worker and visitor in the cave were 1.33 ± 0.24 and 0.041 ± 0.007 mSv respectively. The doses are within the international recommended dose of 1.15 mSv. (author)

  5. WP-Cave - assessment of feasibility, safety and development potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    According to SKB R and D-programme 1986, alternative disposal methods will be investigated to provide a basis for selecting a site and a repository system for the Swedish spent nuclear fuel. The present report is a comparison between the WP-Cave and the reference concept KBS-3. The comparison has resulted in the following conclusions: - Both concepts are judged to be able to provide adequate safety. - A utilization of the potential of the WP-Cave requires, however, extensive development in areas where the current state of knowledge and available data are incomplete. - The higher temperatures in the WP-Cave lead to greater uncertainty as to long-term performance. Reducing this uncertainty would require many yaers of research and substantial resources. - Both repositories, including the barriers they incorporate, could be built with a normal adaption of available technology. -It is not possible to say today whether it would be simpler to find suitable sites for one design or the other. - The WP-Cave is considerably more expensive. A future research direction based on a concentrated emplacement of spent fuel along the lines of the WP-Cave is therefore judged to entail greater uncertainty as regards the possibilities of achieving acceptable safety and to require greater resources for research and development, at the same time as the costs of building the repository would be higher. The studies of the WP-Cave as an integral system should therfore be discontinued. Certain barrier designs in the WP-Cave could also be utulized in repository designs with lower temperature, for example the reduction potential of the steel canisters and the hydraulic cage's diversion of groundwater. Studies within these areas are being conducted within SKB and should continue

  6. Analysis of the Condition and Development Opportunities of Cave Tourism in Primorsko-Goranska County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Knežević

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines caves as morphological factors of tourism development in Primorsko-Goranska County. The primary aim is to promote cave heritage parallel with the development of cave tourism. The methodological framework is based on analyzing material in the archives of tourist boards, taking an inventory of cave resources (case study, conducting interviews, and making a SWOT analysis of cave tourism development. Research results show that caves represent a complex resource in the tourist trade of Primorsko-Goranska County, to which little importance has been attached up to date (priority being given to mass tourism. In the context of tourism development, caves fall into four groups. The first group comprises caves that have a long tradition, but show signs of aging as a tourism product. The second group includes caves that were once open to the public, but were later closed for some reason. The third group consists of caves on the seaside or seabed visited by speleologists-divers. The fourth group is made up of potential cave sites that have been evaluated as being attractive, but is located in hard-to-access areas, making their valorisation in tourism purpose more difficult. Only Lokvarka Cave has a substantial influence on the development of special interest tourism in Lokve, while in all other cases, the role of caves in the tourism offering needs to be revalorised.

  7. Control of very heavy water inrush from sinkholes connecting with Ordovician limestone. Part 1. [China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the comprehensive water control methods used in Fangezhuang Colliery: water drainage; cutting off of water; and sealing off the water. For water drainage, 20 large-sized submarine pumps were used in Lujiatuo and Fangezhuang collieries with a delivery of 300 m/sup 3//min to control the rising of water level. For cutting off the water, a three-section horizontal injection method and 8 grouting techniques were applied to cut off the water in 3 roadways at the boundary between Lujiatuo and Fangezhuang with water flowing at an average rate of 300 m/sup 3//min. For sealing off the water, a radio perspective instrument was used to detect the shape of No. 2171 sinkhole in Fangezhuang, and computers were employed to process the hydrogeological data. The three section vertical grouting method was introduced, and the inrush water source was sealed off with a success of over 99%.

  8. Paleo-watertable definition using cave ferromanganese stromatolites and associated cave-wall notches (Sierra de Arnero, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carlos; Villalaín, Juan J.; Lozano, Rafael P.; Hellstrom, John

    2016-05-01

    The steeply-dipping-dolostone-hosted caves of the Sierra de Arnero (N Spain) contain low-gradient relict canyons with up to ten mapped levels of ferromanganese stromatolites and associated wall notches over a vertical range of 85 m, the highest occurring 460 m above base level. Despite a plausible speleogenetic contribution by pyrite oxidation, and the irregular cave-wall mesomorphologies suggestive of hypogenic speleogenesis, the Arnero relict caves are dominantly epigenic, as indicated by the conduit pattern and the abundant allogenic sediments. Allogenic input declined over time due to a piracy-related decrease in the drainage area of allogenic streams, explaining the large size of the relict Arnero caves relative to the limited present-day outcrop area of the karstified carbonates. Allogenic-sediment input also explains the observed change from watertable canyons to phreatic conduits in the paleo-downstream direction. Stromatolites and notches arguably formed in cave-stream passages at the watertable. The best-defined paleo-watertables show an overall slope of 1.7°, consistent with the present-day relief of the watertable, with higher-slope segments caused by barriers related to sulfide mineralization. The formation of watertable stromatolites favored wall notching by the combined effect of enhanced acidity by Mn-Fe oxidation and shielding of cave floors against erosion. Abrasive bedload further contributed to notch formation by promoting lateral mechanical erosion and protecting passage floors. The irregular wallrock erosional forms of Arnero caves are related partly to paragenesis and partly to the porous nature of the host dolostones, which favored irregular dissolution near passage walls, generating friable halos. Subsequent mechanical erosion contributed to generate spongework patterns. The dolostone porosity also contributes to explain the paradox that virtually all Arnero caves are developed in dolostone despite being less soluble than adjacent

  9. Groundwater shapes sediment biogeochemistry and microbial diversity in a submerged Great Lake sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman-Costello, L E; Sheik, C S; Sheldon, N D; Allen Burton, G; Costello, D M; Marcus, D; Uyl, P A Den; Dick, G J

    2017-03-01

    For a large part of earth's history, cyanobacterial mats thrived in low-oxygen conditions, yet our understanding of their ecological functioning is limited. Extant cyanobacterial mats provide windows into the putative functioning of ancient ecosystems, and they continue to mediate biogeochemical transformations and nutrient transport across the sediment-water interface in modern ecosystems. The structure and function of benthic mats are shaped by biogeochemical processes in underlying sediments. A modern cyanobacterial mat system in a submerged sinkhole of Lake Huron (LH) provides a unique opportunity to explore such sediment-mat interactions. In the Middle Island Sinkhole (MIS), seeping groundwater establishes a low-oxygen, sulfidic environment in which a microbial mat dominated by Phormidium and Planktothrix that is capable of both anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis, as well as chemosynthesis, thrives. We explored the coupled microbial community composition and biogeochemical functioning of organic-rich, sulfidic sediments underlying the surface mat. Microbial communities were diverse and vertically stratified to 12 cm sediment depth. In contrast to previous studies, which used low-throughput or shotgun metagenomic approaches, our high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach revealed extensive diversity. This diversity was present within microbial groups, including putative sulfate-reducing taxa of Deltaproteobacteria, some of which exhibited differential abundance patterns in the mats and with depth in the underlying sediments. The biological and geochemical conditions in the MIS were distinctly different from those in typical LH sediments of comparable depth. We found evidence for active cycling of sulfur, methane, and nutrients leading to high concentrations of sulfide, ammonium, and phosphorus in sediments underlying cyanobacterial mats. Indicators of nutrient availability were significantly related to MIS microbial community composition, while LH

  10. 3D geostatistical modelling for identifying sinkhole disaster potential zones around the Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, J. J.; Litaudon, J.; Filippov, L. O.; Lyubimova, T.; Maximovich, N.

    2017-07-01

    This work results from a cooperative scientific program between the Perm State University (Russia) and the University of Lorraine (France). Its objectives are to integrate modern 3D geomodeling in order to improve sustainable mining extraction, especially for predicting and avoiding the formation of sinkholes disaster potential zones. Systematic exploration drill holes performed in the Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit (Perm region, Russia) have been used to build a comprehensive 3D model for better understanding the spatial repartition of the ore quality (geometallurgy). A precise modelling of the mineralized layers allows an estimation of the in-situ ore reserves after interpolating by kriging the potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) contents at the node of a regular centred grid (over a million cells). Total resources in potassium vary according to the cut-off between 4.7Gt @ 16.1 % K2O; 0.32 % MgCl2 for a cut-off grade at 13.1% K2O and 2.06 Gt @ 18.2 % K2O; 0.32 % MgCl2 at a cut-off of 16.5% K2O. Most of reserves are located in the KPI, KPII and KPIII layers, the KPI being the richest, and KPIII the largest in terms of tonnage. A systematic study of the curvature calculated along the roof of the mineralized layers points out the location of potential main faults which play a major role in the formation of sinkhole during exploitation. A risk map is then derived from this attribute.

  11. Building 887: An Aladdin's Cave for Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Building 887 on the Prévessin site is home to numerous experiments bringing together physicists and engineers from around the world. Its diversity makes the huge building a replica of CERN in miniature. The Installation unit of the SL EA group in front of the support structure for the ATLAS muon chambers. From left to right, seated: Pierre Gimenez, Yves Bonnet, Yves Naveau, Alain Pinget, Christian Becquet, Camille Adenot; standing: Philippe Guillot, Thierry Reynes, Monserrat Zurita-Perez, Claude Ferrari et Denis Gacon. The big wheel to be used for the ATLAS muon chambers (see below) is much the most spectacular installation currently occupying Building 887. But it is far from being the only attraction. Push open the heavy doors of this immense hall and it is a bit like entering a physicists' Aladdin's cave. The building, 55 metres wide and 300 metres long, is a treasure trove of engineering and technology, a CERN in miniature, housing dozens of collaborations from all over the world. With its 150...

  12. Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Brumm, A; Ramli, M; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Hakim, B; Morwood, M J; van den Bergh, G D; Kinsley, L; Dosseto, A

    2014-10-09

    Archaeologists have long been puzzled by the appearance in Europe ∼40-35 thousand years (kyr) ago of a rich corpus of sophisticated artworks, including parietal art (that is, paintings, drawings and engravings on immobile rock surfaces) and portable art (for example, carved figurines), and the absence or scarcity of equivalent, well-dated evidence elsewhere, especially along early human migration routes in South Asia and the Far East, including Wallacea and Australia, where modern humans (Homo sapiens) were established by 50 kyr ago. Here, using uranium-series dating of coralloid speleothems directly associated with 12 human hand stencils and two figurative animal depictions from seven cave sites in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, we show that rock art traditions on this Indonesian island are at least compatible in age with the oldest European art. The earliest dated image from Maros, with a minimum age of 39.9 kyr, is now the oldest known hand stencil in the world. In addition, a painting of a babirusa ('pig-deer') made at least 35.4 kyr ago is among the earliest dated figurative depictions worldwide, if not the earliest one. Among the implications, it can now be demonstrated that humans were producing rock art by ∼40 kyr ago at opposite ends of the Pleistocene Eurasian world.

  13. A GIS analysis of the relationship between sinkholes, dry-well complaints and groundwater pumping for frost-freeze protection of winter strawberry production in Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Aurit

    Full Text Available Florida is riddled with sinkholes due to its karst topography. Sometimes these sinkholes can cause extensive damage to infrastructure and homes. It has been suggested that agricultural practices, such as sprinkler irrigation methods used to protect crops, can increase the development of sinkholes, particularly when temperatures drop below freezing, causing groundwater levels to drop quickly during groundwater pumping. In the strawberry growing region, Dover/Plant City, Florida, the effects have caused water shortages resulting in dry-wells and ground subsidence through the development of sinkholes that can be costly to maintain and repair. In this study, we look at how frost-freeze events have affected West Central Florida over the past 25 years with detailed comparisons made between two cold-years (with severe frost-freeze events and a warm year (no frost-freeze events. We analyzed the spatial and temporal correlation between strawberry farming freeze protection practices and the development of sinkholes/dry well complaints, and assessed the economic impact of such events from a water management perspective by evaluating the cost of repairing and drilling new wells and how these compared with using alternative crop-protection methods. We found that the spatial distribution of sinkholes was non-random during both frost-freeze events. A strong correlation between sinkhole occurrence and water extraction and minimum temperatures was found. Furthermore as temperatures fall below 41°F and water levels decrease by more than 20 ft, the number of sinkholes increase greatly (N >10. At this time alternative protection methods such as freeze-cloth are cost prohibitive in comparison to repairing dry wells. In conclusion, the findings from this study are applicable in other agricultural areas and can be used to develop comprehensive water management plans in areas where the abstraction of large quantities of water occur.

  14. A GIS analysis of the relationship between sinkholes, dry-well complaints and groundwater pumping for frost-freeze protection of winter strawberry production in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurit, Mark D; Peterson, Robert O; Blanford, Justine I

    2013-01-01

    Florida is riddled with sinkholes due to its karst topography. Sometimes these sinkholes can cause extensive damage to infrastructure and homes. It has been suggested that agricultural practices, such as sprinkler irrigation methods used to protect crops, can increase the development of sinkholes, particularly when temperatures drop below freezing, causing groundwater levels to drop quickly during groundwater pumping. In the strawberry growing region, Dover/Plant City, Florida, the effects have caused water shortages resulting in dry-wells and ground subsidence through the development of sinkholes that can be costly to maintain and repair. In this study, we look at how frost-freeze events have affected West Central Florida over the past 25 years with detailed comparisons made between two cold-years (with severe frost-freeze events) and a warm year (no frost-freeze events). We analyzed the spatial and temporal correlation between strawberry farming freeze protection practices and the development of sinkholes/dry well complaints, and assessed the economic impact of such events from a water management perspective by evaluating the cost of repairing and drilling new wells and how these compared with using alternative crop-protection methods. We found that the spatial distribution of sinkholes was non-random during both frost-freeze events. A strong correlation between sinkhole occurrence and water extraction and minimum temperatures was found. Furthermore as temperatures fall below 41°F and water levels decrease by more than 20 ft, the number of sinkholes increase greatly (N >10). At this time alternative protection methods such as freeze-cloth are cost prohibitive in comparison to repairing dry wells. In conclusion, the findings from this study are applicable in other agricultural areas and can be used to develop comprehensive water management plans in areas where the abstraction of large quantities of water occur.

  15. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  16. Inadequate stakeholder management and its effect on a coherent sinkhole risk management strategy: The case of the Merafong Local Municipality, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshepo Moshodi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Merafong Local Municipality (MLM has historically suffered financial and human losses because of the presence of dolomite and the consequent formation of sinkholes. There is a great need for the MLM to address the risk posed by sinkholes to ensure the continued safety of communities. However, as the risk is so pervasive, the MLM needs to coordinate their risk reduction strategies with a wide array of stakeholders in the municipality. Efficient stakeholder management is thus crucial if the sinkhole risk is to be addressed appropriately. This article reviews the current status of stakeholder management in the MLM as it pertains to the formulation of a holistic sinkhole risk reduction strategy. Findings indicate that there are serious deficiencies in the MLM’s stakeholder management relating to key risk management processes such as community involvement in risk management structures, disaster risk assessment, training and awareness, and early warning and response. Improved stakeholder management could be characterised by the following factors: improved two-way communication between the municipality and community stakeholders, fostering a relationship based upon trust and equality amongst stakeholders, participation by a wide array of stakeholder groups affected by the sinkhole risk and a mutual commitment by all stakeholders to address the risk. These factors could contribute to enhancing current and future sinkhole risk reduction strategies.

  17. Cave exploitation by an usual epigean species: a review on the current knowledge on fire salamander breeding in cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra is a relatively common epigean amphibian, widely distributed throughout Europe, which usually gives birth to aquatic larvae. Even if epigean streams represent the most common places in which the species breeds, in some countries caves with underground waters are also used. To improve our understanding of the habitat features allowing successful breeding of salamanders in underground sites, we combined an exhaustive review of the available literature, especially the grey one, with direct observations performed from 2008 to 2017 in several natural and artificial caves of Lombardy, Liguria and Tuscany (Italy, Ariège and Provence (France. We provide a synthesis of published and unpublished caves in which the fire salamander breeding has been observed, along with a synthesis of the investigated ecological, behavioural and morphological traits. The use of underground sites is reported in several published papers and appears to be a common phenomenon not limited to single karst areas. The absence of predators, the relative stability of the aquatic habitats and the possibility to exploit new ecological resources are environmental factors that favour the breeding of the fire salamander. Our synthesis suggests that breeding of fire salamanders in caves is not a random event, but a widespread phenomenon that may be linked to specific biogeographical factors. Further insights may be obtained by performing genetic analyses on both cave and epigean populations, and considering larger landscape scales for ecological studies as well. Gene flow between salamanders that breed in caves and in streams probably occurs, but on the other hand, assortative mating might limit it, thus allowing the conservation of local adaptations driving successful cave colonisation.

  18. The CAVE (TM) automatic virtual environment: Characteristics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Robert V.

    1995-01-01

    Virtual reality may best be defined as the wide-field presentation of computer-generated, multi-sensory information that tracks a user in real time. In addition to the more well-known modes of virtual reality -- head-mounted displays and boom-mounted displays -- the Electronic Visualization Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Chicago recently introduced a third mode: a room constructed from large screens on which the graphics are projected on to three walls and the floor. The CAVE is a multi-person, room sized, high resolution, 3D video and audio environment. Graphics are rear projected in stereo onto three walls and the floor, and viewed with stereo glasses. As a viewer wearing a location sensor moves within its display boundaries, the correct perspective and stereo projections of the environment are updated, and the image moves with and surrounds the viewer. The other viewers in the CAVE are like passengers in a bus, along for the ride. 'CAVE,' the name selected for the virtual reality theater, is both a recursive acronym (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) and a reference to 'The Simile of the Cave' found in Plato's 'Republic,' in which the philosopher explores the ideas of perception, reality, and illusion. Plato used the analogy of a person facing the back of a cave alive with shadows that are his/her only basis for ideas of what real objects are. Rather than having evolved from video games or flight simulation, the CAVE has its motivation rooted in scientific visualization and the SIGGRAPH 92 Showcase effort. The CAVE was designed to be a useful tool for scientific visualization. The Showcase event was an experiment; the Showcase chair and committee advocated an environment for computational scientists to interactively present their research at a major professional conference in a one-to-many format on high-end workstations attached to large projection screens. The CAVE was developed as a 'virtual reality theater' with scientific content and

  19. Eastern Cave- and Crevice-Dwelling Bats Potentially Impacted by USACE Reservoir Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, C.O

    2002-01-01

    ...; Kasul, Martin, and Allen 2000). This note provides information on six species of forest bats that roost in caves or cave-like structures and potentially occur on Corps projects in the Eastern United States...

  20. The Evaluation of a Motion Base Driving Simulator in a Cave at TACOM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mollenhauer, M. A; Romano, R. A; Brumm, B

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the highlights of a research program designed to investigate the feasibility of creating a motion base driving simulator in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE...

