WorldWideScience

Sample records for sink garbage disposal

  1. 21 CFR 1250.79 - Garbage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage disposal. 1250.79 Section 1250.79 Food and... SANITATION Servicing Areas for Land and Air Conveyances § 1250.79 Garbage disposal. (a) Water-tight, readily cleanable, nonabsorbent containers with close-fitting covers shall be used to receive and store garbage. (b...

  2. Urban garbage disposal and management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Mu-yi; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-fang

    2003-07-01

    This paper, probing into the present situation of urban domestic garbage by analyzing its growing trend, compositional change and regional difference, reveals the problems existing in its disposal and management in China. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was conducted in five big cities around China for surveying urban residents' attitudes towards garbage disposal and management policies and measures. Results showed the output of urban domestic garbage in Chinese cities is ever increasing, and the recoverable materials and energy in garbage composition are also increasing. The population growth, economic development, and increase of residents' expenditure level are the main factors influencing the growing output and changing composition of the garbage. Information acquired from the questionnaire showed that majority of the urban residents are in favor of the garbage reduction policies and managerial measures and are willing to collaborate with municipal government in battling against garbage. Based on the analysis and questionnaire, some policymaking-oriented suggestions such as operating the garbage disposal from a social welfare service to a sector of profit-gaining enterprises, transferring the garbage management from passive end control to active source control, promoting the classified garbage collection in cities around China, and charging garbage fees for its cleanup and disposal, have also been put forward in the paper.

  3. The status of rural garbage disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruqiong; Chen, Hong

    2018-01-01

    With the development of rural construction and the improvement of the living standard of residents, the production of rural living waste is increasing day by day. These wastes not only pollute the environment, destroy the rural landscape, but also spread disease, threaten the life safety of human beings, and become one of the public hazards. The problem of rural living waste is a major environmental problem facing China and the world. This paper make a summary analysis about the present situation of municipal waste in China, this paper expounds the problems in rural garbage treatment, and in view of status quo of municipal waste in China put forward comprehensive countermeasures.

  4. The under sink garbage grinder: a friendly technology for the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzonella, D; Pavan, P; Battistoni, P; Cecchi, F

    2003-03-01

    The use of garbage grinders is not a usual practice in Europe, but it is in other countries around the world (e.g., North America, Japan and Australia). Sometimes, garbage grinders are accused of producing problems in sewers and wastewater treatment plants and are prohibited by environmental protection laws. In this study, the different impacts determined by the use of this technology were considered to show the positive impacts of its use. In particular, it was shown that garbage grinders enable the disposal of household organic wastes with advantages for the wastewater treatment processes because of an increase in the carbon/nutrients ratio in the wastewater. This is particularly important for biological nutrients removal processes. Daily specific contributions for person equivalent (PE) due to organic waste disposal through garbage grinders were found to be equal to 75 gCODPE(-1) d(-1) for carbon (as COD), 2.5 gNPE(-1) d(-1) for nitrogen and 0.25 gPPE(-1) d(-1) for phosphorous, respectively. Those determined a value of 30 for the COD/N ratio. Moreover, no problems with solids settling in sewers were noted. These results were extensively compared with literature data. The economical balance showed that the use of garbage grinders allowed a global saving of some 17 Euro year(-1) for a three people family. Important benefits are also gained from an environmental point of view (e.g, organic wastes disposal nutrients removal in wastewater treatment and increase in biogas production with energy reclamation).

  5. Optimal routes scheduling for municipal waste disposal garbage trucks using evolutionary algorithm and artificial immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna MRÓWCZYŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of an evolutionary algorithm and an artificial immune systems to solve a problem of scheduling an optimal route for waste disposal garbage trucks in its daily operation. Problem of an optimisation is formulated and solved using both methods. The results are presented for an area in one of the Polish cities.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of municipal garbage disposal in Changchun City by the strategic environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling L; Tang, Zhanhui H; Shang, Jincheng C; Zhao, Yuanhui H

    2010-06-01

    The environmental issues caused by the municipal solid waste disposal are becoming a worldwide concern. We studied the situations both domestically and abroad by the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) approach and also conducted comprehensive evaluations of garbage disposal in Changchun City. On the basis of this study, we found that SEA is of great importance in the municipal solid waste disposal. Moreover, with the rapid socioeconomic development of Changchun City, municipal solid waste production increases on an annual basis, and thus, good waste management planning is of great significance. Considering the situation of the economic development of Changchun City, garbage disposal was handled mainly in the major sanitary landfills with appropriate use of incineration technology. This plan is environmentally friendly at a relatively high degree and has met the requirements of minimum investment. It also takes into account the requirements of the development of incineration technology. Regarding environmental pollution in terms of groundwater pollution and atmospheric pollution, this plan is a feasible one by meeting various requirements with low environmental impact among the three plans discussed in this study.

  7. Evaluation of the contamination risk by 241AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  8. Disposal of household burned garbage and risk of low birth weight in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2015-01-01

    exposure to burned garbage had 2.3-fold increased risk to be LBW [adjusted relative risk for gender and availability of window (RRa = 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.18 - 8.61]. Conclusion: The babies who live in households exposed to burned garbage condition had an increased risk to be LBW in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:89-93Key words: low birth weight, burned garbage disposal

  9. Q&A: Trash talk: disposal and remote degradation of neuronal garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Meghan Lee; Melentijevic, Ilija; Smart, Anna Joelle; Driscoll, Monica

    2018-01-30

    Caenorhabditis elegans neurons have recently been found to throw out cellular debris for remote degradation and/or storage, adding an "extracellular garbage elimination" option to known intracellular protein and organelle degradation pathways. This Q&A describes initial insights into the biology of seemingly selective protein and organelle elimination by challenged neurons, highlighting mysteries of how garbage is distinguished and sorted in the sending neuron, how the garbage-filled "exophers" appear to elicit degradative responses as they transit neighboring tissue, and how non-digestible materials get thrown out of cells again via processes that may be highly relevant to human neurodegenerative disease mechanisms.

  10. Discourse at Our Disposal: Stories in and around the Garbage Can.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ellen S.

    1997-01-01

    Uses a case study based on interviews and documents to apply narrative theory and methods to "garbage can" decision theory. States that narrative approaches to organizational action offer insight into how decisions occur in organizations and that organizational decision making may be understood as the interweaving of multiple, ongoing,…

  11. Investigation of the radiation risk due to environmental contamination by 241Am from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumo, Júlio T; Isiki, Vera L K; Miyamoto, Hissae; Ferreira, Rafael V P; Bellini, Maria H; de Lima, Luis F C P

    2008-02-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, these rods have been replaced by the Franklin type and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 20% of the estimated total number of installed rods has been delivered to the Brazilian Nuclear Commission. This situation causes concern, since there is the possibility of the rods to be disposed as domestic waste. In Brazil, 64% of the municipal solid waste is disposed at garbage dumps without sufficient control. In addition, (241)Am, the radionuclide most commonly employed, is classified as a high-toxicity element, when incorporated. In the present study, (241)Am migration experiments were performed by means of a lysimeter system, in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as common solid waste. (241)Am sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste that was collected at the restaurant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares. The generated leachate was periodically analyzed, and characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and the concentration of the radioactive material were determined. The equivalent dose for members of the public was calculated considering ingestion of contaminated drinking water as the major path of exposure. Estimated doses were about 20-times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv year(-1) for members of the public as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This suggests the radiation risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dumps to be low. It should be noted, however, that the number of investigated lightning rods was quite small. The results of this study might therefore not be entirely representative and should be interpreted with care. They provide, however, a very first

  12. "Garbage" In, "Refuse and Refuse Disposal" Out: Making the Most of the Subject Authority File in OPAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Marguerite E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference in subject access in OPACs (online public access catalogs) between subject searching (authority, alphabetic, or controlled vocabulary) versus keyword searching (uncontrolled, free text, natural language vocabulary). Compares a query on the term "garbage" in two online catalogs and discusses results. (Author/LRW)

  13. 21 CFR 1250.39 - Garbage equipment and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage equipment and disposition. 1250.39 Section... SANITATION Food Service Sanitation on Land and Air Conveyances, and Vessels § 1250.39 Garbage equipment and... receive and store garbage. Garbage and refuse shall be disposed of as frequently as is necessary and...

  14. Rethinking Recycling: Why Teach about Garbage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearing, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Ties environmental education, via garbage disposal issues, to Oregon's educational reform agenda. Discusses teaching the basics through "garbage" lessons. Includes how to (1) take an interdisciplinary approach; (2) introduce waste management concepts in other lessons; (3) use waste management examples to apply existing concepts; and (4)…

  15. Garbage is a boon to recyclers for the construction of recycling society

    OpenAIRE

    吉村, 忠与志

    2011-01-01

    Garbage is currently incinerated at high temperatures as burning refuse. By collecting and differentiating the garbage, however, it becomes an energy source. The discharge saving of the garbage is possible, if its moisture is decreased at 30% or less. Garbage’s cutwater when disposed is a key point on energy resource. Residential garbage can be recycled by drying. Addition of heavy oil is necessary in order to incinerate the garbage at high temperatures. The exhaustible resource is forbidden ...

  16. Garbage collector interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ive, Anders; Blomdell, Anders; Ekman, Torbjörn; Henriksson, Roger; Nilsson, Anders; Nilsson, Klas; Robertz, Sven

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the presented garbage collector interface is to provide a universal interface for many different implementations of garbage collectors. This is to simplify the integration and exchange of garbage collectors, but also to support incremental, non-conservative, and thread safe implementations. Due to the complexity of the interface, it is aimed at code generators and preprocessors. Experiences from ongoing implementations indicate that the garbage collector interface successfully ...

  17. Evaluation of the contamination risk by {sup 241}AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump; Avaliacao da contaminacao provocada por para-raios radioativos de americio-241 descartados em lixoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  18. Teaching Science with Garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Albert; Schatz, Vivian

    This single-concept unit on garbage is a "do-it-yourself" approach to environmental education. The emphasis is on composting or microbial decomposition under controlled conditions since composting appears to be one practical way of handling garbage. More than 30 simple experiments show some of the changes that garbage undergoes. The garbage…

  19. Managing Garbage Can Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, John F.

    1980-01-01

    Operationalizes garbage-can theory into a stochastic process model for the case of a traditional Weberian bureaucracy. Illustrates how ambiguity may impinge on decision making within a structural setting familiar to classical organization theorists and derives the managerial implications of garbage-can theory. (Author/IRT)

  20. Smart Garbage Monitoring System for Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Yusof Norfadzlia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles of rubbish are one of the major problems faced by most people in Malaysia, especially those who live in flats, as the number of bins is limited and shared among all residents. It may cause pollutions, which may lead to sanitary issues and diseases. This project presents the development of a smart garbage monitoring system in order to measure waste level in the garbage bin in real-time and to alert the municipality, in particular cases, via SMS. The proposed system is consisted by the ultrasonic sensor to measure the waste level, the GSM module to send the SMS, and an Arduino Uno which controls the system operation. It supposes to generate and send the warning messages to the municipality via SMS when the waste bin is full or almost full, so the garbage can be collected immediately. Furthermore, it is expected to contribute to improving the efficiency of the solid waste disposal management.

  1. Welcome to Garbage Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the Children's Garbage Museum in southwestern Connecticut and provides pictures as well as descriptions of exhibits. Suggests two activities to heighten students' awareness of recycling and composting and recommends reading materials. (MOK)

  2. A distributed garbage collector for active objects

    OpenAIRE

    Puaut , Isabelle

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces an algorithm that performs garbage collection in distributed systems of active objects (i.e., objects having their own threads of control). The proposed garbage collector is made of a set of local garbage collectors, one per node, loosely coupled to a global garbage collector. The novelties of the proposed garbage collector come from the fact that local garbage collectors need not be synchronized with each other for detecting garbage objects and that faulty communication...

  3. Current Situation Survey of Garbage Management in rural areas of Heilongjiang province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    This paper makes investigation to 120 administrative villages, count the the output, the distribution characteristics, the composition and the treatment model of the rural garbage at this stage. The research shows that the composition of the rural garbage is very complicated, the total annual output of rural garbage is 5 295 600 tonnes, and the daily output per capital of household garbage is 0.8925 kg. According to the situation of Heiliongjiang Province, this paper analyze the main problem during the garbage disposal, some control measures are presented, this reaesrch could provide basic data and research for the following treatment. The significant new findings of the research is that the rational governance path of garbage is that, first classification, second recycling and third harmless treatment.

  4. Making garbage collection independent of the amount of garbage

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin, Dan

    1987-01-01

    (Appendix to SICS Research Report R86009) This appendix shows in detail how to make the time for the garbage collection algorithm presented in [AHS 86] become proportional to n log n , where n is the number of non-garbage cells. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with [AHS 86] since no further presentation of the notation used is made here. The compaction phase of that algorithm is proportional to the amount of memory, i.e. proportional to the sum of garbage and non-garbage. This is un...

  5. Intelligent Garbage Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rodríguez Novelle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available IGC (Intelligent Garbage Classifier is a system for visual classification and separation of solid waste products. Currently, an important part of the separation effort is based on manual work, from household separation to industrial waste management. Taking advantage of the technologies currently available, a system has been built that can analyze images from a camera and control a robot arm and conveyor belt to automatically separate different kinds of waste.

  6. Disposable Diapers Are OK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    A personal account of measuring the pros and cons of disposable diaper usage leads the author to differentiate between a garbage problem and environmental problem. Concludes the disposable diaper issue is a political and economic issue with a local environmental impact and well within our abilities to manage. (MCO)

  7. Realtime Audio with Garbage Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Matheussen, Kjetil Svalastog

    2010-01-01

    Two non-moving concurrent garbage collectors tailored for realtime audio processing are described. Both collectors work on copies of the heap to avoid cache misses and audio-disruptive synchronizations. Both collectors are targeted at multiprocessor personal computers. The first garbage collector works in uncooperative environments, and can replace Hans Boehm's conservative garbage collector for C and C++. The collector does not access the virtual memory system. Neither doe...

  8. Garbage Management: An Important Risk Factor for HPAI-Virus Infection in Commercial Poultry Flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Emily; Linskens, Eric; Umber, Jamie; Culhane, Marie Rene; Halvorson, David; Contadini, Francesca; Cardona, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Garbage management represents a potential pathway of HPAI-virus infection for commercial poultry operations as multiple poultry premises may share a common trash collection service provider, trash collection site (e.g., shared dumpster for multiple premises) or disposal site (e.g., landfill). The types of potentially infectious or contaminated material disposed of in the garbage has not been previously described but is suspected to vary by poultry industry sector. A survey of representatives from the broiler, turkey, and layer sectors in the United States revealed that many potentially contaminated or infectious items are routinely disposed of in the trash on commercial poultry premises. On-farm garbage management practices, along with trash hauling and disposal practices are thus key components that must be considered to evaluate the risk of commercial poultry becoming infected with HPAI virus.

  9. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  10. Recycling at Naval Shore Installations: One Means of Curbing the ’Garbage Glut’

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    disposable diaper ban was dropped from Georgia’s recycling law. 7 Despite their success, NUMKAPTs in all parts of the country shouldn’t celebrate too...AD-.A276 759 1993 Executive Research Project S63 Recycling at Naval Shore Installations: One Means of Curbing the "Garbage Glut" Commander Robert L... Recycling at Naval Shore Installations: One Means of Curbing the "Garbage Glut" --- Provides techniques and strategies to aid Federal recycling program

  11. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  12. Hospitals as factories of medical garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of the twentieth century, as hospitals cleaned up, they came to produce more and more rubbish. Beginning in the 1970s and gaining pace in the 1980s and 1990s, single-use plastic items (syringes, blood bags, tubing) saturated everyday medical practice across the globe. This essay brings the question of plastic to bear upon the longer history of twentieth century sanitary science. The widespread adoption of single-use disposable medical plastics consolidated a century's worth of changes in medical hygiene. As strange as it may seem today, the initial uptake of medical plastics was not driven primarily by concerns about hygiene. Plastic began as a mid-century technology of convenience and durability. It was not until the end of the twentieth century that it morphed into a powerful symbol and instrument of medical hygiene. Today, both patients and practitioners have embraced plastic as an indispensable technology of clean medicine. The procession of single-use medical plastics through everyday medicine now comprises a constant, if disposable, infrastructure of medical hygiene. This new processional infrastructure of disposable hygiene has produced another, albeit unintended, consequence. This new regime has exponentially increased hospitals' material outputs. In so doing, plastic has refigured the ecologies of everyday medicine. Plastic hygiene has rendered hospitals factories of medical garbage.

  13. Memoised Garbage Collection for Software Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.Y.; Ruys, T.C.; Kowalewski, S.; Philippou, A.

    Virtual machine based software model checkers like JPF and MoonWalker spend up to half of their veri��?cation time on garbage collection. This is no surprise as after nearly each transition the heap has to be cleaned from garbage. To improve this, this paper presents the Memoised Garbage Collection

  14. 21 CFR 1240.75 - Garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage. 1240.75 Section 1240.75 Food and Drugs... Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.75 Garbage. (a) A person shall not transport, receive, or cause to be transported or received, garbage in interstate traffic and feed such...

  15. Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Rui; Koseki, Hiroshi; Iwata, Yusaku

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the cause of an explosion during disposal processing of raw garbage, the property of the raw garbage was primarily examined by a thermo gravimetry-differential thermal analyzer. With mutable oil concentration, the results showed variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction for the samples, for example, decreasing from 150 degrees C in the samples typically containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114 degrees C when the oil content was raised to 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility being heated by hot air of 150 degrees C, which was blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanying with an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached to 1070 degrees C. Meanwhile, gases, including flammable ones, whose amounts were CO2 approximately CO>H2>methane>ethane in order, were yielded. It indicated that smoldering developed from the zones near the hot air supply nozzle and propagated along the pathway of the imposed air. The continuously released gases possibly induced the transition of smoldering to flame or explosion after accumulating for hours.

  16. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilik, Julyus-Melvin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Husain, Mohd-Lokman; Hassan, Ruhana

    2016-01-01

    Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km) found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  17. Type and Quantity of Shipborne Garbage at Selected Tropical Beaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyus-Melvin Mobilik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine debris is widely distributed at the coastal area of the global oceans; however, shipborne garbage source studies are still lacking to document the pollution in Malaysia Territorial Water. Thus, this study has adopted a standard method of beach marine debris survey at five beaches and inspected 115 vessels to assess the type and amount of debris from shipping source stranded on the beach. This study found that vessel visiting Malaysian ports observed the MARPOL 73/78 Annex V requirements; however, identified objects from shipping activity (1.3%; 2 items/km found on the beaches indicate that there are vessels disposing of garbage illegally at sea. Therefore, there is a need to promote the use of biodegradable material and introduce environmental education to increase awareness on the vessel.

  18. 7 CFR 330.401 - Garbage generated onboard a conveyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage generated onboard a conveyance. 330.401...; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Garbage § 330.401 Garbage generated onboard a conveyance. (a) Applicability. This section applies to garbage generated onboard any means of conveyance during international or...

  19. Sustainable kerbside recycling in the municipal garbage contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Moe

    2009-12-01

    In an era of global warming, rising energy costs and increasing volumes of wastes destined for landfills and incinerators, communities should set up environmentally sustainable services that are cost-effective for their citizens and revenue generators for municipalities. A win-win garbage collection and kerbside recycling program established more than eight years ago in a small rural community in Ohio, US is still going strong. It is offering a relatively inexpensive way for waste disposal by providing an incentive-based and highly participatory kerbside recycling and at the same time bringing in substantial franchise fees for the municipal coffers. Unlike garbage contracts in most communities that are designed for only residential waste collection, this program extends disposal and recycling services to non-residential establishments. It picks up hard-to-dispose household furniture, appliances and other bulky items without additional costs to the residents. By being creative and assessing local political and socio-economic milieu, public officials can implement a comprehensive service package for taking care of their community throwaways. However, before establishing such programs in partnership with a private firm, city administrators must understand the intricacies of bid specifications customized for municipal wastes and recyclable materials.

  20. Garbage collection in the C++ environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zika, Petr

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to design and implement a garbage collector within the environment of the C++ programming language, defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 14882:2003. Analysis of various aspects of automatic memory management in general and in the C++ programming language in particular is presented. A list of requirements on garbage collection implementation is given. The thesis focuses on solving problems of implementing an incremental tracing garbage collector within the li...

  1. Wink Sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgardner, R.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Wink Sink formed on June 3, l980. Inferred precursor of the sinkhole was a solution cavity in the Permian Salado Formation formed either by natural dissolution or by water flow in an abandoned oil well. Correlation of well logs in the area indicates that the Salado Formation contains several dissolution zones. Dissolution in the middle of the Salado evaporite sequence may have resulted from ground-water flow along fractured anhydrite interbeds. The Wink Sink lies directly above the Permian Capitan reef on the margin of a natural salt dissolution trough. Other natural collapse features overlie the reef to the north. Hydraulic head of water in the reef is higher than the elevation of the Salado Formation but lower than the head in the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, a near-surface freshwater aquifer. Fracture or cavernous permeability occurs above, within, and below the Salado Formation. Consequently, a brine-density flow may be operating: relatively fresh water moves upward through fractures under artesian pressure and dissolves salt; the denser brine moves downward under gravity flow. Alternatively, downward flow of water from freshwater aquifers above the salt may have caused dissolution. An oil well drilled into the Permian Yates Formation (with the aid of nitroglycerine) in 1928 was located within the sinkhole. The well initially produced about 80% saline water from the Permian Tansill Formation, which directly underlies the Salado. About 600 ft of casing was removed from the well when it was plugged and abandoned in 1964.

  2. A comparison of three garbage collection algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.

    1990-01-01

    Abstract. The running cost of garbage collection is studied as a function of the amount of available store. A performance model originally proposed by Hoare is modified to support experiments with three garbage collection methods: reference count, mark/scan and two-space copy. By also taking the

  3. A New Use for Old Garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Ron

    1981-01-01

    Describes a simulated archaeological dig for a ninth-grade Canadian social studies class. Students role-play archaeological teams in 2180 AD who find well-preserved bags of "garbage." Students classify garbage artifacts, write reports hypothesizing about the households which produced them, and match the contents of their bags to…

  4. Simple concurrent garbage collection almost without synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; Lali, M.I.

    We present two simple mark and sweep algorithms, A and B, for concurrent garbage collection by a single collector running concurrently with a number of mutators that concurrently modify shared data. Both algorithms are based on the ideas of Ben-Ari's classical algorithm for on-the-fly garbage

  5. HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in garbage scavengers of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Mohammad Uzair Abdul; Saleem, Muhammad Danish; Anwer, Muhammad Osama; Ahmed, Gulrays; Aziz, Sina; Memon, Muhammad Ashraf

    2013-06-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, and to study the associated risk factors in garbage scavengers of Karachi. The cross-sectional study was performed in a colony inhabited by low socioeconomic garbage-collecting people. Data was collected from April to December 2011. After informed consent and pre-test counselling, a set of questions were asked from a questionnaire, and 5cc of blood was drawn for pathological testing. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. A total of 141 males agreed to participate in the study with a mean age of 21.33+/-9.28 years. Most of the respondents (n=67; 47.5%) were in the age group 11-20 years; 86 (61%) were single; 89 (63%) were illiterate and 127 (90%) had a monthly income less than Rs.10,000. Prevalence of hepatitis B was 18.8% (n=22), followed by 8.5% (n=10) and 0.85% (n=1) of hepatitis C and HIV respectively. Besides, 108 (77%) collected needles/syringes and 76 (54%) got pricked more than once. Only 23 (16%) wore gloves while collecting garbage. Overall, 79 (56%) had a history of sexual contact; 18 (23%) had three or more partners. The important factors contributing to the high prevalence of hepatitis B and C were needle prick injuries, bare-handed/bare-footed collection of garbage, poor vaccination status, improper garbage disposal system and the site of waste collection.

  6. Hiv, hepatitis b and hepatitis c in garbage scavengers of karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.U.; Saleem, M.D.; Anwar, M.O.; Ahmed, G.; Memon, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, and to study the associated risk factors in garbage scavengers of Karachi. Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed in a colony inhabited by low socioeconomic garbage-collecting people. Data was collected from April to December 2011. After informed consent and pre-test counselling, a set of questions were asked from a questionnaire, and 5cc of blood was drawn for pathological testing. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 141 males agreed to participate in the study with a mean age of 21.33+-9.28 years. Most of the respondents (n=67; 47.5%) were in the age group 11-20 years; 86 (61%) were single; 89 (63%) were illiterate and 127 (90%) had a monthly income less than Rs.10,000. Prevalence of hepatitis B was 18.8% (n=22), followed by 8.5% (n=10) and 0.85% (n=1) of hepatitis C and HIV respectively. Besides, 108 (77%) collected needles/syringes and 76 (54%) got pricked more than once. Only 23 (16%) wore gloves while collecting garbage. Overall, 79 (56%) had a history of sexual contact; 18 (23%) had three or more partners. Conclusion: The important factors contributing to the high prevalence of hepatitis B and C were needle prick injuries, bare-handed/bare-footed collection of garbage, poor vaccination status, improper garbage disposal system and the site of waste collection. (author)

  7. Calligraphy design for coconut garbage use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Maulina, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coconut trees have contributed to the social life of mankind, ranging from basic personal needs such as food to the need to manage the environment. Human life requires not only food, but requires an artistic need. Certain art affects social life psychologically, and the human psychological condition is also influenced by the environment of life, especially garbage. A few of calligraphy art is designed based on using the garbage. Therefore, this paper aims to propose the calligraphy based on the use of natural garbage from coconut trees.

  8. [The perception of urban garbage collectors of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, regarding the biological risks involved in their work routine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Michelly Angelina; Reis, Cássia Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    There are several occupational risks inherent to urban garbage collection, and the scope of this study was to identify the biological risks to which urban garbage collectors in Dourados/MS are exposed. A qualitative study using the Lefévre and Lefévre Collective Subject Discourse method was used with 42 urban garbage collectors working for the outsourced provider to the Municipal Department of Urban Services. Data were collected from September 2005 to January 2006. The interviews had an average duration of 40 minutes, and were recorded at the company office when the workers arrived to start their working day and subsequently transcribed. The biological risks mentioned by the garbage pickers were accidents with glass, syringes, thorns, dog bites, and contact with substances found in the garbage. Accidents with sharp and jagged instruments are ways for microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi to infect the human body. Virus contamination, like HIV and Hepatitis B and C, can occur in accidents involving inadequate disposal of contaminated needles. The conclusion reached is that biological risks in urban garbage collection can be reduced by educating the population about adequate garbage disposal.

  9. Local Reasoning about a Copying Garbage Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Smith, Noah; Birkedal, Lars; Reynolds, John C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a programming language, model, and logic appropriate for implementing and reasoning about a memory management system. We state semantically what is meant by correctness of a copying garbage collector, and employ a variant of the novel separation logics to formally specify partial...... correctness of Cheney’s copying garbage collector in our program logic. Finally, we prove that our implementation of Cheney’s algorithm meets its specification using the logic we have given and auxiliary variables. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  10. Reduction of garbage in the diet of nonbreeding glaucous gulls corresponding to a change in waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Powell, Abby N.

    2011-01-01

    Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) are major predators in the Arctic and may benefit from human development. We studied use of garbage by glaucous gulls in Barrow, Alaska, in 2007, when municipal waste was disposed of in a landfill, and in 2008, when it was incinerated. In both years, diet samples from breeding adult gulls contained less garbage than those from loafing nonbreeding gulls (mostly subadults of less than four years), possibly because the breeding colony was more distant than many loafing sites from the landfills. Although breeding gull samples showed no change, garbage in regurgitated pellets and food remains of nonbreeding gulls was significantly less prevalent in 2008 than in 2007 (28% vs. 43% occurrence in diet samples), and this reduction could be explained by the switch from landfill to waste incineration. Yet garbage remained a substantial part of nonbreeding gull diet after the management change. Other aspects of waste management, such as storage prior to disposal, may also be important in limiting scavengers’ access to garbage and thus reducing the indirect impact of human development on prey species of conservation concern.

  11. Can We Be Garbage Free?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Hagadone, Perky

    2013-01-01

    The happy chatter and clatter of students bounce off the lunchroom walls at a Northside Elementary School in Sandpoint, Idaho as children eagerly gobble their food and slurp their drinks. Boys and girls with crinkled brown bag lunches filled with disposable products sit next to students with trays heaped with hot lunch and all manner of synthetic…

  12. Mercury Exposure among Garbage Workers in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Changing garbage workers’ hygiene habits can reduce urinary mercury levels. Personal hygiene is important, and should be stressed in education programs. Employers should institute engineering controls to reduce urinary mercury levels among garbage workers.

  13. On Beckton Alp : Iain Sinclair, Garbage and ‘Obscenery’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.; Lindner, C.; Meissner, M.

    2015-01-01

    Global Garbage examines the ways in which garbage, in its diverse forms, is being produced, managed, experienced, imagined, circulated, concealed, and aestheticized in contemporary urban environments and across different creative and cultural practices. The book explores the increasingly complex

  14. Global Garbage: Urban Imaginaries of Waste, Excess and Abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, C.; Meissner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Global Garbage examines the ways in which garbage, in its diverse forms, is being produced, managed, experienced, imagined, circulated, concealed, and aestheticized in contemporary urban environments and across different creative and cultural practices. The book explores the increasingly complex

  15. Garbage monitoring system using IoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, A.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays certain actions are taken to improve the level of cleanliness in the country. People are getting more active in doing all the things possible to clean their surroundings. Various movements are also started by the government to increase cleanliness. We will try to build a system which will notify the corporations to empty the bin on time. In this system, we will put a sensor on top of the garbage bin which will detect the total level of garbage inside it according to the total size of the bin. When the garbage will reach the maximum level, a notification will be sent to the corporation's office, then the employees can take further actions to empty the bin. This system will help in cleaning the city in a better way. By using this system people do not have to check all the systems manually but they will get a notification when the bin will get filled.

  16. 9 CFR 166.4 - Storage of garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage of garbage. 166.4 Section 166... SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.4 Storage of garbage. (a) Untreated garbage at a treatment facility shall be stored in covered and leakproof containers until treated...

  17. 33 CFR 151.63 - Shipboard control of garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipboard control of garbage. 151... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE... Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and Sewage § 151.63 Shipboard...

  18. Microbial diversity in biodegradation and reutilization processes of garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Shin; Nakayama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohei; Hemmi, Hisashi; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Nishino, Tokuzo

    2005-01-01

    With particular focus on the microbial diversity in garbage treatment, the current status of garbage treatment in Japan and microbial ecological studies on various bioprocesses for garbage treatment are described in detail. The future direction of research in this field is also discussed.

  19. 20 CFR 654.414 - Garbage and other refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Garbage and other refuse. 654.414 Section 654... Garbage and other refuse. (a) Durable, fly-tight, clean containers in good condition of a minimum capacity of 20 gallons, shall be provided adjacent to each housing unit for the storage of garbage and other...

  20. 9 CFR 166.8 - Vehicles used to transport garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicles used to transport garbage. 166.8 Section 166.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... used to transport garbage. Vehicles used by a licensee to transport untreated garbage, except those...

  1. Lock-free parallel garbage collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Gao; J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); W.H. Hesselink (Wim)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract This paper presents a lock-free parallel algorithm for mark&sweep garbage collection (GC) in a realistic model using synchronization primitives compare-and-swap (CAS) and load-linked/store-conditional (LL/SC) offered by machine architectures. Mutators and collectors can simultaneously

  2. Formal Derivation of Concurrent Garbage Collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovic, Dusko; Pepper, Peter; Smith, Douglas R.

    Concurrent garbage collectors are notoriously difficult to implement correctly. Previous approaches to the issue of producing correct collectors have mainly been based on posit-and-prove verification or on the application of domain-specific templates and transformations. We show how to derive the

  3. Lock-free parallel garbage collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Groote, J.F.; Hesselink, W.H.; Pan, Y; Chen, D; Guo, M; Cao, JN; Dongarra, J

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a lock-free parallel algorithm for garbage collection in a realistic model using synchronization primitives offered by machine architectures. Mutators and collectors can simultaneously operate on the data structure. In particular no strict alternation between usage and cleaning

  4. Simulated Garbage: Leaps of Inference from Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroble, Elizabeth J.; Stroble, Paul E.

    1988-01-01

    Recommends that teachers be skilled and respectful in helping students identify the functions of religion. The "Simulated Garbage" technique urges students to consider the qualities that give a religion coherence and meaning, without relation to external criteria of seeming rightness. (RAE)

  5. Visual analysis of trash bin processing on garbage trucks in low resolution video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidla, Oliver; Loibner, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    We present a system for trash can detection and counting from a camera which is mounted on a garbage collection truck. A working prototype has been successfully implemented and tested with several hours of real-world video. The detection pipeline consists of HOG detectors for two trash can sizes, and meanshift tracking and low level image processing for the analysis of the garbage disposal process. Considering the harsh environment and unfavorable imaging conditions, the process works already good enough so that very useful measurements from video data can be extracted. The false positive/false negative rate of the full processing pipeline is about 5-6% at fully automatic operation. Video data of a full day (about 8 hrs) can be processed in about 30 minutes on a standard PC.

  6. System of the incineration for the liquid scintillation garbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi

    1981-12-01

    In Japan from 1980 the incineration of the used scintillation liquid has been permitted according to the safety guide regulation of Japan Scientific Technology Agency. This incineration method would disperse the radioactivity in local site and destroy the chemicals at the same time. This system are consist of three parts. (1) Filtration and pH. adjustment of liquid garbage. (2) Bubbling vaporization in closed cycle. The temperature of the solution inside vessel is kept from 65 0 C to 85 0 C and the solution is bubbled with nealy 4 0 C circulated air. After the end of distillation, water layer is separated from the organic chemical layer and put it down the drain according to the regulation. (3) The residue is mixed with only the distilled organic chemicals according to the next classification, thereafter incineration is carried out. (a) For under the radioactive concentration of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, the mixed scintillation liquid are burned up in specially designed incinerator. (b) For over the level of 1 x 10 -3 μCi/ml, only the distilled organic chemicals are burned up and the residue will be sent to the Waste Disposal Site. (c) For under the water content of 5% these liquid garbage can be directly are burned up without distillation The residue seemed to be suitable for the combustion of the dried carcased animals as the auxiliary fuels. This incinerator will be able to use as room heater or water heater for the bath without radioactive contamination inside of install room. (author)

  7. A cyclic distributed garbage collector for network objects

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena; Jones, Richard

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for distributed garbage collection and outlines its implementation within the Network Objects system. The algorithm is based on a reference listing scheme, which is augmented by partial tracing in order to collect distributed garbage cycles. Processes may be dynamically organised into groups, according to appropriate heuristics, to reclaim distributed garbage cycles. The algorithm places no overhead on local collectors and suspends local mutators only briefly....

  8. Landfills as sinks for (hazardous) substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of waste regulations is to protect human health and the environment. This requires the removal from the material cycle of those materials that cannot be processed without harm. Policies to promote recycling hold a risk that pollutants are dispersed. Materials have an environmental impact during their entire life cycle from extraction through production, consumption and recycling to disposal. Essentially there are only two routes for pollutants that cannot be rendered harmless: storage in sinks or dispersion into the environment. Many sinks do not contain substances absolutely, but result in slow dispersion. Dispersion leads to exposure and impact to human health and the environment. It is therefore important to assess the impact of the release to the environment. Based on various sources this paper discusses important material flows and their potential impact. This is compared with the intentions and achievements of European environmental and resource policy. The polluter pays principle is being implemented in Europe, but lags behind implementation of waste management regulations. As long as producers are allowed to add hazardous substances to their products and don't take their products back, it is in society's best interest to carefully consider whether recycling or storage in a sink is the better solution. This requires further development of life-cycle assessment tools and harmonization of regulations. In many cases the sink is unavoidable. Landfills as sinks will be needed in the future. Fail-safe design and construction as well as sustainable management of landfills must be further developed.

