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Sample records for sinica taipei taiwan

  1. CPTAC Establishes Formal Relationships with Two Academic Institutions in Taiwan | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has entered into memorandum of understandings (MOUs) with Chang Gung University and Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan.

  2. Space Radar Image of Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The northern end of the island country of Taiwan, including the capital city of Taipei, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. Taipei is the bright blue and red area in the lower center of the image. A portion of the city sits on an island surrounded by the Keelung and Freshwater Rivers. The main channel of the Freshwater River is to the right of the island and appears dark in the image. The channel to the left of the island is no longer active and appear slighter. Rugged, heavily vegetated mountains surround the city and are shown in green. The runways of the Chiang Kai Shek International Airport are seen as dark parallel strips in the upper left of the image. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The image is 50 kilometers by 33 kilometers (31 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 25.1 degrees north latitude, 121.5 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  3. 78 FR 80447 - Proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... for Cooperation Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural... Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States Concerning... American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United...

  4. A Blind Normal Fault beneath the Taipei Basin in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou-Cheng Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taipei basin, historically low in seismicity, is located in northern Taiwan. A dense broadband seismic array was deployed in the basin in June 2004 to monitor seismic activity. During the period of operation, three felt earthquakes occurred near the eastern part of the Taipei basin, about 3 km to the south of Taipei 101 then the tallest building in the world. Relocated earthquakes show a southeast-dipping distribution of hypocenters beneath the Taipei basin. The seismicity pattern and focal mechanisms of the three felt events suggest the existence of a blind normal fault whose surface projection is along the river channel in the middle of the basin.

  5. Lead Isotope Characterization of Petroleum Fuels in Taipei, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsuan Yao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaded gasoline in Taiwan was gradually phased out from 1983 to 2000. However, it is unclear whether unleaded gasoline still contributes to atmospheric lead (Pb exposure in urban areas. In this study, Pb isotopic compositions of unleaded gasolines, with octane numbers of 92, 95, 98, and diesel from two local suppliers in Taipei were determined by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a two-sigma uncertainty of ± 0.02 %. Lead isotopic ratios of vehicle exhaust (208Pb/207Pb: 2.427, 206Pb/207Pb: 1.148, as estimated from petroleum fuels overlap with the reported aerosol data. This agreement indicates that local unleaded petroleum fuels, containing 10–45 ng·Pb·g−1, are merely one contributor among various sources to urban aerosol Pb. Additionally, the distinction between the products of the two companies is statistically significant in their individual 208Pb/206Pb ratios (p-value < 0.001, t test. Lead isotopic characterization appears to be applicable as a “fingerprinting” tool for tracing the sources of Pb pollution.

  6. Lead isotope characterization of petroleum fuels in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Pei-Hsuan; Shyu, Guey-Shin; Chang, Ying-Fang; Chou, Yu-Chen; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Chou, Chi-Su; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2015-04-24

    Leaded gasoline in Taiwan was gradually phased out from 1983 to 2000. However, it is unclear whether unleaded gasoline still contributes to atmospheric lead (Pb) exposure in urban areas. In this study, Pb isotopic compositions of unleaded gasolines, with octane numbers of 92, 95, 98, and diesel from two local suppliers in Taipei were determined by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a two-sigma uncertainty of ± 0.02 %. Lead isotopic ratios of vehicle exhaust (²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁷Pb: 2.427, ²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁷Pb: 1.148, as estimated from petroleum fuels) overlap with the reported aerosol data. This agreement indicates that local unleaded petroleum fuels, containing 10-45 ng·Pb·g⁻¹, are merely one contributor among various sources to urban aerosol Pb. Additionally, the distinction between the products of the two companies is statistically significant in their individual ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁶Pb ratios (p-value < 0.001, t test). Lead isotopic characterization appears to be applicable as a "fingerprinting" tool for tracing the sources of Pb pollution.

  7. S-wave velocity structures of the Taipei Basin, Taiwan, using microtremor array measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huey-Chu; Wu, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Feng-Mei; Hwang, Ruey-Der

    2015-04-01

    The S-wave velocity structures of the Taipei Basin in Taiwan are investigated using the array records of microtremors at 15 sites. Dispersion curves at these sites are calculated using the frequency-wavenumber (F-K) spectrum method. The S-wave velocity structures in the Taipei Basin are then estimated by employing surface wave inversion technique. Harder strata sites have higher phase velocities than softer sites. If the S-wave velocity of the Tertiary Basement is assumed to be 1000 m/s, then the Quaternary alluvial thicknesses in the Taipei Basin are between about 100 m and 650 m. The thickness of the alluvium gradually increases from the southeast to the northwest. The inversion results are also in good agreement with well-logging data and seismic reflection studies of the Taipei Basin. The study concludes that microtremor array measurement is a useful tool for estimating S-wave velocity structure.

  8. Fine particulate air pollution and outpatient department visits for headache in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Ching; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between fine particle matter (PM(2.5)) levels and daily outpatient department visits (OPD) for headaches in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily OPD visits for headaches and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 2006-2011. The relative risk of visits for OPD headaches was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased OPD visits for headaches were significantly associated with levels of PM(2.5) both on warm days (>23°C) and cool days (Taipei, Taiwan.

  9. AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEY OF PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI (KERBERT, 1878) AND RELATED SPECIES IN TAIPEI COUNTY, TAIWAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of the flukes of the genus Paragonimus in Taipei county, Taiwan, was made by random collection and examination of the crab hosts. A...total of 18,538 fresh- and brackish-water crabs including 16 species collected from 121 villages was examined. Two species of Paragonimus

  10. Impacts of Typhoon Soudelor (2015) on the water quality of Taipei, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Fakour; Shang-Lien Lo; Tsair-Fuh Lin

    2016-01-01

    Typhoon Soudelor was one of the strongest storms in the world in 2015. The category 5 hurricane made landfall in Taiwan on August 8, causing extensive damage and severe impacts on the environment. This paper describes the changes of trihalomethane (THM) concentrations in tap and drinking fountain water in selected typhoon-affected areas in Taipei before and after the typhoon. Samples were taken from water transmission mains at various distances from the local water treatment plant. The result...

  11. Temperature Control & Comfort Level of Elementary School Building with Green Roof in New Taipei City, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Ming Su; Mei-Shu Huang

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue when we are faced with the challenge of climate change. Through literature review, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect to a degree. Because there are not enough open space and parks, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary schools ar...

  12. The Evolution of the Hydrogeologic System in the Taipei Basin, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Chia, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Taipei basin is the largest metropolitain area in Taiwan, and thus the change of its hydrogeologic system is closely associated with the economic development of the urban area. In this study, we integrated the core data and groundwater level data to construct the hydrogeologic framework of the Taipei basin. Then the long-term elevation data and groundwater data were analyzed to understand the impact of urban development on the hydrogeologic system. By analyzing the long-term change of groundwater level in the Taipei basin, we found two groups of wells with a different range of water level and pattern of water level variation. The first group of wells is relatively shallow. Their hydraulic heads fluctuated between 0 and 5m. Generally the water level is rarely affected by pumping, but sensitive to the rainfall. These wells were placed in sand layers of the Songshan formation. However, the second group of wells, where the hydraulic head ranges from -40m to 0m, is relatively deep. They were installed in the Jingmei formation and Wugu formation. Pumping activities have significantly influenced the change in groundwater level. For these reasons, we proposed two hydrogeologic units in the Taipei basin. One is the Songshan aquifer characterized by interbeded local aquifer and aquitard. The other is the Taipei aquifer which combines the lower Songshan formation, Jingmei formation, and Wugu formation. Extensive pumping from the Taipei aquifer has caused serious land subsidence since the rapid expansion of the urban area in 1950s. The cumulative amount of settlement in the Taipei basin is about 2.2 m by 1983. The subsidence appeared to be inelastic with little recovery. The groundwater level has declined approximately 50 m by 1976. The decline was followed by a rapid recovery in the Taipei aquifer starting from late 1970s. In the past two decades, however, small subsidence ranging from 3~5 cm have been induced by the extensive pumping during the construction of Metro system

  13. Improved consistency in dosing anti-tuberculosis drugs in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Chih; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hsu, Yu-Ling; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Lin, Tao-Ping; Bai, Kuan-Jen

    2012-01-01

    It was reported that 35.5% of tuberculosis (TB) cases reported in 2003 in Taipei City had no recorded pre-treatment body weight and that among those who had, inconsistent dosing of anti-TB drugs was frequent. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have taken actions to strengthen dosing of anti-TB drugs among general practitioners. Prescribing practices of anti-TB drugs in Taipei City in 2007-2010 were investigated to assess whether interventions on dosing were effective. Lists of all notified culture positive TB cases in 2007-2010 were obtained from National TB Registry at Taiwan CDC. A medical audit of TB case management files was performed to collect pretreatment body weight and regimens prescribed at commencement of treatment. Dosages prescribed were compared with dosages recommended. The proportion of patients with recorded pre-treatment body weight was 64.5% in 2003, which increased to 96.5% in 2007-2010 (pTaipei City has remarkably improved after health authorities implemented a series of interventions.

  14. Synoptic Development of the Afternoon Thunderstorm Activity in An Over-Urbanized Valley: Taipei (Taiwan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.-C.; Yen, M.-C.; Tsay, J.-D.

    2012-04-01

    Located in northern Taiwan, Taipei is a metropolis surrounded by hills and mountains that form a basin in which two river valleys funnel the surface airflow of this basin to the open sea. As a result of the southwest monsoon, the summer is dry for northern Taiwan but it happens to be the season of maximum rainfall in the Taipei basin. This unusual summer rainfall maximum in Taipei is produced mainly by afternoon/evening thunderstorms-particularly, on the downwind side and slopes of mountains south of the city. The population in the city of Taipei and the county in which this city is located has more than tripled during the past four decades, while land use for building and surface construction has increased by a factor of 3. This growing urbanization possibly may contribute to an increase of 1.5° C in daily mean temperature, a 2/3 increase in the frequency of afternoon/evening thunderstorms, and a 3/4 increase in rainfall generated by thunderstorms. The size of the Taipei valley is about 50km along the NE-SW direction and 30km along the NW-SE direction. The profound impact of urbanization on the afternoon thunderstorm activity in this valley stimulated our interest to explore the synoptic development involved with thunderstorms there. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted for two summers (2004/05) in this valley; all identified thunderstorms were analyzed. Major findings are as follow: Without the occurrence of an afternoon thunderstorm, surface pressure ps and relative humidity RHs drop, and surface temperature Ts increases as soon as the sun rises, but the reversed situation occurs right after sunsets. Thunderstorm rainfall begins when ps reaches its afternoon minimum value. Reaching its minimum (maximum) value at the time when the rain falls, Ts (RHs) levels off. When the afternoon thunderstorm rainfall occurs, the sea breeze switches directions immediately and becomes the land breeze. The land breeze from the mountain slope and foothills in the

  15. Prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis Infection among preschool children in kindergartens of Taipei City, Taiwan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tso-Kang; Liao, Chien-Wei; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chou, Chia-Mei; Tsay, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Alice; Guu, Shu-Fen; Kao, Ting-Chang; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection among preschool children was reported to be low based on a 5-year screening program in Taipei City, Taiwan. The Taipei City government intended to terminate the E. vermicularis screening program among preschool children. Thus, we were entrusted with confirming whether pinworm infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined. From each of 12 administrative districts 2-3 kindergartens were randomly selected for investigation. In total, 4,349 children were examined, of which 2,537 were boys and 1,812 were girls. The cellophane tape adhered to a glass slide was used, and all examinations were done by certified medical technologists. Results indicated that the overall prevalence rate of pinworm infections was 0.62% (27/4,349). Although the infection rate was higher among boys (0.67%, 17/2,537) than in girls (0.55%, 10/1,812), no significant difference was found (chi(2) = 0.399, P = 0.62). According to the administrative district, the infection rate ranged from no positive cases of E. vermicularis infection in the Xinyi, Zhongzhen, and Wanhua Districts (0%; 0/299, 0/165, and 0/358, respectively), to 0.26% (1/131) in Songshan District, with the highest rate of 1.88% (7/373) in Wenshan District. Because the overall infection rate (0.62%, 27/4,349) in the present study was unchanged compared to that (0.40%, 197/49,541) previously reported in 2005, we propose that regular pinworm screening and treatment programs should be continued in some parts of Taipei City.

  16. Risk factors for unfavorable outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Yen, Muh-Yong; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2012-05-01

    This study was undertaken to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Taipei, Taiwan in 2007-2008. Taiwanese adults with culture-positive PTB diagnosed in Taipei during the study period were included in this retrospective cohort study. Unfavorable outcomes were classified as treatment default, death, treatment failure, or transfer. Of 1616 eligible patients, 22.6% (365) had unfavorable outcomes, mainly death. After controlling for patient sociodemographic factors, clinical findings, and underlying disease, independent risk factors for unfavorable outcomes included advanced age, unemployment, end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, malignancy, acid-fast bacilius smear-positivity, multidrug-resistant TB, and notification from ordinary ward or intensive care unit. In contrast, patients receiving directly observed treatment, and with a high school or higher education were significantly less likely to have unfavorable outcomes. This study advanced our understanding by revealing that a high school or higher education might lower the risk of an unfavorable outcome. Our results also confirmed the risk factors for unfavorable outcomes shown in previous research. Future TB control programmes in Taiwan should target particularly high-risk patients including those who had lower educational levels. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Presbycusis among older Chinese people in Taipei, Taiwan: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Pin; Chou, Pesus

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of presbycusis in older Chinese people in Taipei, Taiwan. Pure-tone audiometry and a questionnaire were administered to a randomly-recruited cohort of people > 65 years old (n=1221) from a community in Taipei. The study cohort showed pure-tone thresholds worsening, especially at frequencies >2 kHz, with increasing age. The mean pure-tone average at speech frequencies (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) of the better ear of subjects stratified by five-year age groups ranged from 34.9 dB hearing level (HL) to 46.4 dB HL. The pure-tone average at speech frequency in women was slightly higher than that in men in all age groups. The prevalence of presbycusis (M3 > or = 55 dBHL) was 1.6% (65-69 years), 3.2% (70-74 years), 7.5% (75-79 years), and 14.9% (> or =80 years). Persistent tinnitus was present in 13.9% of subjects, and 18.8% of subjects had a history of vertigo. Of subjects with a clinically evident hearing impairment (M3 > or = 55 dB HL), 18.4% used hearing aids. These data provide estimates of the prevalence and severity of presbycusis in community-dwelling older persons in Taiwan.

  18. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among injection drug users at methadone clinics in Taipei, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Feng Yen

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Poor HRQOL was associated with a number of factors among IDUs at methadone clinics in Taipei, Taiwan. To improve HRQOL in this population, future programs should focus on IDUs with a history of drug overdose. In addition, methadone programs and social support should be integrated to improve HRQOL among this socially marginalized population.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Enterovirus Strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011), Isolated from a Patient in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Pei; Liu, Jiung-Liang; Chen, Lung-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Chao; Wang, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Shih-Jie; Chen, Pin-Chun; Wang, Kun-Teng; Huang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Yi-Chan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih; Wang, Der-Yuan

    2015-01-08

    This full-length genome sequence of human enterovirus strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011) was isolated from a clinical patient in Taiwan in 2011. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the complete genome sequence in this study is part of the subgenotype C4. Copyright © 2015 Lin et al.

  20. Relationship between media viewing and obesity in school-aged children in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Chien, Li-Yin; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Chang, Pi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Increased media viewing such as watching television and videos and playing on/using computers has been associated with childhood obesity. Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend limiting children's total media time to no more than 2 hours per day. Information about media usage and school-aged obesity in Taiwan is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether media viewing after school is associated with the total and centralobesity in school-aged children in Taipei, Taiwan's capital and largest city. A case-control study was designed, and a control approach was used to recruit participants. Two hundred seventy-five obese and 275 normal-weight children currently in the fourth grade were enrolled from 29 elementary schools in Taipei City. Media viewing after school was measured using a 3-day self-reported physical activity log and the daily sedentary activity component of the National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. The latter was completed by the participants' parents. Participants with total obesity had significantly more television watching time (60.24 minutes vs. 43.50 minutes, p < .05) and total media watching time (73.61 minutes vs. 52.67 minutes, p < .001) than normal-weight participants. Similar results were found for participants with central obesity. Total television and total media watching durations greater than 2 hours a day correlated significantly with total and central obesity. Time spent using computers did not differ significantly between obese and normal-weight control participants on weekdays. Childhood obesity may be multifactorial in origin. Excessive sedentary activity such as watching television may have a variety of consequences beyond the putative effect on body habitus. School nurses should promote health programs targeted to prevent excessive weight and obesity in children, recommend reducing media viewing, and encourage patient participation in extracurricular outdoor activities.

  1. Dome collapse eruption in Tatun Volcanic Group near metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan at ~6 kyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Lee, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Tatun Volcanic Group (TVG) is located in the north of metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan. Over 6 million inhabitants are living in Taipei City and suburban area. Another critical issue is an international airport and two nuclear power plants are lying at the foot of the TVG. If the TGV will be re-active, the serious hazard for human lives and economies in this area will definitely occur. Understanding the youngest eruption history of the TVG will be much important for prediction the future activity of eruption. The core was collected from the Dream Lake at the eastern slop of Cising Mt.. Total 21 samples from depth 190 cm to 231.5 cm have been tested. Comparison of chemical compositions of glass and minerals in the volcanic clasts with those of lava around TVG, they clearly showed that the volcanic clasts can be correlated with the eruption of the closest Cising Mt. According to the radiocarbon (C-14) age of core sample at the depth 225 cm, the age was extrapolated around 6150 yrs ca. C-14 B.P.. Moreover, the respiratory cristobalite in the volcanic clasts were firstly identified by the identical morphology, chemical composition and Laser Raman Spectrometry (LRS). The crystalline silica was produced by vapor-phase crystallization and devitrification in the andesite lava dome and volcanic ash generated by pyroclastic flows formed by lava dome collapse in Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat (Baxter et al.,1999). These new evidence demonstrated that there would probably have the lava dome collapse eruptions in the TVG in the last 6 kyrs. The result in this paper also sustained that the landslide caused by the weak phreatic eruption within the last 6000 yrs in the TVG (Belousov et al., 2010). It must further be noted that an efficient program of the volcanic hazard reduction should be practiced for the metropolitan Taipei and suburban area.

  2. Air pollution and daily clinic visits for headache in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-02-17

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for headache in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for headache and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006-2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits for headache was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single pollutant models, on warm days (≥23 °C) statistically significant positive associations were found for increased rate of headache occurrence and levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23 °C), all pollutants were significantly associated with increased headache visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3 and NO2 were significant for higher rate of headache visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO remained statistically significant in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants increase the risk of clinic visits for headache.

  3. Seroprevalence, Seroconversion, and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Sheng; Su, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yu-Luen; Weng, Hui-Wen; Wang, Yin-Chin; Naito, Toshio; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Wang, Giueng-Chueng; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we determined the seroprevalence, seroconversion, and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection among pregnant women in Taipei, Taiwan. Pregnant women attending antenatal consultation in a Taipei medical center were invited, and 104 women completed a self-administered structured questionnaire. Venous blood samples were collected during the first and third trimester after consent was obtained. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies (Abs) as well as IgG avidity were analyzed using an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay. Of the samples collected in the first trimester, seven were seropositive for IgG Abs and one was seropositive for IgG + IgM Abs with a borderline avidity index, resulting in an overall seroprevalence of 7.7%. No statistically significant association was found between toxoplasmosis and age, pregnancy history, or any risk factors. Seroconversion was not detected from paired sera between the first and third trimesters. Pregnant women with senior high school education level or those who claimed to knowing Toxoplasma exhibited a significantly higher seroprevalence than those with bachelor degree (P = 0.05) or those who claimed not to have this knowledge (P = 0.05). Therefore, failure to understand the importance of T. gondii infection and the prevention measures resulted in the development of toxoplasmosis among these women.

  4. Relationship between hemorrhagic stroke hospitalization and exposure to fine particulate air pollution in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chang, Chih-Ching; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between fine particle (PM2.5) levels and hospital admissions for hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for HS and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 2006-2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased HS admissions were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels both on warm days (>23°C) and cool days (<23°C), with an interquartile range rise associated with a 12% (95% CI = 7-18%) and 4% (95% CI = 0-8%) elevation in admissions for HS, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 remained significantly high after inclusion of SO2 or O3 on both warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 increase the risk of hospital admissions for HS.

  5. The measurement of dry deposition and surface runoff to quantify urban road pollution in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunn-Jinn; Chen, Chi-Feng; Lin, Jen-Yang

    2013-10-16

    Pollutants deposited on road surfaces and distributed in the environment are a source of nonpoint pollution. Field data are traditionally hard to collect from roads because of constant traffic. In this study, in cooperation with the traffic administration, the dry deposition on and road runoff from urban roads was measured in Taipei City and New Taipei City, Taiwan. The results showed that the dry deposition is 2.01-5.14 g/m(2) · day and 78-87% of these solids are in the 75-300 µm size range. The heavy metals in the dry deposited particles are mainly Fe, Zn, and Na, with average concentrations of 34,978, 1,519 and 1,502 ppm, respectively. Elevated express roads show the highest heavy metal concentrations. Not only the number of vehicles, but also the speed of the traffic should be considered as factors that influence road pollution, as high speeds may accelerate vehicle wear and deposit more heavy metals on road surfaces. In addition to dry deposition, the runoff and water quality was analyzed every five minutes during the first two hours of storm events to capture the properties of the first flush road runoff. The sample mean concentration (SMC) from three roads demonstrated that the first flush runoff had a high pollution content, notably for suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, Pb, and Zn. Regular sweeping and onsite water treatment facilities are suggested to minimize the pollution from urban roads.

  6. Air pollution exposure and daily clinical visits for allergic rhinitis in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant level exposure and daily clinic visits for allergic rhinitis (AR) in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for AR and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period of 2006-2011. The relative risk for clinic visits for AR was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days (>23ºC) significant positive associations were found for increased rate of AR occurrence and ambient levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23ºC), all air pollutants were significantly associated with elevated number of AR visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3, and NO2 were significantly associated with higher rate of AR visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO levels remained significantly related with increased AR visits in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air contaminants enhance the risk of elevated frequency of clinic visits for AR.

  7. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for pneumonia in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between fine particles (PM2.5) levels and hospital admissions for pneumonia in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for pneumonia and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for pneumonia was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased numbers of admissions for pneumonia were significantly associated with higher PM2.5 levels both on warm days (>23°C) and on cool days (<23°C). This was accompanied by an interquartile range elevation correlated with a 12% (95% CI = 16%-13%) and 4% (95% CI = 3%-6%) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) or ozone (O₃) both on warm and on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 increase the risk of hospital admissions for pneumonia.

  8. Suicide and non-suicide mortality after self-harm in Taipei City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chian-Jue; Gunnell, David; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2012-05-01

    Most previous studies of long-term mortality risk following self-harm have been conducted in Western countries with few studies from Asia. To investigate suicide and non-suicide mortality after non-fatal self-harm in Taipei City, Taiwan. Prospective cohort study (median follow-up 3.3 years) of 7601 individuals presenting to hospital with self-harm (January 2004 to December 2006). Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for suicide and non-suicide mortality were calculated. Suicide risk in the year following self-harm was over 100 times higher than in the general population (SMR = 119.6, 95% CI 99.6-142.5). Males and middle-aged and older adults had the highest subsequent risk of suicide. Compared with people who took an overdose, individuals who used hanging or charcoal burning in their index episode had the highest risk of suicide. For non-suicide mortality the SMRs were 6.7 (95% CI 5.7-7.8) in the first year and 4.4 (95% CI 3.9-4.9) during the whole follow-up period. Patterns of increased all-cause and suicide mortality following an episode of self-harm are similar in Taipei City to those seen in Western countries. Designing better aftercare following non-fatal self-harm, particularly for those with underlying physical disorders or who have used lethal self-harm methods, should be a priority for suicide prevention programmes in Asia.

  9. Air pollution and daily clinic visits for migraine in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for migraine in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for migraine and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 2006-2011. The relative risk of clinic visits for migraine was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days (>23°C) statistically significant positive associations were found for increased rate of migraine occurrence and levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (<23°C), all pollutants were significantly associated with increased migraine visits except CO and SO2. For the two-pollutant models, O3 and NO2 were significant for higher rate of migraine visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO remained statistically significant in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants enhance the risk of clinic visits for migraine.

  10. Enhancement of cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Taipei, Taiwan in relation to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, S. K.; Liou, Y. A.

    2014-10-01

    Collecting the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash data from Tai-Power Company of Taiwan, a long term study has been performed to investigate the enhancement of lightning activity in and around Taipei City, the largest metropolitan city of Taiwan, in relation to urbanization, for the period of 2005-2010. Results reveal that negative flash density is enhanced by approximately 64% while the positive flash density is enhanced by 48%, over and downwind of the city compared with other neighboring areas. On the other hand a decrease of nearly 24% in the percentage of positive flashes occurs over and downwind of Taipei compared to upwind values. We have also investigated the effect of urbanization on peak current of both polarities but no significant effect is noticed. Possible influence of urban particulate matter on the enhancement of CG lightning activity has been analyzed utilizing the annual averages of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) concentrations data. Interesting results are found, indicating the higher concentrations of PM10 and SO2 contributes to the CG lightning enhancement. Both the concentrations exhibit a positive linear correlation with the percent change in CG flashes from the upwind to the urban area and from the upwind to the downwind area. However, the correlation coefficient for PM10 concentrations is comparatively much lower than SO2 concentrations. Positive correlations of 0.55 and 0.68 are found for the PM10 and SO2 concentrations, respectively, when compared separately with the percent change in CG flashes from the upwind to the downwind area, indicating the influence of aerosols on urban CG lightning enhancement. Hourly variation of lightning flashes show that the urban effects on CG lightning is prominent in the afternoon and early evening hours. The results obtained from the present analysis corroborate the results reported in the literature by other researchers.

  11. Hepatitis A virus seroepidemiology of elementary school children in New Taipei City in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Lun; Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Huang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Yu-Chiau; Hung, Yung-Tai; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-10-01

    To establish the seroepidemiologic data of hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine-preventable HAV diseases among school children (7-12 years old) attending elementary schools in New Taipei City, Taiwan. This is a pilot study of an ongoing nationwide study, and will be the reference for a national immunization program. The school children were selected for samplings, based on a multistage stratified sampling method that included 14 variables (4 socioeducational variables, 4 socioeducational variables, and 6 medical facilities' variables). The 29 administrative districts of New Taipei City were categorized into five strata. In total, 936 school children from 14 schools were recruited and bled for the serologic tests of HAV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The seropositive rate for HAV was 8.33% among the 936 children. From each school, the difference in the seropositive rate for HAV ranged 0-18.75%. There was no significant difference between each stratum (p = 0.059) or grade (p = 0.570); however, there was a difference between schools in the first stratum (p = 0.033) that was associated with different vaccination rates. This study also revealed a significantly greater seropositive rate in the vaccination group (p < 0.001) and in females (p = 0.02). The seropositive rate for the HAV was <10% and was mostly associated with the vaccination status. Because of the low HAV vaccination rate and low seropositive rate for the HAV, an effective hepatitis A vaccine is a useful tool to prevent HAV infection. It is worthy to discuss whether to include the HAV vaccine as part of a routine vaccination program in Taiwan. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Assessment of different route choice on commuters' exposure to air pollution in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsien-Chih; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Liu, Shi-Ping; Huang, Yu-Yang

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop a healthy commute map indicating cleanest route in Taipei metropolitan area for any given journey and to evaluate the pollutant doses exposed in different commuting modes. In Taiwan, there are more than 13.6 million motorcycles and 7.7 million vehicles among the 23 million people. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants can thus cause adverse health effects. Moreover, increasing the level of physical activity during commuting and longer distances will result in inhalation of more polluted air. In this study, we utilized air pollution monitoring data (CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , PM 10 , and PM 2.5 ) from Taiwan EPA's air quality monitoring stations in Taipei metropolitan area to estimate each pollutant exposure while commuting by different modes (motorcycling, bicycling, and walking). Spatial interpolation methods such as inverse distance weighting (IDW) were used to estimate each pollutant's distribution in Taipei metropolitan area. Three routes were selected to represent the variety of different daily commuting pathways. The cleanest route choice was based upon Dijkstra's algorithm to find the lowest cumulative pollutant exposure. The IDW interpolated values of CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , PM 10 , and PM 2.5 ranged from 0.42-2.2 (ppm), 2.6-4.8 (ppb), 17.8-42.9 (ppb), 32.4-65.6 (μg/m 3 ), and 14.2-38.9 (μg/m 3 ), respectively. To compare with the IDW results, concentration of particulate matter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ) along the motorcycle route was measured in real time. In conclusion, the results showed that the shortest commuting route for motorcyclists resulted in a much higher cumulative dose (PM 2.5 3340.8 μg/m 3 ) than the cleanest route (PM 2.5 912.5 μg/m 3 ). The mobile personal monitoring indicated that the motorcyclists inhaled significant high pollutants during commuting as a result of high-concentration exposure and short-duration peaks. The study could effectively present less polluted commuting routes for citizen

  13. Preliminary study on soil to rock spectral ratio method of microtremor measurement in Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jyun Yan; Wen, Kuo Liang; Te Chen, Chun; Chang, Shun Chiang

    2014-05-01

    Taipei city is the capital of Taiwan which located in Taipei basin and covered with hundreds meter of alluvial layer that might cause serious damage during huge earthquake. Prediction of possible strong motion levels occurred in the basin then became popular. Engineers most like to use Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPEs) as common tool for seismic hazard calculation but GMPEs were usually debated that it can only give one prediction value (PGA, PGV, Sa etc.) rather than time history or spectrum. Seismologists tried theoretical simulation (1D, 2D, 3D method) but could only give low frequency (usually less than 1 Hz) results restricted to that the shallow structures were not clear enough. Resent years, wide frequency simulation techniques such as empirical green's function added stochastic simulation method (hybrid method) were applied to several different purposes but site effect still plays an important role that need to be considered. Traditionally soil to rock spectral ratio of shear wave (denoted as S/R) was widely applied to check basin effect for decades but the technique needs lots of permanent stations and several years to get enough records. If some site located within strong motion network but not close enough to the strong motion stations, interpolate or extrapolate results needed to be used. Wen and Huang (2012) conducted a dense microtremor measurement network in whole Taiwan and applied microtremor H/V to discuss dominant frequency with traditional transfer functions from earthquake shear wave and found good agreement between them. Furthermore, in this study, the ability of soil to rock spectral ratio of microtremor (denoted as MS/R) measurement was tested in Taipei basin. The preliminary results showed MS/R had good agreement with S/R between 0.2 to 5 Hz. And distance from soil site to reference rock site should no greater than 8 to 10 km base on degree of spectrum difference (DSPD) calculation. If the MS/R works that site effect study from this

  14. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Toxocariasis among College Students in Taipei City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chung-Jung; Kao, Cheng-Yan; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Liao, Chien-Wei; Chen, Po-Ching; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Wang, Ying-Chin; Chou, Chia-Mei; Huang, Ying-Chie; Naito, Toshio; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2015-01-01

    Infection by Toxocara spp. is known to be significantly associated with partial epilepsy. It has become popular for people to raise dogs/cats as pets and consume roasted meat/viscera, and the status of Toxocara spp. infection, epilepsy awareness, and associated risk factors among the general population are currently unknown in Taiwan. A seroepidemiological investigation among 203 college students (CSs), consisting of 110 males and 93 females with an average age of 21.5 ± 1.2 years, was conducted in 2009 in Taipei City. A Western blot analysis based on excretory-secretory antigens derived from Toxocara canis larvae (TcESs) was applied to determine the positivity of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies. A self-administered questionnaire was also given to obtain information about demographic characteristics, epilepsy awareness, and risk factors. A logistic regression model was applied for the statistical analysis using SPSS software. The overall seropositive rate of Toxocara spp. infection was 8.4% (17/203). As to epilepsy awareness, a non-significantly higher seroprevalence was found in CSs who claimed to "know" about epilepsy compared to those who did not know (P > 0.05). It appears that appropriate educational programs are urgently needed to provide correct knowledge related to the prevention and control measures against Toxocara spp. infections to avoid potential threats by this parasite to the general population in Taiwan.

  15. Enterobius vermicularis infection and its risk factors among pre-school children in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuang-Yao; Yen, Chuan-Min; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Wang, Lian-Chen

    2017-06-29

    The prevalence of pinworm infection is extremely low in Taipei, Taiwan. This population study was designed to determine the current status and the associated risk factors of this infection among pre-school children. Perianal swab specimens were obtained from the parents or guardians using a two-consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swab kit. Information of family background, personal hygiene, and household sanitary conditions were collected by asking the parents or guardians to complete a questionnaire. Of 44,163 children, 0.21% was found to infect with pinworm. The positive rate was highest in Datong (0.59%) and Nangang (0.58%) Districts and lowest in Neihu District (0.02%). There was no significant difference in the rates by gender (boys 0.24% and girls 0.19%) or school (kindergartens 0.25% and nurseries 0.17%). Significantly higher positive rates were found in children having parent with lower educational level and elder brother(s)/sister(s). Children taking bath by themselves and those sleeping in bed with matting had significantly higher positive rates. Five significant independent predictors of pinworm infection were determined by multivariate analysis: having elder brother(s), having elder sister(s), infrequent washing hands after using toilet facilities, bathing without the help of family members, and sleeping on bed with matting. The prevalence of pinworm infection in the pre-school children of Taipei is extremely low and decreasing. Good hand washing habit should be an important preventive measure. Transmission of this infection in pre-school children may occur in the family through their school-age siblings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Non-fatal repetition of self-harm in Taipei City, Taiwan: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chi-Leung; Yip, Paul S F; Gunnell, David; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Repeat self-harm is an important risk factor for suicide. Few studies have explored risk factors for non-fatal repeat self-harm in Asia. To investigate the risk of non-fatal repeat self-harm in a large cohort of patients presenting to hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. Prospective cohort study of 7601 patients with self-harm presenting to emergency departments (January 2004-December 2006). Survival analysis was used to examine the rates, timing and factors associated with repeat self-harm. In total 778 (10.2%) patients presented to hospital with one or more further episodes of self-harm. The cumulative risk of non-fatal repetition within 1 year of a self-harm episode was 9.3% (95% CI 8.7-10.1). The median time to repetition within 1 year was 105 days. Females had a higher incidence of repeat self-harm than males (adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.48) but males had shorter median time to repetition (107 v. 80 days). Other independent risk factors for repeat self-harm within 1 year of an index episode were: young age, self-harm by medicine overdose and increasing number of repeat episodes of self-harm. The risk of non-fatal repeat self-harm in Taipei City is lower than that seen in the West. Risk factors for repeat non-fatal self-harm differ from those for fatal self-harm. The first 3 months after self-harm is a crucial period for intervention.

  17. Association between gaseous air pollution and hospital admissions for hypertension in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has been reported to influence blood pressure. However, only a few epidemiological studies demonstrated association between ambient air pollution exposure and acute hypertensive events. The aim of this study was to examine the association between gaseous air pollutants exposure and hospital admissions for hypertension in Taipei, Taiwan. Data on hospital admissions for hypertension and ambient air pollution in Taipei were obtained for the 2009-2013 period. An odds ratio (OR) for number of hospital admissions for hypertension associated with each interquartile range increase in each gaseous air pollutant was calculated using a case-crossover approach, after controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant model, significant correlation was observed between number of hospital admissions for hypertension and ozone (O 3 ) levels both on warm (>23°C) and cool (<23°C) days, with OR of 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.4) and 1.2 (95% CI = 1.02-1.42), respectively. No significant associations were found between levels of other gaseous pollutants and risk of hospital admissions for hypertension. In the two-pollutant model, O 3 levels remained significant after inclusion of particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), or carbon monoxide (CO) on warm days. On cool days, O 3 levels remained significant after inclusion of air pollutants other than SO 2 . These findings indicated that O 3 exposure may trigger a rise in blood pressure to a level that results in higher number of hospital admissions.

  18. The Measurement of Dry Deposition and Surface Runoff to Quantify Urban Road Pollution in Taipei, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yang Lin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollutants deposited on road surfaces and distributed in the environment are a source of nonpoint pollution. Field data are traditionally hard to collect from roads because of constant traffic. In this study, in cooperation with the traffic administration, the dry deposition on and road runoff from urban roads was measured in Taipei City and New Taipei City, Taiwan. The results showed that the dry deposition is 2.01–5.14 g/m2·day and 78–87% of these solids are in the 75–300 µm size range. The heavy metals in the dry deposited particles are mainly Fe, Zn, and Na, with average concentrations of 34,978, 1,519 and 1,502 ppm, respectively. Elevated express roads show the highest heavy metal concentrations. Not only the number of vehicles, but also the speed of the traffic should be considered as factors that influence road pollution, as high speeds may accelerate vehicle wear and deposit more heavy metals on road surfaces. In addition to dry deposition, the runoff and water quality was analyzed every five minutes during the first two hours of storm events to capture the properties of the first flush road runoff. The sample mean concentration (SMC from three roads demonstrated that the first flush runoff had a high pollution content, notably for suspended solid (SS, chemical oxygen demand (COD, oil and grease, Pb, and Zn. Regular sweeping and onsite water treatment facilities are suggested to minimize the pollution from urban roads.

  19. The effective Q values inferred from the high-frequency decay parameter for the sediments in Taipei basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Wey; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Chi-Ling; Liu, Sheu-Yien

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the high-frequency decay parameter κ, proposed by Anderson and Hough (1984), are measured from the seismograms recorded by stations, which installed in the Taipei basin. The spectral amplitudes decay exponentially with frequency, f, which can be formulated as A(f)=A_0e-πκf, for f > fe, where A(f) is the spectral amplitude, and A0 depends on the earthquake source and epicenter distance, and the value of κ is independent of frequency, unit in second. The time windows applied to seismograms are suggested to be shear waves that are transformed to spectra by the technique of Fourier transform. The seismograms from the downhole array in Taipei Basin by Academia Sinica since 1992, provide a good opportunity to estimate the attenuation factor of the sedimentary strata over the Tertiary base rock beneath the Taipei basin (Wang et al., 2004). The seismograms of 23 earthquakes with magnitude ranges of 5.1-7.1 over the period of 2003-2010 at 9 downhole array stations are taken into calculation of the κ values for the shear waves. The results show that the κ values vary with depth and are in the range of 0.009-0.095 sec. The averaged Δκ values from observations range +/- 0.02 seconds respective to Δκ values at surface of each of station. The effective Q values for the sedimentary layers are inferred from the varied Δκ at each downhole stations following the evaluation method of 1-D analytical transfer function (Safak, 1995).

  20. Observations Using the Taipei Basin Broadband Downhole Seismic Network: The 26 December 2006, Pingtung Earthquake Doublet, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To monitor the fault activity in the Taipei area, a new broadband downhole seismic network comprised of three stations was established in the Taipei Basin over a period of three years, 2005 - 2007. The network geometry is a triangle with a station spacing of about 12 km covering the entire Taipei Basin. Each station has two holes of different depths containing modern instruments, including a low-gain broadband seismometer. The largest depth is 150 m. We report our first experience on the installation and operation of the broadband downhole seismic network in the Taipei Basin. Some representative records from the Pingtung earthquake doublet in December 2006 are shown here. Ground displacement during the Pingtung earthquake doublet can be recovered from the velocity records without the baseline corrections that are required for the acceleration records. Our network offers excellent data for accurate and effective characterization of seismic motion in the study area. Seismic data from this network will be shared with other research institutions in Taiwan and abroad for further research.

  1. Impacts of Typhoon Soudelor (2015) on the water quality of Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakour, Hoda; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2016-04-29

    Typhoon Soudelor was one of the strongest storms in the world in 2015. The category 5 hurricane made landfall in Taiwan on August 8, causing extensive damage and severe impacts on the environment. This paper describes the changes of trihalomethane (THM) concentrations in tap and drinking fountain water in selected typhoon-affected areas in Taipei before and after the typhoon. Samples were taken from water transmission mains at various distances from the local water treatment plant. The results showed that organic matter increased between pre- and post-typhoon periods with a greater proportion of aromatic compounds. Although drinking fountains showed moderately less total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels than that of tap water, the intake of high turbidity water considerably diminished the efficiency of their purification systems after the typhoon. The percentage distribution of THM species increased throughout the distribution network, probably due to a longer contact time between chlorine and the organic matter in the pipelines. After 2 to 5 min of boiling, THM reduction was considerable in all cases with the greater extent in post-typhoon samples. It is evident that extreme weather conditions may have a severe impact on water quality, and thus more cautious strategies should be adopted in such cases.

  2. Examining resilience in local adaptation policies – pilot studies in Taipei and Tainan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiwen Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resilience has gained considerable attention over recent years in both theories and decision-making practices. In Taiwan, the term resilience is generally considered as a synonym for adaptation. This may limit the use of the notion. By understanding resilience in terms of adaptation and mitigation, we identify six attributes for assessment. The assessment is addressed in local level climate change adaptation policies in two selected cities. The city of Taipei represents places where local adaptation policies were directed mainly by the national government. The city of Tainan represents places where the municipal government plays a more critical role in framing these policies. This can result in different policymaking considerations. The assessment points out that the proposed actions of these policies are broader than a general understanding of adaptation. Mitigation strategies are addressed and sometimes highly recommended. Because of this, we can interpret these actions as resilience strategies covered under the use of the term adaptation. The notion of resilience does not stay on the rhetorical level alone. It is happening in shaping decisions – without using the terminology directly. The broadness of the resilience notion, in spite of being abstract, can provide a more general framework for cross-sectorial discussion and collaboration in policy-making. This is particularly important for dealing with complex issues, such as climate-related disturbances, which cannot be managed by a single group of professions.

  3. Impacts of Typhoon Soudelor (2015) on the water quality of Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakour, Hoda; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2016-04-01

    Typhoon Soudelor was one of the strongest storms in the world in 2015. The category 5 hurricane made landfall in Taiwan on August 8, causing extensive damage and severe impacts on the environment. This paper describes the changes of trihalomethane (THM) concentrations in tap and drinking fountain water in selected typhoon-affected areas in Taipei before and after the typhoon. Samples were taken from water transmission mains at various distances from the local water treatment plant. The results showed that organic matter increased between pre- and post-typhoon periods with a greater proportion of aromatic compounds. Although drinking fountains showed moderately less total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels than that of tap water, the intake of high turbidity water considerably diminished the efficiency of their purification systems after the typhoon. The percentage distribution of THM species increased throughout the distribution network, probably due to a longer contact time between chlorine and the organic matter in the pipelines. After 2 to 5 min of boiling, THM reduction was considerable in all cases with the greater extent in post-typhoon samples. It is evident that extreme weather conditions may have a severe impact on water quality, and thus more cautious strategies should be adopted in such cases.

  4. Association between Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Clinic Visits for Migraine in a Subtropical City: Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-04-29

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between fine particle (PM₂.₅) levels and daily clinic visits for migraine in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for migraine and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006-2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. Generally, no significant associations between PM₂.₅ levels and migraine visits were observed on cool days. On warm days, however, for the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased clinic visits for migraine were significantly associated with PM₂.₅ levels, with an interquartile range (IQR) rise associated with a 13% (95% CI = 8%-19%) elevation in number of migraine visits. In bi-pollutant model, PM₂.₅ remained significant after the inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) or ozone (O₃) on warm days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM₂.₅ increase the risk of clinic visits for migraine in Taipei, Taiwan.

  5. Demographics, training, and practice patterns of practitioners of folk medicine in Taiwan: a survey of the Taipei metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Wang, Mei-Yeh

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics, training, and practice patterns of folk medicine practitioners, their opinions toward statutory regulation of folk medicine, and the formal education and credentialing for folk medicine providers in the metropolitan Taipei area. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Included in the survey were 200 folk medicine practitioners in Taipei city and 200 folk medicine practitioners in Taipei county. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 domains including demographics and training; practice patterns; and opinions toward statutory regulation of folk medicine and formal education and credentialing for Tuina, Ba Guan, Gua Sha, and reflexology providers. The response rates ranged from 86.3% to 99.5%. A typical folk medicine provider in the Taipei metropolitan area was a middle-aged man with a high school degree who worked about 50 hours a week. The majority of the providers in the Taipei metropolitan area received their training through apprenticeship. Years of training and experience varied widely among these practitioners. About 80% had received more than one year of training prior to starting their practice. Adult men and women were their major clientele. The major treatment modalities they offered were Tuina, Gua Sha, Ba Guan, reflexology, and meridian massage. The majority of the respondents agreed that practitioners should receive formal education and training and agreed that certifying the qualifications of folk medicine practitioners is necessary. Findings from the present survey provide an understanding of the training and practice patterns of Taiwanese folk medicine practitioners, highlight folk medicine practitioners' needs for formal education and training, and stress the importance of statutory regulation of folk medicine in Taiwan.