  1. The potential of perennial cave ice in isotope palaeoclimatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, Charles J.; MacDonald, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Perennial ice from caves on and to the east of the Canadian Great Divide yield delta O 18 and delta D values which are usually high measurements where compared with the average precipitation for the region. Furthermore, these ice data fall below and along lines of lower slope than the Global Meteoric Water Line. To explain the observed relationships, we propose the following process. a vapour-ice isotopic fractionation mechanism operates on warm season vapour when it precipitates as hoar ice on entering the caves. The subsequent fall of hoar to the cave floor through mechanical overloading along with ice derived from ground-water seepage (with a mean annual isotopic composition), results in massive ice formation of a mixed composition. This mixed composition is what is observed in the characteristic relationships found here. Such findings suggest that a warm versus cold climate interpretation for ancient cave ice may be the opposite of that found in the more familiar polar and glacial ice caves. (Author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  2. Differential preservation of vertebrates in Southeast Asian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Louys

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caves have been an important source of vertebrate fossils for much of Southeast Asia, particularly for the Quaternary. Despite this importance, the mechanisms by which vertebrate remains accumulate and preserve in Southeast Asian caves has never been systematically reviewed or examined. Here, we present the results of three years of cave surveys in Indonesia and Timor-Leste, describing cave systems and their attendant vertebrate accumulations in diverse geological, biogeographical, and environmental settings. While each cave system is unique, we find that the accumulation and preservation of vertebrate remains are highly dependent on local geology and environment. These factors notwithstanding, we find the dominant factor responsible for faunal deposition is the presence or absence of biological accumulating agents, a factor directly dictated by biogeographical history. In small, isolated, volcanic islands, the only significant accumulation occurs in archaeological settings, thereby limiting our understanding of the palaeontology of those islands prior to human arrival. In karstic landscapes on both oceanic and continental islands, our understanding of the long-term preservation of vertebrates is still in its infancy. The formation processes of vertebrate-bearing breccias, their taphonomic histories, and the criteria used to determine whether these represent syngenetic or multiple deposits remain critically understudied. The latter in particular has important implications for arguments on how breccia deposits from the region should be analysed and interpreted when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  3. Structural and hydrological controls on the development of a river cave in marble (Tapagem Cave - SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sallun Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapagem Cave (or Devil’s Cave is a river cave developed in the dolomite marble karst of the Serra do André Lopes (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Although this region is a plateau with significant variation in elevation and a humid subtropical climate, the cave is an anomalous feature in the André Lopes karst because there are few other caves. The marble, which is in a synclinal structure with subjacent phyllites, is a karst aquifer perched above the regional base level (Ribeira River and has little allogenic recharge. The cave developed on a secondary anticline on the northwest flank of the marble synform forming a blind valley, the Tapagem River sink, that is an underground tributary of Ostras River. Development of the cave is due to the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley and the large allogenic catchment area of the sink. In plan view, the morphology of the cave can be divided into three different sectors. The first sector, known as the Tourist Sector, has extensive collapse rooms, fossil passages and a variety of speleothems of notable dimensions. The second and most extensive sector is the river passage, which is a sinuous gallery controlled by marble banding with NE-SW cleavage and NW-SE fractures. In cross-section, the passages are vadose canyons up to 70 m in height, controlled by the marble banding. Four NW-SE diabase dykes in this passage do not affect its direction in plan view. The third sector is an extensive network of passages and collapse rooms, which are interlaced in plan view and on different levels, forming a maze pattern. Initially, the Tapagem and Ostras Rivers developed on a gentle surface and flowed into the Ribeira River. With the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley, the Tapagem River partially infiltrated via a paleosink into the upper passage of the “Erectus Room," remaining a half-blind valley. Following a series of collapses and obstructions, the River next infiltrated via the current

  4. Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Gloria G; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Kolbe, Ben; Fernandes, Daniel; Meleg, Ioana N; García-Vázquez, Ana; Pinto-Llona, Ana C; Constantin, Silviu; de Torres, Trino J; Ortiz, Jose E; Frischauf, Christine; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as homing behaviour, and that cave bears formed stable maternal social groups at least for hibernation. In contrast, brown bears do not show any strong association of mitochondrial lineage and cave, suggesting that these two closely related species differed in aspects of their behaviour and sociality. This difference is likely to have contributed to cave bear extinction, which occurred at a time in which competition for caves between bears and humans was likely intense and the ability to rapidly colonize new hibernation sites would have been crucial for the survival of a species so dependent on caves for hibernation as cave bears. Our study demonstrates the potential of ancient DNA to uncover patterns of behaviour and sociality in ancient species and populations, even those that went extinct many tens of thousands of years ago. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A review of factors affecting cave climates for hibernating bats in temperate North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2013-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in bats, thrives in the cold and moist conditions found in caves where bats hibernate. To aid managers and researchers address this disease, an updated and accessible review of cave hibernacula and cave microclimates is presented. To maximize energy savings and reduce...

  6. A Framework for Aligning Instructional Design Strategies with Affordances of CAVE Immersive Virtual Reality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Leah T.; Buss, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing availability of immersive virtual reality (IVR) systems, such as the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and head-mounted displays, for use in education contexts is providing new opportunities and challenges for instructional designers. By highlighting the affordances of IVR specific to the CAVE, the authors emphasize the…

  7. Multistage 8.2 kyr event revealed through high-resolution XRF core scanning of Cuban sinkhole sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peros, Matthew; Collins, Shawn; G'Meiner, Anna Agosta; Reinhardt, Eduard; Pupo, Felipe Matos

    2017-07-01

    We use sediments from a flooded sinkhole (Cenote Jennifer) in northern Cuba to provide new, well-dated, high-resolution evidence for the 8.2 kyr event. From 7600 to 8700 cal yr B.P. the sinkhole contained shallow, low-salinity water, which supported a marsh dominated by cattail and grass. Peaks in Cl and Br—occurring at 8150, 8200, and 8250 cal yr B.P.—are attributable to increased evaporation due to regional drying associated with the 8.2 kyr event. The three peaks in these elements also closely correspond to the greyscale record from the Cariaco Basin, indicative of increased upwelling in the southern Caribbean Sea at this time, supporting the notion of a multistage 8.2 kyr event. Our work provides new data that help to clarify the initiation, behavior, and impacts of the 8.2 kyr event in the northern tropics.

  8. The chronology of Moncks Cave, Canterbury, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomb, C.

    2008-01-01

    Moncks Cave is a key site in understanding the nature and course of change to Maori culture during the early period of New Zealand prehistory because of the range of both perishable and non-perishable artefacts found there in 1889. Understood to have been completely excavated at that time, the interpretation of the material culture of the site has been rendered difficult by the absence of chronological or stratigraphic provenance data. Recent investigations at Moncks Cave revealed several intact cultural deposits, including both faunal and artefactual remains. Eleven radiocarbon determinations on marine shell suggest that the cave was occupied some time between the mid-fourteenth and mid-fifteenth centuries AD. Although the dates cannot be directly correlated with any particular artefact, the results have important implications for the interpretation of the place of the site and its contents as a whole in the context of the New Zealand prehistoric sequence. (author). 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  10. Cyanobacteria in ambient springs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cantonati, M.; Komárek, Jiří; Montejano, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 865-888 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Springs * Cyanoprokaryotes * Radiation * Nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.258, year: 2015

  11. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  12. Radon and thoron in cave dwellings (Yan'an, China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, J.; Feige, S.; Xie Quingling; Schreiber, U.; Wieditz, K.; Wittmann, C.; Luo Xiarong

    2000-01-01

    222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations were measured in cave dwellings and brick houses in the region of Yan'an (China) during summer 1997. The underground dwellings are built into Quaternary loess, and all investigated houses are founded on it. The median values of indoor 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations are 42 (n = 18) and 77Bq m -3 (n = 15) for brick houses and 92 (n = 23) and 215 (n = 17) Bq m -3 for cave dwellings. To classify the dwellings in respect to their cave-character, the fraction of walls having a direct contact to the loess is calculated for each dwelling. While the 222 Rn concentrations are increasing with higher fractions, the 220 Rn concentrations are not correlated with this fraction. On the other hand, due to the short half-life of 220 Rn the distance from the measuring point to the walls is negatively correlated with the 220 Rn concentration, while there is no correlation with the 222 Rn concentration. Therefore, concentric isolines of 220 Rn concentrations showing a strong gradient were detected in cave dwellings. An influence of the ventilation rate is distinct for 222 Rn but weak for 220 Rn. The effective dose rates for 222 Rn and 220 Rn and their progenies are calculated for brick houses (2.7 mSv y -1 ), cave dwellings (7.1 mSv y -1 ), and for traditional cave dwellings with a bed foundation built with loess (16.7 mSv y -1 ). These calculations are based on summer measurements only. It is expected that the true effective dose rates will be significantly higher

  13. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... for water - a process which perhaps also is evidenced by temple constructions at Barbar, Umm al-Sujur and Abu Zaydan....

  14. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  15. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  16. A radon survey performed in caves in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, P.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of radon and radon decay product concentrations in several caves in a limestone region in Slovenia was initiated in 1986. In the period from 1989 to 1998, monthly surveys were undertaken in several caves which are open to tourists or used for speleotherapy purposes. The reason for carrying out these surveys, were dose estimates obtained for the guides and medical staff working in the caves. Daily average radon gas concentration determined ranged from several 100 Bq/m 3 up to 27 kBq/m 3 . Higher values were measured in the summer period. The equilibrium factors derived ranged from 0.05 to 0.89, with the higher values being measured in the winter period in vertical caves. In horizontal caves (with two entrances located opposite one another) these values ranged between 0.55 and 0.89. Annual doses estimated on the basis of various lung models ranged from 10 mSv to 85 mSv per year and per 2000 working hours. A significant difference was observed between the doses estimated by means of dosimetric models, and those estimated on the basis of the epidemiological model presented in ICRP 65. The value for the unattached fraction indicated in ICRP 65 is about 3%, but our measurements performed in the caves yielded higher values of up to 15%, with this highest value being determined in the Postojna cave. In the coming years, we will perform measurements to obtain the values for concentrations of unattached particles of radon daughters and values for particle-size distribution in the 3 different caves with the highest occupancy times for visitors. There are no regulations in force in Slovenia affecting exposures to elevated radon and radon daughter concentrations among underground workers. The health inspectorate can impose radiation monitoring measures for the purposes of performing dose calculations for underground workers. The results from such monitoring measures will contribute to the establishment of an ordinance regulating the performance of measurements at low

  17. DNA profiling of Tilapia guinasana, a species endemic to a single sinkhole, to determine the genetic divergence between color forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nxomani, C; Ribbink, A J; Kirby, R

    1999-06-01

    Northwestern South Africa and Namibia contain a number of sinkholes in the dolomitic rock formations found in this area. These contain isolated populations of Tilapia. Most contain Tilapia sparmanii, but the one in Namibia, Guinas, is of particular interest as it contains the endemic species, Tilapia guinasana, which exhibits none sex-limited polychromatisms, which is unique for Tilapia. This sinkhole is under environmental threat, particularly as a result of being a recreational diving site. This study, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPDs), when analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), shows that the colour forms of Tilapia guinasana are genetically distinct. This confirms previous evidence that assortative mating between color forms takes place. The various possible hypotheses for the occurrence and genetic stability of the color polymorphism are discussed. Further, a new hypothesis is put forward based on a need to maximize outbreeding in fully isolated population with no possibility of increase in size above the maximum and limited carrying capacity of the sinkhole.

  18. In vivo canine studies of a Sinkhole valve and vascular graft coated with biocompatible PU-PEO-SO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D K; Lee, K B; Park, K D; Kim, C S; Jeong, S Y; Kim, Y H; Kim, H M; Min, B G

    1993-01-01

    PU-PEO-SO3 was applied as a coating material over a newly designed Sinkhole bileaflet PU heart valve and a porous PU vascular graft. Performance and biocompatibility were evaluated using an in vivo canine shunt system between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. The survival periods in three implantations were 14, 24, and 39 days, during which no mechanical failure occurred in any Sinkhole valve or vascular graft. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies demonstrated much less platelet adhesion and thrombus formation on PU-PEO-SO3 grafts than on PU vascular grafts. Cracks in the valve leaflet were occasionally observed on PU surfaces, but not on PU-PEO-SO3. After a 39 day implantation, calcium deposition on vascular grafts was decreased as compared with valve leaflets, and calcification on PU-PEO-SO3 was much lower than on PU. These results suggest that Sinkhole valves and vascular grafts are promising, and PU-PEO-SO3 as a coating material is more blood compatible, biostable, and calcification resistant in vivo than in untreated PU.

  19. Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, R.D.; Liu, H.; Libra, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km2 Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs. ?? Springer-Verlag 2001.

  20. Differences between caves with and without bats in a Brazilian karst habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. Torquetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Since bats shelter in roosts during their period of diurnal inactivity, the quality and availability of roosts are important aspects of their ecology. Karst areas have great potential for the availability of day roosts, since they form caves, which serve as bat shelters. Here we characterize the caves used by bats in a preserved karst area of Southeastern Brazil. Using logistic regression analysis we identified the cave characteristics that influence bat occupation. Sixty-six caves were characterized based on measurements of internal height and width, height and width of the entrance(s of the cave, number of entrances, maximum horizontal development of cave, and internal temperature and humidity. In nineteen months we found 14 species in 32 caves. Most species were eventually recorded in multiple caves, with the exception of D. rotundus, G. soricina and A. planirostris, which were always found in the same caves. Desmodus rotundus showed maternity roost fidelity. We found no differences in microclimate between the caves that are occupied and those that are not. In other words, the microclimate of the caves studied herein can be characterized as stable over the years. The only predictor affecting the presence of bats in the study area was the cave’s maximum horizontal development: the caves that are occupied have greater horizontal development. Based on our results, we conclude that bats occupy many of the caves and that some species are more frequent in certain caves than in others, including some roosts that are used as maternity roosts. These findings indicate that these caves are important resources for the bats in the karst environment studied, and should be preserved.

  1. Structural analysis of S-wave seismics around an urban sinkhole: evidence of enhanced dissolution in a strike-slip fault zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Wadas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In November 2010, a large sinkhole opened up in the urban area of Schmalkalden, Germany. To determine the key factors which benefited the development of this collapse structure and therefore the dissolution, we carried out several shear-wave reflection-seismic profiles around the sinkhole. In the seismic sections we see evidence of the Mesozoic tectonic movement in the form of a NW–SE striking, dextral strike-slip fault, known as the Heßleser Fault, which faulted and fractured the subsurface below the town. The strike-slip faulting created a zone of small blocks ( < 100 m in size, around which steep-dipping normal faults, reverse faults and a dense fracture network serve as fluid pathways for the artesian-confined groundwater. The faults also acted as barriers for horizontal groundwater flow perpendicular to the fault planes. Instead groundwater flows along the faults which serve as conduits and forms cavities in the Permian deposits below ca. 60 m depth. Mass movements and the resulting cavities lead to the formation of sinkholes and dissolution-induced depressions. Since the processes are still ongoing, the occurrence of a new sinkhole cannot be ruled out. This case study demonstrates how S-wave seismics can characterize a sinkhole and, together with geological information, can be used to study the processes that result in sinkhole formation, such as a near-surface fault zone located in soluble rocks. The more complex the fault geometry and interaction between faults, the more prone an area is to sinkhole occurrence.

  2. 4D Monitoring of Active Sinkholes with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS: A Case Study in the Evaporite Karst of the Ebro Valley, NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Benito-Calvo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work explores, for the first time, the application of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and a comparison of point clouds in the 4D monitoring of active sinkholes. The approach is tested in three highly-active sinkholes related to the dissolution of salt-bearing evaporites overlain by unconsolidated alluvium. The sinkholes are located in urbanized areas and have caused severe damage to critical infrastructure (flood-control dike, a major highway. The 3D displacement models derived from the comparison of point clouds with exceptionally high spatial resolution allow complex spatial and temporal subsidence patterns within one of the sinkholes to be resolved. Detected changes in the subsidence activity (e.g., sinkhole expansion, translation of the maximum subsidence zone, development of incipient secondary collapses are related to potential controlling factors such as floods, water table changes or remedial measures. In contrast, with detailed mapping and high-precision leveling, the displacement models, covering a relatively short time span of around 6 months, do not capture the subtle subsidence (<0.6–1 cm that affects the marginal zones of the sinkholes, precluding precise mapping of the edges of the subsidence areas. However, the performance of TLS can be adversely affected by some methodological limitations and local conditions: (1 limited accuracy in large investigation areas that require the acquisition of a high number of scans, increasing the registration error; (2 surface changes unrelated to sinkhole activity (e.g., vegetation, loose material; (3 traffic-related vibrations and wind blast that affect the stability of the scanner.

  3. Sinkhole susceptibility mapping using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and magnitude-frequency relationships: A case study in Hamadan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Kamal; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Mohseni, Hassan; Raeisi, Ezzat; Taheri, Milad

    2015-04-01

    Since 1989, an increasing number of sinkhole occurrences have been reported in the Kabudar Ahang and Razan-Qahavand subcatchments (KRQ) of Hamadan province, western Iran. The sinkhole-related subsidence phenomenon poses a significant threat for people and human structures, including sensitive facilities like the Hamadan Power Plant. Groundwater over-exploitation from the thick alluvial cover and the underlying cavernous limestone has been identified as the main factor involved in sinkhole development. A sinkhole susceptibility model was produced in a GIS environment applying the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach and considering a selection of eight factors, each categorized into five classes: distance to faults (DF), water level decline (WLD), groundwater exploitation (GE), penetration of deep wells into karst bedrock (PKA), distance to deep wells (DDW), groundwater alkalinity (GA), bedrock lithology (BL), and alluvium thickness (AT). Relative weights were preliminarily assigned to each factor and to their different classes through systematic pairwise comparisons based on expert judgment. The resulting sinkhole susceptibility index (SSI) values were then classified into four susceptibility classes: low, moderate, high and very high susceptibility. Subsequently, the model was refined through a trial and error process involving changes in the relative weights and iterative evaluation of the prediction capability. Independent evaluation of the final model indicates that 55% and 45% of the subsidence events fall within the very high and high, susceptibility zones, respectively. The results of this study show that AHP can be a useful approach for susceptibility assessment if data on the main controlling factors have sufficient accuracy and spatial coverage. The limitations of the model are partly related to the difficulty of gathering data on some important geological factors, due to their hidden nature. The magnitude and frequency relationship constructed

  4. Application of electrical resistivity tomography techniques for mapping man-made sinkholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J.; Martínez, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Dueñas, J.

    2012-04-01

    The suitability of the geophysical prospecting by electrical resistivity tomography to detect and map man-made subsurface cavities and related sinkholes has been studied in the Linares abandoned mining district (Spain). We have selected for this study four mined sectors constituted of different lithologies: granite and phyllites of Paleozoic age, and Triassic shales and sandstones. In three of these sectors, detail underground topographic surveys were carried out to chart the position and dimensions of the mining voids (galleries and chamber), in order to analyze the resolution of this methodology to characterize these cavities by using different electrode arrays. The results are variable, depending on the depth and diameter of the void, the selected electrode array, the spacing between electrodes, geological complexity and data density. These results also indicate that when the cavity is empty, an anomaly with a steep gradient and high resistivity values is registered, because the air that fills the mining void is dielectric, while when the cavities are filled with fine grain sediments, frequently saturated in water, the electrical resistance is lower. In relation with the three different multi-electrode arrays tested, the Wenner-Schlumberger array has resulted to offer the maximum resolution in all these cases, with lower and more stable values for the RMS than the other arrays. Therefore, this electrode array has been applied in the fourth studied sector, a former mine near the city centre of Linares, in an area of urban expansion in which there are problems of subsidence. Two sets of four electrical tomography profiles have been carried out, perpendicular to each other, and which have allowed reaching depths of research between 30-35 m. This net-array allowed the identification of two shallow anomalies of low resistivity values, interpreted as old mining galleries filled with fine material saturated in water. It also allows detecting two fractures, correlated

  5. SH-wave reflection seismic and VSP as tools for the investigation of sinkhole areas in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadas, Sonja; Tschache, Saskia; Polom, Ulrich; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes can lead to damage of buildings and infrastructure and they can cause life-threatening situations, if they occur in urban areas. The process behind this phenomenon is called subrosion. Subrosion is the underground leaching of soluble rocks, e.g. anhydrite and gypsum, due to the contact with ground- and meteoric water. Depending on the leached material, and especially the dissolution rate, different kinds of subrosion structures evolve in the subsurface. The two end members are collapse and depression structures. For a better understanding of the subrosion processes a detailed characterization of the resulting structures is necessary. In Germany sinkholes are a problem in many areas. In northern Germany salt and in central and southern Germany sulfate and carbonate deposits are affected by subrosion. The study areas described here are located in Thuringia in central Germany and the underground is characterized by soluble Permian deposits. The occurrence of 20 to 50 sinkholes is reported per year. Two regions, Bad Frankenhausen and Schmalkalden, are investigated, showing a leaning church tower and a sinkhole of 30 m diameter and 20 m depth, respectively. In Bad Frankenhausen four P-wave and 16 SH-wave reflection seismic profiles were carried out, supplemented by three zero-offset VSPs. In Schmalkalden five SH-wave reflection seismic profiles and one zero-offset VSP were acquired. The 2-D seismic sections, in particular the SH-wave profiles, showed known and unknown near-surface faults in the vicinity of sinkholes and depressions. For imaging the near-surface ( 2,5, probably indicating unstable areas due to subrosion. We conclude, that SH-wave reflection seismic offer an important tool for the imaging and characterization of near-surface subrosion structures and the identification of unstable zones, especially in combination with P-wave reflection seismic and zero-offset VSP with P- and S-waves. Presumably there is a connection between the presence of large

  6. Study of aerosols collected in a speleotherapeutic cave situated below Budapest, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Zs. E-mail: zsofi@moon.atomki.hu; Borbely-Kiss, I.; Hunyadi, I

    1999-04-02

    The Szemlohegy-cave is one of the well-known hydrothermal caves of the Rozsadomb area of Budapest, which have been used for speleotherapy of respiratory diseases for years. It is known from the periodically changing airborne radon activity concentration data, that airflow of seasonally reversed direction are formed along the cave passages and fissures due to the temperature difference between the surface and cave air. This means that an intensive interaction takes place between the cave and its environment. The pollution of nearby waters and the urban atmospheric air represents a real danger for these caves below Buda, which recently became the part of the UNESCO World Heritage. The study of cave aerosols should be very important from the point of view of either the control possibilities of the environmental impact or speleotherapy, and probably helps in getting acquainted with the cave-forming processes. In this work we applied our standard aerosol sampling method to the high-humidity environment of the caves, and we studied the elemental composition, size fractionation as well as the spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of cave aerosols. Thanks to the sensitivity of PIXE traces of anthropogenic pollution of the Budapest air are shown in the Szemlohegy-cave. Measured elemental concentrations remained less than one-tenth the air quality standard valid for the increasingly protected areas.