  9. [What is garbage, anyway? The opinions of women from an outlying neighborhood in a large Brazilian city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Rita de Cássia Franco; Barreto, Maurício L; Killinger, Cristina Larrea

    2002-01-01

    Domestic solid waste is cause for current environmental concern in large cities around the world. Little is known about the human health consequences of solid waste disposal in open-air dumps. In addition, there are few studies on people's health practices in relation to solid waste. As the initial step in epidemiological research on the relationship between solid waste and diarrhea, this study describes women's perception of the definition of garbage and the popular understanding of the relationships between garbage and disease, and between garbage and the environment. The study used a qualitative approach in a slum neighborhood in Salvador, Bahia. A total of 13 women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire in 1999. The FileMaker "diaricamp" application was used for data analysis. Interviewees defined garbage as anything useless and considered it a problem whenever it accumulated in the surroundings producing a bad smell or visual pollution, attracted animals, caused disease in children or adults, or was shifted from the individual to the collective/institutional sphere of action to solve the problem.

  10. The Crowding-Out Effects of Garbage Fees and Voluntary Source Separation Programs on Waste Reduction: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how and to what degree government policies of garbage fees and voluntary source separation programs, with free indoor containers and garbage bags, can affect the effectiveness of municipal solid waste (MSW management, in the sense of achieving a desirable reduction of per capita MSW generation. Based on city-level panel data for years 1998–2012 in China, our empirical analysis indicates that per capita MSW generated is increasing with per capita disposable income, average household size, education levels of households, and the lagged per capita MSW. While both garbage fees and source separation programs have separately led to reductions in per capita waste generation, the interaction of the two policies has resulted in an increase in per capita waste generation due to the following crowding-out effects: Firstly, the positive effect of income dominates the negative effect of the garbage fee. Secondly, there are crowding-out effects of mandatory charging system and the subsidized voluntary source separation on per capita MSW generation. Thirdly, small subsidies and tax punishments have reduced the intrinsic motivation for voluntary source separation of MSW. Thus, compatible fee charging system, higher levels of subsidies, and well-designed public information and education campaigns are required to promote household waste source separation and reduction.

  11. Garbage separation: a livelihood option for poor men and women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... A growing number of “garbage separators” collect, select, and sell “recyclable materials” at different points of the solid-waste management process. They perform this work at the K'ara K'ara municipal garbage dump, in the many containers distributed throughout the urban centre, and along the route taken ...

  12. Smart Bin: Internet-of-Things Garbage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M.R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces the design and development of smart green environment of garbage monitoring system by measuring the garbage level in real time and to alert the municipality where never the bin is full based on the types of garbage. The proposed system consisted the ultrasonic sensors which measure the garbage level, an ARM microcontroller which controls system operation whereas everything will be connected to ThingSpeak. This work demonstrates a system that allows the waste management to monitor based on the level of the garbage depth inside the dustbin. The system shows the status of different four types of garbage; domestic waste, paper, glass and plastic through LCD and ThingSpeak in a real time to store the data for future use and analysis, such as prediction of peak level of garbage bin fullness. It is expected that this system can create greener environment by monitoring and controlling the collection of garbage smartly through Internet-of-Things.

  13. Exploration with Garbage. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lund and Wolff Pak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Cherie; Wolff, Chanelle

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is concerned with the topic of garbage. The eleven lessons explore what garbage is, problems of littering, ways to reduce garbage, and ways to use garbage. The materials were designed to be used with kindergarten pupils, but could be…

  14. 9 CFR 166.5 - Licensed garbage-treatment facility standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensed garbage-treatment facility... garbage-treatment facility standards. Garbage-treatment facilities shall be maintained as set forth in... where insects and rodents may breed is prohibited. (b) Equipment used for handling untreated garbage...

  15. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and... Garbage § 305.40 Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. (a) T415-a, heat treatment. Incinerate to ash. Caterers under compliance agreement using an incinerator for garbage must comply with the...

  16. Health and self-care among garbage collectors: work experiences in a recyclable garbage cooperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria; Fernandes, Fernanda dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Study performed with garbage pickers who organized a cooperative to sort recyclable garbage in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in a shed loaned by the city administration. This activity, which has attracted an increasing number of people excluded from the formal job market, presents peculiar health risks and patterns of disease. The study aimed to learn about the participants' concepts and self-care actions, proposing discussions and jointly reflection on their problems. It focuses on the working environment and on attitudes towards health risks. Through the focal group technique with ten female subjects, the expression of capacity of situational analysis of those involved was privileged, giving rise to three main themes. Each theme discussed was followed by the construction of a plan of action in order to meet compatibly the more pressing needs according to the operational feasibility of the solutions proposed.

  17. The Effect of Garbage Collection on Cache Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorn, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    .... This paper describes the use of trace-driven simulation to estimate the effect of garbage collection algorithms on cache performance Traces from four large Common Lisp programs have been collected...

  18. Garbage separation: a livelihood option for poor men and women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 avr. 2016 ... Poverty and social disadvantage provide fertile ground for the proliferation of informal occupations that yield barely subsistence-level incomes. In Cochabamba, Bolivia, garbage separation is a relatively old informal occupation, dating back 30 or 40 years.

  19. Garbage in the diet of carnivores in an agricultural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowiak Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human food waste is considered to be richer in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins than most natural food supplies; however, it is very well digested in scats. So, as an indication of this kind of food in the diet, we have used each indigestible, anthropogenic origin element found in faeces (e.g., glass, plastic, rubber, etc.. There are few studies discussing the importance of garbage in the diet of mammalian predators living in farmland; definitely, most focus on this issue in urban areas. We studied the contribution of garbage in the diet of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, red fox (Vulpes vulpes, marten (Martes sp., polecat (Mustela putorius, stoat (Mustela erminea, American mink (Neovison vison and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in the agricultural areas of western Poland in 2006-2010. In addition, we examined the spatial changes in the diet of red fox and polecat. The largest contribution of garbage was found in scats of raccoon dog (8.8%, red fox (4.8% and marten (4.3%. The diet of polecat, stoat and Eurasian otter contained 2.5%, 1.7% and 0.2% garbage items respectively. The most frequent item was plastic. Our analysis showed that garbage consumption by red fox and polecat was greater closer to human settlements. The results reveal a continuous gradient in the garbage consumption that corresponds with the degree of synanthropization of particular species.

  20. Sinks as integrative elements of the anthropogenic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Brunner, Paul H.

    2015-04-01

    The anthropogenic metabolism is an open system requiring exchange of materials and energy between the anthroposphere and the environment. Material and energy flows are taken from nature and become utilized by men. After utilization, the materials either remain in the anthroposphere as recycling products, or they leave the anthroposphere as waste and emission flows. To accommodate these materials without jeopardizing human and environmental health, limited natural sinks are available; thus, man-made sinks have to be provided where natural sinks are missing or overloaded. The oral presentation (1) suggests a coherent definition of the term "sink", encompassing natural and man-made processes, (2) presents a framework to analyse and evaluate anthropogenic material flows to sinks, based on the tool substance flow analysis and impact assessment methodology, and (3) applies the framework in a case study approach for selected substances such as Copper and Lead in Vienna and Perfluorooctane sulfonate in Switzerland. Finally, the numeric results are aggregated in terms of a new indicator that specifies on a regional scale which fractions of anthropogenic material flows to sinks are acceptable. The following results are obtained: In Vienna, 99% of Cu flows to natural and man-made sinks are in accordance with accepted standards. However, the 0.7% of Cu entering urban soils and the 0.3% entering receiving waters surpass the acceptable level. In the case of Pb, 92% of all flows into sinks prove to be acceptable, but 8% are disposed of in local landfills with limited capacity. For PFOS, 96% of all flows into sinks are acceptable. 4% cannot be evaluated due to a lack of normative criteria, despite posing a risk for human health and the environment. The case studies corroborate the need and constraints of sinks to accommodate inevitable anthropogenic material flows.

  1. Energies and carbon sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedacker, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol puts a lot of emphasis on carbon sinks. This emphasis almost obliterates the other potential contributions of biomass in the fight against climatic changes and toward sustainable development. Biomass represents an infinite supply of renewable energy sources which do not increase the levels of carbon in the atmosphere, contribute to energy savings resulting from the use of wood rather than other materials, the sustainable management of soils, the fight against drought, agroforestry from which the production of foods depends, the mitigating of certain extreme climatic occurrences and the protection of dams from increased silting. The industrial revolution contributed to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. When discussing some of the finer points of the Kyoto Protocol, the focus was placed on carbon sinks. The author indicates that the biomass cycle had to be considered, both in situ and ex situ. Details to this effect are provided, and a section dealing with greenhouse gases other than carbon must be taken into account. The rural environment must be considered globally. The author indicates that in the future, the emissions resulting from the transportation of agricultural products will have to be considered. Within the realm of the policies on sustainable development, the fight against climatic change represents only one aspect. In arid and semi-arid regions, one must take into account meeting the energy needs of the populations, the fight against drought and the preservation of biodiversity. The planting of trees offers multiple advantages apart from being a carbon sink: roughage, wood for burning, protection of soils, etc. A few examples are provided. 8 refs., 3 figs

  2. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production.

  3. Does garbage in diet improve Glaucous Gull reproductive output?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Weiser, Emily L.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic subsidies are used by a variety of predators in areas developed for human use or residence. If subsidies promote population growth, these predators can have a negative effect on local prey species. The Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) is an abundant predator in northern Alaska that is believed to benefit from garbage as a supplemental food source, but this supposition has never been tested. In summer 2008 and 2009, we recorded the Glaucous Gull's diet and reproduction at 10 breeding colonies in northern Alaska. Colonies were in industrial, residential, and undeveloped areas and ranged from 5 to 75 km from the nearest landfill. By colony, garbage occurred in zero to 85% of pellets and food remains produced during the chick-rearing period, and the average number of chicks fledged per pair ranged from zero to 2.9. Random-forest analysis indicated that percent occurrence of garbage in the diet was the second most important factor (after number of eggs per pair) explaining variance in fledging rate. There was a significant positive correlation between percent occurrence of garbage in the diet and fledging rate in each year. If this correlation reflects a causal relationship, it suggests that human development that increases gulls' access to garbage could result in increased local gull populations. Such an increase could affect the gulls' natural prey species, including at least 14 species of shorebirds and waterfowl of conservation concern.

  4. The derivation of distributed termination detection algorithms from garbage collection schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.; Mattern, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the termination detection problem for distributed computations can be modelled as an instance of the garbage collection problem. Consequently, algorithms for the termination detection problem are obtained by applying transformations to garbage collection algorithms. The

  5. Mercury Exposure among Garbage Workers in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharat, Somsiri

    2012-12-01

    1) To determine mercury levels in urine samples from garbage workers in Southern Thailand, and 2) to describe the association between work characteristics, work positions, behavioral factors, and acute symptoms; and levels of mercury in urine samples. A case-control study was conducted by interviewing 60 workers in 5 hazardous-waste-management factories, and 60 matched non-exposed persons living in the same area of Southern Thailand. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. The hazardous-waste workers' urinary mercury levels (10.07 µg/g creatinine) were significantly higher than the control group (1.33 µg/g creatinine) (p garbage workers' hygiene habits can reduce urinary mercury levels. Personal hygiene is important, and should be stressed in education programs. Employers should institute engineering controls to reduce urinary mercury levels among garbage workers.

  6. Smart Garbage Based on Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, K.; Haryanto; Rohim, D. F.

    2018-01-01

    Trash is one of serious problems in Indonesia. It leads to another problems which deal with social, culture and economic, most of cities inindonesia have some problems in managing the trush. It is because the government doesn’t have the standard of trash management. The schedule to take the trash usually discover a problems with a lateness. The lack of trashmanagement and people’s habbit who don’t care about the trash impact effect to more serious problems that dealwith the trash. Such as, enviromental problems. Based on the problems the researcher makes a system called “Smart Garbage Based On Internet of things”. The system applies the technology of temporary garbage used internal system. This system creates in order to fix the problem of punctuality. Which makes the trash management more effective and afficient. The process of uploading the information in the internal awerness of based on the “real time” ativity this system can increase the peurity and health. Because the trash is controlled and not aculamulated arround people. The ultrasonic sensor and nodeMCU are used as a module of IoT to discover the temporary garbage. Grapical user Interface dekstop and android are also used in order to observe the level of trash in temporary garbage. The notification system can be access in mobile and dekstop interface. Furthermore the temporary garbage location can find by using google map the result of research shows that the system is running well. The system can onilne 12 hours/day along 2 weeks in exsperiment. The data sent by online based on “real time” activity and the result of mapping and tracking on android show the location of garbage.

  7. 75 FR 29706 - Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172] Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of... Service relative to a request to allow the interstate movement of garbage from Hawaii to a landfill in the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The importation and interstate movement of garbage is regulated by the...

  8. 33 CFR 151.69 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage outside special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage outside special areas. 151.69 Section 151.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage...

  9. 33 CFR 151.71 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage within special areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage within special areas. 151.71 Section 151.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage...

  10. 33 CFR 151.73 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage from fixed or floating platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of garbage from fixed or floating platforms. 151.73 Section 151.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Implementation of MARPOL 73/78 and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage...

  11. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage... Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. (a) Access by swine to garbage handling and treatment areas shall be prevented by construction of facilities to exclude all ages...

  12. [Garbage, work, and health: a case study of garbage pickers at the metropolitan landfill in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo de Souza; Juncá, Denise Chrysóstomo de Moura; Gonçalves, Raquel de Souza; Filhote, Maria Izabel de Freitas

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the lives, work, and health conditions of garbage pickers in the largest metropolitan landfill in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a semi-structured questionnaire with open-ended and closed questions, the study interviewed these individuals and developed a discussion of their daily lives, work, and health conditions. According to a quantitative-qualitative analysis, the garbage pickers identified garbage as a source of survival and defined health simply as the ability to work. They thus tended to neglect the relationship between work and health. However, the risks and reported morbidity highlighted the hazardous nature of this activity, aggravated by their living and housing conditions. Finally, the article emphasizes the importance of establishing public policies that integrate different dimensions of the problem, such as social inclusion, environmental preservation, public health, and the dignity of these workers.

  13. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  14. ON-THE-FLY GARBAGE COLLECTION FOR SEVERAL MUTATORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONKER, JE

    An algorithm is given for on-the-fly garbage collection in the presence of several mutators. It uses two colours and is a generalization of Ben-Ari's algorithm (1984). The correctness proof is based on the lexical orderings of several tuples of state space functions. It is shown that in a certain

  15. Pigeon-Frequented Areas, Garbage Piles and Dog Faeces as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to establish the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species in two pigeon-frequented areas; garbage piles from two separate sites in Nairobi, and dog faeces from Small animal clinic, University of Nairobi, Kabete. The sampling included both solid materials and air. Potato Dextrose ...

  16. Beyond Garbage Cans: An AI Model of Organizational Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuch, Michael; LaPotin, Perry

    1989-01-01

    Building on a simulation methodology, this study presents a new organizational decision-making model that complements the original garbage can model and overcomes design-related limitations by using artificial intelligence tools. Decision-making in organized structures may become as disorderly as in organized anarchies, but for different reasons.…

  17. The Garbage Crisis: Environmental Issues for Adult ESL Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Helen

    This module on the garbage crisis is for intermediate and advanced learners of English as a Second Language. It seeks to inform learners about this issue and to give them an opportunity to direct their concerns about the environment into positive action. The guide uses the problem-posing methodology of Paulo Freire. This methodology has three…

  18. Real-Time "Garbage Collection" for List Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed algorithmic techniques for list processing enable immediate identification of computer memory cells having become inactive through disconnection from active cells, together with addition of these inactive cells to pool of reusable cells. These two "garbage collection" techniques reduce memory requirements of list processors or increase their speed or both. With both techniques, processing continuity maintained, enabling real-time processing.

  19. A Garbage Can Model of the Psychological Research Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanne

    1981-01-01

    Reviews models commonly used in psychological research, and, particularly, in organizational decision making. An alternative model of organizational decision making is suggested. The model, referred to as the garbage can model, describes a process in which members of an organization collect the problems and solutions they generate by dumping them…

  20. Mobile garbage bins and hand injuries in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Rui; Woodbridge, Adam B; Smith, Belinda J; Ruff, Stephen J; Lawson, Richard D

    2013-10-07

    To conduct a database search, chart and literature review of open extensor tendon and proximal interphalangeal joint injuries incurred while handling mobile garbage bins. A review of medical records at a Sydney tertiary referral hospital and a NSW rural Level 2 trauma hospital from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010, identified through database searches of appropriate medical record codes and followed by a chart review. We identified 11 patients with finger injuries from handling mobile garbage bins that necessitated hospital-based treatments. Their average age was 75 years. Eight patients required surgery. Patients typically fell while maintaining their grip on mobile garbage bin handles, causing abrasive injury to the dorsal aspect of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Older patients are at risk of significant injuries to the dorsal side of their fingers when manoeuvring mobile garbage bins. This risk could be reduced by providing older members of the community with help to move their bins, or by modifying the design of bin handles. We propose a simple modification to the design of bin handles.

  1. 7 CFR 330.402 - Garbage generated in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... scraps. Such garbage includes, and is commonly known as, municipal solid waste. (1) Industrial process...) that may be present in municipal solid waste despite reasonable efforts to maintain source separation... Environmental Policy Act and all applicable Federal and State statutes to fully assess the impacts associated...

  2. A Distributed Garbage Collector for NeXeme

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Luc; DeRoure, David

    1997-01-01

    The remote service request, a form of remote procedure call, and the global pointer, a global naming mechanism, are two features at the heart of Nexus, a library to build distributed systems. nexeme is an extension of Scheme that fully integrates both concepts in a mostly-functional framework. This short paper describes the distributed garbage collector that we implemented in nexeme.

  3. The role of plantation sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that in the long term biofuel should play a significant role in global climate policy. Recent technological developments, as well as sustainable development criteria, would favour growing biofuel in community- scale plantations in developing countries. It is also pointed out that the lead times involved in growing biofuels are so great that the inclusion of biofuel plantation sinks in the CDM for the first commitment period would be desirable. It is suggested that to meet opposition to the inclusion of plantation sinks in the first commitment period plantation, sinks should be linked to biofuels technology development and production, and a biofuels obligation for plantation sink projects in the CDM should be established. (Author)

  4. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  5. Body Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea, Jonghan; Beauregard, Eric

    2017-02-01

    This study explores the body disposal patterns in a sample of 54 Korean homicides that occurred between 2006 and 2012. Based on information collected by the police during their investigation, factors that could influence body disposal patterns were examined, such as homicide classification, intention, whether an accomplice was present, and offender mental disorder. Bivariate analyses showed that the majority of the victims who were disposed of were acquaintances of the offenders. Moreover, several offenders were more likely to dispose of the dead body "within hours" of killing the victim. Dead bodies were usually recovered in agricultural areas, forest/wooded areas, as well as residential areas. It was also noteworthy that, in 47 cases, the offender had knowledge of the geographic area where the body was dumped. In cases of "expressive" homicide, victims were more likely to be disposed of somewhere far away (e.g., over 40 km) from the crime scene, whereas "instrumental" homicide victims appeared to be disposed of somewhere closer (e.g., within 30 km) to the crime scene. Results are discussed in light of their practical implications for homicide investigations.

  6. Garbage Collection in a Distributed Object-Oriented System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aloke; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm is described in this paper for garbage collection in distributed systems with object sharing across processor boundaries. The algorithm allows local garbage collection at each node in the system to proceed independently of local collection at the other nodes. It requires no global synchronization or knowledge of the global state of the system and exhibits the capability of graceful degradation. The concept of a specialized dump node is proposed to facilitate the collection of inaccessible circular structures. An experimental evaluation of the algorithm is also described. The algorithm is compared with a corresponding scheme that requires global synchronization. The results show that the algorithm works well in distributed processing environments even when the locality of object references is low.

  7. Ocean carbon sinks and international climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehdanz, K.; Tol, R.S.J.; Wetzel, P.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial vegetation sinks have entered the Kyoto Protocol as offsets for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but ocean sinks have escaped attention. Ocean sinks are as unexplored and uncertain as were the terrestrial sinks at the time of negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol. It is not unlikely

  8. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  9. Garbage collection can be made real-time and verifiable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, James H.; Ross, Charles L.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient means of memory reclamation (also known as Garbage Collection) is essential for Machine Intelligence applications where dynamic storage allocation is desired or required. Solutions for real-time systems must introduce very small processing overhead and must also provide for the verification of the software in order to meet the application time budgets and to verify the correctness of the software. Garbage Collection (GC) techniques are proposed for symbolic processing systems which may simultaneously meet both real-time requirements and verification requirements. The proposed memory reclamation technique takes advantage of the strong points of both the earlier Mark and Sweep technique and the more recent Copy Collection approaches. At least one practical implementation of these new GC techniques has already been developed and tested on a very-high performance symbolic computing system. Complete GC processing of all generated garbage has been demonstrated to require as little as a few milliseconds to perform. This speed enables the effective operation of the GC function as either a background task or as an actual part of the application task itself.

  10. [What garbage represents for municipal collectors and recyclers in Fortaleza, State of Ceará (Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gemmelle Oliveira; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    This study sought to elicit a discussion about the significance of garbage from the standpoint of a group of municipal garbage collectors and garbage recyclers resident in Fortaleza, State of Ceará. Using qualitative methodology and the individual interview technique, this work presents the results of ongoing research that has been conducted together with the employees involved in the collection of household garbage in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, and those working in a plant for separating recyclable materials. During the period under analysis of the "world of garbage" eight interviews were staged. After transcription and interpretation of the interviews, it became clear that the respondents perceive garbage as being prejudicial to health (due to the various diseases it causes) and also as a means of survival (as a result of non-inclusion in the labor market due to lack of study and/or opportunity).

  11. Management considerations and environmental benefit analysis for turning food garbage into agricultural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-09-01

    The management of food garbage is of great importance because of its high energy consumption, potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In Taiwan, through the competent authorities at all levels and the citizens' participation in sorting household wastes, many recycling efforts have recently been implemented to further utilize it as available resources such as swine feeds and organic fertilizer by composting. As a result, a total of approximately 570 thousand metric tons was recycled with a recycling ratio of about 21.2% on a basis of food garbage generation in 2006, rising over 22% from a year earlier. These figures showed that compulsory garbage sorting has indeed dramatically increased the recycling of food garbage. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss some management considerations in turning food garbage into agricultural resources due to the compulsory garbage sorting directive in Taiwan. The description first aims at the current status in food garbage generation and its recycling, and at the regulatory polices which have become effective since 2000. It also centers on the environmental and agricultural measures on upgrading food garbage recycling. Based on the preliminary analysis of environmental benefit by the Revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, it is obvious that composting food garbage is superior to that by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill) from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gases (i.e., CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions.

  12. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of garbage, screened swine and dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Yue-Qin; Matsui, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Methane fermentation characteristics of garbage, swine manure (SM), dairy cattle manure (DCM) and mixtures of these wastes were studied. SM and DCM showed much lower volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiencies and methane yield than those of garbage. VTS digestion efficiency of SM was significantly increased when it was co-digested with garbage (Garbage: SM=1:1). Co-digestion of garbage, SM and DCM with respect to the relative quantity of each waste discharged in the Kikuchi (1: 16: 27) and Aso (1: 19: 12) areas indicated that co-digestion with garbage would improve the digestion characteristic of SM and DCM as far as the ratio of DCM in the wastes was maintained below a certain level. When the mixed waste (Garbage: SM: DCM=1:19:12) was treated using a thermophilic UAF reactor, methanogens responsible for the methane production were Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina species. Bacterial species in the phylum Firmicutes were dominant bacteria responsible for the digestion of these wastes. As the percentage of garbage in the mixed wastes used in this study was low (2-3%) and the digestion efficiency of DCM was obviously improved, the co-digestion of SM and DCM with limited garbage was a prospective method to treat the livestock waste effectively and was an attractive alternative technology for the construction of a sustainable environment and society in stock raising area.

  13. A Phase-Adaptive Garbage Collector Using Dynamic Heap Partitioning and Opportunistic Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Yangwoo; Kim, Jaesub; Park, Kyu Ho

    Applications usually have their own phases in heap memory usage. The traditional garbage collector fails to match various application phases because the same heuristic on the object behavior is used throughout the entire execution. This paper introduces a phase-adaptive garbage collector which reorganizes the heap layout and adjusts the invocation time of the garbage collection according to the phases. The proposed collector identifies phases by detecting the application methods strongly related to the phase boundaries. The experimental results show that the proposed phase-adaptive collector successfully recognizes application phases and improves the garbage collection time by as much as 41%.

  14. The Power of a Bad Example - A Field Experiment in Household Garbage Disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); B. Vollaard (Ben)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractField-experimental studies have shown that people litter more in more littered environments. Inspired by these findings, many cities around the world have adopted policies to quickly remove litter. While such policies may avoid that people follow the bad example of litterers, they may

  15. The power of a bad example : A field experiment in household garbage disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dur, R.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Field-experimental studies have shown that people litter more in more littered environments. Inspired by these findings, many cities around the world have adopted policies to quickly remove litter. While such policies may prevent people from following the bad example of litterers, they may also

  16. How Low Can You Sink?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. How Low Can You Sink? In Search of Global Minima. Vivek S Borkar. General Article Volume 2 ... Author Affiliations. Vivek S Borkar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  17. Sink-source and sink-sink relations during reproductive development in Lolium perenne L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warringa, J.W.; Marinissen, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    In greenhouse pot trials, L. perenne cv. Barlet plants were labelled with 13C at regular intervals from main spike emergence onwards in order to identify and measure the activity of source and sink organs during seed formation. The source activity of the various tiller groups within the plant

  18. Energy from garbage; Energia a partir de la basura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The subject of energy generation from garbage is discussed. A description is made of the sanitary fill, which is a system for the conversion or stabilization of garbage encompassing gas generation and lixiviates, these are collected to be used as fuels or a treatment process is applied to them avoiding this way the soil, water and air pollution; also a description is made of the utilization of a biogas recovery well, which recovers the biogas, cleans it from particles and condensates and afterwards feeds an internal combustion motor coupled to an electric generator. It is concluded that if the biogas generated by the buried garbage in the sanitary refills is utilized, the effects that cause the polluting emissions would be diminished and at the same time an additional energy resource would be on hand [Espanol] Se analiza el caso de la generacion de energia a partir de la basura. Se describe la tecnologia de relleno sanitario, la cual es un sistema de conversion o estabilizacion de la basura en el que existe generacion de biogas y lixiviados, estos se capturan para usarlos como combustibles o se les da un proceso de tratamiento y asi se evita la contaminacion del suelo, agua y aire; tambien se describe la utilizacion de un pozo de recuperacion de biogas, el cual recupera el biogas, lo limpia de particulas y condensados y despues alimenta a un motor de combustion interna acoplado a un generador. Se concluye en que si se aprovecha el biogas generado por la basura enterrada en rellenos sanitarios se diminuiran los efectos que causan las emisiones contaminantes y al mismo tiempo se tendria un recurso energetico adicional

  19. [Urban solid residues, garbage collectors and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Mônica Maria; Moraes, Maria Silvia de

    2009-01-01

    The article approaches the issues of environmental production and the generation of urban solid residues, in particular the environment and health concept while social representation. From a bibliographical revision it argues the incorporation of the themes of health and environment in the practical field of knowledge and of interconnection with the Public Health. In this context it associates the question of the social exclusion generated by the form of production and consumption of the after-modern society, introducing the garbage collectors as a vulnerable population group.

  20. 33 CFR Appendix A to §§ 151.51... - Summary of Garbage Discharge Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE... Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Garbage Pollution and... Platforms & Assoc. Vessels 3 (33 CFR 151.73) Plastics—includes synthetic ropes and fishing nets and plastic...

  1. Strength of the reversible, garbage-free 2 k ±1 multiplier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotenberg, Eva; Cranch, James; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a reversible garbage-free 2 k ±1 constant-multiplier circuit was presented by Axelsen and Thomsen. This was the first construction of a garbage-free, reversible circuit for multiplication with non-trivial constants. At the time, the strength, that is, the range of constants obtainable...

  2. 46 CFR 148.04-19 - Tankage, garbage or rough ammoniate, solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tankage, garbage or rough ammoniate, solid. 148.04-19 Section 148.04-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES...-19 Tankage, garbage or rough ammoniate, solid. (a) The material must contain at least 7 percent...

  3. 75 FR 61121 - Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172] Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Animal and... INFORMATION: Background The importation and interstate movement of garbage is regulated by the Animal and...

  4. Lock-free parallel and concurrent garbage collection by mark&sweep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Groote, J. F.; Hesselink, W. H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a lock-free algorithm for mark&sweep garbage collection (GC) in a realistic model using synchronization primitives load-linked/store-conditional (LL/SC) or compare-and-swap (CAS) offered by machine arch i lectures. The algorithm is concurrent in the sense that garbage collection

  5. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  6. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  7. Multi-lead heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, L.D.

    1982-08-25

    The disclosure relates to a heat sink used to protect integrated circuits from the heat resulting from soldering them to circuit boards. A tubular housing contains a slidable member which engages somewhat inwardly extending connecting rods, each of which is rotatably attached at one end to the bottom of the housing. The other end of each rod is fastened to an expandable coil spring loop. As the member is pushed downward in the housing, its bottom edge engages and forces outward the connecting rods, thereby expanding the spring so that it will fit over an integrated circuit. After the device is in place, the member is slid upward and the spring contracts about the leads of the integrated circuit. Soldering is now conducted and the spring absorbs excess heat therefrom to protect the integrated circuit. The placement steps are repeated in reverse order to remove the heat sink for use again.

  8. Tropical Wetlands as Carbon Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation focuses on the tropical wetlands of sub-Saharan Africa. These are an understudied ecosystem in which large emergent grasses and sedges normally dominate and which have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon. Measurements of Net Primary Production of these wetlands show that they are some of the highest values recorded for any ecosystem. We have used eddy covariance to measure Net Ecosystem Exchange of pristine and disturbed wetlands and show that pristine systems can have sink strengths as strong as tropical forests while disturbed systems that have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes have a very much reduced carbon sink activity and may be net carbon sources. The management issues surrounding the use of these wetlands illustrate a direct conflict between the production of food crops for the local population and the maintenance of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service.

  9. Verification of Carbon Sink Assessment. Can We Exclude Natural Sinks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, G.; Yamagata, Y

    2004-01-01

    Any human-induced terrestrial sink is susceptible to the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, climate variability and other natural or indirect human-induced factors. It has been suggested in climate negotiations that the effects of these factors should be excluded from estimates of carbon sequestration used to meet the emission reduction commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. This paper focuses on the methodologies for factoring out the effects of atmospheric and climate variability/change. We estimate the relative magnitude of the non-human induced effects by using two biosphere models and discuss possibilities for narrowing estimate uncertainty

  10. Investigation of internally finned LED heat sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Xiong, Lun; Lai, Chuan; Tang, Yumei

    2018-03-01

    A novel heat sink is proposed, which is composed of a perforated cylinder and internally arranged fins. Numerical studies are performed on the natural convection heat transfer from internally finned heat sinks; experimental studies are carried out to validate the numerical results. To compare the thermal performances of internally finned heat sinks and externally finned heat sinks, the effects of the overall diameter, overall height, and installation direction on maximum temperature, air flow and heat transfer coefficient are investigated. The results demonstrate that internally finned heat sinks show better thermal performance than externally finned heat sinks; the maximum temperature of internally finned heat sinks decreases by up to 20% compared with the externally finned heat sinks. The existence of a perforated cylinder and the installation direction of the heat sink affect the thermal performance significantly; it is shown that the heat transfer coefficient of the heat sink with the perforated cylinder is improved greater than that with the imperforated cylinder by up to 34%, while reducing the mass of the heat sink by up to 13%. Project supported by the Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Provincial Education Department (No. 18ZB0516) and the Sichuan University of Arts and Science (No. 2016KZ009Y).

  11. The design and implementation of a garbage truck fleet management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of cloud computing and mobile computing techniques has led to the availability of a variety of mobile applications (‘apps’ in the app store. For instance, a garbage truck app that can provide the immediate location of a garbage truck, the location of collection points, and forecasted arrival times of garbage trucks would be useful for mobile users. Since the power consumption of apps on mobile devices if of concern to mobile users, an optimised power-saving mechanism for updating messages, which is based on location information, for a proposed garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS is proposed and implemented in this paper. The GTFMS is a three- component system that includes the on-board units on garbage trucks, a fleet management system, and a garbage truck app. In this study, an arrival time forecasting method is designed and implemented in the fleet management system, so that the garbage truck app can retrieve the forecasted arrival time via web services. A message updating event is then triggered that reports the location of garbage truck and the forecasted arrival time. In experiments conducted on case studies, the results showed that the mean accuracy of predicted arrival time by the proposed method is about 81.45 per cent. As for power consumption, the cost of traditional mobile apps is 2,880 times that of the mechanism proposed in this study. Consequently, the GTFMS can provide the precise forecasted arrival time of garbage trucks to mobile users, while consuming less power.

  12. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% in the clinic, 31.8% in the intensive care unit, 23.8% in the surgical unit and 9.3% in the infectious diseases unit. The most discarded pharmacological classes were: 22.7% antimicrobials, 14.8% electrolytes, 14.6% analgesics/pain killers, 9.5% diuretics and 6.7% antiulcer agents. The most used means for disposal were: sharps’ disposable box with a yellow bag (30.8%, sink drain (28.9%, sharps’ box with orange bag (14.3%, and infectious waste/bin with a white bag (10.1%. No disposal was identified after drug administration. CONCLUSION A discussion of measures that can contribute to reducing (healthcare waste volume with the intention of engaging reflective team performance and proper disposal is necessary.

  13. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  14. Study on the Design of Garbage Removal Products for Alpine Scenic Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenling; Zhao, Junqi; Lyu, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Due to the constraints of the alpine terrain and other objective factors, at present, the garbage collection and removal in China's alpine scenic areas are in a relatively backward situation, which makes the garbage removal more difficult, thus leading to the high risk and difficulty for the sanitation workers to operate. By using the unique ropeway facilities in alpine scenic areas, the article makes a tentative plan for the improvement of the garbage removal facilities in alpine scenic areas, and gives the design verification based on the relevant knowledge of mechanical principle and Theory of mechanics.

  15. Garbage Pollution Has a Solution: The Sanitary Landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Ruth

    The principle ways in which communities solve the growing problems of solid waste disposal are studied in this set of audio-visual materials prepared for grades 6-12. A 58-frame colored filmstrip, cassette tape narration, and teacher's guide focus upon the Monterey Bay area of California. Topics examined range from types of disposal sites, the…

  16. Sink-to-Sink Coordination Framework Using RPL: Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meer M. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RPL (Routing Protocol for low power and Lossy networks is recommended by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF for IPv6-based LLNs (Low Power and Lossy Networks. RPL uses a proactive routing approach and each node always maintains an active path to the sink node. Sink-to-sink coordination defines syntax and semantics for the exchange of any network defined parameters among sink nodes like network size, traffic load, mobility of a sink, and so forth. The coordination allows sink to learn about the network condition of neighboring sinks. As a result, sinks can make coordinated decision to increase/decrease their network size for optimizing over all network performance in terms of load sharing, increasing network lifetime, and lowering end-to-end latency of communication. Currently, RPL does not provide any coordination framework that can define message exchange between different sink nodes for enhancing the network performance. In this paper, a sink-to-sink coordination framework is proposed which utilizes the periodic route maintenance messages issued by RPL to exchange network status observed at a sink with its neighboring sinks. The proposed framework distributes network load among sink nodes for achieving higher throughputs and longer network’s life time.

  17. Socio-economy and Related Factors Influencing Condition and Capacity of Human Excreta Disposal and Sewer Systems: a Case Study in Coastal City of Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Kandou, Grace Debbie; Lasut, Markus T

    2010-01-01

    Untreated wastewater containing human excreta from households as well as from other wastewater-generating sources such as restaurants, hotels, hospitals, garbage disposal, and markets, is discharged directly into Manado Bay through ditches, sewers, canals, and rivers. This situation isexacerbated by inadequate capacity of human excreta disposal treatment and improper sewage system. To assess factors influencing condition and capacities of this system that may degrade human health and the envi...

  18. Assessment of impact on health of children working in the garbage dumping site in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiry, Gargy; Rahman, Tania; Hasan, A K M Mahbub; Dutta, Alak K; Arif, Md; Howlader, Zakir H

    2011-12-01

    Waste dumping is one of the major causes of environment pollution in Bangladesh. This study was designed to assess the impact on health of children working in one of the garbage dumping sites in Dhaka. Blood samples were collected from exposed (n = 20, aged: 8-15 years, exposed to dumped garbage from 6 months to 6 years) and control subjects (n = 15, age matched and never worked in the garbage dumping site). Oxidative stress markers like lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content were measured. Alkaline comet assay was performed to assess the possible damage in DNA. To check the consequences of possible toxic exposure, we performed liver function tests of the study subjects. Oxidative stress-mediated damage of macromolecules was found to be significantly increased in the exposed children. Liver function tests were found normal. Thus, the children working in garbage dumping site are in severe health risk.