  6. The effect of particulate matter size on cardiovascular health in Taipei Basin, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Chang, Shu-Hao; Lu, Richard; Liou, Der-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Although the overall effect of particulate matter (PM) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been previously documented, the effect of different PM sizes (PM 10 , PM 2.5-10 and PM 2.5 ) has not been well studied. This study estimates the effect of different PM sizes on the incidence of CVD in Taipei, Taiwan. We collected outpatients with CVD from 2006 to 2010 and data on the concentrations of air pollutants such as PM 10 , PM 2.5-10 , PM 2.5 , sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. A Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM) was used to explore the effect of different PM sizes on CVD risk. In high air pollution events, PM 2.5 was significantly associated with elevated risk (4.9%) [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.010-1.089] for CVD with increasing interquartile range (IQR) in single air pollutant model. PM 2.5-10 and PM 10 did not show a significant positive association with CVD in this study. After adjusting for other air pollutants such as SO 2 , CO, NO 2 , and O 3 , the estimated effect of PM 2.5 only decreased 0.2%. Moreover, patients under 40 years old did not show a significant association between PM 2.5 and CVD. This study demonstrates that only PM 2.5 is significantly positively correlated with the number of daily outpatient visits for CVD during high air pollution events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Safe-Taipei a Program Project for Strong Motions, Active Faults, and Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    Strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region, which is often attacked by large earthquakes. Several cities, including three mega-cities, i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaoshung, have been constructed on western Taiwan, where is lying on thick sediments. These cities, with a high-population density, are usually a regional center of culture, economics, and politics. Historically, larger-sized earthquakes, e.g. the 1935 Hsingchu—Taichung earthquake and the 1999 Chi—Chi earthquake, often caused serious damage on the cities. Hence, urban seismology must be one of the main subjects of Taiwan's seismological community. Since 2005, a program project, sponsored by Academia Sinica, has been launched to investigate seismological problems in the Taipei Metropolitan Area. This program project is performed during the 2005—2007 period. The core research subjects are: (1) the deployment of the Taipei Down-hole Seismic Array; (2) the properties of earthquakes and active faults in the area; (3) the seismogenic-zone structures, including the 3-D velocity and Q structures, of the area; (4) the characteristics of strong-motions and sites affects; and (5) strong-motion prediction. In addition to academic goals, the results obtained from the program project will be useful for seismic hazard mitigation not only for the area but also for others.

  8. Asian Dust Storm Elevates Children’s Respiratory Health Risks: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Children’s Clinic Visits across Taipei (Taiwan)

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang; Yang, Chiang-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about the adverse impact of Asian dust storms (ADS) on human health; however, few studies have examined the effect of these events on children's health. Using databases from the Taiwan National Health Insurance and Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency, this study investigates the documented daily visits of children to respiratory clinics during and after ADS that occurred from 1997 to 2007 among 12 districts across Taipei City by applying a Bayesian structural addi...

  9. Enterobius vermicularis infection is well controlled among preschool children in nurseries of Taipei City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tu-Bin; Liao, Chien-Wei; Nara, Takeshi; Huang, Ying-Chie; Chou, Chia-Mei; Liu, Yu-Hsin; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2012-10-01

    Whether Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined was investigated. A total of 6,661 preschool children from 28 nurseries were randomly selected from 4 major geographic districts in Taipei City to examine the status of pinworm infection by using adhesive thin cellophane tape swab method. The overall prevalence of pinworm infection was 0.5% (30/6,661). Boys (0.6%; 21/3,524) had higher prevalence than girls (0.3%; 9/3,137) (p=0.06). Southern district (0.6%; 10/1,789) showed insignificantly higher prevalence than Western district (0.2%; 1/606) (p=0.22). Pinworm screening program remains necessary for some parts of Taipei City.

  10. Enterobius vermicularis infection is well controlled among preschool children in nurseries of Taipei City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Bin Chu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Whether Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm infections among preschool children in Taipei City had truly declined was investigated. METHODS: A total of 6,661 preschool children from 28 nurseries were randomly selected from 4 major geographic districts in Taipei City to examine the status of pinworm infection by using adhesive thin cellophane tape swab method. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of pinworm infection was 0.5% (30/6,661. Boys (0.6%; 21/3,524 had higher prevalence than girls (0.3%; 9/3,137 (p=0.06. Southern district (0.6%; 10/1,789 showed insignificantly higher prevalence than Western district (0.2%; 1/606 (p=0.22. CONCLUSIONS: Pinworm screening program remains necessary for some parts of Taipei City.

  11. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccination and Class Suspensions after Outbreaks, Taipei City, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Ping-Ing; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    In Taipei City, class suspensions were implemented beginning September 1, 2009 when transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection was suspected. The uptake rate of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination (starting on November 16, 2009) among students 7–18 years of age was 74.7%. Outbreaks were mitigated after late November 2009. PMID:20678333

  12. Temperature and hydrological variations of the urban environment in the Taipei metropolitan area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wen-Zer; Peng, Tsung-Ren; Tsai, Hsiao-Chung

    2008-10-15

    In this study, the temperature, precipitation and groundwater level variations and changing patterns with varied time scales are presented for Taipei metropolitan area which consists of the capital city with neighboring counties. Along with the continuous city expansion during the past decades, global warming and heat island effect have generated perceivable negative impacts on environmental and reflect on the climatic and hydrological parameters. In addition to accelerating climate warming, hydrological extremity becomes more evident during the past decades and greatly elevates the risks of drought and floods in the study area. These observations in the Taipei metropolitan area support the common hypothesis that climate variability would increase as climate warms. The air temperature records, in conjunction with hydrological data, provide useful and invaluable information for the ongoing study of subsurface environmental changes resulting from nature and anthropogenic influences in Taipei metropolitan area. The continuing climatic warming and hydrological extremity would create observable impacts on the subsurface environment of Taipei metropolitan area and need to pursue in a fast and efficient pace.

  13. DOT associated with reduced all-cause mortality among tuberculosis patients in Taipei, Taiwan, 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Y-F.; Rodwell, T. C.; Yen, M-Y.; Shih, H-C.; Hu, B-S.; Li, L-H.; Shie, Y-H.; Chuang, P.; Garfein, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether patients receiving directly observed treatment (DOT) had lower all-cause mortality than those treated with self-administered treatment (SAT) and to identify factors associated with mortality among tuberculosis (TB) patients. DESIGN All TB patients in Taipei, Taiwan, diagnosed between 2006 and 2008 were included in a retrospective cohort study. RESULTS Among 3624 TB patients, 45.5% received DOT, which was disproptionately offered to older patients and those with more underlying illness and severe TB disease. After controlling for patient sociodemographic factors, clinical findings and underlying comorbidities, the odds of death was 40% lower (aOR 0.60, 95%CI 0.5–0.8) among patients treated with DOT than those on SAT. After adjusting for DOT, independent predictors of death included non-Taiwan birth, increasing age, male, unemployment, end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, malignancy, acid-fast bacilli smear positivity and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION DOT was associated with lower all-cause mortality after controlling for confounding factors. DOT should be expanded in Taiwan to improve critical treatment outcomes among TB patients. PMID:22236917

  14. Association between fine particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for chest pain in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the association between fine particles (PM 2.5 ) levels and hospital admissions for chest pain (CP) in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for CP and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 2009-2013. The relative risk of hospital admissions was estimated using a case-crossover approach, after controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For single-pollutant models (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased frequency of CP admissions was significantly associated with PM 2.5 levels on warm days (>23°C), with an interquartile range rise correlated with a 15% (95% confidence interval = 11-31%) elevation in number of CP admissions. In two-pollutant models, PM 2.5 remained significant after inclusion of each of the other four pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O 3 ) on warm days. Generally, no marked associations were observed between PM 2.5 levels and risk of CP admissions on cool days in both single- and two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher PM 2.5 concentrations enhance the risk of hospital admissions for CP on warm days.

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among injection drug users at methadone clinics in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Yen, Muh-Yong; Lin, Ting; Li, Lan-Huei; Jiang, Xiao-Ru; Chou, Pesus; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2014-07-04

    Methadone treatment was introduced in Taiwan in 2006 as a harm-reduction program for injection drug users (IDUs), among whom HIV was endemic. We examined the association of HIV serostatus with demographic characteristics, substance use, and sexual behaviors among IDUs at methadone clinics in Taipei, Taiwan. During 2012-2013, IDUs at methadone clinics in Taipei were recruited to complete a risk assessment interview and undergo serologic testing for HIV infection. Correlates of HIV infection were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Of the 827 eligible participants, 85.9% were male, median age was 45 years, and mean years of injecting was 18.0 (range 1-56). The prevalence of HIV infection was 17.7%. In multivariate analysis, HIV infection was significantly associated with age ≤ 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.62), being divorced (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.62), deriving the majority of income during the previous 6 months from temporary jobs or other noncriminal sources (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.02-2.30), unstable housing during the previous 6 months (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.003-2.15), higher number of incarcerations (AOR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.26), and a history of overdose (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.01-2.28). Taiwanese IDUs at methadone clinics have a relatively high HIV prevalence, which was associated with younger age and history of overdose. It is imperative to educate IDUs' about HIV transmission, particularly for the younger and overdosed IDUs.

  16. HIV infection risk among injection drug users in a methadone maintenance treatment program, Taipei, Taiwan 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Rodwell, Timothy C; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hsu, Yun-Hsia; Chuang, Peing; Li, Lan-Huei; Su, Lien-Wen; Yang, Yi-Hong; Jiang, Xiao-Ru; Fang, Yung-Chun; Garfein, Richard S

    2012-11-01

    Taiwan has a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic that has recently shifted to an increase among injection drug users (IDUs). This study aimed to measure the prevalence and incidence and identify the correlates of HIV infection among IDUs in a large methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) in Taipei, Taiwan. Data from intake interviews and HIV testing completed by IDUs upon admission to the Taipei City Hospital MMTP in 2007-2010 were included in this analysis. HIV testing was repeated semi-annually among maintained clients who were HIV-negative during MMTP admission. Of 1444 IDUs admitted, 85.9% were male, median age was 40 years, and mean years of injecting was 14.3 (range: 1-64). The prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection was 13.4%, 91.1%, and 13.2%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, HIV infection was associated with sharing syringes during the 6 months prior to admission (OR = 14.76, 95% CI 10.31-21.13), homelessness (OR = 6.46, 95% CI 1.49-28.00), and lifetime number of MMTP admissions (OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.38) and times incarcerated (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18). HIV seroincidence was 1.15/100 person-years at risk (95% CI .62-8.77/100 PY) among IDUs who were HIV-negative at first admission. Taiwanese IDUs in MMTP have a high HIV prevalence, which was associated with syringe sharing and other factors related to social marginalization. Our findings highlight the importance of harm reduction programs, including syringe exchange, along with HIV-prevention education.

  17. Asian dust storm elevates children's respiratory health risks: a spatiotemporal analysis of children's clinic visits across Taipei (Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Lung Yu

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the adverse impact of Asian dust storms (ADS on human health; however, few studies have examined the effect of these events on children's health. Using databases from the Taiwan National Health Insurance and Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency, this study investigates the documented daily visits of children to respiratory clinics during and after ADS that occurred from 1997 to 2007 among 12 districts across Taipei City by applying a Bayesian structural additive regressive model controlled for spatial and temporal patterns. This study finds that the significantly impact of elevated children's respiratory clinic visits happened after ADS. Five of the seven lagged days had increasing percentages of relative rate, which was consecutively elevated from a 2-day to a 5-day lag by 0.63%∼2.19% for preschool children (i.e., 0∼6 years of age and 0.72%∼3.17% for school children (i.e., 7∼14 years of age. The spatial pattern of clinic visits indicated that geographical heterogeneity was possibly associated with the clinic's location and accessibility. Moreover, day-of-week effects were elevated on Monday, Friday, and Saturday. We concluded that ADS may significantly increase the risks of respiratory diseases consecutively in the week after exposure, especially in school children.

  18. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among injection drug users at methadone clinics in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Chou, Pesus; Lin, Yu-Shiuan; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2015-05-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is widely used as an indicator of health status. However, few studies have examined predictors of HRQOL among injection drug users (IDUs). We investigated factors associated with HRQOL among IDUs in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional study, recruited IDUs completed an HRQOL-related interview at methadone clinics in Taipei during 2012-2013. Multiple linear regression was used to identify factors associated with HRQOL. Of 802 eligible participants, 85.4% were male; mean (SD) age was 44.7 (8.7) years. Mean scores for physical, psychological, social, and environmental HRQOL were 13.2, 11.8, 12.5, and 12.5, respectively. In multivariate analysis, social support was significantly associated with better HRQOL in all domains (β = 0.56, 0.87, 0.83, and 0.64, respectively), while obtaining most income from temporary jobs or other noncriminal sources was significantly associated with worse HRQOL in all domains (β = -1.00, -1.03, -1.15, and -1.22, respectively). Receiving methadone treatment was associated with good physical and psychological HRQOL (β = 1.47 and 0.79, respectively), while history of drug overdose (β = -0.40 and -0.53, respectively), history of cutaneous abscess (β = -0.45 and -0.53, respectively), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity (β = -0.41 and -0.58, respectively) were associated with lower physical and psychological HRQOL. Male sex (β = -0.64 and -0.70, respectively) and a greater number of incarcerations (β = -0.11 and -0.12, respectively) were associated with poor social and environmental HRQOL. Poor HRQOL was associated with a number of factors among IDUs at methadone clinics in Taipei, Taiwan. To improve HRQOL in this population, future programs should focus on IDUs with a history of drug overdose. In addition, methadone programs and social support should be integrated to improve HRQOL among this socially marginalized population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. Investigation for Strong Ground Shaking across the Taipei Basin during the MW 7.0 Eastern Taiwan Offshore Earthquake of 31 March 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to reconstructed ground motion snapshots of the northern Taiwan area during the MW 7.0 eastern Taiwan offshore earthquake of 31 March 2002, the composite effects indicated complicated wave propagation behavior in the ground motion of the Taipei basin. A major low frequency pulse arose after the S-wave with the duration of about 20 seconds was observed in northern Taiwan and dominated the radial direction. Observed waveforms of a low frequency pulse show amplification during the seismic wave across the Taipei basin from its eastern edge to western portion. This effect has been considered to be generated by an unusual source radiation, deep Moho reflection or basin bottom surface. In this study, recorded ground motions from a dense seismic network were analyzed using a frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis for seismic wave propagation properties. We investigated temporal and spatial variations in strong shaking in different frequency bands. Results show that a simple pulse incident seismic wave strongly interacts with inside soft sediments and the surrounding topography of the Taipei basin which in turn extends its shaking duration. Evidence showed that seismic waves have been reflected back from its western boundary of basin with a dominant frequency near one Hz. Findings in this study have been rarely reported and may provide useful information to further constrain a three-dimensional numerical simulation for the basin response and velocity structure, and to predict ground motions of further large earthquakes.

  20. Comparison of the landslide susceptibility models in Taipei Water Source Domain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, C. Y.; Yeh, Y. C.; Chou, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Taipei Water Source Domain, locating at the southeast of Taipei Metropolis, is the main source of water resource in this region. Recently, the downstream turbidity often soared significantly during the typhoon period because of the upstream landslides. The landslide susceptibilities should be analysed to assess the influence zones caused by different rainfall events, and to ensure the abilities of this domain to serve enough and quality water resource. Generally, the landslide susceptibility models can be established based on either a long-term landslide inventory or a specified landslide event. Sometimes, there is no long-term landslide inventory in some areas. Thus, the event-based landslide susceptibility models are established widely. However, the inventory-based and event-based landslide susceptibility models may result in dissimilar susceptibility maps in the same area. So the purposes of this study were to compare the landslide susceptibility maps derived from the inventory-based and event-based models, and to interpret how to select a representative event to be included in the susceptibility model. The landslide inventory from Typhoon Tim in July, 1994 and Typhoon Soudelor in August, 2015 was collected, and used to establish the inventory-based landslide susceptibility model. The landslides caused by Typhoon Nari and rainfall data were used to establish the event-based model. The results indicated the high susceptibility slope-units were located at middle upstream Nan-Shih Stream basin.

  1. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  2. Acute increase of children's conjunctivitis clinic visits by Asian dust storms exposure - a spatiotemporal study in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Lien, Yi-Jen; Yang, Chiang-Hsin; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Adverse health impacts of Asian dust storms (ADS) have been widely investigated and discussed in respiratory disease, but no study has examined the association between ADS events and their impact on eye diseases, especially in children. The impact of ADS events on the incidence of children's conjunctivitis is examined by analyzing the data from children's clinic visits registered in the 41 districts of Taipei area in Taiwan during the period 2002-2007. The structural additive regression modeling approach was used to assess the association between ADS events and clinic visits for conjunctivitis in children with consideration of day-of-the-week effects, temperature, and air quality levels. This study identifies an acute increase in the relative rate for children's conjunctivitis clinic visits during ADS periods with 1.48% (95% CI = 0.79, 2.17) for preschool children (aged <6 years old) and 9.48% (95% CI = 9.03, 9.93) for schoolchildren (aged ≥6 years old), respectively. The relative rates during post-ADS periods were still statistically significant, but much lower than those during ADS periods. The spatial analysis presents geographic heterogeneity of children's conjunctivitis clinic visits where higher relative rates were more likely observed in the most populated districts Compared to previous ADS studies related to respiratory diseases, our results reveals significantly acute impacts on children's conjunctivitis during ADS periods, and much influence on schoolchildren. Vulnerable areas were also identified in high density population.

  3. The Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study in a Subtropical City, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-03-22

    Many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between levels of coarse particles (PM2.5-10) and daily mortality is relatively sparse due to the limited availability of monitoring data. Furthermore, the results are inconsistent. In the current study, the association between coarse particle levels and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan's largest city, which has a subtropical climate, was undertaken for the period 2006-2008 using a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), PM2.5-10 showed statistically significant association with total mortality both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 11% (95% CI = 6%-17%) and 4% (95% CI = 1%-7%) rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM2.5-10 remained significant effects on total mortality after the inclusion of SO₂ and O₃ both on warm and cool days. We observed no significant associations between PM2.5-10 and daily mortality from respiratory diseases both on warm and cool days. For daily mortality from circulatory diseases, the effect of PM2.5-10 remained significant when SO₂ or O₃ was added in the regression model both on warm and cool days. Future studies of this type in cities with varying climates and cultures are needed.

  4. Evidence for a magma reservoir beneath the Taipei metropolis of Taiwan from both S-wave shadows and P-wave delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2016-12-23

    There are more than 7 million people living near the Tatun volcano group in northern Taiwan. For the safety of the Taipei metropolis, in particular, it has been debated for decades whether or not these volcanoes are active. Here I show evidence of a deep magma reservoir beneath the Taipei metropolis from both S-wave shadows and P-wave delays. The reservoir is probably composed of either a thin magma layer overlay or many molten sills within thick partially molten rocks. Assuming that 40% of the reservoir is partially molten, its total volume could be approximately 350 km 3 . The exact location and geometry of the magma reservoir will be obtained after dense seismic arrays are deployed in 2017-2020.

  5. Evidence for a magma reservoir beneath the Taipei metropolis of Taiwan from both S-wave shadows and P-wave delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2016-12-01

    There are more than 7 million people living near the Tatun volcano group in northern Taiwan. For the safety of the Taipei metropolis, in particular, it has been debated for decades whether or not these volcanoes are active. Here I show evidence of a deep magma reservoir beneath the Taipei metropolis from both S-wave shadows and P-wave delays. The reservoir is probably composed of either a thin magma layer overlay or many molten sills within thick partially molten rocks. Assuming that 40% of the reservoir is partially molten, its total volume could be approximately 350 km3. The exact location and geometry of the magma reservoir will be obtained after dense seismic arrays are deployed in 2017-2020.

  6. Growth Normal Faulting at the Western Edge of the Metropolitan Taipei Basin since the Last Glacial Maximum, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Tung Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth strata analysis is an useful tool in understanding kinematics and the evolution of active faults as well as the close relationship between sedimentation and tectonics. Here we present the Shanchiao Fault as a case study which is an active normal fault responsible for the formation of the 700-m-thick late Quaternary deposits in Taipei Basin at the northern tip of the Taiwan mountain belt. We compiled a sedimentary record, particularly the depositional facies and their dated ages, at three boreholes (SCF-1, SCF-2 and WK-1, from west to east along the Wuku Profile that traverses the Shanchiao Fault at its central segment. By incorporating the global sea level change curve, we find that thickness changes of sediments and changes of depositional environments in the Wuku area are in a good agreement with a rapid sea level rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM of about 23 ka. Combining depositional facies changes and their ages with their thickness, we are able to introduce a simple back-stripping method to reconstruct the evolution of growing strata across the Shanchiao Fault since the LGM. We then estimate the vertical tectonic slip rate since 23 ka, which exhibits 2.2 mm yr-1 between SCF-2 and WK-1 and 1.1 mm yr-1 between SCF-1 and SCF-2. We also obtain the Holocene tectonic subsidence rate of 2.3 mm yr-1 at WK-1 and 0.9 mm yr-1 at SCF-2 since 8.4 ka. We thus conclude that the fault zone consists of a high-angle main fault to the east between SCF-2 and WK-1 and a western lower-angle branch fault between SCF-1 and SCF-2, resembling a tulip structure developed under sinistral transtensional tectonism. We find that a short period of 600-yr time span in 9 - 8.4 ka shows important tectonic subsidence of 7.4 and 3.3 m for the main and branch fault, respectively, consistent with possible earthquake events proposed by previous studies during that time. A correlation between geomorphology and subsurface geology in the Shanchiao Fault zone shows

  7. Evaluation of solid waste management strategies in the Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Der; Wang, Chungching; Lin, Chenfang

    2006-05-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern for highly urbanized societies. Among proposed MSW management systems, regionalization programs generally have received considerable attention. This study analyzes real-world operational data to assess different MSW management policies, especially regionalization strategies, and their impact on MSW management systems in the Taipei metropolitan area. Linear programming is also used to identify the minimum costs sustained by each policy. The linear programming results show that regionalization programs are more economical and also improve incinerator operation efficiency. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the minimum treatment requirement of incinerators is a very sensitive influence on the MSW flows distributed through the entire region. The MSW of several "sensitive" administrative districts will be allocated to different treatment facilities according to different management strategies. A list of preferential sequences of MSW treatment and disposal facilities can also be identified by the model presented in this study. The results of this study may provide a useful tool for aiding decision-making related to real-world MSW management problems.

  8. The Pre-historical Eruption of Volcanoes Near a Capital-city: Inferred From Tephra Deposits in the Taipei Basin, northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Lin, C.

    2006-12-01

    The volcanic pyroclastic flows, lahars and/or ashes derived from volcanic eruptions are a serious threat of human lives and regional economies, especially in the densely populated area. In case, more than two million populations in the capital-city Taipei, northern Taiwan just live in the vicinity of the Tatun Volcanic Group (TVG), how to make effective and reliable volcanic hazard mitigation is absolutely mandatory. Volcano is a pretty complex system. Hazard mitigation can be achieved only by applying numerous techniques. Understanding the recent eruptive history will be the most important information for prediction the future activity of eruption. After 1995, the Center Geological Survey of Ministry of Economic Affair handled to drill more than 20 wells in the Taipei basin to investigate the subsurface geology of basin. These continuous core samples offered the best materials to investigate if any volcanic ashes had deposited in the basin. The young juvenile volcanic ashes V pumice tuff were firstly identified in the two cores of the Kuantu well (KT- 1) and the Shihlin well (SL-1 in the late Pleistocene Sunshan formation. According to the radiocarbon (C-14) ages of core samples (Lin et al, 1998, Shieh, 2001), the time of this tephra deposit was extrapolated around 18.6 kyrs C-14 B.P.. Respecting, this tephra would like to be temperately named as the 18 kyrs Taipei Tuff (18 KTT). These air-fall ash deposits found in the core directly demonstrated that there had been re-active in the TVG in the recent time. More notable thing is that there are three historical records of submarine eruptions in northern offshore Taiwan, then, a program of the volcanic hazard reduction should be seriously considered around the capital city-Taipei.

  9. Predicting suicide in older adults - a community-based cohort study in Taipei City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Kwok, Chi-Leung; Yip, Paul S F; Gunnell, David; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2015-02-01

    Older adults worldwide are at a greater risk of suicide than other age groups. There is a scarcity of prospective studies exploring risk factors for suicide in older people and their discriminative ability to identify future suicide. We examined a prospective cohort of senior Taipei City residents between 2005 and 2009 (N=101,764). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine significant risk factors and to construct a predictive score. The accuracy of the derived score in the prediction was tested by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis. Male sex (Hazard Ratio [HR]=3.41, p<0.001), lower education (HR=3.31, p<0.001) and lower income (HR=2.52, p=0.01) were associated with an increased risk of suicide, as well as depressed mood (HR=1.44, p=0.02; per unit increase in a 4-point scale) and insomnia (HR=1.30, p=0.03; per unit increase in a 4-point scale). The derived prediction score yielded a sensitivity of 0.63 a specificity of 0.73 and an area under curve of 0.73. Removing depressed mood from the prediction model did not significantly alter suicide predictability (P=0.11). The dataset examined did not contain information regarding to important risk factors such as substance misuse and prescribed medications and the measures of mental health were relatively limited. Prediction of suicide based on factors recorded in a routine health screen of elderly people was unsatisfactory; the strongest predictors were factors that cannot be easily altered. Further understanding of how the socioeconomic condition of seniors contributes to suicide may provide valuable insights for intervention targeting this growing population-at-risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of Rainfall Erosivity via 1-Minute to Hourly Rainfall Data from Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Yin; Yang, Ssu-Yao; Jan, Chyan-Deng

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a natural process on hillslopes that threats people's life and properties, having a considerable environmental and economic implications for soil degradation, agricultural activity and water quality. The rainfall erosivity factor (R-factor) in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), composed of total kinetic energy (E) and the maximum 30-min rainfall intensity (I30), is widely used as an indicator to measure the potential risks of soil loss caused by rainfall at a regional scale. This R factor can represent the detachment and entrainment involved in climate conditions on hillslopes, but lack of 30-min rainfall intensity data usually lead to apply this factor more difficult in many regions. In recent years, fixed-interval, hourly rainfall data is readily available and widely used due to the development of automatic weather stations. Here we assess the estimations of R, E, and I30 based on 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, 60-minute rainfall data, and hourly rainfall data obtained from Taipei weather station during 2004 to 2010. Results show that there is a strong correlation among R-factors estimated from different interval rainfall data. Moreover, the shorter time-interval rainfall data (e.g., 1-min) yields larger value of R-factor. The conversion factors of rainfall erosivity (ratio of values estimated from the resolution lower than 30-min rainfall data to those estimated from 60-min and hourly rainfall data, respectively) range from 1.85 to 1.40 (resp. from 1.89 to 1.02) for 60-min (resp. hourly) rainfall data as the time resolution increasing from 30-min to 1-min. This paper provides useful information on estimating R-factor when hourly rainfall data is only available.

  11. Latent tuberculosis among injection drug users in a methadone maintenance treatment program, Taipei, Taiwan: TSPOT.TB versus tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Hu, Bor-Shen; Lin, Yu-Shiuan; Li, Lan-Huei; Su, Lien-Wen; Chuang, Peing; Lin, Nai-Ching; Jiang, Xiao-Ru; Shie, Ying-Huei; Chang, Hsiao-Hui; Ou, Wei-Xian; Zhan, Hong-Jun; Yang, Winnie; Yen, Muh-Yong

    2013-07-01

    Taiwan has a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic that has recently shifted to an increase among injection drug users (IDUs). IDUs co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) have a high risk of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active TB. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of LTBI among IDUs by TSPOT.TB and tuberculin skin test (TST), in a large methadone program in Taipei, Taiwan. Consenting participants were interviewed by a trained worker regarding sociodemographics, substance use history, and health factors. Multivariate analysis was used to determine risks associated with each test outcome. Of 287 participants, 165 (58.7%) tested TSPOT.TB-positive and 244 (85.0%) tested TST-positive. The mean age was 44 y, and 7.3% were HIV-infected. Kappa statistics indicated slight concordance between TSPOT.TB and TST. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for potential confounders, TSPOT.TB positivity was significantly associated with age ≥ 50 y (reference, 20-34 y). A history of ever having had contact with a TB-infected person was associated with TST positivity, whereas HIV infection was inversely associated with TSPOT.TB positivity and TST positivity. This study shows a high prevalence of LTBI in individuals at risk for HIV infection in Taipei, Taiwan. Future TB prevention programs should particularly focus on IDUs.

  12. Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Attention in this discussion of Taiwan is directed to the following: geography; the people -- education, languages, religions, and cultural background; history; administration; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Taiwan. In 1987 the population was estimated to be 19.7 million with an annual growth rate of 1.07%. The infant mortality rate in 1986 was 0.7% with a life expectancy of 70.8 for men and 75.8 for women. Taipei, which continues its claim of sovereignty over all of China in the name of the "Republic of China," exercises control only over the island of Taiwan, the Penghu Islands, and about 20 offshore islands, most near the China mainland. Most native Taiwanese speak a variant of the Amoy (Hokkien) dialect of Southern Fujian. The predominant religion is a combination of Buddhism and Taoism. Chinese sources show migration to Taiwan began as early as A.D. 500. Dutch traders 1st claimed the island in 1624 as a base for Dutch commerce with Japan and the China coast. The 1st major influx of migrants from the Chinese mainland came during the Dutch period. In 1664, a Chinese fleet led by the Ming loyalist Zheng Chenggong retreated from the mainland and occupied Taiwan. Zheng expelled the Dutch and established Taiwan as a base in his attempt to restore the Ming Dynasty. After his death in 1683, his successors submitted to Manchu control. Manchu China ruled Taiwan as a frontier district until it was declared a separate Chinese province in 1886. The authorities in Taipei claim to be the government of all China, including Taiwan. When President Chiang Ching-kuo died in 1988, he was succeeded by Vice President Lee Teng-hui, who had been elected along with Chiang by the National Assembly to a 6-year term. Until 1986, Taiwan's political system was effectively 1 party. Before elections in 1986, many "nonpartisans" grouped together to form Taiwan's 1st new political party in over 4 decades -- the Democratic

  13. Directly Observed Therapy Reduces Tuberculosis-Specific Mortality: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study in Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Yen, Muh-Yong; Lin, Yi-Ping; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Li, Lan-Huei; Chou, Pesus; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of directly observed therapy (DOT) on tuberculosis-specific mortality and non-TB-specific mortality and identify prognostic factors associated with mortality among adults with culture-positive pulmonary TB (PTB). Methods All adult Taiwanese with PTB in Taipei, Taiwan were included in a retrospective cohort study in 2006–2010. Backward stepwise multinomial logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with each mortality outcome. Results Mean age of the 3,487 patients was 64.2 years and 70.4% were male. Among 2471 patients on DOT, 4.2% (105) died of TB-specific causes and 15.4% (381) died of non-TB-specific causes. Among 1016 patients on SAT, 4.4% (45) died of TB-specific causes and 11.8% (120) died of non-TB-specific causes. , After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio for TB-specific mortality was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.30–0.69) among patients treated with DOT as compared with those on self-administered treatment. Independent predictors of TB-specific and non-TB-specific mortality included older age (ie, 65–79 and ≥80 years vs. 18–49 years), being unemployed, a positive sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli, and TB notification from a general ward or intensive care unit (reference: outpatient services). Male sex, end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, malignancy, and pleural effusion on chest radiography were associated with increased risk of non-TB-specific mortality, while presence of lung cavities on chest radiography was associated with lower risk. Conclusions DOT reduced TB-specific mortality by 55% among patients with PTB, after controlling for confounders. DOT should be given to all TB patients to further reduce TB-specific mortality. PMID:24278152

  14. Effects of commuting mode on air pollution exposure and cardiovascular health among young adults in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Te; Ma, Chih-Ming; Liu, I-Jung; Han, Bor-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2015-05-01

    The association between traffic-related air pollution and adverse cardiovascular effects has been well documented; however, little is known about whether different commuting modes can modify the effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system in human subjects in urban areas with heavy traffic. We recruited 120 young, healthy subjects in Taipei, Taiwan. Each participant was classified with different commuting modes according to his/her own commuting style. Three repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices {standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD)}, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), temperature, humidity and noise level were conducted for each subject during 1-h morning commutes (0900-1000 h) in four different commuting modes, including an electrically powered subway, a gas-powered bus, a gasoline-powered car, and walking. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the association of PM2.5 with HRV indices. The results showed that decreases in the HRV indices were associated with increased levels of PM2.5. The personal exposure levels to PM2.5 were the highest in the walking mode. The effects of PM2.5 on cardiovascular endpoints were the lowest in the subway mode compared to the effects in the walking mode. The participants in the car and bus modes had reduced effects on their cardiovascular endpoints compared to the participants in the walking mode. We concluded that traffic-related PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Commuting modes can modify the effects of PM2.5 on HRV indices among young, healthy subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of fine particulate air pollution on daily mortality: a case-crossover study in a subtropical city, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chang, Chih-Ching; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-05-12

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between PM2.5 levels and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan, the largest metropolitan city with a subtropical climate. Daily mortality, air pollution, and weather data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006-2008. The relative risk of daily mortality was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model, PM2.5 showed association with total mortality both on warm (>23 °C) and cool days (<23 °C). There is no indication of an association between PM2.5 and risk of death due to respiratory diseases both on warm and cool days. PM2.5 had effects on the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases only on cool days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 remained effects on the risk of mortality for all cause and cardiovascular disease after the inclusion of SO2 and O3 both on warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that short-term exposure to PM2.5 increased the risk of death for all cause and cardiovascular disease.

  16. Acta Genetica Sinica (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-04

    0879-8SF/ /3 N IT 0󈧬 112. MIRCK L~~Nj~ %. *- - - - - - - - -I.. * .. - II , I FTD-ID(RS)T-0879-85 oM FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION ACTA GENETICA SINICA...34 ’ ° ° ° !4 :A.. it.i FTD- ID(RS)T-0879-85 HUMAN TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0879-85 4 April 1986 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-86-C-001691 ACTA GENETICA SINICA...merged into this translation were extracted from the best quality copy available. •i 12 (2): 93-101, 1985 Yichuan Xuebao (Acta Genetica Sinica) Genetic

  17. Estimated effects of Asian dust storms on spatiotemporal distributions of clinic visits for respiratory diseases in Taipei children (Taiwan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Yang, Chiang-Hsing; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2012-08-01

    Increases in certain cause-specific hospital admissions have been reported during Asian dust storms (ADS), which primarily originate from north and northwest China during winter and spring. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the ADS and clinic visits for respiratory diseases in children. We investigated the general impact to children's health across space and time by analyzing daily clinic visits for respiratory diseases among preschool and schoolchildren registered in 12 districts of Taipei City during 1997-2007 from the National Health Insurance dataset. We applied a structural additive regression model to estimate the association between ADS episodes and children's clinic visits for respiratory diseases, controlling for space and time variations. Compared with weeks before ADS events, the rate of clinic visits during weeks after ADS events increased 2.54% (95% credible interval = 2.43, 2.66) for preschool children (≤ 6 years of age) and 5.03% (95% credible interval = 4.87, 5.20) for schoolchildren (7-14 years of age). Spatial heterogeneity in relative rates of clinic visits was also identified. Compared with the mean level of Taipei City, higher relative rates appeared in districts with or near large hospitals and medical centers. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to assess the impact of ADS on children's respiratory health. Our analysis suggests that children's respiratory health was affected by ADS events across all of Taipei, especially among schoolchildren.

  18. Asian Dust Storm Elevates Children’s Respiratory Health Risks: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Children’s Clinic Visits across Taipei (Taiwan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang; Yang, Chiang-Hsing

    2012-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about the adverse impact of Asian dust storms (ADS) on human health; however, few studies have examined the effect of these events on children’s health. Using databases from the Taiwan National Health Insurance and Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency, this study investigates the documented daily visits of children to respiratory clinics during and after ADS that occurred from 1997 to 2007 among 12 districts across Taipei City by applying a Bayesian structural additive regressive model controlled for spatial and temporal patterns. This study finds that the significantly impact of elevated children’s respiratory clinic visits happened after ADS. Five of the seven lagged days had increasing percentages of relative rate, which was consecutively elevated from a 2-day to a 5-day lag by 0.63%∼2.19% for preschool children (i.e., 0∼6 years of age) and 0.72%∼3.17% for school children (i.e., 7∼14 years of age). The spatial pattern of clinic visits indicated that geographical heterogeneity was possibly associated with the clinic’s location and accessibility. Moreover, day-of-week effects were elevated on Monday, Friday, and Saturday. We concluded that ADS may significantly increase the risks of respiratory diseases consecutively in the week after exposure, especially in school children. PMID:22848461

  19. Contribution of urban runoff in Taipei metropolitan area to dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in the Danshui River, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nae-Wen; Jien, Shih-Hao; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chen, Yao-Te; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-01-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that Danshui River has almost the highest dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) yield in the world and exports most of the DIN in the form of ammonium unlike the world's large rivers. However, the DIN sources are poorly constrained. In this study, the contributions of major sources in the Taipei metropolitan area to the DIN export in the Danshui River were investigated. It is observed that ammonium is the major DIN species in the downstream reaches, resulting from the ammonium-dominated inputs of the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and rain water pumping stations (RWPS). DIN concentrations in the downstream (urban) reaches are substantially elevated. The upstream tributaries annually discharge ∼2709 t DIN to the downstream reaches. However, the DIN discharge off the downstream reaches rises to ∼17,918 t, resulting from the contribution of RWPS-collected water, i.e., ∼14,632 t, and the effluents of two WWTP, i.e., ∼577 t. RWPS-collected water inherently contains the contribution of atmospheric deposition, ∼2937 t DIN. This finding implies that ∼11,695 t (∼66 % of the downstream output) DIN flux off the Danshui River is from urban runoff and can be attributed to human activities in the Taipei metropolitan area. To improve the water quality in the Danshui River, water quality controls in urban runoff are important.

  20. Short-term population-based non-linear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and respiratory diseases in Taipei (Taiwan): a spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter Taipei area of Taiwan from 2005 to 2007. The findings reveal a non-linear C-R pattern of PM2.5, particularly in acute respiratory infections. However, a PM2.5 increase at relatively lower levels can elevate the same-day respiratory health risks of both preschool children (<6 years old) and schoolchildren (6-14 years old). In preschool children, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.44 μg/m(3), and in schoolchildren, same-day health risks rise when concentrations increase from 0.76 to 7.52 μg/m(3). Changes in PM2.5 levels generally exhibited no significant association with same-day respiratory risks, except in instances where PM2.5 levels are extremely high, and these occurrences do exhibit a significant positive influence on respiratory health that is especially notable in schoolchildren. A significant high relative rate of respiratory clinic visits are concentrated in highly populated areas. We highlight the non-linearity of the respiratory health effects of PM2.5 on children to investigate this population-based association. The C-R relationship in this study can provide a highly valuable alternative for assessing the effects of ambient air pollution on human health.

  1. The clinical investigation of disparity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a Chinese occupational population in Taipei, Taiwan: experience at a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui; Chiu, Wei-Hsiu; Chen, Ran-Chou; Chen, Fu-Li; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2015-03-01

    The authors sought to explore the prevalence and factors related to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among occupational population in Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 8347 healthy adults voluntarily admitted to annual physical check-up. Blood samples and ultrasound-proved fatty liver sonography results were collected. The results showed that the prevalence of NAFLD was 48.4% and revealed a statistically significant increase with increasing population age. Males exhibited a greater prevalence of NAFLD than did females (57.8% vs 32.4%, P < .001). Using multiple logistic regression analysis, in addition to male gender, older age, higher body mass index, higher aspartate aminotransferase level, higher alanine aminotransferase level, presence of hypertension, presence of hyperuricemia, presence of hypercholesterolemia, higher fasting plasma glucose, and presence of hypertriglyceridemia were the significant factors associated with NAFLD. The differences in occupational professions were revealed. In conclusion, occupational populations are asymptomatic, and the diagnosis of NAFLD should be considered with older age, hyperuricemia, higher aspartate aminotransferase level, higher alanine aminotransferase level, and metabolic risk factors. © 2013 APJPH.

  2. The 1909 Taipei earthquake: implication for seismic hazard in Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hiroo; Lee, William H.K.; Ma, Kuo-Fong

    2012-01-01

    The 1909 April 14 Taiwan earthquake caused significant damage in Taipei. Most of the information on this earthquake available until now is from the written reports on its macro-seismic effects and from seismic station bulletins. In view of the importance of this event for assessing the shaking hazard in the present-day Taipei, we collected historical seismograms and station bulletins of this event and investigated them in conjunction with other seismological data. We compared the observed seismograms with those from recent earthquakes in similar tectonic environments to characterize the 1909 earthquake. Despite the inevitably large uncertainties associated with old data, we conclude that the 1909 Taipei earthquake is a relatively deep (50–100 km) intraplate earthquake that occurred within the subducting Philippine Sea Plate beneath Taipei with an estimated M_W of 7 ± 0.3. Some intraplate events elsewhere in the world are enriched in high-frequency energy and the resulting ground motions can be very strong. Thus, despite its relatively large depth and a moderately large magnitude, it would be prudent to review the safety of the existing structures in Taipei against large intraplate earthquakes like the 1909 Taipei earthquake.

  3. The Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study in a Subtropical City, Taipei, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsuan Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between levels of coarse particles (PM2.5–10 and daily mortality is relatively sparse due to the limited availability of monitoring data. Furthermore, the results are inconsistent. In the current study, the association between coarse particle levels and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan’s largest city, which has a subtropical climate, was undertaken for the period 2006–2008 using a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants, PM2.5–10 showed statistically significant association with total mortality both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 11% (95% CI = 6%–17% and 4% (95% CI = 1%–7% rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM2.5–10 remained significant effects on total mortality after the inclusion of SO2 and O3 both on warm and cool days. We observed no significant associations between PM2.5–10 and daily mortality from respiratory diseases both on warm and cool days. For daily mortality from circulatory diseases, the effect of PM2.5–10 remained significant when SO2 or O3 was added in the regression model both on warm and cool days. Future studies of this type in cities with varying climates and cultures are needed.

  4. Seasonal variations of ultra-fine and submicron aerosols in Taipei, Taiwan: implications for particle formation processes in a subtropical urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Chen, M.-J.; Huang, W.-R.; Huang, S.-H.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Lee, C. S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal variations in the physicochemical properties of atmospheric ultra-fine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100 nm) and submicron particles (PM1, d ≤ 1 µm) in an east Asian urban area, which are hypothesized to be affected by the interchange of summer and winter monsoons. An observation experiment was conducted at TARO (Taipei Aerosol and Radiation Observatory), an urban aerosol station in Taipei, Taiwan, from October 2012 to August 2013. The measurements included the mass concentration and chemical composition of UFPs and PM1, as well as the particle number concentration (PNC) and the particle number size distribution (PSD) with size range of 4-736 nm. The results indicated that the mass concentration of PM1 was elevated during cold seasons with a peak level of 18.5 µg m-3 in spring, whereas the highest concentration of UFPs was measured in summertime with a mean of 1.64 µg m-3. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that the UFPs and PM1 were characterized by distinct composition; UFPs were composed mostly of organics, whereas ammonium and sulfate were the major constituents of PM1. The seasonal median of total PNCs ranged from 13.9 × 103 cm-3 in autumn to 19.4 × 103 cm-3 in spring. Median concentrations for respective size distribution modes peaked in different seasons. The nucleation-mode PNC (N4 - 25) peaked at 11.6 × 103 cm-3 in winter, whereas the Aitken-mode (N25 - 100) and accumulation-mode (N100 - 736) PNC exhibited summer maxima at 6.0 × 103 and 3.1 × 103 cm-3, respectively. The change in PSD during summertime was attributed to the enhancement in the photochemical production of condensable organic matter that, in turn, contributed to the growth of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. In addition, clear photochemical production of particles was observed, mostly in the summer season, which was characterized by average particle growth and formation rates of 4.0 ± 1.1 nm h-1 and 1.4 ± 0.8 cm-3 s-1

  5. Seasonal variations of ultra-fine and submicron aerosols in Taipei, Taiwan: implications for particle formation processes in a subtropical urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Cheung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the seasonal variations in the physicochemical properties of atmospheric ultra-fine particles (UFPs, d ≤ 100 nm and submicron particles (PM1, d ≤ 1 µm in an east Asian urban area, which are hypothesized to be affected by the interchange of summer and winter monsoons. An observation experiment was conducted at TARO (Taipei Aerosol and Radiation Observatory, an urban aerosol station in Taipei, Taiwan, from October 2012 to August 2013. The measurements included the mass concentration and chemical composition of UFPs and PM1, as well as the particle number concentration (PNC and the particle number size distribution (PSD with size range of 4–736 nm. The results indicated that the mass concentration of PM1 was elevated during cold seasons with a peak level of 18.5 µg m−3 in spring, whereas the highest concentration of UFPs was measured in summertime with a mean of 1.64 µg m−3. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that the UFPs and PM1 were characterized by distinct composition; UFPs were composed mostly of organics, whereas ammonium and sulfate were the major constituents of PM1. The seasonal median of total PNCs ranged from 13.9  ×  103 cm−3 in autumn to 19.4  ×  103 cm−3 in spring. Median concentrations for respective size distribution modes peaked in different seasons. The nucleation-mode PNC (N4 − 25 peaked at 11.6  ×  103 cm−3 in winter, whereas the Aitken-mode (N25 − 100 and accumulation-mode (N100 − 736 PNC exhibited summer maxima at 6.0  ×  103 and 3.1  ×  103 cm−3, respectively. The change in PSD during summertime was attributed to the enhancement in the photochemical production of condensable organic matter that, in turn, contributed to the growth of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. In addition, clear photochemical production of particles was observed, mostly in the summer season

  6. Astrovirus Gastroenteritis in Children in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chuan Lin

    2008-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study results provide further information about the prevalence and span of clinical spectra associated with astroviral infections in Taiwan. The current study showed that infection with astroviruses may be an important cause of gastroenteritis, as well as respiratory symptoms, in infants and children in Taipei.