  7. Study of aerosols collected in a speleotherapeutic cave situated below Budapest, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Borbely-Kiss, I.; Hunyadi, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Szemlohegy-cave is one of the well-known hydrothermal caves of the Rozsadomb area of Budapest, which have been used for speleotherapy of respiratory diseases for years. It is known from the periodically changing airborne radon activity concentration data, that airflow of seasonally reversed direction are formed along the cave passages and fissures due to the temperature difference between the surface and cave air. This means that an intensive interaction takes place between the cave and its environment. The pollution of nearby waters and the urban atmospheric air represents a real danger for these caves below Buda, which recently became the part of the UNESCO World Heritage. The study of cave aerosols should be very important from the point of view of either the control possibilities of the environmental impact or speleotherapy, and probably helps in getting acquainted with the cave-forming processes. In this work we applied our standard aerosol sampling method to the high-humidity environment of the caves, and we studied the elemental composition, size fractionation as well as the spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of cave aerosols. Thanks to the sensitivity of PIXE traces of anthropogenic pollution of the Budapest air are shown in the Szemlohegy-cave. Measured elemental concentrations remained less than one-tenth the air quality standard valid for the increasingly protected areas

  8. Characterization and management trends of negative and positive impacts of tourism in show caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Caves are one of the most fragile environments on Earth ’s surface, in function of physical, atmospheric and biological specificities. The natural characteristics associated with cultural aspects of local people are the reasons to tourist potential of caves. However, the tourist use of caves can generate negative impacts on the environment. This consequence happens when inappropriate procedures of planning and management of tourism are used. Negative impacts are described in this review, as also indications of management techniques to avoid, decrease or eliminate the negative consequences of tourism in caves. Positive impacts are also presented, in order to achieve a sustainable tourism in show caves. The conclusion argues that the negative impacts should not be considered as impediments to tourism in caves. It is important to know these impacts and use it as a key to get previous answers which allow to raise the sustainability of show caves.

  9. The architectural form of Qikou Cave dwellings in Chinese "Earth" culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuanchen; Feng, Xinqun

    2018-03-01

    Cave building is not only a kind of architecture with unique style, but also a manifestation of Chinese traditional culture. Cave culture is an important part of Chinese traditional culture. The main purpose of this thesis which studies the architectural form of Qikou Cave, is to analyze how the cave building plays a positive role in promoting the development and application of modern resources and in cultural transmission. Based on a large amount of literature material, and taking Qikou Cave as an example, by studying the morphological characteristics of cave building, the paper takes an optimistic outlook on its future development and the sustainable development of the resources. It is expected that the cave culture can be further explored to promote the traditional Chinese culture and to drive the development of modern construction industry and resource conservation.

  10. Main karst and caves of Switzerland; El karst y las cuevas mas importantes de Suiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main karst areas and cave systems in Switzerland. The first part encloses descriptions of the main geological units that hold karst and caves in the country and summarizes a brief history of research and protection of the cave environments. The second part presents three regions enclosing large cave systems. Two regions in the Alps enclose some of the largest limestone caves in Europe: Siebenhengste (Siebenhengste cave system with ∼160 km and Barenschacht with 70 km) and Bodmeren-Silberen (Holloch cave system with 200 km and Silberen System with 39 km). These systems are also among the deepest with depths ranging between 880 and 1340 m. The third example is from the Jura Mountains (northern Switzerland). (Author)

  11. Highlighting the importance of transitional ventilation regimes in the management of Mediterranean show caves (Nerja-Pintada system, southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán, C; Del Rosal, Y; Carrasco, F; Vadillo, I; Benavente, J; Ojeda, L

    2018-08-01

    This study shows the utilization of the air CO 2 exhaled by a very high number of visitors in the Nerja Cave as both a tracer and an additional tool to precisely evaluate the air circulation through the entire karst system, which includes non-touristic passages, originally free of anthropogenic CO 2 . The analysis of the temporal - spatial evolution of the CO 2 content and other monitoring data measured from January 2015 to December 2016 in the Nerja-Pintada system, including air microbiological controls, has allowed us to define a new general ventilation model, of great interest for the conservation of the subterranean environment. During the annual cycle four different ventilation regimes and two ventilation modes (UAF-mode and DAF-mode) exist which determine the significance of the anthropogenic impact within the caves. During the winter regime, the strong ventilation regime and the airflow directions from the lowest to the highest entrance (UAF-mode) contribute to the rapid elimination of anthropogenic CO 2 , and this affects the whole karstic system. During the summer regime the DAF-mode ventilation (with airflows from the highest to the lowest entrances) is activated. Although the number of visitors is maximum and the natural ventilation of the karstic system is the lowest of the annual cycle, the anthropogenic impact only affects the Tourist Galleries. The transitional ventilation regimes -spring and autumn- are the most complex of the annual cycle, with changing air-flow directions (from UAF-mode to DAF-mode and vice versa) at diurnal and poly diurnal scale, which conditions the range of the anthropogenic impact in each sector of the karst system. The activation of the DAF-mode has been observed when the temperature difference between the external and air cave is higher than 5°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Blow Hole Cave: An unroofed cave on San Salvador Island, the Bahamas, and its importance for detection of paleokarst caves on fossil carbonate platforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel; Mylroie, J. E.; Hladil, Jindřich; Carew, J. L.; Slavík, Ladislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2002), s. 51-74 ISSN 0583-6050. [Karstological School - Classical Karst: Types of Karst /10./. Pstojna, 26.06.2002-28.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013809; GA AV ČR IAA3013209 Keywords : carbonate platforms * unroofed caves * gamma-ray spectrometry and wellogging Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://carsologica.zrc-sazu.si/downloads/313/slavik.pdf

  13. Bioaccumulation of eight heavy metals in cave animals from Dashui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that zinc contents in Porcellio scaber from Dashui and Malang caves were 448.80 and 598.00 mg/kg, respectively, which is the highest among all these 8 metals, while Pb was not detected in Diestrammena marmorata and Rhinolophidae pearsoni, suggesting that both animals were incapable of or poor ...

  14. Mineral magnetic environmental record in clastic cave deposits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlechta, Stanislav; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, special issue (2008), s. 134-134 ISSN 1335-2806. [Paleo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism. Castle Meeting /11./. 22.06.2008-28.06.2008, Bojnice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : mineral magnetic environmental reconstruction * cave sediments * Moravian Karst Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  15. Study of firedamp release in sub-level caving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castano, F.S.; Sanz Delgado, M.A.; Iturriaga Trenor, S.; Alberdi Vinas, C.

    1988-01-01

    The field work developed in the pits of 'Hullera Vasco-Leonesa' in Santa Lucia (Leon) to control firedamp release is described. Conclusions obtained concerning gas emission, irregularity and firedamp balance in sub-level caving winning faces are discussed. Some definitions of basic concepts in firedamp studies are also included. 7 figs.

  16. Full Immersive Virtual Environment Cave[TM] in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limniou, M.; Roberts, D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    By comparing two-dimensional (2D) chemical animations designed for computer's desktop with three-dimensional (3D) chemical animations designed for the full immersive virtual reality environment CAVE[TM] we studied how virtual reality environments could raise student's interest and motivation for learning. By using the 3ds max[TM], we can visualize…

  17. Inside the neutrino cave, close to the target complex

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The photo shows on the left the shielding of the target complex, T9 and T11 for the wide and narrow beams. The direction of the primary proton beam faces the camera. Between the shielding and the cave wall are housed the magnets cooling pipes. The pulley block allows displacements inside the shielding.

  18. Incidence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in cave tour guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, M; Bilban-Jakopin, C; Vrhovec, S

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and micronucleus tests (MN) were performed in 38 subjects, cave tour guides and in appropriate control group. The dominant type of chromosomal aberrations in tourist guides were chromosomal breaks (0.013 per cell) and acentric fragments (0.011 per cell). In the control group, these aberrations were present up to 0.008 on cells. Considering the analysed cells of the guides in total (33,556), the incidence of dicentric and rings range is below 0.0008 on cells, even though three dicentric and ring chromosoms were found already in the first 1000 in vitro metaphases of some guides. Only 0.0003 dicentrics and neither other translocations were found in control group (ambiental exposure). The incidence of micronuclei in cytokinesis blocked lymphocytes ranged from 12-32 per 500 CB cells in the cave tour guides and from 4-11 per 500 CB cells in control group. Measurements of radon and its daughters were performed at different locations in the cave. Annual doses from 40-60 mSv were estimated per 2000 work hours for cave guides. The changes found in the genome of somatic cells may be related to the exposure doses of radon and its daughters, although smoking should not be ignored.

  19. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J.

    2009-01-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  20. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in granitic underground caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1984-01-01

    To date, the disposal of radioactive wastes is one of the major problems faced by the nuclear industry. The utilization of granitic underground caves surrounded by a clay envelope is suggested as a safe alternative for such disposal. A preliminary analysis of the dimensions of those deposits is done. (Author) [pt

  1. Differentiated spring behavior under changing hydrological conditions in an alpine karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Maria; Squarzoni, Gabriela; De Waele, Jo; Fiorucci, Adriano; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Grillo, Barbara; Riva, Alberto; Rossetti, Stefano; Zini, Luca; Casagrande, Giacomo; Stumpp, Christine; Gargini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Limestone massifs with a high density of dolines form important karst aquifers in most of the Alps, often with groundwater circulating through deep karst conduits and water coming out of closely spaced springs with flow rates of over some cubic meters per second. Although several hydrogeological studies and tracing experiments were carried out in many of these carbonate mountains in the past, the hydrogeology of most of these karst aquifers is still poorly known. Geological, hydrodynamic and hydrochemical investigations have been carried out in one of the most representative of these areas (Cansiglio-Monte Cavallo, NE Italy) since spring 2015, in order to enhance the knowledge on this important type of aquifer system. Additionally, a cave-to-spring multitracer test was carried out in late spring 2016 by using three different fluorescent tracers. This hydrogeological study allowed: 1) gathering new detailed information on the geological and tectonic structure of such alpine karst plateau; 2) defining discharge rates of the three main springs (Gorgazzo, Santissima, and Molinetto) by constructing rating curves; 3) understanding the discharging behavior of the system with respect to different recharge conditions; 4) better defining the recharge areas of the three springs. The three nearby springs (the spring front stretches over 5 km), that drain the investigated karst aquifer system, show different behaviors with respect to changing discharge conditions, demonstrating this aquifer to be divided in partially independent drainage systems under low-flow conditions, when their chemistry is clearly differentiated. Under high-flow conditions, waters discharging at all springs show more similar geochemical characteristics. The combination of geochemistry, hydrodynamic monitoring and dye tracing tests has shown that the three springs have different recharge areas. The study points out that even closely spaced karst springs, that apparently drain the same karst mountain, can

  2. Energy and speleogenesis: Key determinants of terrestrial species richness in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Sendra, Alberto; Garay, Policarp; Reboleira, Ana Sofia P S

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to unravel the relative role played by speleogenesis (i.e., the process in which a cave is formed), landscape-scale variables, and geophysical factors in the determination of species richness in caves. Biological inventories from 21 caves located in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula along with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis were used to assess the relative importance of the different explanatory variables. The caves were grouped according to the similarity in their species composition; the effect that spatial distance could have on similarity was also studied using correlation between matrices. The energy and speleogenesis of caves accounted for 44.3% of the variation in species richness. The trophic level of each cave was the most significant factor in PLS regression analysis, and epigenic caves (i.e., those formed by the action of percolating water) had significantly more species than hypogenic ones (i.e., those formed by the action of upward flows in confined aquifers). Dissimilarity among the caves was very high (multiple-site β sim  = 0.92). Two main groups of caves were revealed through the cluster analysis, one formed by the western caves and the other by the eastern ones. The significant-but low-correlation found between faunistic dissimilarity and geographical distance ( r  =   .16) disappeared once the caves were split into the two groups. The extreme beta-diversity suggests a very low connection among the caves and/or a very low dispersal capacity of the species. In the region under study, two main factors are intimately related to the richness of terrestrial subterranean species in caves: the amount of organic material (trophic level) and the formation process (genesis). This is the first time that the history of a cave genesis has been quantitatively considered to assess its importance in explaining richness patterns in comparison with other factors more widely recognized.

  3. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Lenart, L.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''.

  4. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''. (author)

  5. Modeling of karst deformation and analysis of acoustic emission during sinkhole formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakeev, R. A.; Stefanov, Yu. P.; Duchkov, A. A.; Myasnikov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the fracture pattern and formation of a sinkhole are estimated depending on the rock properties. The possibility of using geophysical methods for recording and analyzing acoustic emission to monitor and predict the state of the medium is considered. The problem of deformation of the sedimentary cover over the growing karst cavity is solved on the basis of the elastoplastic Drucker-Prager-Nikolaevsky model and the equation of damage accumulation. The specified kinetics of accumulation of damages allows us to describe slow processes of degradation of the strength of the medium under stresses that are low for the development of inelastic deformations. The results are obtained for different values of the strength of karst rock; we show the influence of the kinetic parameters of damage accumulation on the shape of collapse depressions. We also model acoustic emission caused by the material fracture. One can follow different stages of the karst development by looking at patterns of cells which fail at a given time. Our observations show the relation between the intensity of material fracture and the intensity of seismic emission.

  6. Large heterogeneities in comet 67P as revealed by active pits from sinkhole collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Bodewits, Dennis; Besse, Sébastien; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst Uwe; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F; Auger, Anne-Thérèse; Barucci, M Antonella; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Bertini, Ivano; Capanna, Claire; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; Debei, Stefano; De Cecco, Mariolino; El-Maarry, Mohamed Ramy; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Gaskell, Robert; Giacomini, Lorenza; Groussin, Olivier; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurélie; Gutierrez-Marques, P; Gutiérrez, Pedro J; Güttler, Carsten; Hoekzema, Nick; Höfner, Sebastian; Hviid, Stubbe F; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kovacs, Gabor; Kramm, Rainer; Kührt, Ekkehard; Küppers, Michael; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lara, Luisa M; Lazzarin, Monica; Lee, Vicky; Leyrat, Cédric; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Josè J; Lowry, Stephen; Magrin, Sara; Maquet, Lucie; Marchi, Simone; Marzari, Francesco; Massironi, Matteo; Michalik, Harald; Moissl, Richard; Mottola, Stefano; Naletto, Giampiero; Oklay, Nilda; Pajola, Maurizio; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Thomas, Nicolas; Toth, Imre; Tubiana, Cecilia

    2015-07-02

    Pits have been observed on many cometary nuclei mapped by spacecraft. It has been argued that cometary pits are a signature of endogenic activity, rather than impact craters such as those on planetary and asteroid surfaces. Impact experiments and models cannot reproduce the shapes of most of the observed cometary pits, and the predicted collision rates imply that few of the pits are related to impacts. Alternative mechanisms like explosive activity have been suggested, but the driving process remains unknown. Here we report that pits on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko are active, and probably created by a sinkhole process, possibly accompanied by outbursts. We argue that after formation, pits expand slowly in diameter, owing to sublimation-driven retreat of the walls. Therefore, pits characterize how eroded the surface is: a fresh cometary surface will have a ragged structure with many pits, while an evolved surface will look smoother. The size and spatial distribution of pits imply that large heterogeneities exist in the physical, structural or compositional properties of the first few hundred metres below the current nucleus surface.

  7. Monogeneans of freshwater fishes from cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, E F; Scholz, T; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Vargas-Vázquez, J

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the parasites of freshwater fishes from cenotes (sinkholes) of the Yucatan Peninsula the following species of monogeneans were found on cichlid, pimelodid, characid and poeciliid fishes: Sciadicleithrum mexicanum Kritsky, Vidal-Martinez et Rodriguez-Canul, 1994 from Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) (type host), Cichlasoma friedrichsthali (Heckel), Cichlasoma octofasciatum (Regan), and Cichlasoma synspilum Hubbs, all new host records; Sciadicleithrum meekii Mendoza-Franco, Scholz et Vidal-Martínez, 1997 from Cichlasoma meeki (Brind); Urocleidoides chavarriai (Price, 1938) and Urocleidoides travassosi (Price, 1938) from Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther); Urocleidoides costaricensis (Price et Bussing, 1967), Urocleidoides heteroancistrium (Price et Bussing, 1968), Urocleidoides anops Kritsky et Thatcher, 1974, Anacanthocotyle anacanthocotyle Kritsky et Fritts, 1970, and Gyrodactylus neotropicalis Kritsky et Fritts, 1970 from Astyanax fasciatus; and Gyrodactylus sp. from Gambusia yucatana Regan. Urocleidoides chavarriai, U. travassosi, U. costaricensis, U. heteroancistrium, U. anops, Anacanthocotyle anacanthocotyle and Gyrodactylus neotropicalis are reported from North America (Mexico) for the first time. These findings support the idea about the dispersion of freshwater fishes and their monogenean parasites from South America through Central America to southeastern Mexico, following the emergence of the Panamanian isthmus between 2 and 5 million years ago.

  8. Spiders (Araneae of selected sinkholes of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present faunistic data about spiders in selected sinkholes of northern part of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area. Time of collection was established in the following terms: 24 March 2010 – 22 September 2010. We collected altogether 5742 adult specimens which were determined to 59 species of 14 families. We found two very rare spiders (critically endangered Porrhomma errans and endangered Walckenaeria monoceros and several interesting, rarely collected bioindicator species (Alopecosa trabalis, Mecopisthes silus, Zelotes longipes. From the bioindicative evaluation point of view, 44% of found species belong to species with connection to natural habitats, 37% belong to species preferring semi-natural habitats, and 19% belong to species of disturbed habitats. From the relictness point of view, majority of species was of the expansive category (53%, 40% of class II relicts, and only 7% of class I relicts. Sink holes did not increase total biodiversity of agricultural land too much because of their relative small size.