  19. Forced air heat sink apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A high efficiency forced air heat sink assembly employs a split feed transverse flow configuration to minimize the length of the air flow path through at least two separated fin structures. Different embodiments use different fin structure material configurations including honeycomb, corrugated and serpentine. Each such embodiment uses a thermally conductive plate having opposed exterior surfaces; one for receiving a component to be cooled and one for receiving the fin structures. The serpentine structured fin embodiment employs a plurality of fin supports extending from the plate and forming a plurality of channels for receiving the fin structures. A high thermal conductivity bondant, such as metal-filled epoxy, may be used to bond the fin structures to either the plate or the fin supports. Dip brazing and soldering may also be employed depending upon the materials selected.

  20. Fracture as a material sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokh, K. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Cracks are created by massive breakage of molecular or atomic bonds. The latter, in its turn, leads to the highly localized loss of material, which is the reason why even closed cracks are visible by a naked eye. Thus, fracture can be interpreted as the local material sink. Mass conservation is violated locally in the area of material failure. We consider a theoretical formulation of the coupled mass and momenta balance equations for a description of fracture. Our focus is on brittle fracture and we propose a finite strain hyperelastic thermodynamic framework for the coupled mass-flow-elastic boundary value problem. The attractiveness of the proposed framework as compared to the traditional continuum damage theories is that no internal parameters (like damage variables, phase fields, etc.) are used while the regularization of the failure localization is provided by the physically sound law of mass balance.

  1. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  3. GC^2: A Generational Conservative Garbage Collector for the ATerm Library

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau , Pierre-Etienne; Zendra , Olivier

    2002-01-01

    The ATerm library is a well-designed and well-known library in the term rewriting community. In this paper, we discuss the current garbage collector provided with the library and stress the fact that some peculiarities of this functional library could be taken advantage of by the memory management system. We explain how we designed and implemented GC², a new mark-and-sweep generational garbage collector for the ATerm library that builds upon these peculiarities. Experimental results on variou...

  4. BIO-PEDO-GEOGRAPHYCAL REGARDS ON GARBAGE DUMPS FROM TOMEŞTI - IAŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Secu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The garbage dump from Tomeşti (Iaşi represents a water and soil pollution source, as well as a peril for the population’s health. The study has pursued the analysis of some indicators of water quality (which have evidenced exceeds of the currently admitted values, the identification of the plant species from the garbage dump perimeter (table 1 and the presentation of the general geographical landscape.

  5. Ethanol Production from Kitchen Garbage Using Zymomonas mobilis: Optimization of Parameters through Statistical Experimental Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, H.; Wang, Q.; Gong, L.; Wang, X.; Yin, W.

    2008-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was employed to screen 8 parameters for ethanol production from kitchen garbage by Zymomonas mobilis in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The parameters were divided into two parts, four kinds of enzymes and supplementation nutrients. The result indicated that the nutrient inside kitchen garbage could meet the requirement of ethanol production without supplementation, only protease and glucoamylase were needed to accelerate the ethanol production. The opti...

  6. Method of disposing of shut-down nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiser, H.

    1984-01-01

    A shut-down atomic power plant or a section thereof, particularly the nuclear reactor, is disposed of by sinking it to below ground level by constructing a caisson with cutting edges from the foundations of said plant or section or by excavating a pit therebelow

  7. Effects of anaerobic/aerobic incubation and storage temperature on preservation and deodorization of kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qunhui; Narita, Jun-ya; Xie, Weimin; Ohsumi, Yukihide; Kusano, Kohji; Shirai, Yoshihito; Ogawa, Hiroaki I

    2002-09-01

    To develop a garbage recycling system for the purpose of the production of lactic acid (LA) to use as raw material for producing biodegradable plastics, the preservation and deodorization of garbage during storage are very important. Anaerobic incubation (i.e., storage) was prove to be more suitable than aerobic incubation during the garbage storage in terms of concentration of LA and soluble sugar, pH value, viable bacteria counts and offensive odour substances. This difference is due to a fact that the growth of putrefactive bacteria such as coliforms and Clostridium spp. appeared to be inhibited by anaerobic fermentation during the storage, because the fermentation caused a drop of garbage pH and generated inhibitory substances, i.e., bacteriocins. Under anaerobic condition, LA concentration in the stored garbage was found to be higher in the order: 37 > 25 > 50 > 5 degrees C, and the concentration of sugar accumulated during the 50 degrees C-storage was the highest. Among the conditions employed, the optimum condition for the storage of kitchen garbage was anaerobic at 5 degrees C.

  8. Economic optimization of heat sink design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzer, T.M.; Lau, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and derivation of an optimum heat sink design for maximizing the thermoelectric cooling performance of a laboratory liquid chiller. The methods employed consisted of certain key changes in the design of the heat sink in order to improve its thermal performance. Parametric studies were performed in order to determine the optimized cooling system design per dollar

  9. Thermoelectric heat sink modeling and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, R.J.; Nagy, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Proper design and optimization of a thermoelectric heat sinks has been neglected somewhat in the design of the thermoelectric cooling systems. TE Technology, Inc. has developed a model over a period of 30 hears. The use and application of this model through optimizing heat sink performance is presented

  10. Forest carbon sinks in the northern hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodale, C.L.; Apps, M.J.; Birdsey, R.A.; Field, C.B.; Heath, L.S.; Houghton, R.A.; Jenkins, J.C.; Kohlmaier, G.H.; Kurz, W.; Liu, S.R.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Nilsson, S.; Shvidenko, A.Z.

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measuretment-based constraints on the magnitude

  11. INVESTIGATING ENVIRONMENTAL SINKS OF MACROLIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possible environmental sinks (wastewater effluents, biosolids, sediments) of macrolide antibiotics (i.e., azithromycin, roxithromycin and clarithromycin)are investigated using state-of-the-art analytical chemistry techniques. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews

  12. Litter survey detects the South Atlantic 'garbage patch'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G

    2014-02-15

    A distance-based technique was used to assess the distribution and abundance of floating marine debris (>1cm) in the southeast Atlantic Ocean between Cape Town and Tristan da Cunha, crossing the southern edge of the South Atlantic 'garbage patch' predicted by surface drift models. Most litter was made of plastic (97%). Detection distances were influenced by the size and buoyancy of litter items. Litter density decreased from coastal waters off Cape Town (>100 items km(-2)) to oceanic waters (<10 items km(-2)), and was consistently higher (6.2 ± 1.3 items km(-2)) from 3 to 8°E than in adjacent oceanic waters (2.7 ± 0.3 items km(-2)) or in the central South Atlantic around Tristan (1.0 ± 0.4 items km(-2)). The area with high litter density had few seaweeds, suggesting that most litter had been drifting for a long time. The results indicate that floating debris is accumulating in the South Atlantic gyre as far south as 34-35°S. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exosomes: From Garbage Bins to Promising Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Rashed, Mohammed; Bayraktar, Emine; K Helal, Gouda; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F; Amero, Paola; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian

    2017-03-02

    Intercellular communication via cell-released vesicles is a very important process for both normal and tumor cells. Cell communication may involve exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by all types of cells and are found in abundance in body fluids, including blood, saliva, urine, and breast milk. Exosomes have been shown to carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. They are more than simply molecular garbage bins, however, in that the molecules they carry can be taken up by other cells. Thus, exosomes transfer biological information to neighboring cells and through this cell-to-cell communication are involved not only in physiological functions such as cell-to-cell communication, but also in the pathogenesis of some diseases, including tumors and neurodegenerative conditions. Our increasing understanding of why cells release exosomes and their role in intercellular communication has revealed the very complex and sophisticated contribution of exosomes to health and disease. The aim of this review is to reveal the emerging roles of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions and describe the controversial biological role of exosomes, as it is now understood, in carcinogenesis. We also summarize what is known about exosome biogenesis, composition, functions, and pathways and discuss the potential clinical applications of exosomes, especially as biomarkers and novel therapeutic agents.

  14. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassing the history of two different yet complementary symbols of New York up to 2001 (the WTC and Fresh Kills. From Don DeLillo’s Underworld (1997 and Falling Man (2007 through Holman, Steve Zeitlin e Joe Dobkin’s Crisis (2001-2002; from Art Spiegelman’s In the Shadows of No Tower (2004 to Artists Respond’s 9-11 (2002; from the New York Times to Bearing Witness to History, the 2003-2006 retrospective of the Smithsonian Museum, relevant collective or individual responses to the 2001 attacks took the form of a catalogue, a list, a vertical or horizontal juxtaposition of data, objects, and memories, evoking a suggestive parallel to the organizing principle of past relics collected in museums and garbage stratified in sanitary landfills.

  15. A Semi-Preemptive Garbage Collector for Solid State Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghee [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Kim, Jongman [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    NAND flash memory is a preferred storage media for various platforms ranging from embedded systems to enterprise-scale systems. Flash devices do not have any mechanical moving parts and provide low-latency access. They also require less power compared to rotating media. Unlike hard disks, flash devices use out-of-update operations and they require a garbage collection (GC) process to reclaim invalid pages to create free blocks. This GC process is a major cause of performance degradation when running concurrently with other I/O operations as internal bandwidth is consumed to reclaim these invalid pages. The invocation of the GC process is generally governed by a low watermark on free blocks and other internal device metrics that different workloads meet at different intervals. This results in I/O performance that is highly dependent on workload characteristics. In this paper, we examine the GC process and propose a semi-preemptive GC scheme that can preempt on-going GC processing and service pending I/O requests in the queue. Moreover, we further enhance flash performance by pipelining internal GC operations and merge them with pending I/O requests whenever possible. Our experimental evaluation of this semi-preemptive GC sheme with realistic workloads demonstrate both improved performance and reduced performance variability. Write-dominant workloads show up to a 66.56% improvement in average response time with a 83.30% reduced variance in response time compared to the non-preemptive GC scheme.

  16. Ocean carbon sinks and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S.J.; Wetzel, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial vegetation sinks have entered the Kyoto Protocol as offsets for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but ocean sinks have escaped attention. Ocean sinks are as unexplored and uncertain as were the terrestrial sinks at the time of negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol. It is not unlikely that certain countries will advocate the inclusion of ocean carbon sinks to reduce their emission reduction obligations in post-2012 negotiations. We use a simple model of the international market for carbon dioxide emissions to evaluate who would gain or loose from allowing for ocean carbon sinks. Our analysis is restricted to information on anthropogenic carbon sequestration within the exclusive economic zone of a country. We use information on the actual carbon flux and derive the human-induced uptake for the period from 1990 onwards. Like the carbon sequestration of business as usual forest management activities, natural ocean carbon sequestration applies at zero costs. The total amount of anthropogenic ocean carbon sequestration is large, also in the exclusive economic zones. As a consequence, it substantially alters the costs of emission reduction for most countries. Countries such as Australia, Denmark, France, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway and Portugal would gain substantially, and a large number of countries would benefit too. Current net exporters of carbon permits, particularly Russia, would gain less and oppose the inclusion of ocean carbon sinks

  17. The Sinking Sequence of MV Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kehren, Felix-Ingo

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reconstructs the sinking of the RoPax Ferry MV Estonia on September 28th 1994, with a strong focus on describing the chain of events that caused the eventual sinking, and how the ship sank. Once the sinking is understood, this thesis explores possible safety improvements that should be implemented in the design of new vessels of this type. The investigation is based on a combination of testimonies of survivors as well as numerical calculations based on the framework of the testimo...

  18. [Impact of hydrothermal process on the dewaterability and degrease performance of restaurant garbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lian-hail; Nie, Yong-feng; Liu, Jian-guo; Jin, Yi-ying

    2006-09-01

    In order to ameliorate the dewaterability and degrease performance of restaurant garbage, and to improve the treatment effect, a complete trail series with 2 factors on 5 levels was implemented. The 2 factors were temperature and retention time respectively as the main influencing factors of hydrothermal process. By means of analyzing the variation of the resistance, dewatering rate and floatable oil content of the treated restaurant garbage, and constructing the solid grease extracting kinetics, the mechanism of impact of hydrothermal process on the dewaterability and degrease performance of restaurant garbage was studied. It showed that the dewaterability of the product decreases at the beginning, after heating for 40min, it begins to increase. Moreover, it increases more quickly as temperature increases. The optimal dewaterability of the treated garbage appears at 180 degrees C and heating for 100 minutes. As temperature rises and heating time increases, the degrease performance is improved. Furthermore, this trend becomes more remarkably as temperature increases. When the temperature and retention time reach 160 degrees C and 80 minutes respectively, most of the solid grease in the garbage is extracted out to become floatable oil which can be separated and recovered readily. Subsequently, the amount of floatable oil begins to decrease since chemical reactions such as the partial hydrolysis of the oil take place. Additionally, the extraction of solid grease from interior accords with first-order reaction dynamic model.

  19. Does garbage in the diet improve reproductive output of Glaucous Gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, E.L.; Powell, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic subsidies are used by a variety of predators in areas developed for human use or residence. If subsidies promote population growth, these predators can have a negative effect on local prey species. The Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) is an abundant predator in northern Alaska that is believed to benefit from garbage as a supplemental food source, but this supposition has never been tested. In summer 2008 and 2009, we recorded the Glaucous Gull's diet and reproduction at 10 breeding colonies in northern Alaska. Colonies were in industrial, residential, and undeveloped areas and ranged from 5 to 75 km from the nearest landfill. By colony, garbage occurred in zero to 85% of pellets and food remains produced during the chick-rearing period, and the average number of chicks fledged per pair ranged from zero to 2.9. Random-forest analysis indicated that percent occurrence of garbage in the diet was the second most important factor (after number of eggs per pair) explaining variance in fledging rate. There was a significant positive correlation between percent occurrence of garbage in the diet and fledging rate in each year. If this correlation reflects a causal relationship, it suggests that human development that increases gulls' access to garbage could result in increased local gull populations. Such an increase could affect the gulls' natural prey species, including at least 14 species of shorebirds and waterfowl of conservation concern. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  20. Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmers, H; Huber, H; Baur, X

    2000-04-01

    Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological garbage complained of dyspnea, fever, and flu-like symptoms during work beginning in the summer of 1992. Chest x-ray showed streaky shadows near both hili reaching into the upper regions. IgE- and IgG-antibodies (CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden) were strongly positive for Aspergillus fumigatus with 90.5 kU/L and 186%, respectively. Total-IgE was also strongly elevated with 5430 kU/L. Bronchial challenge testing with commercially available Aspergillus fumigatus extract resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. Two years later he was still symptomatic and antibodies persisted at lower levels. Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  2. A Possible Sink for Methane on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nørnberg, P.; Jensen, S. J. K.; Skibsted, J.; Jakobsen, H. J.; ten Kate, I. L.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Merrison, J. P.; Finster, K.; Bak, E.; Iversen, J. J.; Kondrup, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical simulated wind activation of mineral surfaces act as a trap for Methane through formation of covalent Si-C bonds stable up to temperatures above 250 C. This mechanism is proposed as a Methane sink on Mars.

  3. Factors influencing the degradation of garbage in methanogenic bioreactors and impacts on biogas formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Masahiko; Sasaki, Kengo

    2012-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of garbage is attracting much attention because of its application in waste volume reduction and the recovery of biogas for use as an energy source. In this review, various factors influencing the degradation of garbage and the production of biogas are discussed. The surface hydrophobicity and porosity of supporting materials are important factors in retaining microorganisms such as aceticlastic methanogens and in attaining a higher degradation of garbage and a higher production of biogas. Ammonia concentration, changes in environmental parameters such as temperature and pH, and adaptation of microbial community to ammonia have been related to ammonia inhibition. The effects of drawing electrons from the methanogenic community and donating electrons into the methanogenic community on methane production have been shown in microbial fuel cells and bioelectrochemical reactors. The influences of trace elements, phase separation, and co-digestion are also summarized in this review.

  4. Monitoring of garbage with a 5x5NaI (Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.; Angeles C, A.

    1991-12-01

    So far in that is carried out the first reload of nuclear fuel in the LVC, the monitoring of garbage has been carried out using monitors trade mark Eberline model RM 14. The procedure consists in manually monitoring each object and to separate of the considered 'clean' garbage the objects considered as contaminated, which register greater or equal counts to 100 cpm. This way to process was adequate under normal operation conditions, but not in the operation rhythm that implies a bigger maintenance since the time required for monitoring from 5 to 10 kg. of garbage is of the order of 0.5 hours and the production rhythm of this it ends up being a lot but high. Due to this necessity it was thought about the problem of looking by a more efficient monitoring method. In this work a method that uses a detector of NaI (Tl) of 5 x 5 inches is discussed. (Author)

  5. Collectors of survival: the “living material” in the scene of garbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio de Souza Moraes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to discuss the identity of the garbage collector in the present time, and analyze what led this person to engage in such activity. Thus, we carried out an essentially qualitative methodology (based on field observations and interviews with 10 collectors that could provide the knowledge concerning their life story and garbage collection. Results indicate that these workers are mostly men, with low level of education, age group between 40 and 81 years, with former devaluated and depreciated occupations and no informal economic activities. In this in case, one cannot ignore the inherent factors to the activity: low wages, precarious working conditions, and factors generated from it (health problems, competition, solidarity, prejudice, discrimination that mark the itineraries that these actors of the garbage collection explore.

  6. A study of lock-free based concurrent garbage collectors for multicore platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ji, Zhen-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent garbage collectors (CGC) have recently obtained extensive concern on multicore platform. Excellent designed CGC can improve the efficiency of runtime systems by exploring the full potential processing resources of multicore computers. Two major performance critical components for designing CGC are studied in this paper, stack scanning and heap compaction. Since the lock-based algorithms do not scale well, we present a lock-free solution for constructing a highly concurrent garbage collector. We adopt CAS/MCAS synchronization primitives to guarantee that the programs will never be blocked by the collector thread while the garbage collection process is ongoing. The evaluation results of this study demonstrate that our approach achieves competitive performance.

  7. A Study of Lock-Free Based Concurrent Garbage Collectors for Multicore Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent garbage collectors (CGC have recently obtained extensive concern on multicore platform. Excellent designed CGC can improve the efficiency of runtime systems by exploring the full potential processing resources of multicore computers. Two major performance critical components for designing CGC are studied in this paper, stack scanning and heap compaction. Since the lock-based algorithms do not scale well, we present a lock-free solution for constructing a highly concurrent garbage collector. We adopt CAS/MCAS synchronization primitives to guarantee that the programs will never be blocked by the collector thread while the garbage collection process is ongoing. The evaluation results of this study demonstrate that our approach achieves competitive performance.

  8. The Lid on the Garbage Can: Institutional Constraints on Decision Making in the Technical Core of College-Text Publishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Barbara; Nass, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Integrates the garbage can model of organizational choice with institutional theory. Explains how various environmental aspects yield different consequences for the decision and access structures of college textbook publishers than might be expected from the garbage can decision world they inhabit. Includes 42 references. (MLH)

  9. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  10. Type-assisted automatic garbage collection for lock-free data structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Albert Mingkun; Wrigstad, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    We introduce Isolde, an automatic garbage collection scheme designed specifically for managing memory in lock-free data structures, such as stacks, lists, maps and queues. Isolde exists as a plug-in memory manager, designed to sit on-top of another memory manager, and use it's allocator and reclaimer (if exists). Isolde treats a lock-free data structure as a logical heap, isolated from the rest of the program. This allows garbage collection outside of Isolde to take place without affecting th...

  11. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  12. Sink Potential of Canadian Agricultural Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Junkins, B.; Desjardins, R.; Lindwall, W.; Kulshreshtha, S.

    2004-01-01

    Net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Canadian crop and livestock production were estimated for 1990, 1996 and 2001 and projected to 2008. Net emissions were also estimated for three scenarios (low (L), medium (M) and high (H)) of adoption of sink enhancing practices above the projected 2008 level. Carbon sequestration estimates were based on four sink-enhancing activities: conversion from conventional to zero tillage (ZT), reduced frequency of summerfallow (SF), the conversion of cropland to permanent cover crops (PC), and improved grazing land management (GM). GHG emissions were estimated with the Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture (CEEMA). CEEMA estimates levels of production activities within the Canadian agriculture sector and calculates the emissions and removals associated with those levels of activities. The estimates indicate a decline in net emissions from 54 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 in 1990 to 52 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 in 2008. Adoption of the sink-enhancing practices above the level projected for 2008 resulted in further declines in emissions to 48 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 (L), 42 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 (M) or 36 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 (H). Among the sink-enhancing practices, the conversion from conventional tillage to ZT provided the largest C sequestration potential and net reduction in GHG emissions among the scenarios. Although rates of C sequestration were generally higher for conversion of cropland to PC and adoption of improved GM, those scenarios involved smaller areas of land and therefore less C sequestration. Also, increased areas of PC were associated with an increase in livestock numbers and CH4 and N2O emissions from enteric fermentation and manure, which partially offset the carbon sink. The CEEMA estimates indicate that soil C sinks are a viable option for achieving the UNFCCC objective of protecting and enhancing GHG sinks and reservoirs as a means of reducing GHG emissions (UNFCCC, 1992)

  13. Carbon sink activity of managed grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Katja; Chabbi, Abad; Gastal, Francois; Senapati, Nimai; Charrier, Xavier; Darsonville, Olivier; Creme, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    In agriculture, a large proportion of GHG emission saving potential may be achieved by means of soil C sequestration. Recent demonstrations of carbon sink activities however, often questioned the existence of C storing grasslands, as uncertainty surrounding estimates are often larger than the sink itself. Besides climate, key components of the carbon sink activity in grasslands are type and intensity of management practices. Here, we analysed long term data on C flux and soil organic carbon stocks for two long term (>13yrs) national observation sites in France (SOERE-ACBB). These sites comprise a number of grassland fields and managements options (i.e. permanent, sowing, grazing, mowing, and fertilization) offering an opportunity to study carbon offsets (i.e. compensation of CH4 and N2O emissions), climatic-management interactions and trade-offs concerning ecosystem services (e.g. production). Furthermore, for some grassland fields, the carbon sink activity was compared using two methods; repeated soil inventory and estimation of the ecosystem C budget by continuous measurement of CO2 exchange (i.e. eddy covariance) in combination with quantification of other C imports and exports, necessary to estimate net C storage. In general grasslands, were a potential sink of C (i.e. net ecosystem exchange, NEE), where grazed sites had lower NEE compared the cut site. However, when it comes to net C storage (NCS), mowing reduced markedly potential sink leading to very low NCS compared to grazed sites. Including non-CO2 fluxes (CH4 and N2O emission) in the budget, revealed that GHG emissions were offset by C sink activity.

  14. GARBAGE: A Card Game That Simulates the Trade-Off between Competition and Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    1991-01-01

    Describes a simulation card game involved with the dumping of hazardous wastes that was designed to explore the trade-off between industrial competition and social concern. Steps of play are described for the game, which is called GARBAGE, and debriefing techniques are suggested, including an affective phase and a cognitive phase. (LRW)

  15. Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeyer, O; Bünger, J; van Kampen, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Drath, C; Merget, R; Brüning, Th; Broding, H C

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to molds and bacteria (especially actinomycetes) at workplaces are common in garbage workers, but allergic respiratory diseases due to these microorganisms have been described rarely. The aim of our study was a detailed analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. From 2002 to 2011 four cases of occupational respiratory diseases related to garbage handling were identified in our institute (IPA). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in three subjects (cases 1-3, one smoker, two non-smokers), occupational asthma (OA) was diagnosed in one subject (case 4, smoker), but could not be excluded completely in case 2. Cases 1 and 2 worked in composting sites, while cases 3 and 4 worked in packaging recycling plants. Exposure periods were 2-4 years. Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Specific IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were detected exclusively in case 4. Diagnoses of HP were essentially based on symptoms and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. OA was confirmed by bronchial provocation test with Aspergillus fumigatus in case 4. In conclusion, occupational HP and OA due to molds occur rarely in garbage workers. Technical prevention measures are insufficient and the diagnosis of HP is often inconclusive. Therefore, it is recommended to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools including bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination.

  16. Heavy physical work under time pressure: the garbage collection service--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camada, Ilza Mitsuko de Oliveira; Pataro, Silvana Maria Santos; Fernandes, Rita de Cássia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The increased generation of garbage has become a problem in large cities, with greater demand for collection services. The collector is subjected to high workload. This study describes the work in garbage collection service, highlighting the requirements of time, resulting in physical and psychosocial demands to collectors. Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA) - a method focused on the study of work in real situations was used. Initially, technical visits, global observations and unstructured interviews with different subjects of a garbage collection company were conducted. The following step of the systematic observations was accompanied by interviews conducted during the execution of tasks, inquiring about the actions taken, and also interviews about the actions, but conducted after the development of the tasks, photographic records and audiovisual recordings, of workers from two garbage collection teams. Contradictions between the prescribed work and activities (actual work) were identified, as well as the variability present in this process, and strategies adopted by these workers to regulate the workload. It was concluded that the insufficiency of means and the organizational structure of management ensue a situation where the collection process is maintained at the expense of hyper-requesting these workers, both physically and psychosocially.

  17. Evaluation of two-phase thermophilic anaerobic methane fermentation for the treatment of garbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hong, F. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Engineering]|[Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan). CREST; Tsuno, H.; Hidaka, T.; Cheon, J.H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering]|[Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan). CREST

    2004-07-01

    Municipal solid wastes (MSW) in Japan are generally incinerated. However, in recent years, garbage has been recognized as a renewable energy source. This has resulted in an increase in the use of biological processes, such as anaerobic digestion, to treat organic waste such as sewage sludge and garbage. The two phases of anaerobic digestion are the acidogenic phase and the methane producing phase. Both differ significantly in their nutritional and physiological requirements. This study evaluated the effectiveness of treating garbage with the two-phase thermophilic methane fermentation system (TPS). The performance of the acid fermentation phase in TPS was examined with particular reference to operational parameters such as pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate on volatile fatty acid fermentation. It was shown that TPS was more efficient than the single-phase thermophilic methane fermentation system (SPS). Acidification control in the first stage resulted in better stability of methane fermentation in the second stage. VFA formation was optimized at a pH of 6. The recovery ratios of VFAs and methane were achieved in the range of 42 to 44 per cent and 88 to 91 per cent of garbage by high organic loading rate respectively. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Topology Optimization of Thermal Heat Sinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaas Haertel, Jan Hendrik; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, topology optimization is applied to optimize the cooling performance of thermal heat sinks. The coupled two-dimensional thermofluid model of a heat sink cooled with forced convection and a density-based topology optimization including density filtering and projection are implemented...... in COMSOL Multiphysics. The optimization objective is to minimize the heat sink’s temperature for a prescribed pressure drop and fixed heat generation. To conduct the optimization, COMSOL’s Optimization Module with GCMMA as the optimization method is used. The implementation of this topology optimization...

  19. Production of fuel ethanol and methane from garbage by high-efficiency two-stage fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Yoji; An, Ming-Zhe; Tang, Yue-Qin; Syo, Tomohiro; Osaka, Noriko; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2009-12-01

    A two-stage fermentation process, consisting of a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) stage and a dry methane fermentation stage, was developed to utilize garbage for the production of fuel ethanol and methane. Garbage from families, canteens and concessionaires was used for the study. Saccharification method was studied and the results indicated that the liquefaction pretreatment and the combination of cellulase and glucoamylase was effective for polysaccharide hydrolysis of family garbage with a high content of holocellulose and that SSF was suitable for ethanol fermentation of garbage. Ethanol productivity could be markedly increased from 1.7 to 7.0 g/l/h by repeated-batch SSF of family garbage. A high ethanol productivity of 17.7 g/l/h was achieved when canteen garbage was used. The stillage after distillation was treated by dry methane fermentation and the results indicated that the stillage was almost fully digested and that about 850 ml of biogas was recovered from 1 g of volatile total solid (VTS). Approximately 85% of the energy of the garbage was converted to fuels, ethanol and methane by this process.

  20. Application of a Modified Garbage Code Algorithm to Estimate Cause-Specific Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye Rin; Kim, Young Ae; Park, So Youn; Oh, Chang Mo; Kim, Young Eun; Oh, In Hwan

    2016-11-01

    Years of life lost (YLLs) are estimated based on mortality and cause of death (CoD); therefore, it is necessary to accurately calculate CoD to estimate the burden of disease. The garbage code algorithm was developed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to redistribute inaccurate CoD and enhance the validity of CoD estimation. This study aimed to estimate cause-specific mortality rates and YLLs in Korea by applying a modified garbage code algorithm. CoD data for 2010-2012 were used to calculate the number of deaths. The garbage code algorithm was then applied to calculate target cause (i.e., valid CoD) and adjusted CoD using the garbage code redistribution. The results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for approximately 25% of all CoD during 2010-2012. In 2012, lung cancer contributed the most to cause-specific death according to the Statistics Korea. However, when CoD was adjusted using the garbage code redistribution, ischemic heart disease was the most common CoD. Furthermore, before garbage code redistribution, self-harm contributed the most YLLs followed by lung cancer and liver cancer; however, after application of the garbage code redistribution, though self-harm was the most common leading cause of YLL, it is followed by ischemic heart disease and lung cancer. Our results showed that garbage code deaths accounted for a substantial amount of mortality and YLLs. The results may enhance our knowledge of burden of disease and help prioritize intervention settings by changing the relative importance of burden of disease.

  1. LIXO E IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS PERCEPTÍVEIS NO ECOSSISTEMA URBANO / Garbage and perceptible environmental impacts in urban ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mucelin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has as thematic the garbage and considerations about certain perceptible environmentalimpacts that the solid residues enlarge in fragments of the urban environment. We approached negativeenvironmental impacts caused by the use forms, customs and perceptible cultural habits in cities ofBrazil. We register that the garbage impacts negatively certain urban environments, as street marginsand river-beds, provoked by the existence of habits of inadequate final arrangement of residues. Weshow part of environmental perception of social actors in Medianeira city – West of Paraná – Brazil –concerning garbage.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  3. Regulation of assimilate import into sink organs: Update on molecular drivers of sink strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia eBihmidine

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments have altered our view of molecular mechanisms that determine sink strength, defined here as the capacity of non-photosynthetic structures to compete for import of photoassimilates. We review new findings from diverse systems, including stems, seeds, flowers, and fruits. An important advance has been the identification of new transporters and facilitators with major roles in the accumulation and equilibration of sugars at a cellular level. Exactly where each exerts its effect varies among systems. Sugarcane and sweet sorghum stems, for example, both accumulate high levels of sucrose, but may do so via different paths. The distinction is central to strategies for targeted manipulation of sink strength using transporter genes, and shows the importance of system-specific analyses. Another major advance has been the identification of deep hypoxia as a feature of normal grain development. This means that molecular drivers of sink strength in endosperm operate in very low oxygen levels, and under metabolic conditions quite different than previously assumed. Successful enhancement of sink strength has nonetheless been achieved in grains by up-regulating genes for starch biosynthesis. Additionally, our understanding of sink strength is enhanced by awareness of the dual roles played by invertases (INV, not only in sucrose metabolism, but also in production of the hexose sugar signals that regulate cell-cycle and cell-division programs. These contributions of INV to cell expansion and division prove to be vital for establishment of young sinks ranging from flowers to fruit. Since INV genes are themselves sugar-responsive feast genes, they can mediate a feed-forward enhancement of sink strength when assimilates are abundant. Greater overall productivity and yield have thus been attained in key instances, indicating that even broader enhancements may be achievable as we discover the detailed molecular mechanisms that drive sink strength

  4. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  5. 77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... merchandise as ``drawn stainless steel sinks with single or multiple drawn bowls, with or without drain boards... finishing the vertical corners to form the bowls. Stainless steel sinks with fabricated bowls may sometimes...

  6. Experiment in operation of a trash and garbage processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkina, E.N.; Matveev, I.K.; Obroskova, T.F.; Shcherbo, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment in the operation of the Leningrad pilot plant for mechanized processing of household wastes (put into service in 1970) is analyzed, the technology of which was assured by a scheme for the composting of solid household wastes in horizontally rotating drums, accepted as the basic technological equipment in designing analogous plants in the country. It is noted that this plant is a highly effective enterprise for rendering the mentioned wastes harmless in the sanitation system of the city. The final plant product at the present time is turned out with high sanitary conditions and according to the bacteriological index corresponds to the requirement of the technical specification for compost-biological fuel. More than 90% of the sample appearing after a 2-hour biofermentation of the compost has a coliform bacteria titer of 0.01 and higher. The experiment in the operation of the plant can be used in organizing the industrial disposal of solid household wastes in other cities of the country.

  7. Why do bubbles in Guinness sink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benilov, E. S.; Cummins, C. P.; Lee, W. T.

    2013-02-01

    Stout beers show the counter-intuitive phenomena of sinking bubbles, while the beer is settling. Previous research suggests that this phenomenon is due to the small size of the bubbles in these beers and the presence of a circulatory current, directed downwards near the side of the wall and upwards in the interior of the glass. The mechanism by which such a circulation is established and the conditions under which it will occur has not been clarified. In this paper, we use simulations and experiments to demonstrate that the flow in a glass of stout beer depends on the shape of the glass. If it narrows downwards (as the traditional stout glass, the pint, does), the flow is directed downwards near the wall and upwards in the interior and sinking bubbles will be observed. If the container widens downwards, the flow is opposite to that described above and only rising bubbles will be seen.

  8. Source and sink nodes in absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Abner C; Machado, Birajara S; Caboclo, Luis Otavio S F; Fujita, Andre; Baccala, Luiz A; Sameshima, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC). By segmenting the EEG signals into relatively short 5-sec-long time windows we studied the evolution of coupling strengths from both sink and source nodes, and the network dynamics of absence seizures in eight patients.

  9. Mine shaft sinking in recent decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    Between 1976 and 1985, 172 new shafts with a total depth of 74,166 m have been sunk in Chinese coal mines. Of the 172 new shafts, 89 were sunk by a conventional method while 83 were sunk by special shaft sinking methods. The shaft excavation technology and equipment in China is near to or has reached world advanced level. There are wide application of mechanisation and improvement in the various shaft excavation techniques. 3 tabs.

  10. What is waste? To whom?--An anthropological perspective on garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackner, Mikael

    2005-06-01

    What is waste? To whom?--An anthropological perspective on garbage explores the fact that what constitutes waste is a highly subjective notion. In Tacna, Peru, the place from where this article draws its empirical material, waste is not only seen as a risk to public health and the environment. Some find it is a mere aesthetic inconvenience, for others it is the only source of income. Yet another way of perceiving waste is as a social contagion, in which the negative qualities of garbage are transmitted to surrounding people in the eyes of others. Such perceptions of waste, it is argued, are important parts of local waste management systems, and the understanding of such perceptions might increase the effectiveness of waste management campaigns.

  11. Optimal Policies for Random and Periodic Garbage Collections with Tenuring Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Nakamura, Syouji; Nakagawa, Toshio

    It is an important problem to determine the tenuring threshold to meet the pause time goal for a generational garbage collector. From such viewpoint, this paper proposes two stochastic models based on the working schemes of a generational garbage collector: One is random collection which occurs at a nonhomogeneous Poisson process and the other is periodic collection which occurs at periodic times. Since the cost suffered for minor collection increases, as the amount of surviving objects accumulates, tenuring minor collection should be made at some tenuring threshold. Using the techniques of cumulative processes and reliability theory, expected cost rates with tenuring threshold are obtained, and optimal policies which minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically.

  12. The Production of Green Identities in Garbage Can Decision-making Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2004-01-01

    The article analyses the multinational oil-company Shell's decision in 1997 to establish Shell International Renewables. Theoretically the analysis contributes to developing the garbage can decision-making model developed originally by Cohen, March and Olsen (1972) by adding the production...... of organisational identities to the model. Within the scientific field of business and the environment the article contributes to a new understanding of the relationship between decision-making, green organisational identities and the process of social construction of business opportunities. This relationship can...... be of a sort, where the corporations' greener organisational identities are the product of random organisational garbage can decision-making processes. In such processes the rationale that the protection of the natural environment can be viewed as a business opportunity gets into focus not before, but after...

  13. 78 FR 21417 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... drawn stainless steel sinks from China, provided for in subheading 7324.10.00 of the Harmonized Tariff... notification of a preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from China...