  7. Prevalences and associated risk factors of HCV/HIV co-infection and HCV mono-infection among injecting drug users in a methadone maintenance treatment program in Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Yen, Muh-Yong; Su, Lien-Wen; Li, Lan-Huei; Chuang, Peing; Jiang, Xiao-Ru; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2012-12-11

    Injecting drug users (IDUs) in Taiwan contributed significantly to an HIV/AIDS epidemic in 2005. In addition, studies that identified risk factors of HCV/HIV co-infection among IDUs were sparse. This study aimed to identify risk factors of HCV/HIV co-infection and HCV mono-infection, as compared with seronegativity, among injecting drug users (IDUs) at a large methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) in Taipei, Taiwan. Data from enrollment interviews and HCV and HIV testing completed by IDUs upon admission to the Taipei City Hospital MMTP from 2006-2010 were included in this cross-sectional analysis. HCV and HIV testing was repeated among re-enrollees whose HCV or HIV test results were negative at the preceding enrollment. Backward stepwise multinomial logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HCV/HIV co-infection and HCV mono-infection. Of the 1,447 IDUs enrolled, the prevalences of HCV/HIV co-infection, HCV mono-infection, and HIV mono-infection were 13.1%, 78.0%, and 0.4%, respectively. In backward stepwise multinomial regression analysis, after controlling for potential confounders, syringe sharing in the 6 months before MMTP enrollment was significantly positively associated with HCV/HIV co-infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=27.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.30-57.76). Incarceration was also significantly positively associated with HCV/HIV co-infection (AOR=2.01, 95% CI 1.71-2.37) and HCV mono-infection (AOR=1.77, 95% CI 1.52-2.06), whereas smoking amphetamine in the 6 months before MMTP enrollment was significantly inversely associated with HCV/HIV co-infection (AOR=0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76) and HCV mono-infection (AOR=0.49, 95% CI 0.32-0.75). HCV seroincidence was 45.25/100 person-years at risk (PYAR; 95% CI 24.74-75.92/100 PYAR) and HIV seroincidence was 0.53/100 PYAR (95% CI 0.06-1.91/100 PYAR) among re-enrolled IDUs who were HCV- or HIV-negative at the preceding enrollment. IDUs enrolled in Taipei MMTPs had very high

  8. Landslides caused by extremely heavy rainfall -----A Case Study of Typhoon Morokat, southern Taiwan 2009 Jiun-Chuan Lin Department of Geography National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 106 E-mail: jclin@ccms.ntu.edu.tw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.

    2009-12-01

    Taiwan is an active tectonic area with abundant annual rainfall. These circumstances produce a great variety of landscapes and habitats. However, landslides and debris flows in the mountain areas caused by heavy rainfall is a typical case. Typhoon Morakot in 1996 was a typical example in Taiwan. Over a four days period between August 8-11 the Alishan weather station recorded a rainfall accumulation of 2965 mm during the typhoon. The intense rainfall caused several landslides, landslide dam and floods which were claimed for more than 500 deaths in Kaoshiung and Pington counties. This was the most severe damage caused in the last five decades. Economic losses totaled over one billion US dollars across the whole island. The research area is in Launon River, southern Taiwan. This paper will review the power and influence of Typhoon Morakot over the island of Taiwan. Morphological study demonstrates that there are several types of erosion from this event. Aerial photo and satellite images interpretation and comparison study also explains different types of hazards occurred in this typhoon event.

  9. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis for Taipei Seismic Hazards: An Application of HAZ-Taiwan with its Pre-processor and Post-processor

    OpenAIRE

    Daigee Shaw; Chin-Hsiung Loh; Chin-Hsun Yeh; Wen-Yu Jean; Yen-lien Kuo

    2004-01-01

    This paper employs probabilistic risk analysis to estimate exceedance probability curves, average annual loss (AAL) and probable maximum loss (PML) for seismic hazards. It utilizes and event-driven loss estimation model, HAZ-Taiwan, and develops its pre-processing and post-processing software modules. First, the pre-processingmodule establishes a set of hazard-consistent scenarios. Then, the HAZ-Taiwan modelextimates hazards, vulnerabilities and economic losses for each scenario. Finally, the...

  10. Report on the Taipei CHEP 2010 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    This year, the 18th Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) conference has been held at Taipei, Taiwan, from 18-22 October 2010.CHEP conferences provide an international forum to exchange information on computing experience and needs for the High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics communities, and to review recent, ongoing and future activities.The speakers at this Computing Seminar will present their views of the CHEP 2010 conference.

  11. Taiwan links up to world's first LHC computing grid project

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Taiwan's Academia Sinica was linked up to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Computing Grid Project last week to work jointly with 12 other countries to construct the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator" (1/2 page).

  12. Using Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in Assessing Seismic Risk for Taipei City and New Taipei City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Wang, Yu-Ju; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Ke, Siao-Syun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluate the seismic hazard and risk for Taipei city and new Taipei city, which are important municipalities and the most populous cities in Taiwan. The evaluation of seismic risk involves the combination of three main components: probabilistic seismic hazard model, exposure model defining the spatial distribution of elements exposed to the hazard and vulnerability functions capable of describing the distribution of percentage of loss for a set of intensity measure levels. Seismic hazard at Taipei city and New Taipei city assumed as the hazard maps are presented in terms of ground motion values expected to be exceed at a 10% probability level in 50 years (return period 475 years) and a 2% probability level in 50 years (return period 2475 years) according to the Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM), which assesses two seismic hazard models for Taiwan. The first model adopted the source parameters of 38 seismogenic structures identified by the TEM geologists. The other model considered 33 active faults and was published by the Central Geological Survey (CGS), Taiwan, in 2010. The 500m by 500m Grid-based building data were selected for the evaluation which capable of providing detail information about the location, value and vulnerability classification of the exposed elements. The results from this study were evaluated by the Openquake engine, the open-source software for seismic risk and hazard assessment developed within the global earthquake model (GEM) initiative. Our intention is to give the first attempt on the modeling the seismic risk from hazard in an open platform for Taiwan. An analysis through disaggregation of hazard components will be also made to prioritize the risk for further policy making.

  13. The influence of urban heat island phenomenon on PM concentration: an observation study during the summer half-year in metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Air circulation due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect can influence the dispersion of air pollutants in a metropolis. This study focusses on the influence of the UHI effect on particulate matter (PM; including PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) between May and September 2010-2012 in the Taipei basin. Meteorological and PM data were obtained from the sites, owned by the governmental authorities. The analysis was carried out using t test, relative indices (RIs), Pearson product-moment correlation and stepwise regression. The results show that the RI values for PM were the highest at moderate UHI intensity (MUI; 2 °C ≤ UHI air dispersion. Poor horizontal air dispersion, with subsidence, caused an increase in PM at MUI. However, the updraft motion diluted the PM at SUI. The stepwise regression models show that the cloud index and surface air pressure determined the variation in PM2.5-10, while cloud index, wind speed and mixing height influenced the variation in PM2.5. In conclusion, a direct relationship between UHI effect and PM was not obvious.

  14. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical

  15. An examination of the role orientation of planners in Taipei

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xianwen; Huang, Hsien Wen

    1989-01-01

    This research project explores the professional ideology of planners in a new industrialized setting - Taipei,Taiwan. This study seeks to establish whether urban planners in a newly industrializing country (NIC) exhibit consistent sets of values, attitudes and role orientations that parallel those of Western planners. In addition, in an authoritarian party-state such as Taiwan, planning is a top-down process. Development goals are set at the top of the political bureaucracy; th...

  16. Emerged HA and NA Mutants of the Pandemic Influenza H1N1 Viruses with Increasing Epidemiological Significance in Taipei and Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chan, Ta-Chien; Tsai, Chu-Han; Chu, Kuan-Ying; Chuang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Chang-Chun; Li, Zheng-Rong Tiger; Wu, Ko-Wen; Chang, Luan-Yin; Shen, Yea-Huei; Huang, Li-Min; Lee, Ping-Ing; Yang, ChingLai; Compans, Richard; Rouse, Barry T.; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to observe dynamic changes of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of pH1N1 strains that spread in two metropolitan areas -Taipei and Kaohsiung. We observed cumulative increases of amino acid substitutions of both HA and NA that were higher in the post–peak than in the pre-peak period of the epidemic. About 14.94% and 3.44% of 174 isolates had one and two amino acids changes, respective, in the four antigenic sites. One unique adaptive mutation of HA2 (E374K) was first detected three weeks before the epidemic peak. This mutation evolved through the epidemic, and finally emerged as the major circulated strain, with significantly higher frequency in the post-peak period than in the pre-peak (64.65% vs 9.28%, p<0.0001). E374K persisted until ten months post-nationwide vaccination without further antigenic changes (e.g. prior to the highest selective pressure). In public health measures, the epidemic peaked at seven weeks after oseltamivir treatment was initiated. The emerging E374K mutants spread before the first peak of school class suspension, extended their survival in high-density population areas before vaccination, dominated in the second wave of class suspension, and were fixed as herd immunity developed. The tempo-spatial spreading of E374K mutants was more concentrated during the post–peak (p = 0.000004) in seven districts with higher spatial clusters (p<0.001). This is the first study examining viral changes during the naïve phase of a pandemic of influenza through integrated virological/serological/clinical surveillance, tempo-spatial analysis, and intervention policies. The vaccination increased the percentage of E374K mutants (22.86% vs 72.34%, p<0.001) and significantly elevated the frequency of mutations in Sa antigenic site (2.36% vs 23.40%, p<0.001). Future pre-vaccination public health efforts should monitor amino acids of HA and NA of pandemic influenza viruses isolated at

  17. The 15 April 1909 Taipei Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the very early morning at 03 h 53.7 m on 15 April 1909 (local time, a large earthquake occurred in northern Taiwan. In all, 9 persons were killed and 51 injured; 122 houses collapsed along with damage to another 1050 houses. This earthquake was one of the largest and most damaging events of the 20th century for the Taipei Metropolitan Area. The epicenter estimated by Hsu (1971 was determined to be 25¢XN, 121.53¢XE and its focal depth and earthquake magnitude evaluated by Gutenberg and Richter (1954 were ~80 km and MGR = 7.3, respectively. The event took place underneath the Taipei Metropolitan Area and might be located at the western edge of the subduction zone of the Philippine Sea plate. In this study, the magnitudes of the earthquakes determined by others will also be described.

  18. [The thirty years of Acta Genetica Sinica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Wu; Zhou, Su; Xue, Yong-Biao; Zhu, Li-Huang

    2003-04-01

    Acta Genetica Sinica (AGS) is sponsored by the Genetics Society of China and the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and is published by Science Press. The journal is a leading national academic periodical and one of the Chinese key periodicals of natural sciences. Currently, AGS is being indexed by several well-known domestic and international indexing systems, such as the American Chemical Digest (CA), BIOSIS database, Biological Digest (BA), Medical Index and Russian Digest (P [symbol: see text]). Papers in the areas of genetics, developmental biology, cell molecular biology and evolution are regularly published by AGS.

  19. Fine particulate matter events associated with synoptic weather patterns, long-range transport paths and mixing height in the Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Asian dust storms (ADS) and PM2.5 (particle pollution) events have an evident influence on air quality in Taiwan. However, the synoptic weather patterns and atmospheric conditions on ADS days are not entirely similar to those related to PM2.5 event days. The aim of this study is to clarify the weather characteristics such as synoptic weather patterns, long-range transport paths, and stagnant conditions that precipitate PM2.5 events. Air quality and meteorological data from 2006 to 2013 were obtained from government-owned observation stations, and the mixing height was estimated in relation to the Nozaki planetary boundary layer height. This study used back trajectories as simulated gridded analysis data, which were based on kinematic trajectory analysis using NASA's GMAO (Global Modeling Assimilation Office) and NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) analyses. For testing the differences between means of two large, independent samples, the confidence interval of a common statistical indicator was employed. The results show that in comparison to low PM2.5 level days, weather features such as stagnant conditions, including low mixing height and low wind speed, low rainfall amount, and high solar hours, are favorable for inducing PM2.5 events. Eighty percent of the synoptic weather patterns on PM2.5 days were associated with either polar continental high pressure, a high-pressure system in mainland China moving from the continent to the sea, or a stationary front stretching from southern China to the East Sea, and moving eastwards. More than 81% of the contributing factors of the causes of PM2.5 events were found to be related to stagnant conditions. The pattern of the contributing factors causing the maximum-recorded concentration of PM2.5, (73.90 μg/m3) was attributed to local emissions, and a long-range transport time that was extended for a longer period over the land than over the sea. The synoptic weather patterns were also found to affect the

  20. Taiwan links up to world's 1st LHC Computing Grid Project

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Taiwan's Academia Sinica was linked up to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Computing Grid Project to work jointly with 12 other countries to construct the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator

  1. Characteristics of Broadband Seismic Noise in Taiwan and Neighboring Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Wei; Rau, Ruey-Juin

    2017-04-01

    We used seismic waveform data from 115 broad-band stations of BATS (Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica) and Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network from 2012 to 2016 for noise-level mapping in Taiwan and neighboring islands. We computed Power Spectral Density (PSD) for each station and analyzed long-term variance of microseism energy and polarizations of noise for severe weather events. The island of Taiwan is surrounded by ocean and the Central Range which has the highest peak Jade Mountain at 3,952 meters height occupies more than 66% of the island and departs it into the east and west coasts. The geographic settings then result in the high population density in the western plain and northern Taiwan. The dominant noise source in the microseism band (periods from 4-20 seconds) is the coupling between the near-coast ocean and sea floor which produces the high noise of averaging -130 dB along the west coastal area. In the eastern volcanic-arc coastal areas, the noise level is about 7% smaller than the west coast due to its deeper offshore water depth. As for the shorter periods (0.1-0.25 seconds) band, the so-called culture noise, an anthropic activity variance with the highest -103 dB can be identified in the metropolitan areas, such as the Taipei city and the noise level in the Central Range area is averaging -138 dB. Moreover, the noise also shows a daily and temporal evolution mainly related to the traffic effect. Furthermore, we determined the noise level for the entire island of Taiwan during 26-28 September, 2016, when the typhoon Megi hit the island and retrieved the enhancement of secondary microseism energy for each stations. Typhoon Megi landed in eastern and central Taiwan and reached the maximum wind speed of 45m/s in the surrounded eyewall. The Central Range, as a barrier, decreased the wind speed in southern Taiwan making an enhancement less than 10 dB, while in northern Taiwan where the direction the typhoon headed to, can reach more than 35

  2. Surface deformation of Taipei basin detected by Differential SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Lin, M.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan island is located between the southeastern periphery of the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. The two converging plates produced very active tectonics, and can be seen by the high seismicity and deformation rate. Taipei, the highest populated area, center of politics, and economics in Taiwan, is in Taipei basin at the northern part of the island. There are several faults in and surrounding the basin, and the city is threatened with a high geological hazard potential that we should keep monitoring the crustal deformation to prevent and mitigate the disaster effect. The aims of our study is to apply the DInSAR technique to determine the surface deformation of Taipei basin area, and discussing the relation between the manifestation of deformation and the tectonically active region, Shanjiao fault. In the past few years, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) has been proved to be a powerful technique for monitoring the neotectonic activities and natural hazards. High spatial sampling rate of DInSAR technique allows studies of surface deformations with centimeter accuracy. In this area, we used ERS-1/2 SAR images acquired from 1993 to 2005 to generate 10 differential interferograms and processed the data using DIAPASON developed by CNES and SRTM global DEM.From our results, the deformation rate in Taipei is generally high in the western end of the basin along the Shanjiao fault and decrease eastward, while the subsidence center often appeared in the center of the Taipei basin. The neotectonic activity of the Shanjiao fault appeared to be insignificant by itself but it seemed to separate the subsiding basin from the surrounding areas. Further comparison between our DInSAR results and isopach of the Taipei basin revealed that the subsidence centers appeared in the interferograms did not coincide with the location where the sediments are thickest. Our results from differential interferometry will be compared to other geodetic measurements such as the

  3. Urban Seismology in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: Review and Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeen-Hwa Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region. A substantial number of cities and large towns exist on thick sediments in western Taiwan. Larger-magnitude inland earthquakes, for example the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, can cause serious damage in urban areas. Consequently, urban seismology is of great interest to the local seismological community. The Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA is the political, economic, and cultural center of Taiwan. It is situated over a region where the Philippine Sea plate subducts the Eurasian plate. Although seismicity in the TMA is lower than other areas of Taiwan, earthquakes still occur. Seismic risk mitigation is of grave concern in the TMA because of its high population, number of tall buildings, mass rapid transit system, and two nearby nuclear power plants. In this article, procedures for seismic risk mitigation, previous studies, core issues for future research and related topics are described and reviewed.

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-06-28

    Jun 28, 2007 ... Author Affiliations. Jon D Wright1 Carmay Lim1 2. Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC ...

  5. A Study of Fifth Graders' Environmental Learning Outcomes in Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-San

    2018-01-01

    Environmental education has recently received much more attention than before among elementary school students' science learning in Taiwan. The major purpose of this study is to explore the learning outcomes on environmental education for 5th graders in Taipei. A quasi-experimental design with a single group was used in this study. Students in the…

  6. The Educational Strategies of Citizens' Identification and Recognition for Sustainable Urban Development in Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Fan-Sheng; Perng, Yeng-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Creating an attractive cityscape has become one of the most promising actions to improve urban functionality and increase urban competitiveness. However, the resistances from the local inhabitants are always against the urban development. Taipei City, a metropolis in Taiwan, is now composed of complex urban systems chaotically enclosed by existing…

  7. New Record of Sillago sinica (Pisces: Sillaginidae in Korean Waters, and Re-identification of Sillago parvisquamis Previously Reported from Korea as S. sinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Bae

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A single specimen of the genus Sillago, collected from Gwangyang, Korea, in May 2009, is characterized by XI first dorsal fin spines, 3 or 4 rows of melanophore pattern along the second dorsal fin membrane, and a darkish posterior margin of the caudal fin. Our specimen was identified as Sillago sinica reported as a new species; this identification is confirmed by mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences, which show that our specimen corresponds to S. sinica (d=0.000 and differs from the congeneric species Sillago parvisquamis (d=0.170. Comparisons of Korean specimens previously reported as S. parvisquamis with specimens of S. sinica show that the S. parvisquamis specimens are actually S. sinica. We propose the new Korean name “buk-bang-jeom-bo-ri-myeol” for S. sinica.

  8. Orchidaceous Additions to the Floras of China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ormerod

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature and herbarium studies of Chinese and Taiwanese orchids has revealed a variety of new and noteworthy data pertinent to the floras of China and Taiwan. Three new combinations are proposed, viz. Anoectochilus baotingensis, Oberonia sinica and Odontochilus nanlingensis.

  9. A Summertime Severe Weather Event Occurring in the Taipei Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tai-Jen Chen Hung-Chi Chou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of summertime strong convection occurring on 29 August 1999, producing hail and strong gusts in the Taipei Basin, was studied using conventional and Doppler radar data. Results showed that an upper-level cold vortex to the east of Taiwan provided strong vertical wind shear and increased potential instability favorable for the development of strong convection. Drying of the mid-troposphere was primarily responsible for the strong gusts as mid-level dry air entered the system and caused strong evaporative cooling.

  10. [Study on physiological characteristics of seed germination of Ephedra sinica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seqinbateer; Khasbagan; Wurina; Wei, Xian-Jun

    2009-05-01

    To study the characteristics of the Ephedra sinica seed germination, to provide a basis for its cultivation. The seed germination inhibitive substances were studied by water washing method; the seed vigor was determined by TTC method and red ink method, the influence of growth substances to seed germination was studied by agar medium cultivation, and the influence of different sand burying depth on seed germination was studied by sand medium cultivation. The seed germination rates of dry seeds, seeds as 12 h soaking with distilled water, 12 h washing by water and with ensheathe phyllary were 44%, 61%, 79.9% and 0%. Treated with 40 mg/L GA, the seed germination enhanced significantly as the maximum seed germination rate was 94% after 2 d. Treated with 40 mg/L IAA and 40 mg/L 6-BA, the seed germination delayed as the maximum seed germination rate appeared after 7 d, and the difference of seed germination index between treated and CK was significant (Pseed germination rate gradually increased. But above 6 cm, when the depth increased, the seed germination rate gradually decreased. Moreover, as the sand burying depth increased, the root length changed in parabola-shaped and the stem length increased, but the root top radio decreased. The phyllary and seed of Ephedra sinica contain some seed germination inhibitors, adequate water washing, dealing with GA and so on can improve the seed germination rate and speed up the seed germination. Appropriate deep sand burying can also improve seed germination and seedling emergence of Ephedra sinica.

  11. Trend, characteristics, and pharmacotherapy of adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide survey in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Shian Cheng,1,2 Yu-Chiau Shyu,3,4 Sheng-Yu Lee,5,6 Shin-Sheng Yuan,7 Chun-Ju Yang,8 Kang-Chung Yang,8,9 Tung-Liang Lee,10 Liang-Jen Wang1 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Tsyr-Huey Mental Hospital, Kaohsiung Jen-Ai’s Home, Kaohsiung, 3Community Medicine Research Center, Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, 4Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, 5Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 6Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Hospital, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 7Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, 8Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 9Genome and Systems Biology Degree Program, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 10Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults may result in functional impairment warranting clinical interventions. However, few studies have investigated the diagnosis and treatment rates of adult ADHD in non-Caucasian ethnic groups. This study used nationwide population-based data to investigate the rate of diagnosis, associated characteristics, and pharmacological treatment for adult ADHD in Taiwan. Methods: Adults (age ≥18 years newly diagnosed with ADHD (n=5,397 between January 2000 and December 2011 were enrolled from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. All patients were monitored until December 31, 2011. Patients who received treatment with immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH, osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH, and atomoxetine (ATX were analyzed. Results: The cumulative prevalence of adult ADHD was 0.028%, and the incidence increased 10.9-fold from 2000 to 2011. The male to female ratio

  12. Challenges to Globalisation, Localisation and Sinophilia in Music Education: A Comparative Study of Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung; Law, Wing-Wah

    2006-01-01

    In the past, the music curricula of Hong Kong (HK), Mainland China and Taiwan have focused on Western music, but with the advent of music technology and the new tripartite paradigm of globalisation, localisation and Sinophilia this has begun to change. Hong Kong, Shanghai and Taipei share a common historical culture and their populations are…

  13. Taiwan: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, D

    1984-03-01

    This discussion of Taiwan focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion, households and families, housing, education, labor force, income, communication, and sources of information. Taiwan, founded in 1949, took a census in 1980. Its household registration system is efficient and provides population data on a yearly basis. In 1981 the population totaled 18.1 million, an increase of about 20% from the 1971 total of 15 million. Taiwan's population grew 1.9% in 1981, a decline from the 2.2% growth rate of 1971. The birthrate is 23 births/1000 population and the death rate is 5/1000. Taiwan's birthrate is similar to that of China's and both are higher than those of Japan or Hong Kong. Almost 1/3 of Taiwan's population is under 15. Only 4% of the population is aged 65 or over. The entire country is divided into 48 commuting rings associated with specific central cities. The capital city of Taipei and Kaohsiung are special municipalities, and certain offshore islands of Fukien Province are included in population totals. The country is further divided into 5 administrative districts for the household registration system. The Han Chinese constitute 98% of Taiwan's population. Approximately 250,000 aborigines (less than 2% of the population) live in the mountainous central and eastern parts of the island. They are believed to be of Malayan stock. Taiwan's predominant religion is a mixture of Buddhism and Taoism, introduced centuries ago by the original settlers. The family household is composed mainly of family members, including lodgers and hired workers living in the same place under the same household head. Between 1971 and 1980, the number of households in Taiwan increased from 2.6 million to 3.7 million. In 1980, 99% of all households were family households. Average was 4.8 persons for family households and 26.5 persons for nonfamily households. There were 3.7 million housing units in Taiwan in 1980. Taiwan's literacy rate was 86% in 1980, up

  14. Maintaining the Status Quo in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    relief (HA/DR) actions within the region. Taiwan currently only dedicates 0.1% of its GDP to HA/DR while the regional average is 0.5%.40 A more...Taiwan: Evolution of the “One China” Policy-Key Statements from Washington, Beijing and Taipei (Washington, DC: U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional...the “One China” Policy-Key Statements from Washington, Beijing and Taipei , 35. 5 Ibid., 39. 6 Harvey Feldman, “President Reagan’s Six Assurances to

  15. Seismic Response of a Sedimentary Basin: Preliminary Results from Strong Motion Downhole Array in Taipei Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B.; Chen, K.; Chiu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strong Motion Downhole Array (SMDA) is an array of 32 triggered strong motion broadband seismometers located at eight sites in Taipei Basin. Each site features three to five co-located three-component accelerometers--one at the surface and an additional two to four each down independent boreholes. Located in the center of Taipei Basin is Taipei City and the Taipei metropolitan area, the capital of Taiwan and home to more than 7 million residents. Taipei Basin is in a major seismic hazard area and is prone to frequent large earthquakes producing strong ground motion. This unique three-dimension seismic array presents new frontiers for seismic research in Taiwan and, along with it, new challenges. Frequency-dependent and site-specific amplification of seismic waves from depth to surface has been observed: preliminary results indicate that the top few tens of meters of sediment--not the entire thickness--are responsible for significant frequency-dependent amplification; amplitudes of seismic waves at the surface may be as much as seven times that at depth. Dominant amplification frequencies are interpreted as quarter-wavelength constructive interference between the surface and major interfaces in the sediments. Using surface stations with known orientation as a reference, borehole seismometer orientations in these data--which are unknown, and some of which vary considerably from event to event--have been determined using several methods. After low-pass filtering the strong motion data, iteratively rotating the two horizontal components from an individual borehole station and cross-correlating them with that from a co-located surface station has proven to be very effective. In cases where the iterative cross-correlation method does not provide a good fit, rotating both surface and borehole stations to a common axis of maximum seismic energy provides an alternative approach. The orientation-offset of a borehole station relative to the surface station may be

  16. Analysis of Ground Displacements in Taipei Area by Using High Resolution X-band SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, H.; Chen, H. Y.; Hu, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Located at the northern part of Taiwan, Taipei is the most densely populated city and the center of politic, economic, and culture of this island. North of the Taipei basin, the active Tatun volcano group with the eruptive potential to devastate the entire Taipei is only 15 km away from the capital Taipei. Furthermore, the active Shanchiao fault located in the western margin of Taipei basin. Therefore, it is not only an interesting scientific topic but also a strong social impact to better understand the assessment and mitigation of geological hazard in the metropolitan Taipei city. In this study, we use 12 high resolution X-band SAR images from the new generation COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation for associating with leveling and GPS data to monitor surface deformation around the Shanchiao fault and the Tatun volcano group. The stripmap mode of CSK SAR images provides spatial resolution of 3 m x 3 m, which is one order of magnitude better than the previous available satellite SAR data. Furthermore, the more frequent revisit of the same Area of Interest (AOI) of the present X-band missions provides massive datasets to avoid the baseline limitation and temporal decorrelation to improve the temporal resolution of deformation in time series. After transferring the GPS vectors and leveling data to the LOS direction by referring to continuous GPS station BANC, the R square between PS velocities and GPS velocities is approximate to 0.9, which indicates the high reliability of our PSInSAR result. In addition, the well-fitting profiles between leveling data and PSInSAR result along two leveling routes both demonstrate that the significant deformation gradient mainly occurs along the Shanchiao fault. The severe land subsidence area is located in the western part of Taipei basin just next to the Shanchiao fault with a maximum of SRD rate of 30 mm/yr. However, the severe subsidence area, Wuku, is also one industrial area in Taipei which could be attributed to anthropogenic

  17. 78 FR 34344 - Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... find business partners and sell services in Taipei, Taiwan; Seoul, Korea; and Tokyo, Japan. The... doing business in this trade-oriented economy and a trendy form of leisure holidays. Taiwan's GDP per... totals $1.14 trillion. Korea's per capita GDP in 1963 was just $100. Today, it exceeds $32,400. Increased...

  18. Differences in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Cases between Urban and Rural Regions of Taiwan: Big Data Analytics of Government Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hsien-Wei; Chien, Ting-Ying; Lai, K. Robert; Wu, Kuan-Hsien; Chen, Jun-Min

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the differences in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) between rural and urban areas of Taiwan with big data analysis. We used big data analytics and visualization tools to examine government open data, which included the residents’ health medical administrative data, economic status, educational status, and relevant information. The study subjects included sICH patients of Taipei region (29,741 cases) and Eastern Taiwan (4565 cases). The incidence of sICH per 100,000 population per year in Eastern Taiwan (71.3 cases) was significantly higher than that of the Taipei region (42.3 cases). The mean coverage area per hospital in Eastern Taiwan (452.4 km2) was significantly larger than the Taipei region (24 km2). The residents educational level in the Taipei region was significantly higher than that in Eastern Taiwan. The mean hospital length of stay in the Taipei region (17.9 days) was significantly greater than that in Eastern Taiwan (16.3 days) (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in other medical profiles between two areas. Distance and educational barriers were two possible reasons for the higher incidence of sICH in the rural area of Eastern Taiwan. Further studies are necessary in order to understand these phenomena in greater depth. PMID:29232864

  19. Differences in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Cases between Urban and Rural Regions of Taiwan: Big Data Analytics of Government Open Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hsien-Wei; Chien, Ting-Ying; Lai, K Robert; Pan, Ren-Hao; Wu, Kuan-Hsien; Chen, Jun-Min; Chan, Chien-Lung

    2017-12-10

    This study evaluated the differences in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) between rural and urban areas of Taiwan with big data analysis. We used big data analytics and visualization tools to examine government open data, which included the residents' health medical administrative data, economic status, educational status, and relevant information. The study subjects included sICH patients of Taipei region (29,741 cases) and Eastern Taiwan (4565 cases). The incidence of sICH per 100,000 population per year in Eastern Taiwan (71.3 cases) was significantly higher than that of the Taipei region (42.3 cases). The mean coverage area per hospital in Eastern Taiwan (452.4 km²) was significantly larger than the Taipei region (24 km²). The residents educational level in the Taipei region was significantly higher than that in Eastern Taiwan. The mean hospital length of stay in the Taipei region (17.9 days) was significantly greater than that in Eastern Taiwan (16.3 days) ( p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in other medical profiles between two areas. Distance and educational barriers were two possible reasons for the higher incidence of sICH in the rural area of Eastern Taiwan. Further studies are necessary in order to understand these phenomena in greater depth.

  20. Differences in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Cases between Urban and Rural Regions of Taiwan: Big Data Analytics of Government Open Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Wei Ting

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the differences in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH between rural and urban areas of Taiwan with big data analysis. We used big data analytics and visualization tools to examine government open data, which included the residents’ health medical administrative data, economic status, educational status, and relevant information. The study subjects included sICH patients of Taipei region (29,741 cases and Eastern Taiwan (4565 cases. The incidence of sICH per 100,000 population per year in Eastern Taiwan (71.3 cases was significantly higher than that of the Taipei region (42.3 cases. The mean coverage area per hospital in Eastern Taiwan (452.4 km2 was significantly larger than the Taipei region (24 km2. The residents educational level in the Taipei region was significantly higher than that in Eastern Taiwan. The mean hospital length of stay in the Taipei region (17.9 days was significantly greater than that in Eastern Taiwan (16.3 days (p < 0.001. There were no significant differences in other medical profiles between two areas. Distance and educational barriers were two possible reasons for the higher incidence of sICH in the rural area of Eastern Taiwan. Further studies are necessary in order to understand these phenomena in greater depth.

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Chi-Fang Chin1 Arthur Chun-Chieh Shih2 Kuo-Chin Fan1 3. Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan; Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Informatics, Fo Guang Univeristy, Ilan, Taiwan ...

  2. Population distribution and quality of life in the Taiwan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K T

    1983-01-01

    The unbalanced distribution of population in Taiwan is first described, together with the problems posed by both uneven distribution and overpopulation. The characteristics of migrants are examined, and their motives for migration are reviewed. In the second part, a design for a more rational urban hierarchy is proposed. The design involves a redistribution of the population away from the Taipei metropolitan area.

  3. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    sell military parts (including an F-16 fighter engine) to the PRC. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) stated that it deported Moo to Taipei...agreements with South Korea, Colombia , and Panama. Senator John Kerry expressed opposition, including Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

  4. Steam distillation-solid-phase microextraction for the detection of Ephedra sinica in herbal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Mari R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Schaneberg, Brian T; Crockett, Sara L; Rimando, Agnes M; Kobaisy, Mozaina

    2004-01-30

    A new method involving concurrent solid-phase microextraction combined with continuous hydrodistillation of essential oil was developed. This new methodology allowed for the detection by GC-MS of very small amounts of a diagnostic peak for the authentication of Ephedra sinica, in a short period of time and using only small sample sizes. This diagnostic peak was identified as 4-vinylanisole, and elucidated from the chromatographic profile allowed for the identification of a sample as E. sinica among other species investigated in this study. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on using continuous solid-phase microextraction coupled to hydrodistillation for the investigation of essential oil components, and the first report of 4-vinylanisole as a marker compound for E. sinica. A total of 46 collections representing 21 species of Ephedra were studied.

  5. Interannual Variation of the Summer Rainfall in the Taipei Basin Caused by the Impact of ENSO on the Land-Sea Breeze Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Tsay, Jenq-Dar; Takle, Eugene S.

    2015-04-01

    The Taipei Basin, located in northern Taiwan, is formed by the intersection of the Tanshui River Valley (~30km) and the Keelung River Valley (~60km). Summer is the dry season in northern Taiwan, but the maximum rainfall in the Taipei Basin occurs during the summer. The majority of summer rainfall (75%) in this Basin is produced by afternoon thunderstorms triggered by the sea breeze interactions with the mountains to the south of this Basin. Environmental conditions for the roughly three million people living in the Taipei Basin are greatly affected by the land-sea breeze and afternoon thunderstorm activities. Thus, the water supply, air-land traffic, and pollution for this extremely urbanized basin can be profoundly affected by interannual variations of thunderstorm days and rainfall. A systematic analysis was made of thunderstorm days and rainfall for the past two decades. Opposite the interannual variation of the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the NOAA NINO3 - 4 region, ΔSST (NINO3 - 4), clear interannual variations of these two variables emerge. Occurrence days of afternoon thunderstorm and rainfall amount in the Taipei Basin are double during the cold ΔSST(NINO3 - 4) phase compared to the warm phase. During the latter (former) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase, the Taipei Basin needs a stronger (weaker) warm/moist monsoon southwesterly flow channeled through the land-sea breeze to trigger thunderstorm activity. In contrast, the convergence of water vapor flux over the southeast/east Asian monsoon region toward Taiwan is enhanced more (less) to maintain rainfall over the Taipei Basin during the cold (warm) ENSO phase.

  6. Surveillance of Tuberculosis in Taipei: The Influence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Chih; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Yen, Muh-Yong; Bai, Kuan-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Notification of tuberculosis (TB) but not nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is mandatory in Taiwan. Partly due to the strict regulation on TB notification, several patients infected with NTM were notified as TB cases. Notification of patients infected with NTM as TB cases can trigger public health actions and impose additional burdens on the public health system. We conducted a study to assess the influence of NTM infection on surveillance of TB in Taipei. The study population included all individuals with a positive culture for Mycobacterium who were citizens of Taipei City and notified as TB cases in the calendar years 2007-2010. Of the 4216 notified culture-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases, 894 (21.2%) were infected with NTM. The average annual reported case rate of infection with NTM was 8.6 (95% confidence interval 7.7-9.4) per 100,000 people. The reported case rate of NTM increased with age in both males and females. The proportion of reported TB cases infected with NTM was significantly higher in females than in males (27.6% vs 17.8%, adjusted OR (adjOR) 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.63-2.28); in smear-positive than in smear-negative (23.1% vs 19.2%, adjOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.47); and in previously treated cases than in new cases (35.7% vs 19.1%, adjOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.88-2.82). The most frequent species was M. avium complex (32.4%), followed by M. chelonae complex (17.6%), M. fortuitum complex (17.0%) and M. kansasii (9.8%). Of the 890 notified NTM cases assessed, 703 (79.0%) were treated with anti-TB drugs, and 730 (82.0%) were de-notified. The influence of NTM on surveillance of TB in Taipei was substantial. Health authorities should take action to ensure that nucleic acid amplification tests are performed in all smear-positive cases in a timely manner to reduce the misdiagnosis of patients infected with NTM as TB cases.

  7. Transient deformation induced by groundwater change in Taipei metropolitan area revealed by high resolution X-band SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hsin; Chen, Horng-Yue; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Ching, Kuo-En; Chen, Hongey; Yang, Kuo-Hsin

    2016-12-01

    We present precise deformation velocity maps for the two year period from September 2011 to July 2013 of the northern Taiwan area, Taipei, by using persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) technique for processing 18 high resolution X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images archived from COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation. According to the result, the highest subsidence rates are found in Luzou and Wuku area in which the rate is about 15 mm/yr and 10 mm/yr respectively in the whole dataset. However, dramatic change from serve subsidence to uplift in surface deformation was revealed in the Taipei Basin in two different time spans: 2011/09-2012/09 and 2012/09-2013/07. This result shows good agreement with robust continuous GPS measurement and precise leveling survey data across the central Taipei Basin. Moreover, it also represents high correlation with groundwater table. From 8 well data in the Taipei basin, the storativity is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.5 × 10- 4 and 1.6 × 10- 3 in Jingmei Formation and 0.8 × 10- 4 and 1.4 × 10- 3 in Wuku Formation. This high correlation indicated that one meter groundwater level change could induce about 9 and 16 mm surface deformation change in Luzou and Wuku area respectively, which is about eight times faster the long-term tectonic deformation rate in this area. Thus, to access the activity of the Shanchiao Fault, it is important to discriminate tectonic movement from anthropogenic or seasonal effect in the Taipei Basin to better understand the geohazards and mitigation in the Taipei metropolitan area.

  8. Experience and Strategy of Biodiversity Data Integration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K T Shao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Taiwan's biodiversity databases started in 2001, the same year that Taiwan joined GBIF as an associate participant. Taiwan, hence, embarked on a decade of integrating biodiversity data. Under the support of NSC and COA, the database and websites of TaiBIF, TaiBNET (TaiCOL, TaiBOL, and TaiEOL have been established separately and collaborate with the GBIF, COL, BOL, and EOL respectively. A cross-agency committee was thus established in Academia Sinica in 2008 to formulate policies on data collection and integration as well as the mechanism to make data available to the public. Any commissioned project will hereafter be asked to include these policy requirements in its contract. So far, TaiBIF has gained recognition in Taiwan and abroad for its efforts over the past several years. It can provide its experience and insights for others to reference or replicate.

  9. Site-effect estimations for Taipei Basin based on shallow S-wave velocity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chi; Huang, Huey-Chu; Wu, Cheng-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Shallow S-wave velocities have been widely used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. Thus, the S-wave velocity structures of Taipei Basin, Taiwan were investigated using array records of microtremors at 15 sites (Huang et al., 2015). In this study, seven velocity structures are added to the database describing Taipei Basin. Validity of S-wave velocity structures are first examined using the 1D Haskell method and well-logging data at the Wuku Sewage Disposal Plant (WK) borehole site. Basically, the synthetic results match well with the observed data at different depths. Based on S-wave velocity structures at 22 sites, theoretical transfer functions at five different formations of the sedimentary basin are calculated. According to these results, predominant frequencies for these formations are estimated. If the S-wave velocity of the Tertiary basement is assumed to be 1000 m/s, the predominant frequencies of the Quaternary sediments are between 0.3 Hz (WUK) and 1.4 Hz (LEL) in Taipei Basin while the depths of sediments between 0 m (i.e. at the edge of the basin) and 616 m (i.e. site WUK) gradually increase from southeast to northwest. Our results show good agreement with available geological and geophysical information.

  10. Estimation of fine particulate matter in Taipei using landuse regression and bayesian maximum entropy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsih; Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS), the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a) empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b) the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c) site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan) from 2005-2007.

  11. Indoor air quality in hairdressing salons in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C-J; Cheng, S-F; Chang, P-T; Tsai, S-W

    2018-01-01

    To improve indoor air quality and to protect public health, Taiwan has enacted the "Indoor Air Quality Act (IAQ Act)" in 2012. For the general public, the indoor air quality in hair salons is important because it is a popular location that people will often visit for hair treatments. However, only a few exposure assessments regarding air pollutants have previously been performed in hair salons. To assess the air quality of hairdressing environments in Taipei, ten hairdressing salons were included for a walk-through survey in this study. In addition, the airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO 2 , and phthalate esters were also determined in 5 salons. Charcoal, XAD-2, and OVS-Tenax tubes were used for the air sampling, while the samples were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometer. It was found that the products used in hair salons contained various chemicals. In fact, from the walk-through survey, a total of 387 different ingredients were found on 129 hair product labels. The hair salons were not well ventilated, with CO 2 levels of 600 to 3576 ppm. The formaldehyde concentrations determined in this study ranged from 12.40 to 1.04 × 10 3  μg m -3 , and the maximum level was above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA). Additionally, 83% of the samples were with levels higher than the standard regulated by Taiwan's IAQ Act. The concentrations of VOCs and phthalate esters were below the occupational exposure limits (OELs), but higher than what was found in general residential environments. The hair products were considered as the major source of air pollutants because significantly higher concentrations were found around the working areas. The number of perming treatments, the number of workers, and the frequency of using formaldehyde releasing products, were found to be associated with the levels of formaldehyde. This study indicates that efforts are

  12. Electromagnetic separation of stable isotopes at the Institute of Atomic Energy, Academia Sinica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, M.; Li, G.; Su, S.; Mao, N.; Lu, H.

    1981-01-01

    For almost 20 years the Institute of Atomic Energy, Academia Sinica has been separating stable isotopes of the elements by electromagnetic separators and supplying these materials to research work in many fields of our country. In this article we shall attempt to outline the growth of the effort and describe the present situation. (orig.)

  13. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsiung, Ta-Wei; Lin, Si-Min; Wu, Wen-Lung

    2013-01-01

    This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/).

  14. Short-term effects of fine particulate air pollution on hospital admissions for hypertension: A time-stratified case-crossover study in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between fine particle (PM 2.5 ) levels and hospital admissions for hypertension in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for hypertension and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2009 to 2013. The relative risk of hospital admissions was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), the risk of hospital admissions for hypertension was estimated to increase by 12% on warm days (>23°C) and 2% on cool days (Taipei, hospital admissions for hypertension occur as a consequence of factors not related to ambient air exposure.

  15. History and development of ophthalmology in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Hou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Western medicine was first introduced to Taiwan by medical missionaries in the mid-19th century. Modernization of medicine was systematically transplanted to Taiwan in the Japanese colonial period, and ophthalmology was established third among hospital departments, following internal medicine and surgery. Dr Hidetaka Yamaguchi, an ophthalmologist, was the first head of the Taihoku Hospital, later known as National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; Taipei, Taiwan. Ophthalmologists during the colonial period conducted studies on tropical and infectious eye diseases. After World War II, ophthalmologists at NTUH played an important role in medical education, residency training, studies, and teaching. Dr Yan-Fei Yang established the Taiwan Ophthalmological Society in 1960 and instituted its official journal in 1962. Dr Ho-Ming Lin established the Department of Ophthalmology at the Tri-Service General Hospital in the 1950s and the Veterans General Hospital in the 1960s. Taiwan ophthalmologists eradicated trachoma by 1971. Cataract surgery and penetrating keratoplasty were initially performed in the 1960s. Currently, there are about 1600 ophthalmologists in Taiwan conducting an estimated 120,000 cataract surgeries and 600 corneal transplantations annually. Many subspecialty societies have been established recently that serve to educate Taiwanese ophthalmologists and to connect with international ophthalmic societies. Taiwan ophthalmologists continue to contribute to the advancement of ophthalmic knowledge globally.