  9. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  10. Reproductive Seasonality in Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) Cave Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Linnea M; Perlaky, Patricia; Cressler, Alan; Zigler, Kirk S

    2016-01-01

    Spiders of the family Nesticidae are members of cave communities around the world with cave-obligate (troglobiotic) species known from North America, Europe, Asia and the Indo-Pacific. A radiation of Nesticus (Araneae: Nesticidae) in the southern Appalachians includes ten troglobiotic species. Many of these species are of conservation interest due to their small ranges, with four species being single-cave endemics. Despite conservation concerns and their important role as predators in cave communities, we know little about reproduction and feeding in this group. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining populations of two species on a monthly basis for one year. We made further observations on several other species and populations, totaling 671 individual spider observations. This more than doubled the reported observations of reproduction and feeding in troglobiotic Nesticus. Female Nesticus carry egg sacs, facilitating the determination of the timing and frequency of reproduction. We found that Nesticus exhibit reproductive seasonality. Females carried egg sacs from May through October, with a peak in frequency in June. These spiders were rarely observed with prey; only 3.3% (22/671) of individuals were observed with prey items. The frequency at which prey items were observed did not vary by season. Common prey items were flies, beetles and millipedes. Troglobiotic species constituted approximately half of all prey items observed. This result represents a greater proportion of troglobiotic prey than has been reported for various troglophilic spiders. Although our findings shed light on the life history of troglobiotic Nesticus and on their role in cave ecosystems, further work is necessary to support effective conservation planning for many of these rare species.

  11. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  12. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  13. The current status of mapping karst areas and availability of public sinkhole-risk resources in karst terrains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Weary, David J.; Kaufmann, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence from sinkhole collapse is a common occurrence in areas underlain by water-soluble rocks such as carbonate and evaporite rocks, typical of karst terrain. Almost all 50 States within the United States (excluding Delaware and Rhode Island) have karst areas, with sinkhole damage highest in Florida, Texas, Alabama, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania. A conservative estimate of losses to all types of ground subsidence was $125 million per year in 1997. This estimate may now be low, as review of cost reports from the last 15 years indicates that the cost of karst collapses in the United States averages more than $300 million per year. Knowing when a catastrophic event will occur is not possible; however, understanding where such occurrences are likely is possible. The US Geological Survey has developed and maintains national-scale maps of karst areas and areas prone to sinkhole formation. Several States provide additional resources for their citizens; Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania maintain databases of sinkholes or karst features, with Florida, Kentucky, Missouri, and Ohio providing sinkhole reporting mechanisms for the public.

  14. AS PAISAGENS CÁRSTICAS DA FLÓRIDA, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brinkmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Karst landscapes typically form from the solution of soluble rocks such as limestone. In Florida, where a broad limestone platform underlies most of its territory, they are very common. The Florida¿s karst landscape can be classified as a "covered karst landscape," considering that the soluble rock that drives to the diversity of landscape is covered by non-soluble marine sediments. The most important forms in those landscapes are sinkholes, springs and caves. Sinkholes are the most common form, and thousands of them exist in Florida. The distribution of sinkholes is not random, being less dense where the sedimentary cover is formed by coarse sediments. Sinkholes can be suddenly formed, causing grave economic damages. Springs are also very common. There are hundreds of them in Florida, and among them, 33 of 1ª magnitude (related to large discharges, what signifies the biggest concentration of 1ª magnitude springs in the world. Springs have a large importance to local economies, because their mineral water is sold as bottled water, and also because of their tourist potential. Finally, the caves, are also numerous - around 1,200 are known in Florida at present. Normally, they are situated inside the aquifer zone, possessing the deepest and longest conduits in Florida. The caves give important information about Quaternary palaeofauna and sometimes, also about American Indian habits. Beyond those three main kinds of karst landscapes, some forms of smaller expression, as temporary streams and solution valleys, also occur in the territory of Florida.

  15. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  16. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  17. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  18. Magnetic Susceptibility and Heavy Metals in Guano from South Sulawesi Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, H.; Putra, R.; Fadila, M. R.; Erni, E.; Wurster, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Measurement of some magnetic properties have been performed on vertical profile from South Sulawesi caves (Mampu and Bubau) by using low cost, rapid, sensitive and non destructive magnetic method. The aim is to attempt to use magnetic characters as a fingerprint for anthropogenic pollution in the caves. Guano samples were collected every 5 cm at a certain section of Mampu and Bubau cave, South Sulawesi, starting from surface through 300 cm in depth of mampu Cave and 30 cm of Bubau Cave. The magnetic parameters such as magnetic susceptibility and percentage frequency dependence susceptibility were measured using the Bartington MS2-MS2B instruments and supported by X-Ray Fluoroscence (XRF) to know their element composition. The results show that the samples had variations in magnetic susceptibility from 3.5 to 242.6 x 10‑8 m3/kg for Mampu Cave and from 8.6 to 106.5 x 10‑8 m3/kg for Bubau Cave and also magnetic domain. Then, the XRF results show that the caves contain several heavy metals. Magnetic and heavy metal analyses showing that the magnetic minerals in caves are lithogenic (Fe-bearing minerals) in origin and anthropogenic (Zn content) in the caves.

  19. Speleogenesis, geometry, and topology of caves: A quantitative study of 3D karst conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouves, Johan; Viseur, Sophie; Arfib, Bruno; Baudement, Cécile; Camus, Hubert; Collon, Pauline; Guglielmi, Yves

    2017-12-01

    Karst systems are hierarchically spatially organized three-dimensional (3D) networks of conduits behaving as drains for groundwater flow. Recently, geostatistical approaches proposed to generate karst networks from data and parameters stemming from analogous observed karst features. Other studies have qualitatively highlighted relationships between speleogenetic processes and cave patterns. However, few studies have been performed to quantitatively define these relationships. This paper reports a quantitative study of cave geometries and topologies that takes the underlying speleogenetic processes into account. In order to study the spatial organization of caves, a 3D numerical database was built from 26 caves, corresponding to 621 km of cumulative cave passages representative of the variety of karst network patterns. The database includes 3D speleological surveys for which the speleogenetic context is known, allowing the polygenic karst networks to be divided into 48 monogenic cave samples and classified into four cave patterns: vadose branchwork (VB), water-table cave (WTC), looping cave (LC), and angular maze (AM). Eight morphometric cave descriptors were calculated, four geometrical parameters (width-height ratio, tortuosity, curvature, and vertical index) and four topological ones (degree of node connectivity, α and γ graph indices, and ramification index) respectively. The results were validated by statistical analyses (Kruskal-Wallis test and PCA). The VB patterns are clearly distinct from AM ones and from a third group including WTC and LC. A quantitative database of cave morphology characteristics is provided, depending on their speleogenetic processes. These characteristics can be used to constrain and/or validate 3D geostatistical simulations. This study shows how important it is to relate the geometry and connectivity of cave networks to recharge and flow processes. Conversely, the approach developed here provides proxies to estimate the evolution of

  20. Reconciling Mining with the Conservation of Cave Biodiversity: A Quantitative Baseline to Help Establish Conservation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Prous, Xavier; Zampaulo, Robson; Giannini, Tereza C; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Maurity, Clóvis; Oliveira, Guilherme; Brandi, Iuri V; Siqueira, José O

    2016-01-01

    Caves pose significant challenges for mining projects, since they harbor many endemic and threatened species, and must therefore be protected. Recent discussions between academia, environmental protection agencies, and industry partners, have highlighted problems with the current Brazilian legislation for the protection of caves. While the licensing process is long, complex and cumbersome, the criteria used to assign caves into conservation relevance categories are often subjective, with relevance being mainly determined by the presence of obligate cave dwellers (troglobites) and their presumed rarity. However, the rarity of these troglobitic species is questionable, as most remain unidentified to the species level and their habitats and distribution ranges are poorly known. Using data from 844 iron caves retrieved from different speleology reports for the Carajás region (South-Eastern Amazon, Brazil), one of the world's largest deposits of high-grade iron ore, we assess the influence of different cave characteristics on four biodiversity proxies (species richness, presence of troglobites, presence of rare troglobites, and presence of resident bat populations). We then examine how the current relevance classification scheme ranks caves with different biodiversity indicators. Large caves were found to be important reservoirs of biodiversity, so they should be prioritized in conservation programs. Our results also reveal spatial autocorrelation in all the biodiversity proxies assessed, indicating that iron caves should be treated as components of a cave network immersed in the karst landscape. Finally, we show that by prioritizing the conservation of rare troglobites, the current relevance classification scheme is undermining overall cave biodiversity and leaving ecologically important caves unprotected. We argue that conservation efforts should target subterranean habitats as a whole and propose an alternative relevance ranking scheme, which could help simplify the

  1. Seasonal Temperature Variations controlling Cave Ventilation Processes in Cueva Larga, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A.; Vieten, R.; Warken, S. F.; Schrӧder-Ritzrau, A.; Miller, T. E.; Scholz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Two years of monthly monitoring result in much better understanding of ventilation processes in caves. Cueva Larga, a tropical cave in Puerto Rico is 1440 m long with a large main passage (about 116,000 m3). Cave air pCO2 in the main passage varied seasonally, between 600 ppm in winter and 1800 ppm in summer. The seasonal variability in cave pCO2 made it possible to estimate a cave air exchange time of 36±5 days and a winter ventilation rate of 3,200±800 m3/day for the main cave passage. Calculations of virtual temperature and differences between cave and surface temperature show that the seasonal temperature cycle is the main driver of the alternation between a well-ventilated winter mode and a near-stagnant summer mode. The winter mode is characterized by a positive buoyancy contrast at night leading to maximal cave ventilation, while during summer ventilation is at a minimum. Between winter and summer, a transitional mode of partial cave ventilation is observed. On shorter time scales (diurnal to weekly), cave pCO2 is also influenced by atmospheric pressure but this variation is one order of magnitude lower than the seasonal pCO2 change. The cave morphology of Cueva Larga including its large volume, tubular shape and the obstructed cave entrance geometry are important boundary conditions for the observed ventilation patterns. Our findings emphasize that cave systems with varying morphology have to be studied individually in order to correctly describe ventilation processes.

  2. Ancient lineage, young troglobites: recent colonization of caves by Nesticella spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-09-04

    The evolution and origin of cave organisms is a recurring issue in evolutionary studies, but analyses are often hindered by the inaccessibility of caves, morphological convergence, and complex colonization processes. Here we investigated the evolutionary history of Nesticella cave spiders, which are mainly distributed in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China. With comprehensive sampling and phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses, we investigated the tempo and mode of diversification and the origins of these troglobites. We also aimed to determine which factors have influenced the diversification of this little-known group. Coalescent-based species delimitation validated the 18 species recognized by morphological inspection and also suggested the existence of cryptic lineages. Divergence time estimates suggested that Nesticella cave spiders in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau constituted a monophyletic troglobite clade that originated in the middle Miocene (11.1-18.6 Ma). Although the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau clade was composed exclusively of troglobite species, suggesting an ancient common subterranean ancestor, we favor multiple, independent cave colonizations during the Pleistocene over a single ancient cave colonization event to explain the origin of these cave faunas. The diversification of plateau Nesticella has been greatly influenced by the sequential uplift of the plateau and likely reflects multiple cave colonizations over time by epigean ancestors during Pleistocene glacial advances. We concluded that plateau cave Nesticella represent an ancient group of spiders, but with young troglobite lineages that invaded caves only recently. The absence of extant epigean relatives and nearly complete isolation among caves supported their relict status. Our work highlights the importance of comprehensive sampling for studies of subterranean diversity and the evolution of cave organisms. The existence of potentially cryptic species and the relict status of Nesticella

  3. Geology and sinkhole development of the Hagerstown Valley : phase II summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    As a part of this study, karst areas of the Hagerstown, Mason Dixon, Williamsport, Clear Spring, and Hedgesville : quadrangles (western half of the Hagerstown Valley) were mapped in detail to determine the distribution of karst : features relative to...

  4. Sources of sulphate minerals in limestone cave-a possible evidence of anthropogenic activity: a case study in Črna Jama Cave (Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Simona; Miler, Miloš; Šebela, Stanka; Zupančič, Nina

    2017-12-01

    In the caves, the formation of cave minerals is a consequence of a variety of chemical reactions, some of them also due to human activity. There are many caves in Slovenia, but sulphate minerals are not very often reported and analysed. In this study, the presence of sulphate minerals is detected by SEM/EDS analysis of speleothems from Črna Jama, a cave near Kočevje (southern Slovenia). The cave is characterised by its dark, almost black colour on cave walls, floor and speleothems. Anthropogenic influence in the cave is still visible, including the remains of a fireplace, some inscriptions on the walls and wooden containers. The analyses of some of the black-coated speleothems reveal the presence of calcium sulphate, confirmed by XRD as gypsum. Gypsum crystals are around 50 μm in size, and they occur in thin crusts. Additionally, some rare authigenic baryte crystals a few micrometres in size are detected. The sulphates δ 34 S value in gypsum found on dark coloured speleothems is + 10.4‰ Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (VCDT), while the sulphate δ 34 S of the bedrock is + 8.6‰ VCDT. The more likely source of sulphate ions is thus biomass burning rather than bedrock. Also, bedrock and biomass ash are a very probable source of calcium and barium. The highly probable pyrogenous origin of sulphates draws attention to human impact on cave mineralogy.

  5. Time-lapse gravity and levelling in the sinkhole-endangered urban area of Bad Frankenhausen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Martin; Gabriel, Gerald; Weise, Adelheid; Krawczyk, Charlotte; Vogel, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes, resulting from subrosion in the subsurface, can reach diameters of several hundred meters and thus pose a severe hazard for infrastructure and inhabitants in urban areas. Subrosion is the leaching of readily-soluble rocks, such as rock salt, gypsum, anhydrite and limestone by ground or meteoric water and leads to mass transport and relocation. Two scenarios of sinkhole evolution are conceivable: First, the surface subsides continuously in order to compensate for the mass loss. Second, the mass relocation leads to development of subsurface cavities. If they reach a critical size and the cover layers are not supported anymore, the surface collapses abruptly. To improve the understanding of subrosion processes and the related surface deformation a case study is conducted in Bad Frankenhausen, Germany, where subrosion leaches the Zechstein evaporates of the Permian. One part of the study is to analyse the spatiotemporal development of sinkholes by applying time-lapse observations. Therefore, we established a monitoring network consisting of 15 gravity and additional levelling points covering the main sinkhole areas in the city centre. In March 2014, the baseline survey was carried out. Since then, quarterly measurement campaigns are performed. In each campaign four different gravity meters are used to collect a statistical significant amount of data and to control the plausibility of our data. The gravity measurements are complemented by levelling surveys. The rectification of the time-lapse gravity data comprises the correction for jumps and systematic errors, as well as for well calculable influences, such as earth tides and air pressure changes. Furthermore, special interest was applied to seasonal changes of hydrological parameters such as soil moisture or groundwater level. We found the hydrological influence to be in the single digit up to the lower two-digit µGal range, depending on the season and the station. The standard deviations of the adjusted

  6. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  7. Connectivity among sinkholes and complex networks: The case of Ring of Cenotes in northwest Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Nicolas, Mariana; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain

    2014-05-01

    A 180-km-diameter semicircular alignment of abundant karst sinkholes (locally known as cenotes) in northwestern Yucatán, México, coincides approximately with a concentric ring of the buried Chicxulub structure, a circular feature manifested in Cretaceous and older rocks, that has been identified as the product of the impact of a meteorite. The secondary permeability generated by the fracturing and faulting of the sedimentary sequence in the Chicxulub impact, has favored the karstification process and hence the development of genuine underground rivers that carry water from the continent to the sea. The study of the structure and morphology of the crater has allowed researchers to understand the key role of the crater in the Yucatán hydrogeology. It is generally accepted that the Ring of Cenotes, produced by the gravitational deformation of the Tertiary sedimentary sequence within the crater, controls the groundwater in northern Yucatán. However, today there is not solid evidence about the connectivity among cenotes, which is important because if established, public policies could be designed to manage sanitary infrastructure, septic control, regulation of agricultural and industrial activities and the protection of water that has not been compromised by anthropogenic pollution. All these directly affect more than half a million people whose main source of drinking water lies in the aquifer. In this contribution we investigated a set of 16 cenotes located in the vicinity of a gravimetric anomaly of Chicxulub crater ring, using complex networks to model the interconnectivity among them. Data from a geoelectrical tomography survey, collected with SuperSting R1/IP equipment, with multi-electrodes (72 electrodes), in a dipole-dipole configuration was used as input of our model. Since the total number of cenotes on the ring structure amounts to about 2000, the application of graph theoretic algorithms and Monte Carlo simulation to efficiently investigate network

  8. Determination of the Radon Concentration and Radioactivity Level in Karaca Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the radon gas concentration in the Karaca cave which is open to tourism has been determined and the negative effects of radon gas on people were discussed. Karaca cave (Gumushane) is visited by many tourists every year. The measurements of radon gas concentration which affects the health of human beings negatively and even causes the lung cancer when it reaches high points have been done for the summer and winter season. LR-115 passive radon detector was used to determine radon concentrations in the cave both winter and summer season. The average radon concentration in the Karaca cave were determined as 823 Bq/m 3 and 1023 Bq/m 3 for the summer and winter season, respectively. Moreover, to find out the natural radioactivity in the cave, the gamma spectroscopic analysis of soil, stone and stalagmite samples were carried out and their relations with the radon gas in the cave atmosphere was analyzed

  9. Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae from Charkhab Cave, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical im­portance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan.Methods: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol.Results: Loxosceles rufescens, a medically important spider, is recorded from Charkhab Cave in Fars Province (southwest of Iran. Identification of L. rufescens was performed based on external morphology and the features of male genitalia.Conclusion: Presence of L. rufescens in south of Iran especially in a cave confirmed that this species is a widely distributed species in Iran. Therefore, cavers or cave visitors should be aware of this poisonous spider in caves.

  10. Geophysical exploration in vicinity of the Unicorn Cave, South Harz Mountains, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Georg; Romanov, Douchko; Nielbock, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    The Unicorn Cave in the southern Harz Mountains in Germany is located in an outcrop of dolomite from the Zechstein formation, which is underlain by Grauwacke rocks. The cave, about 600 meters long, consists of several large chambers, which are connected by a gallery following the main fault alignments in E/W, NE/SW, and NW/SE direction. The overburden of the cave is shallow, between 10 and 30 m. We have used this cave site to perform a sensitivity test for both gravimetric and geoelectic methods above the cave. Additionally, geoelectic mapping has been used to assess the thickness of the cave sediments in one of the chambers. Our results show a clear signal in the Bouguer anomaly, which can only be explained by a combined model of the void space and the sediment filling. Geoelectric results are less clear, but support the gravimetry.

  11. Evolution and adaptation of marine annelids in interstitial and cave habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro

    relatives in cave subterranean ecological refugia. Active colonization and ecological speciation to particular cave niches has been alternatively suggested, but the evaluation of that scenario is obscured by the dominance of crustaceans in anchialine habitats, ecologically similar out and inside caves....... The main goal of this thesis is to explore the evolutionary processes behind colonization and adaptation to submarine cave ecosystems in the Atlantic Ocean using annelids as a model, mainly when they involved ancestrally interstitial forms. In order to do that, we studied selected lineages of annelids...... with cave and interstitial representatives, mainly the families Protodrilidae, Nerillidae, Saccocirridae and Scalibregmatidae. The studies combined the characterization of ancestral and cave habitats, with morphological investigations and phylogenetic analyses founded on extensive taxon coverage...

  12. Measurements of seasonal and daily radon daughter concentration fluctuations in National Park Service caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarborough, K.A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is studying levels of airborne alpha radiation from radon and thoron in all NPS administered caves in which tours for visitors are regularly conducted. The NPS research has the dual but complementary objectives of safeguarding health at the NPS administered caves, and to develop data on alpha radiation levels and on natural airflows in NPS caves. The results reported here for NPS caves describe concepts hypothesized for the objectives. In addition the data can be used by various agencies to clarify health standards for exposures to low airborne alpha radiation levels in cave environments. These results show daily and seasonal trends and the influence of natural ventilation by air circulation for each cave investigated

  13. Bioinspired spring origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jakob A.; Arrieta, Andres F.; Studart, André R.