  14. Innovations Under the Concept of ‘Turning Garbage into Gold’ in Fisheries Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the encouragement of creativity and innovation in creating opportunities for entrepreneurship turning useless materials into valuable resources. It is necessary to know the thought process and planning in the entrepreneurship idea to create a new business at this time. One of the brilliant philosophies about entrepreneurs is that they are those who can “turn garbage into gold”. This concept describes the important character of entrepreneurs who foresee business opportunit...

  15. [Handling of laundry and garbage in nursing homes. A survey in 22 homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D; Ross, B; Hilgenhöner, M; Loss, R; Grandek, M; Blättler, T; Popp, W

    2011-11-01

    Management of infectious diseases in nursing homes is as important as it is in hospitals. Therefore, a standardized questionnaire was used for the detailed assessment of the handling of laundry and garbage with a special focus on methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 22 nursing homes in Germany. The study focused on the prevention of occupational diseases in the nursing home staff. Despite a few isolated problems, the situation of MRSA-positive patients was not as alarming as expected: guidelines for MRSA as published by KRINKO were often followed by the healthcare workers. However, general problems with managing garbage and laundry were identified. Many nursing homes lacked protective clothing and a sufficient garbage management plan. In addition, the handling of laundry was a problem in that the clothing of the patients and the working clothes of the staff were often washed at home rather than in accredited laundries. Thus, the awareness for hygienic problems needs to be raised, e.g., by expanding hygienic control for the nursing homes.

  16. Thermophilic two-stage dry anaerobic digestion of model garbage with ammonia stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabu, Hironori; Sakai, Chikako; Fujiwara, Tomoko; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2011-03-01

    To avoid the inhibition of methane production by ammonia that occurs during the degradation of garbage, anaerobic digestion with prior ammonia production and subsequent stripping was investigated. In the ammonia production phase, the maximum ammonia concentration was approximately 2800 mg N/kg of total wet sludge in the range of 4 days of sludge retention time, indicating that only 43% of total nitrogen in the model garbage was converted to ammonia. The model garbage from which ammonia was produced and stripped was subjected to semi-continuous thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion over 180 days. The gas yield was in the range of 0.68 to 0.75 Nm(3)/kg volatile solid, and it decreased with the decrease of the sludge retention time. The ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the sludge was kept below 3000 mg N/kg total wet sludge. Microbial community structure analysis revealed that the phylum Firmicutes dominated in the ammonia production, but the community structure changed at different sludge retention times. In dry anaerobic digestion, the dominant bacteria shifted from the phylum Thermotogae to Firmicutes. The dominant archaeon was the genus Methanothermobacter, but the ratio of Methanosarcina increased during the process of dry anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Community participation in bank of garbage: Explorative case study in Banyumas regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Fitria Widiyanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste bank is an activity that people do to reduce waste. The waste management activity through the establishment of a garbage bank becomes a very useful breakthrough, because people could save the waste which is exchangeable into money. The objective of this research is to know the inhibiting factors and the impetus for the community (targets to participate in waste bank, covering behavior, knowledge, understanding, and community motivation. This research is an exploratory research with qualitative approach implemented in Banyumas district. Data collection is done through in-depth interviews using purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using interactive analysis. The results indicate that the presence of active waste banks in the community, as well as motivated by other community members. The development of the existing garbage bank in the society is unstable that there is a need to be support from various parties so that the garbage bank continues to progress and develop. Community knowledge of waste bank activities, including collection, transportation, community participation, prices or economic value of waste and recycling activities. Factors that encourage participation in waste banks, among others are motivation and environmental conscious behavior.

  18. Harmonia: A Globally Coordinated Garbage Collector for Arrays of Solid-state Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Lee, Junghee [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Solid-State Drives (SSDs) offer significant performance improvements over hard disk drives (HDD) on a number of workloads. The frequency of garbage collection (GC) activity is directly correlated with the pattern, frequency, and volume of write requests, and scheduling of GC is controlled by logic internal to the SSD. SSDs can exhibit significant performance degradations when garbage collection (GC) conflicts with an ongoing I/O request stream. When using SSDs in a RAID array, the lack of coordination of the local GC processes amplifies these performance degradations. No RAID controller or SSD available today has the technology to overcome this limitation. This paper presents Harmonia, a Global Garbage Collection (GGC) mechanism to improve response times and reduce performance variability for a RAID array of SSDs. Our proposal includes a high-level design of SSD-aware RAID controller and GGC-capable SSD devices, as well as algorithms to coordinate the global GC cycles. Our simulations show that this design improves response time and reduces performance variability for a wide variety of enterprise workloads. For bursty, write dominant workloads response time was improved by 69% while performance variability was reduced by 71%.

  19. Household Response to Inadequate Sewerage and Garbage Collection Services in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Ismaila Rimi

    2017-01-01

    Provision of sanitation and garbage collection services is an important and yet challenging issue in the rapidly growing cities of developing countries, with significant human health and environmental sustainability implications. Although a growing number of studies have investigated the consequences of inadequate delivery of basic urban services in developing countries, few studies have examined how households cope with the problems. Using the Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect (EVLN) model, this article explores how households respond to inadequate sewerage and garbage collection services in Abuja, Nigeria. Based on a qualitative study, data were gathered from in-depth interviews with sixty households, complemented with personal observation. The findings from grounded analysis indicated that majority (62%) and about half (55%) of the respondents have utilized the informal sector for sewerage services and garbage collection, respectively, to supplement the services provided by the city. While 68% of the respondents reported investing their personal resources to improve the delivery of existing sewerage services, half (53%) have collectively complained to the utility agency and few (22%) have neglected the problems. The paper concludes by discussing the public health and environmental sustainability implications of the findings.

  20. Self-disposal option for heat-generating waste - 59182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, Michael I.; Poluektov, Pavel P.; Kascheev, Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-descending heat generating capsules can be used for disposal of dangerous radioactive wastes in extremely deep layers of the Earth preventing any release of radionuclides into the biosphere. Self-disposal option for heat-generating radioactive waste such as spent fuel, high level reprocessing waste or spent sealed radioactive sources, known also as rock melting concept, was considered in the 70's as a viable alternative disposal option by both Department of Energy in the USA and Atomic Industry Ministry in the USSR. Self-disposal is currently reconsidered as a potential alternative route to existing options for solving the nuclear waste problem and is associated with the renaissance of nuclear industry. Self- disposal option utilises the heat generated by decaying radionuclides of radioactive waste inside a heavy and durable capsule to melt the rock on its way down. As the heat from radionuclides within the capsule partly melts the enclosing rock, the relatively low viscosity and density of the silicate melt allow the capsule to be displaced upwards past the heavier capsule as it sinks. Eventually the melt cools and solidifies (e.g. vitrifies or crystallizes), sealing the route along which the capsule passed. Descending or self-disposal continues until enough heat is generated by radionuclides to provide partial melting of surrounding rock. Estimates show that extreme depths of several tens and up to hundred km can be reached by capsules which could never be achieved by other techniques. Self- disposal does not require complex and expensive disposal facilities and provides a minimal footprint used only at operational stage. It has also an extremely high non- proliferation character and degree of safety. Utilisation of heat generated by relatively short-lived radionuclides diminishes the environmental uncertainties of self-disposal and increases the safety of this concept. Self-sinking heat-generating capsules could be launched from the bottom of the sea as

  1. Variation in heat sink shape for thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. M.; Aziz, M. H. B. A.; Ong, N. R.; Alcain, J. B.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    The concern about the thermal performance of microelectronics is on the increase due to recent over-heating induced failures which have led to product recalls. Removal of excess heat from microelectronic systems with the use of heat sinks could improve thermal efficiency of the system. The shape of the heat sink model with difference fin configuration has significant influence on cooling performances. This paper investigates the effect of change in heat sink geometry on an electronic package through COMSOL Multiphysics software as well as the thermal performance of difference heat sink geometry corresponding to various air inlet velocities. Based on this study, plate fin heat sink has better thermal performance than strip pin fin and circular pin fin heat sink due to less obstruction of the heat sink design.

  2. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  3. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  4. Disposable Visual Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amidon, Charles P

    2005-01-01

    A disposable visual sensor includes a body defining an enclosed chamber, a power source mounted in the camber, an on-off switch mounted on the body and accessible from outside the body, a processor...

  5. Shallow land disposal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillette-Cousin, L. [Nuclear Environment Technology Insitute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of Korea )

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L`Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. Shallow land disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillette-Cousin, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L'Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs

  7. Method and apparatus for disposing a radioactive waste container to submarine bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Shoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To completely eliminate a danger occurred by the rolling of a hull in the ocean in a method and apparatus for disposing radioactive waste container to submarine bottom by independently handling the radioactive waste containers when loading the container in a compartment carried on a barge and sinking the containers together with the compartment to the submarine bottom at its disposing time. Method: Radioactive waste containers are carried into a compartment loaded on a barge floating completely, and the barge is then applied with external force thereto by a ship or the like and sailed to the marine disposal area. Then, water is filled in the ballast tank of the barge to submerge the barge, the compartment is floated and separated from the containers, and water is charged into the compartment to sink the compartment. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. When is a medicine unwanted, how is it disposed, and how might safe disposal be promoted? Insights from the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettington, Emilie; Spinks, Jean; Kelly, Fiona; Gallardo-Godoy, Alejandra; Nghiem, Son; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2017-12-19

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore disposal practices of unwanted medicines in a representative sample of Australian adults, compare this with previous household waste surveys and explore awareness of the National Return and Disposal of Unwanted Medicines (RUM) Project. Methods A 10-min online survey was developed, piloted and conducted with an existing research panel of adult individuals. Survey questions recorded demographics, the presence of unwanted medicines in the home, medicine disposal practices and concerns about unwanted medicines. Descriptive statistical analyses and rank-ordered logit regression were conducted. Results Sixty per cent of 4302 respondents reported having unwanted medicines in their household. Medicines were primarily kept just in case they were needed again and one-third of these medicines were expired. Two-thirds of respondents disposed of medicines with the household garbage and approximately one-quarter poured medicines down the drain. Only 17.6% of respondents had heard of the RUM Project, although, once informed, 91.7% stated that they would use it. Respondents ranked the risk of unintended ingestion as the most important public health message for future social marketing campaigns. Conclusions Respondents were largely unaware of the RUM Project, yet were willing to use it once informed. Limited awareness could lead to environmental or public health risks, and targeted information campaigns are needed. What is known about the topic? There is a growing international evidence base on how people dispose of unwanted medicines and the negative consequences, particularly the environmental effects of inappropriate disposal. Although insight into variation in disposal methods is increasing, knowledge of how people perceive risks and awareness of inappropriate disposal methods is more limited. What does this paper add? This study provides evidence of inappropriate medicines disposal and potential stockpiling of medicines in

  9. How to Dispose of Unused Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the DEA to find a DEA-authorized collector in your community . You can also check with ... or spilling out. Throw the container in the garbage. Scratch out all your personal information on the ...

  10. Geological characterization of the Prestige sinking area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercilla, Gemma; Córdoba, Diego; Gallart, Josep; Gràcia, Eulalia; Muñoz, Josep A; Somoza, Luis; Vázquez, Juan T; Vilas, Federico

    2006-01-01

    The tanker Prestige sank off NW Iberia on the 19th November 2002. The stern and bow of the Prestige wreck are located on the southwestern edge of the Galicia Bank, at 3565 m and 3830 m water depths, respectively. This bank is a structural high controlled by major faults with predominant N-S, NNE-SSW, and NNW-SEE trends. It is characterized by moderate to low seismic activity. The faults have controlled the local depositional architecture, deforming, fracturing, relocating and distributing sediments since the Valangian (early Cretaceous). The Prestige sinking area corresponds to an asymmetric half-graben structure with a N-S trend, which conditions the present-day morphology. The faulted flank outcrops and its activity and erosion have favoured the occurrence of mass-movements (slumps, slump debris, mass-flows and turbidity currents), building valleys and depositional lobes. Nearsurface sediments comprise mostly terrigenous and biogenous turbiditic muds and sands with a minor presence of hemipelagic muds, except on the fault scarp where pelagites predominate. Potential geological hazards resulting from tectonic and sedimentary processes affect almost the entire Prestige sinking area.

  11. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.

    Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods. Résumé Des effondrements en forme d'entonnoir se sont produits sur et près d'exploitations agricoles de Pima (Arizona). Ces entonnoirs apparaissent dans les alluvions le long de la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz ; ils ont rendu ces terrains dangereux et inexploitables pour l'agriculture. Plus de 1700 entonnoirs existent dans la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz et sont groupés en deux bandes orientées nord-nord-ouest, approximativement parallèles à la rivière et aux autres chenaux de la plaine d'inondation. Un volume de sédiments estim

  12. Source-sink relationships in radish plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of source-sink relationships in di- and tetraploidal radish plants grown in. hydroponic cultures was investigated in two stages of their development: with intensively growing swollen hypocotyl and in the period of actively accumulating nutrients in the storage organ. It was found, that the proportion, between the mass of organs, their RGR and NAR was very similar in di- and tetraploidal populations, probably owing to a similar rate of photosynthesis and pattern of assimilates distribution. The high variability of swollen hypocotyls size is slightly correlated with the size of the whole aerial part and is not correlated with the rate of photosynthesis in leaves. Partial defoliation of radish plants did not affect the rate of photosynthesis of the remaining leaves. Only in the cotyledones the oldest donors of 14C-assimilates, a slight compensation of photosynthesis was reported. It may suggest, that the rate of photosynthesis in radish plants is not under the control of sink activity. The size of the storage organ have determined in some extent its attractive force and influenced the amount of 14C-assimilates exported from their donors. Translocation of photosynthates from the young, still growing leaves was conditioned mainly by their retention power. Therefore, in young radish plants cotyledons were the main donor of 14C-assimilates.

  13. A pilot plant two-phase anaerobic digestion system for bioenergy recovery from swine wastes and garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chuanping; Shimada, Sadoru; Zhang, Zhenya; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    A pilot plant bioenergy recovery system from swine waste and garbage was constructed. A series of experiments was performed using swine feces (SF); a mixture of swine feces and urine (MSFU); a mixture of swine feces, urine and garbage (MSFUG); garbage and a mixture of urine and garbage (AUG). The system performed well for treating the source materials at a high organic loading rate (OLR) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT). In particular, the biogas production for the MSFUG was the highest, accounting for approximately 865-930 L kg(-1)-VS added at the OLR of 5.0-5.3 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) and the HRT of 9 days. The removal of VS was 67-75%, and that of COD was 73-74%. Therefore, co-digestion is a promising method for the recovery of bioenergy from swine waste and garbage. Furthermore, the results obtained from this study provide fundamental information for scaling up a high-performance anaerobic system in the future.

  14. Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service Protocol for Mobile Sinks with an Energy Efficient Grid-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseung Choo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes transmit the sensed information to the sink through wireless sensor networks (WSNs. They have limited power, computational capacities and memory. Portable wireless devices are increasing in popularity. Mechanisms that allow information to be efficiently obtained through mobile WSNs are of significant interest. However, a mobile sink introduces many challenges to data dissemination in large WSNs. For example, it is important to efficiently identify the locations of mobile sinks and disseminate information from multi-source nodes to the multi-mobile sinks. In particular, a stationary dissemination path may no longer be effective in mobile sink applications, due to sink mobility. In this paper, we propose a Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service (SDLS approach to handle sink mobility. In SDLS, we propose an Eight-Direction Anchor (EDA system that acts as a location service server. EDA prevents intensive energy consumption at the border sensor nodes and thus provides energy balancing to all the sensor nodes. Then we propose a Location-based Shortest Relay (LSR that efficiently forwards (or relays data from a source node to a sink with minimal delay path. Our results demonstrate that SDLS not only provides an efficient and scalable location service, but also reduces the average data communication overhead in scenarios with multiple and moving sinks and sources.

  15. Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service Protocol for Mobile Sinks with an Energy Efficient Grid-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeonjae; Park, Kwangjin; Hwang, Dae-Joon; Choo, Hyunseung

    2009-01-01

    Sensor nodes transmit the sensed information to the sink through wireless sensor networks (WSNs). They have limited power, computational capacities and memory. Portable wireless devices are increasing in popularity. Mechanisms that allow information to be efficiently obtained through mobile WSNs are of significant interest. However, a mobile sink introduces many challenges to data dissemination in large WSNs. For example, it is important to efficiently identify the locations of mobile sinks and disseminate information from multi-source nodes to the multi-mobile sinks. In particular, a stationary dissemination path may no longer be effective in mobile sink applications, due to sink mobility. In this paper, we propose a Sink-oriented Dynamic Location Service (SDLS) approach to handle sink mobility. In SDLS, we propose an Eight-Direction Anchor (EDA) system that acts as a location service server. EDA prevents intensive energy consumption at the border sensor nodes and thus provides energy balancing to all the sensor nodes. Then we propose a Location-based Shortest Relay (LSR) that efficiently forwards (or relays) data from a source node to a sink with minimal delay path. Our results demonstrate that SDLS not only provides an efficient and scalable location service, but also reduces the average data communication overhead in scenarios with multiple and moving sinks and sources.

  16. Cooling characteristics of a strip fin heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riu, Kap Jong; Park, Cheol Woo; Jang, Chung Sun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2005-01-01

    Air-cooled heat sinks are employed in many electronic cooling applications since they provide significant heat transfer enhancement and operational flexibility. Strip-shaped fin heat sink is of interest and needs to be investigated as general cooling products for more applicability. The purposes of this study are to evaluate heat sink performance without bypass flow condition and to determine optimal heat sink geometries. The results show that the decreasing rate of thermal resistance of a heat sink decreases with increasing inlet air velocity, and the increasing rate of pressure drop increases with increasing inlet air velocity, but is not affected by input power. The increasing rate of optimal longitudinal fin spacing is larger than that of transverse fin spacing. The strip fin heat sink tested in this study showed better cooling performance compared to that of other plate fin type

  17. Response of spinach and komatsuna to biogas effluent made from source-separated kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Yuichiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of kitchen garbage is an urgent task for reducing public spending and environmental burdens by incineration and/or landfill. There is an interesting regional effort in Ogawa, Saitama prefecture, Japan, in which source-separated kitchen garbage is anaerobically fermented with a biogas plant and the resultant effluent is used as a quick-release organic fertilizer by surrounding farmers. However, scientific assessments of fertilizer values and risks in the use of the effluent were lacking. Thus, a field experiment was conducted from 2003 to 2004 in Tohoku National Agricultural Research Center to grow spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis L. H. Bailey) for evaluating the fertilizer value of the kitchen garbage effluent (KGE), nitrate, coliform group (CG), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (FS), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations of KGE and in the soil and the plant leaves. A cattle manure effluent (CME) and chemical fertilizers (NPK) were used as controls. Total nitrogen (N) and ammonium N concentrations of the KGE were 1.47 and 1.46 g kg(-1), respectively. The bacteria tested were detected in both biogas effluents in the order of 2 to 3 log CFU g(-1), but there was little evidence that the biogas effluents increased these bacteria in the soil and the plant leaves. At the rate of 22 g N m(-2), yield, total N uptake, apparent N recovery rate, and leaf nitrate ion concentration at harvest of spinach and komatsuna in the KGE plot were mostly comparable to those in the NPK and CME plots. We conclude that the KGE is a quick-release N fertilizer comparable to chemical fertilizers and does not cause contamination of CG, E. coli, FS, or V. parahaemolyticus in the soil and spinach and komatsuna leaves.

  18. Medication wasted - Contents and costs of medicines ending up in household garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; de Rooij, Roger H P F

    2018-02-10

    Despite potentially considerable implications for public health, the environment and public funds, medicine waste is an under-researched topic. This study aims to analyse medicines drawn from household garbage in Vienna (Austria) and to assess possible financial implications for public payers. Four pharmaceutical waste samples collected by the Vienna Municipal Waste Department between April 2015 and January 2016 were investigated with regard to their content. The value of medicines was assessed at ex-factory, reimbursement and pharmacy retail price levels, and the portion of costs attributable to the social health insurance was determined. Data were extrapolated for Vienna and Austria. The waste sample contained 1089 items, of which 42% were excluded (non-pharmaceuticals, non-Austrian origin and non-attributable medicines). A total of 637 items were further analysed. Approximately 18% of these medicines were full packs. 36% of the medicines wasted had not yet expired. Nearly two out of three medicines wasted were prescription-only medicines. The majority were medicines related to the 'alimentary tract and metabolism' (ATC code A), the 'nervous system' (ATC code N) and the 'respiratory system' (ATC code R). The medicines wasted had a total value of € 1965, € 2987 and € 4207, expressed at ex-factory, reimbursement and pharmacy retail price levels, respectively. Extrapolated for Vienna, at least € 37.65 million in terms of expenditure for public payers were wasted in household garbage, corresponding to € 21 per inhabitant. This study showed that in Vienna some medicines end up partially used or even completely unused in household garbage, including prescription-only medicines, non-expired medicines and medicines for chronic diseases. While there might be different reasons for medicines being wasted, the findings suggest possible adherence challenges as one issue to be addressed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Forest Carbon Sinks and Biodiversity Conservation from China's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mingde Cao, Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol established the use of forest carbon sinks as one way of compensating for forest ecological values. Forest carbon sinks can promote sustainable economic development and help developed nations reduce their GHG emissions. But without proper legal regulation they may influence the local ecological environment and, in particular, they may harm biodiversity. States need to make laws that regulate forest carbon sinks and protect biodiversity. Environmental law urgently needs to s...

  20. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  1. The collecting and recycling of organic and inorganic garbage; Situacion de la recogida selectiva y reciclaje de vidrio y papel en Galicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Queiruga, B. [Universidad da Caruna (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    Galicia has made in the latest years some intents to a costume people to separate and recycle the different urban solid garbage. There has been different results depending on areas and the population of each village. In the future, Galicia has to improve the quantities of the organic and inorganic garbage that they recycle. (Author) 12 refs.

  2. The potential contribution of sinks to meeting Kyoto Protocol commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missfeldt, F.; Haites, E.

    2001-01-01

    scenario, at least some of the sinks have costs lower than the market price, so the larger the eligible sinks, the lower the compliance costs for industrialised countries. Greater use of sinks also reduces the net income received by the economies in transition and developing countries. Increased use......, a range of average costs is used with the lowest cost allowing maximum use of sinks. The effects considered are the impacts on compliance costs for OECD countries, economies in transition, and developing countries and the mix of actions used by industrialised countries to achieve compliance. In every...

  3. Effects of biofouling on the sinking behavior of microplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, David; Kowalski, Nicole; Waniek, Joanna J.

    2017-12-01

    Although plastic is ubiquitous in marine systems, our current knowledge of transport mechanisms is limited. Much of the plastic entering the ocean sinks; this is intuitively obvious for polymers such as polystyrene (PS), which have a greater density than seawater, but lower density polymers like polyethylene (PE) also occur in sediments. Biofouling can cause large plastic objects to sink, but this phenomenon has not been described for microplastics microplastic particles in estuarine and coastal waters to determine how biofouling changes their sinking behavior. Sinking velocities of PS increased by 16% in estuarine water (salinity 9.8) and 81% in marine water (salinity 36) after 6 weeks of incubation. Thereafter sinking velocities decreased due to lower water temperatures and reduced light availability. Biofouling did not cause PE to sink during the 14 weeks of incubation in estuarine water, but PE started to sink after six weeks in coastal water when sufficiently colonized by blue mussels Mytilus edulis, and its velocity continued to increase until the end of the incubation period. Sinking velocities of these PE pellets were similar irrespective of salinity (10 vs. 36). Biofilm composition differed between estuarine and coastal stations, presumably accounting for differences in sinking behavior. We demonstrate that biofouling enhances microplastic deposition to marine sediments, and our findings should improve microplastic transport models.

  4. Investigation of Heat Sink Efficiency for Electronic Component Cooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    of relatively simple heat sink application is performed using modeling based on finite element method, and also the potential of such analysis was demonstrated by real-world measurements and comparing obtained results. Thermal modeling was accomplished using finite element analysis software COMSOL and thermo-imaging......Research and optimisation of cooling of electronic components using heat sinks becomes increasingly important in modern industry. Numerical methods with experimental real-world verification are the main tools to evaluate efficiency of heat sinks or heat sink systems. Here the investigation...... camera was used to measure the thermal field distribution. Ideas for future research involving improvement of the experimental setup and modeling verification are given....

  5. Sources and sinks of stratospheric water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsaesser, H.W.

    1979-11-01

    A tutorial review of the understanding of stratospheric H 2 O and the processes controlling it is presented. Paradoxes posed by currently available observational data are cited and suggestions made as to how they might be resolved. Such resolution appears to require: that the bulk of our current data provides unrepresentative and misleading vertical and latitudinal H 2 O gradients immediately downstream from the tropical tropopause; and, that there exists within the troposphere a mechanism different from or in addition to the tropical tropopause cold trap for drying air to the mixing ratios found in the lower stratosphere. Satisfaction of these requirements will reconcile much heretofore puzzling observational data and will obviate the necessity for a stratospheric sink for H 2 O

  6. UHS, Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.; Nuttle, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function of wind speed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. 2 - Method of solution: The transfer of heat and water vapor is modeled using an equilibrium temperature procedure for an UHS cooling pond. The UHS spray pond model considers heat, mass, and momentum transfer from a single water drop with the surrounding air, and modification of the surrounding air resulting from the heat, mass, and momentum transfer from many drops in different parts of a spray field. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program SPRCO uses RANF, a uniform random number generator which is an intrinsic function on the CDC. All programs except COMET use the NAMELIST statement, which is non standard. Otherwise these programs conform to the ANSI Fortran 77 standard. The meteorological data scanning procedure requires tens of years of recorded data to be effective. The models and methods, provided as useful tool for UHS analyses of cooling ponds and spray ponds, are intended as guidelines only. Use of these methods does not automatically assure NRC approval, nor are they required procedures for nuclear-power-plant licensing

  7. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  8. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  9. Radwaste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehn, L.; Breza, M.; Pekar, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture is given the basic information, that is concerning on the RAW treatment and long term disposal of the treated RAW in repository at Mochovce. Then here is given the basic technical and technological information, that is concerning bituminization, plant, the vitrification unit, center for the RAW-treatment (BSC) and repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  10. Os coletores de lixo urbano no município de Dourados (MS e sua percepção sobre os riscos biológicos em seu processo de trabalho The perception of urban garbage collectors of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, regarding the biological risks involved in their work routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly Angelina Lazzari

    2011-08-01

    . Accidents with sharp and jagged instruments are ways for microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi to infect the human body. Virus contamination, like HIV and Hepatitis B and C, can occur in accidents involving inadequate disposal of contaminated needles. The conclusion reached is that biological risks in urban garbage collection can be reduced by educating the population about adequate garbage disposal.

  11. Surfactant protein-D and exposure to bioaerosols in wastewater and garbage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshzadeh Tabrizi, R; Bernard, A; Thommen, A M; De Winter, F; Oppliger, A; Hilfiker, S; Tschopp, A; Hotz, P

    2010-12-01

    Bioaerosols and their constituents, such as endotoxins, are capable of causing an inflammatory reaction at the level of the lung-blood barrier, which becomes more permeable. Thus, it was hypothesized that occupational exposure to bioaerosols can increase leakage of surfactant protein-D (SP-D), a lung-specific protein, into the bloodstream. SP-D was determined by ELISA in 316 wastewater workers, 67 garbage collectors, and 395 control subjects. Exposure was assessed with four interview-based indicators and by preliminary endotoxin measurements using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Influence of exposure on serum SP-D was assessed by multiple linear regression considering smoking, glomerular function, lung diseases, obesity, and other confounders. Overall, mean exposure levels to endotoxins were below 100 EU/m(3). However, special tasks of wastewater workers caused higher endotoxin exposure. SP-D concentration was slightly increased in this occupational group and associated with the occurrence of splashes and contact to raw sewage. No effect was found in garbage collectors. Smoking increased serum SP-D. No clinically relevant correlation between spirometry results and SP-D concentrations appeared. These results support the hypothesis that inhalation of bioaerosols, even at low concentrations, has a subclinical effect on the lung-blood barrier, the permeability of which increases without associated spirometric changes.

  12. Construction of hydrogen fermentation from garbage slurry using the membrane free bioelectrochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Norio; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of the membrane free bioelectrochemical system (BES) using three electrodes on inhibition of methanogenesis and construction of hydrogen fermentation from the artificial garbage slurry. The electrical redox-potential on the working electrode was adjusted to -1.0V (vs. Ag/AgCl) that has positive effect on methanogenesis. The redox-potential on the counter electrode was measured to be 1.6V. The pH in the effluents was 5.5-6.4. Hydrogen production rate at the cathode side was similar to that at the anode side and much higher than that calculated from current, and reached a maximum of 2445±815 (average±standard deviation) mL L(-1) d(-1) at an organic loading rate of 58.7g dichromate chemical oxygen demand per L d(-1). Methane production was negligible throughout the experiment. Acetate and butyrate were the main products of the fermentation using a BES; these offered favorable conditions for hydrogen production. The bacterial community in the bioelectrochemical hydrogen fermentor differed from that in the methanogenic seed sludge and included hitherto unknown species. These results show that high redox-potential on the anodic electrode and acidic pH in the membrane free BES can be utilized for hydrogen fermentation from the artificial garbage slurry by avoiding methanogenesis. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient treatment of garbage slurry in methanogenic bioreactor packed by fibrous sponge with high porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    Adding a supporting material to a methanogenic bioreactor treating garbage slurry can improve efficiency of methane production. However, little is known on how characteristics (e.g., porosity and hydrophobicity) of the supporting material affect the bioreactor degrading garbage slurry. We describe the reactor performances and microbial communities in bioreactors containing hydrophilic or hydrophobic sheets, or fibrous hydrophilic or hydrophobic sponges. The porosity affected the efficiency of methane production and solid waste removal more than the hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the supporting material. When the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used at a lower organic loading rate (OLR), microbial diversities in the suspended fraction were retained on the hydrophobic, but not the hydrophilic, sheets. Moreover, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed at a higher OLR revealed that the excellent performance of reactors containing fibrous sponges with high porosity (98%) was supported by a clear increase in the numbers of methanogens on these sponges, resulting in larger total numbers of methanogens in the reactors. In addition, the bacterial communities in fractions retained on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibrous sponges differed from those in the suspended fraction, thus increasing bacterial diversity in the reactor. Thus, higher porosity of the supporting material improves the bioreactor performance by increasing the amount of methanogens and bacterial diversity; surface hydrophobicity contributes to maintaining the suspended microbial community.

  14. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaekeun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%. PMID:25258730

  15. Novel bacterial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas demonstrated enhanced degradation for low density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Manjunatha, Vishal; Sultana, Subiya; Jois, Chandana; Bai, Vidya; Vasist, Kiran S

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to formulate novel microbial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas and thereby devise an eco-friendly approach for enhanced degradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The LDPE degrading bacteria were screened and microbiologically characterized. The best isolates were formulated as bacterial consortia, and degradation efficiency was compared with the consortia formulated using known isolates obtained from the Microbial Culture Collection Centre (MTCC). The degradation products were analyzed by FTIR, GC-FID, tensile strength, and SEM. The bacterial consortia were characterized by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. The formulated bacterial consortia demonstrated 81 ± 4 and 38 ± 3 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and LDPE pellets, respectively, over a period of 120 days. However, the consortia formulated by MTCC strains demonstrated 49 ± 4 and 20 ± 2 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and pellets, respectively, for the same period. Furthermore, the three isolates in its individual application exhibited 70 ± 4, 68 ± 4, and 64 ± 4 % weight reduction for LDPE strips and 21 ± 2, 28 ± 2, 24 ± 2 % weight reduction for LDPE pellets over a period of 120 days (p waste management of LDPE and similar types of plastic garbage.

  16. Two-phased hyperthermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge with kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungyeol; Hidaka, Taira; Tsuno, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    For co-digestion of waste activated sludge with kitchen garbage, hyperthermophilic digester systems that consisted of an acidogenic reactor operated at hyperthermophilic (70 degrees C) and a methanogenic reactor operated at mesophilic (35 degrees C), thermophilic (55 degrees C) or hyperthermophilic (65 degrees C) conditions in series were studied by comparing with a thermophilic digester system that consisted of thermophilic (55 degrees C) acidogenic and methanogenic reactors. Laboratory scale reactors were operated continuously fed with a substrate blend composed of concentrated waste activated sludge and artificial kitchen garbage. At the acidogenic reactor, solubilization efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), carbohydrate and protein at 70 degrees C were about 39%, 42% and 54%, respectively, and they were higher than those at 55 degrees C by around 10%. The system of acidogenesis at 70 degrees C and methanogenesis at 55 degrees C was stable and well-functioned in terms of treatment performances and low ammonium nitrogen concentrations. Microbial community analysis was conducted using a molecular biological method. The key microbe determined at the hyperthermophilic acidogenesis step was Coprothermobacter sp., which was possibly concerned with the degradation of protein in waste activated sludge. The present study proved that the hyperthermophilic system was advantageous for treating substrate blends containing high concentrations of waste activated sludge.

  17. [Evaluation of the sanitary-and-epidemiological hazard of solid garbage in Astana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumarova, Zh Zh; Bekshin, Zh M; Aushakhmetova, Z T

    2008-01-01

    According to the national plan of actions on environmental protection, industrial garbage recycling is to be introduced in Almaty and Astana for the sustainable development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Integrated assessment of the hazard of garage is made by the sanitary-and-chemical and sanitary-and-epidemiological indices to provide the hygienic and ecological reliability of a procedure for neutralization and utilization of solid garbage (SG). According to the data obtained, Astana SG Astana in summer is characterized by the high total level of bacterial contamination. The indices of microbial contamination of SG and soil near the dustbins correlate with the density of population and the maturity of an infrastructure. Comparison of the sanitary-and-epidemiological indices of different types of SG (wastes from housing facilities, wholesale and retail outlays, and education, culture, and entertainment institutions) revealed no significant differences. According to the sanitary-and-helmintological indices, the Astana soil should be classified as pure (noninvasive). Involvement of SG into industrial recycling should be accompanied by a hygienic assessment of the hazard of waste and the reliability of used technologies in the context of warning and on-going sanitary surveillance.

  18. Origin, dynamics and evolution of ocean garbage patches from observed surface drifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sebille, Erik; England, Matthew H; Froyland, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debris in the near-surface ocean collects in so-called garbage patches where, due to convergence of the surface flow, the debris is trapped for decades to millennia. Until now, studies modelling the pathways of surface marine debris have not included release from coasts or factored in the possibilities that release concentrations vary with region or that pathways may include seasonal cycles. Here, we use observational data from the Global Drifter Program in a particle-trajectory tracer approach that includes the seasonal cycle to study the fate of marine debris in the open ocean from coastal regions around the world on interannual to centennial timescales. We find that six major garbage patches emerge, one in each of the five subtropical basins and one previously unreported patch in the Barents Sea. The evolution of each of the six patches is markedly different. With the exception of the North Pacific, all patches are much more dispersive than expected from linear ocean circulation theory, suggesting that on centennial timescales the different basins are much better connected than previously thought and that inter-ocean exchanges play a large role in the spreading of marine debris. This study suggests that, over multi-millennial timescales, a significant amount of the debris released outside of the North Atlantic will eventually end up in the North Pacific patch, the main attractor of global marine debris. (letter)

  19. IoT-based smart garbage system for efficient food waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Insung; Park, Sunghoi; Lee, Beomseok; Lee, Jaekeun; Jeong, Daebeom; Park, Sehyun

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  20. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Lei, W.; Bei, N.; Molina, L. T.

    2012-09-01

    The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA 2006 official emission inventory without biomass burning is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban areas. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60% of the observation, indicating that it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the burning of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3-30% simulated PM2.5 mass on average. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC burning in laboratory experiments.

  1. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of garbage burning (GB emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA 2006 official emission inventory without biomass burning is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban areas. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60% of the observation, indicating that it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the burning of polyvinyl chloride (PVC in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3–30% simulated PM2.5 mass on average. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC burning in laboratory experiments.

  2. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT, researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%.

  3. Heart rate and energy expenditure during garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Luiz A; Ferreira, João A; Damião, Jorginete J

    2007-11-01

    Physiological workload is used to estimate the physical demand of tasks in the workforce, but limited information is available for the various work activities in developing countries. Eighty-three randomly selected male workers participated in the present study, aimed at assessing the physiological workload of garbage collection (GC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Heart rate (HR) was obtained on four consecutive workdays. Energy expenditure (EE) was extrapolated from heart rate data based on individual laboratory-established heart rate/oxygen consumption curve in 70 workers. Mean HR during GC was 104.0 +/- 11.7 bpm (+/- SD), representing 56.9 +/- 7.5% of maximum heart rate. EE was 1608.3 +/- 738.5 kcal for an average of 293.1 +/- 103.9 minutes of work per day. Based on all measurements, work in garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro can be considered excessively heavy. These data emphasize the need to develop appropriate classification of workload to be used in health-related research and in the development of maximum acceptable work time in association with the physiological workload, particularly in developing countries.