  16. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for asthma: a case-crossover study in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between fine particles (PM2.5) levels and hospital admissions for asthma in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for asthma and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period of 2006-2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for asthma was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased asthma admissions were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels both on warm days (>23°C) and cool days (<23°C), with an interquartile range rise associated with a 12% (95% CI = 6-18%) and 3% (95% CI = 0-8%) elevation in admissions for asthma, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 levels remained significant for increased asthma admissions after inclusion of SO2 or O3 both on warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 elevate the risk of hospital admissions for asthma in Taiwan.

  17. Seismic hazard analyses for Taipei city including deaggregation, design spectra, and time history with excel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Pin; Huang, Duruo; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Shao, Kuo-Shin; Wu, Yuan-Chieh; Chang, Chih-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Given the difficulty of earthquake forecast, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has been a method to best estimate site-specific ground motion or response spectra in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology. In this paper, the first in-depth PSHA study for Taipei, the economic center of Taiwan with a six-million population, was carried out. Unlike the very recent PSHA study for Taiwan, this study includes the follow-up hazard deaggregation, response spectra, and the earthquake motion recommendations. Hazard deaggregation results show that moderate-size and near-source earthquakes are the most probable scenario for this city. Moreover, similar to the findings in a few recent studies, the earthquake risk for Taipei should be relatively high and considering this city's importance, the high risk should not be overlooked and a potential revision of the local technical reference would be needed. In addition to the case study, some innovative Excel applications to PSHA are introduced in this paper. Such spreadsheet applications are applicable to geosciences research as those developed for data reduction or quantitative analysis with Excel's user-friendly nature and wide accessibility.

  18. Puzzles in B physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 67; Issue 5. Puzzles in physics. Hsiang-Nan Li ... Author Affiliations. Hsiang-Nan Li1 2. Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115, Republic of China; Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701, Republic of China ...

  19. Reproductive biology of Magnolia sinica (Magnoliaecea, a threatened species with extremely small populations in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chen

    2016-10-01

    M. sinica is a self-compatible, pollinator-dependent species, and its fruit/seed set can be significantly increased by hand-pollination. No functional seed dispersers have been found in its extant natural habitats. These findings suggest that it may face both pollination and seed disperser insufficiencies in its current fragmented habitats, which may account for its low regeneration. Here we propose conservation strategies based on our findings.

  20. Extended commuting and migration in the Taipei metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C

    1992-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the relative size and extent of labor force commuting and migration among the population 15 years and older in the Taipei, Taiwan, metropolitan area (city, periphery, and other areas), and the variation by labor group. The hypothesis was that extended commuting patterns occur before migration and migrants and commuters come from different groups. There was a well-developed transportation system for long commuters. It was also suspected that commuting and migration were alternatives for each other, because of the long commutes (over 40 minutes) and the young, unmarried age groups associated with migration. Data were obtained from a stratified sample from the October round of the labor force survey in 1988. Data were stratified by degree of urbanization and industrial composition, and within village level units. The migration streams were identified as from Taipei periphery to the city, from other areas to the city, from the city to the periphery, from other areas to the periphery, from the city to other areas, and from the periphery to other areas. Commuter patterns were designated by commuting from the city to the periphery, from the city to other areas, from the periphery to the city, from the periphery to other areas, from other areas to the city, and from other areas to the periphery. The sample population of 8,384,587 was greater than the official estimates by 3.4%. In the weighted sample, 13.5% were missing data, which resulted in an employed population of 1,271,309 persons. The trend has been for stability of population growth of 2% in the city, and a decline to a rate of growth of 1.3% in peripheral areas. Both the city and periphery gained population from other areas: 70,000 and 35,000 persons, respectively; there was a balanced stream between the city and periphery of 30,000 persons. 24.1% of periphery workers were commuters to the city with a commuting population of 250,000 daily. Explanations

  1. Antioxidant Activities of Caragana sinica Flower Extracts and Their Main Chemical Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Tai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The edible flowers of Caragana sinica are used in China a kind of health-promoting vegetable. In this study, the antioxidant activities of its ethanol extract, as well as its petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions, were evaluated through in vitro model systems including the DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching methods. Among the C. sinica flower extracts the ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective. Correlation analysis suggested that flavonoids might be the major contributors to the high antioxidant activity of this flower. Six flavonoids including quercetin (1, isoquercitrin (2, rutin (3, quercetin-3′-O-methyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, typhaneoside (5 and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6]-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, were isolated from this flower for the first time. Their contents were determined by a HPLC method. Compounds 3 and 4 were found to be the major flavonoids, with concentrations of 1.20 ± 0.07 and 3.94 ± 0.12 mg/g dry sample, respectively. These results demonstrated that the C. sinica flowers may be valuable natural antioxidant sources and are potentially applicable in the health food industry.

  2. Monitor the Surface Deformation in Metropolitan Taipei Basin by Using PS-InSAR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan-Ru; Tung, Hsin; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Taipei is the most densely populated area and the center of politics and economics in Taiwan. However, the composite geohazards might occur in Taipei area, in which the active Shanchiao fault located in the western margin of Taipei basin and the active Tatun volcano group located 15 km to the north of the basin. Therefore, it is not only an important scientific topic but also a crucial social issue to better understand the assessment and mitigation of geological hazard in the metropolitan Taipei city. We use Persistent Scatterers interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and small baseline methods to calculate the surface deformation rate with the constraints of continuous GPS and precise leveling measurements. The advantages of PSInSAR technique are wide, periodic, and stable in the temporal and spatial pattern of deformation. In this study C-band ERS-1/2 (1996/1-1999/9), ENVISAT (2003/1-2008/3) and L-band ALOS (2007/4-2011/6) SAR images are used to carry out the surface deformation in three periods. Based on the results of different periods of PS-InSAR, the slant range displacement (SRD) was variable via time which might be related to the deformation in different depth of loose deposits in Taipei basin. Previous study suggested that some factors influence the surface deformation change, including soil compaction, water-table change and tectonic movement. Consequently the assessment in activity of the Shanchiao fault, the induced deformation due to the fluctuation of the water table and the soil compaction should be removed. In general, the average SRD rate in the footwall and hanging wall of the Shanchiao Fault was about 12.2 mm/yr and 9.1 mm/yr, 1.5 mm/yr and 4.0 mm/yr, respectively with descending mode ERS-1/2 an ENVISAT radar images. For the ascending ALOS radar image, the average SRD rate in the footwall and hanging wall of the Shanchiao Fault was about -9.5 and -11.3 mm/yr, respectively. These results suggests that the slight uplift observed in the

  3. 75 FR 34282 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-014, New Designated Country-Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu (Chinese Taipei))'' as a designated country, due to the accession of... final rule will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities within... significant economic impact on U.S. small businesses. The Department of Defense only applies the trade...

  4. Occupational exposures of airborne trichloramine at indoor swimming pools in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tsai-Shu; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Tsai, Shih-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Ten indoor swimming pools in Taipei, Taiwan were included in the study to assess the exposure of people to airborne trichloramine (NCl3) and also to discover the factors that might affect the associated concentrations. An active air sampling method was performed to determine the levels of NCl3, while questionnaires were administered to swimming pool workers, including lifeguards, swimming instructors, and management employees. The results show that the concentrations of trichloramine ranged from 0.017 to 0.15 mg m(-3), which were generally lower than what have been reported from other studies. Symptoms of sore throat and phlegm were more frequent among lifeguards and swimming instructors (exposure group) than management employees (reference group) (odds ratios were 11.28 and 4.22 for sore throat and phlegm, respectively). It seems that the current exposure limit for airborne NCl3, which was recommended by WHO, was not lower enough to protect the health of pool attendants. Regulated level of free available chlorine in Taipei (i.e., 0.3-0.7 ppm) is lower than what is required in other countries (e.g., 1-3 ppm in the UK). This might be the main reason why the concentrations of NCl3 reported elsewhere were higher than what were found in this research. Further international comparisons will help to elucidate if low free chlorine concentration should be adopted as an operating standard. For the indoor swimming pools in Taipei, the air quality is suggested to be improved, since even with the low concentrations of NCl3, higher respiratory ailments among pool workers were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan Earthquake Model (TEM was established to assess the seismic hazard and risk for Taiwan by considering the social and economic impacts of various components from geology, seismology, and engineering. This paper gives the first version of TEM probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Taiwan in these aspects. We named it TEM PSHA2015. The model adopts the source parameters of 38 seismogenic structures identified by TEM geologists. In addition to specific fault source-based categorization, seismic activities are categorized as shallow, subduction intraplate, and subduction interplate events. To evaluate the potential ground-shaking resulting from each seismic source, the corresponding ground-motion prediction equations for crustal and subduction earthquakes are adopted. The highest hazard probability is evaluated to be in Southwestern Taiwan and the Longitudinal Valley of Eastern Taiwan. Among the special municipalities in the highly populated Western Taiwan region, Taichung, Tainan, and New Taipei City are evaluated to have the highest hazard. Tainan has the highest seismic hazard for peak ground acceleration in the model based on TEM fault parameters. In terms of pseudo-spectral acceleration, Tainan has higher hazard over short spectral periods, whereas Taichung has higher hazard over long spectral periods. The analysis indicates the importance of earthquake-resistant designs for low-rise buildings in Tainan and high-rise buildings in Taichung.

  6. The application of seismic risk-benefit analysis to land use planning in Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Chen, Liang-Chun

    2007-09-01

    In the developing countries of Asia local authorities rarely use risk analysis instruments as a decision-making support mechanism during planning and development procedures. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to enable planners to undertake such analyses. We illustrate a case study of seismic risk-benefit analysis for the city of Taipei, Taiwan, using available land use maps and surveys as well as a new tool developed by the National Science Council in Taiwan--the HAZ-Taiwan earthquake loss estimation system. We use three hypothetical earthquakes to estimate casualties and total and annualised direct economic losses, and to show their spatial distribution. We also characterise the distribution of vulnerability over the study area using cluster analysis. A risk-benefit ratio is calculated to express the levels of seismic risk attached to alternative land use plans. This paper suggests ways to perform earthquake risk evaluations and the authors intend to assist city planners to evaluate the appropriateness of their planning decisions.

  7. Analysis of trends in water quality: constructed wetlands in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, B-Y; Liu, T-C; Shyu, G-S; Chang, T-K; Fang, W-T

    2011-01-01

    Meandering through the most densely populated metropolitan areas of Taipei, Taiwan, the Danshui River and its tributaries have undergone the construction of 14 wetlands since 2004, as a means to improve water quality. This study was conducted to examine the functional capabilities associated with treating non-point source pollution through these riparian wetlands. Trend analysis was used to differentiate dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammonia, and Escherichia coli, among 13 sampling sites using both functions of a Mann-Kendall test and a seasonal Mann-Kendall test. The results show that water quality in Taipei metropolitan rivers has been improving since increasing the number of constructed wetlands and connecting households to the public sewage system. The concentration of pollutants such as those influencing biochemical oxygen demand have gradually declined in drought seasons because riparian wetlands contribute a base flow to dilute riverine pollutants. This paper indicates that the creation of treatment systems influences dissolved oxygen conditions at the municipal scale, suggesting that constructed wetlands could stabilize water quality during extreme hydrological events and improve water quality particularly in times of drought.

  8. Taiwan-China: The Gordian Knot Stays Tied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Istenič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Separated historical, geographical, economic, political, and social processes on the two sides of the Taiwan Strait have formed two entirely different political, economic and cultural entities. However, up to now, the governments in Beijing and Taipei have not yet found a common language regarding the questions related to Taiwan’s sovereignty. Whereas for the government in Beijing, Taiwan is an inalienable part of the People’s Republic of China, the government of the Republic of China who has actually been ruling Taiwan for almost 70 years, regards it as a sovereign, independent country. How to find a manageable political consensus that would please both parties remains a key question. The present article will outline the recent dynamics and illuminate the obstacles on the road toward long-term peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait.

  9. A survey of serum specific-lgE to common allergens in primary school children of Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kong-Sang; Yang, Winnie; Wu, Wei-Fong

    2010-03-01

    Environmental factors and eating habits have had a significant impact on the increased sensitization to allergens in children. This study investigated changes in common allergen sensitivities among children in Taipei City, Taiwan. A total of 142 primary schools in Taipei City, which included 25,094 students aged 7-8 years, were surveyed using an ISAAC questionnaire to screen for allergies. For positive responders, serum allergen-specific IgE was confirmed using the Pharmacia CAP system. A total of 1,500 students (5.98%) had confirmed sensitivities to allergens. Dust mite sensitivity among these children was nearly 90%. The prevalences of sensitivities to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Blomia tropicalis were 90.79%, 88.24%, and 84.63%, respectively. Dog dander (29.95%) was the second most common aeroallergen to induce sensitivity. Allergies to cat dander (8.69%) and to cockroach (15.48%) had decreased dramatically compared with previous analyses. Among the food allergens studied, the most common allergens that induced sensitization were (in order of prevalence) crab, milk, egg white, and shrimp (88.08%, 22.45%, 24.23%, and 21.44%, respectively). Mold and pollen sensitization was identified in fewer than 2% of the schoolchildren. Dust mites remain the most common allergen to induce allergic sensitization among children in Taipei City, while cockroach and mold sensitivities have dramatically declined. Food allergens should also be considered as a trigger of respiratory allergy. Except for dust mites, American cockroach and crab, allergens commonly reported to induce sensitization in other Asian counties are not common in Taiwan.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for myopia in second-grade primary school children in Taipei: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chien; Huang, Nicole; Lin, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Der-Chong; Tsai, Ching-Yao; Woung, Lin-Chung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling

    2016-11-01

    High myopia is associated with multiple ocular morbidities that may lead to irreversible blindness. Because high myopia in an adult is thought to be related to onset of myopia in very early childhood, detecting myopia early and working to improve modifiable risk factors may help reduce the development of high myopia. In this study, we tried to evaluate the prevalence of myopia and associated risk factors in second-grade primary school children in Taipei, Taiwan. A questionnaire was distributed to the participants' parents, and their written informed consent was obtained before performing eye examinations that included visual acuity testing and cycloplegic autorefraction. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to assess possible risk factors associated with myopia. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent of -0.50 D or less in either eye. The prevalence of myopia in the second graders was 36.4%. After adjustment for other characteristics, the following variables were significantly associated with a higher risk of myopia: male sex [odds ratio (OR)=1.24, pTaipei. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  11. The euonymus leaf-notcher, Pryeria sinica Moore (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) - alive and well in Fairfax County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryeria sinica Moore, a species native to the eastern Palearctic, was first detected in North America in 2001, where the conspicuous, gregariously-feeding larvae were noticed on ornamental Euonymous (Celastraceae) in a residential area of Fairfax County, Virginia. Although the species was moderatel...

  12. The impact of an emerging port on the carbon dioxide emissions of inland container transport. An empirical study of Taipei port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chun-Hsiung; Tseng, Po-Hsing; Lu, Chin-Shan [Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan City 701 (China); Cullinane, Kevin [Transport Research Institute (TRI), Edinburgh Napier University, Merchiston Campus, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    This study analyzes the changes in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions resulting from the movement of containers from established ports through the emerging port of Taipei in Northern Taiwan. An activity-based emissions model is used to estimate the CO{sub 2} emissions of container transport under four scenarios where there are switches of market share from existing ports to the emerging port. The results show that there are greater reductions in CO{sub 2} when transhipment routes are changed from the ports of Kaohsiung, Taichung and Keelung to the emerging port of Taipei. The paper concludes that the analytical approach adopted in the paper can help decision-makers understand potential CO{sub 2} emissions reduction strategies in the route selection of inland container transportation and such consideration should provide a broader and more meaningful basis for the socio-economic evaluation of port investment projects. (author)

  13. The impact of an emerging port on the carbon dioxide emissions of inland container transport: An empirical study of Taipei port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, C.-H., E-mail: chliao@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Tseng, P.-H., E-mail: tzeng_ypo@yahoo.com.t [Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Cullinane, Kevin, E-mail: k.cullinane@napier.ac.u [Transport Research Institute (TRI), Edinburgh Napier University, Merchiston Campus, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Lu, C.-S., E-mail: lucs@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    This study analyzes the changes in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions resulting from the movement of containers from established ports through the emerging port of Taipei in Northern Taiwan. An activity-based emissions model is used to estimate the CO{sub 2} emissions of container transport under four scenarios where there are switches of market share from existing ports to the emerging port. The results show that there are greater reductions in CO{sub 2} when transhipment routes are changed from the ports of Kaohsiung, Taichung and Keelung to the emerging port of Taipei. The paper concludes that the analytical approach adopted in the paper can help decision-makers understand potential CO{sub 2} emissions reduction strategies in the route selection of inland container transportation and such consideration should provide a broader and more meaningful basis for the socio-economic evaluation of port investment projects.

  14. Deformation of Taiwan from Continuous GPS Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F. T.; Kuo, L.; Kuo-Chen, H.

    2007-12-01

    patterns of deformation. In the few years after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake subsidence occurred in many areas but by 2007 many areas had resumed rising. Rates higher than 10 mm/yr are found in a few areas. Several coastal areas show rapid subsidence as a result of water well pumping. Over the period of more than six years, time-dependent variations can be detected. For example, from 2002 through 2006 there appear to be a detectable increase in areal strain. We can expect to see significant changes in deformation of the Taiwan orogen through continuous GPS monitoring. (1) Operated by Central Weather Bureau, Central Geological Survey, Land Survey Bureau, Ministry of Interior, Institute of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan University, and others. (2)For details of the network please see GPSLAB web page of Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica: http://gps.earth.sinica.edu.tw

  15. A case-crossover analysis of Asian dust storms and mortality in the downwind areas using 14-year data in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chang-Chuan; Ng, Huey-Ching

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to assess the association between Asian dust storms (ADS) and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of ADS on mortality. Odds ratios (ORs) of total non-accidental (ICD-9 Taipei metropolis over a 14-year study period between 1994 and 2007 by conditional logistic regression. Air pollution levels and temperature data were recorded by a network of 16 monitoring stations spreading around Taipei. Compared with reference days, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 and 2.5μm (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) increased statistically significantly by 24.2μg/m(3) and 7.9μg/m(3) per dust day, respectively. There were also statistically significant increases in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) but decreases in temperature during ADS. Excess deaths were increased significantly for residents of all ages for total non-accidental deaths, with OR=1.019 (95% CI 1.003-1.035), and also for residents above 65years old, with OR=1.025 (95% CI 1.006-1.044) for total non-accidental deaths and OR=1.045 (95% CI 1.0011-1.081) for cardiovascular deaths, respectively but not for respiratory deaths during ADS. Such increases in mortality remained statistically significant in the regression models with either SO(2) or O(3). This study found that acute exposure to long-range transported Asian dust can increase the number of non-accidental and cardiovascular deaths for people of all ages and the elderly population aged above 65 on the dust storm days in Taipei, Taiwan. Further studies are still needed to find out whether mass concentrations alone or specific components in PM are responsible for excess cardiovascular deaths by ADS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutron therapy facility at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.C.

    1983-12-01

    The 10 MeV proton linac which was designed as preinjector for the Beijing 50 GeV Proton Synchrotron (BPS) was completed by the end of 1982. Because of the economic readjustment in the People's Republic of China the BPS project was cancelled. Then, the Institute of High Energy Physics decided to increase the energy of the linac from 10 MeV to 35.5 MeV. This increase will take place using the primary five megawatts RF system of the 10 MeV linac. This 35.5 MeV proton linac will be used for research in radiomedicine and radiobiology in general and in particular for research in fast neutron therapy and radiopharmaceutical production. This project has been approved by the Academia Sinica

  17. Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang BR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bih-Ru Wang,1,2,* Yuh-Lih Chang,1,2,* Tzeng-Ji Chen,3,4 Jen-Hwey Chiu,5,6 Jing Chong Wu,7 Min-Shan Wu,1 Chia-Lin Chou,1 Yueh-Ching Chou1,2,81Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Traditional Medicine Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 8College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Many female breast cancer (FBC patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM and Western medication (WM concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan.Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions.Results: There were 868 (80.0% patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM

  18. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. M K Singh1 2 3 A K Soma3 V Singh1 3 R Pathak2. Physics Department, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India; Physics Department, Tilak Dhari Postgraduate College, Jaunpur 222 002, India; Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan ...

  19. Low-energy neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-keV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-15

    Nov 15, 2012 ... Low-energy neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-keV germanium detectors. A K SOMA1,2, L SINGH1, M K SINGH1,2, V SINGH1,∗ and H T WONG2. 1Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India. 2Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan. ∗.

  20. Phenomenological applications of kT factorization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 63; Issue 6. Phenomenological applications of T factorization. Yong-Yeon ... Author Affiliations. Yong-Yeon Keum1. Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang 128, Taipei 11529, Taiwan Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg, Germany ...

  1. Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Taipei,China’s Industrial Structure and Firm Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Jack W.

    2011-01-01

    Confronted by the current global economic crisis, Taipei, China's economy has suffered much like its neighbors. However, Taipei, China is different from other East Asia economies in several aspects. First, Taipei, China's industrial organization is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), unlike the chaebols of the Republic of Korea or the Japanese Kabushiki-gaish. Second, Taipei, China has experienced extraordinary hollowing-out of its industrial base as many firms (both large...

  2. LOOKING FOR A PLATFORM IN NORTH AMERICA: TAIWAN, MEXICO AND CROSS-STRAIT RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio A. Fonseca

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the approach followed by Mainland China and Taiwan in their economic relations with Mexico. Both sides of the Taiwan Strait have developed an interest in Mexico as an export platform to North America and the Western Hemisphere. The Mexican influence over Central America is also valued by both Beijing and Taipei. However, due to their disparities in economic and political development, the authorities and businessmen in the mainland and Taiwan have chosen different paths to conduct their interactions with Mexico. On the other hand, the deep economic integration between China and Taiwan, particularly the important investments made by Taiwanese firms in the mainland during the past three decades, have had a considerable impact on their trade with Mexico. The latter’s trade deficit with the PRC cannot be explained without the role played by enterprises from Taiwan, who continuously seek to remain competitive internationally.

  3. Analysis of Taipei Basin Response for Earthquakes of Various Depths and Locations Using Empirical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sokolov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Taipei basin upon earthquake excitation was studied using records of recent earthquakes. The strong-motion database includes records obtained at 32 stations of the Taipei TSMIP net work from 83 deep and 142 shallow earthquakes (M > 4.0 that occurred in 1992 - 2004. The characteristics of frequency-de pendent site response were obtained as spectral ratios between the actual earthquake records (horizontal components and those modelled for a hypothetical Very Hard Rock (VHR condition. The models for VHR spectra of Taiwan earthquakes had been recently proposed by Sokolov et al. (2005b, 2006. Analysis of site response characteristics and comparison with simple 1D models of the soil column resulted in the following conclusions: (1 The spectral ratios through out the basin obtained from deep earth quakes (depth > 35 km exhibit good agreement with the theoretical ratios calculated using the 1D models constructed using avail able geological and geotechnical data. (2 The spectral ratios obtained from shallow earth quakes show influence of: (a surface waves generated when travelling from distant sources to the basin and (b relatively low-frequency (< 1 - 2 Hz waves generated within the basin. (3 Some shallow earth quakes pro duce extremely high amplification at frequencies 0.3 - 1 Hz within the basin that may be dangerous for high-rise buildings and high way bridges. (4 The obtained results may be used in probabilistic seismic microzonation of the basin when many possible earth quakes located at various distances are considered. 2D and 3D simulation is necessary to model the seismic influence from particularly large earthquakes.

  4. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng SL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Lung Cheng,1,2 Ming-Cheng Chan,3 Chin-Chou Wang,4 Ching-Hsiung Lin,5 Hao-Chien Wang,6 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,3 Liang-Wen Hang,7,8 Chee-Jen Chang,9 Diahn-Warng Perng,10,* Chong-Jen Yu6,* On behalf of the Taiwan COPD Consortium 1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li City, Taoyuan County, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 5Division of Chest Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 7Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sleep Medicine Center, China Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Health Care, China Medical University, Taichung, 9Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County, 10Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors.Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition

  5. Dissolved Gas Composition of Groundwater in Taipei Basin and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nga-Chi; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chen, Ai-Ti; Chen, Wen-Fu; Wang, Yun-Shuen

    2015-04-01

    This study is the first comprehensive analysis for dissolved gases of groundwater in Taipei Basin, northern Taiwan. In addition to conventional water chemistry, the dissolved-gas compositions of groundwater from 34 observation wells have been systematically analyzed. The relationship between dissolved gases and geological environment, and probable sources of the gases are discussed in this study. According to the water chemistry data of Piper plot, most of the groundwater samples in this study can be classified as Ca(HCO3)2 and NaHCO3 types. Several samples exhibit NaCl type characteristic which reveals the mix with seawater. Isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen for groundwater, surface water and meteoric water in Taipei Basin are aligned with Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL), which indicates that they are influenced by meteoric water. Composition of groundwater in the southern part of the basin has similar characteristics with surface water. However, stratifications occurred in the observation wells from northern part of the basin. It reveals different recharge sources for groundwater samples in northern basin with the southern basin. Based on the major dissolved gases compositions, three major components are identified which are CH4, N2 and CO2. The d13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) indicates microbial activities are dominant in the studied area. Dissolved radon concentrations are in the range of 200 - 20,667 Bq/m3 in the studied area and the deeper well usually exhibits a higher radon value than the shallow one from the same site. Several sites with high radon values are correlated with the locations of fault zones, which may provide the conduit for deeper gas migrate to shallower aquifers. The groundwater samples from northern part of the basin exhibit unexpectedly high helium isotopic ratios (RA >2, where RA is the 3He/4He ratio of air). Samples from five observation wells have RA values more than 3 RA and the highest one is 4.2 RA, which

  6. Molluscan fauna of Gueishan Island, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This dataset records the occurrence and inventory of molluscan fauna on Gueishan Island, the only active volcanic island in Taiwan, based on the literature survey and field investigation conducted between 2011 and 2012. The literature review involved seven studies published from 1934 to 2003, which collectively reported 112 species from 61 genera and 37 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. Through our field investigation, we identified 34 species from 28 genera and 23 families. Fourteen of these species were new records on Gueishan Island: Liolophura japonica, Lottia luchuana, Nerita costata, Nerita rumphii, Diplommatina suganikeiensis, Littoraria undulata, Solenomphala taiwanensis, Assiminea sp., Siphonaria laciniosa, Laevapex nipponica, Carychium hachijoensis, Succinea erythrophana, Zaptyx crassilamellata, and Allopeas pyrgula. In Total, there are 126 species from 71 genera and 45 families of Mollusca on Gueishan Island. These data have been published through GBIF [http://taibif.org.tw/ipt/resource.do?r=gueishan_island] and integrated into the Taiwan Malacofauna Database (http://shell.sinica.edu.tw/.

  7. Numerical solution of optimal departure frequency of Taipei TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lih-jier; Chiu, Chin-Hsin

    2016-05-01

    Route Number 5 (Bannan Line) of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) is the most popular line in the Taipei Metro System especially during rush hours periods. It has been estimated there are more than 8,000 passengers on the ticket platform during 18:00∼19:00 at Taipei main station. The purpose of this research is to predict a specific departure frequency of passengers per train. Monte Carlo Simulation will be used to optimize departure frequency according to the passenger information provided by 22 stations, i.e., 22 random variables of route number 5. It is worth mentioning that we used 30,000 iterations to get the different samples of the optimization departure frequency, i.e., 10 trains/hr which matches the practical situation.

  8. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-tsao Shao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw, FishBase and GBIF (website see below. This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  9. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case-crossover study in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chang, Chih-Ching; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2013-11-11

    We undertook this study to investigate whether there is an association between atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5) levels and inpatient admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Taipei, Taiwan. Data on inpatient admissions for COPD and ambient on air pollution levels in Taipei were obtained for years 2006 to 2010. We estimated the relative risk of inpatient admissions for COPD using a case-crossover design with the following control variables: weather measures, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (not controlling for other atmospheric pollutants), COPD admissions were significantly and positively associated with higher PM2.5 levels during both warm days (>23 °C) and cool days (<23 °C), with an interquartile range increase of 12% (95% CI = 8-16%) and 3% (95% CI = 0-7%) in COPD admissions, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 remained significant even controlling for SO2 or O3 on both warm and cool days. Taken as a whole, our study demonstrates that higher levels of PM2.5 may increase the risk of inpatient admissions for COPD.

  10. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  11. Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses. PMID:23778192

  12. Isospora mcquistioni and Isospora bioccai (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae): two new coccidian parasites from Carduelis sinica (Passeriformes, Fringillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cringoli, G; Quesada, A

    1991-01-01

    The following two species are described from Carduelis sinica (Greenfinch) from Italy. The oocysts of Isospora mcquistioni n. sp. were 26.0 x 22.6 (24.0-28.5 x 20.0-24.2) microns and ovoid with a smooth bilayered wall. Neither micropyle nor oocyst residuum were observed. One polar granule was found. Sporocysts were oval, 18.1 x 11.4 (16.0-19.8 x 11.0-12.0) microns, and with a symmetrical Stieda complex. The residuum was compact and spherical. Isospora bioccai n. sp. oocysts were spherical to subspherical and 24.0 x 23.6 (22.0-26.0 x 21.0-25.8) microns. The oocyst wall was smooth and bilayered. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent; 4 to 10 elongate polar granules were present. Sporocysts were 19.5 x 11.6 (18.0-20.0 x 10.0-12.4) microns, ellipsoidal, and with a symmetrical Stieda complex. The sporocyst residuum was diffuse and composed of a few granules.

  13. Reigniting the Passion for Learning: A Systematic Attempt in Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzu-Bin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Despite being ranked highly, the 2012 PISA result shows that the M-shape distribution of Taiwanese students is top of the 65 participating countries. This shows that the gap between high and low achievers in Taiwanese schools is the biggest. This paper aims at exploring Taipei's responses to this M-shape phenomenon. It starts from mapping out the…

  14. Confirmatory Analyses of Perfectionism on High School Students in Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yating; Ting, Yuanyu

    2008-01-01

    Perfectionism has been related to an individual's academic performance and mental health. Western research on perfectionism has shown inconsistent factor structures of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). This study recruited 283 high school students ranging from 15 to 18 years old from urban areas in Taipei to examine factors of…

  15. A Crowdsourcing-based Taiwan Scientific Earthquake Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, W. T.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    To collect immediately field observations for any earthquake-induced ground damages, such as surface fault rupture, landslide, rock fall, liquefaction, and landslide-triggered dam or lake, etc., we are developing an earthquake damage reporting system which particularly relies on school teachers as volunteers after taking a series of training courses organized by this project. This Taiwan Scientific Earthquake Reporting (TSER) system is based on the Ushahidi mapping platform, which has been widely used for crowdsourcing on different purposes. Participants may add an app-like icon for mobile devices to this website at https://ies-tser.iis.sinica.edu.tw. Right after a potential damaging earthquake occurred in the Taiwan area, trained volunteers will be notified/dispatched to the source area to carry out field surveys and to describe the ground damages through this system. If the internet is available, they may also upload some relevant images in the field right away. This collected information will be shared with all public after a quick screen by the on-duty scientists. To prepare for the next strong earthquake, we set up a specific project on TSER for sharing spectacular/remarkable geologic features wherever possible. This is to help volunteers get used to this system and share any teachable material on this platform. This experimental, science-oriented crowdsourcing system was launched early this year. Together with a DYFI-like intensity reporting system, Taiwan Quake-Catcher Network, and some online games and teaching materials, the citizen seismology has been much improved in Taiwan in the last decade. All these constructed products are now either operated or promoted at the Taiwan Earthquake Research Center (TEC). With these newly developed platforms and materials, we are aiming not only to raise the earthquake awareness and preparedness, but also to encourage public participation in earthquake science in Taiwan.

  16. Linking the Taiwan Fish Database to the Global Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Tsao Shao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the support of the National Digital Archive Program (NDAP, basic species information about most Taiwanese fishes, including their morphology, ecology, distribution, specimens with photos, and literatures have been compiled into the "Fish Database of Taiwan" (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. We expect that the all Taiwanese fish species databank (RSD, with 2800+ species, and the digital "Fish Fauna of Taiwan" will be completed in 2007. Underwater ecological photos and video images for all 2,800+ fishes are quite difficult to achieve but will be collected continuously in the future. In the last year of NDAP, we have successfully integrated all fish specimen data deposited at 7 different institutes in Taiwan as well as their collection maps on the Google Map and Google Earth. Further, the database also provides the pronunciation of Latin scientific names and transliteration of Chinese common names by referring to the Romanization system for all Taiwanese fishes (2,902 species in 292 families so far. The Taiwanese fish species checklist with Chinese common/vernacular names and specimen data has been updated periodically and provided to the global FishBase as well as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF through the national portal of the Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF. Thus, Taiwanese fish data can be queried and browsed on the WWW. For contributing to the "Barcode of Life" and "All Fishes" international projects, alcohol-preserved specimens of more than 1,800 species and cryobanking tissues of 800 species have been accumulated at RCBAS in the past two years. Through this close collaboration between local and global databases, "The Fish Database of Taiwan" now attracts more than 250,000 visitors and achieves 5 million hits per month. We believe that this local database is becoming an important resource for education, research, conservation, and sustainable use of fish in Taiwan.

  17. Borrelia sinica sp. nov., a lyme disease-related Borrelia species isolated in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, T; Takada, N; Kudeken, M; Fukui, T; Yano, Y; Ishiguro, F; Kawamura, Y; Imai, Y; Ezaki, T

    2001-09-01

    A survey was performed for Lyme disease borrelia in the southern part of China, in Zhejiang, Sichuan and Anhui provinces, along the Yangtze River valley, in May of 1997 and 1998. Twenty isolates from Ixodes granulatus, Ixodes ovatus, Apodemus agrarius and Niviventer confucianus were obtained. These isolates were characterized by RFLP of the 5S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer, sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer, 16S rDNA and flagellin gene, DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with mAbs. Six isolates from A. agrarius, five from I. granulatus collected in Zhejiang province and one from N. confucianus in Sichuan province were highly similar to strains 10MT and 5MT isolated in Korea and classified as Borrelia valaisiana. Four isolates from A. agrarius and I. granulatus collected in Zhejiang province generated unique RFLP patterns and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA and flagellin gene sequences suggested that the isolates should be classified as B. valaisiana. Furthermore, three isolates (CMN1a, CNM2, CMN3T) from N. confucianus captured in Sichuan province and one (CWO1) from I. ovatus in Anhui province showed lower 165 rDNA sequence similarity (less than 99.0%) to sequences of previously described Lyme disease-related Borrelia species. DNA-DNA hybridization results revealed that strains CMN3T and CMN1a were clearly distinct from all other known Lyme disease Borrelia species. Electron microscope observation showed the spirochaetes to be morphologically similar to those of Borrelia, but the cells contained only four periplasmic flagella inserted at each end of the spirochaetes. Based on these results, a new Borrelia species, Borrelia sinica sp. nov., is proposed. Strain CMN3T is the type strain of this new species.

  18. An Outbreak of Varicella among Schoolchildren in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Szu-Ching

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reported cases with varicella have not decreased and outbreaks of varicella among vaccinated children continue to be reported 9 years after the public vaccination program in Taipei. We investigated an outbreak to determine varicella vaccine coverage and effectiveness. Methods An outbreak occurred in an elementary school which located in southern Taipei from April 2007 through May 2007. A retrospect cohort study was performed by using a self-administered questionnaire for parents. Results Ten out of sixteen varicella cases were vaccinated. Overall vaccine coverage was 71.2%. The common reasons for not receiving varicella vaccine were that varicella vaccine was unavailable because the student didn't live in Taipei (29.4% or the children could not be vaccinated due to certain illnesses (23.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported vaccination status was 0.900 (95% CI: 0.864, 0.935 and 0.611 (95% CI: 0.514, 0.701. The vaccine effectiveness was 69.3%-100.0% against any disease severity of varicella. Overall vaccine effectiveness against moderate or severe varicella was 85.5%. Attending cram school was associated with the risk of developing the varicella illness (RR: 13.39; 95% CI: 5.38, 33.31. Unvaccinated students tended to show moderate to severe (>50 lesions afflictions of the disease (RR: 4.17; 95% CI: 1.15, 15.14. Conclusions Because of the low vaccination coverage, varicella outbreaks continue to be reported in Taipei. Increasing vaccine coverage and second dose vaccination for increasing vaccine effectiveness may be considered.

  19. An outbreak of varicella among schoolchildren in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Chih; Chen, Szu-Ching; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong

    2011-04-12

    The reported cases with varicella have not decreased and outbreaks of varicella among vaccinated children continue to be reported 9 years after the public vaccination program in Taipei. We investigated an outbreak to determine varicella vaccine coverage and effectiveness. An outbreak occurred in an elementary school which located in southern Taipei from April 2007 through May 2007. A retrospect cohort study was performed by using a self-administered questionnaire for parents. Ten out of sixteen varicella cases were vaccinated. Overall vaccine coverage was 71.2%. The common reasons for not receiving varicella vaccine were that varicella vaccine was unavailable because the student didn't live in Taipei (29.4%) or the children could not be vaccinated due to certain illnesses (23.5%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported vaccination status was 0.900 (95% CI: 0.864, 0.935) and 0.611 (95% CI: 0.514, 0.701).The vaccine effectiveness was 69.3%-100.0% against any disease severity of varicella. Overall vaccine effectiveness against moderate or severe varicella was 85.5%. Attending cram school was associated with the risk of developing the varicella illness (RR: 13.39; 95% CI: 5.38, 33.31). Unvaccinated students tended to show moderate to severe (>50 lesions) afflictions of the disease (RR: 4.17; 95% CI: 1.15, 15.14). Because of the low vaccination coverage, varicella outbreaks continue to be reported in Taipei. Increasing vaccine coverage and second dose vaccination for increasing vaccine effectiveness may be considered.

  20. Likelihood ratios of multiple cutoff points of the Taipei City Developmental Checklist for Preschoolers, 2nd version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Fang Liao

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Taipei II with multiple cutoff points could give more useful clinical information than using a single cutoff point. The multiple likelihood ratios of Taipei II for children older than 3 years and in different cultural backgrounds need further study.

  1. Relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the elderly agricultural and fishing population of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen HC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsi-Che Shen,1–3 Zi-Hao Zhao,4 Yi-Chun Hu,2,5,6 Yu-Fen Chen,7–9 Tao-Hsin Tung4,10,111Department of Surgery, New Taipei City Hospital, 2School of Health Care Administration, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 3Department of Healthcare Management, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, 4Faculty of Public Health, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, 5Oriental Institute of Technology, 6Department of Nursing, New Taipei City Hospital, 7Business Place Hygiene Management, Department of Health, Taipei City Government, 8Institute of Health and Welfare Policy, National Yang-Ming University, 9Department of Nursing, Kang-Ning Junior College of Medical Care and Management, 10Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, 11Department of Crime Prevention and Correction, Central Police University, Taoyuan, TaiwanBackground: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in the elderly agricultural and fishing population of Taipei, Taiwan.Methods: The study participants comprised 6,511 (3,971 male and 2,540 female healthy elderly subjects voluntarily attending a teaching hospital for a physical check-up in 2010. Blood samples and real-time ultrasound-proven fatty liver sonography results were collected.Results: The prevalence of NAFLD in this elderly population was 27.2%, including mild NAFLD (16.0%, moderate NAFLD (10.3%, and severe NAFLD (0.9%. The prevalence of moderate or severe NAFLD for metabolic syndrome proved to be substantially greater (P<0.0001, Χ2 test for one or two metabolic factors. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, age, sex, metabolic syndrome, and higher body mass index had a statistically significant association with mild NAFLD. Age, sex, metabolic syndrome, higher body mass index, and higher alanine aminotransferase were significantly related to moderate NAFLD. In addition

  2. Taipei IAP, Taiwan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-07

    AN & AN 4 1 71 S.~ ,, v,(, ,a,.i ,,s,-.* ’., - a *.1 ’ { " La . i’I’ [ __ ’ 64, TOTALS ’" a ,i . , <,* 0’, ii 𔃾 1210 WS FORM 0-10-5 (OL, 1, PREVIOUS...TOTA NUBE OP5 OBS3RVATIONS A 22 N6 Fb 6 3 1 USAFETAC FOM 0-8-S (0. A) PREAIOS EDITION$ Of THIS FORM ARE OBSOLETE vV TAe C/usA SURFACE WINDS tIi .EAr E4...U7 2.1j 2___0 .7__ .11__ 10. SE -4 9 A 1 .1 ~7 S ! SSW EIt 0-- LA )IVIU DTOS0 l~ OT T UT S(44. 2 . WS . r)ATA PRUCFSS!IN, ’IRANC’S<RA FTAC/USA

  3. China/Taiwan: Evolution of the One China Policy - Key Statements from Washington, Beijing, and Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-09

    our national interests, so [Chen] may have meetings with Members of Congress.”41 On the night of May 21, 2001, 21 Representatives attended a dinner...current socio-economic system will remain unchanged, so will its way of life and its economic and cultural relations with foreign countries. There will be...Photo Opportunity,” Auckland , New Zealand, September 11, 1999. In a press briefing just after President Clinton’s meeting with Jiang, National

  4. Distance Education: A Key Strategy for Lifelong Learning in Chinese Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Judy

    Through further implementation of distance education, Chinese Taipei may both continue and increase its economic development. The benefits of lifelong learning have been demonstrated in the past 30 years by the economic growth and labor force skills development in Chinese Taipei. The founding of the National Open University, in 1986, with its…

  5. Transient Surface Deformation of Northern Taiwan, 2007-2011, Using Persistent Scattered InSAR with ALOS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Chang, W.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Taipei basin, triangular in shape and located in the northern Taiwan, is now developed into the most densely populated area and also the capital of politics and economics in Taiwan. North of the Taipei basin, the Tatun volcano group was proposed to be the cause of extensional collapse during the Pleistocene following the collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and the Eurasian continental margin at about 5 Ma. We investigated the contemporary surface deformation of the northern Taiwan using ALOS images that cover the Taipei basin and its surrounding mountainous area. The Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique has been widely used in the past ten years. However, the mountainous areas surrounding the basin are mostly covered with densely various vegetations that reduce signal-to-noise ratio in the interferograms. Therefore, the DInSAR technique is not effective for measuring the surface deformation in and around the Taipei basin, including the Tatun volcano area, and consequently the Persistent Scatterer (PS) and small baseline (SB) InSAR techniques have been employed to extract phase signals of the chosen PS points. In this study, we aim to measure the ground deformation of northern Taiwan by processing the spaceborne radar interferometry data of ALOS acquired from 2007 to 2011 using PSInSAR and SBInSAR techniques. Compared with the Envisat and ERS images used by previous studies, L-band PALSAR images can produce more PS points in the region covered by dense vegetation so that our results reveal a higher resolution of ground deformation. The mean Line of Sight (LOS) velocity field of up to 8 mm/yr in the central Tatun volcanic area, and up to 5 mm/yr in the Taipei basin with higher rate at the hanging wall of the Sanchiao fault than the footwall. (See the Figure.) While previous studies indicated that the Taipei basin had experienced ground uplift from 1993 to 2001 and subsidence from 2003 to 2008, our results show a return to

  6. Environment-adjusted regional energy efficiency in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jin-Li; Lio, Mon-Chi; Yeh, Fang-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    This study applies the four-stage DEA procedure to calculate the energy efficiency of 23 regions in Taiwan from 1998 to 2007. After controlling for the effects of external environments, only Taipei City, Chiayi City, and Kaohsiung City are energy efficient. Note that Kaohsiung City reaches the efficiency frontier due to the adjustment via partial environmental factors such as higher education attainment and transport vehicles. We also find a worsening trend for Taiwan's energy efficiency. Not only is there a gap of energy efficiency between Taiwan's metropolitan areas and the other regions, but the gap has also widened in recent years. Those inefficient counties should be given priority and the savings potential. Except for road density, the evidence indicates that each environmental factor has partial incremental effects on input slacks. As more cars and motorcycles are unfavorable externalities affecting partial energy efficiency, the central government should help local governments retire inefficient old motor vehicles, encourage energy-saving vehicle models, and provide convenient mass transportation systems. Besides, people with higher education cause industrial energy inefficient in Taiwan. The conscious of effective energy saving is necessary to schools, communities, and employee accordingly.