    2018-03-01

    Origami enables folding of objects into a variety of shapes in arts, engineering, and biological systems. In contrast to well-known paper-folded objects, the wing of the earwig has an exquisite natural folding system that cannot be sufficiently described by current origami models. Such an unusual biological system displays incompatible folding patterns, remains open by a bistable locking mechanism during flight, and self-folds rapidly without muscular actuation. We show that these notable functionalities arise from the protein-rich joints of the earwig wing, which work as extensional and rotational springs between facets. Inspired by this biological wing, we establish a spring origami model that broadens the folding design space of traditional origami and allows for the fabrication of precisely tunable, four-dimensional–printed objects with programmable bioinspired morphing functionalities.

  14. Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Halliday

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyperthermic inner room beneath an adjoining tumulus with no connection evident on the surface. Two lengthy, sinuous hollow tumuli also are present in this part of the caldera. These findings support Walkers conclusions that hollow tumuli provide valuable insights into tumulus-forming mechanisms, and provide information about the processes of emplacement of pahoehoe sheet flows.

  15. A diverse intrinsic antibiotic resistome from a cave bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Andrew C; Wang, Wenliang; Koteva, Kalinka; Barton, Hazel A; McArthur, Andrew G; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-12-08

    Antibiotic resistance is ancient and widespread in environmental bacteria. These are therefore reservoirs of resistance elements and reflective of the natural history of antibiotics and resistance. In a previous study, we discovered that multi-drug resistance is common in bacteria isolated from Lechuguilla Cave, an underground ecosystem that has been isolated from the surface for over 4 Myr. Here we use whole-genome sequencing, functional genomics and biochemical assays to reveal the intrinsic resistome of Paenibacillus sp. LC231, a cave bacterial isolate that is resistant to most clinically used antibiotics. We systematically link resistance phenotype to genotype and in doing so, identify 18 chromosomal resistance elements, including five determinants without characterized homologues and three mechanisms not previously shown to be involved in antibiotic resistance. A resistome comparison across related surface Paenibacillus affirms the conservation of resistance over millions of years and establishes the longevity of these genes in this genus.

  16. Exposure to radon in caves and abandoned mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The significance for health of exposure to radon daughters during leisure excursions in discussed mines or caves is considered for visitors with interests in speleology, mineral collecting, mining history and youth training. General members of the public might also enter tunnels. Potential annual exposures based on radon measurements in various mines and caves are estimated and it is concluded that the annual exposure of individuals who undertake frequent and prolonged trips to underground systems might exceed 10 6 Bq h m -3 . Exposures to general members of the public are likely to be much lower. The National Radiological Protection Board has developed proposals for a coherent and comprehensive scheme to promote dose limitation in a wide range of circumstances. These are described, with current initiatives on consultation with National Associations, local Government and many special interest groups. (author)

  17. Decommissioning of fuel PIE caves at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the first major contract awarded to private industry to carry out decommissioning of a facility with significant radiation levels. The work required operatives to work in pressurised suits, entry times were significantly affected by sources of radiation in the Caves, being as low as thirty minutes per day initially. The Caves at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories carry out post irradiation examination of fuel elements support units and reactor core components from CEGB power stations. The decommissioning work is part of an overall refurbishment of the facility to allow the receipt of AGR Fuel Stringer Component direct from power stations. The paper describes the decommissioning and decontamination of the facility from the remote removal and clean up work carried out by the client to the hands-on work. It includes reference to entry times, work patterns, interfaces with the client and the operations of the laboratory. Details of a specially adapted size reduction method are given. (Author)

  18. Mixture Analysis and Mammalian Sex Ratio Among Middle Pleistocene Mouflon of Arago Cave, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchot, Hervé

    1999-09-01

    In archaeological studies, it is often important to be able assess sexual dimorphism and sex ratios in populations. Obtaining sex ratio is easy if each individual in the population can be accurately sexed through the use of one more objective variables. But this is often impossible, due to incompleteness of the osteological record. A modern statistical approach to handle this problem is Mixture Analysis using the method of maximum likelihood. It consists of determining how many groups are present in the sample, two in this case, in which proportions they occur, and to estimate the parameters accordingly. This paper shows the use of this method on vertebrate fossil populations in a prehistoric context with implications on prey acquisition by early humans. For instance, the analysis of mouflon bones from Arago cave (Tautavel, France) indicates that there are more females than males in the F layer. According to the ethology of the animal, this indicates that the hunting strategy could be the result of selective choice of the prey. Moreover, we may deduce the presence of Anteneandertalians on the site during spring and summer periods.

  19. Asymmetric Meckel Cave Enlargement: A Potential Marker of PHACES Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J N; Wycoco, V

    2017-06-01

    PHACES syndrome is a complex of morphologic abnormalities of unknown cause and includes posterior fossa abnormalities; head and neck infantile hemangiomas; arterial, cardiac, and eye anomalies; and sternal or abdominal wall defects. Accurate identification of the syndrome is important for optimal treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement, a potential novel imaging marker, in a population of patients referred for evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome. Eighty-five patients referred for neuroimaging evaluation of possible PHACES syndrome were identified and stratified on the basis of their ultimate clinical PHACES diagnosis categorization into PHACES, possible PHACES, or not PHACES. MR imaging studies were subsequently reviewed for the presence or absence of unilateral Meckel cave enlargement, with the reviewer blinded to the ultimate PHACES syndrome categorization. Twenty-five of 85 patients (29%) were ultimately categorized as having PHACES or possible PHACES according to consensus guidelines. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was present in 76% (19/25) of these patients and in 82% (19/23) of only those patients with definite PHACES. This finding was present in none of the 60 patients determined not to have PHACES syndrome. In 7/19 patients (37%) with this finding, subtle MR imaging abnormalities consistent with PHACES were missed on the initial MR imaging interpretation. Asymmetric Meckel cave enlargement was a common feature of patients with PHACES in our cohort and may serve as a novel imaging marker. Increased awareness of this imaging feature has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy of PHACES. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. Post-speleogenetic biogenic modification of Gomantong Caves, Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Joyce; McFarlane, Donald A.

    2012-07-01

    The Gomantong cave system of eastern Sabah, Malaysia, is well-known as an important site for harvesting edible bird-nests and, more recently, as a tourist attraction. Although the biology of the Gomantong system has been repeatedly studied, very little attention has been given to the geomorphology. Here, we report on the impact of geobiological modification in the development of the modern aspect of the cave, an important but little recognized feature of tropical caves. Basic modeling of the metabolic outputs from bats and birds (CO2, H2O, heat) reveals that post-speleogenetic biogenic corrosion can erode bedrock by between ~ 3.0 mm/ka (1 m/~300 ka) and ~ 4.6 mm/ka (1 m/~200 ka). Modeling at high densities of bats yields rates of corrosion of ~ 34 mm/ka (or 1 m/~30 ka). Sub-aerial corrosion creates a previously undescribed speleological feature, the apse-flute, which is semicircular in cross-section and ~ 80 cm wide. It is vertical regardless of rock properties, developing in parallel but apparently completely independently, and often unbroken from roof to floor. They end at a blind hemi-spherical top with no extraneous water source. Half-dome ceiling conch pockets are remnants of previous apse-fluting. Sub-cutaneous corrosion creates the floor-level guano notch formed by organic acid dissolution of bedrock in contact with guano. Speleogenetic assessment suggests that as much as 70-95% of the total volume of the modern cave may have been opened by direct subaerial biogenic dissolution and biogenically-induced collapse, and by sub-cutaneous removal of limestone, over a timescale of 1-2 Ma.

  1. Reconstruction of bomb 14C time history recorded in the stalagmite from Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, B.; Genty, D.; Obelic, B.

    2002-01-01

    The karstic caves provide valuable resources for reconstruction of environmental conditions on the continent in the past. This is possible due to the great stability of climatic conditions within a cave. Secondary minerals deposited in caves, known as speleothems, preserve records of long-term climatic and environmental changes at the site of their deposition and in the vicinity. The purity of speleothems and their chemical and physical stability make them exceptionally well suited for detailed geochemical and isotopic analysis

  2. Insectivorous bat reproduction and human cave visitation in Cambodia: A perfect conservation storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Hoem, Thavry

    2018-01-01

    Cave roosting bats represent an important component of Southeast Asian bat diversity and are vulnerable to human disturbance during critical reproductive periods (pregnancy, lactation and weaning). Because dramatic growth of cave tourism in recent decades has raised concerns about impacts on cave bats in the region, we assessed the reproductive phenology of two insectivorous species (Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato and Taphozous melanopogon) at three caves in Cambodia for 23 months in 2014–2016 and evaluated human visitation to these sites between 2007 and 2014. Despite the differing foraging strategies employed by the two taxa, the temporal consistency observed in proportions of pregnant, lactating and juvenile bats indicates that their major birth peaks coincide with the time of greatest cave visitation annually, particularly for domestic visitors and namely during the Cambodian new year in April. They also reflect rainfall patterns and correspond with the reproductive phenology of insectivorous cave bats in Vietnam. These findings were predictable because 1) insect biomass and thus food availability for insectivorous bats are optimal for ensuring survival of young following this period, and 2) the Khmer new year is the most significant month for religious ceremonies and thus domestic cave visitation nationally, due to the abundance of Buddhist shrines and temples in Cambodian caves. While the impact of visitor disturbance on bat population recruitment cannot be empirically assessed due to lack of historical data, it is nonetheless likely to have been considerable and raises a conservation concern. Further, because growing evidence suggests that insectivorous cave bats exhibit reproductive synchrony across continental Southeast Asia where countless cave shrines are heavily frequented during April in Theravada Buddhist countries (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos), our results may have wider applicability in the region. We consequently advocate for

  3. Technical devices of powered roof support for the top coal caving as automation objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, M. S.; Kizilov, S. A.; Nikolaev, P. I.; Kuznetsov, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper technical devices for the top coal caving as automation objects in the composition of the longwall mining complex (LTCC) are considered. The proposed concept for automation of the top coal caving process allows caving efficiency to be ensured, coal dilution to be prevented, conveyor overloading to be prevented, the shearer service personnel to be unloaded, the influence of the “human factor” to be reduced.

  4. Late quaternary brown bear (Ursidae: Ursus cf. arctos) from a cave in the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Czaplewski; Steve Willsey

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, Steve Willsey discovered the fragmentary cranium of a bear loose on the floor of a cave at about 2270 m elevation near the crest of the Huachuca Mountains. In 2009, we revisited the cave to examine the specimen with the intention of identifying the species. We photographed and measured the main pieces and left them in the cave. The skull is from an adult,...

  5. Insectivorous bat reproduction and human cave visitation in Cambodia: A perfect conservation storm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thona; Cappelle, Julien; Hoem, Thavry; Furey, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Cave roosting bats represent an important component of Southeast Asian bat diversity and are vulnerable to human disturbance during critical reproductive periods (pregnancy, lactation and weaning). Because dramatic growth of cave tourism in recent decades has raised concerns about impacts on cave bats in the region, we assessed the reproductive phenology of two insectivorous species (Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato and Taphozous melanopogon) at three caves in Cambodia for 23 months in 2014-2016 and evaluated human visitation to these sites between 2007 and 2014. Despite the differing foraging strategies employed by the two taxa, the temporal consistency observed in proportions of pregnant, lactating and juvenile bats indicates that their major birth peaks coincide with the time of greatest cave visitation annually, particularly for domestic visitors and namely during the Cambodian new year in April. They also reflect rainfall patterns and correspond with the reproductive phenology of insectivorous cave bats in Vietnam. These findings were predictable because 1) insect biomass and thus food availability for insectivorous bats are optimal for ensuring survival of young following this period, and 2) the Khmer new year is the most significant month for religious ceremonies and thus domestic cave visitation nationally, due to the abundance of Buddhist shrines and temples in Cambodian caves. While the impact of visitor disturbance on bat population recruitment cannot be empirically assessed due to lack of historical data, it is nonetheless likely to have been considerable and raises a conservation concern. Further, because growing evidence suggests that insectivorous cave bats exhibit reproductive synchrony across continental Southeast Asia where countless cave shrines are heavily frequented during April in Theravada Buddhist countries (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos), our results may have wider applicability in the region. We consequently advocate for

  6. Insectivorous bat reproduction and human cave visitation in Cambodia: A perfect conservation storm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thona Lim

    Full Text Available Cave roosting bats represent an important component of Southeast Asian bat diversity and are vulnerable to human disturbance during critical reproductive periods (pregnancy, lactation and weaning. Because dramatic growth of cave tourism in recent decades has raised concerns about impacts on cave bats in the region, we assessed the reproductive phenology of two insectivorous species (Hipposideros larvatus sensu lato and Taphozous melanopogon at three caves in Cambodia for 23 months in 2014-2016 and evaluated human visitation to these sites between 2007 and 2014. Despite the differing foraging strategies employed by the two taxa, the temporal consistency observed in proportions of pregnant, lactating and juvenile bats indicates that their major birth peaks coincide with the time of greatest cave visitation annually, particularly for domestic visitors and namely during the Cambodian new year in April. They also reflect rainfall patterns and correspond with the reproductive phenology of insectivorous cave bats in Vietnam. These findings were predictable because 1 insect biomass and thus food availability for insectivorous bats are optimal for ensuring survival of young following this period, and 2 the Khmer new year is the most significant month for religious ceremonies and thus domestic cave visitation nationally, due to the abundance of Buddhist shrines and temples in Cambodian caves. While the impact of visitor disturbance on bat population recruitment cannot be empirically assessed due to lack of historical data, it is nonetheless likely to have been considerable and raises a conservation concern. Further, because growing evidence suggests that insectivorous cave bats exhibit reproductive synchrony across continental Southeast Asia where countless cave shrines are heavily frequented during April in Theravada Buddhist countries (e.g., Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos, our results may have wider applicability in the region. We consequently

  7. Dietary ecology of the extinct cave bear: Evidence of omnivory as inferred from dental microwear textures

    OpenAIRE

    D. Brent Jones; Larisa R.G. DeSantis

    2016-01-01

    The diet of the extinct European cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, has widely been debated. Diverging from the extant brown bear (Ursus arctos) approximately 1.2 million years ago, the cave bear is one of the most ubiquitous fossil bears occurring in Europe during the middle and Late Pleistocene. Early morphological studies suggested that the cave bear was likely specialized on processing tough and/or abrasive foods, while later two-dimensional low-magnification microwear studies suggested that they...

  8. Direct measurement of present-day tectonic movement and associated radon flux in Postojna Cave, Slovenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, S.; Vaupotič, J.; Košťák, Blahoslav; Stemberk, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2010), s. 21-34 ISSN 1090-6924 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/2024; GA MŠk MEB091005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : fault displacements * radon flux * Postojna Cave Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2010 www.caves.org/pub/journal/Journal_of_Cave_and_Karst_Studies_volume_72.htm

  9. Investigation of Sediment Pathways and Concealed Sedimentological Features in Hidden River Cave, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, S.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Reinhardt, E. G.; McNeill-Jewer, C.; Eyles, C.

    2016-12-01

    Hidden River Cave is part of a cave system hydrogeologically related to Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and is a multi-level active cave system with 25km of mapped passages. Upper levels experience flow during flood events and lower levels have continuously flowing water. Improper industrial and domestic waste disposal and poor understanding of local hydrogeology lead to contamination of Hidden River Cave in the early 1940s. Previously used for hydroelectric power generation and as a source of potable water the cave was closed to the public for almost 50 years. A new sewage treatment plant and remediation efforts since 1989 have improved the cave system's health. This project focuses on sedimentological studies in the Hidden River Cave system. Water and sediment transport in the cave are being investigated using sediment cores, surface sediment samples and water level data. An Itrax core scanner is used to analyze sediment cores for elemental concentrations, magnetic susceptibility, radiography, and high resolution photography. Horizons of metal concentrations in the core allow correlation of sedimentation events in the cave system. Thecamoebian (testate amoebae) microfossils identified in surface samples allow for further constraint of sediment sources, sedimentation rates, and paleoclimatic analysis. Dive recorders monitor water levels, providing data to further understand the movement of sediment through the cave system. A general time constraint on the sediment's age is based on the presence of microplastic in the surface samples and sediment cores, and data from radiocarbon and lead-210 dating. The integration of various sedimentological data allows for better understanding of sedimentation processes and their record of paleoenvironmental change in the cave system. Sediment studies and methodologies from this project can be applied to other karst systems, and have important applications for communities living on karst landscapes and their water management policies.

  10. A cave population of Isbrueckerichthys alipionis (Gosline, 1947 in the Upper Ribeira karst area, southeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Trajano

    Full Text Available A cave population of the armored catfish Isbrueckerichthys alipionis is reported from the Santana Cave, in the rio Betari watershed, Upper Ribeira karst area, Iporanga, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. The cave population was compared to an epigean population of I. alipionis and no significant differences where found in morphology or degree of pigmentation. As the cave population is known for at least 30 years and is apparently isolated from epigean streams, it is classified as troglophilic. The discovery of this troglophilic species in the Santana Cave is an additional strong argument for the conservation of that cave.

  11. The Caves of Naica: a decade of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazquez, F.; Calaforra, J. M.; Porti, P.; Badino, G.

    2016-01-01

    The caves of the Naica Mine have been the subject of study by scientists from up to seven counties over the past decade. Up to fifty research works have published to date, most relating to the origin of the giant selenite crystals of the Cueva de los Cristales. Nevertheless, a great deal of knowledge has been generated about other relevant aspects of the Naica system. This paper puts together the vast information available about the Naica caves, from the discovery of the Cueva de los Cristales in 2000 to the more recent investigations addressing mineralogy, microclimatology and the use of gypsum speleothems as a palaeo-environmental proxy. Special attention has been paid to novel research lines that have started to use the speleothems of Naica as a study case, particularly in fields such as Astrobiology and Planetary geology. Moreover, the conservation challenges which these caves will face in the near future as consequence of the end of mining activities have also been addressed in this article. (Author)

  12. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Krizler C. Tanalgo; John Aries G. Tabora

    2015-01-01

    The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species we...

  13. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  14. The significance of the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus P. Kritzinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that the second cave episode in Jerome’s Vita Malchi Monachi Captivi should, in view of the similarities with the first cave episode and the high incidence of literary devices employed in it, be recognised for its value in the interpretation of this vita. The book was intended as a defence of, and an exhortation to a life of celibacy and this dual purpose is clearly demonstrated in both episodes in which a cave is used as the setting. The second cave episode has been neglected in the scholarly debate about the purpose of the book and this article attempts to set the record straight.

  15. A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Ramos Donato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of the Speleological Heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological and anthropogenic studies, both from inside the caves and from the external environments that surround them. This study presents a method to rank caves according to their priority for conservation and restoration. Nine caves were evaluated: indicators related to the environmental impacts and the vulnerability status presented by those caves (intrinsic features and the values scored in a ‘Cave Conservation Index’ (CCI were established. We also used a rapid assessment protocol to measure cave vulnerability for prioritization of conservation/restoration actions (RAP-cr comparing natural cavities with the same lithology, due to “strictu sensu” peculiarities. Based on the protocols applied in caves of the municipality of Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, we concluded that the present method attended to the needs for the classification of the caves into categories of conservation/restoration status, using little time and financial effort, through rapid diagnostics that facilitate the comparisons. In this perspective, the CCI can be used to indicate areas that should be protected and caves that should be prioritized to have initiated activities of conservation and restoration.

  16. High-resolution seismic-reflection imaging 25 years of change in I-70 sinkhole, Russell County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.; Lambrecht, J.L.; Croxton, N.