  4. 77 FR 23752 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of drawn stainless sinks, provided for in subheading 7324.10.00 of the... than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of China. \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207...

  5. Copepods use chemical trails to find sinking marine snow aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombard, Fabien; Koski, Marja; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Copepods are major consumers of sinking marine particles and hence reduce the efficiency of the biological carbon pump. Their high abundance on marine snow suggests that they can detect sinking particles remotely. By means of laboratory observations, we show that the copepod Temora longicornis ca...

  6. Sinking in Quicksand: An Applied Approach to the Archimedes Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. M.; Evans, S. C.; Moreno-Atanasio, R.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a laboratory experiment that explains the phenomenon of sinking in quicksand simulated as a fluidized bed. The paper demonstrates experimentally and theoretically that the proportion of a body that sinks in quicksand depends on the volume fraction of solids and the density of the body relative to the…

  7. Transcriptional profiling of mechanically and genetically sink-limited soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absence of a reproductive sink causes physiological and morphological changes in soybean plants. These include increased accumulation of nitrogen and starch in the leaves and delayed leaf senescence. To identify transcriptional changes that occur in leaves of these sink-limited plants, we used R...

  8. Grain boundary strength as point defect sink strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volobuev, A.V.; Gann, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Sink strength of spherical grain boundary as an absolutely absorbing surface and as finite thickness wall consisting of the edge dislocations are considered. The values of the grain boundary sink strength are shown to be critically dependent on the point defect recombination degree

  9. Characterizing source-sink dynamics with genetic parentage assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peery, M. Zachariah; Beissinger, Steven R.; House, Roger F.; Berube, Martine; Hall, Laurie A.; Sellas, Anna; Palsboll, Per J.

    2008-01-01

    Source-sink dynamics have been suggested to characterize the population structure of many species, but the prevalence of source-sink systems in nature is uncertain because of inherent challenges in estimating migration rates among populations. Migration rates are often difficult to estimate directly

  10. HLW disposal dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The radioactive waste is an inevitable residue from the use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine, and from the operation of generating electricity nuclear power stations. The management and disposal of such waste is therefore an issue relevant to almost all countries. Undoubtedly the biggest issue concerning radioactive waste management is that of high level waste. The long-lived nature of some types of radioactive wastes and the associated safety implications of disposal plans have raised concern amongst those who may be affected by such facilities. For these reasons the subject of radioactive waste management has taken on a high profile in many countries. Not one Member State in the European Union can say that their high level waste will be disposed of at a specific site. Nobody can say 'that is where it is going to go'. Now, there is a very broad consensus on the concept of geological disposal. The experts have little, if any doubt that we could safely dispose of the high level wastes. Large sectors of the public continue to oppose to most proposals concerning the siting of repositories. Given this, it is increasingly difficult to get political support, or even political decisions, on such sites. The failure to advance to the next step in the waste management process reinforces the public's initial suspicion and resistance. In turn, this makes the political decisions even harder. In turn, this makes the political decisions even harder. The management of spent fuel from nuclear power plant became a crucial issue, as the cooling pond of the Romanian NPP is reaching saturation. During the autumn of 2000, the plant owner proceeded with an international tendering process for the supply of a dry storage system to be implemented at the Cernavoda station to store the spent fuel from Unit 1 and eventually from Unit 2 for a minimum period of 50 years. The facility is now in operation. As concern the disposal of the spent fuel, the 'wait and see

  11. Sinking towards destiny: High throughput measurement of phytoplankton sinking rates through time-resolved fluorescence plate spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Catherine C; Campbell, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Diatoms are marine primary producers that sink in part due to the density of their silica frustules. Sinking of these phytoplankters is crucial for both the biological pump that sequesters carbon to the deep ocean and for the life strategy of the organism. Sinking rates have been previously measured through settling columns, or with fluorimeters or video microscopy arranged perpendicularly to the direction of sinking. These side-view techniques require large volumes of culture, specialized equipment and are difficult to scale up to multiple simultaneous measures for screening. We established a method for parallel, large scale analysis of multiple phytoplankton sinking rates through top-view monitoring of chlorophyll a fluorescence in microtitre well plates. We verified the method through experimental analysis of known factors that influence sinking rates, including exponential versus stationary growth phase in species of different cell sizes; Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP1335, chain-forming Skeletonema marinoi RO5A and Coscinodiscus radiatus CCMP312. We fit decay curves to an algebraic transform of the decrease in fluorescence signal as cells sank away from the fluorometer detector, and then used minimal mechanistic assumptions to extract a sinking rate (m d-1) using an RStudio script, SinkWORX. We thereby detected significant differences in sinking rates as larger diatom cells sank faster than smaller cells, and cultures in stationary phase sank faster than those in exponential phase. Our sinking rate estimates accord well with literature values from previously established methods. This well plate-based method can operate as a high throughput integrative phenotypic screen for factors that influence sinking rates including macromolecular allocations, nutrient availability or uptake rates, chain-length or cell size, degree of silification and progression through growth stages. Alternately the approach can be used to phenomically screen libraries of mutants.

  12. Disposal and re-use of TENORM - legal limitations and obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, D.; Ettenhuber, E.

    2004-01-01

    While implementing EURATOM guideline 96/29 in the German legislation, in June of 2001 an essential pre-condition was created for re-use or disposal of TENORM. An essential progress has been achieved allowing to re-use TENORM or to dump it together with other residues and waste, if the specific activity does not exceed the limits defined in the radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV). Otherwise, if the specified limits in terms of concentration or radiation dose are exceeded, than these materials must remain under radiological protection. A practical application of the new German regulation turns out to be difficult especially for disposal together with other waste and for re-use as backfilling material in mines taking into account problems arising from adaptation of the respective legislation on radiation protection, soil protection, waste management and shipment of dangerous goods. The report tackles obstacles for re-use and disposal of TENORM together with garbage and toxic waste arising from the new legislation. Otherwise, proposals will be given how obstacles of selected options for re-use and disposal can be overcome. (orig.)

  13. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  14. Preliminary disposal limits, plume interaction factors, and final disposal limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    In the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), each final disposal limit was constructed as the product of a preliminary disposal limit and a plume interaction factor. The following mathematical development demonstrates that performance objectives are generally expected to be satisfied with high confidence under practical PA scenarios using this method. However, radionuclides that experience significant decay between a disposal unit and the 100-meter boundary, such as H-3 and Sr-90, can challenge performance objectives, depending on the disposed-of waste composition, facility geometry, and the significance of the plume interaction factor. Pros and cons of analyzing single disposal units or multiple disposal units as a group in the preliminary disposal limits analysis are also identified.

  15. Trashing the System: Social Movement, Intersectional Rhetoric, and Collective Agency in the Young Lords Organization's Garbage Offensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enck-Wanzer, Darrel

    2006-01-01

    Examining the nascent rhetoric of the Young Lords Organization's (YLO) 1969 "garbage offensive," this essay argues that the long-standing constraints on agency to which they were responding demanded an inventive rhetoric that was decolonizing both in its aim and in its form. Blending diverse forms of discourse produced an intersectional rhetoric…

  16. Do not feed the wildlife: associations between garbage use, aggression, and disease in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Bonnie Fairbanks; Hawley, Dana M; Alexander, Kathleen A

    2016-08-01

    Urbanization and other human modifications of the landscape may indirectly affect disease dynamics by altering host behavior in ways that influence pathogen transmission. Few opportunities arise to investigate behaviorally mediated effects of human habitat modification in natural host-pathogen systems, but we provide a potential example of this phenomenon in banded mongooses (Mungos mungo), a social mammal. Our banded mongoose study population in Botswana is endemically infected with a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex pathogen, M. mungi, that primarily invades the mongoose host through the nasal planum and breaks in the skin. In this system, several study troops have access to human garbage sites and other modified landscapes for foraging. Banded mongooses in our study site (N = 4 troops, ~130 individuals) had significantly higher within-troop aggression levels when foraging in garbage compared to other foraging habitats. Second, monthly rates of aggression were a significant predictor of monthly number of injuries in troops. Finally, injured individuals had a 75% incidence of clinical tuberculosis (TB) compared to a 0% incidence in visibly uninjured mongooses during the study period. Our data suggest that mongoose troops that forage in garbage may be at greater risk of acquiring TB by incurring injuries that may allow for pathogen invasion. Our study suggests the need to consider the indirect effects of garbage on behavior and wildlife health when developing waste management approaches in human-modified areas.

  17. Interdependence, Garbage Dumping, and Feral Dogs: Exploring Three Lifeworld Resources of Young Children in a Rural School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy Suzanne; Baker, Allison; Bruer, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate upon the lifeworld resources that comprise the funds of knowledge for children living in a rural community in the southeastern United States. Through interview conversations with a group of third grade children, we identified three lifeworld resources--interdependence, garbage dumping, and feral dogs--that rural…

  18. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters. 151.66 Section 151.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...

  19. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; B. Cardenas; L. T. Molina; G. Engling; S.-C. Hsu

    2010-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO-3 , and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been...

  20. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; B. Cardenas; L. T. Molina; G. Engling; S.-C. Hsu

    2009-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO-3 , and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600...

  1. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  2. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  3. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  4. A Nonlinear Energy Sink with Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Daniel

    The transfer of energy between systems is a natural process, manifesting in many different ways. In engineering transferable energy can be considered wanted or unwanted. Specifically in mechanical systems, energy transfer can occur as unwanted vibrations, passing from a source to a receiver. In electrical systems, energy transfer can be desirable, where energy from a source may be used elsewhere. This work proposes a method to combine the two, converting unwanted mechanical energy into useable electrical energy. A nonlinear energy sink (NES) is a vibration absorber that passively localizes vibrational energy, removing mechanical energy from a primary system. Consisting of a mass-spring-damper such that the stiffness is essentially nonlinear, a NES can localize vibrational energy from a source and dissipate it through damping. Replacing the NES mass with a series of magnets surrounded by coils fixed to the primary mass, the dissipated energy can be directly converted to electrical energy. A NES with energy harvesting properties is constructed and introduced. The system parameters are identified, with the NES having an essentially cubic nonlinear stiffness. A transduction factor is quantified linking the electrical and mechanical systems. An analytic analysis is carried out studying the transient and harmonically excited response of the system. It is found that the energy harvesting does not reduce the vibrational absorption capabilities of the NES. The performance of the system in both transient and harmonically excited responses is found to be heavily influenced by input energies. The system is tested, with good match to analytic results.

  5. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  6. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  7. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  8. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  9. [Does living nearby a garbage dumping site degrade the quality of life? A case study based on Shin-dong Myeon residents, Chun-cheon Si].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Choi, Jun Yeol; Kim, In Kyoung; Cho, Yeong-Ah; Kim, Young-Shin; Jung, Hye Jin; Kim, Li Na; Lee, Young Kyu; Cho, Youngtae

    2006-07-01

    This study aims to examine if a garbage dumping site has real and negative influence on the quality of life (QOL) for the nearby residents. The net effects of the residential distance from the garbage dumping site and from the garbage truck route were investigated for five domains of the QOL. Two hundred fifty seven Shin-dong Myeon residents, Chun-cheon Si, participated in a self-administrated survey. The Shin-dong Myeon garbage dumping site began operating in 1996. ANCOVA with generalized linear models and multiple regression analysis were performed. Descriptive analyses show that a residence nearby a garbage dumping site is negatively associated with the physical and environmental domains of the QOL. The residential distance from the garbage truck route does not exert any significant effect on various domains of QOL, except for the environmental domain. On the multivariate analysis, the residents living near the garbage dumping site tended to have a significantly negative QOL in the physical and environmental domains. However, the distance from the garbage truck route did not show a significant nor substantial effect on the QOL. The demographic and socioeconomic control variables are associated with a number of the QOL domains, and their patterns are consistent with the general expectations. The results indicated that a garbage dumping site is considered to be an environmental hazard among the nearby residents according to the lower scores on the physical and environmental domains of the QOL. The findings from this study provide comprehensive\\ understanding on the residents' QOL, and they may help politicians and policy makers make decisions for appropriate interventions.

  10. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Angélica Randoli de; Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2016-01-01

    To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% in the clinic, 31.8% in the intensive care unit, 23.8% in the surgical unit and 9.3% in the infectious diseases unit). The most discarded pharmacological classes were: 22.7% antimicrobials, 14.8% electrolytes, 14.6% analgesics/pain killers, 9.5% diuretics and 6.7% antiulcer agents. The most used means for disposal were: sharps' disposable box with a yellow bag (30.8%), sink drain (28.9%), sharps' box with orange bag (14.3%), and infectious waste/bin with a white bag (10.1%). No disposal was identified after drug administration. A discussion of measures that can contribute to reducing (healthcare) waste volume with the intention of engaging reflective team performance and proper disposal is necessary. Verificar o descarte dos resíduos de medicamentos realizado em unidades pediátricas. Estudo descritivo e observacional, realizado em um hospital universitário. A amostra de conveniência foi constituída pelos medicamentos descartados durante o período de estudo. Observaram-se a manipulação e o descarte durante o preparo e a administração. A coleta dos dados ocorreu em horários preestabelecidos e realizada por meio de instrumento pré-validado. Identificaram-se 356 descartes de medicamentos (35,1% na clínica, 31,8% na unidade de cuidados intensivos, 23,8% na cirúrgica e 9,3% na infectologia). As classes farmacológicas mais descartadas foram: 22,7% antimicrobianos, 14,8% eletrólitos, 14,6% analgésicos, 9,5% diuréticos e 6,7% antiulcerosos. Vias mais utilizadas: caixa descartável para perfurocortante com

  11. A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Birdsey, R.A.; Fang, J.; Houghton, R.; Kauppi, P.E.; Kurz, W.A.; Phillips, O.L.; Shvidenko, A.; Lewis, S.L.; Canadell, J.G.; Ciais, P.; Jackson, R.B.; Pacala, S.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Piao, S.; Rautiainen, A.; Sitch, S.; Hayes, D.

    2011-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon sink has been large in recent decades, but its size and location remain uncertain. Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, we estimate a total forest sink of 2.4 ?? 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) globally for 1990 to 2007. We also estimate a source of 1.3 ?? 0.7 Pg C year-1 from tropical land-use change, consisting of a gross tropical deforestation emission of 2.9 ?? 0.5 Pg C year-1 partially compensated by a carbon sink in tropical forest regrowth of 1.6 ?? 0.5 Pg C year-1. Together, the fluxes comprise a net global forest sink of 1.1 ?? 0.8 Pg C year-1, with tropical estimates having the largest uncertainties. Our total forest sink estimate is equivalent in magnitude to the terrestrial sink deduced from fossil fuel emissions and land-use change sources minus ocean and atmospheric sinks.

  12. A simple method to convert sink particles into stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormani, Mattia C.; Treß, Robin G.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Glover, Simon C. O.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations of star formation often do not possess the dynamic range needed to fully resolve the build-up of individual stars and star clusters, and thus have to resort to sub-grid models. A popular way to do this is by introducing Lagrangian sink particles, which replace contracting high-density regions at the point where the resolution limit is reached. A common problem then is how to assign fundamental stellar properties to sink particles, such as the distribution of stellar masses. We present a new and simple statistical method to assign stellar contents to sink particles. Once the stellar content is specified, it can be used to determine a sink particle's radiative output, supernovae rate or other feedback parameters that may be required in the calculations. Advantages of our method are: (I) it is simple to implement; (II) it guarantees that the obtained stellar populations are good samples of the initial mass function; (III) it can easily deal with infalling mass accreted at later times; and (IV) it does not put restrictions on the sink particles' masses in order to be used. The method works very well for sink particles that represent large star clusters and for which the stellar mass function is well sampled, but can also handle the transition to sink particles that represent a small number of stars.

  13. Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.

  14. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Abdul Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyre. In Malaysia, The Smart and Cool Home Developer attempted to develop an eco-house by utilising waste tyre as the foundation for the driveway and claimed that the buried tyres act as a heat sink for the concrete and reduce the surface temperature of the driveway. Hence investigations were conducted on two sample houses to investigate this phenomenon. Findings from this pilot study show that waste tyres do act as a heat sink to the concrete driveways which affect the ambient temperature and relative humidity of the immediate surroundings.

  15. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-D. Schulze

    2006-01-01

    plant growth has different reasons depending on the region of the world: anthropogenic nitrogen deposition is the controlling factor in Europe, increasing global temperatures is the main factor in Siberia, and maybe rising CO2 the factor controlling the carbon fluxes in Amazonia. However, this has not lead to increases in net biome productivity, due to associated losses. Also important is the interaction between biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. It is shown that net primary productivity increases with plant species diversity (50% species loss equals 20% loss in productivity. However, in this extrapolation the action of soil biota is poorly understood although soils contribute the largest number of species and of taxonomic groups to an ecosystem. The global terrestrial carbon budget strongly depends on areas with pristine old growth forests which are carbon sinks. The management options are very limited, mostly short term, and usually associated with high uncertainty. Unmanaged grasslands appear to be a carbon sink of similar magnitude as forest, but generally these ecosystems lost their C with grazing and agricultural use. Extrapolation to the future of Earth climate shows that the biota will not be able to balance fossil fuel emissions, and that it will be essential to develop a carbon free energy system in order to maintain the living conditions on earth.

  16. Mesoscale inversion of carbon sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauvaux, T.

    2008-01-01

    Inverse methods at large scales are used to infer the spatial variability of carbon sources and sinks over the continents but their uncertainties remain large. Atmospheric concentrations integrate the surface flux variability but atmospheric transport models at low resolution are not able to simulate properly the local atmospheric dynamics at the measurement sites. However, the inverse estimates are more representative of the large spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystems compared to direct flux measurements. Top-down and bottom-up methods that aim at quantifying the carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere correspond to different scales and are not easily comparable. During this phD, a mesoscale inverse system was developed to correct carbon fluxes at 8 km resolution. The high resolution transport model MesoNH was used to simulate accurately the variability of the atmospheric concentrations, which allowed us to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved fluxes. All the measurements used here were observed during the intensive regional campaign CERES of May and June 2005, during which several instrumented towers measured CO 2 concentrations and fluxes in the South West of France. Airborne measurements allowed us to observe concentrations at high altitude but also CO 2 surface fluxes over large parts of the domain. First, the capacity of the inverse system to correct the CO 2 fluxes was estimated using pseudo-data experiments. The largest fraction of the concentration variability was attributed to regional surface fluxes over an area of about 300 km around the site locations depending on the meteorological conditions. Second, an ensemble of simulations allowed us to define the spatial and temporal structures of the transport errors. Finally, the inverse fluxes at 8 km resolution were compared to direct flux measurements. The inverse system has been validated in space and time and showed an improvement of the first guess fluxes from a vegetation model

  17. Brave New Media World: A Science Communications Voyage to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisewitz, A.; Clark, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    By leveraging online tools, such as blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google Earth, flickr and web-based discussion boards, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography team recently took science communications out of the static webpage to create an interactive journey that sparked social dialogue and helped raise awareness of science-based research on global marine environmental problems. A crew of 16 researchers, volunteers and support staff, with assistance from the shore-based Scripps Oceanography communications team, took readers and viewers aboard Scripps’ research vessel New Horizon during the 20-day and more than 2,500-mile SEAPLEX expedition (Scripps Environmental Accumulation of Plastic Expedition). The journey to the North Pacific Ocean Gyre, aka “The Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” was chronicled through popular daily blogs and tweets as the researchers shared interesting scientific facts and unusual findings contained in the 100 oceanographic tow samples conducted in the water to collect data on the distribution of plastic near the gyre.

  18. Medicines discarded in household garbage: analysis of a pharmaceutical waste sample in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Leopold, Christine; Zuidberg, Christel; Habl, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a sample of pharmaceutical waste drawn from household garbage in Vienna, with the aim to learn whether and which medicines end up unused in normal household waste. We obtained a pharmaceutical waste sample from the Vienna Municipal Waste Department. This was drawn by their staff in a representative search in October and November 2009. We did a manual investigation of the sample which contained packs and loose blisters, excluded medical devices and traced loose blisters back to medicines packs. We reported information on the prescription status, origin, therapeutic group, dose form, contents and expiry date. We performed descriptive statistics for the total data set and for sub-groups (e.g. items still containing some of original content). In total, 152 packs were identified, of which the majority was prescription-only medicines (74%). Cardiovascular medicines accounted for the highest share (24%). 87% of the packs were in oral form. 95% of the packs had not expired. 14.5% of the total data set contained contents but the range of content left in the packs varied. Results on the packs with contents differed from the total: the shares of Over-the Counter medicines (36%), of medicines of the respiratory system (18%) and of the musculo-skeletal system (18%), for dermal use (23%) and of expired medicines (19%) were higher compared to the full data set. The study showed that some medicines end up unused or partially used in normal household garbage in Vienna. Our results did not confirm speculations about a high percentage of unused medicines improperly discarded. There is room for improved patient information and counseling to enhance medication adherence and a proper discharge of medicines.

  19. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  20. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  1. Disposal - practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hycnar, J.; Pinko, L.

    1995-01-01

    Most Polish power plants have stockyards for storage of fly ash and slag. This paper describes the: methods of fly ash and slag storage used, methods of conveying the waste to the stockpiles (by railway cars, trucks, belt conveyors or hydraulically); construction of wet stockyards and dry stockyards and comparison of the ash dumped, development of methods of ash disposal in mine workings; composition and properties of fly ash and slag from hard coal; and the effects of ash storage yards on the environment (by leaching of trace elements, dust, effect on soils, and noise of machinery). 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  2. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  3. Genetic Algorithm Design of a 3D Printed Heat Sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tong [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a genetic algorithm- (GA-) based approach is discussed for designing heat sinks based on total heat generation and dissipation for a pre-specified size andshape. This approach combines random iteration processesand genetic algorithms with finite element analysis (FEA) to design the optimized heat sink. With an approach that prefers survival of the fittest , a more powerful heat sink can bedesigned which can cool power electronics more efficiently. Some of the resulting designs can only be 3D printed due totheir complexity. In addition to describing the methodology, this paper also includes comparisons of different cases to evaluate the performance of the newly designed heat sinkcompared to commercially available heat sinks.

  4. Efficient Information Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks using Mobile Sinks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincze, Zoltan; Vidacs, Attila; Vida, Rolland

    2006-01-01

    ...; therefore, relaying information between sensors and a sink node, possibly over multiple wireless hops, in an energy-efficient manner is a challenging task that preoccupies the research community for some time now...

  5. Perspectives on past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Zagozewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  6. Perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices: a community-based participatory research project in three Saskatchewan first nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-04-28

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  7. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  8. Mine tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, P.A.; Adams, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    The hydrologic evaluation of mine tailings disposal sites after they are abandoned is considered in relation to their potential environmental impact on a long term basis. There is a direct relation between the amounts and types of water leaving a disposal site and the severity of the potential damage to the environment. The evaluation of the relative distribution of the precipitation reaching the ground into evaporation, runoff and infiltration is obtained for a selected site and type of tailings material whose characteristics and physical properties were determined in the soils laboratory. A conceptual model of the hydrologic processes involved and the corresponding mathematical model were developed to simulate the physical system. A computer program was written to solve the set of equations forming the mathematical model, considering the physical properties of the tailings and the rainfall data selected. The results indicate that the relative distribution of the precipitation depends on the surface and upper layer of the tailings and that the position of the groundwater table is governed by the flow through the bottom of the profile considered. The slope of the surface of the mass of tailings was found to be one of the principal factors affecting the relative distribution of precipitation and, therefore, the potential pollution of the environment

  9. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  10. Cost Estimates Of Concentrated Photovoltaic Heat Sink Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    water heating , but the majority of installed solar systems , are PV (EIA, 2015). Solar power generation has great benefits for the DON considering the...Current CPV systems use basic heat sink designs to increase efficiency. Modern heat sink design can achieve greater overall efficiencies of electricity...professionally developed cost analysis of adding optimized cooling technologies to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems . Current CPV systems use basic heat

  11. A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard A. Birdsey; Jingyun Fang; Richard Houghton; Pekka E. Kauppi; Werner A. Kurz; Oliver L. Phillips; Anatoly Shvidenko; Simon L. Lewis; Josep G. Canadell; Philippe Ciais; Robert B. Jackson; Stephen W. Pacala; A. David McGuire; Shilong Piao; Aapo Rautiainen; Stephen Sitch; Daniel. Hayes

    2011-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon sink has been large in recent decades, but its size and location remain uncertain. Using forest inventory data and long-term ecosystem carbon studies, we estimate a total forest sink of 2.4 ± 0.4 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C year-1) globally for 1990 to 2007. We also estimate a source of 1.3 ± 0.7 Pg...

  12. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza K; Jaakkola, Jouni Jk; Quansah, Reginald; Norgbe, Gameli K; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli

    2012-10-17

    Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP) on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243 g (95% CI: 496, 11) and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65) reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23) and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92) increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW) for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429 g (95% CI: 259, 599) reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59) excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results. Maternal use of charcoal as a cooking fuel during

  13. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amegah Adeladza K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. Methods A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Results Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243g (95% CI: 496, 11 and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65 reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23 and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92 increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429g (95% CI: 259, 599 reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59 excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results

  14. [Age effect on the life quality and health of garbage collectors of an association in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jane Rabelo; Elias, Elcinéia Tavares; Magalhães, Marcos Alves de; Vieira, Antônio José Dias

    2009-01-01

    Workers that segregate recyclable garbage are daily exposed to unhealthy work conditions which can have a more intense negative effect with aging of the garbage collector. A population of garbage collectors from Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the presence or absence of labor pain, pain intensity, living conditions, access to health services, occurrence of accidents at works and degree of personal satisfaction. These variables were correlated with the age of the workers. It was observed that pain is not associated to age increase and that it doesn't affect the degree of personal satisfaction of the studied population. The education degree was negatively related with age. The youngest garbage collectors presented a lower degree of life satisfaction. The age of the workers doesn't have any association with the occurrence of accidents at work and dwelling type.

  15. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)

  16. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Selection of heat disposal methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Kannberg, L.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rickard, W.H.; Watson, D.G.

    1976-06-01

    Selection of the best method for disposal of the waste heat from a large power generation center requires a comprehensive comparison of the costs and environmental effects. The objective is to identify the heat dissipation method with the minimum total economic and environmental cost. A 20 reactor HNEC will dissipate about 50,000 MWt of waste heat; a 40 reactor HNEC would release about 100,000 MWt. This is a much larger discharge of heat than has occurred from other concentrated industrial facilities and consequently a special analysis is required to determine the permissibility of such a large heat disposal and the best methods of disposal. It is possible that some methods of disposal will not be permissible because of excessive environmental effects or that the optimum disposal method may include a combination of several methods. A preliminary analysis is presented of the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center heat disposal problem to determine the best methods for disposal and any obvious limitations on the amount of heat that can be released. The analysis is based, in part, on information from an interim conceptual study, a heat sink management analysis, and a meteorological analysis

  19. Selection of heat disposal methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.R.; Kannberg, L.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rickard, W.H.; Watson, D.G.

    1976-06-01

    Selection of the best method for disposal of the waste heat from a large power generation center requires a comprehensive comparison of the costs and environmental effects. The objective is to identify the heat dissipation method with the minimum total economic and environmental cost. A 20 reactor HNEC will dissipate about 50,000 MWt of waste heat; a 40 reactor HNEC would release about 100,000 MWt. This is a much larger discharge of heat than has occurred from other concentrated industrial facilities and consequently a special analysis is required to determine the permissibility of such a large heat disposal and the best methods of disposal. It is possible that some methods of disposal will not be permissible because of excessive environmental effects or that the optimum disposal method may include a combination of several methods. A preliminary analysis is presented of the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center heat disposal problem to determine the best methods for disposal and any obvious limitations on the amount of heat that can be released. The analysis is based, in part, on information from an interim conceptual study, a heat sink management analysis, and a meteorological analysis.

  20. Lakeview, Oregon, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Hall, Steve [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    9.1 Compliance Summary The Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I Disposal Site was inspected September 16 and 17, 2015. Other than some ongoing concern with erosion-control rock riprap degradation, the disposal cell was in good condition. Some minor fence repairs and vegetation removal, and minor erosion repair work along the west site fence is planned. Inspectors identified no other maintenance needs or cause for a follow-up or contingency inspection. Disposal cell riprap is evaluated annually to ensure continued long-term protection of the cell from erosion during a severe precipitation event. Degradation of the rock riprap was first observed at the site in the mid-1990s. Rock gradation monitoring of the riprap on the west side slope has been performed as part of the annual inspection since 1997 to determine the mean diameter (D50) value. As prescribed by the monitoring procedure, the rock monitoring is routinely conducted at random locations. However, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) request, the 2015 rock monitoring approach deviated from the normal procedure by using a pre-established monitoring grid in a subset area of the west side slope. This changed the monitoring approach from random sampling to biased sampling. The D50 value measured during the 2015 gradation monitoring is 2.39 inches, which falls below the original D50 design size range of 2.7–3.9 inches for the Type B size side slope riprap. At NRC’s request, rock durability monitoring was added to the gradation monitoring in 2009 to monitor durability by rock type. Results of the 2015 durability monitoring showed that74 percent of the total rock sampled is durability class code A rock with an assigned durability class of “highly durable” or durability class code B “durable” rock, and that over 90 percent of the 3-inch or larger rock is durability class code A or B. The rock durability

  1. The Gold in Garbage: Implementing a Waste Segregation and Recycling Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyssusek, Kerstin H; Foong, Wai Mee; Steel, Catherine; Gillespie, Brigid M

    2016-03-01

    Generally, ORs produce approximately one-fifth to one-third of all waste in a hospital. Before our quality improvement project was performed in our tertiary care facility, all OR waste was disposed of as clinical waste. Disposal of clinical waste is more costly than disposal of general waste. Therefore, accurately segregating waste can have significant financial incentives. Our quality improvement project involved the implementation of processes that segregated general waste in the OR from clinical waste and translated to an almost 60% reduction of waste disposal costs for OR waste. Further, we implemented a recycling program that reclaimed a portion of the general waste. In total, our efforts reduced the amount of clinical waste produced by the OR by 82%, and the amount of total OR waste was reduced by more than 50%. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  3. Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, C. H.; Lee, Y. M.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Park, S. W.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jeong, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    For the purpose of evaluating annual individual doses from a potential repository disposing of radioactive wastes from the operation of the prospective advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Korea, the new safety assessment approaches are developed such as PID methods. The existing KAERI FEP list was reviewed. Based on these new reference and alternative scenarios are developed along with a new code based on the Goldsim. The code based on the compartment theory can be applied to assess both normal and what if scenarios. In addition detailed studies on THRC coupling is studied. The oriental biosphere study ends with great success over the completion of code V and V with JAEA. The further development of quality assurance, in the form of the CYPRUS+ enables handy use of it for information management

  4. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  5. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  7. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  8. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  9. Disposal of Old Printed Journals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... Indian Academy of Sciences intends to dispose of old journals, on “as is and where is" basis. Interested parties may submit their price quotations in the prescribed format on or before. 28 February 2018 indicating rate per kilogram for each category of the item, proposed for disposal. The cost of application is ...

  10. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  11. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  12. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  13. Disposable diapers: safe and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita; Purthi, P K; Sachdev, Anupam; Gupta, Suresh

    2003-09-01

    Nappy rash is a common problem in infants due to their thinner skin, wetness, heat and friction under cloth nappy, fecal enzymes and alkaline urine. The disposable diapers containing Super Absorbent Material (SAM) reduce the incidence of nappy rash. SAM quickly absorbs urine and keeps the skin dry. Also disposable diapers prevent fecal contamination by absorbing the urine and containing stools.

  14. Cairo’s Contested Garbage: Sustainable Solid Waste Management and the Zabaleen’s Right to the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Fahmi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, the Zabaleen, the traditional waste (garbage collectors of Cairo, have created what is arguably one of the world’s most efficient and sustainable resource-recovery and waste-recycling systems. Yet the continuation of this intricate relationship between community, environment and livelihood is jeopardized by the official privatization of municipal solid waste (MSW services through contracts with technology-intensive multinational corporations which threatens the sustainability of the garbage collectors’ communities by removing access to their chief economic asset, waste or garbage. The situation is exacerbated by an official policy of moving the Zabaleen and their MSW sorting, recovery, trading and recycling activities further out of the city, on the grounds that this will turn their neighbourhoods into cleaner and healthier living environments. The consumption of Cairo’s sites of MSW collection and sorting open new socio-political spaces for conflict between multi-national companies and the Zabaleen’s traditional system. This is further indicated in the way Cairo’s waste materials have been subjected to new claims and conflict, as they are seen as a ‘commodity’ by global capital entrepreneurs and multi-national corporations, and as a source of ‘livelihood’ by the disadvantaged and marginalised Zabaleen population.

  15. 76 FR 51879 - Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...--Energy Conversion Process. Company F receives solid waste from a municipal garbage collector. Company F... Solid Waste The Proposed Regulations defined the term solid waste to mean garbage, refuse, and other... term solid waste means garbage, refuse, and other solid material derived from any agricultural...

  16. O que é lixo afinal? Como pensam mulheres residentes na periferia de um grande centro urbano What is garbage, anyway? The opinions of women from an outlying neighborhood in a large Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Franco Rêgo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O lixo urbano constitui-se hoje uma preocupação ambiental nos grandes centros urbanos e ainda pouco se conhece sobre os efeitos à saúde causados pela disposição do mesmo a céu aberto, coleta inadequada e as práticas sanitárias da população em relação a estes resíduos. Como etapa inicial de um estudo epidemiológico que buscou a relação entre exposição ao lixo e diarréia em crianças, desenvolveu-se este estudo com o objetivo de conhecer como mulheres, residentes na periferia de um grande centro urbano, definem lixo, bem como as mesmas percebem a relação entre lixo e doença e entre lixo e outros aspectos ambientais. Em 1999, realizaram-se entrevistas com treze mulheres, em um bairro da periferia de Salvador, utilizando-se um roteiro semi-estruturado. Para a análise das entrevistas utilizou-se o aplicativo "diaricamp" do programa FileMaker. As entrevistadas definem o lixo como tudo que não serve para ser utilizado e o consideram como um problema quando este se encontra acumulado no ambiente, sendo capaz de provocar incômodos como mau cheiro ou poluição visual;quando serve como foco da presença de animais; provoca doenças em crianças e adultos, ou quando o poder para a solução do problema se desloca da esfera individual para o âmbito coletivo ou institucional.Domestic solid waste is cause for current environmental concern in large cities around the world. Little is known about the human health consequences of solid waste disposal in open-air dumps. In addition, there are few studies on people's health practices in relation to solid waste. As the initial step in epidemiological research on the relationship between solid waste and diarrhea, this study describes women's perception of the definition of garbage and the popular understanding of the relationships between garbage and disease, and between garbage and the environment. The study used a qualitative approach in a slum neighborhood in Salvador, Bahia. A total of

  17. Knowledge and Self-Reported Practice of Insulin Injection Device Disposal among Diabetes Patients in Gondar Town, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Basazn Mekuria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incorrect sharp disposal practices may expose the public to needle-stick injuries. The present study aimed at assessing the knowledge and practice of diabetic patients towards insulin injection device disposal in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was employed on insulin requiring diabetes patients who visited the diabetes clinic at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH from February 1 to March 28, 2016. Frequencies, percentages, and ANOVA (analysis of variance and Student’s t-test were used to analyze variables. Results. About half of the participants (49.5% had poor knowledge towards safe insulin injection waste disposal. More than two-thirds (80.7% of respondents had poor practice and 64.3% of respondents did not put insulin needle and lancets into the household garbage. 31% of respondents threw sharps on street when they travel outside. Respondents living in urban areas had a higher mean of knowledge and practice score than those who live in rural area. Conclusions. This study revealed that knowledge and practice of diabetic patients were low towards safe insulin injection waste disposal in study area. Healthcare providers should also be aware of safe disposing system and counsel patients on appropriate disposal of used syringes.