  7. The universal newborn hearing screening program of Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Meng; Chiang, Szu-Hui; Shiau, Yu-Shih; Yeh, Wen-Ying; Ho, Hui Chen; Wang, Lilly; Chen, Shou-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ching; Chen, Kwang-Chao; Chiang, Hung; Yang, Ming-Chuan; Yu, Li-Hui; Lin, Hsiu-Lian; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen

    2013-10-01

    To establish a hearing screening program with high coverage, low referral rate, high follow-up rate, and early intervention in Taipei City. From September 2009 to December 2010, 85% delivery units in Taipei City, which includes 20 hospitals and 14 obstetrics clinics, were recruited into the screening program in two stages. A total of 15,930 babies were born in these participating hospitals and clinics during the program period. Among these neonates, 15,790 underwent hearing screening test with automatic auditory brainstem response (AABR). The screening was free of charge to the parents. The hearing screening examination was performed 24-36 h after birth. The same test was repeated between 36 and 60 h of age if the baby failed the first hearing test. The neonate was referred to the diagnostic hospitals for further investigations if he failed the second test. The screening coverage rate was 99.1% (15,790/15,930). The incidence of bilateral moderate to severe and unilateral hearing loss was 1.4 per 1000 (22/15,790) and 1.5 per 1000 (24/15,790), respectively. Four percent (626/15,790) of newborns failed to pass the initial screening test and 1.0% of newborns failed to pass the second screening test. Therefore, 1.0% newborns were referred for diagnostic assessments. The follow-up rate was 94.4% (151/160). Sixty-four percent (14/22) of babies with bilateral hearing loss completed the full diagnostic hearing tests within 3 months of birth. The universal newborn hearing screening program is an adequate program for Taipei City with high coverage, low referral rate, and good follow-up rate. Screening fees covered by third parties, two-stage screening steps with AABR strategy, and the stringent monitoring system proved to be effective. 2b, individual cohort study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study design, rationale and methods for a population-based study of myopia in schoolchildren: the Myopia Investigation study in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Der-Chong; Lin, Li-Ju; Huang, Nicole; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chen, Shing-Yi; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling

    2015-01-01

    To describe the study design, rationale and methodology of the Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei (MIT). The MIT was a city-wide, population-based cohort study. Participants were grade 2 students (Fall 2013) of all 153 elementary schools in Taipei City. The baseline data on the risk factors for myopia development was collected by parent-administered questionnaire surveys covering demographics, medical history, parental myopia, time spent on near work and outdoor activities, reading habits and eye care-seeking behaviour. Ocular examinations focused on the measurement of visual acuity (unaided and best-corrected) and refractive status (before and after cycloplegia), which will be carried out for the eligible schoolchildren biannually for 3 years consecutively. Once myopic children are identified, case manager-led telecoaching for health-care instructions and reminders will be delivered to parents or caregivers. To build a comprehensive database for prevalence, incidence and risk factors of early childhood myopia over a 3-year follow-up period. Of all 19 374 eight-year-old schoolchildren (10 210 [52.7%] boys) eligible for the MIT, 16 486 (85.1%) responded to the questionnaire, 12 019 (62.0%) were examined during the third quarter of 2013 and 11 590 (59.8%) (6267 [52.9%] boys) completed cycloplegic autorefraction on both eyes and were enrolled for further data analysis. There was no significant difference in terms of demographics between the analysed participants and all grade 2 students in Taipei City. Data from the MIT will provide population-based information concerning the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for myopia development among young schoolchildren in a metropolitan area of Taiwan. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Occupational hand dermatitis in a tertiary referral dermatology clinic in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C C; Guo, Y L; Lin, R S

    1995-12-01

    Occupational skin disease is one of the most common occupational diseases. The hand is the most frequent site of involvement in occupational skin disease. We interviewed and examined patients seen in the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the National Taiwan University Medical Center, a tertiary referral center in Taipei City. For patients suspected of having allergic skin diseases, patch testing was carried out using the European standard series and suspected allergens. Occupational hand dermatitis (OHD) was diagnosed according to medical history, work exposure, physical examination, and patch test findings. 36% of patients seen were diagnosed as having OHD. Electronics, hairdressing, medical, chemical, and construction were the most important industries causing OHD. In the 164 patients with OHD, 58.5% had irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and 41.5% allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Dorsal fingers, nail folds, and dorsal hands were most frequently involved in patients with ACD; dorsal fingers, volar fingers and fingertips were most frequently involved in those with ICD. Using logistic regression analysis, we were able to identify the most important clinical presentations that predicted the types of OHD, ACD versus ICD. Patients with atopic history and palm involvement were more likely to have ICD, and those with nail fold involvement more likely to have ACD. In patients with ACD, the most important allergens were dichromate, nickel, cobalt, fragrance mix, epoxy resin, thiuram mix, and p-phenylenediamine. In this study, we identified the important industries and causal agents for OHD. Future preventive measures focused on these industries and agents to reduce OHD will be warranted.

  10. Analysis of motorcycle exhaust regular testing data--a case study of Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chi; Chen, Lu-Yen; Jeng, Fu-Tien

    2009-06-01

    In Taiwan, a continuous increase in the number of motorcycles has made exhaust pollution one of the major emission sources of air pollutants. The regular testing program carried out by the Republic of China Environmental Protection Agency was designed to reduce air pollutant emissions by enhancing maintenance and repair. During the execution period, abundant testing results were accumulated to discuss pollutant emissions from motorcycles. Exhaust testing data of motorcycles in Taipei City from 1996 to 2005 were chosen as the basic data to survey changes in motorcycle exhaust. Effects of motorcycle age and mileage on exhaust pollution were studied. The introduction of advanced emission standards enhances the elimination of high-emitting motorcycles. The testing data indicate that the testing rate rose from approximately 50 to 70% and the failure rate changed from approximately 15 to 10%. The operation cycles of two-stroke motorcycles make them high-emitting vehicles. Concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are higher in two-stroke motorcycle exhaust than that in four-stroke motorcycles. In contrast, the concentration of carbon dioxide produced from complete oxidation processes is lower in exhaust from two-stroke motorcycles. Therefore, failure rates of two-stroke motorcycles are higher than those of four-stroke motorcycles and were also observed to deactivate more easily. On the basis of analytical results of testing data, we found that failure rates show a gradually increasing trend for motorcycles older than 3 yr or used for mileages greater than 10,000 km, and failure rates are highly correlated to the age/mileage of motorcycles. We reason that the accumulation of age or mileage means accumulating usage time of engines and emission control systems. Concentrations of pollutant emissions would increase because of engine wear and emission control system deactivation. After discussing changes of failure rates and pollutant emissions, some suggestions are

  11. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  12. From SARS in 2003 to H1N1 in 2009: lessons learned from Taiwan in preparation for the next pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, M-Y; Chiu, A W-H; Schwartz, J; King, C-C; Lin, Y E; Chang, S-C; Armstrong, D; Hsueh, P-R

    2014-08-01

    In anticipation of a future pandemic potentially arising from H5N1, H7N9 avian influenza or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and in large part in response to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, the city of Taipei, Taiwan, has developed extensive new strategies to manage pandemics. These strategies were tested during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. This article assesses pandemic preparedness in Taipei in the wake of recent pandemic experiences in order to draw lessons relevant to the broader international public health community. Drawing on Taiwan and Taipei Centers for Disease Control data on pandemic response and control, we evaluated the effectiveness of the changes in pandemic response policies developed by these governments over time, emphasizing hospital and medical interventions with particular attention paid to Traffic Control Bundling. SARS and H1N1 2009 catalysed the Taiwan and Taipei CDCs to continuously improve and adjust their strategies for a future pandemic. These new strategies for pandemic response and control have been largely effective at providing interim pandemic containment and control, while development and implementation of an effective vaccination programme is underway. As Taipei's experiences with these cases illustrate, in mitigating moderate or severe pandemic influenza, a graduated process including Traffic Control Bundles accompanied by hospital and medical interventions, as well as school- and community-focused interventions, provides an effective interim response while awaiting vaccine development. Once a vaccine is developed, to maximize pandemic control effectiveness, it should be allocated with priority given to vulnerable groups, healthcare workers and school children. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Short-term effects of ozone air pollution on hospital admissions for myocardial infarction: A time-stratified case-crossover study in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between ambient ozone (O 3 ) levels and number of hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for MI and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk (RR) of hospital admissions for MI was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased RR for a number of MI admissions was significantly associated with higher O 3 levels both on warm days (>23°C) and on cool days (<23°C). This observation was accompanied by an interquartile range elevation correlated with a 7% (95% CI = 2%-12%) and 17% (95% CI = 11%-25%) rise in number of MI admissions, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, no significant associations between ambient O 3 concentrations and number of MI admissions were observed on warm days. However, on cool days, correlation between ambient O 3 after inclusion of each of the other five pollutants, particulate matter (PM 10 or PM 2.5 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) or carbon monoxide (CO), and number of MI admissions remained significant. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient O 3 increase the RR of number of hospital admissions for MI.

  14. Using Social Network as a Recruiting Tool for Research on Substance Use in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: Study Design, Implementation, and Epidemiological Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Tsai, Yu-Shu; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Su, Lien-Wen; Chen, Wei J

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the practical utility of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) among regular tobacco and alcohol users in Taipei, Taiwan. RDS was implemented from 2007 to 2010 to recruit seed individuals who were 18 to 50 years old, regular tobacco and alcohol users, and currently residing in Taipei. Each respondent was asked to refer up to five friends known to be regular tobacco smokers and alcohol drinkers to participate in the present study. Information pertaining to drug use was collected using an audio computer-assisted self-interview instrument. RDSAT software was used for data analyses. The prevalence estimates of illegal-drug-using behaviors attained equilibrium after three to five recruitment waves. Nearly one-fifth of the participants had ever used illegal drugs, of whom over 60% were polydrug users. The RDS-adjusted prevalences of illegal-drug-using behaviors among early-onset smokers were all two or three times higher than those among late-onset smokers. Our results provided an empirical basis for the practicality and feasibility of using RDS to estimate illegal drug use prevalence among regular tobacco and alcohol users.

  15. Seroprevalence of enterovirus 71 and no evidence of crossprotection of enterovirus 71 antibody against the other enteroviruses in kindergarten children in Taipei city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chan; Huang, Li-Min; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Chun-Yi; Shao, Pei-Lan; Cheng, Ai-Ling; Fan, Tsui-Yien; Chi, Hsin; Chang, Luan-Yin

    2012-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may cause severe neurological and cardiopulmonary complications, especially in preschool children. This study is to investigate the seroprevalence and seroconversion of EV71, and the crossprotection of EV71 antibody against other enteroviruses among kindergarteners. Overall 228 children in a public kindergarten were enrolled during two academic years, 2006 and 2007, in Taipei, Taiwan and we measured their EV71 neutralizing antibody. When the participants had herpangina; hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD); febrile illness or respiratory symptoms, throat swabs were sampled and processed for viral culture and enterovirus real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Questionnaires, completed by the participants' guardians, surveyed the history of allergy and annual incidence of symptoms related to enterovirus infection. Seropositive rates of EV71 were 20% (32/163) in 2006 and 6% (4/65) in 2007. The rate of EV71 seropositivity increased with age (p Taipei City from September 2006 to June 2008. Presence of EV71 neutralizing antibody was not associated with lower incidence of enterovirus infection caused by non-71 serotypes. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Using Social Network as a Recruiting Tool for Research on Substance Use in the Taipei Metropolitan Area: Study Design, Implementation, and Epidemiological Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Tien Ting

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to evaluate the practical utility of respondent-driven sampling (RDS among regular tobacco and alcohol users in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods: RDS was implemented from 2007 to 2010 to recruit seed individuals who were 18 to 50 years old, regular tobacco and alcohol users, and currently residing in Taipei. Each respondent was asked to refer up to five friends known to be regular tobacco smokers and alcohol drinkers to participate in the present study. Information pertaining to drug use was collected using an audio computer-assisted self-interview instrument. RDSAT software was used for data analyses. Results: The prevalence estimates of illegal-drug-using behaviors attained equilibrium after three to five recruitment waves. Nearly one-fifth of the participants had ever used illegal drugs, of whom over 60% were polydrug users. The RDS-adjusted prevalences of illegal-drug-using behaviors among early-onset smokers were all two or three times higher than those among late-onset smokers. Conclusions: Our results provided an empirical basis for the practicality and feasibility of using RDS to estimate illegal drug use prevalence among regular tobacco and alcohol users.

  17. UNDERSTANDING VISITOR EXPERIENCES AND MOTIVATIONS IN SUBURBAN TAIPEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Tzu Lucetta TSAI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to cultivate higher-qualified human resources within the tourism field and provide plaining and developing direction based on the understanding of tourism features in San-ying area. There is a growing research interest in understanding the individual consumer's preferences, as well as management approaches of experiences and therefore, it has explored the understanding of the many different facets of experiences in tourism and hispitality business in suburban Taipei in particular the impact of the Sanxia and Yingge area. There is an attempt to examine the service quality of tourist attractions, moreover, the perceptions and travel experiences of tourists who visit Sanxia and Yingge area. Tourism and hospitality business in Sanxia and Yingge area present culture images and this study has discussed how this has influenced tourists' experiences, motivation and consumer behavior during their visit.

  18. Taiwan's Partisan Politics and Its Impact on U.S.-Taiwanese Relations

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of partisan politics in Taiwan on Taipei's relationship with the United States during the Chen Shui-bian and the Ma Ying-jeou administrations. The policy decision Chen Shui-bian made, such as "One Country on Each Side" or the "national referendum," required to enhance the likelihood of reelection was a critically misjudged one in that it eroded the strategic interest of the United States. The following Ma Ying-jeou administration has faced a conundrum over impro...

  19. Seismic Velocity Anomalies beneath Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-yu; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chang, Li-Chin

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruption has been a natural disaster for human society. Taiwan is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Although there is no obvious phenomenon of volcanic activity in Taiwan, some volcanoes need to be monitored, especially the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which exhibits very active hydrothermal activity, is located on the tip of southwestern Ryukyu arc. TVG is about 15 km north to Taipei, capital of Taiwan, and is nearby two nuclear power plants along the northern coast of Taiwan. If TVG erupts, there must be a serious impact and damage to Taiwan. Since TVG is located within the Yangmingshan National Park, any artificial seismic source is not allowed to estimate possible eruption site and the degree of volcanic disaster. Instead, we use natural seismic waves generated by earthquakes to image the possible velocity anomaly of magma chamber and/or hydrothermal system beneath TVG. We systematically compare the differences of arrival times generated by some local earthquakes and recorded at 42 seismic stations in 2014 for finding any low-velocity zone within the crust. The results show that the arrival times always appeared significant delay at some particular seismic stations, such as Chi-Hsin-Shan (CHS), Siao-You-Keng (SYK) and some other stations at TVG, no matter where the earthquakes occurred. It implies that possible low-velocity zones, which could be the location of magma chamber and/or active hydrothermal system, exist beneath the CHS and SYK areas. This feature is generally consistent with the clustered micro-earthquakes in the shallow crust beneath the CHS area in the last decade.

  20. The prosecution of Taiwan sexuality researcher and activist Josephine Ho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    2004-05-01

    In April 2003, following a newspaper report of a hyperlink to a website on bestiality on the Sexuality Databank website of the Center for the Study of Sexualities, National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan, 14 conservative NGOs filed charges against the Center's founder, Josephine Ho, for "propagating obscenities that corrupt traditional values." Ho has been researching sexuality and supporting freedom for marginalised sexual minorities for ten years. In a public statement in response to the charges, she said that the work of scholarly research must not be dictated by prejudice and that differences in sexual values should not be arbitrated by law and should be open for public discussion. As the legal process began in January 2004, Ho's supporters in Taiwan have called for the preservation of the Taiwan Constitutional decree on integrity and autonomy of academic research and freedom of expression on the internet, for the University to resist calls to dismiss Ho from her post, and for respect for freedom of speech and expression and the right to create spaces to educate people about non-normative sexualities.

  1. The feasibility of QR-code prescription in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C-H; Tsai, F-Y; Tsai, W-L; Wen, H-W; Hu, M-L

    2012-12-01

    An ideal Health Care Service is a service system that focuses on patients. Patients in Taiwan have the freedom to fill their prescriptions at any pharmacies contracted with National Health Insurance. Each of these pharmacies uses its own computer system. So far, there are at least ten different systems on the market in Taiwan. To transmit the prescription information from the hospital to the pharmacy accurately and efficiently presents a great issue. This study consisted of two-dimensional applications using a QR-code to capture Patient's identification and prescription information from the hospitals as well as using a webcam to read the QR-code and transfer all data to the pharmacy computer system. Two hospitals and 85 community pharmacies participated in the study. During the trial, all participant pharmacies appraised highly of the accurate transmission of the prescription information. The contents in QR-code prescriptions from Taipei area were picked up efficiently and accurately in pharmacies at Taichung area (middle Taiwan) without software system limit and area limitation. The QR-code device received a patent (No. M376844, March 2010) from Intellectual Property Office Ministry of Economic Affair, China. Our trial has proven that QR-code prescription can provide community pharmacists an efficient, accurate and inexpensive device to digitalize the prescription contents. Consequently, pharmacists can offer better quality of pharmacy service to patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Seroepidemiology of varicella among elementary school children in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chia; Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Huang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Yu-Chiau; Hung, Yung-Tai; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2017-06-01

    In Taiwan, varicella vaccine was included in the expanded program of immunization since 2004. A seroepidemiologic study in the postvaccine era is helpful to evaluate the efficiency of current varicella vaccination strategies. We used a multistage stratified systematic sampling design to classify 29 administrative districts of New Taipei City into five strata. In 2013, a total of 936 students from 14 primary schools were recruited and had blood drawn for serology tests for varicella-zoster virus-immunoglobulin-G via indirect chemiluminescence immunoassays. A history of clinical varicella and information on varicella vaccination status were obtained. Overall, the seroprevalence was 64.1%. For the five strata, the seropositive rate ranged from 54.2% (Stratum 5) to 71.7% (Stratum 2) with no significant difference. For each participating school, the seropositive rate ranged from 44.4% to 72.9% with a statistically significant difference (p Taiwan, around two-thirds of elementary schoolchildren were seropositive for varicella-zoster virus. Further surveillance studies on clinical varicella cases are worthwhile to determine whether a second dose of varicella vaccine is needed in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Differential protein expression using proteomics from a crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) under CO2-driven seawater acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Jiao; Zheng, Chao-Qun; Wang, Yu-Wei; Meng, Chuang; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Gradually increasing atmospheric CO 2 partial pressure (pCO 2 ) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8.2 as control and 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress levels according to the predicted levels at the end of this century and next century, respectively) for 1, 7 and 14 days followed by examination of the protein expression changes via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Searches of protein databases revealed that 67 differential protein spots were altered due to lower pH level (7.6 and 7.8) stress in comparison to control groups (pH 8.2) by mass spectrometry. Generally, these differentially expressed proteins included the following: 1) metabolic process-related proteins involved in glycolysis and glucogenesis, nucleotide/amino acid/fatty acid metabolism, protein biosynthesis, DNA replication and apoptosis; 2) stress response-related proteins, such as peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin peroxidase, 70-kDa heat shock protein, Na/K ATPase, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase; 3) immune defence-related proteins, such as prophenoloxidase and ferritin; 4) cytoskeletal-related proteins, such as myosin light chain, TCP1 subunit 2, tropomyosin and tubulin alpha chain; and 5) signal transduction-related proteins, such as phospholipase C-like protein, 14-3-3 zeta, translationally controlled tumour protein and RNA binding motif protein. Taken together, these data support the idea that CO 2 -driven seawater acidification may affect protein expression in the crustacean A. sinica and possibly also in other species that feed on brine shrimp in the

  4. [The community-oriented experience of early intervention services in Taipei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng-Ying

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of early intervention. The purpose of early intervention in Taipei City is to help child development, promote parenting skills, and reduce educational and social costs. In order to meet these goals, parenting groups and Taipei City Council have made great efforts to make early intervention work in Taipei City. In April 1995, Taipei City Government started planning and setting up the service network. To date, Taipei City has set up one reporting and referral center?, ?six community resources centers, 22 medical assessment and intervention clinics, 12 child development centers, one early intervention training center, three non-profit foundations and more than 300 inclusion schools, such as kindergartens and day care centers. With parent participation, professional devotion and Taipei City Government's commitment, the number of assisted children has increased from 98 to 2,523 /year. By the end of 2006, Taipei had already funded 25,277 children. We estimate Taipei City early intervention services to have affected at least 75,000 persons, including development-delayed and disabled children, their parents?, ?grandparents and siblings. We found that early intervention services help the children to build up self esteem, grow their potential, learn how to socialize, and receive an education, while the most important aim is to help them to reduce their level of disability or to prevent them from getting worse. At the same time, their families get support and a diverse range of services. An integrated early intervention program should include children, families, and multidisciplinary professionals. The system should therefore be more "family-centered" and "community-oriented" to provide appropriate services to children and families through a positive and aggressive attitude.

  5. Optimization of AZO films prepared on flexible substrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lunghwa ...

  6. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lunghwa ...

  7. Autophagy: A double-edged sword in Alzheimer's disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Taipei 10617, Taiwan; School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan; Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan ...

  8. Surface deformation induced by ground water pumping in Taipei Basin: A case study in rban underground construction of Taipei metro station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chin; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2017-04-01

    Since 1955, the rapid development of population has requested for large amount of water usage in Taipei city. Thus, the overuse of ground water leads to the land subsidence rate up to 5 cm/yr. In 1989, the government stated to put restrictions on water pumping. Consequently, ground water recovered and resulted in the a wideapred uplift in Taipei basin. Due to the underground transportation and wiring, ground water were massively pumped for the safety of construction sites. In this study, persistent scatterer interferometry technique is used for processing 37 high resolution X-band radar images to characterize deformation map in the period from May 2011 to April 2015. From the ground table records of 30 wells in Taipei basin, the results indicated that the main factor to the surface deformation of Taipei basin is the elevation change of water table. In the case of Wuku groundwater well, the elevation change of the ground water table is about 15 m during September 2011 to April 2015. In the same period of the time, the change of surface deformation within 100 m of Wuku groundwater well is consistent to the elevation change of ground water table, and is more than 5 cm along line of sight. The storability is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3. Moreover, in the case of Taipei metro construction, according to the analytical results of radar image and the 380 vertical control points of Taipei, the high water pumping before the underground construction project will inflict surface deformation. It is noticeable that, the Jingmei Formation and the Wuku Formation are composed of the sediments with high porosity. Thus, the actual land subsidence caused by water pumping would be five times than the underground construction areas.

  9. Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Taipei,China’s Industrial Structure and Firm Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jack W. Hou

    2011-01-01

    Confronted by the current global economic crisis, Taipei,China’s economy has suffered much like its neighbors. However, Taipei,China is different from other East Asia economies in several aspects. First, Taipei,China’s industrial organization is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), unlike the chaebols of the Republic of Korea or the Japanese Kabushiki-gaish. Second, Taipei,China has experienced extraordinary “hollowing-out†of its industrial base as many firms (bo...

  10. Performance evaluation for solar collectors in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the global irradiation observed in Taiwan from 1990 to 1999 was used to estimate the optimal tilt angle for solar collectors. The observed data are resolved into diffusion and beam components, and transformed into instantaneous time frames using mathematical models. The energy gain on installing a single-axis tracked panel as compared to a traditional fixed panel is originally analyzed theoretically. In addition to the observation data, both types of radiation will be taken into account for comparison, i.e. both extraterrestrial radiation and global radiation predicted using empirical models. The results show that the yearly optimal angles for six selected stations are about 0.95 and 0.88 times their latitudes for extraterrestrial and predicted radiation, respectively. All of the observed irradiations are less than the predicted values for all times and stations, consequently resulting in a flatter tilt angle, with a few exceptions in summer. Since Taipei has the lowest clearness index, its yearly optimal angle calculated from observed data shows the greatest discrepancy when compared to its latitude. By employing a tracked panel, the yearly gains calculated from the observed data lie between 14.3% and 25.3%, which is significantly less than those from the extraterrestrial and predicted radiations

  11. Predictive factors for early menarche in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, W C; Liu, Y H; Chi, J; Wu, V; Chen, A

    1997-06-01

    The rapid increase of breast cancer in Taiwan has prompted the authors to evaluate the predictive factors of early menarche among contemporary Taiwanese girls. A total of 895 four-grade girls from eight elementary schools in Taipei City and County were identified as a closed cohort from the first semester of 1993. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires and school records. A total of 799 girls who had not menstruated in the first year remained in the group through 1994. The effects of potential predictive factors were assessed by logistic regression. Among the 799 girls followed, 69 (8.6%) had first menstruation between the fourth and fifth grades. Height, weight, body mass index and maternal early onset of menarche were positively related to the onset of menarche within the preceding year. Energy consumption during exercise showed only moderate association after being adjusted for age and weight. Calorie intake from junk food was not associated with early menarche within the preceding year. Poor interpersonal family relationships and stressful life events also showed a moderate association with early menarche. The data obtained supported the hypothesis that height, weight, body mass index and maternal early menarche are positive predictive factors of early menarche. The effects of exercise and childhood stress are less prominent.

  12. No gynecologist in town: the gynecological care of women in rural Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai LJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Li-Jung Lai,1 Chia-Lin Chou,2 H Irene Su,3 Tzeng-Ji Chen,1,4 Li-Fang Chou,5 Yueh-Ching Chou,2,6,7 Shinn-Jang Hwang,1,8 Hann-Chin Yu9,10 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Reproductive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 5Department of Public Finance, National Chengchi University, 6Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, 7College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 8Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Taipei Veterans General Hospital Hsinchu Branch, Hsinchu County, Taiwan; 10Department of Healthcare Management, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Background: A shortage of gynecologists exists in many countries. Even within an affluent country, gynecological clinics might not be evenly distributed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the disparity in gynecological care between adult women living in towns with and without gynecologists in Taiwan.Methods: Data sources were the cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database, with claims data of 1 million beneficiaries in 2010. A woman’s residency was operationally inferred from the locations where she had most frequently visited physicians’ clinics or local community hospitals within the year.Results: In Taiwan, 145 (39.4% of 368 towns had no practicing gynecologist. Of 382,167 women with health care use in the datasets, 21,794 (5.7% lived in towns without a gynecologist. The overwhelming majority of these towns lay in sparsely populated, rural areas. During the year, 132,702 women (34.7% had sought medical help for gynecological diseases and 113,698 (29.8% had visited gynecologists for gynecological diseases. Women in towns without a gynecologist were less

  13. Dose estimation for nuclear power plant 4 accident in Taiwan at Fukushima nuclear meltdown emission level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Mei-Ling; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Kuo, Pei-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    An advanced Gaussian trajectory dispersion model is used to evaluate the evacuation zone due to a nuclear meltdown at the Nuclear Power Plant 4 (NPP4) in Taiwan, with the same emission level as that occurred at Fukushima nuclear meltdown (FNM) in 2011. Our study demonstrates that a FNM emission level would pollute 9% of the island's land area with annual effective dose ≥50 mSv using the meteorological data on 11 March 2011 in Taiwan. This high dose area is also called permanent evacuation zone (denoted as PEZ). The PEZ as well as the emergency-planning zone (EPZ) are found to be sensitive to meteorological conditions on the event. In a sunny day under the dominated NE wind conditions, the EPZ can be as far as 100 km with the first 7-day dose ≥20 mSv. Three hundred sixty-five daily events using the meteorological data from 11 March 2011 to 9 March 2012 are evaluated. It is found that the mean land area of Taiwan in becoming the PEZ is 11%. Especially, the probabilities of the northern counties/cities (Keelung, New Taipei, Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu City, Hsinchu County and Ilan County) to be PEZs are high, ranging from 15% in Ilan County to 51% in Keelung City. Note that the total population of the above cities/counties is as high as 10 million people. Moreover, the western valleys of the Central Mountain Range are also found to be probable being PEZs, where all of the reservoirs in western Taiwan are located. For example, the probability can be as high as 3% in the far southern-most tip of Taiwan Island in Pingtung County. This shows that the entire populations in western Taiwan can be at risk due to the shortage of clean water sources under an event at FNM emission level, especially during the NE monsoon period. - Highlights: • An advanced Gaussian-type trajectory model to evaluate the evacuation zone at Nuclear Power Plant 4 in Taiwan. • Mean land area of Taiwan in becoming the permanent evacuation zone is 11%. • The probabilities of the northern

  14. Latest Development of Real-Time Strong-Motion Monitoring System in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, N.; Wu, Y.; Shin, T.; Teng, T.

    2003-12-01

    Based on the experience of the 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake, the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) has made substantial improvements to the earthquake rapid report system. Besides the current use of digital lease phone line and internet transmission, the satellite link for station to center is setup for backup. The station is also equipped with UPS to prevent the failure of electricity power. This backup link system is designed as automatically switching in case of ground link interrupted. On the other hand, two real-time seismic sub-network are deployed stand alone at Hualein (East coast of Taiwan) and Tainan (south Taiwan) stations separately. The sub-network only manipulates real-time seismic data of nearby stations to shorten the procession time. The configuration and function of sub-network can be monitored and changed by Taipei center through computer link. Results from sub-network can be sent to Taipei center simultaneously. The collective use of these redundant systems significantly improves the capability and reliability of seismic emergency response. It will provide more robust foundation to develop earthquake early warning system. To safeguard train transportation from a disaster earthquake, the CWB assists Taiwan Railway Administration (TRA) to establish a seismic alert system including 44 3-component accelerographs along the track of the round-the-island Taiwan railway system. The configuration of the system is similar to the use of sub-network of CWB. It becomes the third backup of earthquake report system. In addition, ground vibration of a TRA instrument exceeds 180 gals, the power of the railway will be automatically cut-off to slow down the nearby train.

  15. 網路中立性與我國寬頻政策之探討 ― 由臺北高等行政法院九十九年度訴字第一六五四號判決談起 Network Neutrality and Broadband Policy in Taiwan ― Comment on Decision of Taipei High Administrative Court Su-Tzu No. 99-1654

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    葉志良 Chih-Liang Yeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 網路中立性是探討網路服務業者進行差別待遇的議題,在美國與歐盟分別引發不同的討論。我國行政法院的判決本為解決國家通訊傳播委員會(NCC)是否有權審核電信業者陳報費率以外的事項,然NCC 在本案主張中華電信的費率附加條件違反網路中立性原則,同時在寬頻服務中僅有20M/2M 之速率服務有傳輸上限之條款,亦違電信公平提供服務原則。以上爭點雖並非直接與網路中立性之原則相關,但卻與歐盟、美國在處理網路中立性議題的歷程中所關注的資訊透明化以及無差別待遇等有所關連。美國與歐盟在網路中立性議題上的態度差異甚大:歐盟傾向將網路中立性的爭議以市場競爭的角度處理,仍在2009 年的指令修訂中增列透明度的義務,強化充分的資訊揭露;美國雖傾向制訂網路中立性的管制規範,卻也在新的法規命令中增列透明度的要求。綜合美國與歐盟的發展,對電信業者營運透明度揭露是兩者共同的方向,更為透明的資訊揭露將可促進市場競爭。我國並無直接的網路中立性規範,係因高度管制的市場使本議題重要性並不明顯。借鏡美歐經驗,以資訊透明度促進市場競爭,對我國寬頻服務市場之發展將更為有益。 Network neutrality is the issue about how the Internet service providers discriminate their services, and this issue has raised in-depth discussion in the United States and the European Union. In a recent court decision in Taiwan, the court aimed to clarify whether the National Communications Commission (NCC is empowered to review the matters outside the scope of rate plans. In this case, the NCC claimed that the additional condition is not only against the principle of network neutrality, but the condition with maximum transmission limit is also against the principle of fair offerings of telecommunication

  16. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  17. Cooling Effect of Rivers on Metropolitan Taipei Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature. PMID:24464232

  18. Factors affecting yearly and monthly visits to Taipei Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.

  19. Cooling Effect of Rivers on Metropolitan Taipei Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  20. Cooling effect of rivers on metropolitan Taipei using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-23

    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  1. Assessment of rainwater harvesting systems at a university in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, V C; Kao, M H; Liu, J C

    2013-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting systems (RWHSs), a pilot-scale one (PSR) and a full-scale one (FSR), at a university campus in Taipei were assessed. Characteristics of harvested rainwater were analyzed, including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total coliform (TC), concentration of 14 metals (Al, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) and concentration of 3 anions (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-)). Rainwater in the FSR had pH in the neutral range and high alkalinity, whereas those of the PSR were acidic and with low buffer ability because of different catchment materials. Median concentrations of 14 metals from two RWHSs were low, except for Na, Ca, K and Mg. Anions, including Cl(-), NO(3)(-), and SO(4)(2-) showed much higher concentration in winter, indicating the influences of marine source and northeast monsoon. Effects of 14-day storage were examined and it was found that pH did not change, while EC, turbidity and DOC slightly decreased. Concentrations of anions and metals were stable, and TC counts of harvested rainwater increased in the beginning, and then declined with storage time. During antecedent dry days, total suspended particulates (TSPs) were collected and their dissolution was examined. Preliminary correlation of wet and dry depositions with rainwater quality was explored.

  2. Surface deformation induced by water pumping for construction of Mass Rapid Transportation in Taipei basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. C.; Wu, P. C.; Tung, H.; Tsai, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    In 1968, there were 2,200 wells in the Taipei Basin used for water supply to meet the requirement of high population density. The overuse of ground water lead to the land subsidence rate up to 5 cm/yr. Although the government had already begun to limit groundwater pumping since 1968, the groundwater in the Taipei Basin demonstrated temporary fluctuation induced by pumping water for large deep excavation site or engineering usage. The previous study based on precise leveling suggested that the surface deformation was highly associated with the recovery of water level. In 1989, widespread uplift dominated in Taipei basin due to the recovery of ground water Table. In this study, we use 37 high-resolution X-band COSMO-SkyMed radar images from May 2011 to April 2015 to characterize deformation pattern in the period of construction of Mass Rapid Transportation (MRT). We also use 30 wells and 380 benchmarks of precise leveling in Taipei basin to study the correlation of surface deformation and change of ground water table. The storability is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3. Moreover, the high water pumping in two major aquifers, Jignme and Wuku Foramtions, before the underground construction for MRT led to inflict surface deformation and no time delay observed for surface deformation during the water pumping. It implies that the poro-elastic effect dominates in major aquifers in Taipei basin.

  3. Intentional introduction of Artemia sinica (Anostraca) in the high-altitude Tibetan lake Dangxiong Co: the new population and consequences for the environment and for humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qinxian; Anufriieva, Elena; Liu, Xifang; Kong, Fanjing; Shadrin, Nickolai

    2015-11-01

    The imbalance between supply and demand of Artemia cysts in China and around the world is increasing now. Salt lakes in Tibet may contribute to the solution of the problem. In Northern Tibet there are 26 saline lakes whose salinity and temperature may support Artemia survival at an altitude of 4 000-5 100 m. We found Artemia in 15 of these lakes. The saline lakes with Artemia populations mainly belong to the shallow basin lakes, and the majority of these lakes are small in area. The total area of lakes without Artemia is more than 1 000 km2. Lake Dangxiong Co (Co means lake in Tibet) was chosen for the intentional introduction of Artemia sinica. In 2004, 850 g of A. sinica cysts, originating from Qinghai, were introduced in the lake. Surveys in 2006-2014 showed that the average abundance of Artemia adults in the lake gradually increased from 20 ind./m3 in 2006 to 1950 ind./m3 in 2013. We assume that two subpopulations of A. sinica, separated by depth, may exist in the lake. The new Artemia population caused an increase in the number of species of phytoplankton and heterotrophic protozoa with a decrease of their total abundance. Water transparency also increased. Dominance in phytoplankton passed from cyanobacteria to diatoms. Changes occurred not only in the lake ecosystem; the number of water birds using the lakes also dramatically increased. Preliminary calculations showed that is it possible to harvest at least about 150 t cysts per year from the lake as well as 3.2 thousand tons of frozen or 350 t of dried biomass of adult Artemia.

  4. Predictive factors warrant screening for obstructive sleep apnea in COPD: a Taiwan National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang LW

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liang-Wen Hang,1,2 Jeng-Yuan Hsu,3 Chee-Jen Chang,4 Hao-Chien Wang,5,6 Shih-Lung Cheng,7,8 Ching-Hsiung Lin,9 Ming-Cheng Chan,3 Chin-Chou Wang,10 Diahn-Warng Perng,11 Chong-Jen Yu5,6 On behalf of the Taiwan COPD Consortium 1Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Health Care, China Medical University, 2Sleep Medicine Center, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 4Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County, 5Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University, College of Medicine, Taipei, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 8Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li City, Taoyuan County, 9Division of Chest Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, 10Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 11Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Background and objectives: COPD and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA share similar pathological processes and cardiovascular sequelae. Coexisting OSA in COPD – “overlap syndrome” – has worse prognosis than either condition alone, and appropriate treatment improves survival. Our objectives were to ascertain the frequency at which COPD coexists with the risk of OSA in Taiwan and to compare the risk factors, COPD symptoms, and life quality metrics between COPD subgroups with versus without risk of OSA. Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional national telephone survey of adults >40 years old in Taiwan. Participants fulfilling an epidemiological case definition of COPD completed a

  5. Bayesian historical earthquake relocation: an example from the 1909 Taipei earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Lee, William H. K.

    2014-09-01

    Locating earthquakes from the beginning of the modern instrumental period is complicated by the fact that there are few good-quality seismograms and what traveltimes do exist may be corrupted by both large phase-pick errors and clock errors. Here, we outline a Bayesian approach to simultaneous inference of not only the hypocentre location but also the clock errors at each station and the origin time of the earthquake. This methodology improves the solution for the source location and also provides an uncertainty analysis on all of the parameters included in the inversion. As an example, we applied this Bayesian approach to the well-studied 1909 Mw 7 Taipei earthquake. While our epicentre location and origin time for the 1909 Taipei earthquake are consistent with earlier studies, our focal depth is significantly shallower suggesting a higher seismic hazard to the populous Taipei metropolitan area than previously supposed.

  6. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  7. Bayesian historical earthquake relocation: an example from the 1909 Taipei earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Lee, William H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Locating earthquakes from the beginning of the modern instrumental period is complicated by the fact that there are few good-quality seismograms and what traveltimes do exist may be corrupted by both large phase-pick errors and clock errors. Here, we outline a Bayesian approach to simultaneous inference of not only the hypocentre location but also the clock errors at each station and the origin time of the earthquake. This methodology improves the solution for the source location and also provides an uncertainty analysis on all of the parameters included in the inversion. As an example, we applied this Bayesian approach to the well-studied 1909 Mw 7 Taipei earthquake. While our epicentre location and origin time for the 1909 Taipei earthquake are consistent with earlier studies, our focal depth is significantly shallower suggesting a higher seismic hazard to the populous Taipei metropolitan area than previously supposed.

  8. Clinical correlation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a Chinese taxi drivers population in Taiwan: Experience at a teaching hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To explore any gender-related differences in the prevalence of conditions-associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among Taiwanese taxi drivers in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods We studied 1635 healthy taxi drivers (1541 males and 94 females) who volunteered for physical check-ups in 2006. Blood samples and ultrasound fatty liver sonography results were collected. Results The prevalence of NAFLD was 66.4% and revealed no statistically significant decrease with increasing age (p = 0.58). Males exhibited a greater prevalence of NAFLD than did females (67.5% vs 47.9%, p taxi drivers. PMID:21878129

  9. Epidemiological study of orthopedic injuries in hemodialysis patients in Taiwan: a fixed cohort survey, 2004–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang NT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nien-Tzu Chang,1,2,* Yi-Hui Lee,2,3 Jiin-Chyr Hsu,4 Chien-Lung Chan,5 Guey-Shiun Huang,2 Jenn-Huei Renn,1,6,* Nan-Ping Yang1,4,* 1Community Health Research Center and Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Chang-Gang University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Medical Research and Biostatistics Office, Tao-Yuan General Hospital, Department of Health, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Information Management, Yuan-Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 6Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Executive Yuan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing concern worldwide. The prevalence of hemodialysis in Taiwan is the highest in the world, and this may increase the prevalence of orthopedic fractures. The aim of this study was to explore the incidences of various orthopedic injuries and the related risk factors.Methods: A nationwide prospective study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance dataset was conducted during 2004–2008. A total of 82,491 CKD patients were selected as the fixed cohort population. The International Classification of Diseases 9-CM diagnosis codes and treatment codes were identified as the inclusion criteria for orthopedic injury.Results: A total of 82,491 Taiwanese people with CKD were identified in 2004, and 4915 orthopedic injuries occurred during the 5-year follow-up period. The cumulative incidences of orthopedic injuries were 42.56‰ for lower limb fractures, and 12.93‰, 3.27‰, and 1.64‰ for upper limb fractures, vertebrae fractures, and joint dislocations, respectively. All three types of orthopedic fractures were more common in the oldest age stratum (≥65 years old. In the CKD patients, the risk ratio of osteoporosis was 3.47 (95

  10. Case history of the Tiehchenshan gas field, Taiwan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinese Petroleum Corp. Staff

    1967-01-01

    The Tiehchenshan gas field is located about 100 km southwest of Taipei. This field is situated on the westernmost structure belt in the foothills region of W. Taiwan. The foothills region, about 40 km wide, is bounded on the east by the E. margin of the Miocene sediments in fault contact with the older indurated Paleogene sediments of the Central Range. The field is the largest gas field so far discovered in Taiwan. The gas reservoir producing at present is the quartz sandstone intercalated in the Talu Shale of middle Miocene age, above which no oil or gas has been found. Oil and gas showings were encountered in the sandstone beds of the middle and lower Miocene formations below the producing zone, but no commercial production has resulted so far from these deeper zones. The 10 wells completed in the Tiehchenshan gas field all produce natural gas and condensate. With every 10,000 cu m of natural gas 1.3 kiloliters of condensate is produced.

  11. What can U.S. dermatology learn from health care systems abroad? An observation of Taiwan's system of clinical efficiency as a possible model for increased patient access to care and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Faranak; Millsop, Jillian W; Tsai, Dino; Koo, John Y M

    2015-05-18

    Difficulty in patient access to care and affordability are major problems faced by our dermatology specialty in the United States. However, Taiwan provides adequate and affordable dermatologic care for all of its citizens. Herein we describe our first-hand observations and findings of the outpatient dermatology experience in Taipei, and contrast it to the experience in the United States. In Taipei, Taiwan, we observed patient management, electronic documentation, and billing during outpatient dermatology visits in five settings: one academic hospital outpatient dermatology department, one academic hospital Information Technology department, and three private dermatologists' offices. Through our observations, we found that the dermatology specialty in Taiwan is able to overcome challenges with access to care and affordability through three key system features: (1) short yet frequent patient visits (2) close proximity of ancillary staff, and (3) an integrated and paperless electronic medical record and billing system. The Taiwan system is attained with some sacrifice, such as shorter time spent with patients and less personalized care. However, because this system can meet the basic dermatological needs of the entire population, possibly better than our current system, it behooves us to study the Taiwan system with respect and care.

  12. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  13. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes in aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketo Okada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ephedra plants are taxonomically classified as gymnosperms, and are medicinally important as the botanical origin of crude drugs and as bioresources that contain pharmacologically active chemicals. Here we show a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing by RNA-Seq. De novo assembly of short cDNA sequence reads generated 23,358, 13,373, and 28,579 contigs longer than 200 bases from aerial stems, roots, or both aerial stems and roots, respectively. The presumed functions encoded by these contig sequences were annotated by BLAST (blastx. Subsequently, these contigs were classified based on gene ontology slims, Enzyme Commission numbers, and the InterPro database. Furthermore, comparative gene expression analysis was performed between aerial stems and roots. These transcriptome analyses revealed differences and similarities between the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots in E. sinica. Deep transcriptome sequencing of Ephedra should open the door to molecular biological studies based on the entire transcriptome, tissue- or organ-specific transcriptomes, or targeted genes of interest.

  14. Urban Air Pollution in Taiwan before and after the Installation of a Mass Rapid Transit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pei-Hsiou; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Bing-Yu; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated. Air pollutant concentrations and meteorology data were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) air monitoring stations and Central Weather Bureau stations in the surveyed areas, respectively. Analyses indicate that levels of air pollution in metropolitan areas were greater than in the rural area. Kaohsiung City had the highest levels of O, SO, and particulate matter 2.5 or 10 µm in diameter (PM and PM). Clear downward trends for CO, NO, PM, PM, and especially SO concentrations were found in the surveyed areas, whereas O showed no decrease. Both O and PM concentrations showed similar bimodal seasonal distributions. Taiwan's air quality has improved significantly since 1993, indicating the effectiveness of promoting air pollution strategies and policies by the TEPA. Air pollution had an obvious improvement in Taipei area after the MRT system began operations in 1996. Because global climate may potentially affect urban air pollution in Taiwan, further study to clarify the mechanisms by which air pollution may affect human health and other biological effects is warranted. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Perception of the Most Creative Chinese by Undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ziao Dong; Rudowicz, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 489 undergraduates in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei, found politicians were nominated by all four samples as being the most creative individuals in the past and at present. Scientists and inventors ranked second in position. Artists, musicians, and businessmen were rarely nominated. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  16. Chiral Dynamics and Dubna-Mainz-Taipei Dynamical Model for Pion-Photoproduction Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shin Nan

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that the Dubna-Mainz-Taipei (DMT) meson-exchange dynamical model, which starts from an effective chiral Lagrangian, for pion photoproduction provides an excellent and economic framework to describe both the pi^0 threshold production and the Delta deformation, two features dictated by chiral dynamics.