    2006-01-01

    Time-lapse seismic reflection imaging improved our understanding of the consistent, gradual surface subsidence ongoing at two sinkholes in the Gorham Oilfield discovered beneath a stretch of Interstate Highway 70 through Russell and Ellis Counties in Kansas in 1966. With subsidence occurring at a rate of around 10 cm per year since discovery, monitoring has been beneficial to ensure public safety and optimize maintenance. A miniSOSIE reflection survey conducted in 1980 delineated the affected subsurface and successfully predicted development of a third sinkhole at this site. In 2004 and 2005 a high-resolution vibroseis survey was completed to ascertain current conditions of the subsurface, rate and pattern of growth since 1980, and potential for continued growth. With time and improved understanding of the salt dissolution affected subsurface in this area it appears that these features represent little risk to the public from catastrophic failure. However, from an operational perspective the Kansas Department of Transportation should expect continued subsidence, with future increases in surface area likely at a slightly reduced vertical rate. Seismic characteristics appear empirically consistent with gradual earth material compaction/settling. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  17. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, E.; Bona, F.; Falasco, E.; La Morgia, V.; Badino, G.; Isaia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  18. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  19. Census of biodiversity in marine caves of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. GEROVASILEIOU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific information on the biodiversity of marine caves in the eastern Mediterranean is limited, especially when considering the extensively studied caves of the north-western and central Mediterranean. Aiming to enhance current knowledge regarding cave communities, this study represents a first assessment of the marine cave biota of the eastern Mediterranean, as this has been defined by the European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Information retrieved from an extensive overview of relevant scientific documents was combined with original data recorded from 23 marine caves of the north-eastern Mediterranean. Our results report a total of 520 taxa recorded in eastern Mediterranean marine caves to date, the majority of which are sponges, polychaetes, rhodophytes, bivalves, fishes, and gastropods. These include several protected, endemic, and alien species. However, not all taxonomic groups have been equally studied among different areas and future studies are expected to raise the number of endemic and alien species. The overall observed trend is that the reported species number is generally related to sampling effort and scientific expertise. The most well-studied marine cave communities of the eastern Mediterranean are those of the Aegean Sea (especially its northern sector, which presented the highest number of species, followed by those of the Levantine. Furthermore, our research in Aegean caves revealed numerous new records for the marine cave fauna of the eastern basin, while several species are reported for the first time in the marine cave habitat. The critical need for further scientific research, monitoring, and conservation of this unique ecosystem was highlighted by (i the presence of certain species endemic to the eastern Mediterranean coupled with a high proportion of alien species, especially in the Levantine, and (ii the marine cave habitat availability in isolated insular areas of the eastern Mediterranean.

  20. The genesis of a lava cave in the Deccan Volcanic Province (Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lava tubes and channels forming lava distributaries have been recognized from different parts of western Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP. Openings of smaller dimension have been documented from the pāhoehoe flows around Pune, in the western DVP. A small lava cave is exposed in Ghoradeshwar hill, near Pune. Detailed field studies of the physical characteristics, structure and morphology of the flows hosting the lava tube has been carried out. This is the first detailed documentation of a lava cave from the DVP. The lava cave occurs in a compound pāhoehoe flow of Karla Formation, characterized by the presence of lobes, toes and small scale features like squeeze-ups. Field observations and measurements reveal that the dimensions of the cave are small, with low roof and a maximum width of 108 cm. The cave morphology along the 20 m passage varies from circular to semi-circular, with a twilight zone to the north. The gentle micro-topography at Ghoradeshwar controlled the advancement of pāhoehoe lobes and toes within the sheet lobe. The pre-flow gradients towards the north led to the progression of flow from the east, where the cave opening is presently seen. Dimensions and related morphology of the lava cave suggest that it can be best described as a small sub-crustal cave formed by draining of an inflated of pāhoehoe lava lobe. At Ghoradeshwar, besides the natural lava cave, Buddhist caves carved in pāhoehoe lava flows are also observed, indicating that early man took advantage of the existing openings in pāhoehoe flows and sculpted the caves to suit their requirements.

  1. Chemical Ecology of Cave-Dwelling Millipedes: Defensive Secretions of the Typhloiulini (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Slobodan E; Bodner, Michaela; Reineke, Doris; Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; Todosijević, Marina M; Antić, Dragan Ž; Vagalinski, Boyan; Lučić, Luka R; Mitić, Bojan M; Mitov, Plamen; Anđelković, Boban D; Lucić, Sofija Pavković; Vajs, Vlatka; Tomić, Vladimir T; Raspotnig, Günther

    2017-04-01

    Cave animals live under highly constant ecological conditions and in permanent darkness, and many evolutionary adaptations of cave-dwellers have been triggered by their specific environment. A similar "cave effect" leading to pronounced chemical interactions under such conditions may be assumed, but the chemoecology of troglobionts is mostly unknown. We investigated the defensive chemistry of a largely cave-dwelling julid group, the controversial tribe "Typhloiulini", and we included some cave-dwelling and some endogean representatives. While chemical defense in juliform diplopods is known to be highly uniform, and mainly based on methyl- and methoxy-substituted benzoquinones, the defensive secretions of typhloiulines contained ethyl-benzoquinones and related compounds. Interestingly, ethyl-benzoquinones were found in some, but not all cave-dwelling typhloiulines, and some non-cave dwellers also contained these compounds. On the other hand, ethyl-benzoquinones were not detected in troglobiont nor in endogean typhloiuline outgroups. In order to explain the taxonomic pattern of ethyl-benzoquinone occurrence, and to unravel whether a cave-effect triggered ethyl-benzoquinone evolution, we classed the "Typhloiulini" investigated here within a phylogenetic framework of julid taxa, and traced the evolutionary history of ethyl-benzoquinones in typhloiulines in relation to cave-dwelling. The results indicated a cave-independent evolution of ethyl-substituted benzoquinones, indicating the absence of a "cave effect" on the secretions of troglobiont Typhloiulini. Ethyl-benzoquinones probably evolved early in an epi- or endogean ancestor of a clade including several, but not all Typhloiulus (basically comprising a taxonomic entity known as "Typhloiulus sensu stricto") and Serboiulus. Ethyl-benzoquinones are proposed as novel and valuable chemical characters for julid systematics.

  2. Bermuda: Search for Deep Water Caves 2009 on the R/V Endurance between 20090905 and 20090930

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep-water marine caves are one of the Earth's last largely unexplored frontiers of undiscovered fauna (animal life). More than 150 limestone caves are known to...

  3. Causes and consequences of the sinkhole at El Trébol of Quito, Ecuador - implications for economic damage and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Rodríguez, Fabián; Arias Jiménez, Nelson; Simón Baile, Débora; Salazar Martínez, Rodolfo; Addison, Aaron; Carreón Freyre, Dora; Mato, Fernando; Díaz Perez, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The so-called El Trébol is a critical road interchange in Quito connecting the north and south regions of the city. In addition, it connects Quito with the highly populated Los Chillos Valley, one of the most traveled zones in the Ecuadorian capital. El Trébol was constructed in the late 1960s in order to resolve the traffic jams of the capital city and for that purpose the Machángara River was rerouted through an underground concrete box tunnel. In March 2008, the tunnel contained a high amount of discarded furniture that had been impacting the top portion of the tunnel, compromising the structural integrity. On 31 March 2008 after a heavy rainfall a sinkhole of great proportions formed in the Trébol traffic hub. In the first few minutes, the sinkhole reached an initial diameter of 30 m. The collapse continued to grow in the following days until the final dimensions of 120 m in diameter and some 40 m of depth, revealing the Machángara River at the base of the sinkhole.A state of emergency was declared. The cause of the sinkhole was a result of the lack of monitoring of the older subterranean infrastructure where trash had accumulated and damaged the concrete tunnel that channelized the Machángara River until it was worn away for a length of some 20 m, leaving behind the sinkhole and the fear of recurrence in populated areas.With the intent to understand the causes and consequences of this sinkhole event, rainfall data are shown together with hydrogeological characteristics and a view back to the recent history of sinkhole lineation or arrangement of the city of Quito. The economic impact is also emphasized, where the direct costs of the damage and the reconstruction are presented and compared to indirect costs associated with this socio-natural disaster. These analyses suggest that the costs of indirect financial damage, like time loss or delay, and subsequent higher expenses for different types of vehicles, are equivalent to many times the costs of the

  4. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  5. Weldon Spring dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Hill, G.S.; Perdue, P.T.

    1978-09-01

    In response to a request by the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) for assistance to the Department of the Army (DA) on the decommissioning of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, the Health and Safety Research Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) performed limited dose assessment calculations for that site. Based upon radiological measurements from a number of soil samples analyzed by ORNL and from previously acquired radiological data for the Weldon Spring site, source terms were derived to calculate radiation doses for three specific site scenarios. These three hypothetical scenarios are: a wildlife refuge for hunting, fishing, and general outdoor recreation; a school with 40 hr per week occupancy by students and a custodian; and a truck farm producing fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products which may be consumed on site. Radiation doses are reported for each of these scenarios both for measured uranium daughter equilibrium ratios and for assumed secular equilibrium. Doses are lower for the nonequilibrium case

  6. Study of the factors affecting the karst volume assessment in the Dead Sea sinkhole problem using microgravity field analysis and 3-D modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Eppelbaum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of sinkholes have appeared in the Dead Sea (DS coastal area in Israel and Jordan during two last decades. The sinkhole development is recently associated with the buried evaporation karst at the depth of 25–50 m from earth's surface caused by the drop of the DS level at the rate of 0.8–1.0 m/yr. Drop in the Dead Sea level has changed hydrogeological conditions in the subsurface and caused surface to collapse. The pre-existing cavern was detected using microgravity mapping in the Nahal Hever South site where seven sinkholes of 1–2 m diameter had been opened. About 5000 gravity stations were observed in the area of 200×200 m2 by the use of Scintrex CG-3M AutoGrav gravimeter. Besides the conventional set of corrections applied in microgravity investigations, a correction for a strong gravity horizontal gradient (DS Transform Zone negative gravity anomaly influence was inserted. As a result, residual gravity anomaly of –(0.08÷0.14 mGal was revealed. The gravity field analysis was supported by resistivity measurements. We applied the Emigma 7.8 gravity software to create the 3-D physical-geological models of the sinkholes development area. The modeling was confirmed by application of the GSFC program developed especially for 3-D combined gravity-magnetic modeling in complicated environments. Computed numerous gravity models verified an effective applicability of the microgravity technology for detection of karst cavities and estimation of their physical-geological parameters. A volume of the karst was approximately estimated as 35 000 m3. The visual analysis of large sinkhole clusters have been forming at the microgravity anomaly site, confirmed the results of microgravity mapping and 3-D modeling.

  7. The impact of river water intrusion on trace metal cycling in karst aquifers: an example from the Floridan aquifer system at Madison Blue Spring, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. L.; Martin, J. B.; Screaton, E.; Spellman, P.; Gulley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Springs located adjacent to rivers can serve as recharge points for aquifers when allogenic runoff increases river stage above the hydraulic head of the spring, forcing river water into the spring vent. Depending on relative compositions of the recharged water and groundwater, the recharged river water could be a source of dissolved trace metals to the aquifer, could mobilize solid phases such as metal oxide coatings, or both. Whether metals are mobilized or precipitated should depend on changes in redox and pH conditions as dissolved oxygen and organic carbon react following intrusion of the river water. To assess how river intrusion events affect metal cycling in springs, we monitored a small recharge event in April 2011 into Madison Blue Spring, which discharges to the Withlacoochee River in north-central Florida. Madison Blue Spring is the entrance to a phreatic cave system that includes over 7.8 km of surveyed conduits. During the event, river stage increased over base flow conditions for approximately 25 days by a maximum of 8%. Intrusion of the river water was monitored with conductivity, temperature and depth sensors that were installed within the cave system and adjacent wells. Decreased specific conductivity within the cave system occurred for approximately 20 days, reflecting the length of time that river water was present in the cave system. During this time, grab samples were collected seven times over a period of 34 days for measurements of major ion and trace metal concentrations at the spring vent and at Martz sink, a karst window connected to the conduit system approximately 150 meters from the spring vent. Relative fractions of surface water and groundwater were estimated based on Cl concentrations of the samples, assuming conservative two end-member mixing during the event. This mixing model indicates that maximum river water contribution to the groundwater system was approximately 20%. River water had concentrations of iron, manganese, and other

  8. Feasibility Study of Padarangin Cave Slogohimo Wonogiri for Eco-Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswaji Dwi Priyono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Area of Karst of mount Sewu in countryside of Padarangin own immeasurable of potency to be developed by besides activity of mining namely the tourism activity. Cave of nature found enable to can be developed as tourism, but date not yet been known how big potency of relevant tourism with the cave.  In line with the problems, this research aim to provide basic data of potency of cave and assess elegibility of cave. Padarangin for ecotourism in Wonogiri Regeny. Method used by survey of field and interview resident. Result of research indicate that cave of Padarangin have mount of cave at height 848 m msl which relative narrow, chamber horizontal as long as 63,8 m and vertical in 32,5 m. Needed by a special equipment to enter cave with capasities 10 – 15 people once the visit/incoming, owning value of sakral trusted by local society. The cave competent to be developed as tourism object of special enthusasm with visit limited.

  9. Low regional diversity of late cave bears mitochondrial DNA at the time of Chauvet Aurignacian paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bon, Celine; Berthonaud, Veronique; Fosse, Philippe; Gely, Bernard; Maksud, Frederic; Vitalis, Renaud; Philippe, Michel; van der Plicht, Johannes; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    The Chauvet-Pont d'Arc and Deux-Ouvertures caves, located along the Ardeche River (France), contain abundant remains of the extinct cave bear (Ursus spelaeus). Because they also display a variety of Palaeolithic anthropogenic evidences, such as the earliest charcoal drawings recorded to date

  10. A world review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAlpine Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds that have been found in natural solution caves and mines worldwide. Such habitats provide frequent roost sites for bats, and in eastern North America the environmental conditions that support white-nose syndrome, a lethal fungal disease currently devastating bat populations. A list of 1029 species of fungi, slime moulds, and yeasts in 518 genera have been documented from caves and mines worldwide in 225 articles. Ascomycota dominate the cave environment. Most research has been conducted in temperate climates, especially in Europe. A mean of 17.9±24.4SD fungal species are reported per study. Questions remain about the origin and ecological roles of fungi in caves, and which, if any, are cave-specialists. In the northern hemisphere, caves are generally characterized by relatively stable, low temperatures and a lack of organic substrates. This environment favors communities of oligotrophic, psychrotolerant fungi. Data that may help explain how cave environmental features and faunas inf luence the introduction and transmission of cave fungi remains scant.

  11. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences.

  12. Identification of Martian Cave Skylights Using the Temperature Change During Day and Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongil Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cave candidates have been discovered on other planets besides the Earth, such as the Moon and Mars. When we go to other planets, caves could be possible human habitats providing natural protection from cosmic threats. In this study, seven cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes on Mars. The cave candidates were selected using the images of the Context Camera (CTX on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO. The Context Camera could provide images with the high resolution of 6 meter per pixel. The diameter of the candidates ranges from 50 to 100m. Cushing et al. (2007 have analyzed the temperature change at daytime and nighttime using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS for the sites of potential cave candidates. Similarly, we have examined the temperature change at daytime and at nighttime for seven cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007. Among those, only one candidate showed a distinct temperature change. However, we cannot verify a cave based on the temperature change only and further study is required for the improvement of this method to identify caves more clearly.

  13. Identification of Martian Cave Skylights Using the Temperature Change During Day and Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jongil; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin

    2014-06-01

    Recently, cave candidates have been discovered on other planets besides the Earth, such as the Moon and Mars. When we go to other planets, caves could be possible human habitats providing natural protection from cosmic threats. In this study, seven cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes on Mars. The cave candidates were selected using the images of the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The Context Camera could provide images with the high resolution of 6 meter per pixel. The diameter of the candidates ranges from 50 to 100m. Cushing et al. (2007) have analyzed the temperature change at daytime and nighttime using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the sites of potential cave candidates. Similarly, we have examined the temperature change at daytime and at nighttime for seven cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007). Among those, only one candidate showed a distinct temperature change. However, we cannot verify a cave based on the temperature change only and further study is required for the improvement of this method to identify caves more clearly.

  14. Aerosol particle size distribution in building and caves: impact to the radon-related dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Z.; Thinova, L.; Brandejsova, E.; Zdimal, V.; Fronka, A.; Milka, D.

    2004-01-01

    The results of evaluation of the aerosol particle size spectra observed in the Bozkov cave are presented and compared with the spectra observed in residential areas. The radon-to-dose conversion factor is discussed, as is the correction factor referred to as the cave factor. (P.A.)

  15. Metagenomic Analysis from the Interior of a Speleothem in Tjuv-Ante's Cave, Northern Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza

    Full Text Available Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits normally formed by water supersaturated with calcium carbonate percolating into underground caves, and are often associated with low-nutrient and mostly non-phototrophic conditions. Tjuv-Ante's cave is a shallow-depth cave formed by the action of waves, with granite and dolerite as major components, and opal-A and calcite as part of the speleothems, making it a rare kind of cave. We generated two DNA shotgun sequencing metagenomic datasets from the interior of a speleothem from Tjuv-Ante's cave representing areas of old and relatively recent speleothem formation. We used these datasets to perform i an evaluation of the use of these speleothems as past biodiversity archives, ii functional and taxonomic profiling of the speleothem's different formation periods, and iii taxonomic comparison of the metagenomic results to previous microscopic analyses from a nearby speleothem of the same cave. Our analyses confirm the abundance of Actinobacteria and fungi as previously reported by microscopic analyses on this cave, however we also discovered a larger biodiversity. Interestingly, we identified photosynthetic genes, as well as genes related to iron and sulphur metabolism, suggesting the presence of chemoautotrophs. Furthermore, we identified taxa and functions related to biomineralization. However, we could not confidently establish the use of this type of speleothems as biological paleoarchives due to the potential leaching from the outside of the cave and the DNA damage that we propose has been caused by the fungal chemical etching.

  16. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  17. Geological conditions of origin of the Potočka zijalka cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Potočka zijalka cave on Mt. Ol{eva in Southern Karavanke during excavation of cave sediments of Würm age that contain cultural remains of the Cromagnon Man also large amounts of gravel were before the Badenian transgression, from the Central Alps during Miocene.

  18. Sediments of Biśnik Cave (Poland): Lithology and stratigraphy of the Middle Palaeolithic site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajcarz, M. T.; Bosák, Pavel; Šlechta, Stanislav; Pruner, Petr; Komar, M.; Dresler, J.; Madeyska, T.

    326/327, April (2014), s. 6-19 ISSN 1040-6182 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : karsology * caves * Biśnik Cave (Poland) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2014

  19. Mimogonellus dreybrodti sp. n., a new cave-inhabiting Osoriinae from Laos (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Steiner, Helmut

    2017-10-17

    A new osoriine species, Mimogonellus dreybrodti Yin & Steiner, sp. n., collected from a cave in Houaphanh Province, Laos, is described and illustrated. This represents the third Mimogonellus species in Asia, and the first in the genus known to inhabit a cave environment.

  20. Phylogeography of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) is mainly determined by geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; van der Meijden, Arie; Mucedda, Mauro; Lourenço, João M; Hochkirch, Axel; Veith, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Detecting the factors that determine the interruption of gene flow between populations is key to understanding how speciation occurs. In this context, caves are an excellent system for studying processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation, since they represent discrete geographical units often with known geological histories. Here, we asked whether discontinuous calcareous areas and cave systems represent major barriers to gene flow within and among the five species of Sardinian cave salamanders (genus Hydromantes) and whether intraspecific genetic structure parallels geographic distance within and among caves. We generated mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from 184 individuals representing 48 populations, and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to infer possible areas of cladogenesis for these species and reconstruct historical and current dispersal routes among distinct populations. Our results show deep genetic divergence within and among all Sardinian cave salamander species, which can mostly be attributed to the effects of mountains and discontinuities in major calcareous areas and cave systems acting as barriers to gene flow. While these salamander species can also occur outside caves, our results indicate that there is a very poor dispersal of these species between separate cave systems.

  1. Distribution of meiofaunal abundances in a marine cave complex with secondary openings and freshwater filtrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Monterroso, Óscar; Núñez, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Submerged sea caves are priority areas for conservation according to the Habitat Directive 92/43/CEE because of their unique biodiversity. A limited number of publications exist about communities living on sediments inside caves, mostly focused on the macrofaunal fraction (>0.5-mm body size). Mei...

  2. Pisgah Lava Cave Communication Test: Science Case Study for the Networked Constellations Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, K.; Ellison, D.; Fraeman, A.