  18. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  19. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  20. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  1. High-efficiency bioconversion of kitchen garbage to biobutanol using an enzymatic cocktail procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Hong; Su, HaiFeng; Chen, HongZhen; Tan, FuRong; Lin, JiaFu

    2017-12-01

    Research on methods to produce biobutanol production from kitchen garbage (KG) as a potential substrate is thus far lacking. Here, the effect of various enzymatic hydrolysis procedures (EHP) was first tested using different enzyme cocktails, on the decomposition of KG. The efficiency of Clostridium acetobutylicum-mediated biobutanol production was then measured using two modes: separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) in the condition of adjusting pH. The optimal results were obtained using (1) an enzymatic hydrolysis cocktail procedure (EHC5), (2) use of the SSF approach and (3) pH control. This approach results in a biobutanol production of 16.37g/L and total solvent concentration of 32.96g/L. Compared to experiments that use pure glucose asa substrate, our results show that KG is a promising feedstock for biobutanol production. The results demonstrate the feasibility of this waste source for an industrial application via the EHP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning in fish garbage room: A report of a fisherman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sadaf; Baig, Muhammad Akbar; Ali, Noman; Khan, NadeemUllah

    2017-07-01

    We report the case of a fisherman who was exposed to high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas from the fish garbage room. The patient survived and was discharged with full recovery from the hospital. H2S is a colourless, foul smelling and highly toxic gas next to carbon monoxide, which causes inhalation death. It is a by-product of various industrial processes particularly involves exposure from agriculture, petrochemical industry and organic matter decomposition from sewage processing. It is a by-product of H2S has been referred as the "knock down gas" because inhalation of high concentrations can cause immediate loss of consciousness and death. Although early use of amyl nitrate and hyperbaric oxygen shows some benefit in literature, supportive care remains the mainstay of treatment. Emergency physicians and pre-hospital care personnel are not very familiar with such exposure due to its rarity. This becomes more relevant in the developing world settings where there are rising concerns about the unsafe exposure to hazardous chemicals and its impact on human health. Emergency physicians working in Pakistan should be aware of this entity especially in regard to fishermen presenting to the Emergency Department with such a clinical presentation and its toxic manifestations. This incident also illustrates the need of enforcement of health and safety regulations in the fishing industry.

  3. Quality of mortality statistics' information: garbage codes as causesof death in Belo Horizonte, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Lenice Harumi; Teixeira, Renato Azeredo; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; Paixão, Lucia Maria Miana Mattos; França, Elisabeth Barboza

    2017-05-01

    To assess the quality of mortality information by analyzing the frequency of garbage codes (GC) registered as underlying cause-of-death in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data of deaths of residents from 2011 to 2013 were selected. GC causes were classified as proposed by the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2015. They were grouped into GCs from ICD-10 Chapter XVIII and GCs excluding codes of Chapter XVIII. Proportions of GC were calculated by sex, age, and place of occurrence. In Belo Horizonte, 30.5% of the total of 44,123 deaths were GC. Higher proportion of these codes was observed in children (1 to 4 years) and in people aged over 60 years. The following leading GCs observed were: other ill-defined and unspecified causes of death (code R99), unspecified pneumonia (J18.9), unspecified stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic) (I64), and unspecified septicemia (A41.9). The proportions of GC were 28.7% and 36.9% in deaths that occurred in hospitals and at home, respectively. An important difference occurred in the GC group from Chapter XVIII of ICD-10: 1.7% occurred in hospitals and 16.9% at home. The high proportions of GC in mortality statistics in Belo Horizonte demonstrated its importance for assessing the quality of information on causes of death.

  4. The test ability of fish Tawes to leachate garbage dump (TPA) Benowo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliardi AR, N. R.; Wiyanti, R. I.

    2018-01-01

    Leachate is a liquid from waste containing elements of dissolved and suspended elements. Garbage collected at the landfill site contains organic, inorganic and heavy metal substances. If the rains will produce leachate with mineral content, organic and heavy metals. When the condition or leachate flow in let to the soil surface can cause negative effects to the surrounding environment including for humans. Toxicity test it was conducted to determine the level of leachate toxicity of the test animals living in surface water located around of the “TPA Benowo”. In this study using Tawes fish with length between 4-6 cm. In this toxicity test is done in 2 stages, namely: range finding test, the search for this range is obtained 0% concentrations (as control) 0,3%; 0,6%; 0,9%; 0,12% and 0,15%. The next stage of toxicity acute test, at this stage of toxicity concentration do smaller again that is: 0,18%; 0,36%; 0,54%; 0,72% and 0,9%. The results obtained LC50 value of 0,385%, while eyes, brown stomach skin.

  5. Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly accumulating plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, L; Slat, B; Ferrari, F; Sainte-Rose, B; Aitken, J; Marthouse, R; Hajbane, S; Cunsolo, S; Schwarz, A; Levivier, A; Noble, K; Debeljak, P; Maral, H; Schoeneich-Argent, R; Brambini, R; Reisser, J

    2018-03-22

    Ocean plastic can persist in sea surface waters, eventually accumulating in remote areas of the world's oceans. Here we characterise and quantify a major ocean plastic accumulation zone formed in subtropical waters between California and Hawaii: The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP). Our model, calibrated with data from multi-vessel and aircraft surveys, predicted at least 79 (45-129) thousand tonnes of ocean plastic are floating inside an area of 1.6 million km 2 ; a figure four to sixteen times higher than previously reported. We explain this difference through the use of more robust methods to quantify larger debris. Over three-quarters of the GPGP mass was carried by debris larger than 5 cm and at least 46% was comprised of fishing nets. Microplastics accounted for 8% of the total mass but 94% of the estimated 1.8 (1.1-3.6) trillion pieces floating in the area. Plastic collected during our study has specific characteristics such as small surface-to-volume ratio, indicating that only certain types of debris have the capacity to persist and accumulate at the surface of the GPGP. Finally, our results suggest that ocean plastic pollution within the GPGP is increasing exponentially and at a faster rate than in surrounding waters.

  6. A bioelectrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber textiles enables efficient methane fermentation from garbage slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hirano, Shin-ichi; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    A packed-bed system includes supporting materials to retain microorganisms and a bioelectrochemical system influences the microbial metabolism. In our study, carbon fiber textiles (CFT) as a supporting material was attached onto a carbon working electrode in a bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) that degrades garbage slurry to methane, in order to investigate the effect of combining electrochemical regulation and packing CFT. The potential on the working electrode in the BER containing CFT was set to -1.0 V or -0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). BERs containing CFT exhibited higher methane production, elimination of dichromate chemical oxygen demand, and the ratio of methanogens in the suspended fraction than reactors containing CFT without electrochemical regulation at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 27.8 gCODcr/L/day. In addition, BERs containing CFT exhibited higher reactor performances than BERs without CFT at this OLR. Our results revealed that the new design that combined electrochemical regulation and packing CFT was effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Co-digestion of polylactide and kitchen garbage in hyperthermophilic and thermophilic continuous anaerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Hidaka, Taira; Tsuno, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Jun

    2012-05-01

    Two series of two-phase anaerobic systems, consisting of a hyperthermophilic (80°C) reactor and a thermophilic (55°C) reactor, fed with a mixture of kitchen garbage (KG) and polylactide (PLA), was compared with a single-phase thermophilic reactor for the overall performance. The result indicated that ammonia addition under hyperthermophilic condition promoted the transformation of PLA particles to lactic acid. The systems with hyperthermophilic treatment had advantages on PLA transformation and methane conversion ratio to the control system. Under the organic loading rate (OLR) of 10.3 g COD/(L day), the PLA transformation ratios of the two-phase systems were 82.0% and 85.2%, respectively, higher than that of the control system (63.5%). The methane conversion ratios of the two-phase systems were 82.9% and 80.8%, respectively, higher than 70.1% of the control system. The microbial community analysis indicated that hyperthermophilic treatment is easily installed to traditional thermophilic anaerobic digestion plants without inoculation of special bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of adding carbon fiber textiles to methanogenic bioreactors used to treat an artificial garbage slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Morita, Masahiko; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Ohmura, Naoya; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2009-08-01

    To compare the performances and microbial populations of methanogenic reactors with and without carbon fiber textiles (CFT), we operated small-scale (200 ml) reactors using a slurry of artificial garbage. For both types of reactors, the organic loading rate (OLR) was stepwisely and rapidly increased in the same manner. Start-up period was shortened by adding CFT. Reactors with CFT showed greater efficiency for removal of suspended solid and volatile suspended solid than reactors without CFT at a long hydraulic retention time (HRT) between 8 and 13 days. The reactors with CFT maintained stable methane production at an OLR of 15.3 g dichromate chemical oxygen demand (CODcr)/l/day and DNAs from microorganisms were highly concentrated in adhering fractions on CFT. As shown by quantitative PCR analysis, the proportions of methanogenic archaea were conserved more than 25% in adhering fractions on CFT in reactors with CFT. By contrast, reactors without CFT showed accumulation of volatile fatty acid and deteriorated at an OLR of 2.4 gCODcr/l/day. Methanogenic proportions dropped to 17.1% in suspended fractions of reactors without CFT. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that all archaeal DGGE bands in both types of reactors were related to methanogens, but more bands were observed in reactors with CFT. Thus the higher performance of reactors with CFT likely reflects the greater abundance of microorganisms and methanogenic diversity.

  9. Combinatorial GVNS (General Variable Neighborhood Search Optimization for Dynamic Garbage Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Papalitsas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available General variable neighborhood search (GVNS is a well known and widely used metaheuristic for efficiently solving many NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. We propose a novel extension of the conventional GVNS. Our approach incorporates ideas and techniques from the field of quantum computation during the shaking phase. The travelling salesman problem (TSP is a well known NP-hard problem which has broadly been used for modelling many real life routing cases. As a consequence, TSP can be used as a basis for modelling and finding routes via the Global Positioning System (GPS. In this paper, we examine the potential use of this method for the GPS system of garbage trucks. Specifically, we provide a thorough presentation of our method accompanied with extensive computational results. The experimental data accumulated on a plethora of TSP instances, which are shown in a series of figures and tables, allow us to conclude that the novel GVNS algorithm can provide an efficient solution for this type of geographical problem.

  10. Innovations Under the Concept of ‘Turning Garbage into Gold’ in Fisheries Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the encouragement of creativity and innovation in creating opportunities for entrepreneurship turning useless materials into valuable resources. It is necessary to know the thought process and planning in the entrepreneurship idea to create a new business at this time. One of the brilliant philosophies about entrepreneurs is that they are those who can “turn garbage into gold”. This concept describes the important character of entrepreneurs who foresee business opportunities and have the intelligence to transform trash into cash. This means that they have the necessary ability to create innovation and value-added products for sale. The analyzed case study involves innovation in using fisheries waste specifically derived from crab industries in Indonesia. The study presents empirical perspectives including (1 potential business of crab shell waste (2 technology in innovative use of shell to added value product (3 business analysis and commercialization. Ultimately, we present the concept of a new business by linking theories of entrepreneurial innovation and technology transfer in order to gain environmental balance.

  11. Review of tribological sinks in six major industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Hane, G.J.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Erickson, R.; Merriman, T.; Gruber, T.; Barber, S.

    1985-09-01

    Friction and material wear occur throughout all industries and are involved in many processes within each industry. These conditions make assessing tribological activity overall in industry very complex and expensive. Therefore, a research strategy to obtain preliminary information on only the most significant industrial tribological sinks was defined. The industries examined were selected according to both the magnitude of overall energy consumption (particularly machine drive) and the known presence of significant tribological sinks. The six industries chosen are as follows: mining, agriculture, primary metals, chemicals/refining, food, and pulp and paper. They were reviewed to identify and characterize the major tribology sinks. It was concluded that wear losses are greater than friction losses, and that reducing wear rates would improve industrial productivity.

  12. Radwaste disposal drum centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.; Deltete, C.P.; Crook, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The drum or processing bowl of the DDC becomes the disposal container when the filling operation is completed. Rehandling of the processed resin is eliminated. By allowing the centrifugally compacted resin to remain in the processing container, extremely efficient waste packaging can be achieved. The dewatering results and volume reductions reported during 1986 were based upon laboratory scale testing sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Since the publication of these preliminary results, additional testing using a full-scale prototype DDC has been completed, again under the auspices of the DOE. Full-scale testing has substantiated the results of earlier testing and has formed the basis for preliminary discussions with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding DDC licensing for radioactive applications. A comprehensive Topical Report and Process Control Program is currently being prepared for submittal to the NRC for review under a utility licensing action. Detailed cost-benefit analyses for actual plant operations have been prepared to substantiate the attractiveness of the DDC. Several methods to physically integrate a DDC into a nuclear power plant have also been developed

  13. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  14. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  15. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  16. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2010-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO3-, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB), then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5) for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2-10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6-9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for biomass burning, so it could be a source of interference in some areas when using

  17. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC, anhydrosugars, Cl, NO3, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB, then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5 for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2–10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6–9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for

  18. Two decades of ocean CO2 sink and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, C. Le; Bopp, L.; Heimann, M.; Prentice, I.C.; Aumont, O.; Bousquet, P.; Ciais, P.; Francey, R.; Rayner, P.J.; Keeling, C.D.; Keeling, R.F.; Piper, S.C.; Kheshgi, H.; Peyliln, P.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 has increased at a nearly identical average rate of 3.3 and 3.2 Pg C/yr for the decades of the 1980s and the 1990s, in spite of a large increase in fossil fuel emissions from 5.4 to 6.3 Pg C/yr. Thus, the sum of the ocean and land CO 2 sinks was 1 Pg C/yr larger in the 1990s than in to the 1980s. Here we quantify the ocean and land sinks for these two decades using recent atmospheric inversions and ocean models. The ocean and land sinks are estimated to be, respectively, 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6) and 0.7 (0.4 to 0.9) Pg C/yr larger in the 1990s than in the 1980s. When variability less than 5 yr is removed, all estimates show a global oceanic sink more or less steadily increasing with time, and a large anomaly in the land sink during 1990-1994. For year-to-year variability, all estimates show 1/3 to 1/2 less variability in the ocean than on land, but the amplitude and phase of the oceanic variability remain poorly determined. A mean oceanic sink of 1.9 Pg C/yr for the 1990s based on O 2 observations corrected for ocean outgassing is supported by these estimates, but an uncertainty on the mean value of the order of ±0.7 Pg C/yr remains. The difference between the two decades appears to be more robust than the absolute value of either of the two decades

  19. Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard.

  20. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 STORAGE AND SINK ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Bock; Richard Rhudy; Howard Herzog; Michael Klett; John Davison; Danial G. De La Torre Ugarte; Dale Simbeck

    2003-02-01

    This project developed life-cycle costs for the major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} storage and sink enhancement. The technologies evaluated included options for storing captured CO{sub 2} in active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of carbon sequestration in forests and croplands. The capture costs for a nominal 500 MW{sub e} integrated gasification combined cycle plant from an earlier study were combined with the storage costs from this study to allow comparison among capture and storage approaches as well as sink enhancements.

  1. New Method of Sinking Caisson Tunnel in Soft Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bame, Abda Berisso

    2013-01-01

    Sinking a caisson tunnel in soft soil is new idea and this new concept could be an alternative method of tunneling in soft soil. The aim of this study is to evaluate geotechnical feasibility of sinking the caisson tunnel to the desired depth at the selected soil profile along tunnel alignment. This caisson tunneling method is proposed to reduce the use of temporary works such as propping of sheet pile walls and increase the ease and speed of construction. Besides, it reduces the disturbance o...

  2. Disposable diapers and infant skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Takase, M

    1987-01-01

    In an experiment on skin rash caused by diapers, adult skin was used to compare the effects of disposable diapers (A; Pampers), conventional disposable diapers (B), and cotton diapers. Pieces of each type of diaper measuring 2 X 2 cm and containing 0.2 ml saline solution were pasted on forearm skin for 5 h. Water content of the corneum was measured with an impedance meter 1 h after the pieces were removed. Results were excellent for diapers A and B: there were no significant differences observed in water content of the corneum when A and B were compared with conventional cotton diapers. The advantages of disposable diapers were confirmed in infants.

  3. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  4. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper

  5. Disposable diapers: a hygienic alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Maithili; Malkani, Ram

    2003-11-01

    The use of disposable diapers has offered improved health care benefits. Urine and fecal matter leakage from the cloth nappies and the hand-to-mouth behavior in infants leads to many illnesses with a feco-oral mode of transmission. Also, the tender skin of the infant is more prone to nappy rash. The modern age disposable diapers, when compared to cloth nappy, have displayed a superior ability in containment of urine and feces, thereby reducing contamination and transmission of infection. Also disposable diapers contain Super Absorbent Material (SAM) that successfully reduces the incidence of nappy rash.

  6. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  7. Evaluation of waste disposal safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements of the Environmental Agency for high-radioactive waste disposal are, that natural transport mechanisms must not contribute to biospheric pollution, that violent natural phenomena cannot release any biospheric pollution and that human activities will be very limited and health hazard insignificant compared to other man-created risks. Investigation of radioaactive waste disposal in Mors salt deposits has proved these requirements to be satisfied. (EG)

  8. Sink strength simulations using the Monte Carlo method: Applied to spherical traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, T.; Bukonte, L.

    2017-12-01

    The sink strength is an important parameter for the mean-field rate equations to simulate temporal changes in the micro-structure of materials. However, there are noteworthy discrepancies between sink strengths obtained by the Monte Carlo and analytical methods. In this study, we show the reasons for these differences. We present the equations to estimate the statistical error for sink strength calculations and show the way to determine the sink strengths for multiple traps. We develop a novel, very fast Monte Carlo method to obtain sink strengths. The results show that, in addition to the well-known sink strength dependence of the trap concentration, trap radius and the total sink strength, the sink strength also depends on the defect diffusion jump length and the total trap volume fraction. Taking these factors into account, allows us to obtain a very accurate analytic expression for the sink strength of spherical traps.

  9. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by

  10. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, C.C.; Nixon, R.F.; Rice, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    It is proposed that certain types of high-level nuclear wastes obtained from the Purex process be injected into space with the aid of Space Shuttles uprated with liquid rocket boosters able to deliver about 45,000 kg to low Earth orbit, a reusable cryogenic orbit-transfer vehicle (OTV) for Earth escape, and an expendable storable-propellant vehicle for the solar-orbit insertion maneuver. It appears feasible to employ the space option for disposing of Purex wastes, but the mass of waste for space disposal is still large and thus consideration needs to be given to additional processes that will selectively separate only the most hazardous radionuclides for disposal in space. Space disposal should present a lower long-term risk to human health than options calling for disposal on Earth. But short-term risks may not be lower than for terrestrial disposal. They must be acceptable for policy-makers to act on the space option. 37 refs

  12. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  13. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Patrick Hunt; Carl Trettin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides methodologies and guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks at the entity scale for managed wetland systems. More specifically, it focuses on methods for managed palustrine wetlands.1 Section 4.1 provides an overview of wetland systems and resulting GHG emissions, system boundaries and temporal scale, a summary of the...

  14. An unusual presentation of Burkitt's lymphoma | Sinke | Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unusual presentation of Burkitt's lymphoma. EA Sinke, EJ van Hasselt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  15. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Handling of numerous processing variables to control defects is a mammoth task that costs time, effort and money. This paper presents a simple and efficient way to study the influence of injection molding variables on sink marks using Taguchi approach. Using the Taguchi approach, optimal parameter settings and the ...

  16. Enhanced heat sink with geometry induced wall-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Mahamudul, E-mail: sohel0991@gmail.com; Tikadar, Amitav; Bari, Fazlul; Morshed, A. K. M. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000. Bangladesh (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Mini-channels embedded in solid matrix have already proven to be a very efficient way of electronic cooling. Traditional mini-channel heat sinks consist of single layer of parallel channels. Although mini-channel heat sink can achieve very high heat flux, its pumping requirement for circulating liquid through the channel increase very sharply as the flow velocity increases. The pumping requirements of the heat sink can be reduced by increasing its performance. In this paper a novel approach to increase the thermal performance of the mini-channel heat sink is proposed through geometry induced wall jet which is a passive technique. Geometric irregularities along the channel length causes abrupt pressure change between the channels which causes cross flow through the interconnections thus one channel faces suction and other channel jet action. This suction and jet action disrupts boundary layer causing enhanced heat transfer performance. A CFD model has been developed using commercially available software package FLUENT to evaluate the technique. A parametric study of the velocities and the effect of the position of the wall-jets have been performed. Significant reduction in thermal resistance has been observed for wall-jets, it is also observed that this reduction in thermal resistance is dependent on the position and shape of the wall jet.

  17. A new method to optimize natural convection heat sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampio, K.; Karvinen, R.

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a heat sink cooled by natural convection is strongly affected by its geometry, because buoyancy creates flow. Our model utilizes analytical results of forced flow and convection, and only conduction in a solid, i.e., the base plate and fins, is solved numerically. Sufficient accuracy for calculating maximum temperatures in practical applications is proved by comparing the results of our model with some simple analytical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions. An essential advantage of our model is that it cuts down on calculation CPU time by many orders of magnitude compared with CFD. The shorter calculation time makes our model well suited for multi-objective optimization, which is the best choice for improving heat sink geometry, because many geometrical parameters with opposite effects influence the thermal behavior. In multi-objective optimization, optimal locations of components and optimal dimensions of the fin array can be found by simultaneously minimizing the heat sink maximum temperature, size, and mass. This paper presents the principles of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and applies it as a basis for optimizing existing heat sinks.

  18. Cleaning up nitrogen pollution may reduce future carbon sinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Baojing; Ju, Xiaotang; Wu, Yiyun; Erisman, Jan Willem; Bleeker, Albert; Reis, Stefan; Sutton, Mark A.; Lam, Shu Kee; Smith, Pete; Oenema, Oene; Smith, Rognvald I.; Lu, Xuehe; Ye, Xinyue; Chen, Deli

    2018-01-01

    Biosphere carbon sinks are crucial for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to mitigate global warming, but are substantially affected by the input of reactive nitrogen (Nr). Although the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emission and nitrogen deposition (indicated by Nr emission to

  19. Million Trees Los Angeles: Carbon dioxide sink or source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; A. Kendall; S. Albers

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to answer the question, 'Will the Million Trees LA (MTLA) programme be a CO2 sink or source?' Using surveys, interviews, field sampling and computer simulation of tree growth and survival over a 40-year period, we developed the first process-based life cycle inventory of CO2 for a large tree...

  20. Development of an operations evaluation system for sinking EDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwers, B.; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Vanderauwera, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an operations evaluation system for sinking EDM operations. Based on a given workpiece geometry (e.g. mould), regions to be EDM'ed are automatically indentified. For a given electrode configuration, consisting of one or more regions, EDM

  1. Children's Typically-Perceived-Situations of Floating and Sinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Yong Jae

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore children's typically-perceived-situations (TPS) of "floating" and "sinking". TPS refers to the situation rising spontaneously in an individual's mind when they first think of a phenomenon or concept. Data were collected from 148 Year 5 Korean children. As a result of analysing the data…

  2. Role of Sink Density in Nonequilibrium Chemical Redistribution in Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Enrique; Senninger, Oriane; Caro, Alfredo; Soisson, Frédéric; Nastar, Maylise; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2018-03-01

    Nonequilibrium chemical redistribution in open systems submitted to external forces, such as particle irradiation, leads to changes in the structural properties of the material, potentially driving the system to failure. Such redistribution is controlled by the complex interplay between the production of point defects, atomic transport rates, and the sink character of the microstructure. In this work, we analyze this interplay by means of a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) framework with an underlying atomistic model for the Fe-Cr model alloy to study the effect of ideal defect sinks on Cr concentration profiles, with a particular focus on the role of interface density. We observe that the amount of segregation decreases linearly with decreasing interface spacing. Within the framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, a general analytical model is derived and assessed against the KMC simulations to elucidate the structure-property relationship of this system. Interestingly, in the kinetic regime where elimination of point defects at sinks is dominant over bulk recombination, the solute segregation does not directly depend on the dose rate but only on the density of sinks. This model provides new insight into the design of microstructures that mitigate chemical redistribution and improve radiation tolerance.

  3. Predator transitory spillover induces trophic cascades in ecological sinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Blenckner, Thorsten; Möllmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of cross-system fluxes is fundamental in ecosystem ecology and biological conservation. Source-sink dynamics and spillover processes may link adjacent ecosystems by movement of organisms across system boundaries. However, effects of temporal variability in these cross...

  4. Characterization of Hop-and-Sink Locomotion of Water Fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, A. N.; Murphy, D. W.; Webster, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna is a widely studied zooplankton in relation to food webs, predator-prey interactions, and other biological/ecological considerations; however, their locomotion is poorly quantified and understood. These water fleas utilize a hop-and-sink mechanism that consists of making quick, impulsive jumps by beating their antennae to propel themselves forward (roughly 1 body length). The animals then sink for a period, during which they stretch out their antennae to increase drag and thereby reduce their sinking velocity. Time-resolved three-dimensional flow fields surrounding the animals were quantified with a unique infrared tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV) system. Three-dimensional kinematics data were also extracted from the image sequences. In the current work, we compared body kinematics and flow disturbance among organisms of size in the range of 1.3 to 2.8 mm. The stroke cycle averaged 150 +/- 20 ms, with each stroke cycle split nearly evenly between power and recovery strokes. The kinematics data collapsed onto a self-similar curve when properly nondimensionalized, and a general trend was shown to exist between the nondimensionalized peak body speed and body length. The fluid flow induced by each antennae consisted of a viscous vortex ring that demonstrated a slow decay in the wake. The viscous dissipation showed no clear dependence on body size, whereas the volume of fluid exceeding 5 mm/s (the speed near the sinking speed of the animal) decayed more slowly with increasing body size.

  5. Source to sink transport and regulation by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi eLemoine

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Source-to-sink transport of sugar is one of the major determinants of plant growth and relies on the efficient and controlled distribution of sucrose (and some other sugars such as raffinose and polyols across plant organs through the phloem. However, sugar transport through the phloem can be affected by many environmental factors that alter source/sink relationships. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the phloem transport mechanisms and review the effects of several abiotic (water and salt stress, mineral deficiency, CO2, light, temperature, air and soil pollutants and biotic (mutualistic and pathogenic microbes, viruses, aphids and parasitic plants factors. Concerning abiotic constraints, alteration of the distribution of sugar among sinks is often reported, with some sinks as roots favoured in case of mineral deficiency. Many of these constraints impair the transport function of the phloem but the exact mechanisms are far from being completely known. Phloem integrity can be disrupted (e.g. by callose deposition and under certain conditions, phloem transport is affected, earlier than photosynthesis. Photosynthesis inhibition could result from the increase in sugar concentration due to phloem transport decrease. Biotic interactions (aphids, fungi, viruses… also affect crop plant productivity. Recent breakthroughs have identified some of the sugar transporters involved in these interactions on the host and pathogen sides. The different data are discussed in relation to the phloem transport pathways. When possible, the link with current knowledge on the pathways at the molecular level will be highlighted.

  6. Emission and Sink of Greenhouse Gases in Soils of Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozharova, N. V.; Kulachkova, S. A.; Lebed'-Sharlevich, Ya. I.

    2018-03-01

    The first inventory and zoning of the emission and sink of methane and carbon dioxide in the urban structure of greenhouse gases from soils and surface technogenic formations (STFs) (Technosols) on technogenic, recrementogenic, and natural sediments have been performed with consideration for the global warming potential under conditions of different formation rate of these gases, underflooding, and sealing. From gas geochemical criteria and anthropogenic pedogenesis features, the main sources of greenhouse gases, their intensity, and mass emission were revealed. The mass fractions of emissions from the sectors of waste and land use in the inventories of greenhouse gas emissions have been determined. New sources of gas emission have been revealed in the first sector, the emissions from which add tens of percent to the literature and state reports. In the second sector, emissions exceed the available data in 70 times. Estimation criteria based on the degree of manifestation and chemical composition of soil-geochemical anomalies and barrier capacities have been proposed. The sink of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and the internal (latent) sink of methane in soils and STFs have been determined. Ecological functions of soils and STFs have been shown, and the share of latent methane sink has been calculated. The bacterial oxidation of methane in soils and STFs exceeds its emission to the atmosphere in almost hundred times.

  7. EVALUATION OF SINK EFFECTS ON VOCS FROM A LATEX PAINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sink strength of two common indoor materials, a carpet and a gypsum board, was evaluated by environmental chamber tests with four volatile organic compounds (VOCs): propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (BEE), and texanol. These oxygenated compounds rep...

  8. Source and Sink Strength of Carbon Dioxide, Methane and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Source and Sink Strength of Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Distribution of Sulfate in Salt-marsh Soils at the Wadden Sea Coast of Northern Germany. ·1KHAN, MD. HARUNOR RASHID; 2HANS-PETER BLUME; 1TADASHI. ADACHI; 3ULRICH PFISTERER; 3UDO MÜLLER- ...

  9. Pathway of phloem unloading in tobacco sink leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turgeon, R.

    1987-01-01

    Phloem unloading in transition sink leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was analyzed by quantitative autoradiography. Source leaves were labeled with 14 CO 2 and experimental treatments were begun approximately 1 h later when label had entered the sink leaves. Autoradiographs were prepared from rapidly frozen, lyophilized sink tissue at the beginning and end of the treatments and the amount of label in veins and in surrounding cells was determined by microdensitometry. Photoassimilate unloaded from third order and larger, but not smaller, veins. Long-distance import and unloading did not respond the same way to all experimental treatments. Import was completely inhibited by cold, anaerobiosis or steam girdling the sink leaf petiole. Unloading was inhibited by cold but continued in an anaerobic atmosphere and after steam girdling. Uptake of exogenous [ 14 C]sucrose was inhibited by anaerobiosis. Since an apoplastic pathway of phloem unloading would involve solute uptake from the apoplast the results are most consistent with passive symplastic unloading of photoassimilates from phloem to surrounding cells

  10. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Arriving at critical variables based on initial screening. 5. Additional expanded Taguchi's experiments for minimization of sink marks. 2.1. Design of simple, scalable and generic model and machine selection: A simple and scalable disc part (Figure 1) was prepared using Pro/Engineer. The model base wall was fixed at 3mm.

  11. Analysis of ultimate-heat-sink spray ponds. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1981-08-01

    This report develops models which can be utilized in the design of certain types of spray ponds used in ultimate heat sinks at nuclear power plants, and ways in which the models may be employed to determine the design basis required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.27

  12. Sink or Swim? Debt Review's Ambivalent "Lifeline" ____A Second ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full title: Sink or Swim? Debt Review's Ambivalent "Lifeline" ---- A Second Sequel To "… A Tale of Two Judgments" Nedbank V Andrews (240/2011) 2011 Zaecpehc 29 (10 May 2011); Firstrand Bank Ltd V Evans 2011 4 SA 597 (KZD) And Firstrand Bank Ltd V Janse Van Rensburg 2012 2 All SA 186 (ECP). The interface ...

  13. Study on optimization of process parameters for enhancing the multi-hydrolytic enzyme activity in garbage enzyme produced from preconsumer organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, C; Sivashanmugam, P

    2017-02-01

    The garbage enzymes produced from preconsumer organic waste containing multi hydrolytic enzyme activity which helps to solubilize the waste activated sludge. The continuous production of garbage enzyme and its scaling up process need a globe optimized condition. In present study the effect of fruit peel composition and sonication time on enzyme activity were investigated. Garbage enzyme produced from 6g pineapple peels: 4g citrus peels pre-treated with ultrasound for 20min shows higher hydrolytic enzymes activity. Simultaneously statistical optimization tools were used to model garbage enzyme production with higher activity of amylase, lipase and protease. The maximum activity of amylase, lipase and protease were predicted to be 56.409, 44.039, 74.990U/ml respectively at optimal conditions (pH (6), temperature (37°C), agitation (218 RPM) and fermentation duration (3days)). These optimized conditions can be successfully used for large scale production of garbage enzyme with higher hydrolytic enzyme activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Power of a Bad Example – A Field Experiment in Household Garbage Disposal (Revision of TILEC DP 2012-024, Replaced by TILEC DP 2013-018)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dur, R.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Field-experimental studies have shown that people litter more in more littered environments. Inspired by these findings, many cities around the world have adopted policies to quickly remove litter. While such policies may avoid that people follow the bad example of litterers, they may also

  15. The Power of a Bad Example – A Field Experiment in Household Garbage Disposal (Revision of CentER DP 2013-018)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dur, R.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Field-experimental studies have shown that people litter more in more littered environments.Inspired by these findings, many cities around the world have adopted policies to quickly remove litter. While such policies may avoid that people follow the bad example of litterers, they may also

  16. The Power of a Bad Example – A Field Experiment in Household Garbage Disposal (Revision of TILEC DP 2013-006)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dur, R.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Field-experimental studies have shown that people litter more in more littered environments. Inspired by these findings, many cities around the world have adopted policies to quickly remove litter. While such policies may avoid that people follow the bad example of litterers, they may also

  17. The Power of a Bad Example – A Field Experiment in Household Garbage Disposal (replaced by TILEC DP 2013-006)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dur, R.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Field-experimental studies have shown that people litter more in more littered environments. Inspired by these findings, many cities around the world have adopted policies to quickly remove litter. While such policies may avoid that people follow the bad example of litterers, they may also

  18. The Power of a Bad Example – A Field Experiment in Household Garbage Disposal (replaced by CentER DP 2013-018)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dur, R.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Field-experimental studies have shown that people litter more in more littered environments.Inspired by these findings, many cities around the world have adopted policies to quickly remove litter. While such policies may avoid that people follow the bad example of litterers, they may also

  19. [High-solids anaerobic co-digestion of sludge and kitchen garbage under mesophilic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ni-Na; Dong, Bin; Li, Jiang-Hua; Dai, Ling-Ling; Dai, Xiao-Hu

    2013-01-01

    At solid retention time (SRT) of 20 days, biogas production, volatile solid (VS) degradation and system stability in co-digestion systems of dewatered sludge (DS) and kitchen garbage (KG) were investigated in semi-continuous completely mixed reactors numbered R1-R5 (the DS/KG of their feeding substrate based on wet mass was 1:0, 4:1, 3:2, 2:3 and 0:1, respectively). The results showed that, with larger proportion of KG in feeding substrate, higher methane yield and biogas yield were obtained with lower methane content. For certain reactor at given SRT, KG addition could significantly improve the organic loading rate (OLR) and volume biogas production. System with more KG addition favored higher hydraulic constant k and VS reduction. The hydraulic constant k was 0.25 d(-1), 0.61 d(-1), 1.09 d(-1) and 1.56 d(-1), and the VS reduction was 37.4%, 50.6%, 60.7% and 68.2% for R1-R4, respectively, indicating higher hydrolysis rates with more KG addition, which led to increased VS reductions. With larger KG proportion in feeding substrate, pH, total alkalinity (TA), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) showed decreasing trend. As KG addition increased by 60%, pH, TA, TAN and FAN decreased by 6%, 16%, 22% and 75%, respectively. FAN and Na+ respectively were potential inhibitory chemicals that threatened the stability of the mono-system of DS and KG. In comparison with the mono-system of DS or KG, the co-system showed higher stability by diluting toxic chemicals like ammonia or Na+ to much lower levels.

  20. Sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsaev, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of investigations of possibility of sub-seabed disposal of long-living intermediate-level radioactive wastes carried out by NIREX (UK) is described. Advantages and disadvantages of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes are considered; regions suitable for disposal, transport means for marine disposal are described. Three types of sub-seabed burials are characterized

  1. Environmental effects of reactor waste disposal alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    This present document, Environmental Impact Statement on Management of Commercially Generated Radioactive Waste, describes ten alternative methods for disposal of nuclear wastes and evaluates their anticipated environmental impacts. The ten alternatives are: (1) geologic disposal using conventional mining techniques; (2) chemical resynthesis; (3) very deep hole concept; (4) rock melting concept; (5) island disposal; (6) sub-seabed geologic disposal; (7) ice sheet disposal; (8) reverse-well disposal; (9) partitioning and transmutation; and (10) space disposal. In evaluating the various technical strategies, issues and environmental impacts have been analyzed as best understood currently. Based on the analysis presented here, and in the light of the greater depth of knowledge on geologic disposal, DOE proposes that: (1) the disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic formations can likely be developed and applied with minimal environmental consequences; and (2) therefore the program emphasis should be on the establishment of mined repositories as the operative disposal technology

  2. Monitoring of garbage with a 5 x 5 NaI (Tl) detector; Monitoreo de basura con un detector de NaI (Tl) de 5 x 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.; Angeles C, A

    1991-12-15

    So far in that is carried out the first reload of nuclear fuel in the LVC, the monitoring of garbage has been carried out using monitors trade mark Eberline model RM 14. The procedure consists in manually monitoring each object and to separate of the considered 'clean' garbage the objects considered as contaminated, which register greater or equal counts to 100 cpm. This way to process was adequate under normal operation conditions, but not in the operation rhythm that implies a bigger maintenance since the time required for monitoring from 5 to 10 kg. of garbage is of the order of 0.5 hours and the production rhythm of this it ends up being a lot but high. Due to this necessity it was thought about the problem of looking by a more efficient monitoring method. In this work a method that uses a detector of NaI (Tl) of 5 x 5 inches is discussed. (Author)

  3. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book gives descriptions of waste water disposal, design and management, which includes design of waterworks and sewerage facility such as preparatory work and building plan, used waste water disposal facilities, waste water disposal plant and industrial waste water disposal facilities, water use of waste water disposal plant and design of pump and pump facilities such as type and characteristic, selection and plan, screening and grit.