  17. Potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Jen-Ping; Tsai, I-Chun; He, Qingyang; Chi, Szu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Fu, Tzung-May

    2016-10-01

    The prospective impacts of electric vehicle (EV) penetration on the air quality in Taiwan were evaluated using an air quality model with the assumption of an ambitious replacement of current light-duty vehicles under different power generation scenarios. With full EV penetration (i.e., the replacement of all light-duty vehicles), CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 emissions in Taiwan from a fleet of 20.6 million vehicles would be reduced by 1500, 165, 33.9 and 7.2Ggyr(-1), respectively, while electric sector NOx and SO2 emissions would be increased by up to 20.3 and 12.9Ggyr(-1), respectively, if the electricity to power EVs were provided by thermal power plants. The net impacts of these emission changes would be to reduce the annual mean surface concentrations of CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 by about 260, 11.3, 3.3ppb and 2.1μgm(-3), respectively, but to increase SO2 by 0.1ppb. Larger reductions tend to occur at time and place of higher ambient concentrations and during high pollution events. Greater benefits would clearly be attained if clean energy sources were fully encouraged. EV penetration would also reduce the mean peak-time surface O3 concentrations by up to 7ppb across Taiwan with the exception of the center of metropolitan Taipei where the concentration increased by <2ppb. Furthermore, full EV penetration would reduce annual days of O3 pollution episodes by ~40% and PM2.5 pollution episodes by 6-10%. Our findings offer important insights into the air quality impacts of EV and can provide useful information for potential mitigation actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Seroepidemiology of pertussis among elementary school children in northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Chia; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Hsieh, Yu-Chia; Huang, Ya-Ling; Huang, Yu-Chiau; Hung, Yung-Tai

    2017-06-01

    Pertussis has been considered a vaccine-preventable "childhood disease", but a shift in age distribution has been reported worldwide. We conducted a seroepidemiological study in 2013 in Taiwan to elucidate the seroprevalence of pertussis among elementary school children. With a multilevel randomized method, which included 14 variables (4 population variables, 4 socio-educational variables, and 6 medical facilities' variables), the 29 executive districts of New Taipei City, Taiwan, were categorized into five strata. From each stratum, the number of school children as well as the number of elementary schools were proportionally selected. Enzyme immunoassay was applied for pertussis immunoglobulin-G measurement. A total of 936 children from 14 schools were recruited. Most participants (98.89%) received at least three doses of acellular diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. The overall seropositive rate for pertussis was 33.97%. The seropositive rate was highest for students in Grade 1 (49.36%) and then declined with time, except for Grade 6 students. Students from Grade 1 to Grade 4 had a significant higher seropositive rate (37.18% vs. 27.56%, p = 0.002) than those from Grade 5 to Grade 6, but a lower geometric mean titer (18.71 NovaTec Unit/mL vs. 20.04 NovaTec Unit/mL, p = 0.20). For the class grades, geometric mean titers were positively correlated with seroprevalence (p Taiwan were seropositive for pertussis, a rate lower than expected. Seroprevalence declined with increasing class grades except for Grade 6. The current national immunization program may not provide adequate protection for children against pertussis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Assessing the Efficacy of Restricting Access to Barbecue Charcoal for Suicide Prevention in Taiwan: A Community-Based Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Chang, Shu-Sen; Wong, Jacky; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-01-01

    Charcoal-burning suicide has recently been spreading to many Asian countries. There have also been several cases involving this new method of suicide in Western countries. Restricting access to suicide means is one of the few suicide-prevention measures that have been supported by empirical evidence. The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of a community intervention program that restricts access to charcoal to prevent suicide in Taiwan. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare method-specific (charcoal-burning suicide, non-charcoal-burning suicide) and overall suicide rates in New Taipei City (the intervention site, with a population of 3.9 million) with two other cities (Taipei City and Kaohsiung City, the control sites, each with 2.7 million residents) before (Jan 1st 2009- April 30th 2012) and after (May 1st 2012-Dec. 31st 2013) the initiation of a charcoal-restriction program on May 1st 2012. The program mandates the removal of barbecue charcoal from open shelves to locked storage in major retail stores in New Taipei City. No such restriction measure was implemented in the two control sites. Generalized linear regression models incorporating secular trends were used to compare the changes in method-specific and overall suicide rates before and after the initiation of the restriction measure. A simulation approach was used to estimate the number of lives saved by the intervention. Compared with the pre-intervention period, the estimated rate reduction of charcoal-burning suicide in New Taipei City was 37% (95% CI: 17%, 50%) after the intervention. Taking secular trends into account, the reduction was 30% (95% CI: 14%, 44%). No compensatory rise in non-charcoal-burning suicide was observed in New Taipei City. No significant reduction in charcoal-burning suicide was observed in the other two control sites. The simulation approach estimated that 91 (95%CI [55, 128]) lives in New Taipei City were saved during the 20 months of the intervention. Our

  20. Association of thin-ideal media exposure, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chen, Ping-Hung; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Pan, Yun-Chieh; Huang, Tzu-Fu

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between thin-ideal media exposure, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 students in the 10th grade were recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan to complete a questionnaire in 2010. The results showed that the adolescents were exposed to thin-ideal messages a few times a week. Females had higher levels of thin-ideal media exposure, media pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating behaviors than males. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that media pressure and thin-deal internalization significantly increased the likelihood of body dissatisfaction, while media pressure and body dissatisfaction contributed to both restrained eating and unhealthy weight control behaviors, when all other variables were controlled for. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban air pollution and meteorological factors affect emergency department visits of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pei-Hsiou; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2017-05-01

    Both air pollution and meteorological factors in metropolitan areas increased emergency department (ED) visits from people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Few studies investigated the associations between air pollution, meteorological factors, and COPD-related health disorders in Asian countries. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the environmental factors and COPD-associated ED visits of susceptible elderly population in the largest Taiwanese metropolitan area (Taipei area, including Taipei city and New Taipei city) between 2000 and 2013. Data of air pollutant concentrations (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , O 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 and CO), meteorological factors (daily temperature, relative humidity and air pressure), and daily COPD-associated ED visits were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration air monitoring stations, Central Weather Bureau stations, and the Taiwan National Health Insurance database in Taipei area. We used a case-crossover study design and conditional logistic regression models with odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for evaluating the associations between the environmental factors and COPD-associated ED visits. Analyses showed that PM 2.5 , O 3 , and SO 2 had significantly greater lag effects (the lag was 4 days for PM 2.5 , and 5 days for O 3 and SO 2 ) on COPD-associated ED visits of the elderly population (65-79 years old). In warmer days, a significantly greater effect on elderly COPD-associated ED visits was estimated for PM 2.5 with coexistence of O 3 . Additionally, either O 3 or SO 2 combined with other air pollutants increased the risk of elderly COPD-associated ED visits in the days of high relative humidity and air pressure difference, respectively. This study showed that joint effect of urban air pollution and meteorological factors contributed to the COPD-associated ED visits of the susceptible elderly population in the largest metropolitan area in Taiwan. Government

  2. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung

    2010-01-01

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  3. Membrane bioreactor application in wastewater re-use from the effluent of Bali primary WWTP, northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H H; Shiau, S; Lin, Y C

    2006-01-01

    Two MBR pilot systems were constructed and tested in the Bali Primary WWTP. The pilot study shows that two MBR systems, i.e. the Green-MenBio system (MBR-1) and the Bio-MF system (MBR-2), can both fulfill the requirement of wastewater reclamation standard. The MBR-2 system is more economical compared with MBR-1 system. The cost of US dollars 0.10-0.16/m3 is estimated to reclaim the effluent of primary WWTP in Taiwan. The Bali Primary WWTP has the capacity of 1,320,000 cmd which is the biggest in Taiwan. The domestic wastewater of partial Taipei City and Taipei County are collected and transported to the Bali Primary WWTP. The effluent of the Bali Primary WWTP is then discharged into the ocean through two 3.8 m marine outfalls. The AO processes are installed in both MBR systems. More than 90% of the NH3-N can be removed through the AO and membrane processes. The outflow of the MBR systems (without RO) can reach the quality of COD <30 mg/l, BOD <10 mg/l, SS <5 mg/l, NH3-N <3 mg/L. The outflow of the MBR system is proposed to transport 40 km south to the Taoyuan County where four new industrial parks are to be constructed. Part of the reclaimed water is to be used on irrigation and another portion is to be sent to the industries after RO treatment.

  4. Grid-Based Moment Tensor Inversion Technique by Using 3-D Green's Functions Database: A Demonstration of the 23 October 2004 Taipei Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiann-Jong Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moment tensor inversion is a routine procedure to obtain information on an earthquake source for moment magnitude and focal mechanism. However, the inversion quality is usually controlled by factors such as knowledge of an earthquake location and the suitability of a 1-D velocity model used. Here we present an improved method to invert the moment tensor solution for local earthquakes. The proposed method differs from routine centroid-moment-tensor inversion of the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology in three aspects. First, the inversion is repeated in the neighborhood of an earthquake_?s hypocenter on a grid basis. Second, it utilizes Green_?s functions based on a true three-dimensional velocity model. And third, it incorporates most of the input waveforms from strong-motion records. The proposed grid-based moment tensor inversion is applied to a local earthquake that occurred near the Taipei basin on 23 October 2004 to demonstrate its effectiveness and superiority over methods used in previous studies. By using the grid-based moment tensor inversion technique and 3-D Green_?s functions, the earthquake source parameters, including earthquake location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism, are accurately found that are sufficiently consistent with regional ground motion observations up to a frequency of 1.0 Hz. This approach can obtain more precise source parameters for other earthquakes in or near a well-modeled basin and crustal structure.

  5. A roadmap to determine the important factors of the house value: a case study by using actual price registration data of Taipei housing transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-De Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While many studies have applied data mining techniques to judge housing prices, few have decoded the important attributes or prioritized them simultaneously. This paper aims to utilize five data mining techniques to discover the important attributes for three major types of real estate in Taipei city. The datasets, involving a total of 22,480 transactions, were publicly available from the Taiwan Actual Price Registration from July 2013 to August 2015. The five models are decision trees, random forests, model trees, artificial neural networks and multiple regression. The criteria used to measure the forecasting accuracy are MAPE, R², RMSE, MAE and COR. The model with the best performance for all houses is the Model Tree with a MAPE value of 27.59. As for apartments, the best is Random Forests. Artificial Neural Networks perform best for suites and buildings with elevators. Different housing types need different models. Furthermore, the attributes importance helps us to conclude the really critical attributes, which include the floor area, administrative districts, parking area and land area, and their rankings. This variable ranking and selection procedure proposed by this research can also be adopted to improve the prediction efficiency for most big data applications other than the housing transactions.

  6. Epidemiological studies of Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Taipei and other Asian cities based on MIRU profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Ren; Dou, Horng-Yun; Lee, Shih-Yi; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of the Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Taipei and other Asian cities. A total of 323 MTB isolates were analyzed by spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) typing. The largest cluster of the TB isolates from Taipei was type MT11 (MIRU type 2233-2517-3533). A comparison of the MIRU type data for the Beijing strains from Taipei and previously published MIRU type data for the Beijing strains from Asian cities with major population of Chinese was analyzed. The six major Beijing MIRU types (MT01, MT02, MT08, MT11, MT21, and MT44) were found to be common in four Asian cities including Taipei, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Wuhan. Results of this study indicate that there is geographical difference in the distribution of different Beijing strains of MTB. © 2011 The Authors. APMIS © 2011 APMIS.

  7. Nephrolithiasis screening for people with self-perceived exposure to melamine-contaminated milk products in Taipei County, Taiwan

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    Jeng-Cheng Wu

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that governments can carry out a good risk communication program in relation to melamine-contaminated milk product events, and thus reassure the public as well as allay fears over perceived health risks stemming from such events.

  8. Green technology in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runderkamp, D.

    2010-01-01

    Taiwan is striving for leadership in the field of green Technologies. Solar cells and Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are the best examples of successful Taiwanese green technologies. Electronic vehicles and smart grids are giving new impetus to the Taiwanese export of high-quality technology. [nl

  9. The Efficiency Analysis of Low Impact Development Applied in Taiwan: A Case Study of Porous Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. H.; Liu, H. J.; Hsu, N. S.; Chang, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) has been developed since the end of 1990s. Lots of successful experience based on this new technology have been made. Taiwan Executive Yuan is conducting a six-year (2014~2019) program "Integrated River Basin Management Plan" applying LID to build sponge cities. Construction and Planning Agency, Ministry of the Interior is editing the manual of LID technology for Taiwan. However, since the hydrological environments, physiographic conditions, climates, the strength and frequency of disasters in Taiwan are different from that in America, this study takes the first laboratory experiment and model simulation to evaluate the efficiency of application of LID in Taiwan.LID Facilities includes porous pavement, rain garden, green roof, tree box filter facilities and so on, and in this study, porous pavement is taken as an example for discussion. In the part of laboratory experiments, the sand box experiments is designed to operate with the specified rainfall return period calculated by Horton formula and rainfall characteristics of Taipei. Then the outflow hydrograph in each designed rainfall of specified return period can be evaluated. As for model simulation, this study constructs LID simulation elements by SWMM model and tests the suitability for simulation of the outflow hydrograph obtained from experiments, and definitely quantifies the efficiency of water retention and flood reduction of porous pavement. The results fits well with the experimental observation data with less than 10% error of pick flow. It suggests that, with LID simulation elements constructed in this study, the efficiency of LID in actual on-site application can be evaluated.The results shows that porous pavement is able to delay arrival time of pick about 5% ~10% and reduce the pick flow about 5%~20%, and hold the ability of near 3~5% water retention. It proves that application of LID can retain water and reduce flood in Taiwan.

  10. An evaluation of a health screening program for migrant women to Taiwan, China

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    Yu-Chu Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate an integrated screening program for female migrants to Taiwan. Method: We performed a mixed methodological evaluation of a public health nurse (PHN-led intervention to promote an integrated screening program for female migrants to Taiwan. The clinical case yield was determined by an audit, and staff/client questionnaires were used for the evaluation. Screening comprised surveillance for four untreated chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, and liver disease, four cancers (mouth, bowel, liver, and cervix, parasitic infection, and hyperlipidemia. Results: Three hundred and thirty-six PHNs and 4751 immigrant women – with an average age of 29.2 years, most of whom were from Vietnam (44% or mainland China (41% – took part in the programme. Two thirds of screened women had no abnormalities. Further investigation was required in 1523 women, of whom 1220 were found to have significant disease. The majority of 280 PHNs (85% found the content, processes, and waiting time to be ‘highly acceptable’ and thought the program was worthwhile and could be incorporated into standard care. Conclusions: The Taipei County Comprehensive Health Screening Programme provided an accessible, free-of-charge, and preventative intervention for female migrants to Taiwan and had a good clinical case yield.

  11. The effects of transported Asian dust on the composition and concentration of ambient fungi in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, H. Jasmine; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of transported Asian dust and other environmental parameters on the levels and compositions of ambient fungi in the atmosphere of northern Taiwan. We monitored Asian dust events in Taipei County, Taiwan from January 2003 to June 2004. We used duplicate Burkard portable air samplers to collect ambient fungi before, during, and after dust events. Six transported Asian dust events were monitored during the study period. Elevated concentrations of Aspergillus ( A. niger, specifically), Coelomycetes, Rhinocladiella, Sporothrix and Verticillium were noted ( p < 0.05) during Asian dust periods. Botryosporium and Trichothecium were only recovered during dust event days. Multiple regression analysis showed that fungal levels were positively associated with temperature, wind speed, rainfall, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates with aerodynamic diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), and negatively correlated with relative humidity and ozone. Our results demonstrated that Asian dust events affected ambient fungal concentrations and compositions in northern Taiwan. Ambient fungi also had complex dynamics with air pollutants and meteorological factors. Future studies should explore the health impacts of ambient fungi during Asian dust events, adjusting for the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather and air pollutants.

  12. Shi Cihang 航慈釋. The First Case of Mummified Buddhist in Taiwan

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    Stefania Travagnin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shi Cihang 航慈釋 (1895-1954, is one of the eminent figures in the so-called Modern Buddhism in Taiwan. Engaged in improving education and training of Buddhist monks and nuns, and promoter of the so-called renjian fojiao 教佛間人 (Buddhism for the Human Realm, which refuses any sort of superstitious understanding and practice of Buddhism and calls for the return to the original and pure essence of the Dharma, Cihang is also the first Buddhist monk in Taiwan who attempted to, and eventually succeeded in, preserving his body afterdeath. Nowadays, the gilded relic-body of Cihang is enshrined and venerated in Xizhi, Taipei county, as well as being included in the list of the roushen pusa 薩菩身肉 (flesh-body Bodhisattvas who appeared in the history of Chinese Buddhism. This paper analyses Cihang’s relic-body as case-study of Chinese mummified Buddhist in the scene of contemporary Taiwan and modern Taiwanese Buddhim, discussing the Buddhist significance, sociological implications and eventual impact of mummification within the reality of the new renjian fojiao.

  13. Spatio-temporal diffusion of residential land prices across Taipei regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anupam; Yeh, Jia-Huey

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have shown that changes in the house price of a region may transmit to its neighbouring regions. The transmission mechanism may follow spatial and temporal diffusion processes. This paper investigates such regional housing market dynamics and interactions among local housing sub-markets in Taipei. The analysis is based on a panel data framework and spatial panel models using annual data on median residential land prices from 41 Taipei sub-markets over the period from 1992 to 2010. The empirical analysis suggests that spatial dependence plays a significant role in interactions among regional housing markets. The results are strongly robust across several model specifications and regions controlling for time fixed effects and space-time covariance. These findings have significant implications for urban spatial planning and efficient use of public resources in mega-urban areas. C21; C23; R12; H50.

  14. Dilemma of prescribing aripiprazole under the Taiwan health insurance program: a descriptive study

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    Hsu YC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Chien Hsu,1,2 Yu-Ching Chou,3 Hsin-An Chang,1,2,4 Yu-Chen Kao,1,2,5 San-Yuan Huang,1,2 Nian-Sheng Tzeng1,2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, 3School of Public Health, 4Student Counseling Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Song-Shan Branch, Taipei, Taiwan Objectives: Refractory major depressive disorder (MDD is a serious problem leading to a heavy economic burden. Antipsychotic augmentation treatment with aripiprazole and quetiapine is approved for MDD patients and can achieve a high remission rate. This study aimed to examine how psychiatrists in Taiwan choose medications and how that choice is influenced by health insurance payments and administrative policy.Design: Descriptive study.Outcome measures: Eight questions about the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason to choose aripiprazole.Intervention: We designed an augmentation strategy questionnaire for psychiatrists whose patients had a poor response to antidepressants, and handed it out during the annual meeting of the Taiwanese Society of Psychiatry in October 2012. It included eight questions addressing the choice of treatment strategy and atypical antipsychotics, and the reason whether or not to choose aripiprazole as the augmentation antipsychotic.Results: Choosing antipsychotic augmentation therapy or switching to other antidepressant strategies for MDD patients with an inadequate response to antidepressants was common with a similar probability (76.1% vs 76.4%. The most frequently used antipsychotics were aripiprazole and quetiapine, however a substantial number of psychiatrists chose olanzapine, risperidone, and sulpiride. The major reason for not choosing aripiprazole was cost (52.1%, followed by insurance official policy audit and deletion in the claims review system (30.1%.Conclusion: The prescribing

  15. Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Thermal Environment and Air Quality in Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. Y.; Sun, C. H.; Jiang, J. A.; Wen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) caused by the regional-to-global environmental changes, dramatic urbanization, and shifting in land-use compositions has becoming an important environmental issue in recent years. In the past century, the coverage of urban area in Taipei Basin has dramatically increasing by ten folds. The strengthen of UHI effect significantly enhances the frequency of warm-night effect, and strongly influences the thermal environment of the residents in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan. In addition, the urban expansions due to dramatic increasing in urban populations and traffic loading significantly impacts the air quality and causes health issue in Taipei. In this study, the main objective is to quantify and characterize the temporal and spatial distributions of thermal environmental and air quality in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan Area by using monitoring data from Central Weather Bureau, Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, in this study, we conduct the analysis on the distribution of physiological equivalent temperature in the micro scale in the metropolitan area by using the observation data and quantitative simulation to investigate how the thermal environment is influenced under different conditions. Furthermore, we establish a real-time mobile monitoring system by using wireless sensor network to investigate the correlation between the thermal environment, air quality and other environmental factors, and propose to develop the early warning system for heat stress and air quality in the metropolitan area. The results from this study can be integrated into the management and planning system, and provide sufficient and important background information for the development of smart city in the metropolitan area in the future.

  16. Visualisation and globalisation in the Asia-Pacific region: the Taipei Biennial 1996-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Whilst globalisation, urbanisation and explosive expansion of urban spaces are the most dynamic and challenging issues in the Asia-Pacific region today, modernisation and cultural re-interpretation are also taking place at a rapid speed. Asia-Pacific metropolises, combining most of their nations’ population and resources, are at the centre of its globalisation process and intend to create their own characters whilst information and fashion have been moving between territories. Taipei, being t...

  17. Using SERVQUAL to evaluate quality disconfirmation of nursing service in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shieu-Ming; Chen, Thai-Form; Woodard, Beth; Yen, Miao-Fen

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of disconfirmation of the perceived quality of nursing services, and its relationship to patient's satisfaction, intent to return, and intent to recommend to others. The service dimensions were tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy, which were adopted from the Gap model of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985). A total of 186 subjects was tested by a modified SERVQUAL (service quality) instrument. These subjects were from 15 randomly selected medical-surgical units in a medical center in Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. The response rate was 92%. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used to analyze subjects' responses. A number of the demographic variables served as covariates in data analysis. Responsiveness was highly significant in predicting overall satisfaction with hospital service (p = .0003). Reliability was significant in predicting overall satisfaction with nursing care (p < .00005) and intent to return. Empathy was a highly significant predictor of intent to recommend.

  18. Does the Short-Term Effect of Air Pollution Influence the Incidence of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Different Patient Groups? Big Data Analysis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ting-Ying; Ting, Hsien-Wei; Chan, Chien-Lung; Yang, Nan-Ping; Pan, Ren-Hao; Lai, K Robert; Hung, Su-In

    2017-12-10

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) has a high mortality rate. Research has demonstrated that the occurrence of sICH is related to air pollution. This study used big data analysis to explore the impact of air pollution on the risk of sICH in patients of differing age and geographic location. 39,053 cases were included in this study; 14,041 in the Taipei region (Taipei City and New Taipei City), 5537 in Taoyuan City, 7654 in Taichung City, 4739 in Tainan City, and 7082 in Kaohsiung City. The results of correlation analysis indicated that there were two pollutants groups, the CO and NO₂ group and the PM 2.5 and PM 10 group. Furthermore, variations in the correlations of sICH with air pollutants were identified in different age groups. The co-factors of the influence of air pollutants in the different age groups were explored using regression analysis. This study integrated Taiwan National Health Insurance data and air pollution data to explore the risk factors of sICH using big data analytics. We found that PM 2.5 and PM 10 are very important risk factors for sICH, and age is an important modulating factor that allows air pollutants to influence the incidence of sICH.

  19. Relationships of population growth and socio-economic development between satellite areas and the inner city--Taipei metropolitan case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H C

    1985-07-01

    This case study analyzes population growth and socioeconomic development in Taipei City and its satellite areas. Particular attention was devoted to 4 aspects: 1) population growth and industrial deconcentration in Taipei Metropolitan Area, 2) effects of population growth on demographic and socioeconomic changes in satellite areas, 3) effects of population and industrial growth in satellite areas on changes in the inner city, and 4) interrelationships between public services and facilities between the inner city and outlying areas. In 1968-82 the population of Taipei City increased 47%, from 1,579,346 to 2,327,641, and the population in industrialized satellite areas increased 127%, from 1,078,615 to 2,445,129. This trend reflects the 250% increase in the number of factories located in Taipei County in 1968-83. In the inner city, the number of factories increased by only 25% during this period. This pattern has increased the proportion of the population aged 25-39 years in satellite areas. In most of these areas, the industrial pattern has shifted from predominantly primary to largely secondary or tertiary. The total cultivated land mass in satellite areas has decreased dramatically. The total number of registered business companies and stores increased by 323% in Taipei City and by 243% in Taipei County in 1968-82. Household income increased more rapidly in the County than in the City, thereby decreasing the income gap between these 2 areas. It is expected that some of those living in satellite areas may later move to the inner city once their economic position has improved. Horticulture development in satellite areas has effectively supplied increasing consumption needs for fruit, vegetables, and flowers in the inner city. Transportation facilities, educational services, and hospitals are reciprocally used by residents of both areas. As the interdependence between Taipei City and County increases in the years ahead, there is a need to achieve greater cooperation

  20. A Method for Development of Ecomuseums in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Hui Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One component of the new museology is the ecomuseum, which is intended to preserve cultural/natural heritage and the local landscape in situ, and involves community participation and needs associated with community development. Since the ecomuseum concept originated in Western Europe, ecomuseums must be adapted or localized to various socio-economic environments. In the 2000s, two mining ecomuseums were established in New Taipei City—the Gold Museum and the Houtong Coal Mine Ecological Park. In the early 2010s, two more ecomuseums were established—the Daxi Wood Art Ecomuseum and the Togo Art Museum. More than the mining ecomuseums, the Daxi Wood Art Ecomuseum emphasized community participation and the vision of the Togo Art Museum was led by the community. Based on an analysis of the Houtong Coal Mine Ecological Park, the Daxi Wood Art Ecomuseum and the Togo Art Museum, this study elucidates the various mechanisms of the development of ecomuseums in Taiwan. Ecomuseums should be interconnected with the community and the environment. The three major functions of ecomuseums (community participation, local development, and in-situ preservation can promote sustainable development. This study uses the “creativity triangle” concept with a three-year cycle of development as an analytical tool. The concept was modified to include three stages of development, which are “estimation”, “preparation”, and “operation”; six steps and 11 tasks are proposed. Despite the unique circumstances of each ecomuseum, this study provides an overview of the development processes and provides a basis for making recommendations for establishing other ecomuseums in Taiwan.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of amlodipine compared with valsartan in preventing stroke and myocardial infarction among hypertensive patients in Taiwan

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    Chan L

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung Chan,1 Chen-Huan Chen,2 Juey-Jen Hwang,3 San-Jou Yeh,4 Kou-Gi Shyu,5 Ruey-Tay Lin,6 Yi-Heng Li,7 Larry Z Liu,8 Jim Z Li,9 Wen-Yi Shau,10 Te-Chang Weng,10 1Department of Neurology, Shuang-Ho Hospital, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 3Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 4Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, 5Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, 6Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, 7Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan; 8Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA; 9Pfizer Inc, San Diego, CA ,USA; 10Pfizer Ltd., New Taipei City, Taiwan Abstract: Hypertension is a major risk factor for strokes and myocardial infarction (MI. Given its effectiveness and safety profile, the calcium channel blocker amlodipine is among the most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drugs. This analysis was conducted to determine the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs associated with the use of amlodipine and valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, in preventing stroke and MI in Taiwanese hypertensive patients. A state transition (Markov model was developed to compare the 5-year costs and QALYs for amlodipine and valsartan. Effectiveness data were based on the NAGOYA HEART Study, local studies, and a published meta-analysis. Utility data and costs of MI and stroke were retrieved from the published literature. Medical costs were based on the literature and inflated to 2011 prices; drug costs were based on National Health Insurance prices in 2014. A 3% discount rate was used for costs and QALYs and a third-party payer perspective

  2. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Infection among Men who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Wei Huang

    Full Text Available The number of men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV-1 in Taiwan has increased rapidly in the past few years. The goal of this study was to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 infection among MSM in Taiwan to identify risk factors for intervention. Voluntary counseling program and anonymous testing were provided to patrons at 1 gay bar, 7 night clubs and 3 gay saunas in Taipei and New Taipei Cities in 2012. HIV-1 subtypes were determined using gag subtype-specific PCR and phylogenetic analysis by env sequences. Recent HIV-1 infection was determined using LAg-Avidity EIA. In-depth interviews and questionnaires were used to identify risk factors. The prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 among MSM in Taiwan were 4.38% (53/1,208 and 3.29 per 100 person-years, respectively. Of 49 cases genotyped, 48 (97.9% were infected with subtype B and 1 with CRF01_AE (2%. Phylogenetic analysis of 46 HIV-1 strains showed that 25 (54.4% subtype B strains formed 9 clusters with each other or with other local strains. The CRF01_AE case clustered with a reference strain from a Thai blood donor with bootstrap value of 99. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors associated with HIV-1 infection included use of oil-based solution as lubricant (vs. saliva or water-based lubricants, OR= 4.23; p <0.001; exclusively receptive role (vs. insertive role, OR= 9.69; p <0.001; versatile role (vs. insertive role, OR= 6.45; p= 0.003; oral sex (vs. insertive role, OR= 11.93; p= 0.044; times of sexual contact per week (2-3 vs. zero per week, OR= 3.41; p= 0.021; illegal drug use (OR= 4.12; p <0.001; and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR= 3.65; p= 0.002. In conclusion, there was no new HIV-1 subtype or circulating recombinant form responsible for the increase of HIV-1 among MSM in Taiwan in 2012. Misuse of oil-based solution as lubricant is a new risk factor identified among MSM in Taiwan. The Taiwan's Centers for Disease

  4. Dental prophylaxis decreases the risk of acute myocardial infarction: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

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    Lee YL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Ling Lee,1,2 Hsiao-Yun Hu,2,3 Pesus Chou,2 Dachen Chu2,4,5 1Department of Dentistry, Taipei City Hospital, 2Institute of Public Health and Community Medicine Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, 3Department of Education and Research, Taipei City Hospital, 4Department of Health Care Management, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: To investigate the association between periodontal disease (PD and acute ­myocardial infarction (AMI, and evaluate the effect of dental prophylaxis on the incidence rate (IR of AMI.Methods: The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 from the National Health Insurance program was used to identify 511,630 patients with PD and 208,713 without PD during 2000–2010. Subjects with PD were grouped according to treatment (dental prophylaxis, intensive treatment, and PD without treatment. The IRs of AMI during the 10-year follow-up period were compared among groups. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, residential urbanicity, and comorbidities was used to evaluate the effect of PD treatment on the incidence of AMI.Results: The IR of AMI among subjects without PD was 0.19%/year. Among those with PD, the IR of AMI was lowest in the dental prophylaxis group (0.11%/year, followed by the intensive treatment (0.28%/year and PD without treatment (0.31%/year; P<0.001 groups. Cox regression showed that the hazard ratio (HR for AMI was significantly lower in the dental prophylaxis group (HR =0.90, 95% confidence interval =0.86–0.95 and higher in the intensive treatment (HR =1.09, 95% confidence interval =1.03–1.15 and PD without treatment (HR =1.23, 95% confidence interval =1.13–1.35 groups than in subjects without PD.Conclusion: PD is associated with a higher risk of AMI, which can be reduced by dental prophylaxis to maintain periodontal health. Keywords: periodontal disease

  5. Uncertainty Quantification of Water Quality in Tamsui River in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, D.; Tsai, C.

    2017-12-01

    In Taiwan, modeling of non-point source pollution is unavoidably associated with uncertainty. The main purpose of this research is to better understand water contamination in the metropolitan Taipei area, and also to provide a new analysis method for government or companies to establish related control and design measures. In this research, three methods are utilized to carry out the uncertainty analysis step by step with Mike 21, which is widely used for hydro-dynamics and water quality modeling, and the study area is focused on Tamsui river watershed. First, a sensitivity analysis is conducted which can be used to rank the order of influential parameters and variables such as Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrate, Ammonia and Phosphorous. Then we use the First-order error method (FOEA) to determine the number of parameters that could significantly affect the variability of simulation results. Finally, a state-of-the-art method for uncertainty analysis called the Perturbance moment method (PMM) is applied in this research, which is more efficient than the Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS). For MCS, the calculations may become cumbersome when involving multiple uncertain parameters and variables. For PMM, three representative points are used for each random variable, and the statistical moments (e.g., mean value, standard deviation) for the output can be presented by the representative points and perturbance moments based on the parallel axis theorem. With the assumption of the independent parameters and variables, calculation time is significantly reduced for PMM as opposed to MCS for a comparable modeling accuracy.

  6. Taipei's Use of a Multi-Channel Mass Risk Communication Program to Rapidly Reverse an Epidemic of Highly Communicable Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Muh-Yong; Wu, Tsung-Shu Joseph; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Wong, Wing-Wai; Wang, Po-En; Chan, Ta-Chien; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2009-01-01

    Background In September 2007, an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) occurred in Keelung City and spread to Taipei City. In response to the epidemic, a new crisis management program was implemented and tested in Taipei. Methodology and Principal Findings Having noticed that transmission surged on weekends during the Keelung epidemic, Taipei City launched a multi-channel mass risk communications program that included short message service (SMS) messages sent directly to approximately 2.2 million Taipei residents on Friday, October 12th, 2007. The public was told to keep symptomatic students from schools and was provided guidelines for preventing the spread of the disease at home. Epidemiological characteristics of Taipei's outbreak were analyzed from 461 sampled AHC cases. Median time from exposure to onset of the disease was 1 day. This was significantly shorter for cases occurring in family clusters than in class clusters (mean±SD: 2.6±3.2 vs. 4.39±4.82 days, p = 0.03), as well as for cases occurring in larger family clusters as opposed to smaller ones (1.2±1.7 days vs. 3.9±4.0 days, pTaipei's program had a significant impact on patient compliance. Home confinement of symptomatic children increased from 10% to 60% (pTaipei experienced a rapid decrease in AHC cases between the Friday of the SMS announcement and the following Monday, October 15, (0.70% vs. 0.36%). By October 26, AHC cases reduced to 0.01%. The success of this risk communication program in Taipei (as compared to Keelung) is further reflected through rapid improvements in three epidemic indicators: (1) significantly lower crude attack rates (1.95% vs. 14.92%, pTaipei districts that border Keelung (the original domestic epicenter). Conclusions and Significance The timely launch of this systematic, communication-based intervention proved effective at preventing a dangerous spike in AHC and was able to bring this high-risk disease under control. We recommend that public health

  7. The Potential Roles of the G1LEA and G3LEA Proteins in Early Embryo Development and in Response to Low Temperature and High Salinity in Artemia sinica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA are stress resistance-related proteins that play crucial roles in protecting against desiccation, cold and high salinity in a variety of animals and plants. However, the expression pattern, distribution and functions of LEA proteins in the post-diapause period of Artemia sinica, and under high salinity and low temperature stresses, remain unknown. In this study, the complete cDNA sequences of the group 1 LEA (As-g1lea and group 3 LEA (As-g3lea genes from A. sinica were cloned. The expression patterns and location of As-G1LEA and As-G1LEA were investigated. The protein abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and Trehalase were analyzed during different developmental stages of the embryo and under low temperature and high salinity stresses in A. sinica. The full-length cDNA of As-g1lea was 960 bp, encoding a 182 amino acid protein, and As-g3lea was 2089 bp, encoding a 364 amino acid protein. As-g1lea and As-g3lea showed their highest expressions at 0 h of embryonic development and both showed higher relative expression in embryonic, rather than adult, development stages. The abundances of As-G1LEA, As-G3LEA and trehalose were upregulated under low temperature and downregulated under high salinity stress. These two genes did not show any tissue or organ specific expression. Our results suggested that these LEA proteins might play a pivotal role in stress tolerance in A. sinica.

  8. Screening for in vivo (anti)estrogenic activity of ephedrine and p-synephrine and their natural sources Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ephedraceae) and Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Franco, Márcia Toniolo; Larentis, Elisa Rupp; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Sebben, Viviane Cristina; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Dallegrave, Eliane; Limberger, Renata Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Formulations containing Ephedra sinica Stapf. (Ephedraceae) and Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) are consumed worldwide for body weight control. Considering the related adverse effects and the risk potential, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the thermogenic compounds ephedrine, p-sinephrine, E. sinica and C. aurantium in the female reproductive system through the uterotrophic assay in immature female rats. The animals (n = 6-7) received E. sinica 85.5 and 855.0 mg/kg/day, C. aurantium 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg/day, ephedrine 5.0 mg/kg/day and p-synephrine 50.0 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days by oral gavage. For detection of antiestrogenicity, tamoxifen 20.0 mg/kg/day, E. sinica 855.0 mg/kg/day, C. aurantium 50.0 mg/kg/day, ephedrine 5.0 mg/kg/day and p-synephrine 50.0 mg/kg/day were administered to estrogen-treated females. Macroscopical alterations were evaluated in liver, kidneys, adrenals and uterus. All analyzed substances showed an antiestrogenic potential, but only ephedrine at 0.5 mg/kg/day presented a significative antiestrogenic effect (P < 0.01). Adrenals relative mass were reduced (P < 0.01) in all tested compounds when compared to the control, which seems to be related to the alfa-1-adrenoceptor agonist activity, which promote a vasoconstriction and reduction of the liquid in the organ. The endocrine system is highly complex and there are a number of ways in which a chemical may interfere with it, other in vivo and in vitro assays are being necessary to support this mechanism of action.

  9. Taiwan Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq

    Taiwan space programs consist of FORMOSAT-1, -2, and -3, sounding rockets, and international cooperation. FORMOSAT-1, a low-earth-orbit (LEO) scientific experimental satellite, was launched on January 26, 1999. It circulates with an altitude of 600 km and 35 degree inclination around the Earth every 97 minutes, transmitting collected data to Taiwan's receiving stations approximately six times a day. The major mission of FORMOSAT-1 includes three scientific experiments for measuring the effects of ionospheric plasma and electrodynamics, taking the ocean color image and conducting Ka-band communication experiment. The FORMOSAT- 1 mission was ended by June 15, 2004. FORMOSAT-2, launched on May 21, 2004 onto the Sun-synchronous orbit located at 891 km above ground. The main mission of FORMOSAT-2 is to conduct remote sensing imaging over Taiwan and on terrestrial and oceanic regions of the entire earth. The images captured by FORMOSAT-2 during daytime can be used for land distribution, natural resources research, environmental protection, disaster prevention and rescue work etc. When the satellite travels to the eclipsed zone, it observes natural phenomena of lighting in the upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is an international collaboration project between Taiwan and the US to develop advanced technology for the real-time monitoring of the global climate. This project is also named Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate, or FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC for short. Six micro-satellites were launched on 15 April 2007 and eventually placed into six different orbits at 700 800 kilometer above the earth ground. These satellites orbit around the earth to form a LEO constellation that receives signals transmitted by the 24 US GPS satellites. The satellite observation covers the entire global atmosphere and ionosphere, providing over 2,500 global sounding data per day. These data distribute uniformly over the earth's atmosphere. The global climate information

  10. Likelihood ratios of multiple cutoff points of the Taipei City Developmental Checklist for Preschoolers, 2nd version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua-Fang; Yao, Grace; Chien, Cheng-Chun; Cheng, Ling-Yee; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability and clinical decision validities of the Taipei City Developmental Checklist for Preschoolers, 2nd version (the Taipei II, which was filled out by parents) and the screening procedures conducted in the medical setting. Methodology research and case control study designs were adopted. A total of 310 dyads consisting of children who were developing typically and 196 dyads of children with developmental delays and age 5.5 to 35.5 months were recruited for validity test. Among them, 165 mothers filled out the questionnaire twice within 1 week to examine the test-retest reliability of the total score and individual items. Validity indexes of the single cutoff strategy and multiple cutoff strategies were analyzed. With two cutoff point strategies, the likelihood ratios (LR) of the three test results, positive, neutral, and negative, were calculated. The test-retest reliabilities of the total scores of the seven checklists of the Taipei II (rs = 0.54-0.89, pTaipei II with multiple cutoff points could give more useful clinical information than using a single cutoff point. The multiple likelihood ratios of Taipei II for children older than 3 years and in different cultural backgrounds need further study. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effect of herbal Ephedra sinica and Evodia rutaecarpa on body composition and resting metabolic rate: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial in Korean premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Jun; Park, Jung-Mi; Kim, Jin-Ah; Ko, Byeong-Pyo

    2008-12-01

    As obesity is becoming an epidemic, diet programs, including low-calorie diets, are continuously being developed. It is generally believed that a low-calorie diet is commonly followed by a resting metabolic rate decrease and ultimate weight regain. Ephedra sinica and evodia rutaecarpa are known to have sympathomimetic and anti-obesity effects. This study was a prospective; double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of ephedra sinica and evodia rutaecarpa on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and short-term safety in obese Korean premenopausal women on a low-calorie diet. One hundred and twenty-five otherwise healthy obese women (body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2)) were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups: ephedra group (n = 41), evodia group (n = 45) and placebo group (n = 39). Subjects were administered ephedra extract in capsules (pseudo-ephedrine 31.52 mg) or evodia extract in capsules (evodiamine 6.75 mg, rutaecarpine 0.66 mg) or placebo capsules as well as participating in a low-calorie diet for 8 weeks. Resting metabolic rate and body composition were measured at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Basic serum tests were performed to evaluate the short-term safety and lipid-lowering effects of the herbs. All three groups showed significant body mass index (BMI) decreases, probably due to the low-calorie diet. Among the groups, the most prominent BMI-reducing effect was seen in the ephedra group. In RMR, no significant change in any group or significant difference among the groups was found. No significant adverse effects were observed in serum tests or in the self-questionnaire. Ephedra combined with a low-calorie diet was effective in reducing BMI. RMR change was not compensated for by the herbal medicines tried. RMR change seemed to be affected by constitution and body composition rather than by medicine. Ephedra and evodia were proven to be safe for short-term use in the herbal form.