    2017-01-01

    As part of the science case study for the Networked Constellations initiative, a team of JPL scientists explore the possibility of a mission to study the lava caves on Mars. Natural caves on Mars and the Moon present a unique opportunity to learn about the planetary geology and to provide a shelter for human explorers. Due to power and communication challenges, a network of assets has significant advantages over a single asset sent inside a cave. However, communication between the assets and the data downlink present significant difficulties due to the presence of rough walls, boulders, and other obstacles with unknown dielectric constant inside a typical cave, disturbing the propagation of the radio waves. A detailed study is needed to establish the limitations of the current communication technologies and to develop requirements for the new communication technology applicable to the cave environment. On May 4 of 2017, Konstantin Belov, Doug Ellison, and Abby Fraeman visited a lava cave in Pisgah, CA. The purpose of the visit was to build a 3D map of the cave, which could be used to create a model of radio wave propagation, and to conduct a series of communication tests using off-the-shelf equipment to verify the in-cave communication challenges. This experiment should be considered as a simple 'proof of concept' and is the subject of this report.

  3. Hydrogeology of the Sterkfontein Cave System, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A water level rise of almost 3 m in the space of two years in the Sterkfontein Cave system since late-2009 necessitated the re-routing of the tourist path through the cave to successively higher elevations on three occasions. It also raisedconcern...

  4. 36 CFR 290.3 - Nomination, evaluation, and designation of significant caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CAVE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT § 290.3 Nomination, evaluation, and designation of... on National Forest System lands shall possess one or more of the following features, characteristics... information. (4) Hydrologic. The cave is a part of a hydrologic system or contains water which is important to...

  5. Invertebrate fossils from cave sediments: A new proxy for pre-Quaternary paleoenvironments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moldovan, O.T.; Mihevc, A.; Miko, L.; Constantin, S.; Meleg, I. N.; Petculescu, A.; Bosák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2011), s. 1825-1837 ISSN 1726-4170 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil invertebrates * Oribatida * Pliocene/Pleistocene * caves * caves (Slovenia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.859, year: 2011

  6. Discussion on "Modeling karst spring hydrograph recession based on head drop at sinkholes" by Guangquan, Li, Nico Goldscheider, Malcom S. Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Zekâi

    2018-02-01

    Groundwater movement model development in karstic aquifers is very difficult due to the complexity of the solution cavities. The authors (Li et al., 2016) have proposed a square law model for expressing the discharge ratio in terms of hydraulic head ratio, with an exponent equal to 0.5. They have also provided the mathematical derivation in detail with application. It is noticed that the methodology can be expanded towards a better and refined solutions by consideration of the following explanations.

  7. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  8. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  9. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar Supported by Mineralogical-Geochemical Methods for Mapping Unroofed Cave Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Čeru

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR using a special unshielded 50 MHz Rough Terrain Antenna (RTA in combination with a shielded 250 MHz antenna was used to study the capability of this geophysical method for detecting cave sediments. Allochthonous cave sediments found in the study area of Lanski vrh (W Slovenia are now exposed on the karst surface in the so-called “unroofed caves” due to a general lowering of the surface (denudation of carbonate rocks and can provide valuable evidence of the karst development. In the first phase, GPR profiles were measured at three test locations, where cave sediments are clearly evident on the surface and appear with flowstone. It turned out that cave sediments are clearly visible on GPR radargrams as areas of strong signal attenuation. Based on this finding, GPR profiling was used in several other places where direct indicators of unroofed caves or other indicators for speleogenesis are not present due to strong surface reshaping. The influence of various field conditions, especially water content, on GPR measurements was also analysed by comparing radargrams measured in various field conditions. Further mineralogical-geochemical analyses were conducted to better understand the factors that influence the attenuation in the area of cave sediments. Samples of cave sediments and soils on carbonate rocks (rendzina were taken for X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence (XRF analyses to compare the mineral and geochemical compositions of both sediments. Results show that cave sediments contain higher amounts of clay minerals and iron/aluminium oxides/hydroxides which, in addition to the thickness of cave sediments, can play an important role in the depth of penetration. Differences in the mineral composition also lead to water retention in cave sediments even through dry periods which additionally contribute to increased attenuation with respect to surrounding soils. The GPR method has proven to be reliable for

  10. Investigation of sinkhole areas in Germany using 2D shear wave reflection seismics and zero-offset VSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschache, Saskia; Wadas, Sonja; Polom, Ulrich; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2017-04-01

    Sinkholes pose a serious geohazard for humans and infrastructure in populated areas. The Junior Research Group Subrosion within the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics and the joint project SIMULTAN work on the multi-scale investigation of subrosion processes in the subsurface, which cause natural sinkholes. In two case studies in sinkhole areas of Thuringia in Germany, we applied 2D shear wave reflection seismics using SH-waves with the aim to detect suitable parameters for the characterisation of critical zones. This method has the potential to image near-surface collapse and faulting structures in improved resolution compared to P-wave surveys resulting from the shorter wavelength of shear waves. Additionally, the shear wave velocity field derived by NMO velocity analysis is a basis to calculate further physical parameters, as e.g. the dynamic shear modulus. In both investigation areas, vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired by generating P- and SH-waves (6 component VSP) directly next to a borehole equipped with a 3C downhole sensor. They provide shear and compressional wave velocity profiles, which are used to improve the 2D shear wave velocity field from surface seismics, to perform a depth calibration of the seismic image and to calculate the Vp/Vs ratio. The signals in the VSP data are analysed with respect to changes in polarisation and attenuation with depth and/or azimuth. The VSP data reveal low shear wave velocities of 200-300 m/s in rock layers known to be heavily affected by subrosion and confirm the low velocities calculated from the surface seismic data. A discrepancy of the shear wave velocities is observed in other intervals probably due to unsymmetrical travel paths in the surface seismics. In some VSP data dominant conversion of the direct SH-wave to P-wave is observed that is assumed to be caused by an increased presence of cavities. A potential fault distorting the vertical travel paths was detected by abnormal P-wave first

  11. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  12. Stability numerical analysis of soil cave in karst area to drawdown of underground water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yizheng; Xiao, Rencheng; Deng, Zongwei

    2018-05-01

    With the underground water level falling, the reliable estimates of the stability and deformation characteristics of soil caves in karst region area are required for analysis used for engineering design. Aimed at this goal, combined with practical engineering and field geotechnical test, detail analysis on vertical maximum displacement of top, vertical maximum displacement of surface, maximum principal stress and maximum shear stress were conducted by finite element software, with an emphasis on two varying factors: the size and the depth of soil cave. The calculations on the soil cave show that, its stability of soil cave is affected by both the size and depth, and only when extending a certain limit, the collapse occurred along with the falling of underground water; Additionally, its maximum shear stress is in arch toes, and its deformation curve trend of maximum displacement is similar to the maximum shear stress, which further verified that the collapse of soil cave was mainly due to shear-failure.

  13. Effect of soil-rock system on speleothems weathering in Bailong Cave, Yunnan Province, China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Song, Lin-hua

    2005-01-01

    Bailong Cave with its well-developed Middle Triassic calcareous dolomite’s system was opened as a show cave for visitors in 1988. The speleothem scenery has been strongly weathered as white powder on the outer layers. Study of the cave winds, permeability of soil-rock system and the chemical compositions of the dripping water indicated: (1) The cave dimension structure distinctively affects the cave winds, which were stronger at narrow places. (2) Based on the different soil grain size distribution, clay was the highest in composition in the soil. The response sense of dripping water to the rainwater percolation was slow. The density of joints and other openings in dolomite make the dolomite as mesh seepage body forming piles of thin and high columns and stalactites. (3) Study of 9 dripping water samples by HYDROWIN computer program showed that the major mineral in the water was dolomite. PMID:15682505

  14. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S B; Langroo, R; Peggie, J R [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R G [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J M [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R.; Lyons, R.G.; James, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m -3 . The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  16. U-series dating of Paleolithic art in 11 caves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, A W G; Hoffmann, D L; García-Diez, M; Pettitt, P B; Alcolea, J; De Balbín, R; González-Sainz, C; de las Heras, C; Lasheras, J A; Montes, R; Zilhão, J

    2012-06-15

    Paleolithic cave art is an exceptional archive of early human symbolic behavior, but because obtaining reliable dates has been difficult, its chronology is still poorly understood after more than a century of study. We present uranium-series disequilibrium dates of calcite deposits overlying or underlying art found in 11 caves, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites of Altamira, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo, Spain. The results demonstrate that the tradition of decorating caves extends back at least to the Early Aurignacian period, with minimum ages of 40.8 thousand years for a red disk, 37.3 thousand years for a hand stencil, and 35.6 thousand years for a claviform-like symbol. These minimum ages reveal either that cave art was a part of the cultural repertoire of the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or that perhaps Neandertals also engaged in painting caves.

  17. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope Jane

    2016-01-01

    We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can flourish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a "Field Guide to Unknown Organisms" for developing life detection space missions.

  18. Detecting and characterizing unroofed caves by ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čeru, Teja; Šegina, Ela; Knez, Martin; Benac, Čedomir; Gosar, Andrej

    2018-02-01

    The bare karst surface in the southeastern part of Krk Island (Croatia) is characterized by different surface karst features, such as valley-like shallow linear depressions and partially or fully sediment-filled depressions of various shapes and sizes. They were noticed due to locally increased thickness of sediment and enhanced vegetation but had not yet been systematically studied and defined. Considering only the geometry of the investigated surface features and the rare traces of cave environments detected by field surveys, it was unclear which processes (surface karstification and/or speleogenesis) contributed most to their formation. The low-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) method using a special 50 MHz RTA antenna was applied to study and describe these karst features. Three study sites were chosen and 5 km of GPR profiles were positioned to include various surface features. The results obtained from the GPR investigation lead to the following conclusions: (1) an increased thickness of sediment was detected in all the investigated depressions indicating their considerable depth; (2) areas between different depressions expressed as attenuated zones in GPR images reveal their interconnection; (3) transitions between surface and underground features are characterized by a collapsed passage visible in the GPR data; and (4) an underground continuation of surface valley-like depressions was detected, proving the speleogenetic origin of such features. Subsurface information obtained using GPR indicates that the valley-like depressions, irregular depressions completely or partially filled with sediment, and some dolines are associated with a nearly 4 km-long unroofed cave and developed as a result of karst denudation. In the regional context, these results suggest long-lasting karstification processes in the area, in contrast to the pre-karstic fluvial phase previously assumed to have occurred here. This research is the first application of the GPR method to

  19. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtijari, M; Vaupotic, J; Gregoric, A; Stegnar, P; Kobal, I

    2008-02-01

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700Bqm(-3) were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000Bqm(-3). Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90min visit is 3.7microSv in summer and 2.5microSv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5mSv.

  20. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahtijari, M.; Vaupotic, J.; Gregoric, A.; Stegnar, P.; Kobal, I.

    2008-01-01

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m -3 were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m -3 . Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 μSv in summer and 2.5 μSv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv

  1. Exposure to radon in the Gadime Cave, Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahtijari, M. [Faculty of Education, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo (Country Unknown); Vaupotic, J.; Gregoric, A.; Stegnar, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kobal, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, PO Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: ivan.kobal@ijs.si

    2008-02-15

    Air radon concentration was measured in summer and winter at 11 points along the tourist guided route in the Gadime Cave in Kosovo using alpha scintillation cells and etched track detectors. At two points in summer, values higher than 1700 Bq m{sup -3} were observed; they otherwise were in the range 400-1000 Bq m{sup -3}. Values were lower in winter. The effective dose received by a person during a 90 min visit is 3.7 {mu}Sv in summer and 2.5 {mu}Sv in winter. For a tourist guide the annual effective dose is less than 3.5 mSv.

  2. 118-C-4 Horizontal Rod Cave Characterization Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encke, B.D.; Thoren, R.A.

    1998-03-01

    This report addresses the characterization data collected from 118-C- 4 Horizontal Rod Cave in December 1996 and August 1997. The characterization activities evaluated the radiological status and identified hazardous materials locations. The scope of this report is limited to the 118-C-4 Facility Structure. Information in this report can be used to identify the waste streams, provide specific chemical and radiological data to aid in planning decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities, and allow proper disposal of the demolition debris, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  3. Designing user models in a virtual cave environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hudson, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gokhale, N. [Madge Networks, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the results of a first study into the use of virtual reality for human factor studies and design of simple and complex models of control systems, components, and processes are described. The objective was to design a model in a virtual environment that would reflect more characteristics of the user`s mental model of a system and fewer of the designer`s. The technology of a CAVE{trademark} virtual environment and the methodology of Neuro Linguistic Programming were employed in this study.

  4. Geological constraints on cave development in the plateau-gorge karst of South China (Wulong, Chongqing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygieł, Jacek; Golicz, Mateusz; Hercman, Helena; Lynch, Erin

    2018-03-01

    The Houping Tiankeng cluster is a part of the South China Karst UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site. Within the distinctive Wulong plateau-gorge karst, > 200 km of cave passages have been documented to date. This paper focuses on detailed tectonic and morphological research on the Luo Shui Kong cave, enriched with U-series dating of speleothems and complemented by morphometric analysis of the San Wang Dong and Er Wang Dong caves. All of these caves exhibit three regional levels of cave development: 1) 1040-1020 m a.s.l.; 2) 900-840 m a.s.l.; and 3) 740-660 m a.s.l. The Houping Tiankeng area is a carbonate rock sequence several hundred meters thick, overlain by the less soluble Lower Ordovician strata, limiting recharge points to faults exposing underlying easily soluble formations. This leads to the domination of concentrated, high-volume inflow and thus results in caves of large volume in the plateau-gorge karst. Shafts connecting the surface with cave passages located underneath formed along faults, changing the hydrogeological pattern through karst water capture and remodeling of existing conduits, albeit mainly by increasing their overall dimensions rather than by deepening them. The most favorable structures for cave-level development are two sets of joints conjugated with gently inclined bedding. Since these joints are characterized by a small vertical extent, downward development is limited. Hence, most of the passages are wide but not deep canyons and typical of a water-table cave pattern. Places where the fault plane is eroded from the surface and where, at the same time, an underneath cave chamber ceiling expands upwards are particularly predisposed to the formation of a tiankeng.

  5. Microbial communities in dark oligotrophic volcanic ice cave ecosystems of Mt. Erebus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Tebo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s crust hosts a subsurface, dark, and oligotrophic biosphere that is poorly understood in terms of the energy supporting its biomass production and impact on food webs at the Earth’s surface. Dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystems (DOVEs are good environments for investigations of life in the absence of sunlight as they are poor in organics, rich in chemical reactants and well known for chemical exchange with Earth’s surface systems. Ice caves near the summit of Mt. Erebus (Antarctica offer DOVEs in a polar alpine environment that is starved in organics and with oxygenated hydrothermal circulation in highly reducing host rock. We surveyed the microbial communities using PCR, cloning, sequencing and analysis of the small subunit (16S ribosomal and Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RubisCO genes in sediment samples from three different caves, two that are completely dark and one that receives snow-filtered sunlight seasonally. The microbial communities in all three caves are composed primarily of Bacteria and fungi; Archaea were not detected. The bacterial communities from these ice caves display low phylogenetic diversity, but with a remarkable diversity of RubisCO genes including new deeply branching Form I clades, implicating the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle as a pathway of CO2 fixation. The microbial communities in one of the dark caves, Warren Cave, which has a remarkably low phylogenetic diversity, were analyzed in more detail to gain a possible perspective on the energetic basis of the microbial ecosystem in the cave. Atmospheric carbon (CO2 and CO, including from volcanic emissions, likely supplies carbon and/or some of the energy requirements of chemoautotrophic microbial communities in Warren Cave and probably other Mt. Erebus ice caves. Our work casts a first glimpse at Mt. Erebus ice caves as natural laboratories for exploring carbon, energy and nutrient sources in the subsurface biosphere and the

  6. SKB WP-cave project. Radionuclide release from the near-field in a WP-cave repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, M.; Skagius, K.

    1989-04-01

    The release of radionuclides from the bentonite-sand barrier (near-field) in a WP-cave repository for high level radioactive waste has been studied. Calculations were made for two cases; a Low Flow Through Case and a High Flow Through Case. The difference between the two cases lies in the assumed hydraulic properties of the bentonite-sand barrier and the system inside the barrier. The effect on the nuclide release of solubility limitations, sorption capacity of the barriers, radiolytic fuel oxidation rate as well as the thickness of the bentonite-sand barrier, were also investigated for the Low Flow Through Case. (authors)

  7. Subsidence hazards connected to quarrying activities in a karst area: the case of the Moncalvo sinkhole event (Piedmont, NW Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonetto, Sabrina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is an important raw material for constructions and other industrial sectors. In Piedmont (NW Italy, main gypsum bodies are located in the Monferrato area, where large open pits and underground quarries are present. The gypsum-bearing formation outcropping in this area shows typical geological, structural, and hydrogeological features, which affect the quarrying and the related interaction with natural phenomena, human activities, and land use. In particular, gypsum karst has considerable influence on mining operations, as well as mining operations can produce strong impact on gypsum karst. In Monferrato, a specific case of interaction between the quarrying activity and geological, hydrogeological, and territorial setting is represented by the event of water inrush that happened in the Moncalvo underground quarry in association with the development of a surface sinkhole phenomenon.

  8. TWO EXAMPLES FOR IMAGING BURIED GEOLOGICAL BOUNDARIES: SINKHOLE STRUCTURE AND SEYİT HACI FAULT, KARAPINAR, KONYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan TOKER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Once anomalies with positive and negative circular closures are assessed together inpotential field maps, the ones which have meaningful geometric structure appear as moredistinguishable. When the edge detection is applied, the preliminary geological modelabout the geological structure may or may not be verified. When it is not verified then it isunderstood that the predicted geological model should be reconsidered and discussedagain. In this study, the edge detection was introduced and the success of the method wastested in an artificial data. Following that, its effect on sinkholes was studied applying themethod on detailed gravity data collected in Karapınar (Konya region. At the same time,this method was applied on data related to active Seyit Hacı Fault zone. It was detectedthat the fault had shown continuity towards SW and these evidences were discussed

  9. Landslides, floods and sinkholes in a karst environment: the 1-6 September 2014 Gargano event, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro; Peruccacci, Silvia; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Melillo, Massimo; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Trabace, Maria; Parise, Mario; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-03-01

    In karst environments, heavy rainfall is known to cause multiple geohydrological hazards, including inundations, flash floods, landslides and sinkholes. We studied a period of intense rainfall from 1 to 6 September 2014 in the Gargano Promontory, a karst area in Puglia, southern Italy. In the period, a sequence of torrential rainfall events caused severe damage and claimed two fatalities. The amount and accuracy of the geographical and temporal information varied for the different hazards. The temporal information was most accurate for the inundation caused by a major river, less accurate for flash floods caused by minor torrents and even less accurate for landslides. For sinkholes, only generic information on the period of occurrence of the failures was available. Our analysis revealed that in the promontory, rainfall-driven hazards occurred in response to extreme meteorological conditions and that the karst landscape responded to the torrential rainfall with a threshold behaviour. We exploited the rainfall and the landslide information to design the new ensemble-non-exceedance probability (E-NEP) algorithm for the quantitative evaluation of the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides and of related geohydrological hazards. The ensemble of the metrics produced by the E-NEP algorithm provided better diagnostics than the single metrics often used for landslide forecasting, including rainfall duration, cumulated rainfall and rainfall intensity. We expect that the E-NEP algorithm will be useful for landslide early warning in karst areas and in other similar environments. We acknowledge that further tests are needed to evaluate the algorithm in different meteorological, geological and physiographical settings.

  10. Late Holocene environmental reconstruction using cave sediments from Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Jason S.; van Beynen, Philip E.; Reeder, Philip P.