  4. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.51 Disposal site design for land...

  5. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure. 61.52 Section 61.52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.52 Land disposal...

  6. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal. 61.50 Section 61.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.50 Disposal site...

  7. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  8. Identification and optimization of parameters for the semi-continuous production of garbage enzyme from pre-consumer organic waste by green RP-HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, C; Sivashanmugam, P

    2015-10-01

    Reuse and management of organic solid waste, reduce the environmental impact on human health and increase the economic status by generating valuable products for current and novel applications. Garbage enzyme is one such product produced from fermentation of organic solid waste and it can be used as liquid fertilizer, antimicrobial agents, treatment of domestic wastewater, municipal and industrial sludge treatment, etc. The semi-continuous production of garbage enzyme in large quantity at minimal time period and at lesser cost is needed to cater for treatment of increasing quantities of industrial waste activated sludge. This necessitates a parameter for monitoring and control for the scaling up of current process on semi-continuous basis. In the present study a RP-HPLC (Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method is used for quantification of standard organic acid at optimized condition 30°C column oven temperature, pH 2.7, and 0.7 ml/min flow rate of the mobile phase (potassium dihydrogen phosphate in water) at 50mM concentration. The garbage enzyme solution collected in 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days were used as sample to determine the concentration of organic acid. Among these, 90th day sample showed the maximum concentration of 78.14 g/l of acetic acid in garbage enzyme, whereas other organic acids concentration got decreased when compare to the 15th day sample. This result confirms that the matured garbage enzyme contains a higher concentration of acetic acid and thus it can be used as a monitoring parameter for semi-continuous production of garbage enzyme in large scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Moving multiple sinks through wireless sensor networks for lifetime maximization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrioli, Chiara (Universita di Roma); Carosi, Alessio (Universita di Roma); Basagni, Stefano (Northeastern University); Phillips, Cynthia Ann

    2008-01-01

    Unattended sensor networks typically watch for some phenomena such as volcanic events, forest fires, pollution, or movements in animal populations. Sensors report to a collection point periodically or when they observe reportable events. When sensors are too far from the collection point to communicate directly, other sensors relay messages for them. If the collection point location is static, sensor nodes that are closer to the collection point relay far more messages than those on the periphery. Assuming all sensor nodes have roughly the same capabilities, those with high relay burden experience battery failure much faster than the rest of the network. However, since their death disconnects the live nodes from the collection point, the whole network is then dead. We consider the problem of moving a set of collectors (sinks) through a wireless sensor network to balance the energy used for relaying messages, maximizing the lifetime of the network. We show how to compute an upper bound on the lifetime for any instance using linear and integer programming. We present a centralized heuristic that produces sink movement schedules that produce network lifetimes within 1.4% of the upper bound for realistic settings. We also present a distributed heuristic that produces lifetimes at most 25:3% below the upper bound. More specifically, we formulate a linear program (LP) that is a relaxation of the scheduling problem. The variables are naturally continuous, but the LP relaxes some constraints. The LP has an exponential number of constraints, but we can satisfy them all by enforcing only a polynomial number using a separation algorithm. This separation algorithm is a p-median facility location problem, which we can solve efficiently in practice for huge instances using integer programming technology. This LP selects a set of good sensor configurations. Given the solution to the LP, we can find a feasible schedule by selecting a subset of these configurations, ordering them

  10. Sink stimulation of leaf photosynthesis by the carbon costs of rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: biochemical model of leaf photosynthesis; carbon sink strength; chlorophyll fluorescence; harvest index; leaf protein; leaf senescence; legumes; photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency; Pi recycling; source-sink regulation; ureides One of the most fascinating processes in plant

  11. Lifetime Optimization of a Multiple Sink Wireless Sensor Network through Energy Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network consists of small limited energy sensors which are connected to one or more sinks. The maximum energy consumption takes place in communicating the data from the nodes to the sink. Multiple sink WSN has an edge over the single sink WSN where very less energy is utilized in sending the data to the sink, as the number of hops is reduced. If the energy consumed by a node is balanced between the other nodes, the lifetime of the network is considerably increased. The network lifetime optimization is achieved by restructuring the network by modifying the neighbor nodes of a sink. Only those nodes are connected to a sink which makes the total energy of the sink less than the threshold. This energy balancing through network restructuring optimizes the network lifetime. This paper depicts this fact through simulations done in MATLAB.

  12. Catador de material reciclável: uma profissão para além da sobrevivência? Recycled garbage pickers: a profession beyond survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Ferreira Rezende de Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou investigar as relações de trabalho entre catadores de materiais recicláveis e organizações de reciclagem dos materiais coletados. Os catadores atuam no município de Goiânia. A reciclagem de lixo urbano figura como atividade emergente após movimentos ambientalistas e de preservação ambiental. Embora gere vantagens ambientais indiscutíveis, sobressaem os aspectos econômicos. A catação de materiais recicláveis constitui, para muitos trabalhadores, única forma de garantir sobrevivência e possibilidade de inclusão num mercado de trabalho excludente. Essa pesquisa investigou como os catadores percebem suas relações de trabalho, as condições em que desempenham suas funções e as práticas do trabalho em cooperativas de reciclagem. Utilizou-se entrevistas com 10 catadores, que foram tratadas pela análise de conteúdo. Os dados revelaram relações de trabalho precárias e informais entre catadores e organizações de reciclagem. Os trabalhadores são expostos à periculosidade, vítimas de preconceitos e estigmas e excluídos de alguns ambientes sociais.The article presents results of a research that investigated the work relations between recycled garbage pickers working in Goiânia and organizations that recycle such materials. The recycling of urban garbage figure as an emergent activity after environmentalist movements and environment preservation. Although it generates unquestionable environmental advantages, the economic benefits excel. Collecting garbage, to many workers, is the only way of guaranteing survival and inclusion in the excluding market. This research investigated the way garbage pickers understand their work relations, under what conditions perform their functions, and the work practices in garbage picking cooperatives. Ten garbage pickers were interviewed and data analyzed by content analysis. Data showed precarious and informal work relations

  13. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  14. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  15. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  16. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  17. Acoustic monitoring of a ball sinking in vibrated granular sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; Léopoldès, Julien; Tourin, Arnaud; Jia, Xiaoping

    2017-06-01

    We develop an ultrasound probing to investigate the dynamics of a high density ball sinking in 3D opaque dense granular suspensions under horizontal weak vibrations. We show that the motion of the ball in these horizontally vibrated glass bead packings saturated by water is consistent with the frictional rheology. The extracted stress-strain relation evidences an evolution of flow behaviour from frictional creep to inertial regimes. Our main finding is that weak external vibration primarily affects the yield stress and controls the depth of sinking via vibration-induced sliding at the grain contact. Also, we observe that the extracted rheological parameters depend on the size of the probing ball, suggesting thus a non-local rheology.

  18. Finite element simulation of sink pass round tubes using Ansys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarkar M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and simulation of metal forming processes are increasingly in demand from the industry as the resulting models are found to be valuable tools considering the optimization of the existing and development of new processes. By the application of modeling and simulation techniques, it is possible to reduce the number of time-consuming experiments such as prototyping. Seamless tubes of various sizes and shapes are manufactured by various processes like sinking, fixed plug, floating plug, moving mandrel, cold working and hot working. The present work deals with the simulation of round tubes while passing through the sink pass, using ANSYS software. The simulation results are the displacement and von Mises stresses. The procedure can be used to improve the product quality and to study the effect of various parameters like die angle on the product quality.

  19. TMI abnormal wastes disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary storage casks; (2) underground storage in vaults; and (3) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  20. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  1. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  2. Waste disposal developments within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has broad involvement in topics of radioactive waste generation, treatment, storage and disposal. The Company's site at Drigg has been used since 1959 for the disposal of low level waste and its facilities are now being upgraded and extended for that purpose. Since September 1987, BNFL on behalf of UK Nirex Limited has been managing an investigation of the Sellafield area to assess its suitability for deep underground emplacement of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. An approach will be described to establish a partnership with the local community to work towards a concept of monitored, underground emplacement appropriate for each waste category. (author)

  3. Carbon Sinks in a Changing Climate: Relative Buoyancy and Sinking Potentials of Various Antarctic Phytoplankton and Ice Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmel, S.; Selz, V.

    2016-12-01

    Polar phytoplankton play instrumental roles in global biogeochemical cycles, sometimes serving as massive carbon sinks via the biological pump. In addition to phytoplankton, sea ice supports a significant amount of ice algae, the essential primary producers for the ecosystem in winter and early spring. While sea ice habitat declines on regional scales, the fate of sea ice algae post-ice melt remains relatively unknown, despite its importance in understanding how the biological pump might be affected by sea ice loss. Through a series of settling column experiments on the icebreaker Nathaniel B. Palmer, we aimed to address the question: What controls the fate of the carbon-rich ice algae across the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) during ice melt? We focused on whether species composition affects the sinking potential of ice algal communities. Using FlowCAM imagery, we classified samples collected from the buoyant, neutral, and negatively buoyant portions of the settling columns into genus-level taxonomic classes. We used image parameters and geometric shape equations to calculate the biovolume of each taxonomic group. We further explored relationships between taxa-specific sinking potentials, environmental parameters (temperature and nutrients), and physiological properties of associated algal communities (as described by Fast Rate Repetition fluorometry). Results indicate that colonial Phaeocystis antarctica tends to dominate lower regions of the settling column. Moreover, we observe strong correlations between geographic location and both nutrients and phytoplankton physiology. We found that these three factors are indeed related to taxa-specific buoyancy and sinking indices. An understanding of these relationships sheds more light on the role P. antarctica (a carbon-rich bloom-forming genus) plays in the biological pump; higher sinking rates suggest greater carbon export to depth, while lower sinking rates increase the likelihood of carbon being respired back

  4. Modeling Atmospheric CO2 Processes to Constrain the Missing Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Erickson, D. J.; Collatz, J. C.; Pawson, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a NASA supported modeling effort to reduce uncertainty in carbon cycle processes that create the so-called missing sink of atmospheric CO2. Our overall objective is to improve characterization of CO2 source/sink processes globally with improved formulations for atmospheric transport, terrestrial uptake and release, biomass and fossil fuel burning, and observational data analysis. The motivation for this study follows from the perspective that progress in determining CO2 sources and sinks beyond the current state of the art will rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. The major components of this effort are: 1) Continued development of the chemistry and transport model using analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, with comparison to real time data in both forward and inverse modes; 2) An advanced biosphere model, constrained by remote sensing data, coupled to the global transport model to produce distributions of CO2 fluxes and concentrations that are consistent with actual meteorological variability; 3) Improved remote sensing estimates for biomass burning emission fluxes to better characterize interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 budget and to better constrain the land use change source; 4) Evaluating the impact of temporally resolved fossil fuel emission distributions on atmospheric CO2 gradients and variability. 5) Testing the impact of existing and planned remote sensing data sources (e.g., AIRS, MODIS, OCO) on inference of CO2 sources and sinks, and use the model to help establish measurement requirements for future remote sensing instruments. The results will help to prepare for the use of OCO and other satellite data in a multi-disciplinary carbon data assimilation system for analysis and prediction of carbon cycle changes and carbodclimate interactions.

  5. Sinking failure of scour protection at wind turbine foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Nielsen, Anders W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of an experimental study on scour protection around offshore wind turbine foundations, with special emphasis on the sinking failure of the scour protection work in Horns Rev 1 offshore wind farm (Denmark). The paper reviews previous results obtained by the author....... A brief account is also given of filter criteria and their application to the Horns Rev 1 case, whereby the present results and the filter criteria results are linked....

  6. Analytical analysis and experimental verification of interleaved parallelogram heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Long; Wang, Chi-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel air-cooled heat sink profile (IPFM) is proposed to compete with the typical design. • It features two different perimeters with odd fin being rectangular and the rest being parallelogram. • A new modified dimensionless parameter characterized the flow length in triangular region is proposed. • The analytical predictions are in line with the experiments for both conventional and IPFM design. • IPFM design shows a much lower pressure drop and a superior performance especially for dense fins. - Abstract: In this study, a novel air-cooled heat sink profile is proposed to compete with the conventional design. The new design is termed as IPFM (Interleaved Parallelogram Fin Module) which features two different geometrical perimeter shapes of fins. This new design not only gains the advantage of lower pressure drop for power saving; but also gains a material saving for less fin surface area. An assessment of flow impedance and performance between the conventional and IPFM heat sink is analytically investigated and experimentally verified. A new modified dimensionless friction factor for triangular region is proposed. The analytical predictions agree with experimental measurements for both conventional and IPFM design. In electronic cooling design, especially for cloud server air-cooled heat sink design, the flow pattern is usually laminar with Reynolds number being operated less than 2000. In this regime, the IPFM design shows 8–12% less of surface than conventional design when the flow rate is less than 10 CFM; yet the thermal performance is slightly inferior to the conventional design when the flowrate is raised towards 25 CFM. Yet in the test range of 5–25 CFM, a 10–15% lower flow impedance is observed. The smaller fin spacing, the more conspicuous reduction of flow impedance is observed. The optimization of cutting angle is around 35° for 10 CFM, and it is reduced to 15° at a larger flowrate of 20 CFM.

  7. Pin fin compliant heat sink with enhanced flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2018-04-10

    Heat sinks and methods of using the same include a top and bottom plate, at least one of which has a plurality of pin contacts flexibly connected to one another, where the plurality of pin contacts have vertical and lateral flexibility with respect to one another; and pin slice layers, each having multiple pin slices, arranged vertically between the top and bottom plates such that the plurality of pin slices form substantially vertical pins connecting the top and bottom plates.

  8. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Tabue N; Roland, Madgan E; Françoise, Kenfack M M; Francis, Zeukeng; Livo, Esemu F; Clovis, Seumen T H

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%), markets (18.3%), and houses (13.6%). The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (χ (2)=154.12, df=4, p<0.05). Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district.

  9. Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabue N. Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rabies is a neglected enzootic disease which represents a serious public health problem. In Cameroon, efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. The community knowledge, as well as attitudes and perception on rabies, is therefore important for both prevention of human deaths and control in animals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaoundé. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. Results: Although 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%, markets (18.3%, and houses (13.6%. The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (χ2=154.12, df=4, p<0.05. Conclusion: Most participants knew that rabies could be transmitted by a dog bite as well as the measures to be taken in this type of situation. Increased knowledge of respondents on rabies showed OGDs and stray dogs as significant risk factors for canine rabies in Biyem-Assi health district.

  10. Sinking of armour layer around a vertical cylinder exposed to waves and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Probst, Thomas; Petersen, Thor Ugelvig

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of the sinking of a scour protection adjacent to a monopile are described in this paper, together with the determination of the equilibrium sinking depth in various wave and combined wave and current conditions based on physical model tests.Sinking of the rocks may ultimately lead ...

  11. Reconstruction and attribution of the carbon sink of European forests between 1950 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellassen, V.; Viovy, N.; Luyssaert, S.; Maire, G.; Schelhaas, M.; Ciais, P.

    2011-01-01

    European forests are an important carbon sink; however, the relative contributions to this sink of climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]), nitrogen deposition and forest management are under debate. We attributed the European carbon sink in forests using ORCHIDEE-FM, a process-based

  12. Reconstruction and attribution of the carbon sink of European forests between 1950 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Viovy, Nicolas; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Le Maire, Guerric; Schelhaas, Mart Jan; Ciais, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    European forests are an important carbon sink; however, the relative contributions to this sink of climate, atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2]), nitrogen deposition and forest management are under debate. We attributed the European carbon sink in forests using ORCHIDEE-FM, a process-based

  13. The sinking of the Soviet Mike class nuclear powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to assess the quantities of the longer-lived or persistent radioactive materials, or source terms, that have been lost at sea with the sinking of the Soviet MIKE class submarine off Bear Island on 7 April 1989. The report arrives at an assessment of the amount of radioactivity and compares this to the quantities of radioactive materials dumped by the UK from 1953 to 1982 at which time sea dumping of radioactive wastes was suspended by international resolve. This comparison can be used to assess the relative significance of the sinking of this submarine. The study does not extrapolate the estimated radioactive source terms to an environmental or radiological significance of the sinking, although it is concluded that unless the submarine is recovered intact from the ocean floor, the by far greater part of the radioactive materials on board will disperse to the marine environment at some future time, if they are not doing so already. (author)

  14. Control of Delta Avulsion by Downstream Sediment Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Gerard; Paola, Chris; Voller, Vaughan R.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how fluxes are partitioned at delta bifurcations is critical for predicting patterns of land loss and gain in deltas worldwide. Although the dynamics of river deltas are influenced from both upstream and downstream, previous studies of bifurcations have focused on upstream controls. Using a quasi-1-D bifurcation model, we show that flow switching in bifurcations is strongly influenced by downstream sediment sinks. We find that coupling between upstream and downstream feedbacks can lead to oscillations in water and sediment flux partitioning. The frequency and initial rate of growth/decay of the oscillations depend on both upstream and downstream conditions, with dimensionless bifurcate length and bypass fraction emerging as key downstream parameters. With a strong offshore sink, causing bypass in the bifurcate branches, we find that bifurcation dynamics become "frozen"; that is, the bifurcation settles on a permanent discharge ratio. In contrast, under depositional conditions, we identify three dynamical regimes: symmetric; soft avulsion, where both branches remain open but the dominant branch switches; and full avulsion. Finally, we show that differential subsidence alters these regimes, with the difference in average sediment supply to each branch exactly compensating for the difference in accommodation generation. Additionally, the model predicts that bifurcations with shorter branches are less asymmetric than bifurcations with longer branches, all else equal, providing a possible explanation for the difference between backwater length distributaries, which tend to be avulsive, and relatively stable mouth-bar-scale networks. We conclude that bifurcations are sensitive both quantitatively and qualitatively to downstream sinks.

  15. [Carbon storage and carbon sink of mangrove wetland: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhi-hua; Li, Zhi-yong

    2013-04-01

    Mangrove forest is a special wetland forest growing in the inter-tidal zone of tropical and subtropical regions, playing important roles in windbreak, promoting silt sedimentation, resisting extreme events such as cyclones and tsunamis, and protecting coastline, etc. The total area of global mangrove forests is about 152000 km2, only accounting for 0. 4% of all forest area. There are about 230 km2 mangrove forests in China. The mangrove forests in the tropics have an average carbon storage as high as 1023 Mg hm-2, and the global mangrove forests can sequestrate about 0. 18-0. 228 Pg C a-1. In addition to plant species composition, a variety of factors such as air temperature, seawater temperature and salinity, soil physical and chemical properties, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and human activities have significant effects on the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forests. Many approaches based onfield measurements, including allometric equations, remote sensing, and model simulation, are applied to quantify the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forest wetland. To study the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove wetland can promote the further understanding of the carbon cycle of mangrove wetland and related controlling mechanisms, being of significance for the protection and rational utilization of mangrove wetland.

  16. Disposal of household pharmaceuticals in insular communities: social attitude, behaviour evaluation and prevention activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Dimitriou, Maria; Voukkali, Irene

    2017-06-25

    The increase in medicine and drug consumption have resulted in identifying these emerging pollutants in all aquatic compartments, ranging from surface water and groundwater resources to the marine environment. Pharmaceuticals are an indispensable part of life today. A large number of pharmaceuticals are used in a daily basis in the treatment, prevention, cure or diagnosis of diseases or to otherwise enhance people's physical or mental well-being. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the attitude of citizens in Cyprus regarding the disposal of pharmaceuticals as well as to identify the main reasons why pharmaceutical wastes are produced. The result indicted that in Cyprus, there is lack of data regarding the amount of pharmaceutical wastes that are discarded into household waste and sinks. The survey audit showed that 86.6% of men's and 83.3% of women's used pharmacy with or without doctor's recipe. Social behaviour is considered to be the most significant reason that pharmaceutical are produced. The results indicated that, citizens mainly keep unused medicines and drugs at home in case they are needed again as well as patients use to cut-off or to reduce their treatment in case that on the first 3-6 days they feel better. The survey indicated that the main disposal method of unused or expired medicines and drugs is in household waste followed from the sink and the toilet. Furthermore, the main disposal solution of unused or expired medicines and drugs remain the household bin as well as the sewage system (sink or toilet), while a percentage more than 55% of the participants indicated that they will follow a specific waste management program if existing in place. Moreover, in order to reduce the production of pharmaceutical wastes, specific prevention activities must be considered.

  17. Boreal forest BVOC exchange: emissions versus in-canopy sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Putian; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Taipale, Ditte; Rannik, Üllar; Rantala, Pekka; Petteri Rissanen, Matti; Chen, Dean; Boy, Michael

    2017-12-01

    A multilayer gas dry deposition model has been developed and implemented into a one-dimensional chemical transport model SOSAA (model to Simulate the concentrations of Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols) to calculate the dry deposition velocities for all the gas species included in the chemistry scheme. The new model was used to analyse in-canopy sources and sinks, including gas emissions, chemical production and loss, dry deposition, and turbulent transport of 12 featured biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) or groups of BVOCs (e.g. monoterpenes, isoprene+2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), sesquiterpenes, and oxidation products of mono- and sesquiterpenes) in July 2010 at the boreal forest site SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations). According to the significance of modelled monthly-averaged individual source and sink terms inside the canopy, the selected BVOCs were classified into five categories: 1. Most of emitted gases are transported out of the canopy (monoterpenes, isoprene + MBO). 2. Chemical reactions remove a significant portion of emitted gases (sesquiterpenes). 3. Bidirectional fluxes occur since both emission and dry deposition are crucial for the in-canopy concentration tendency (acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, formaldehyde). 4. Gases removed by deposition inside the canopy are compensated for by the gases transported from above the canopy (acetol, pinic acid, β-caryophyllene's oxidation product BCSOZOH). 5. The chemical production is comparable to the sink by deposition (isoprene's oxidation products ISOP34OOH and ISOP34NO3). Most of the simulated sources and sinks were located above about 0.2 hc (canopy height) for oxidation products and above about 0.4 hc for emitted species except formaldehyde. In addition, soil deposition (including deposition onto understorey vegetation) contributed 11-61 % to the overall in-canopy deposition. The emission sources peaked at about 0.8-0.9 hc, which was higher than 0.6 hc

  18. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  19. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  20. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  1. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  2. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  3. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-01-01

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem

  4. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  5. Exposure of garbage truck drivers and maintenance personnel at a waste handling centre to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons derived from diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusimäki, Leea; Peltonen, Yrjö; Kyyrö, Eila; Mutanen, Pertti; Peltonen, Kimmo; Savela, Kirsti

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust was evaluated in summer and winter by measuring vapour and particle phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifteen PAHs were simultaneously determined from the air samples obtained from truck drivers collecting household waste and maintenance personnel at a waste handling centre. The major compounds analysed from the personal air samples of exposed workers were naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene. The total PAH exposure (sum of 15 PAHs) of garbage truck drivers ranged from 71 to 2,660 ng m(-3) and from 68 to 900 ng m-3 in the maintenance work. The exposure of garbage truck drivers to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) ranged from the mean of 0.03 to 0.3 ng m(-3) whereas no B[a]P in control samples or in those collected from maintenance workers was detected. A statistically significant difference in diesel-derived PAH exposure between the garbage truck drivers and the control group in both seasons (in summer p = 0.0022, degrees of freedom (df) 70.5; and in winter p garbage truck drivers and the maintenance workers (in summer p < 0.0001, df = 50.1; and in winter p < 0.0001, df = 44.2) was obtained.

  6. Evaluating Thermoelectric Power Generation Device Performance Using a Rectangular Microchannel Heat Sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a microchannel heat sink is applied to a thermoelectric power generation (TEG) device and compared with a traditional heat sink. The advantages and disadvantages of using each heat sink in a TEG device are evaluated. The microchannel hydraulic diameter is 5.33 x 10-4 m and that of t......In this work, a microchannel heat sink is applied to a thermoelectric power generation (TEG) device and compared with a traditional heat sink. The advantages and disadvantages of using each heat sink in a TEG device are evaluated. The microchannel hydraulic diameter is 5.33 x 10-4 m...... and thermal parameters are considered for both laminar and turbulent regimes in the channels. Furthermore, using the temperature difference through each TEG, the system efficiency is calculated. The results show that the microchannel heat sink gives a higher pressure drop, but the heat flow across the TEG...

  7. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying 14 CO 2 to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying 14 C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves

  8. Radioactive waste disposal and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties presented by the current atomic energy law for the nuclear waste disposal in Switzerland are shown. It is emphasised how important scientific information is in the political solutions for nuclear disposal

  9. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  10. Aquamess: Portraits of Garbage at the Top of the World, observing and changing our synthetic footprint for human and planetary health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, C.

    2017-12-01

    How can science inform art and art inform science and how does that interrelationship affect social change, research and the dissemination of scientific evidence? Carol Devine's Aquamess: Portraits of Garbage at the Top of the World project is based on a 2015 civilian expedition, CleanUp Svalbard. Volunteers on this stewardship initiative collected garbage accumulating on the Norwegian archipelago's remote shores as a recognized marine debris mitigation strategy. For four days, Devine and fellow volunteers travelled 10 nautical miles and collected 13.5 metres of garbage including 3.5 cubic metres of plastic fishing nets. Devine documented the effort and created Aquamess, a photography exhibit with garbage 'portraits', noting their geolocations. Her objective was to disseminate knowledge about the global marine debris problem, such as how ocean currents carry plastics, how the density varies due to hydrological and meterological conditions, what gyres are etc., and to encourage dialogue and continued interdisciplinary research and action. At the request of Dr. David Pantalony, Curator at the Canada Science and Technology Museum, Devine also collected a sample of the debris from Svalbard. This "Arctic garbage" is now archival material and part of an upcoming multimedia Oceans exhibit the museum created with her about marine science and ocean health. Already, Aquamess has engaged discussions about marine pollution's impact on human and planetary health in the 2016-7 group show Science Inspires Art: Food at the New York Hall of Science exploring contemporary food issues including food waste. It will be in a November 2017 group exhibit Photography as Response at the Center for Fine Art Photography in Colorado and is the subject of Devine's TEDxMontreal Women talk. Devine has written blogs and articles about Aquamess;has been interviewed in science, sciart and culture journals in the US, Europe, and Canada; and is observing scientific and non-scientific reactions through

  11. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  12. 40 CFR 761.60 - Disposal requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a TSCA-approved disposal facility, as bulk product waste under § 761.62, as household waste under... incinerator that complies with § 761.70; or (B) Until March 1, 1981, disposal in a chemical waste landfill... which complies with § 761.70; or (B) Until March 1, 1981, disposal in a chemical waste landfill which...

  13. Solid waste disposal into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, W.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction to disposal of radioactive waste; handling of solid nuclear waste; technology of final disposal, with specific reference to salt domes; conditioning of radioactive waste; safety barriers for radioactive waste; practice of final disposal in other countries. (U.K.)

  14. Bacterial Succession on Sinking Particles in the Ocean's Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A. Pelve

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sinking particles formed in the photic zone and moving vertically through the water column are a main mechanism for nutrient transport to the deep ocean, and a key component of the biological carbon pump. The particles appear to be processed by a microbial community substantially different from the surrounding waters. Single cell genomics and metagenomics were employed to describe the succession of dominant bacterial groups during particle processing. Sinking particles were extracted from sediment traps at Station Aloha in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG during two different trap deployments conducted in July and August 2012. The microbial communities in poisoned vs. live sediment traps differed significantly from one another, consistent with prior observations by Fontanez et al. (2015. Partial genomes from these communities were sequenced from cells belonging to the genus Arcobacter (commensalists potentially associated with protists such as Radiolaria, and Vibrio campbellii (a group previously reported to be associated with crustacea. These bacteria were found in the particle-associated communities at specific depths in both trap deployments, presumably due to their specific host-associations. Partial genomes were also sequenced from cells belonging to Idiomarina and Kangiella that were enriched in live traps over a broad depth range, that represented a motile copiotroph and a putatively non-motile algicidal saprophyte, respectively. Planktonic bacterial cells most likely caught in the wake of the particles belonging to Actinomarina and the SAR11 clade were also sequenced. Our results suggest that similar groups of eukaryote-associated bacteria are consistently found on sinking particles at different times, and that particle remineralization involves specific, reproducible bacterial succession events in oligotrophic ocean waters.

  15. Subterranean karst environments as a global sink for atmospheric methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kevin D.; Drobniak, Agnieszka; Etiope, Giuseppe; Mastalerz, Maria; Sauer, Peter E.; Schimmelmann, Arndt

    2018-03-01

    The air in subterranean karst cavities is often depleted in methane (CH4) relative to the atmosphere. Karst is considered a potential sink for the atmospheric greenhouse gas CH4 because its subsurface drainage networks and solution-enlarged fractures facilitate atmospheric exchange. Karst landscapes cover about 14% of earth's continental surface, but observations of CH4 concentrations in cave air are limited to localized studies in Gibraltar, Spain, Indiana (USA), Vietnam, Australia, and by incomplete isotopic data. To test if karst is acting as a global CH4 sink, we measured the CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values of cave air from 33 caves in the USA and three caves in New Zealand. We also measured CO2 concentrations, δ13CCO2, and radon (Rn) concentrations to support CH4 data interpretation by assessing cave air residence times and mixing processes. Among these caves, 35 exhibited subatmospheric CH4 concentrations in at least one location compared to their local atmospheric backgrounds. CH4 concentrations, δ13CCH4, and δ2HCH4 values suggest that microbial methanotrophy within caves is the primary CH4 consumption mechanism. Only 5 locations from 3 caves showed elevated CH4 concentrations compared to the atmospheric background and could be ascribed to local CH4 sources from sewage and outgassing swamp water. Several associated δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values point to carbonate reduction and acetate fermentation as biochemical pathways of limited methanogenesis in karst environments and suggest that these pathways occur in the environment over large spatial scales. Our data show that karst environments function as a global CH4 sink.

  16. Salt Marshes as Sources and Sinks of Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J.; Fulweiler, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The role of salt marshes in controlling silica exchange between terrestrial and marine environments is unclear. In some studies, large quantities of dissolved silica (DSi) appear to be exported from marshes via tidal exchange, potentially fueling future diatom production in adjacent waters. In contrast, other studies report insignificant DSi export and found instead that salt marshes appeared to be Si sinks. Further, few studies examine salt marsh Si export in relation to inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphorus (DIP). We address these uncertainties by quantifying net fluxes of DSi and biogenic Si (BSi), as well as DIN and DIP during the spring and summer in a relatively undisturbed southern New England salt marsh (Narragansett Bay, USA). Our data demonstrates that during the spring, when estuarine waters are deplete in DSi, the marsh serves as a net sink of BSi (132 mol h-1) and a source of DSi (31 mol h-1) to the estuary. The spring DIN:DSi ratios of ebbing water were more than five times lower than flood waters. Most importantly, the DSi export rates (6.5 x103 mol d-1 km-2) are an order of magnitude larger than the export by rivers in the region (115 mol d-1 km-2), indicating the marsh tidal exchange is vital in supplying the Si necessary for spring diatom blooms in the estuary. Conversely, during the summer the marsh served as a net Si sink, importing on average 59 mol DSi h-1 and 39 mol BSi h-1. These data highlight that the role of salt marshes in silica cycling appears to have a strong seasonality. We hypothesize that net import of Si increases the residence time of Si in estuarine systems, providing an important and previously over-looked ecosystem service. In the absence of salt marshes, ~5.1 x 104 kmol of Si would be exported from this system during the growing season, possibly decreasing Si availability and altering phytoplankton species composition in the estuary.

  17. Sources and Sinks: Elucidating Mechanisms, Documenting Patterns, and Forecasting Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    Walker, L. E., Marzluff, J. M., & Cimprich, D. A. 2016. Source-sink population dynamics driven by a brood parasite : A case study of an endangered songbird, the black- capped vireo. Biological Conservation 203:108-118. ...relied on resighting banded birds . However, even with over 600 banded birds and >300 natal dispersal records, we did not have enough resightings among...less than 10 g in mass, making long term tracking via telemetry difficult due to the weight restrictions on protected migratory birds . Despite

  18. Fate and transport of fragrance materials in principal environmental sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2013-10-01

    Fragrance materials are widely present in the environment, such as air, water, and soil. Concerns have been raised due to the increasing utilization and suspected impact on human health. The bioaccumulating property is considered as one of the causes of the toxicity to human beings. The removal of fragrance materials from environmental sinks has not been paid enough attention due to the lack of regulation and research on their toxicity. This paper provides systematic information on how fragrance materials are transferred to the environment, how do they affect human lives, and what is their fate in water, wastewater, wastewater sludge, and soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2006-01-01

    Sulfide buildup in sewer networks is associated with several problems, including health impacts, corrosion of sewer structures and odor nuisance. In recent years, significant advances in the knowledge of the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks have been made. This paper...... summarizes this newly obtained knowledge and emphasizes important implications of the findings. Model simulations of the in-sewer processes important for the sulfur cycle showed that sulfide oxidation in the wetted biofilm is typically the most important sink for dissolved sulfide in gravity sewers. However...

  20. Is The Bovine Pedal Bone Sinking Around Calving?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Kurt; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Capion, Nynne

    Introduction Softening of connective tissue of the claw suspensory apparatus around calving as described by Tarlton, et al. (2002) may lead to sinking of the bovine pedal bone resulting in compression of the digital cushion. The objective of this study was to describe changes in the thickness...... covered with water to improve the image quality. At each examination, the body condition score (BCS) of the heifers was recorded. The thickness of the soft tissue in the sole, defined as the distance between inner margin of the sole horn and the pedal bone, was measured on the ultrasonographic images...

  1. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is any material which contains or is contaminated by radionuclides and for which no use is foreseen. According to this definition, a large number of sources, solid, liquid and gaseous, within the Greek territory can be - and, actually, is - declared as waste. The types of such solid sources are presented. It is estimated that these solid sources represent above 90% of all disused sources in Greece. The medical sources of Co-60 and Cs-137 were used in Teletherapy units, while the Ra-226 ones are in the form of needles or tubes used in Brachytherapy. All the industrial sources had been used for measuring moisture, density, thickness, elementary composition, etc. The small sources used by research labs are mainly in the form of discs. The above sources had been imported a long time ago (even 3 decades ago), had been used, and then stored as useless inside the user's premises. Since 1990 all the users of radioactive sources are obliged to return them back to the suppliers when they are no longer in use. In fact, no source is imported unless there is a written declaration of acceptance by its producer. A project concerning the export of all disused sealed sources is in progress. For every source a certificate will be issued, proper container will be purchased and all the necessary documents will be prepared so that it can be transported for final disposal or reuse in a foreign repository facility. Apart from this 'old generated' waste, unsealed radionuclides have always been used in nuclear medicine producing waste. The above radionuclides are used either in vivo (injected or ingested by patients) or in vitro (labeling of blood and other cells). Both uses leave some radioactive waste inside the needles, the tubes, or other material. Since 1991, Greece has a well-established regulatory system for controlling waste from nuclear medicine labs, so that disposing such solid or liquid waste does no harm to the environment. A revision of these regulations has

  3. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  4. Effluent treatment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great increase in the attention given to environmental matters by the public, media and Government. This has been reflected in the increased stature of environmental pressure groups and the introduction of new regulatory bodies and procedures. However, the satisfactory treatment and disposal of waste depends ultimately upon the development and employment of efficient low cost processes, and the enforcement of effective legislation. This Conference organised by the Yorkshire Branch of IChemE in association with the Institution's Environmental Protection Subject Group, will address the areas of waste monitoring, developments in pollution control processes and process economics and will look forward to future trends in waste disposal. It will also consider the impact of recent legislation upon the process industries. (author)

  5. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  6. Nuclear waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czibolya, L.