  12. Protective effects of the egg stalk of Paratrioza sinica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) at various angles and spacings against three predaceous coccinellids, Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata and Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengxiang; Ma, Baoxu; Yan, Shuo; Xu, Jing; He, Jia; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Runzhi

    2018-02-01

    Paratrioza sinica is a major pest of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum). Coccinellids can effectively control various developmental stages of P. sinica but not the stalked egg. To investigate the protective role of egg stalks against the predaceous coccinellids Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata and Hippodamia variegata, we studied the functional responses to, and effects of, two factors: the angle between the egg stalk and the leaf plane, and the spacing between egg stalks. The searching rate, handling time and theoretical maximum egg consumption of H. variegata were optimal among the three ladybug species. Egg consumption by coccinellids was maximum and minimum at stalk angles of 0° and 90°, respectively. The average reduction in the rate of egg consumption when the stalk angle was 90° relative to 0° was significantly smaller for larvae of coccinellids compared with adults, and for H. variegata compared with the other two species. Optimal spacing of eggs for consumption by predators varied with the predator species and their developmental stage, and was close to the body length of the predators. The egg stalk serves as a physical protection against predators. The evolutionary selective advantage of the egg stalk in providing protection against predators requires more attention. Appropriate selection of predators and irrigation strategies may improve control of P. sinica. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Received, Understanding and Satisfaction of National Health Insurance Premium Subsidy Scheme by Families of Children with Disabilities: A Census Study in Taipei City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Ya-Wen; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Chwo, Miao-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are to provide the first data on utilization, understanding and satisfaction of the National Health Insurance (NHI) premium subsidy for families of children with disabilities in Taipei. Data from the 2001 Taipei Early Intervention Utilization and Evaluation Survey for Aged 0-6 Children with Disabilities were…

  14. Relationship between heat index and mortality of 6 major cities in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tzu-I; Wu, Pei-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chen, Mu-Jean; Su, Huey-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Increased mortality, linked to events of extreme high temperatures, is recognized as one critical challenge to the public health sector. Therefore, this ecological study was conducted to assess whether this association is also significant in Taiwan and the characteristics of the relationship. Daily mean heat indices, from 1994 through 2008, were used as the predictor for the risk of increased mortality in populations from 6 major Taiwanese cities. Daily mortality data from 1994 through 2008 were retrieved from the Taiwan Death Registry, Department of Health, Taiwan, and meteorological data were acquired from the Central Weather Bureau. Poisson regression analyses using generalized linear models were applied to estimate the temperature-mortality relationship. Daily mean heat indices were calculated and used as the temperature metric. Overall, increased risk ratios in mortality were associated with increased daily mean heat indices. Significantly increased risk ratios of daily mortality were evident when daily mean heat indices were at and above the 95th percentile, when compared to the lowest percentile, in all cities. These risks tended to increase similarly among those aged 65 years and older; a phenomenon seen in the cities of Keelung, Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, and Kaohsiung, but not Chiayi. Being more vulnerable to heat stress is likely restricted to a short-term effect, as suggested by lag models which showed that there was dominantly an association during the period of 0 to 3 days. In Taiwan, predicting city-specific daily mean heat indices may provide a useful early warning system for increased mortality risk, especially for the elderly. Regional differences in health vulnerabilities should be further examined in relation to the differential social-ecological systems that affect them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A retrospective matched case-control study on medical costs of refractory migraine in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Chen, Yong-Chen; Ng, Kwong; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2013-03-01

    Migraine is associated with a significant economic burden in Western countries. However, there is limited information regarding the impact of the cost of migraine in Asia. To quantify and compare the direct medical costs of refractory migraine (RM) and other migraine, using health insurance claims data in Taiwan. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted utilizing data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. RM cases were defined as patients with at least 1 neurological outpatient visit with a primary or secondary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code of 346.11 (common migraine with intractable migraine, so stated), diagnosed by certified neurologists in medical centers during 2007-2008. The first control group was the non-migraineurs matched with cases at a 4:1 ratio by age, gender, urbanization level of the residence, and income. The second control group was patients with other migraine types (346.00, 346.10, 346.20, 346.80, and 346.90) matched with cases at a 4:1 ratio by age, gender, and hospital setting. Medical utilization and costs within 365 days after the index visit date were assessed using a 2-part model. The exchange rate for US $1 was NT $32.50. Patients with RM had significantly higher total medical costs compared with non-migraineurs (NT $57,932 [US $1783] vs. NT $26,817 [US $825]; P Taipei Veterans General Hospital, a medical center in Taiwan) in 2007. Of these patients, 88 (90%) fulfilled the Silberstein-Lipton criteria for chronic migraine, i.e., >15 headache days per month and presence of a history of migraine. Refractory migraineurs in Taiwan had significantly higher medical costs than either non-migraineurs or those with other migraine diagnoses. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  16. Space programs in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lou-Chuang [Academia Sinica, Institute of Earth Sciences, 128, Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Chang, Guey-Shin, E-mail: gschang@nspo.narl.org.tw [National Space Organization, 8F, 9 Prosperity 1st Rd., Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Ting, Nan-Hong [National Applied Research Laboratories, 3F, 106, Sec. 2, Hepin East Rd., Taipei 10622, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Taiwan's current and future space programs are briefly introduced in this paper. The National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan has successfully carried out three satellite programs (FORMOSAT-1, 2, and 3) since its establishment in 1991. FORMOSAT-1 is a scientific satellite performing three scientific experiments for measuring the density, velocity and temperature of ionospheric plasmas, taking the ocean color image, and conducting Ka-band communication experiments. Equipped with a 2m ground resolution remote sensing instrument, FORMOSAT-2 operates in a sun-synchronous orbit with revisit time equal to one day. This unique feature of the daily revisit capability is significantly useful for post disaster assessment and environmental monitoring. FORMOSAT-2 also carries a scientific payload “Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL)”. ISUAL provides the world's first long-term satellite observations on the lighting phenomenon in the earth's upper atmosphere. FORMOSAT-3 is a constellation of six micro-satellites to collect atmospheric and ionospheric data for weather prediction and for climate, ionosphere, and geodesy research. FORMOSAT-3 has demonstrated the ability to significantly increase the accuracy of weather forecasting by utilizing the GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) technique. Currently, NSPO is pursuing the follow-on space missions of FORMOSAT-5 and FORMOSAT-7. FORMOSAT-5 will be the first to utilize a CMOS detector on a high-resolution earth-observation camera. FORMOSAT-7 is a joint mission of Taiwan/US to deploy a 12-satellite constellation operational system to provide dense and timely GNSS RO data to the global communities for real-time weather forecast as well as space science research.

  17. Using PSInSAR to Investigate the Surface Deformation Induced by Ground Water Variation in Taipei Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P. C.; Hu, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Soil liquefaction induced from shaking of earthquake is a crucial issue for seismic hazards in urban area. Since 1975, the water pumping was prohibited in Taipei basin due to severe land subsidence with ground water level of about 60-70 m below sea level, consequently the ground water level recover to a high level of about 5-10 m below sea level which high potential soil liquefaction area should happen in think sediments area of Taipei basin. However, the anthropogenic pumping ground water still happened for construction of Taipei Rapid Transit System since 1993. In this study, we use persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) technique for processing 37 high resolution X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images archived from COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation to get precise deformation map in the period from May 2011 to April 2015. The surface deformation rate along line of sight (LOS) toward to the satellite will be constrained by 3-D deformation rate from continuous GPS projected to the LOS. In addition, the vertical deformation rate from precise levelling across the Taipei basin will be compared to the deformation trend of PSI. In average, a subsidence rate of 5 mm/yr near the Banqiao station. Moreover, the high correlation between LOS rate and ground water table in Wuku station. The previous study suggested that the transient deformation in LOS of PSInSAR in Taipei Basin is highly related to the confined aquifer deformation of Jingmei formation. The storativity is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3. Thus, the storativity can be calculated to specific storage and values of aquifer compressibility for water resources management in Taipei basin.

  18. The Dubna-Mainz-Taipei Dynamical Model for πN Scattering and π Electromagnetic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shin Nan

    Some of the featured results of the Dubna-Mainz-Taipei (DMT) dynamical model for πN scattering and π0 electromagnetic production are summarized. These include results for threshold π0 production, deformation of Δ(1232),and the extracted properties of higher resonances below 2 GeV. The excellent agreement of DMT model's predictions with threshold π0 production data, including the recent precision measurements from MAMI establishes results of DMT model as a benchmark for experimentalists and theorists in dealing with threshold pion production.

  19. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  20. Real-world evaluation of compliance and preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment: an observational study in Taiwan 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai TH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Hsien Lai,1,2,* Wen-Fu Wang,3,* Bak-Sau Yip,4 Yu-Wan Yang,5 Giia-Sheun Peng,6 Shih-Jei Tsai,7,8 Yi-Chu Liao,9 Ming-Chyi Pai10,111Section of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei, 2Department of Neurology, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, 3Department of Neurology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, 4Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsinchu, 5Department of Neurology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, 6Department of Neurology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 7Department of Neurology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, 8School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 9Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 10Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, 11Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Among the medications approved for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, rivastigmine is the only one available as transdermal patch. The aim of this study was to evaluate compliance and caregivers’ preference with oral and transdermal (rivastigmine monotherapy in patients with mild-to-moderate AD from Taiwan.Methods: Real-world Evaluation of Compliance And Preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment (RECAP in Taiwan was a prospective, noninterventional, observational study with a 24-week (±8 weeks observational period for each participant. Eligible patients were grouped into one of the two treatment cohorts based on the baseline AD therapy: oral (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, or memantine or transdermal (rivastigmine patch. The primary end points were caregiver preference and caregiver assessment of patients’ compliance to

  1. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Hsin Hsu; I-Chan Lin; Yun-Dun Shen; Wen-Ming Hsu

    2014-01-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Tai...

  2. Risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan: a population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Although human toxoplasmosis is a notifiable disease in Taiwan since 2007, little is known about its risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for acute Toxoplasma gondii diseases in Taiwan. We conducted a nationwide population-based case-control study. Cases of acute human toxoplasmosis notified to the Taiwan Centers for Diseases Control (Taipei, Taiwan during 2008-2013 were compared with controls that were randomly selected from healthy T. gondii-seronegative blood donors who participated in a nationwide T. gondii seroepidemiologic study during 2009-2010. Cases and controls were matched according to age, gender and residency at an 1:8 ratio. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information regarding risk factors. A total of 30 laboratory-confirmed acute T. gondii disease cases and 224 controls were enrolled. The most common clinical manifestation of the cases was flu-like symptoms (n = 20, followed by central nervous system disease (n = 4, ocular diseases (n = 3, abortion (n = 2, and congenital infection (n = 1. Multivariate conditional logistic regression showed that raw clam consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-9.9 and having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1-7.9 were two independent risk factors for acute T. gondii disease. We conclude that raw shellfish consumption and domestic cat exposure were risk factors for acquiring acute T. gondii diseases in Taiwan. This finding may guide future research and control policies.

  3. The Web 2.0 concept of urban disaster information in Taipei city: Mobile application development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuan-Fan; Chan, Chun-Hsiang; Wang, Han; Pan, Yun-Xing; Lin, Gine-Jie

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, due to the global warming and global climate anomaly, more and more disasters appear such as flood and debris flow. The disasters always cause loss of life and property. However, the cross-aged invention, smart phone, makes our life more conveniently for delivering lots of information instantly. This study uses Eclipse as the development platform, and designs the urban disaster information mobile Application (APP) which is for debris flow and flood in Taipei city area. In this study, an urban disaster information APP, Taipei Let You Know, has successfully developed under android development environment, combined disaster indicators and the warming value of disaster. In order to ameliorate official information delay problem, this APP not only shows official information, but also offers a WEB 2.0 platform for public users to upload all disaster information instantly. As the result, the losses of life and property can decrease, and the disaster information delivery can be faster and more accurate by utilizing this APP in the future.

  4. The childhood sexual abuse among youth in three Asian cities: Taipei, Shanghai, and Hanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zabin, Laurie S; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2015-03-01

    The article describes the prevalence and risk factors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among youth in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei. Data used in this study are from the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, 2006-2007. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models were used. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of CSA was 5.2% in Taipei, 1.3% in Shanghai, and 0.5% in Hanoi. The overall prevalence was 2.2% for females and 1.7% for males. The average age of first CSA was 10.5 years. Household instability, migration before age 14, and low maternal warmth were found to be positively associated with CSA, whereas discussing problems with father and being close to mother were negatively associated with CSA, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Our findings suggested the importance of prevention programs for preteen aged children, public education to raise awareness, and further prospective studies to identify various risk markers for CSA in Asia. © 2013 APJPH.

  5. The spatiotemporal distributions and determinants of ambient fungal spores in the Greater Taipei area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Tsai, Ying-Jie; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Wu, Chih-Da; Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Chen, Pang-Cheng; Chompuchan, Chuphan; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-09-01

    Airborne fungal spores, a type of bioaerosols, are significant air pollutants. We conducted a study to determine the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient fungi in the Greater Taipei area and develop land use regression (LUR) models for total and major fungal taxa. Four seasonal sampling campaigns were conducted over a year at 44 representative sites. Multiple regressions were performed to construct the LUR models. Ascospores were the most prevalent category, followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium, basidiospores, and Cladosporium. The highest fungal concentrations were found in spring. According to the LUR models, higher concentrations of Aspergillus/Penicillium and basidiospores were respectively present in residential/commercial areas and in areas with shorter road lengths. Various meteorological factors, particulates with aerodynamic diameters of ≤10 μm, and elevation also had significant relationships with fungal concentrations. The LUR models developed in this study can be used to assess spatiotemporal fungal distribution in the Greater Taipei area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of the initiation and persistence of internet addiction among adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the psychosocial factors associated with the initiation and persistence of Internet addiction among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade, in Taipei, Taiwan. Self-administered questionnaires were collected in each year to assess the pattern of changes in Internet addiction and psychosocial factors. Of the 1602 students without an Internet addiction in the 10th grade, 253 (15.8%) had initiated Internet addiction by grade 11. Multivariate analysis results indicated that greater engagement in online activities (i.e., social network website use, online gaming), depression, and lower school bonding in grade 10 coupled with an increase in online activities, depression, and smoking from grades 10 to 11 predicted the initiation of Internet addiction. Of the 605 students with Internet addiction in the 10th grade, the addiction had persisted for 383 students (63.3%) in grade 11. An increase in the existence of depression and alcohol use from grades 10 to 11 predicted the persistence of Internet addiction. Online activities, depression, and substance use were important predictors of youth initiation and of the persistence of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenging issues of overseas transplantation in mainland China: Taiwan organ transplant health professionals' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, F Jong; Fan, Y W; Chen, H M; Chiu, C M; Wang, S S; Shih, F J

    2010-12-01

    As the source of organs is limited in Taiwan, and communication systems are becoming more open between Taiwan and mainland China, the call for overseas transplantation in mainland China is increasing in Taiwan. This study explored the perspectives of Taiwan organ transplant health professionals on the challenging issues related to transplantation procedures in mainland China, including health professionalism as well as collaborative systems for information and communication technologies (ICTs). A purposive sample including overseas transplant surgeons (OTS), registered nurses (RN), overseas transplant coordinating nurses (OTCN), and e-health ICTs experts (eh-ICTs) was obtained from two medical centers in Taipei. Subjects underwent face-to-face interviews with data subjected to content analysis. The 70 subjects included OTS (n = 20), RN (n = 25), OTCN (n = 15), and eh-ICTs (n = 10). Their ages ranged from 23 to 63 years old (mean, 33.7 years). The current challenges were identified: (a) lack of workable collaborative systems for continuous medical care between two parties due to different medical recording systems in particular (86%, n = 60; OTS, n = 19; RN, n = 21; OTCN, n = 10; eh-ICTs, n = 10); (b) lack of mutual trustworthy relationships between medical delivery systems (84%, n = 59; OTS, n = 17; RN, n = 22; OTCN, n = 10; eh-ICTs, n = 10); (c) lack of accreditation systems to judge possible conflicts related to medical diagnosis and treatment protocols (79%, n = 55; OTS, n = 19; RN, n = 19; OTCN, n = 7; eh-ICTs, n = 10); (d) Taiwanese hesitation regarding the quality of transplant procedures in mainland China (71%, n = 50; OTS, n = 18; RN, n = 17; OTCN, n = 8; eh-ICTs, n = 7); and (e) stress from concerns of Taiwan medical societies about the benefits of collaboration with mainland China (64%, n = 45; OTS, n = 13; RN, n = 18; OTCN, n = 8; eh-ICTs n = 6). This discussion is still ongoing. Trapped by the limited organ source and confronted by multiple challenges

  8. The effects of the global budget system on cost containment and the quality of care: experience in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li; Hung, Jung-Hua

    2008-05-01

    This study is an attempt to determine whether the implementation of the Global Budget (GB) as a method of health reform has improved cost containment and quality of care in Taiwan. Panel-data analysis is used to investigate cost containment and quality of care in Taipei municipal hospitals before and after the introduction of the GB. The results suggest that there is a trade-off effect. The post-GB data indicate that cost containment comes at the expense of health-care quality. It may, therefore, be the case that policy-makers can more effectively balance cost containment and quality by refining the GB so that reimbursements would be linked to standards of quality. Another way to enhance the reforms would be a more effective monitoring and review system.

  9. Causality test of ambient fine particles and human influenza in Taiwan: Age group-specific disparity and geographic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cathy W S; Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Su, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Jia Jing

    2018-02-01

    Influenza is a major global public health problem, with serious outcomes that can result in hospitalization or even death. We investigate the causal relationship between human influenza cases and air pollution, quantified by ambient fine particles Taipei in the north and cities in southwestern part of Taiwan are strongly affected by ambient fine particles. Moreover, the elderly group is clearly affected in all study sites. Globalization and economic growth have resulted in increased ambient air pollution (including PM 2.5 ) and subsequently substantial public health concerns in the West Pacific region. Minimizing exposure to air pollutants is particularly important for the elderly and susceptible individuals with respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Target-aimed versus wishful-thinking in designing efficient GHG reduction strategies for a metropolitan city: Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-M.; Liou, M.-L.; Yeh, S.-C.; Shang, N.-C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many national and local governments claim for a specific GHG (greenhouse gas) reduction goal targeted for many years later. In 2005, the Taipei City government announced that Taipei's total GHG emission in 2015 will reach the same level as that in 2005 and then down to 75% of that level at year 2030. However, based on the estimated energy consumption and GHG emission and the proposed emission reduction plans from the local government, it is clear that these goals are not going to be accomplished. In Taipei, the residential and commercial sector contributes more than 78% of the total GHG emission. Thus, in a business as usual scenario, the total GHG emission in 2030 would be 79% more than that in 2005, far more than the target value proclaimed. As many key factors are uncontrollable by the local government, a target-aimed strategy designing process by looking into changes in Taipei and identifying major targets is proposed in this study. It is demonstrated that such a universally applicable approach will give more confidence to the public on working toward the expected GHG reduction goal

  11. Drunkenness and its association with health risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults in three Asian cities: Hanoi, Shanghai, Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianqian; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Zabin, Laurie S; Emerson, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    To assess the prevalence of drunkenness among adolescents in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei and explore the association between heavy drinking and other health risk behaviors. The data are drawn from the Three-city Collaborative Study of Adolescent Health, conducted in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei in 2006. A sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15-24 years, was selected by multistage sampling. Descriptive analysis was used to estimate the proportion of drunkenness and other health risk behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate relationships between drunkenness and risky health behaviors. The proportions of the sample getting drunk during the past month were 6.36%, 4.53%, and 8.47% in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei, respectively. More males than females reported drunkenness in all three cities, with the difference highest in Hanoi (11.08% vs. 1.14%) and lowest in Taipei (9.69% vs. 7.18%). Different levels of relationship between drunkenness and health risk behaviors, such as anxiety, suicidal ideation, smoking, gambling, fighting, drinking and driving, and having sexual intercourse, were found across the three cities; an exception was nonuse of contraception. Drunkenness was positively associated with many health risk behaviors. It may serve as an indicator of other risky behaviors. Interventions to reduce drinking and drunkenness may contribute considerably to the prevention of other risk behaviors and to adolescent safety and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Suppression Role of Positive Affect on Students' Science Achievement in East Asia: The Example of Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on "high achievement but low motivation" phenomenon that is prevalent in East Asian countries and districts, and uses eighth graders in Taipei that participated in TIMSS 2007 as an example to examine the direct and indirect effects of academic motivation, positive affect, and instruction on science achievement.…

  13. Emergency Department Utilization and Determinants of Use by 0- to 6-Year-Old Children with Disabilities in Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Ya-Wen; Chwo, Miao-Ju; Huang, Hui-Chi; Yen, Chia-Feng; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Jia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have explored emergency services for children, there are few published reports of the utilization of emergency services by children with disabilities. The present study attempts to provide data regarding the utilization of, and factors affecting, emergency department visits by disabled children in Taipei. A general census of…

  14. Optimal Scale of a Public Elementary School with Commuting Costs-A Case Study of Taipei County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, H.-L.; Yuan, M.-C.

    2005-01-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of commuting costs while determining the optimal school scale. It is found that, without commuting costs, the elementary schools in Taipei county are characterized by increasing returns to scale, and that the average public cost curve is L-shaped. However, ignoring the costs of commuting implies that the…

  15. The effects of synoptical weather pattern and complex terrain on the formation of aerosol events in the Greater Taipei area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chang, E-E; Lee, Chung-Te

    2008-07-25

    The aerosol in the Taipei basin is difficult to transport outward under specific weather patterns owing to complex terrain blocking. In this study, seven weather patterns are identified from synoptic weather maps for aerosol events, which occurred from March 2002 to February 2005. Among the identified weather patterns, High Pressure Peripheral Circulation (HPPC), Warm area Ahead of a cold Front (WAF), TYPhoon (TYP), Pacific High Pressure system stretching westerly (PHP), Weak High Pressure system (WHP), and Weak Southern Wind (WSW) are related to terrain blocking. The remaining pattern is High Pressure system Pushing (HPP). The classification of the pollution origin of the air masses shows that 15% of event days were contributed by long-range transport (LRT), 20% by local pollution (LP), and 65% by LRT/LP mix. Terrain blocking causes aerosol accumulation from high atmospheric stability and weak winds occurring under HPPC, TYP, and PHP weather patterns when the Taipei basin is situated on the lee side of the Snow Mountains Chain (SMC). Terrain blocking also occurs when the Taipei basin is situated on the upwind of SMC and Mt. Da-Twen under WAF and WSW patterns. To study the variation of aerosol properties under the mixed influence of terrain and pollution origin, we conducted a field observation simultaneously at the urban, suburban, and background sites in the Greater Taipei area from April 14 to 23, 2004. Terrain blocking plays an important role in aerosol accumulation in the stagnant environment when the Taipei basin is on the lee side of SMC. On the other hand, the PM(2.5) sulfate level is stable with a fraction of 30% in PM(2.5) during the observation period at the urban (25%-33%) and background (25%-41%) sites. It indicates that background PM(2.5) sulfate is high on the West Pacific in winter.

  16. Broad-band BOS (BBYB) development and calibration in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. R.; Wang, C. C.; Kuo, B. Y.; Chen, P.; Jang, J. P.; Chang, H.; Laio, Y. C.; Chang, K. H.; Lin, F. S.

    2016-12-01

    Since 2009, combine with Academia Sinica, National Applied Research Laboratories and National Sun Yat-sen University formed ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) development team to develop sub-broadband OBS (called Yardbird OBS). Through a series deploy experiment at seafloor offshore Taiwan that got a lot of data can be used to study plate tectonics, seismic activity, source characteristics. Nowadays they have pretty good results already. Due to bandwidth limitations of the Yardbird OBS that inadequate to use for analyze global-scale earthquake. Therefor developing broadband ocean bottom seismograph is an important goal for the development team. Currently the broadband OBS (called BBYB) design and construction have completed the initial experiment phase. Due to underwater instruments always got high risk. Something accidentally making equipment sank in the sea cannot be recovery. Even recovery of equipment may also be causing poor performance because there is no data record. It cannot be to accomplish the experiment mission. In order to improve the OBS performance, avoid OBS dis-recovery or data collection is incomplete, must be sure all OBS's each component (such as seismic data recording device, balanced body, sonar dashboard, instruments and internal wiring ...) with well-done quality before assembly. Each component could go through very rigorous testing, strict and pick out the good components in the assembly process. Be sure all of produce the OBS under the water after a long deployment could successful recovery and got valuable data. In this presentation we will show a serial testing procedure and results for quality each BBYB component. Such as: Data logger: digitizer sensitivity, sampling rate, clock timing. Acoustic controller: function of Enable, Disable, Range, Release 1, Release 2, Option 1(Release disable). Air pressure gauge for glass ball: accuracy. A check lists of connector wiring check for assembling instrument. Design deploy and recovery procedure for

  17. Effect of Age on Allergen Responses of Allergic Patients in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chiang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available To survey airborne and food allergen patterns in southern Taiwan and to analyze the effect of age on response to different allergens, we tested samples from 4,411 allergic patients at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital using the MAST-CLA test (new Taiwan panel. A total of 2,212 (50.1% samples showed a positive response. We grouped allergic patients into five age groups. Milk and egg white were the main food allergens in the younger groups (< 3 years old and 3-6 years old. Shrimp, crab, and shellfish were the main allergens in the groups aged 7-12, 13-18, and more than 18 years. Among airborne allergens, house dust and mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were the main allergens in all age groups, whereas the frequency of response to cockroach allergen was low in the group aged less than 3 years, but increased in the other age groups. There was a sharp increase in the frequency of response to airborne allergens after 3 years old and a sharp decrease in response to food allergens. Among subjects allergic to both airborne and food allergens, there was a positive MAST-CLA rate of 19.9% to 26% (all five age groups, no significant difference. When we compared our results with those from Taipei Veterans General Hospital in northern Taiwan, there were significant differences for yeast, peanut, feather mix, dog dander, cockroach, D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus allergens (p < 0.01. These differences were probably caused by differences in patient location, patient age, disease patterns and allergen panels.

  18. International relations among Tom Thumbs: Taiwan as provider of aid Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Haro Navejas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Official Development Aid (AOD that has as its source Taiwan and as its destination Central America. It has three basic aims: Firstly, there is a huge bibliographic vacuum on the topic of these pages. Beginning filling it is an academic need. Even some intellectuals feel that they should lean against either Beijing or Taipei, that if they write on Taiwan they should defend or attack one of the contending parties. Here it is seen that a study close to objectivity is possible. Secondly, most of the research in International Relations has been focused on topics related with power itself or with just elements related with hard power. AOD is both hard and soft power, therefore this paper shades light to the dark side partially viewing international relations from a theoretical perspective were interactions help to construct identities and cooperation is an essential variable of world politics. Finally, it will be seen below that the Taiwanese cooperativeeconomic actions are helpful to the progress of poor parts of the Central American region and are helpful to create domestic markets with strong links with the world market deepening the economic integration both regional and global. Aid from Taiwan and some other countries, mainly through the transmission of know how, could be of assistance in surmounting huge troubles. Aid is vital because some of Central American’s problems are being exported mainly to México and the United States under the form, just to give an example, of Mara Salvatrucha gangs source of violence and drug trafficking. It is not meaningless to stress that Taiwanese ODA is by far not enough and is very small in the international context.

  19. Vaginal birth after cesarean section-The world trend and local experience in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Wu, Chia-Hsun

    2017-02-01

    The trend of increasing cesarean section rates had evoked worldwide attention. Many approaches were introduced to diminish cesarean section rates. Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) is a route of delivery with diverse agreements. In this study, we try to reveal the world trend in VBAC and our experience of a 10-year period in a medical center in northern Taiwan. This is a retrospective study of all women who underwent elective repeat cesarean delivery or trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) following primary cesarean delivery by a general obstetrician-gynecologist in the Tamshui Branch of MacKay Memorial Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) between 2006 and 2015. We excluded cases of preterm labor, two or more cesarean deliveries, and major maternal diseases. We compared the characteristics and outcomes between these groups. We included 400 women with subsequent pregnancies who underwent elective repeat cesarean delivery or TOLAC during the study period. Among the study population, 112 women were excluded and 11 underwent repeat VBAC. A total of 204 (73.65%) cases underwent elective repeat cesarean delivery and 73 (26.35%) chose TOLAC. The rate of successful VBAC among the women who chose TOLAC was 84.93%. With respect to maternal and fetal safety, and success rates and adverse effects of VBAC, the results of this study are promising and compatible with the global data. It shows that a trial of VBAC can be offered to pregnant women without contraindications with high success rates. Copyright © 2017 Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The socio-economic characteristics and KAP of teenage mothers in Taipei City, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C D

    1988-06-01

    In order to reduce the number of teenage pregnancies, the author investigated the socioeconomic characteristics as well as KAP in regard to family planning among 786 teenaged mothers whose 1st births were registered in Taipei city in 1978. Data were gathered through household interviews. Significant personal factors like younger age, less education, lack of knowledge of family planning, a conservative attitude toward contraceptive use before 1st delivery, and a conservative attitude toward premarital pregnancy are examined. Factors relating to significant others, such as parents' education and family attitudes toward premarital pregnancy, and situational factors like migration to the city, working in factories or restaurants, exposure to premarital sexual contact, contraceptive use, and the limited availability of artificial abortion were studied. These factors contribute directly or indirectly to accepting premarital pregnancy or pregnancy soon after marriage, even during the teenage years. As a result, the teenager becomes a mother. Some socioeconomic and health consequences are reviewed and discussed.

  1. Risk adjustment for inter-hospital comparisons of caesarean section rates in Taipei municipal hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Chyang; Shieh, Guahn-Ren; Wu, Chuan-Song; Shen, Hsi-Che; Tang, Chao-Hsiun

    2006-08-01

    This study sets out to determine whether adjustments for specific patient caesarean delivery risk factors have an affect on the assessment of performance rates among the municipal hospitals of Taipei City. Analysis of National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data, linked with birth certificate data, was undertaken on a cohort of 27,693 live births in the six general hospitals of the Taipei Medical Hospital System (TMHS) between 1999 and 2001. Using multivariable logistic regression modeling of the risk factors independently associated with caesarean deliveries, an expected caesarean delivery rate was constructed for each of the hospitals. By contrasting observed rates with expected rates to quantify the magnitude of the deviation from average practice, a measurement similar to relative risk (RR) was also constructed for each hospital. The observed rates for two of the six hospitals examined fell within the expected 95% confidence interval (CI), two were above the expected upper limit, and two were below the expected lower limit. The RR ranking of Hospitals A (RR=1.08, CI=1.01-1.15) and C (RR=1.01, CI=1.00-1.03) improved from first to second, and third to fourth, whilst the RR of Hospitals B (RR=1.09, CI=1.05-1.14) and D (RR=1.02, CI=0.99-1.06) worsened from second to first, and fourth to third, respectively. The RR rankings of Hospitals E (RR=0.92, CI=0.88-0.96) and F (RR=0.80, CI=0.77-0.84) were the same as the observed rates. Caesarean delivery rate profiles, or hospital comparisons without risk adjustment, may be methodologically biased and may lead to unfair judgments by healthcare purchasers.

  2. Exposure to ambient bioaerosols is associated with allergic skin diseases in Greater Taipei residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Han, Bor-Cheng; Ting, Yi-Fang; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2016-09-01

    Allergic skin diseases may result from various types of chemical and biological allergens. This study investigated the association between ambient bioaerosol exposure and allergic skin diseases by using the exposure data obtained from land use regression models and interpolated data. Data on daily average outpatient visits for atopic dermatitis (ICD-9-CM 691.8) and contact dermatitis and other eczema (ICD-9-CM 692.9) between November 2011 and August 2012 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the associations between the skin diseases and ambient bioaerosol levels. The results indicated that during the study period, contact dermatitis and other eczema were more prevalent than atopic dermatitis in the study area. Most cases were observed in districts of Taipei City and 3 major districts of New Taipei City, namely Xinzhuang, Banqiao, and Xindian. In univariate analysis, most bioaerosols were positively associated with both skin diseases. After adjustment for air pollution and sociodemographic factors, exposure to total fungal spores was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in males (relative risk [RR] = 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.19). Contact dermatitis and other eczema had significant relationships with Cladosporium in males (RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.14) and with Aspergillus/Penicillium in females (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Meteorological parameters, namely wind speed, temperature, and rainfall, were also significantly associated with skin diseases. Our findings reveal that exposure to ambient bioaerosols is a significant and independent risk factor for allergic skin diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Development of a Newborn Screening Program for Critical Congenital Heart Disease (CCHD) in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Pei-Chen; Shiau, Yu-Shih; Chiang, Szu-Hui; Ho, Hui-Chen; Liu, Yu-Ling; Chung, Yuan-Fang; Lin, Li-Ju; Chen, Ming-Ren; Chang, Jia-Kan; Soong, Wen-Jue; Lin, Hsiu-Lian; Hwang, Betau; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality among newborns. We investigate the feasibility of implementing a community-based newborn CCHD screening program in Taipei. Twelve birthing facilities in Taipei participated in a trial screening program between October 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014. Newborns underwent pulse oximetry at 24-36 h old, with probes attached to the right hand and one lower limb. Any screening saturation ≥95% in either extremity, with an absolute difference of ≤3% between the right hand and foot, was accepted as a screening pass. A screening result was considered as a fail if the oxygen saturation was <95% at either probe site, on 3 separate occasions, each separated by 30 min or the first result was <95% at either probe site, and any subsequent oxygen saturation measurement was <90%. Public health nurses would follow up all missed or refused cases. Of the 6,387 live births, 6,296 newborns (coverage rate: 6,296/6,387 = 98.6%) underwent appropriate pulse oximetry screening. Sixteen newborns (0.25%) were reported to have a failed screening result. Five of these screen positive newborns were confirmed with CCHD; two of them were diagnosed solely attributed to the failed screening results. The false-positive rate was 0.18%. Implementing a 6-month screening program for CCHD produced good case detection rate, while using efficient screening and referral systems. This program was successful in integrating screening, referral and public health tracking systems. The protocol outlined in this report could provide a community-based model for worldwide implementation.

  4. Abnormal Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Chronic Kidney Disease in Elderly Adults in Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Mei-Hsing; Liao, Kuo-Meng; Hung, Yao-Min; Wang, Paul Yung-Pou; Chou, Yi-Chang; Chou, Pesus

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether older people with abnormal thyroid function are more likely to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD) over a 5-year follow-up period. Retrospective cohort study. Health examination data from the Taipei Databank for Public Health Analysis. Individuals aged 65 and older (N = 41,454). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were repeatedly measured, and subjects were categorized into four thyroid function groups (hyperthyroid, euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroid, overt hypothyroid). The risk of incident CKD was evaluated using a stepwise Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for sex, baseline age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, anemia, obesity, liver function, smoking, and alcohol. Higher TSH levels were associated with greater risk of subsequent CKD. Individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.26) and those with overt hypothyroidism (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.04-1.55) were more likely than those who were euthyroid to have CKD. Women were more likely to have CKD than men (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.06-1.16). When stratified by gender, subclinical hypothyroidism in women was associated with an increased risk of developing CKD (HR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.08-1.39). When stratified by DM, subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism were associated with an increased risk of developing CKD in nondiabetics (HR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.07-1.31; and HR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.08-1.65, respectively). This cohort study of elderly persons in Taipei City found a significant association between hypothyroidism and development of CKD in women and individuals without DM. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Taiwan strait dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastrati Bilbil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War resulted in a diffusion of the level of threat worldwide and concluded the system of bipolarity in the world. Beside the European continent, where the rivalries were at the highest level, the consequences of the end of the Cold War were especially visible in North-East Asia. A decrease of military activities of Russia and China, and the retreat of the USA from the region, give way for improvement of political and economical relations between the countries of the region. The end of hostilities produced by the Cold War no doubt have relaxed relations between countries in the region and opened ways for a new more peaceful co-existence. However, this does not mean that the region is not vulnerable to some of the hot spots such as North Korea, Spratly Parcels and especially Taiwan Strait. The latter is considered to be the most dangerous potential Asian zone of crisis in the twenty-first century.

  6. Enterovirus 71 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan-Yin Chang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The enterovirus 71 (EV71 outbreak in Taiwan in 1998 proved fatal in many children. A seroepidemiological study performed prior to the 1998 outbreak showed pre-epidemic (1997 EV71 seroprevalence rates to be about 60–70% in adults and children older than 6 years of age. A retrospective case review carried out from 1980–81 identified 16 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with central nervous system involvement, two of whom died soon after hospitalization. There were 405 severe cases and 78 deaths reported in the 1998 epidemic, and dozens of fatal EV71 cases were still reported from 2000 to 2002. A stage-based management strategy was developed to reduce fatality, but most survivors of brainstem encephalitis with cardio pulmonary failure have neurologic sequelae and impaired cognition. Continuous clinical and laboratory surveillance of EV71 disease is required to enable earlier implementation of control and prevention measures. Development of EV71-specific antiviral therapy, a novel class of imidazolidinones, and development of a vaccine are ongoing.

  7. Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.

  8. Transition of cord blood lead level, 1985-2002, in the Taipei area and its determinants after the cease of leaded gasoline use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.-H.; Ko Yi; Chiang, C.-D.; Hsu, S.-P.; Lee, Y.-H.; Yu, C.-H.; Chiou, C.-H.; Wang, J.-D.; Chuang, H.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Lead has long been of concern for its toxicity, impairment of neurobehavioral and cognitive development, and electrophysiological deficits in children, even at levels less than 10 μg/dL. The present study was conducted to elucidate the extent of cord blood lead level decline in the Taipei area from 1985 to 2002 and to explore the factors affecting the cord blood lead level after the cease of leaded gasoline use. In the current study period of 2001-2002, 184 of 1310 newborns delivered in the Taipei Municipal Women and Children Hospital between September 2001 and August 2002 were eligible and randomly selected to participate in this study. Neither of their parents had an occupational lead exposure history. At each delivery, a sample of 5-10 mL umbilical cord blood was collected for lead determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The cord blood lead level of the newborns in the current study period averaged 2.35±1.12 μg/dL. Together with the cord blood lead averages of 7.48±2.25 and 3.28±1.52 μg/dL obtained from two previous surveys conducted in 1985-1987 and 1990-1992, respectively, the cord blood lead level was significantly decreased (P<0.005). It is estimated that such a reduction in cord blood lead from 7.48 to 2.35 μg/dL for each year's cohort of 260,000 newborns in Taiwan might benefit the economics, ranging from US$8.9 billion to US$12.1 billion by improving the worker productivity. For the time period from 1985 to 2002, there were consistent transition patterns among the yearly fluctuations of air lead level, leaded gasoline consumption, lead content in gasoline, estimated lead amount emitted from the consumed leaded gasoline, and average cord blood lead levels of the three respective study periods. Additionally, every 0.1-g/L reduction in lead content in gasoline might lead to a lowering of cord blood lead level by 1.78 μg/dL. Furthermore, at low level of around 2 μg/dL, a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that

  9. Taiwan Universities: Where to Go?

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    Yu-Ying Kuo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic expansion of Taiwan universities/colleges from about 100 to 160 from the late 1980s has encountered problems due to social and global changes. What should Taiwan universities move toward and how? This research relies on secondary data to explore the issues Taiwan universities currently face—a low birth rate and global competition. The decreasing number of incoming students will result in a lower registration rate and less tuition revenue, which will make some universities struggle to survive. Hence, government policies, proposed by the Ministry of Education, have been implemented to assist Taiwan universities to adjust to external changes. The Innovative Transformation Policy, adopted in 2015, consists of strategies for university–industry cooperation, university mergers, university closures, and a re-shaping of the university paradigm. This policy has begun to be implemented and its initial outcome will be continually evaluated. In accordance with the Innovative Transformation Policy, this study encourages Taiwan universities to improve governance, set prominent unique characteristics of development, and enhance global competitiveness.

  10. Nuclear safeguards implementations in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, R-H.; Chang, C-K.; Lin, C-R.; Gone, J-K.; Chen, W-L.; Yao, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Now with six Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) units in operation, two Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) units under construction, and other peaceful applications of nuclear and radiation technology expanding in great pace, the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) has been focused on reactor safety regulation, radiation protection, radioactive waste administration, environmental monitoring and R and D for technology development and other civilian nuclear applications. Despite Taiwan's departure from the United Nations and therefore its family member International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1971, Taiwan remains its commitment to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). To date, Taiwan is still part of the international nuclear safeguards system and accepts IAEA's inspections in accordance with its regulations on nuclear safeguards. In 1998, Taiwan further agreed, through exchange of letters between the AEC and IAEA, to implementation of the measures provided for in the model Protocol Additional to its safeguards agreement. In this paper, we will introduce Taiwan's nuclear safeguards history and describe some highlights of safeguards implementation in recent years, such as complementary accesses, transparency visits, remote monitoring inspections, unannounced inspections, facility attachment termination for the decommissioned facilities, and annual safeguards implementation meeting with IAEA

  11. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  12. Willingness to pay for drug abuse treatment: results from a contingent valuation study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Liu, Jin-Tan; Chang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Wen-Ying

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we attempted to describe and justify the use of a contingent valuation (CV) method to elicit the willingness to pay (WTP) for a drug abuse treatment program by the general public in Taiwan. In total, 1817 CV survey questionnaires were conducted through telephone interviews from randomly dialed numbers. Subjects were members of the general public aged between 20 and 65 years, with full-time jobs, and residing in the three major Taiwanese cities of Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung. Respondents' WTP for drug treatment programs was elicited for two different financing mechanisms: payment through 'compulsory' payroll tax/health insurance premiums, and through 'voluntary' donations. The WTP was modeled as a function of scenarios and policies of the treatment program, respondents' socio-demographic information, and their responses to knowledge and attitudes questions. The general public in Taiwan was estimated to be willing to pay between NT$81.00 and NT$95.00 per month for a drug abuse treatment program, while the benefits of drug abuse treatment were estimated to range between NT$12.8 billion and NT$15.0 billion in 2004 (US$1=NT$31.9 in 2004), which was equal to around 0.15% of Taiwan's GDP for that year. The general public in Taiwan was more willing to pay for drug abuse treatment via increases in NHI premiums than via donations. Preferences for the drug abuse treatment program were also found to be sensitive to the target treated population as well as the sequence in which the WTP questions were asked. Results of this study provide policymakers with important evidence on the monetary value of a substance abuse treatment program, allocation of healthcare resources, and a possible financing mechanism of the treatment program, which may be justified by knowledge of the WTP of the general public. This study has also advanced the knowledge of the methodological issues with regard to CV questionnaire design, and it provides a base case for further studies on

  13. Kolejna socjologiczna utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sztompka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Another sociological utopia The polemics between Piotr Sztompka and Michael Burawoy was originally published in Contempo­rary Sociology. A Journal of Reviews no 40/4 as Debate on International Sociology. The starting point of discussion between Piotr Sztompka and Michael Burawoy was the publication entitled Facing an Unequal World: Challenges for a Global Sociology (Volume One: Introduction, Latin America and Africa, 316 pp.; Volume Two: Asia, 362 pp.; Volume Three: Europe, and Concluding Reflections, 296 pp., edited by Michael Burawoy, Mau-kuei Chang and Michelle Fei-yu Hsieh (Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Sociology at Academia Sinica, Council of National Associations of the International Sociological Association & Academia Sinica, 2010.   Kolejna socjologiczna utopia Prezentowana niżej polemika pt. Debata o socjologii międzynarodowej ukazała się w „Contemporary Sociology. A Journal of Reviews” 40, nr 4. Punktem wyjścia do dyskusji między Piotrem Sztompką i Michaelem Burawoyem była książka z 2010 roku Facing an Unequal World: Challenges for a Global Sociology (t. 1: Introduction, Latin America and Africa, ss. 316; t. 2: Asia, ss. 362; t. 3: Europe, and Conclu­ding Reflexions, ss. 296, pod redakcją Michaela Burawoya, Mau-kuei Changa i Michelle Fei-yu Hsieh, wydana w Tajpej przez Institute of Sociology at Academia Sinica, Council of National Associations of the International Sociological Association & Academia Sinica.

  14. Ostatni pozytywista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Burawoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Last Positivist The polemics between Piotr Sztompka and Michael Burawoy was originally published in Contempo­rary Sociology. A Journal of Reviews no 40/4 as Debate on International Sociology. The starting point of discussion between Piotr Sztompka and Michael Burawoy was the publication entitled Facing an Unequal World: Challenges for a Global Sociology (Volume One: Introduction, Latin America and Africa, 316 pp.; Volume Two: Asia, 362 pp.; Volume Three: Europe, and Concluding Reflections, 296 pp., edited by Michael Burawoy, Mau-kuei Chang and Michelle Fei-yu Hsieh (Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Sociology at Academia Sinica, Council of National Associations of the International Sociological Association & Academia Sinica, 2010.   Ostatni pozytywista Prezentowana niżej polemika pt. Debata o socjologii międzynarodowej ukazała się w „Contemporary Sociology. A Journal of Reviews” 40, nr 4. Punktem wyjścia do dyskusji między Piotrem Sztompką i Michaelem Burawoyem była książka z 2010 roku Facing an Unequal World: Challenges for a Global Sociology (t. 1: Introduction, Latin America and Africa, ss. 316; t. 2: Asia, ss. 362; t. 3: Europe, and Conclu­ding Reflexions, ss. 296, pod redakcją Michaela Burawoya, Mau-kuei Changa i Michelle Fei-yu Hsieh, wydana w Tajpej przez Institute of Sociology at Academia Sinica, Council of National Associations of the International Sociological Association & Academia Sinica.

  15. Professional Counseling in Taiwan: Past to Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuh-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ching; Combs, Don C.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Johnson, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Because of the recent introduction of a licensure law, professional counseling has grown rapidly in Taiwan after decades of slow development. The authors provide a historical review of the development of professional counseling in Taiwan and discuss the current status and future trajectory of professional counseling in Taiwan.

  16. 76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan of polyvinyl alcohol, provided for... of a preliminary determination by Commerce that imports of polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan were being...

  17. 75 FR 61175 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... COMMISSION Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of less-than-fair-value imports from Taiwan... of polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan are being sold in the United States at less than fair value within...

  18. The immune-related fatty acids are responsive to CO2 driven seawater acidification in a crustacean brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zheng, Shu-Cheng; Zheng, Chao-Qun; Shi, Yue-Chen; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Ke-Jian; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2018-04-01

    The gradual increase of CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, absorbed by the ocean surface water through air to sea equilibration termed ocean acidification (OA), leads to the decline of pH in seawater. It is not clear so far how the composition of fatty acids, particular the immune-related, in marine crustacean and the subsequent energy supply in marine ecosystem are affected by OA. The brine shrimp Artemia sinica is an open and common feed that provide essential fatty acids for mariculture. In this study, the fatty acids profiles of brine shrimp cultured under different lower pH levels of CO 2 driven seawater were investigated. The results showed a significant reduction of the proportion of total saturated fatty acids under the pH7.6 within one week. Meanwhile, the percentage of total monounsaturated fatty acids was significantly decreased at day 14 under pH7.8, and this percentage gave a significant increase of proportion within one week under pH7.6. Furthermore, the relative content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was found to be clearly increased with exposure to different seawater acidification at day 1, suggesting that the brine shrimp immune response was likely to be affected by acidified seawater as the PUFAs have been well known to be involved in immunomodulatory effects through alterations on cell membrane fluidity/lipid mediators and gene expression of cell signaling pathways. Notably, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which have essential effect on various physiological processes such as inflammatory cytokines production and cell structural stability, were strongly increased under two lower pH treatments within one week and with the significant increase at day 1 under pH7.6. These data clearly supported the hypothesis that OA might affect fatty acids composition, likely also the innate immunity, in crustacean and the subsequent energy transfer by food-chain system in the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsin Hsu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.