    2007-07-01

    Cave sediments collected from Reflection Cave on the Vaca Plateau, Belize show variations in the δ13C values of their fulvic acids (FAs), which indicate periods of vegetation change caused by climatic and Maya influences during the late Holocene. The δ13C values range from - 27.11‰ to - 21.52‰, a shift of ˜ 5.59‰, which suggests fluctuating contributions of C 3 and C 4 plants throughout the last 2.5 ka, with C 4 plant input reflecting periods of Maya agriculture. Maya activity in the study area occurred at different intensities from ˜ 2600 cal yr BP until ˜ 1500 cal yr BP, after which agricultural practices waned as the Maya depopulated the area. These changes in plant assemblages were in response to changes in available water resources, with increased aridity leading to the eventual abandonment of agricultural areas. The Ix Chel archaeological site, located in the study area, is a highland site that would have been among the first agricultural settlements to be affected during periods of aridity. During these periods, minimal water resources would have been available in this highly karstified, well-drained area, and supplemental groundwater extraction would have been difficult due to the extreme depth of the water table.

  11. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  12. Spring valve for well completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatov, P T

    1966-07-22

    A spring-loaded valve for well completion consists of a housing with a spring-loaded closing element. In order to protect the closing element from corrosion which might lower the pressure drop, the closing element is made in the form of a piston. It is tightly connected with sealing elements. The housing has orifices, overlapping the piston in the initial position.

  13. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  14. Features of deep cave sediments: their influence on fossil preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo, R.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse how physical and chemical deep-cave sediment features preserve the morphological and geochemical characteristics of paleontological materials. Detrital sediment chemistry and clast size are fundamental because they provide a soft, impervious and plastic environment in which fossil remains are transported with minimal erosion. Sediment mineralogy provides a carbonate- and phosphate-buffered environment in which molecules of biological origin hydrolyze slower than in open-air environments or even at cave entrance sites. Because permafrost did not develop in the Iberian Peninsula (at least at the altitudes of inhabited caves, sediment desiccation never took place. In addition, sediment -pores were not aerated, which protected fossil remains from air (oxygen-linked weathering. The annual-temperature variation inside sediment was negligible, which contributed to amino acid racemization dating. Collagen amino acid and amino acid racemization analysis of cave bear and man samples from cave sediments dated from different Oxygen Isotope Stages (4": Sidrón, Amutxate, Troskaeta, El Toll, Coro Tracito, Ekain, Lezetxiki, La Pasada, Eirós; 5": Reguerillo and Arrikrutz; 6"-7": Sima de los Huesos demonstrate that important amounts of almost intact collagen still remain in teeth dentine. Fossil DNA search seems to be very promising.En este trabajo se analiza el papel que juegan las características físicas y químicas de los sedimentos de galerías profundas de cuevas en la preservación de los caracteres morfológicos y paleobiomoleculares del material paleontológico incluido en dichos sedimentos. Los aspectos geoquímicos y de tamaño de grano del sedimento son críticos: las características generan un medio blando, plástico e impermeable que permite el transporte -mecánico sin grave deterioro del material (en coladas de barro; las características químicas mineralogía del sediment* proporcionan un ambiente con tampón fosfatado

  15. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  16. Ongoing changes in migration phenology and winter residency at Bracken Bat Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, Phillip M; Wainwright, Charlotte E

    2018-02-14

    Bats play an important role in agroecology and are effective bioindicators of environmental conditions, but little is known about their fundamental migration ecology, much less how these systems are responding to global change. Some of the world's largest bat populations occur during the summer in the south-central United States, when millions of pregnant females migrate from lower latitudes to give birth in communal maternity colonies. Despite a relatively large volume of research into these colonies, many fundamental questions regarding their abundance-including their intra- and interseasonal variability-remain unanswered, and even estimating the size of individual populations has been a long-running challenge. Overall, monitoring these bat populations at high temporal resolution (e.g., nightly) and across long time spans (e.g., decades) has been impossible. Here, we show 22 continuous years of nightly population counts at Bracken Cave, a large bat colony in south-central Texas, enabling the first climate-scale phenological analysis. Using quantitative radar monitoring, we found that spring migration and the summer reproductive cycle have advanced by approximately 2 weeks over the study period. Furthermore, we quantify the ongoing growth of a newly-established overwintering population that indicates a system-wide response to changing environmental conditions. Our observations reveal behavioral plasticity in bats' ability to adapt to changing resource availability, and provide the first long-term quantification of their response to a changing climate. As aerial insectivores, these changes in bat phenology and propensity for overwintering indicate probable shifts in prey availability, with clear implications for pest management across wider regional agrisystems. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  18. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  19. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  20. Isotopic investigations of the waters from the Movile Cave - Mangalia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, Lucia; Feurdean, Victor

    2001-01-01

    As a conservative tracer in carbonate rocks deuterium was used to determine the unelucidated problems of water origin in the Movile Cave-Mangalia, which is the unique ecosystem from the world based on chemoautotrophic conditions. According to the δD values the water from Movile Cave is meteoric in origin but can not originate from local site. The groundwater from neighboring area of cave has their recharge area at high altitude and considerable distance. δD values of water samples present time variations with a distinct seasonal effect. The seasonal δD values are shifted with a half meteoric cycle vs. normal succession of seasonal maximum and minimum values. Water seems to be originated from the Prebalkan Plateau situated in the south of Dobrogea. The study indicates that the intrusion of water in the karst occurs by conduit flow and hydrostatic pressure. The geometry of conduit controls the movement of the water. The cave and the Karaoban Lake is the discharge area of two main components of groundwater: the first is coming from southwest and has isotope characteristic similar to lower altitude water (500 m) and the second is moving from southeast and has the isotope composition similar to high altitude water (>1000 m). The Movile Cave and Karaoban Lake are connected and the cave water is discharged by overflow mechanism isolating the cave from atmosphere. (authors)

  1. Investigation of tracking systems properties in CAVE-type virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymaniak, Magda; Mazikowski, Adam; Meironke, Michał

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, many scientific and industrial centers in the world developed a virtual reality systems or laboratories. One of the most advanced solutions are Immersive 3D Visualization Lab (I3DVL), a CAVE-type (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) laboratory. It contains two CAVE-type installations: six-screen installation arranged in a form of a cube, and four-screen installation, a simplified version of the previous one. The user feeling of "immersion" and interaction with virtual world depend on many factors, in particular on the accuracy of the tracking system of the user. In this paper properties of the tracking systems applied in I3DVL was investigated. For analysis two parameters were selected: the accuracy of the tracking system and the range of detection of markers by the tracking system in space of the CAVE. Measurements of system accuracy were performed for six-screen installation, equipped with four tracking cameras for three axes: X, Y, Z. Rotation around the Y axis was also analyzed. Measured tracking system shows good linear and rotating accuracy. The biggest issue was the range of the monitoring of markers inside the CAVE. It turned out, that the tracking system lose sight of the markers in the corners of the installation. For comparison, for a simplified version of CAVE (four-screen installation), equipped with eight tracking cameras, this problem was not occur. Obtained results will allow for improvement of cave quality.

  2. In situ acetylene reduction activity of Scytonema julianum in Vapor cave (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asencio Antonia Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation was measured in situ for the first time by acetylene reduction for a greyish mat composed of Scytonema julianum in cave- like environments. Mat-specific rates (129.9-215.7 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for daytime fixation and 65.1-120.6 nmol C2 H4 m-2 s-1 for nighttime fixation recorded in the Vapor cave differed considerably due to the energy reserves stored during photosynthesis being exhausted and used in the dark phase. The most influential environmental parameter for nitrogen fixation in the Vapor cave is temperature in the daytime and nighttime fixations. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria may contribute considerably to the overall nitrogen cycle in harsh environments such as caves. Nitrogenase activity in Scytonema julianum was roughly 30 times higher than that of Scytonema mirabile, which also grew in cave environments, which is due to the characteristics of each site. The entrance of Vapour cave (Spain faces SE, measures 0.75 x 0.6 m and opens to shafts of a total depth of 80 m. Its dimensions and environmental conditions (relative humidity up to 100%; maximum temperature, 43oC imply that it is isolated from external influences, and that the microclimate differs substantially from that experienced externally. Nitrogen fixation, photon flux density, relative humidity and temperature in the Vapor cave were taken hourly over a 24-hour period in winter.

  3. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; YANG Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the MSS dis-tribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteris-tics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide lots of theoretic references to the surrounding rocks' stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc.

  4. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  5. Diversity and role of cave-dwelling hematophagous insects in pathogen transmission in the Afrotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël; Leroy, Eric-Maurice; Paupy, Christophe

    2017-04-12

    The progressive anthropization of caves for food resources or economic purposes increases human exposure to pathogens that naturally infect cave-dwelling animals. The presence of wild or domestic animals in the immediate surroundings of caves also may contribute to increasing the risk of emergence of such pathogens. Some zoonotic pathogens are transmitted through direct contact, but many others require arthropod vectors, such as blood-feeding insects. In Africa, hematophagous insects often play a key role in the epidemiology of many pathogens; however, their ecology in cave habitats remains poorly known. During the last decades, several investigations carried out in Afrotropical caves suggested the medical and veterinary importance particularly of insect taxa of the Diptera order. Therefore, the role of some of these insects as vectors of pathogens that infect cave-dwelling vertebrates has been studied. The present review summarizes these findings, brings insights into the diversity of cave-dwelling hematophagous Diptera and their involvement in pathogen transmission, and finally discusses new challenges and future research directions.

  6. Unexpected diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in tourist caves in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukantamala, Jedsada; Sing, Kong-Wah; Jaturas, Narong; Polseela, Raxsina; Wilson, John-James

    2017-11-01

    Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes have been used for the identification of sandflies in Thailand. We collected sandflies using CDC light trap from four tourist caves in Northern Thailand. Female sandflies were provisionally sorted into 13 morphospecies and 19 unidentified specimens. DNA was extracted from the thorax and legs of sandflies and the DNA barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I mtDNA amplified and sequenced. The specimens were sorted into 22 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on the 145 DNA barcodes, which is significantly more than the morphospecies. Several of the taxa thought to be present in multiple caves, based on morphospecies sorting, split into cave-specific MOTU which likely represent cryptic species. Several MOTU reported in an earlier study from Wihan Cave, Thailand, were also found in these caves. This supports the use of DNA barcodes to investigate species diversity of sandflies and their useful role in surveillance of sandflies in Thailand.

  7. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-08-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δ2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have δ18O and δ2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (δ15N NO3) values above 10 ‰ in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (δ15N NO3 = 4.6 4.9 ‰), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil’s Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer

  8. Stratigraphy, U-Th chronology, and paleoenvironments at Gladysvale Cave: insights into the climatic control of South African hominin-bearing cave deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Robyn; Hancox, Phillip J; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Grün, Rainer; Mortimer, Graham E; McCulloch, Malcolm; Berger, Lee R

    2007-11-01

    Gladysvale Cave is one of the few Plio-Pleistocene hominin-bearing cave sites in South Africa that contains a well-stratified cave fill with clastic sediments interspersed with flowstones. The clastic sediments can be divided into units based on the presence of intercalated flowstones, forming flowstone bounded units (FBU). Ten MC-ICP-MS uranium-series dates on several flowstone horizons in the Gladysvale Internal Deposit fan indicate deposition from the late mid-Pleistocene ( approximately 570 ka) to Holocene ( approximately 7 ka) during limited periods of higher effective moisture. Clastic sedimentation occurred during the interceding, presumably more arid, periods. This sequence is not consistent with earlier models for South African caves that simply assumed interglacial sedimentation and glacial erosion. (13)C/(12)C data suggest that flowstone tended to form during periods with higher proportions of C(3) plants in the local vegetation, while clastic sediments reflect higher proportions of C(4) grasses, although this is not always the case. We argue that flowstones are precipitated during periods of higher effective precipitation and restricted cave entrances, while clastic sediments accumulated during periods with more open vegetation. The sedimentary fill of the fossiliferous deposits are, therefore, highly episodic in nature, with large periods of time unlikely to be represented. This has serious implications for the other hominin-bearing caves close by, as these deposits are likely to be similarly episodic. This is especially pertinent when addressing extinction events and reconstructions of paleoenvironments, as large periods of time may be unrecorded. The Gladysvale Cave fill sediments may serve as a climatically forced chronostratigraphic model for these less well-stratified and well-dated Plio-Pleistocene sites.

  9. Local adaptation and pronounced genetic differentiation in an extremophile fish, Poecilia mexicana, inhabiting a Mexican cave with toxic hydrogen sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, M; Hauswaldt, J S; Moll, K; Tobler, M; García De León, F J; Schlupp, I; Tiedemann, R

    2007-03-01

    We investigated genetic differentiation and migration patterns in a small livebearing fish, Poecilia mexicana, inhabiting a sulfidic Mexican limestone cave (Cueva del Azufre). We examined fish from three different cave chambers, the sulfidic surface creek draining the cave (El Azufre) and a nearby surface creek without the toxic hydrogen sulphide (Arroyo Cristal). Using microsatellite analysis of 10 unlinked loci, we found pronounced genetic differentiation among the three major habitats: Arroyo Cristal, El Azufre and the cave. Genetic differentiation was also found within the cave between different pools. An estimation of first-generation migrants suggests that (i) migration is unidirectional, out of the cave, and (ii) migration among different cave chambers occurs to some extent. We investigated if the pattern of genetic differentiation is also reflected in a morphological trait, eye size. Relatively large eyes were found in surface habitats, small eyes in the anterior cave chambers, and the smallest eyes were detected in the innermost cave chamber (XIII). This pattern shows some congruence with a previously proposed morphocline in eye size. However, our data do not support the proposed mechanism for this morphocline, namely that it would be maintained by migration from both directions into the middle cave chambers. This would have led to an increased variance in eye size in the middle cave chambers, which we did not find. Restricted gene flow between the cave and the surface can be explained by local adaptations to extreme environmental conditions, namely H2S and absence of light. Within the cave system, habitat properties are patchy, and genetic differentiation between cave chambers despite migration could indicate local adaptation at an even smaller scale.

  10. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  11. A Transcriptomic Analysis of Cave, Surface, and Hybrid Isopod Crustaceans of the Species Asellus aquaticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A Stahl

    Full Text Available Cave animals, compared to surface-dwelling relatives, tend to have reduced eyes and pigment, longer appendages, and enhanced mechanosensory structures. Pressing questions include how certain cave-related traits are gained and lost, and if they originate through the same or different genetic programs in independent lineages. An excellent system for exploring these questions is the isopod, Asellus aquaticus. This species includes multiple cave and surface populations that have numerous morphological differences between them. A key feature is that hybrids between cave and surface individuals are viable, which enables genetic crosses and linkage analyses. Here, we advance this system by analyzing single animal transcriptomes of Asellus aquaticus. We use high throughput sequencing of non-normalized cDNA derived from the head of a surface-dwelling male, the head of a cave-dwelling male, the head of a hybrid male (produced by crossing a surface individual with a cave individual, and a pooled sample of surface embryos and hatchlings. Assembling reads from surface and cave head RNA pools yielded an integrated transcriptome comprised of 23,984 contigs. Using this integrated assembly as a reference transcriptome, we aligned reads from surface-, cave- and hybrid- head tissue and pooled surface embryos and hatchlings. Our approach identified 742 SNPs and placed four new candidate genes to an existing linkage map for A. aquaticus. In addition, we examined SNPs for allele-specific expression differences in the hybrid individual. All of these resources will facilitate identification of genes and associated changes responsible for cave adaptation in A. aquaticus and, in concert with analyses of other species, will inform our understanding of the evolutionary processes accompanying adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  12. Evolution of cave Axiokebuita and Speleobregma (Scalibregmatidae, Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro; Di Domenico, Maikon; Worsaae, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Axiokebuita and Speleobregma, two poorly known lineages of annelids exclusive from deep-sea or marine caves but always from crevicular habitats, is explored here. Speleobregma lanzaroteum Bertelsen, 1986, and Axiokebuita cavernicola sp. n. are described from anchialine...... ciliated palps. Our results support two independent cave colonization events, favoured by the preadaptation of the members of Axiokebuita-Speleobregma lineage to crevicular habitats.......The evolutionary history of Axiokebuita and Speleobregma, two poorly known lineages of annelids exclusive from deep-sea or marine caves but always from crevicular habitats, is explored here. Speleobregma lanzaroteum Bertelsen, 1986, and Axiokebuita cavernicola sp. n. are described from anchialine...

  13. Electronic microscopy and EDX characterization of teotihuacan prehispanic mortar from the cave under the sun pyramid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: tmc@servidor.unam.mx; Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural. Xicontencatl y General Anaya s/n. (04120) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza, D. [National Institute of Nuclear Research.. Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5 (52045), Salazar, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Institute of Geophysics, National University of Mexico, Circuito Institutos, CU (04510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cabrera, L. [Faculty of Chemistry, National University of Mexico, Building D, CU (O4510) Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    A cave (102 m long) under the structure of the Sun pyramid of the prehispanic Teotihuacan City indicates the importance of the pyramid. Studies of the cave mortar samples using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no difference in the chemical elemental composition. The elements can be distributed in three groups: major, minor and trace elements. The minerals identified were compatible with the origins of the cave and with the magnetic pattern.

  14. Biochemical mechanisms of resistance to p-nitrochlorobenzene of karst caves microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Suslova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical mechanisms of resistance to persistent organic xenobiotic p-nitrochlorobenzene (NCB of bacterial strains isolated from two cave clays ecosystems – Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia have been established. It has been determined that chemoorganotrophic karst caves strains could interact with NCB and transform it reducing the nitro group with formation of p-chloroaniline (ClA followed by further destruction of NCB aromatic ring. This explained high resistance of caves strains to NCB. The studied strains could potentially be used in wastewater treatment from nitrochloraromatic compounds.

  15. Earliest floral grave lining from 13,700-11,700-y-old Natufian burials at Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Dani; Danin, Avinoam; Power, Robert C; Rosen, Arlene M; Bocquentin, Fanny; Tsatskin, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danny; Yeshurun, Reuven; Weissbrod, Lior; Rebollo, Noemi R; Barzilai, Omry; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-07-16

    Flowering plants possess mechanisms that stimulate positive emotional and social responses in humans. It is difficult to establish when people started to use flowers in public and ceremonial events because of the scarcity of relevant evidence in the archaeological record. We report on uniquely preserved 13,700-11,700-y-old grave linings made of flowers, suggesting that such use began much earlier than previously thought. The only potentially older instance is the questionable use of flowers in the Shanidar IV Neanderthal grave. The earliest cemeteries (ca. 15,000-11,500 y ago) in the Levant are known from Natufian sites in northern Israel, where dozens of burials reflect a wide range of inhumation practices. The newly discovered flower linings were found in four Natufian graves at the burial site of Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Large identified plant impressions in the graves include stems of sage and other Lamiaceae (Labiatae; mint family) or Scrophulariaceae (figwort family) species; accompanied by a plethora of phytoliths, they provide the earliest direct evidence now known for such preparation and decoration of graves. Some of the plant species attest to spring burials with a strong emphasis on colorful and aromatic flowers. Cave floor chiseling to accommodate the desired grave location and depth is also evident at the site. Thus, grave preparation was a sophisticated planned process, embedded with social and spiritual meanings reflecting a complex preagricultural society undergoing profound changes at the end of the Pleistocene.

  16. The Begg's uprighting spring - Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm.

  17. The effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Aydan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that some sinkholes or subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The author has been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in the long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu and 2011 Great East Japan earthquakes caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The author presents the effect of the depth and groundwater on the formation of sinkholes or ground subsidence associated with abandoned room and pillar lignite mines under static and dynamic conditions and discusses the implications on the areas above abandoned lignite mines in this paper.

  18. 75 FR 13068 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Berry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... a hillside immediately above a sinkhole complex that lies in the Holston formation, approximately midway between the entrances to Cruze and Meades Quarry Caves. The sinkhole is presumably connected to... had filled in a sinkhole overlaying the cave and that lawn runoff from the development and from a golf...

  19. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, S.; Buhl, D.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Vonhof, H. B.; Wassenburg, J. A.; Geske, A.; Spötl, C.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-11-01

    Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg) isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco), the warm-temperate (Germany), the equatorial-humid (Peru) and the cold-humid (Austria) climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26