    1983-01-01

    The general demands for radioactive waste management, the key problem of nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Various processes have been developed to solidify highly radioactive, long-lived wastes of the reprocessing plants in the form of borosilicate or phosphate glasses. Wastes of medium and low activity are generally solidified using either cement or bitumen or polyethylene as matrices. The alternatives of final waste disposal are reviewed according to French, Soviet, American, British, Swedish, Indian and Japanese experiences. (V.N.)

  7. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  8. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste.

  9. Efficient production of methane from artificial garbage waste by a cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor containing carbon fiber textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A cylindrical bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) containing carbon fiber textiles (CFT; BER + CFT) has characteristics of bioelectrochemical and packed-bed systems. In this study, utility of a cylindrical BER + CFT for degradation of a garbage slurry and recovery of biogas was investigated by applying 10% dog food slurry. The working electrode potential was electrochemically regulated at −0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Stable methane production of 9.37 L-CH4 · L−1 · day−1 and dichromate chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal of 62.5% were observed, even at a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 89.3 g-CODcr · L−1 · day−1. Given energy as methane (372.6 kJ · L−1 · day−1) was much higher than input electric energy to the working electrode (0.6 kJ · L−1 · day−1) at this OLR. Methanogens were highly retained in CFT by direct attachment to the cathodic working electrodes (52.3%; ratio of methanogens to prokaryotes), compared with the suspended fraction (31.2%), probably contributing to the acceleration of organic material degradation and removal of organic acids. These results provide insight into the application of cylindrical BER + CFT in efficient methane production from garbage waste including a high percentage of solid fraction. PMID:23497472

  10. Photodegradation of organic matter in fresh garbage leachate using immobilized nano-sized TiO2 as catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Xie, Q; Hu, B Q; Zhao, X L

    2014-01-01

    Two immobilized nano-sized TiO2 catalysts, TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC) and TiO2/silica gel (SG) (TiO2/SG), were prepared by the sol-gel method, and their use in the photocatalytic degradation of organic matter in fresh garbage leachate under UV irradiation was investigated. The influences of the catalyst dosage, the initial solution pH, H2O2 addition and the reuse of the catalysts were evaluated. The degradation of organic matter was assessed based on the decrease of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the leachate. The results indicated that the degradation of the COD obeyed first-order kinetics in the presence of both photocatalysts. The degradation rate of COD was found to increase with increasing catalyst dosage up to 9 g/L for TiO2/AC and 6 g/L for TiO2/SG, above which the degradation began to attenuate. Furthermore, the degradation rate first increased and then decreased as the solution pH increased from 2 to 14, and the degradation rate increased as the amount of H2O2 increased to 2.93 mM, after which it remained constant. No obvious decrease in the rate of COD degradation was observed during the first four repeated uses of the photocatalysts, indicating that the catalysts could be recovered and reused. Compared with TiO2/AC, TiO2/SG exhibited higher efficiency in photocatalyzing the degradation of COD in garbage leachate.

  11. Elemental evaluation in plastic garbage bags purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, using the EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Cavagis, Alexandre D.M.; Menegario, Amauri A.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic garbage bags have been used for packing household waste in Piracicaba city and nearby cities broadly. Many of these bags are made from recycled polymers and the presence of harmful elements is a matter of concern. In this work fourteen plastic garbage bags of different brands and colors were purchased from local markets in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo. For the analysis, the samples in triplicate were cut into 47 mm diameter circle and attached into acrylic holder and analyzed directly by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence - EDXRF. The excitation was carried out using an X-ray tube Mo target and Zr filter (15 kV / 25 mA) under non-vacuum. The characteristic X-rays were detected by a semiconductor detector Si(Li), coupled to a multichannel analyzer system. The acquisition time was 500 s and the X-ray spectra were deconvulated by the AXIL software. For quantification it was used a standard set produced by the MicroMatter/USA and the absorption effect was corrected by the known chemical composition matrix technique, in which allowed the determination of K, Ca Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr by Kα lines and Pb by the line Lα simultaneously. The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing a certified reference material (NIST air particulate on filter media, SRM2783). The limits of detection (LD) for these elements were: K - 38.9; Ca - 19.4; Ti - 7.1; Cr - 3.1; Mn - 2.1; Fe - 1.5; Cu - 0.86; Zn - 0.85; Sr - 4.6 and Pb - 2.8 μg g -1 . Some elements showed minimum and/or maximum concentrations well above the LDs, as K: -1 . (author)

  12. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  13. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  14. Geomechanical problems in study of radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yixing

    1987-01-01

    Methods for both low-intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal and high level radioactive waste disposal were introduced briefly. Geomechanical problems in radioactive wastes disposal were discussed. Some suggestions were proposed for the radioactive wastes disposal in China

  15. CO2 Sink/Source in the Indonesian Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Kartadikaria, Aditya R.

    2015-04-01

    Two distinct CO2 sink/source characteristics appeared from the compiled observed data 1984-2013 in the tropical Indonesian seas. The western part persistently emits CO2 to the atmosphere, while the eastern is rather dynamic which emits and absorbs smaller amount of CO2 to and from atmosphere, respectively. The segregation is proximal to the virtual Wallace line, where in the continental shelf is located. Lower salinity and higher silicate condition in the western part influenced the higher pCO2 condition in Java Sea. Temperature is found to have a limited influence to control different characteristic in the west and east, but SST change of 2.0 0C during La Ninã condition effectively reduced the source amount of CO2 by 50% compared to Normal year condition. Yet, during La Ninã, higher wind speed increases CO2 flux twice compared to Normal year. In the continental shelf area where CO2 sink area is found, 29 years data showed that pCO2 trend is increasing ±0.6-3.8 μatm/year. From this study, the overall areas have a significant source of CO2 of approximately 10 - 24 μatm.

  16. Thermal performance measurements on ultimate heat sinks--cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.; Abbey, O.B.

    1977-12-01

    The primary objective of the studies described is to obtain the requisite data, with respect to modeling requirements, to characterize thermal performance of heat sinks for nuclear facilities existing at elevated water temperatures in result of experiencing a genuinely large heat load and responding to meteorological influence. The data should reflect thermal performance for combinations leading to worst-case meteorological influence. A geothermal water retention basin has been chosen as the site for the first measurement program and data have been obtained in the first of several experiments scheduled to be performed there. These data illustrate the thermal and water budgets during episodes of cooling from an initially high pond water bulk temperature. Monitoring proceeded while the pond experienced only meteorological and seepage influence. The data are discussed and are presented as a data volume which may be used for calculation purposes. Suggestions for future measurement programs are stated with the intent to maintain and improve relevance to nuclear ultimate heat sinks while continuing to examine the performance of the analog geothermal pond. It is further suggested that the geothermal pond, with some modification, may be a suitable site for spray pond measurements

  17. A highly stable microchannel heat sink for convective boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chun Ting; Pan Chin

    2009-01-01

    To develop a highly stable two-phase microchannel heat sink, we experimented with convective boiling in diverging, parallel microchannels with different distributions of laser-etched artificial nucleation sites. Each microchannel had a mean hydraulic diameter of 120 µm. The two-phase flow visualization and the magnitudes of pressure drop and inlet temperature oscillations under boiling conditions demonstrated clearly the merits of using artificial nucleation sites to further stabilize the flow boiling in diverging, parallel microchannels. The stability map showed the plane of subcooling number versus phase change number. It illustrated that diverging, parallel microchannels with artificial nucleation cavities have a much wider stable region than parallel microchannels with uniform cross-sections or diverging, parallel microchannels without artificial nucleation cavities. In addition, the results revealed that the design with cavities distributed uniformly along the downstream half of the channel presented the best stability performance among the three distributions of nucleation sites. This particular design can be regarded as a highly stable microchannel heat sink for convective boiling

  18. Plant Fructokinases: Evolutionary, Developmental, and Metabolic Aspects in Sink Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Stein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose, a glucose–fructose disaccharide, is the main sugar transported in the phloem of most plants and is the origin of most of the organic matter. Upon arrival in sink tissues, the sucrose must be cleaved by invertase or sucrose synthase. Both sucrose-cleaving enzymes yield free fructose, which must be phosphorylated by either fructokinase (FRK or hexokinase (HXK. The affinity of FRK to fructose is much higher than that of HXK, making FRKs central for fructose metabolism. An FRK gene family seems to exist in most, if not all plants and usually consists of several cytosolic FRKs and a single plastidic FRK. These genes are expressed mainly in sink tissues such as roots, stems, flowers, fruits, and seeds, with lower levels of expression often seen in leaves. Plant FRK enzymes vary in their biochemical properties such as affinity for fructose, inhibition by their substrate (i.e., fructose, and expression level in different tissues. This review describes recently revealed roles of plant FRKs in plant development, including the combined roles of the plastidic and cytosolic FRKs in vascular tissues and seed development.

  19. My car is sinking: automobile submersion, lessons in vehicle escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; McDonald, Gerren K

    2010-08-01

    In North America approximately 400 individuals per year die in submersed vehicles, accounting for 5-11% of all drownings. About half of people surveyed would let the vehicle fill with water before attempting exit. We used a crane and two passenger vehicles of the same make, model, and year-one with passenger compartment intact (I) and one with holes (H) in the floor (area approximately 2200 cm2)--to conduct occupied and unoccupied submersions. Three phases of submersion were identified: 1) FLOATING, vehicles floated for 15 s (H) to 63 s (I) before the water reached the bottom of the side windows; 2) SINKING, the subsequent period until the vehicle is completely under water, but before it fills completely; and 3) SUBMERGED, the vehicle was full of water and several feet below the surface. Total time to submersion was 150 s for I but only 37 s for H. Opening the door to exit Vehicle I decreased submersion time from 150 to 30 s. Even the most difficult exit strategy attempted (three men and a child manikin through one window) was quickly performed from Vehicle I (only 51 s). During one exit attempt, initiated during the sinking phase, it was impossible to open the doors or windows until the vehicle was completely full of water. A vehicle is most easily exited during the initial Floating Phase. We suggest the following escape procedure: SEATBELT(s) unfastened; WINDOWS open; CHILDREN released from restraints and brought close to an adult; and OUT, children should exit first.

  20. Modeling the dynamical sinking of biogenic particles in oceanic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Monroy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of sinking particles in a realistic oceanic flow, with major energetic structures in the mesoscale, focussing on the range of particle sizes and densities appropriate for marine biogenic particles. Our aim is to evaluate the relevance of theoretical results of finite size particle dynamics in their applications in the oceanographic context. By using a simplified equation of motion of small particles in a mesoscale simulation of the oceanic velocity field, we estimate the influence of physical processes such as the Coriolis force and the inertia of the particles, and we conclude that they represent negligible corrections to the most important terms, which are passive motion with the velocity of the flow, and a constant added vertical velocity due to gravity. Even if within this approximation three-dimensional clustering of particles can not occur, two-dimensional cuts or projections of the evolving three-dimensional density can display inhomogeneities similar to the ones observed in sinking ocean particles.

  1. Design and reliability engineering of aquifer CO{sub 2} disposal in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, A.; Frimpong, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage or disposal options have been proposed as a means by which to deal with long-term CO{sub 2} emissions in Alberta. The option includes CO{sub 2} storage or disposal into geological sinks such as an aquifer, depleted oil reservoir, coal bed or the ocean. Currently, CO{sub 2} aquifer disposal is the most feasible option. Studies have shown that an appropriate Glauconitic aquifer exists in the Alberta Basin. A detailed review of the geology and stability of the land aquifers in the Alberta Basin has been carried out and the phase dynamics and the trapping mechanisms of CO{sub 2} in aquifers was examined along with the porosity, permeability and fracture pressure properties of the host aquifers. A model was developed which showed the technical feasibility of CO{sub 2} disposal systems. The model was validated using flue gas from the 546 MW Wabamun coal-fired power plant in Alberta. Analytical designs were created for the liquefaction-transportation-injection networks based on the reaction kinetics and phase dynamics of CO{sub 2} under various temperature and pressure conditions. Results shows that CO{sub 2} can be safely trapped in the aquifers by chemical and hydrodynamic trapping over a long geological period. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Overview of nuclear waste disposal in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Priest, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    One option receiving consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the space disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is assessing the space disposal option in support of DOE studies on alternatives for nuclear waste management. The space disposal option is viewed as a complement, since total disposal of fuel rods from commercial power plants is not considered to be economically practical with Space Shuttle technology. The space disposal of certain high-level wastes may, however, provide reduced calculated and perceived risks. The space disposal option in conjunction with terrestrial disposal may offer a more flexible and lower risk overall waste management system. For the space disposal option to be viable, it must be demonstrated that the overall long-term risks associated with this activity, as a complement to the mined geologic repository, would be significantly less than the long-term risk associated with disposing of all the high-level waste. The long-term risk benefit must be achieved within an acceptable short-term and overall program cost. This paper briefly describes space disposal alternatives, the space disposal destination, possible waste mixes and forms, systems and typical operations, and the energy and cost analysis

  3. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  4. An energy efficient multiple mobile sinks based routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peijun; Ruan, Feng

    2018-03-01

    With the fast development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), more and more energy efficient routing algorithms have been proposed. However, one of the research challenges is how to alleviate the hot spot problem since nodes close to static sink (or base station) tend to die earlier than other sensors. The introduction of mobile sink node can effectively alleviate this problem since sink node can move along certain trajectories, causing hot spot nodes more evenly distributed. In this paper, we mainly study the energy efficient routing method with multiple mobile sinks support. We divide the whole network into several clusters and study the influence of mobile sink number on network lifetime. Simulation results show that the best network performance appears when mobile sink number is about 3 under our simulation environment.

  5. New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, A.; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The three-dimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat transfer are solved using the finite-volume method for a wide range of pressure drop laminar flows along the heat sink. The temperature and the mass flow rate distribution in the heat sink are discussed. The results, which are in good agreement with previous computational studies, show that using suggested heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system.

  6. LPTA: Location Predictive and Time Adaptive Data Gathering Scheme with Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper exploits sink mobility to prolong the lifetime of sensor networks while maintaining the data transmission delay relatively low. A location predictive and time adaptive data gathering scheme is proposed. In this paper, we introduce a sink location prediction principle based on loose time synchronization and deduce the time-location formulas of the mobile sink. According to local clocks and the time-location formulas of the mobile sink, nodes in the network are able to calculate the current location of the mobile sink accurately and route data packets timely toward the mobile sink by multihop relay. Considering that data packets generating from different areas may be different greatly, an adaptive dwelling time adjustment method is also proposed to balance energy consumption among nodes in the network. Simulation results show that our data gathering scheme enables data routing with less data transmission time delay and balance energy consumption among nodes.

  7. Os significados do lixo para garis e catadores de Fortaleza (CE, Brasil What garbage represents for municipal collectors and recyclers in Fortaleza, State of Ceará (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemmelle Oliveira Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou trazer uma discussão sobre os significados do lixo a partir da visão de um grupo de garis e catadores residentes em Fortaleza/CE. Ao usar a metodologia qualitativa, sob a técnica da entrevista individual, esse trabalho traz os resultados obtidos em uma pesquisa que vem sendo desenvolvida com os trabalhadores da coleta de lixo domiciliar em Fortale-za/CE e os que trabalham em uma usina de triagem de materiais recicláveis. Durante todo o período de aproximação com o "mundo do lixo" foram realizadas oito entrevistas. Após transcrição e interpretação dos depoimentos percebemos que o lixo é visto pelos entrevistados como algo perigoso à saúde (pelos diversos agravos provocados e também como meio de sobrevivência (em decorrência da não inserção no mercado de trabalho por falta de estudo e/ou oportunidade.This study sought to elicit a discussion about the significance of garbage from the standpoint of a group of municipal garbage collectors and garbage recyclers resident in Fortaleza, State of Ceará. Using qualitative methodology and the individual interview technique, this work presents the results of ongoing research that has been conducted together with the employees involved in the collection of household garbage in Fortaleza, State of Ceará, and those working in a plant for separating recyclable materials. During the period under analysis of the "world of garbage" eight interviews were staged. After transcription and interpretation of the interviews, it became clear that the respondents perceive garbage as being prejudicial to health (due to the various diseases it causes and also as a means of survival (as a result of non-inclusion in the labor market due to lack of study and/or opportunity.

  8. Garbage as an energy resource. Present and prospective situation in Mexico; La basura como recurso energetico. Situacion actual y prospectiva en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    The objective of this article is to describe the factors involved in the energy exploitation of the municipal garbage, as well as to consider the potential for the generation of electricity in our country, by means of the conversion of garbage by biological means in sanitary landfills and incineration in thermal plants. Also, the aspects related to the consideration of garbage as fuel or energy source for power plants to generate electricity are described. Two processes exist for this: the biological one, carried out in sanitary landfills, and the thermal one in its different versions. Also opportunity niches exist, mainly in the same cities where the garbage is generated, since the energy can be used for public lighting system, water pumping and massive transport, among other more specific uses. Parallel these processes and technologies are viable and friendly with the environment, since they are in themselves a treatment of the garbage. Without any doubt the energy potential and the environmental benefits are in view, lacking only the diffusion and real knowledge of the technologies that are described in a general way in this article and that without any doubt they are the proven way to take advantage of the energy potential of garbage. [Spanish] El objetivo de este articulo es describir los factores involucrados en el aprovechamiento energetico de la basura municipal, asi como estimar el potencial para la generacion de electricidad en nuestro pais, mediante la conversion de la basura por medios biologicos en rellenos sanitarios y por incineracion en plantas termicas. Asimismo se describen los aspectos relacionados con la consideracion de la basura como combustible o fuente de energia para la generacion de electricidad. Existen dos procesos para este proposito, el biologico, efectuado en rellenos sanitarios, y el termico en sus diferentes versiones. Tambien existen nichos de oportunidad, sobre todo en las propias ciudades donde se genera la basura, ya que la

  9. Park Facilities, Howard County Parks GPS's and maintains a park facility layer containing amenities like picnic tables, garbage cans, water fountains etc., Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Park Facilities dataset current as of 2011. Howard County Parks GPS's and maintains a park facility layer containing amenities like picnic tables, garbage cans,...

  10. Effects of low sink demand on leaf photosynthesis under potassium deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yonghui; Lu, Zhifeng; Lu, Jianwei; Li, Xiaokun; Cong, Rihuan; Ren, Tao

    2017-04-01

    The interaction between low sink demand and potassium (K) deficiency in leaf photosynthesis was not intensively investigated, therefore this interaction was investigated in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Plants subjected to sufficient (+K) or insufficient (-K) K supply treatments were maintained or removed their flowers and pods; these conditions were defined as high sink demand (HS) or low sink demand (LS), respectively. The low sink demand induced a lower photosynthetic rate (P n ), especially in the -K treatment during the first week. A negative relationship between P n and carbohydrate concentration was observed in the -K treatment but not in the +K treatment, suggesting that the decrease in P n in the -K treatment was the result of sink feedback regulation under low sink demand. Longer sink removal duration increased carbohydrate concentration, but the enhanced assimilate did not influence P n . On the contrary, low sink demand resulted in a high K concentration, slower chloroplast degradation rate and better PSII activity, inducing a higher P n compared with HS. Consequently, low sink demand decreased leaf photosynthesis over the short term due to sink feedback regulation, and potassium deficiency enhanced the photosynthetic decrease through carbohydrate accumulation and a lower carbohydrate concentration threshold for initiating photosynthesis depression. A longer duration of limited sink demand and sufficient potassium supply resulted in a higher photosynthesis rate because of delayed chloroplast degradation. This finding indicates that the nutritional status plays a role in leaf photosynthesis variations due to sink-source manipulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation Effects in Dual Heat Sinks for Cooling of Concentrated Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    IN DUAL HEAT SINKS FOR COOLING OF CONCENTRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS by Mark T. Brandau June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Garth Hobson Co-Advisor...thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RADIATION EFFECTS IN DUAL HEAT SINKS FOR COOLING OF CONCENTRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark...examined the effectiveness of improving the cooling of concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) through the use of dual heat sinks. The intent was to improve

  12. Nested atmospheric inversion for the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish a nested atmospheric inversion system with a focus on China using the Bayesian method. The global surface is separated into 43 regions based on the 22 TransCom large regions, with 13 small regions in China. Monthly CO2 concentrations from 130 GlobalView sites and 3 additional China sites are used in this system. The core component of this system is an atmospheric transport matrix, which is created using the TM5 model with a horizontal resolution of 3° × 2°. The net carbon fluxes over the 43 global land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2002 to 2008. The inverted global terrestrial carbon sinks mainly occur in boreal Asia, South and Southeast Asia, eastern America and southern South America. Most China areas appear to be carbon sinks, with strongest carbon sinks located in Northeast China. From 2002 to 2008, the global terrestrial carbon sink has an increasing trend, with the lowest carbon sink in 2002. The inter-annual variation (IAV of the land sinks shows remarkable correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. The terrestrial carbon sinks in China also show an increasing trend. However, the IAV in China is not the same as that of the globe. There is relatively stronger land sink in 2002, lowest sink in 2006, and strongest sink in 2007 in China. This IAV could be reasonably explained with the IAVs of temperature and precipitation in China. The mean global and China terrestrial carbon sinks over the period 2002–2008 are −3.20 ± 0.63 and −0.28 ± 0.18 PgC yr−1, respectively. Considering the carbon emissions in the form of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and from the import of wood and food, we further estimate that China's land sink is about −0.31 PgC yr−1.

  13. A sustainable building promotes pro-environmental behavior: an observational study on food disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W-L Wu

    Full Text Available In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis--whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior.

  14. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  15. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  16. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, D.

    2000-01-01

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation

  17. Geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoni, E.; Giulianelli, G.; Testa, L.; Bocola, W.; Girolimetti, G.; Giacani, G.

    1983-01-01

    The heat dissipation arising from the radioactive decay constitutes an important problem of the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. A heating experiment was carried out in a clay quarry near Monterotondo (Rome), at 6.4 M in depth by means of a heater whose thermal power ranged from 250 to 500 watt. The experimental results fit well the theoretical values and show that the clay is a homogeneous and isotropic medium. The clay thermal conductivity, which was deducted by means of the ''curve fitting'' method, ranges from 0.015 to 0.017 watt/C

  18. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  19. New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find...... the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The threedimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat...... heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system....

  20. Impingement thermal performance of perforated circular pin-fin heat sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Mao-Yu; Yeh, Cheng-Hsiung

    2018-04-01

    The study presents the experimental information on heat transfer performance of jet impingement cooling on circular pin- fin heat sinks with/without a hollow perforated base plate. Smoke flow visualization is also used to investigate the behavior of the complicated flow phenomena of the present heat sinks for this impingement cooling. The effects of flow Reynolds numbers (3458≤Re≤11,526), fin height, the geometry of the heat sinks (with/without a hollow perforated base plate), and jet-to-test heat sink placement (1 ≤ H/ d≤16) are examined. In addition, empirical correlation to estimate the heat transfer coefficient was also developed.

  1. The 'Jupiter' sinking: effects on children's fears, depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, W; Udwin, O; Murdoch, K

    1990-11-01

    Twenty-five girls who survived the sinking of the cruise ship 'Jupiter' were compared with three other groups of girls--71 controls from a separate school; 46 girls in the same school who had not wanted to go on the cruise; and 13 girls who were in a 'near miss' group in that they wanted to go but did not get places. All completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children (revised form), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and the Birleson Depression Inventory. Survivors did not become generally more fearful. Rather, they developed significantly greater fears to stimuli related to the traumatic event. The results are discussed in relation to the conditioning theory of the acquisition of phobias.

  2. What Really Caused the ROKS Cheonan Warship Sinking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Su Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the sinking of the Korean naval warship (ROKS Cheonan and the reported spectra of the seismic signals recorded at the time of the incident. The spectra of seismic signals show prominently amplitude peaks at around 8.5 Hz and its harmonics. These frequencies were explained with the vibrations of a water column due to an underwater explosion. This explanation is highly doubtful and concerns about its validity have already been raised in the scientific community. In this work an alternative explanation is presented: it is shown that the recorded seismic spectra are consistent with the natural frequencies of vibrations of a large submarine with a length of around 113 m. This finding raises the possibility that the ROKS Cheonan sunk because of the collision with a large submarine rather than the explosion of a torpedo or an underwater mine.

  3. Important aspects of sinks for linking emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsbrunner, Simon; Taenzler, Dennis; Reuster, Lena [Adelphi Research gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The discussion on how to design policy instruments to reduce emissions and enhance removals from land use, land use change, and forestry is likely to be a key feature of a future global climate protection framework and will also influence the design of an emerging global carbon market. By analyzing different ETSs it turns out that very specific provisions are in place to deal with carbon sinks. Different instruments, eligible activities and standards reflect the prevailing emissions profile and cultural preferences of a geographic area. The inclusion of forestry in a cap, for instance, makes provisions on additionality and non-permanence obsolete, but increases the relevance of other issues such as accounting and enforcement. (orig.)

  4. Sinking into the Sea? Climate Change and AOSIS Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Camille Marie Risager; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    Agreement, 2) A CO2 tax, 3) Subsidising new green technology, 4) That AOSIS should look for coalition partners, e.g. China, and 5) Even stronger focus on the linkage between climate change and future migration. Employing such strategies may save the SIDS from sinking into the sea and, at the same time......Climate change poses a serious threat to the world, in particular to the Small Island Developing States (SIDS). The organisation Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) represents the SIDS by giving them a voice in the United Nations. We discuss the different aspects of climate change and the role...... that a small actor like AOSIS plays in protecting the citizens of its member states rather than free ride on larger actors. Which strategies should AOSIS use to encourage an even more ambitious climate policy in the future? We suggest five relevant strategies: 1) Introduction of sanctions in the Paris...

  5. Mechanisms and rates of bacterial colonization of sinking aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Grossart, H.P.; Ploug, H.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the rate at which bacteria colonize aggregates is a key to understanding microbial turnover of aggregates. We used encounter models based on random walk and advection-diffusion considerations to predict colonization rates from the bacteria's motility patterns (swimming speed, tumbling...... (0 to 2 s(-1)). The rates at which these bacteria colonized artificial aggregates (stationary and sinking) largely agreed with model predictions. We report several findings. (i) Motile bacteria rapidly colonize aggregates, whereas nonmotile bacteria do not. 00 Flow enhances colonization rates. (iii......) Tumbling strains colonize aggregates enriched with organic substrates faster than unenriched aggregates, while a nontumbling strain did not. (iv) Once on the aggregates, the bacteria may detach and typical residence time is about 3 h. Thus, there is a rapid exchange between attached and free bacteria. (v...

  6. Forensic seismology and the sinking of the Kursk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, Keith D.; Wallace, Terry C.; Taylor, Steven R.; Hartse, Hans E.

    On August 10, 2000, Russia's Northern Fleet began its largest naval exercise in more than a decade. Among the vessels taking part was the heavily-armed Kursk, an Oscar class submarine that was the most modern cruise-missile sub in the fleet.Beginning on August 14, a series of reports in the press indicated that the Kursk had been severely damaged during the exercise and that the crew were likely dead. By August 17, news agencies were reporting that seismic networks in the Baltic area had detected two seismic events which appeared to correspond to the Kursk disaster in time and space (Figure 1). Specifically the seismic events were consistent with reports from the British Broadcasting Corporation on the location of ongoing rescue efforts. The fact that this section of the Barents Sea is essentially aseismic added credence to the assertion that the seismic events were directly related to the sinking of the Kursk.

  7. Transport of defense compounds from source to sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2015-01-01

    Plants synthesize a plethora of defense compounds crucial for their survival in a challenging and changing environment. Transport processes are important for shaping the distribution pattern of defense compounds, albeit focus hitherto has been mostly on their biosynthetic pathways. A recent...... identification of two glucosinolate transporters represents a breakthrough in our understanding of glucosinolate transport in Arabidopsis and has advanced knowledge in transport of defense compounds. In this review, we discuss the role of the glucosinolate transporters in establishing dynamic glucosinolate...... distribution patterns and source-sink relations. We focus on lessons learned from glucosinolate transport that may apply to transport of other defense compounds and discuss future avenues in the emerging field of defense compound transport....

  8. Sinking into the Sea? Climate Change and AOSIS Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Camille Marie Risager; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    Climate change poses a serious threat to the world, in particular to the Small Island Developing States (SIDS). The organisation Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) represents the SIDS by giving them a voice in the United Nations. We discuss the different aspects of climate change and the role...... Agreement, 2) A CO2 tax, 3) Subsidising new green technology, 4) That AOSIS should look for coalition partners, e.g. China, and 5) Even stronger focus on the linkage between climate change and future migration. Employing such strategies may save the SIDS from sinking into the sea and, at the same time...... that a small actor like AOSIS plays in protecting the citizens of its member states rather than free ride on larger actors. Which strategies should AOSIS use to encourage an even more ambitious climate policy in the future? We suggest five relevant strategies: 1) Introduction of sanctions in the Paris...

  9. Role of metabolite transporters in source-sink carbon allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eLudewig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants assimilate carbon dioxide during photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Assimilated carbon is subsequently allocated throughout the plant. Generally, two types of organs can be distinguished, mature green source leaves as net photoassimilate exporters, and net importers, the sinks, e.g. roots, flowers, small leaves and storage organs like tubers. Within these organs, different tissue types developed according to their respective function, and cells of either tissue type are highly compartmentalized. Photoassimilates are allocated to distinct compartments of these tissues in all organs, requiring a set of metabolite transporters mediating this intercompartmental transfer.The general route of photoassimilates can be briefly described as follows. Upon fixation of carbon dioxide in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, triose phosphates either enter the cytosol for mainly sucrose formation or remain in the stroma to form transiently stored starch which is degraded during the night and enters the cytosol as maltose or glucose to be further metabolized to sucrose. In both cases, sucrose enters the phloem for long distance transport or is transiently stored in the vacuole, or can be degraded to hexoses which also can be stored in the vacuole.In the majority of plant species, sucrose is actively loaded into the phloem via the apoplast. Following long distance transport, it is released into sink organs, where it enters cells as source of carbon and energy. In storage organs, sucrose can be stored, or carbon derived from sucrose can be stored as starch in plastids, or as oil in oil bodies, or - in combination with nitrogen - as protein in protein storage vacuoles and protein bodies.Here, we focus on transport proteins known for either of these steps, and discuss the implications for yield increase in plants upon genetic engineering of respective transporters.

  10. Dust deposition: iron source or sink? A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ye

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A significant decrease of dissolved iron (DFe concentration has been observed after dust addition into mesocosms during the DUst experiment in a low Nutrient low chlorophyll Ecosystem (DUNE, carried out in the summer of 2008. Due to low biological productivity at the experiment site, biological consumption of iron can not explain the magnitude of DFe decrease. To understand processes regulating the observed DFe variation, we simulated the experiment using a one-dimensional model of the Fe biogeochemical cycle, coupled with a simple ecosystem model. Different size classes of particles and particle aggregation are taken into account to describe the particle dynamics. DFe concentration is regulated in the model by dissolution from dust particles and adsorption onto particle surfaces, biological uptake, and photochemical mobilisation of particulate iron.

    The model reproduces the observed DFe decrease after dust addition well. This is essentially explained by particle adsorption and particle aggregation that produces a high export within the first 24 h. The estimated particle adsorption rates range between the measured adsorption rates of soluble iron and those of colloidal iron, indicating both processes controlling the DFe removal during the experiment. A dissolution timescale of 3 days is used in the model, instead of an instantaneous dissolution, underlining the importance of dissolution kinetics on the short-term impact of dust deposition on seawater DFe.

    Sensitivity studies reveal that initial DFe concentration before dust addition was crucial for the net impact of dust addition on DFe during the DUNE experiment. Based on the balance between abiotic sinks and sources of DFe, a critical DFe concentration has been defined, above which dust deposition acts as a net sink of DFe, rather than a source. Taking into account the role of excess iron binding ligands and biotic processes, the critical DFe concentration might be applied to

  11. Sinking during earthquakes: Critical acceleration criteria control drained soil liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C.; Toussaint, R.; Stojanova, M.; Aharonov, E.

    2018-02-01

    This article focuses on liquefaction of saturated granular soils, triggered by earthquakes. Liquefaction is defined here as the transition from a rigid state, in which the granular soil layer supports structures placed on its surface, to a fluidlike state, in which structures placed initially on the surface sink to their isostatic depth within the granular layer. We suggest a simple theoretical model for soil liquefaction and show that buoyancy caused by the presence of water inside a granular medium has a dramatic influence on the stability of an intruder resting at the surface of the medium. We confirm this hypothesis by comparison with laboratory experiments and discrete-element numerical simulations. The external excitation representing ground motion during earthquakes is simulated via horizontal sinusoidal oscillations of controlled frequency and amplitude. In the experiments, we use particles only slightly denser than water, which as predicted theoretically increases the effect of liquefaction and allows clear depth-of-sinking measurements. In the simulations, a micromechanical model simulates grains using molecular dynamics with friction between neighbors. The effect of the fluid is captured by taking into account buoyancy effects on the grains when they are immersed. We show that the motion of an intruder inside a granular medium is mainly dependent on the peak acceleration of the ground motion and establish a phase diagram for the conditions under which liquefaction happens, depending on the soil bulk density, friction properties, presence of water, and peak acceleration of the imposed large-scale soil vibrations. We establish that in liquefaction conditions, most cases relax toward an equilibrium position following an exponential in time. We also show that the equilibrium position itself, for most liquefaction regimes, corresponds to the isostatic equilibrium of the intruder inside a medium of effective density. The characteristic time to relaxation is

  12. Disposable optics for microscopy diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmi, Pauliina; Varjo, Sami; Sliz, Rafal; Hannuksela, Jari; Fabritius, Tapio

    2015-11-20

    The point-of-care testing (POCT) is having increasing role on modern health care systems due to a possibility to perform tests for patients conveniently and immediately. POCT includes lot of disposable devices because of the environment they are often used. For a disposable system to be reasonably utilized, it needs to be high in quality but low in price. Optics based POCT systems are interesting approach to be developed, and here we describe a low-cost fabrication process for microlens arrays for microscopy. Lens arrays having average lens diameter of 222 μm with 300 μm lens pitch were fabricated. The lenses were characterized to have standard deviation of 0.06 μm in height and 4.61 μm in diameter. The resolution limit of 3.9μm is demonstrated with real images, and the images were compared with ones made with glass and polycarbonate lens arrays. The image quality is at the same level than with the glass lenses and the manufacturing costs are very low, thus making them suitable for POCT applications.

  13. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  14. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  15. Classification and disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical development in the U.S. of definitions and requirements for permanent disposal of different classes of radioactive waste. We first consider the descriptions of different waste classes that were developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations. These descriptions usually were not based on requirements for permanent disposal but, rather, on the source of the waste and requirements for safe handling and storage. We then discuss existing laws and regulations for disposal of different waste classes. Current definitions of waste classes are largely qualitative, and thus somewhat ambiguous, and are based primarily on the source of the waste rather than the properties of its radioactive constituents. Furthermore, even though permanent disposal is clearly recognized as the ultimate goal of radioactive water management, current laws and regulations do not associated the definitions of different waste classes with requirement for particular disposal systems. Thus, requirements for waste disposal essentially are unaffected by ambiguities in the present waste classification system

  16. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  17. General criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.; Musgrave, B.C.; Watkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are being developed for conversion of radioactive wastes to solids and their placement into repositories. Criteria for such disposal are needed to assure protection of the biosphere. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle should be applicable at all times during the disposal period. Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three classes, depending on the activity. Three approaches were developed for judging the adequacy of disposal concepts: acceptable risk, ore body comparison, and three-stage ore body comparison

  18. The capacitated distribution and waste disposal problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline; Salomon, Marc; Wassenhove, Luk

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe study the problem of the simultaneous design of a distribution network with plants and waste disposal units, and the coordination of product flows and waste flows within this network. The objective is to minimize the sum of fixed costs for opening plants and waste disposal units, and variable costs related to product and waste flows. The problem is complicated by (i) capacity constraints on plants and waste disposal units, (ii) service requirements (i.e. production must cover t...

  19. Shallow land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities

  20. Verification and validation for waste disposal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    A set of evaluation criteria has been developed to assess the suitability of current verification and validation techniques for waste disposal methods. A survey of current practices and techniques was undertaken and evaluated using these criteria with the items most relevant to waste disposal models being identified. Recommendations regarding the most suitable verification and validation practices for nuclear waste disposal modelling software have been made