  20. Digital collaborative consumption and social issues: The clash of taxi and Uber driver in Surabaya and Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholifatus Saadah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the occurrence of application-based taxi, phenomenon and resistance have emerged in metropolitan cities around the world. One of the main issues highlighted is digital collaborative consumption which emerges as the consequences of globalization. As an interpretive case study research, this paper aims to analyze the use of Uber as an alternative to public transportation in Taipei and Surabaya. Authors discuss the issue by comparing the reaction toward the occurrence of Uber and Taipei and Surabaya. Authors apply the theory from Hegre, Gissinger, & Gledtisch (2002 about globalization and social conflict to explain social issues as the consequences of digital collaborative consumption as the new consumption model. According to the theory, globalization creates a deprivation which makes the struggle to access source of capital become more intense. Poverty is the main generator of radical action and violence. Analyzing the phenomena of Uber usage and the resistance from traditional taxi businessmen in Taipei and Surabaya, the authors argue that globalization reflected on digital collaborative consumption could lead to social unrest for parties who cannot adapt to the changes in economic practice. As shown by many cases of app-based rejection taxi in public places such as airport, train station and bus station; the traditionalists show resistance towards globalization and the economic shift of public transportation business model.

  1. Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-29

    SPECIMENS 68 WITH SINGLE EDGE NOTCH Liu Ligeng, Chen Xianxi and Cai Qigong (Central Iron and Steel Research Institute) ON THE DESIGN OF TRANSONIC TURBINE...et al, Mechanism of Overload Effect on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Aluminum Alloy. Eng. Fract. Mech. 1978 No. 2. (13) Chen Hu, Cai Qigong et al...this paper. 67b J-INTEGRAL EXPERIMENTAL CALIBRATION OF SHEET SPECIMENS WITH SINGLE EDGE NOTCH Lui Ligeng, Chen Xianxi and Cai Qigong (Central Iron and

  2. Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-28

    Experimental value 4. Theoretical value For convenience of analysis, we used L. Lees ’ method [’] and the reference enthalpy nethod (7,9] to make...Baltakis "Influence of rouchness on heat transfer and transition" NOL TR=73-231 (AD77384). [4] C.L. Jaeck "Analysis of pressure and heat transfer test

  3. Reconstructing Transition Knowledge in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen-chen

    2012-01-01

    Taking a post-colonial stand and using school to work transition as an example, the author re-examines the special education discourses in Taiwan and attempts to construct alternate understandings of transition from sociological and cultural perspectives. A review of past transition literature and a survey of the educational background of the…

  4. Technology Education Reform in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng Steven

    Technology education in Taiwan, presently called living technology (LT), is a new area that has evolved from handicraft, industrial arts, and other areas. LT is offered mainly at the secondary school level, although it is required for all students in grades 1-11. In response to calls for curriculum reform, the present elementary and junior high…

  5. Principal Leadership in Taiwan Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouse, Roger C.; Lin, Kuan-Pei

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, Taiwan's Ministry of Education has responded to globalization by restructuring school curricular, instructional, and decision making practices along western lines in an attempt to attain legitimacy on the world stage. As a result, Taiwanese principals, once kings within their schools, now must share power with other…

  6. Myopia Development Among Young Schoolchildren: The Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Der-Chong; Fang, Shao-You; Huang, Nicole; Hsu, Chih-Chien; Chen, Shing-Yi; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the annual incidence of myopia and associated factors among young schoolchildren in Taipei City. The Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei was a citywide, population-based cohort study. During the fall 2013 semester (baseline), a total of 11,590 grade 2 schoolchildren completed ocular examination and were included for further analysis. A parent-completed questionnaire was administered to collect data on risk factors for myopia development. Follow-up visits were arranged biannually over 3 years. The first-year results are reported here. Schoolchildren who were emmetropic/hyperopic at baseline and had myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopters) in either eye at follow-up were identified as having incident myopia. Among 7376 baseline nonmyopic participants, 6794 (92.1%) were examined during the first-year follow-up, and 1856 (25.2%) with incident myopia were identified. The incidence density of myopia was 31.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.6-32.8) per 100 person-years. Cox hazard proportional regression analysis revealed that participants who were emmetropic at baseline (hazards ratio [HR]: 19.37; 95% CI: 4.84-77.57), who had two myopic parents (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04-1.42), and who spent ≥5 hours every week on after-school tutoring programs (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02-1.22) had greater risk for incident myopia. By contrast, protective factors included suburban area of residence (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83-1.00) and spending ≥30 minutes outdoors after school every weekday (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.99). This study provides population-based data on the annual incidence of myopia among Taiwanese schoolchildren, and found that baseline refractive status, parental myopia, area of residence, time outdoors after school on weekdays, and time spent on after-school tutoring programs are associated with risk of new-onset myopia.

  7. Evaluation of dual-mode rainwater harvesting system to mitigate typhoon-induced water shortage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Liaw, C-H

    2010-01-01

    The water shortage of today's world is one of the most challenging problems and the world is looking for the best solution to reduce it. Some human made causes and also natural causes are liable for the shortage of the existing water supply system. In Taiwan, especially during typhoon, the turbidity of raw water increases beyond the treatment level and the plant cannot supply required amount of water. To make the system effective, a couple of days are needed and the shortage occurs. The purpose of this study is to solve this emergency shortage problem. A dual-mode Rainwater Harvesting System (RWHS) was designed for this study as a supplement to the existing water supply system to support some selected non-potable components such as toilet and urinal flushing of an elementary school. An optimal design algorithm was developed using YAS (yield after spillage) and YBS (yield before spillage) release rules. The study result proved that an optimum volume of tank can solve the emergency water shortage properly. The system was found to be more reliable in Taipei area than that of Tainan area. The study also discovered that a government subsidy would be needed to promote the system in Taiwan.

  8. Symptoms Versus Problems (SVP Framework on Export Barriers to SME’S Led Electronic Products in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kader Ali Noor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Export barriers are a common constraints to SMEs when exporting goods. In 2013, Taiwan’s export sales dropped by 18.5% due to SMEs’ difficulty to explore the overseas market, thus, redirect their sales locally. The objective of this case study is to identify the internal and external barriers, and the export model practiced by one export case in Taipei, Taiwan. Findings via semi-structured interviews, field observation and analysis of unpublished company data are summarized using a new root-cause analysis tool called Symptoms versus Problems (SVP framework for SME LED Exports. The new SVP framework discovers many symptoms leading to recognition of six major problems, namely, high operational cost, poor marketing strategy, lack of cash flow funds, talent and skill sets, government support, and too many foreign bureaucracy regulations. These problems are categorized into three groups, namely, operation, marketing and government bureaucracies. The recommendations for each problem are structured to improve product costs, branding and advertisement strategies, cash flow management, technical know-how of foreign market behaviour, sources of information and network, and managing the foreign bureaucracies. Interestingly, this study discovers another new framework that overcome LED export barriers called “House of Pillars for LED Exports” in Taiwan.

  9. Taiwan: um futuro formoso para a Ilha? Aspectos de segurança e política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Pereira Pinto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de declaração de Lee Teng-Hui, em 1999, de que existe "um Estado em cada margem do estreito", foi estabelecida nova cena de partida que dificulta a realização de um futuro formoso para a ilha de Taiwan. Em março de 2004, por ocasião de eleições para renovar sua liderança, os taiwaneses defrontaram-se com problemas de segurança e políticos, influenciados por poderosas forças externas, que contribuem para o clima de incerteza que se vive. Parece difícil crer que autoridades em Taipé sejam capazes do engenho e arte de exercitar a ambigüidade necessária para manter o "status quo".Lee Teng-Hui's 1999 statement that there is "one State on each side of the strait" established a new starting point that makes difficult the achievement of a rosy future for the island of Taiwan. In March 2004, as elections for renewing their leadership were taking place, the Taiwanese were confronted with security and political problems that were influenced by powerful external forces, which intensified the prevailing uncertainty. It seems difficult to believe that the authorities in Taipei possess the skill and the art for practicing the requisite ambiguity for maintaining the status quo on the island.

  10. Work-related fatigue among medical personnel in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Ho

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: We identified factors associated with work-related fatigue among hospital workers in Taipei City. These findings can be applied toward on-the-job training and the development of preventive measures for occupational safety in general hospitals.

  11. What are the educational and curriculum needs for emergency medical technicians in Taiwan? A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang YT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Tung Chang,1,2 Kuang-Chau Tsai,2 Brett Williams1 1Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, School of Primary and Allied Health Care, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia; 2Emergency Medicine Department, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan Purpose: The development of emergency medical services (EMS training in Taiwan is in a transitional phase because of increasing demand for, and advancements in, clinical skill sets. The aim of this study is to review the current literature to compare the key factors of EMS training and education development in different countries in order to provide a new curricula blueprint for the Taiwanese EMS training system.Method: The method follows Arksey and O’Malley’s six stages of scoping review.Results: Five databases were searched for relevant articles: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database; Education Resources Information Center, and Google Scholar. The initial search of five databases produced 1,230 articles, of which title and abstract screening excluded 1,156 articles. The 74 remaining articles underwent a full-text screening process, which further reduced the number of articles to 22. Researching references and citations produced an additional 23 articles, national curriculum standards produced a further six documents, and one article derived from emergency medical technician (EMT regulation in Taiwan. In total, 52 articles were included in the study, categorized by competency and standards, EMT education and learning environment, curriculum design, and teaching and learning method.Conclusion: This study reviewed international EMS training and education literature and documents to summarize the essential elements for developing an EMS education system: for example, core competencies and standards, education environment, curriculum design, and teaching and learning method. By

  12. Prevalence and characterization of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis and toxigenic Clostridium difficile in a Taipei emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dar-Der; Huang, I-Hsiu; Lai, Chao-Chih; Wu, Fang-Tzy; Jiang, Donald Dah-Shyong; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Lin, Wei-Chen

    2017-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) and toxin-encoding Clostridium difficile (TXCD) are associated with gastroenteritis. Routine anaerobic blood culture for recovery of these anaerobic pathogens is not used for the detection of their toxins, especially for toxin-variant TXCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of the genotypes of these anaerobes in patients with acute diarrheal illnesses. The data and samples of 513 patients with gastroenteritis were collected in a Taipei emergency department from March 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009. Nonenterotoxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF) and ETBF and the toxin genotypes of TXCD were detected by molecular methods. The prevalence rates of NTBF, ETBF, and TXCD infections were 33.14%, 1.56%, and 2.34%, respectively. ETBF infections often occurred in the elderly (average age = 67.13 years) and during the cold, dry winters. TXCD infections were widely distributed in age and often occurred in the warm, wet springs and summers. The symptoms of ETBF-infected patients were significantly more severe than those of NTBF-infected patients. This study identified and analyzed the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical presentations of these anaerobic infections. Future epidemiologic and clinical studies are needed to understand the role of ETBF and TXCD in human gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Estimation of Lithological Classification in Taipei Basin: A Bayesian Maximum Entropy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ting; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    In environmental or other scientific applications, we must have a certain understanding of geological lithological composition. Because of restrictions of real conditions, only limited amount of data can be acquired. To find out the lithological distribution in the study area, many spatial statistical methods used to estimate the lithological composition on unsampled points or grids. This study applied the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME method), which is an emerging method of the geological spatiotemporal statistics field. The BME method can identify the spatiotemporal correlation of the data, and combine not only the hard data but the soft data to improve estimation. The data of lithological classification is discrete categorical data. Therefore, this research applied Categorical BME to establish a complete three-dimensional Lithological estimation model. Apply the limited hard data from the cores and the soft data generated from the geological dating data and the virtual wells to estimate the three-dimensional lithological classification in Taipei Basin. Keywords: Categorical Bayesian Maximum Entropy method, Lithological Classification, Hydrogeological Setting

  14. Superficial or cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor--clinical experience at Taipei Veterans General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chin-Jung; Ma, Hsu; Liao, Wen-Chieh

    2015-05-01

    Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) with a cutaneous or subcutaneous origin represent a small subset of MPNSTs thought to be derived from cutaneous neurofibromas or small peripheral nerves. Few cases of superficial MPNSTs originating from the skin have been reported in the literature. From October 1999 to February 2014, 13 patients were diagnosed with superficial or cutaneous MPNSTs and received treatment at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Clinical data were collected via retrospective chart review. A retrospective study was performed to compare superficial and deep-seated lesions in terms of local recurrence, distal metastasis, and survival analysis. The relevant literature is also briefly reviewed. The most frequent initial symptoms were local swelling and pain. Ten tumors were found in the extremities, and 3 tumors were located on the trunk. All patients underwent surgery with curative intent. Four patients developed local recurrence, and 3 developed distant metastasis. Three of 13 patients died after a follow-up period of 11 to 180 months (mean, 53.4). Compared to deep-seated MPNSTs, superficial MPNSTs had a lower histopathological grading and better survival rate. Superficial MPNSTs are a rare variant of MPNST. The relatively frequent lack of associated neurofibromatosis and superficial location within the dermis and subcutis may result in this entity being overlooked. According to our clinical experience, superficial MPNSTs might have better prognosis, but similar recurrence and metastasis rates compared with deep-seated lesions. Hence, awareness of this entity should prompt its consideration in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous sarcomas.

  15. Identifying factors associated with hospital readmissions among stroke patients in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kun-Yang; Wu, Shwu-Chong; Ma, Ai-Hsuan Sandra; Chen, Yu-Hui; Wu, Chen-Long

    2005-06-01

    Hospital readmissions contribute significantly to the cost of medical care, and may reflect unresolved problems at discharge or a lack of resources in post-hospital care. The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of patient characteristics at discharge, the need for nursing care, discharge planning program, post-hospital care arrangements, and caregiver characteristics on readmissions of stroke patients. Patients discharged from neurological wards in seven hospitals in the Taipei area were recruited into the study. Surveys were conducted before their discharge, and at one month after discharge. Of the 489 patients included in the study, 24.3% were readmitted. After controlling for other variables, factors associated with readmissions were number of limitations in activities of daily living (ADL), first incidence of stroke, the need for wound nursing care, the adoption of a care plan, and the discharge locations. Contrary to expectation, age, length of stay, counseling before discharge, and caregiver burden were not associated with readmissions. The findings of this study indicate that ADL limitation is an effective predictor of readmissions. Increasing home nursing resources to meet the demand for wound nursing care may also be effective in reducing readmissions. Discharging patients into institutions for a short period of time may also prove to be more economically viable due to the reduction in readmissions.

  16. Seismic Observations in the Taipei Metropolitan Area Using the Downhole Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlain by soft soils, the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA experienced major damage due to ground-motion amplification during the Hualien earthquake of 1986, the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999, the Hualien earthquake of 2002 and the Taitung earthquake of 2003. To study how a local site can substantially change the characteristics of seismic waves as they pass through soft deposits below the free surface, two complementary downhole seismic arrays have been operated in the TMA, since 1991 and 2008. The accelerometer downhole array is composed of eight boreholes at depths in excess of 300 meters. The downhole array velocity sensor collocated with accelerometer composed of four boreholes at depths up to 90 meters. The integrated seismic network monitors potential earthquakes originating from faults in and around the TMA and provides wide-dynamic range measurement of data ranging in amplitude from seismic background noise levels to damage levels as a result of shaking. The data sets can be used to address on the response of soft-soil deposits to ground motions. One of the major considerations is the nonlinear response of soft soil deposits at different levels of excitation. The collocated acceloerometer and velocity sensors at boreholes give the necessary data for studies of non-linearity to be acquired. Such measurements in anticipation of future large, damaging earthquakes will be of special importance for the mitigation of earthquake losses.

  17. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    .... Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, which has governed arms sales to Taiwan since 1979, when the United States recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) instead of Taiwan...

  18. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005–2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. PMID:26572871

  19. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005-2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Climate variability of heat wave and future warming scenario in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-yao

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the heat wave definition and climate variability of HW days according to air temperature are conducted in order to find out the local threshold and variation trends in the past 40 years (1971-2010), in three major cities, Taipei (TP), Taichung (TC) and Kaohsiung (KH) in Taiwan. As for Taiwan's high humidity atmospheric condition, the heat stress index wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is also employed in the past (2003-2012) and future warming scenario in 2075-2099. The simulation WBGT in the past (2003-2012) and future warming projection (2075-2099) are deduced from the results of ECHAM5/MPIOM-WRF (ECW) dynamic downscaling 5-km resolution in these three cities. Box plot analyzing shows the differences between observed and simulated WBGT distribution at 25%, 50% and 75% percentiles are all within 0.7 °C in 2003-2012. Even the extreme values, the differences are all within 0.9 °C. In other words, the ranges of the WBGT variation from observations are reasonably captured by the ECW in three cities. According to the good performance of ECW in the WBGT simulation, the projection of future WBGT in these three cities has been evaluated under IPCC A1B scenario by using ECW. It is estimated that nearly 50% of the days in summer (July and August) are all at the level of danger (WBGT>31 °C ) at the period 2075-2099.It is a significant increase because they are only 10.74%, 4.22% and 11.28% above this level in the past in 2003-2012 in TP, TC and KH, respectively. From public health point of view, the impacts are huge and worthy to pay attention under the global warming trend.

  1. Ethical attitudes on human cloning among professionals in Taiwan and the policy implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Chung, Chun-Chih; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Chiou-Fen; Chen, Jiun-Shyan

    2005-01-01

    This research focused on understanding the attitudes toward human cloning in Taiwan among professionals in healthcare, law, and religion. The study was conducted utilizing a structured questionnaire. 220 healthcare professionals from two regional hospitals located in Taipei, 351 religious professionals in the northern Taiwan and 711 legal professionals were selected by to receive questionnaires. The valid response rate is 42.1% The questions were generated by an expert panel and represented major arguments in the human cloning debate. There were a total of six Likert scaled questions in the questionnaire. The responses were coded from 1 to 5 with 1 representing strong opposition to human cloning, 3 representing a neutral attitude; and 5 representing a strong favorable attitude toward human cloning. Healthcare professionals had the highest overall average score of 2.14 and the religious professionals had the lowest average at 1.58. All three categories of respondents' attitude toward cloning ranged from mild opposition to strong opposition to human cloning. The religious professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Age, education, and religion significantly influenced attitudes toward cloning. Professionals between fifty-one and sixty years old, those with less education, and Roman Catholic professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Religious professionals were more strongly opposed to human cloning than professionals in healthcare or law. Younger professionals as an age group demonstrated less opposition to human cloning. Regulation of human cloning will be influenced by professionals in healthcare, law, and religion, and the regulatory environment chosen now will play a pivotal role in influencing the acceptance of human cloning in the future.

  2. Psychometric integrity of the Chinese Happiness Inventory among retired older people in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Hsun; Lin, Lin; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of mental and physical health. It has been emphasized as one kind of well-being, and its definition varies from culture to culture. The main objective of the present study was to examine the psychometric integrity and dimensions of the Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI) in relation to scores on Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale among retired older people in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study was carried out at social service centers in Taipei, Taiwan. Retired adults gave informed consent from September to November 2010, and completed a package of structured questionnaires measuring happiness and psychological well-being. Internal consistency, the factor structure of the CHI and criterion validity were assessed. Results from an exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor solution for the CHI. These factors were named Positive Affect, Life Satisfaction and Interpersonal Relationships. Internal consistency coefficients were 0.95 (Positive Affect), 0.91 (Life Satisfaction), 0.85 (Interpersonal Relationships) and 0.97 (total scale). The results of a canonical correlation analysis showed the presence of a strong relationship between CHI and Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale (r = 0.69), and that two canonical variates could be derived from the relationship between them. The results show that the CHI is a three-dimensional scale with high reliability and validity. The construct of happiness emphasizes relationships in relation to others and environment rather than autonomy in this sample. Although the components of happiness might be similar for Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction, their weights for Interpersonal Relationships should be considered when measuring happiness in different cultures. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 865-872. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Nuclear science education in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chien

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear science education has been established in Taiwan at the National Tsing Hua University (NTHU) since 1956. Support from the well-developed local nuclear power industry and government agencies is converged with rapid growth rate toward the College of Nuclear Science at NTHU, the only one among 123 universities and colleges in Taiwan where nuclear-related education is offered. The College, with 53 faculty members, offers bachelor's degree in Nuclear Engineering and master's and doctorate degrees in Nuclear Science, Nuclear Engineering, and Radiation Biology. Lectures and lab classes of radiochemistry, health physics, nuclear instruments, reactor experiment, nuclear medicine, and environmental monitoring are given to the 240 undergraduate students and 200 postgraduate students. The 1988 annual budget and research contracts for the College amounted USD600,000 and USD2,220,000, respectively

  4. Bubbles Are Departures from Equilibrium Housing Markets: Evidence from Singapore and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chung-I; Li, Sai-Ping; Tee, Shang You; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2016-01-01

    The housing prices in many Asian cities have grown rapidly since mid-2000s, leading to many reports of bubbles. However, such reports remain controversial as there is no widely accepted definition for a housing bubble. Previous studies have focused on indices, or assumed that home prices are lognomally distributed. Recently, Ohnishi et al. showed that the tail-end of the distribution of (Japan/Tokyo) becomes fatter during years where bubbles are suspected, but stop short of using this feature as a rigorous definition of a housing bubble. In this study, we look at housing transactions for Singapore (1995 to 2014) and Taiwan (2012 to 2014), and found strong evidence that the equilibrium home price distribution is a decaying exponential crossing over to a power law, after accounting for different housing types. We found positive deviations from the equilibrium distributions in Singapore condominiums and Zhu Zhai Da Lou in the Greater Taipei Area. These positive deviations are dragon kings, which thus provide us with an unambiguous and quantitative definition of housing bubbles. Also, the spatial-temporal dynamics show that bubble in Singapore is driven by price pulses in two investment districts. This finding provides a valuable insight for policymakers on implementation and evaluation of cooling measures. PMID:27812187

  5. Teacher Overinvolvement and Student Depression among Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Fen Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines depression in students at public high schools in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to examine which student-level and teacher-level variables affect student depression due to teacher emotional overinvolvement and other factors. A survey instrument adapted and translated from existing surveys was distributed to 1,479 Taiwanese adolescents aged 13—15 years and 172 teachers from 10 public junior high schools in the city of Taipei. The hierarchical linear model (HLM was used for a cross-level analysis of the data. The HLM shows that student-level measures account for most of the variance. Teacher emotional overinvolvement and core self-evaluations are the preponderant influences on student ratings. In terms of teacher-level variables, the effects of teacher involvement, teacher depression, and teacher educational background on student-level variables are strong and significant. The findings of this study recommend the development of a comprehensive counseling system for teachers and students.

  6. The effects of outpatient co-payment policy on healthcare usage by the elderly in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Hung; Tung, Cheng-Mei

    2006-01-01

    Aging and declining health are intrinsically related and are resulting in increasing healthcare spending in many countries. Control of healthcare spending and patient usage behavior are linked. This study examines the healthcare usage behavior of chronically ill elderly patients in Taiwan following an increase in co-payments. The differences in usage behavior are interpreted by comparing the frequency of hospital visits and the types of hospitals chosen by patients before and after the implementation of the new co-payment policy. Claim data of the Taipei branch of the National Health Insurance Bureau (NHIB) is used as a basis for this analysis. Analysis results indicate that choice of hospital type by the elderly is affected by an increase in co-payment, but that difference of the hospital type choice before and after the co-payment increase is too small to be practically significant. However, the frequency of visits decreased significantly after the implementation of the new co-payment policy. Medical care costs per visit for individual patients and for the National Health Insurance system both increased significantly. Visit frequency and hospital type choice, as well as diagnosis and treatment cost and co-payment, all show significant differences among different age groups of the elderly. The effects of co-payment increases are also discussed from the viewpoint of patients and of governmental policy.

  7. A meteor shockwave event recorded at seismic and infrasound stations in northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Utpal; Chao, Benjamin F.; Hsieh, Yikai; Chang, Emmy T. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Three mysterious explosion sounds were heard in the coastal towns of Tamsui, west of Taipei in northern Taiwan, in the early evening of December 5, 2013. The event left clear signals that are identified in the recordings of 12 regional seismometers and 3 infrasound sensors and processed by means of travel time analysis. The apparent velocity of 330 m/s of the signals confirms that the energy transmission was through the atmosphere, and the characteristics of the waveforms suggest the meteor-generated shockwaves. We use the graphical method as well as the Genetic Algorithm optimization approach to constrain the trajectory of the meteor and to locate its projected intercept with the ground—(25.33 N, 121.26 E), approximately 20 km off the coast of Tamsui. The trajectory has azimuth (measured from north in a map view in the clockwise direction) of 303° and (near-vertical) elevation angle of 70°. From the observed period of 1.3 s at the maximum amplitude of the infrasound signal, we estimate by conventional scaling law that the meteor in question had impact energy on the order of 5 × 1010 J (equivalent to an earthquake of local magnitude 4) or roughly a size of 0.5 m across.

  8. Psychological symptoms among hospital nurses in Taiwan: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ju; Weng, Shiue-Shan

    2017-11-07

    A considerable number of studies have identified the risk factors attributable to job-related stress among nurses. However, studies investigating psychological symptoms among hospital nurses is still lacking, especially in Taiwan, where the average patient to nurse ratio is among the highest in the world. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of self-rated health status, self-reported diseases, and utilization of occupational health checks in psychological symptoms among Taiwanese nurses. A cross-sectional design was conducted from September through December 2013. Data were collected through online self-administered questionnaire among 697 registered nurses in seven regional hospitals governed by the Taipei City Government. Nurses with fair or poor self-rated health, lower education, psychological symptoms. A trend toward significance was also noticed for those aged 30-39. Importantly, low back pain was the most common disease among nurses in self-reported diseases and half of the nurses reported not utilizing the occupational health examination for the last 5 years. To alleviate or prevent the psychological symptoms, psychosocial support, and awareness program on prevention of occupational injuries should be offered to nurses younger than 39 years old and having lower educational levels. Moreover, underutilization of occupational health examination among nurses deserves more attention.

  9. Tomographic images and focal mechanisms beneath the Tatun volcano group, northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, H.; Lin, C.; Chang, T.; Konstantinou, K.; Wen, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Tatun volcano group (TVG) is just located nearby the Taipei metropolis, where is the major economic and political center of Taiwan. To improve the understanding of the volcanic structures and their properties, we have deployed a dense seismic network at the TVG for monitoring the volcanic earthquakes since 2004. This network is composed of 18 seismic stations in the area about 10km by 10km. We detected a great quantity of local earthquakes (over 5,000). Over 3,000 events provide useful observations to invert detailed subsurface structures by using tomography method. Our tomographic images show that both variations of Vp and Vs might be likely related to the volcanic activity in some area. We also determined over 600 focal mechanisms of micro-earthquakes by using the first-motion polarization. Most of focal mechanisms are the normal faulting and indicating that the extensional stress predominate the micro-earthquakes beneath the TVG. These dense normal mechanisms may be caused by volcanic activity beneath the TVG area.

  10. Genotoxic Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chyi Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide-polyketide synthesized by multi-enzyme complexes encoded by the pks gene cluster. Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli have been demonstrated to induce host DNA damage and promote colorectal cancer (CRC development. In Taiwan, the occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA has been suggested to correlate with an increasing risk of CRC, and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant PLA pathogen in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the asn tRNA loci of the newly sequenced K. pneumoniae 1084 genome, we identified a 208-kb genomic island, KPHPI208, of which a module identical to the E. coli pks colibactin gene cluster was recognized. KPHPI208 consists of eight modules, including the colibactin module and the modules predicted to be involved in integration, conjugation, yersiniabactin production, microcin production, and unknown functions. Transient infection of BALB/c normal liver cells with K. pneumoniae 1084 increased the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, indicating the induction of host DNA damage. Colibactin was required for the genotoxicity of K. pneumoniae 1084, as it was diminished by deletion of clbA gene and restored to the wild type level by trans-complementation with a clbA coding plasmid. Besides, BALB/c mice infected with K. pneumoniae 1084 exhibited enhanced DNA damage in the liver parenchymal cells when compared to the isogenic clbA deletion mutant. By PCR detection, the prevalence of pks-positive K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is 25.6%, which is higher than that reported in Europe (3.5%, and is significantly correlated with K1 type, which predominantly accounted for PLA in Taiwan. CONCLUSIONS: Our knowledge regarding how bacteria contribute to carcinogenesis has just begun. The identification of genotoxic K. pneumoniae and its genetic components will facilitate future studies to elucidate the molecular basis underlying the link between K. pneumoniae, PLA, and CRC.

  11. Crisis in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    large measure by continued access to foreign sources of weapons and technology. Barring major upheavals in Chinese foreign policy, it is likely that...is little prospect for breakthroughs in any of the related equipment areas, barring massive infusions of expensive foreign assistance; and it does...Beijing’s term, near and then very near Taiwan reveal more than Beijing brava - do; have the stodgy Central Military Commission and die-hard PLA

  12. Current situation and industrialization of Taiwan nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.-N.; Lee, P.-C.; Tsai, M.-H.; Chien, K.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is projected to be a very promising field, and the impact of nanotechnology on society is increasingly significant as the research funding and manufactured goods increase exponentially. A clearer picture of Taiwan's current and future nanotechnology industry is an essential component for future planning. Therefore, this investigation studies the progress of industrializing nanotechnology in Taiwan by surveying 150 companies. Along with understanding Taiwan's current nanotechnology industrialization, this paper also suggests ways to promote Taiwan's nanotechnology. The survey results are summarized and serve as the basis for planning a nanotechnology industrialization strategy

  13. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization.

  14. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  15. Trends of Do-Not-Resuscitate consent and hospice care utilization among noncancer decedents in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan between 2010 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chen, Chun-Ku; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) and hospice care are not only applied to cancer patients but also to patients with noncancer progressive illness. However, the trends of DNR consent and hospice utilization are not well explored for noncancer patients. This study aimed to explore the trends of DNR consent and hospice care utilization among noncancer decedents in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. We analyzed the Death and Hospice Palliative Care Database from the Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan. The Death and Hospice Palliative Care Database contains information including patient sex, major diagnosis, admission date, date of death, age at death, department at discharge, status of DNR consent, and status of hospice care of patients who died in the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Data on patients aged 20 years old or more who died of major terminal noncancer diseases, including brain diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other lung diseases, heart failure, chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis, and renal failure between 2010 and 2014 were extracted for analysis. A total of 1416 patients aged 20 years or more died of major noncancer diseases in Taipei Veterans General Hospital during the study period. The most common diagnosis was brain diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dementias (n = 510, 36%) followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other lung diseases (n = 322, 22.7%). Among these noncancer decedents, 1045 (73.8%) had DNR consents, while 134 (9.5%) received hospice care. Patients diagnosed with renal failure had the highest percentage of DNR consent (80%), followed by chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (77.7%). Patients diagnosed with chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis had the highest percentage of hospice utilization (17.4%), followed by renal failure (15.8%). The percentages of DNR consent and hospice utilization were significantly different across different

  16. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  17. [A study of attitudes and behavior regarding fertility among newlyweds in Taipei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C D; Hsu, S J

    1985-07-01

    There are around 40,000 births in Taipei City each year. Of them about 40% are of the 1st parity. Of all deliveries, about 80% are born to mothers under 30 years old. There are about 20,000 marriages each year. Of all brides and grooms surveyed in the present study, 39.4% and 39.1% consider the ideal time to conceive being either as early as possible or within 1 year after the wedding. In actuality, 28.08% of the respondents were already pregnant before the wedding. Excluding the inteviewees who were married for over 1 year, 34.1% are currently pregnant, 6.98% have already given birth, and 0.15% have become pregnant again after a birth. This result is similar to the findings of the KAP conducted by the Center in 1980, which showed that 41.3% of the interviewees gave birth to their 1st child within 1 year after the wedding. The same survey of 1980 also finds that the interval between the 1st and the 2nd child is 1.94 years, though women in general consider the ideal interval to be 2.6 years. How to encourage those who are to be married and the newlyweds to prolong the intervals between the wedding and the 1st child and between the 1st and the 2nd child is an important task of the health educators. The present study interviews 1013 couples who registered their marriages in October 1983. Needs, targets, and contents of education programs are identified. Better ways to communicate with the newlyweds are also indicated. The purpose of the study, based on the findings, is to propose a model most suitable for the education in family planning of those who are to be married and who are just married, in order to provide them with better services and to further reduce the fertility of young people.

  18. Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2011-01-01

    In East Asia, Taiwan is one of only a few countries that has a clear definition of learning disabilities (LD) as well as operational criteria for the identification of LD. In Taiwan, special education services for students with LD are mandated in the Special Education Act of 1984. According to the official statistics from the Taiwanese Special…

  19. Development of the Astronomy-Themed Interdisciplinary Curriculum At Taipei First Girls' High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.-C.; Jin, R.; Lai, S.-P.; Kong, A.; Chang, H.-K.; Wu, P.-H.

    2014-07-01

    With the advent of satellite-based telescopes and abundant data open to the public, senior high school students can now be allowed access to the latest observational data collected by those cutting-edge telescopes. Following the official guidelines for high school curricula in Taiwan, we designed a 24-hour, four-module curriculum, the themes of which are: properties of light and spectra, multi-wavelength observations, evolution of stars, and introduction to cosmology. The curriculum makes use of free online astronomical databases, software for data analysis, and teaching platforms. Many of the courses are inquiry-oriented, focusing on hands-on experiments and discussions. They can be taught separately in their own fields or combined to form research project courses as well. The curriculum development was funded by the National Science Council of Taiwan (High Scope Project) and supported by three institutes in universities. More than 700 students are participating in the pilot program. We are now promoting the curriculum to other schools, with a hope to encourage students to carry out projects on topics in astronomy.

  20. Climate protection laws in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yen-Lin Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The contribution on climate protection laws in Taiwan is first describing the international position and cooperation with UNFCCC, The national climate protection policy covers energy and industry, trading and economy, forestry and agriculture, traffic and local affairs, society and education. The description of the actual legislation includes the constitutional framework, environmental legislation, air pollution legislation, environmental compatibility regulations, renewable energy development legislation, energy management laws, legal drafts concerning reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy taxes. Finally the competences and responsibilities of authorities are summarized.

  1. 76 FR 13982 - Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import... Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date... value in the antidumping duty investigation of PVA from Taiwan. See Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final...

  2. Levels of black carbon and their relationship with particle number levels-observation at an urban roadside in Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Shiu, Ben-Tzung; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Yan, Jhih-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Information on the relationship between black carbon (BC) and particle number levels in urban areas is limited. Therefore, investigating the relationship between BC and particle number levels in different particle size ranges at an urban area is worthwhile. This study used an aethalometer and scanning mobility particle sizer to measure the levels of BC and particle number simultaneously at an urban roadside in Taipei City. Measurement results show that hourly BC levels are 0.62-8.80 μg m(-3) (mean=3.50 μg m(-3)) and hourly particle number levels are 4.21 × 10(3)-4.64 × 10(4) particles cm(-3) (mean=2.00 × 10(4) particles cm(-3)) in Taipei urban area. The BC and particle number levels peak during morning (7:00-9:00) and evening (16:00-18:00) rush hours on weekdays. Low BC and particle number levels exist in the early morning hours. Time variations in BC levels are the same as those of particle number levels in this study, clearly indicating that BC and particles are likely released from the same emission source. Additionally, BC levels in the urban area are more strongly associated with ultrafine particle levels than with total particle number levels, particularly in the size range of 56-180 nm. According to measurement results, most BC in aerosols in urban areas can be in the ultrafine size range.

  3. Residential environments, alcohol advertising, and initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in urban Taiwan: A prospective multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Tyng; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Haardörfer, Regine; Crawford, Natalie D; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Research indicates that place characteristics and the media environment are important contextual determinants of underage drinking behaviors in Western countries, but it is unknown whether these exposures influence adolescent alcohol consumption outside Western contexts, including in Asia׳s emerging global alcohol markets. Guided by the social ecological framework, we prospectively investigated the influences of place characteristics and alcohol advertising on initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Taipei, Taiwan. Data on individual-level characteristics, including alcohol use behaviors and perceived exposure to alcohol advertising, were obtained from two waves of a longitudinal school-based study through a stratified probability sampling method in 2010 (Grade 7/Grade 8, aged 13-14 years old) and 2011-2012 (Grade 9, aged 15 years old) from 1795 adolescents residing in 22 of 41 districts in Taipei. Data on district-level characteristics were drawn from administrative sources and Google Street View virtual audit to describe districts where adolescents lived at baseline. Hierarchical generalized linear models tested hypotheses about the associations of place characteristics and perceived alcohol advertising with underage drinking, with stratification by baseline lifetime alcohol consumption. Among alcohol-naïve adolescents, lower district-level economic disadvantage, a higher proportion of betel nut kiosks (a relatively unregulated alcohol source) compared to off-premises alcohol outlets, and exposure to television-based alcohol advertising predicted increased likelihood of alcohol initiation at one-year follow-up. Among alcohol-experienced adolescents, greater spatial access to off-premises alcohol outlets, and lower access to metro rapid transportation (MRT) and to temples were found to predict a subsequent increased likelihood of continued alcohol use. Parental drinking moderated the relationship between district-level violent

  4. Traffic-related air pollution associated with chronic kidney disease among elderly residents in Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Ying; Chu, Da-Chen; Lee, Jui-Huan; Yang, Ya-Ru; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2018-03-01

    The associations of air pollution with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not yet been fully studied. We enrolled 8,497 Taipei City residents older than 65 years and calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Taiwanese Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Proteinuria was assessed via dipstick on voided urine. CKD prevalence and risk of progression were defined according to the KDIGO 2012 guidelines. Land-use regression models were used to estimate the participants' one-year exposures to PM of different sizes and traffic-related exhaust, PM 2.5 absorbance, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and NO x . Generalized linear regressions and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations of one-year air pollution exposures with eGFR, proteinuria, CKD prevalence and risk of progression. The results showed that the interquartile range (IQR) increments of PM 2.5 absorbance (0.4 × 10 -5 /m) and NO 2 (7.0 μg/m 3 ) were associated with a 1.07% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54-1.57] and 0.84% (95% CI: 0.37-1.32) lower eGFR, respectively; such relationships were magnified in subjects who had an eGFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or who were non-diabetic. Similar associations were also observed for PM 10 and PM 2.5-10 . Two-pollutant models showed that PM 10 and PM 2.5 absorbance were associated with a lower eGFR. The odd ratios (ORs) of CKD prevalence and risk of progression also increased with exposures to PM 2.5 absorbance and NO 2. In summary, one-year exposures to traffic-related air pollution were associated with lower eGFR, higher CKD prevalence, and increased risk of CKD progression among the elderly population. Air pollution-related impaired renal function was stronger in non-CKD and non-diabetic subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mortality associated with particulate concentration and Asian dust storms in Metropolitan Taipei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Lin, Yu-Kai

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates mortality risks from all causes, circulatory diseases, and respiratory diseases associated with particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations and Asian dust storms (ADS) from 2000 to 2008 in Metropolitan Taipei. This study uses a distributed lag non-linear model with Poisson distribution to estimate the cumulative 5-day (lags 0-4) relative risks (RRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of cause-specific mortality associated with daily PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, as well as ADS, for total (all ages) and elderly (≥65 years) populations based on study periods (ADS frequently inflicted period: 2000-2004; and less inflicted period: 2005-2008). Risks associated with ADS characteristics, including inflicted season (winter and spring), strength (the ratio of stations with Pollutant Standard Index >100 is <0.5 or ≥0.5), and duration (ADS persisted for 1-3 or ≥4 days), were also evaluated. Nonlinear models showed that an increase in PM10 from 10 μg/m3 to 50 μg/m3 was associated with increased all-cause mortality risk with cumulative 5-day RR of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.17) for the total population and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.18) for elders. Mortality from circulatory diseases for the elderly was related to increased PM2.5 from 5 μg/m3 to 30 μg/m3, with cumulative 5-day RR of 1.21 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.44) from 2005 to 2008. Compared with normal days, the mortality from all causes and circulatory diseases for the elderly population was associated with winter ADS with RRs of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.08) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.15), respectively. Moreover, all-cause mortality was associated with shorter and less area-affected ADS with an RR of 1.04 for total and elderly populations from 2000 to 2004. Population health risk differed not only with PM concentration but also with ADS characteristics.

  6. Emergency room visits associated with particulate concentration and Asian dust storms in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Chen, Chi-Feng; Yeh, Hui-Chung; Wang, Yu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated risks of emergency room visits (ERV) for all causes, circulatory diseases, and respiratory diseases associated with concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and Asian dust storms (ADS) from 2000 to 2008 in metropolitan Taipei. Cumulative 4-day (lag 0-3) relative risks (RR) and confidence intervals (CI) of cause-specific ERV associated with daily concentrations of PM10 or PM2.5 and ADS based on study period (ADS frequently inflicted period: 2000-2004 and less-inflicted period: 2005-2008) were estimated using a distributed lag non-linear model with Poisson distribution. Risks associated with ADS-inflicted season (winter and spring), strength (ratio of stations with Pollutant Standard Index above 100 is < 0.5 or ≥ 0.5), and duration (ADS lasting for 1-3 days or ≥ 4 days) were especially evaluated. In non-linear models, an increase in PM10 from 10 μg/m(3) to 50 μg/m(3) was associated with increased risk of ERV for all causes and respiratory disease with cumulative 4- day RR of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.24) and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.54), respectively. From 2005 to 2008, the cumulative 4-day RR for an ERV related to an increase in PM2.5 from 5 μg/m(3) to 30 μg/m(3) is 1.21 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.41) for respiratory diseases, and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.22) for all causes. In comparison with normal days, elevated ERV of all causes and respiratory diseases was also associated with winter ADS (with corresponding RRs of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.13) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.21)) and shorter and less area-affected ADS (with corresponding RRs of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.10) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.14)) from 2000 to 2004. Results of this study demonstrate that population health risk varies not only with PM concentration, but also with the ADS characteristics.

  7. Solar thermal market in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The long-duration of national programs has been the driving force behind the expansion of the local market of solar water heaters (SWHs) in Taiwan in the last two decades. This study examines the potential market for SWHs using the statistical data from end users and the 2010 Population and Housing Census. The current effective utilization rate of residential SWHs in terms of potential number of systems installed is estimated to be 11.8%. The analyses also show that the current national subsidy program has recently lost its momentum in expanding the market. Therefore, regional subsidy programs should become the main force in influencing the growth in sales. In addition, SWHs of larger scale would be particularly effective in industries. To promote such applications, a combination of performance-based and direct subsidy schemes or tax deductions can be offered to end users to promote the applications of SWHs in the commercial sector. Solar-assisted cooling systems are considered to be another potential application of solar energy, which is associated with energy saving and power consumption in commercial and residential buildings. A short review of the R and D activities is also given in this paper. - Highlights: ► Regional subsidy programs will be the main force in influencing the growth in sales. ► A revised program is needed to promote solar water heaters for industry applications. ► Solar-assisted cooling systems are potential applications of solar energy in Taiwan

  8. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Lattice Study for the Taiwan Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chin-Cheng; Chen Chien Te; Luo, Gwo-Huei; Tsai, Hung-Jen; Wang, Min-Huey

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility study for the new 3.0~3.3 GeV Taiwan synchrotron light source, dubbed Taiwan Photon Source, was initiated in July, 2004. The goal is to construct a high performance light source with extremely bright X-ray in complementary to the existing 1.5 GeV light source in Taiwan. The ring circumference is 518.4 m and a 24-cell DBA lattice structure is chosen. The natural emittance with distributed dispersion is less than 2 nm-rad. A large booster ring of 499.2 m sharing the storage ring tunnel will be adopted.

  10. [Nursing manpower and solutions in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Su-Wen

    2014-04-01

    The shortage of nursing manpower is a long-term problem worldwide that affects Taiwan despite this country's internationally admired achievements in terms of its healthcare and national health insurance systems. This article reviews discussions related to the nursing shortage issue published by the World Health Organization, International Council of Nurses, and Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare. Next, an overview is given of the nursing workforce profile, causal factors behind the nursing shortage, and demand for and supply of nursing manpower. Finally, problems, resolutions, and expected outcomes for the nursing shortage in Taiwan are analyzed.

  11. The Effect of Successful Intubation on Patient Outcomes After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Chu; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Chu, Hsin-Lan; Chen, Albert Y; Wen, Shin-Yi; Yang, Wen-Shuo; Chien, Yu-Chun; Wang, Yao-Cheng; Lee, Bin-Chou; Wang, Huei-Chih; Huang, Edward Pei-Chuan; Yang, Chih-Wei; Sun, Jen-Tang; Chong, Kah-Meng; Lin, Hao-Yang; Hsu, Shu-Hsien; Chen, Shey-Ying; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2018-03-01

    The effect of out-of-hospital intubation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remains controversial. The Taipei City paramedics are the earliest authorized to perform out-of-hospital intubation among Asian areas. This study evaluates the association between successful intubation and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival in Taipei. We analyzed 6 years of Utstein-based registry data from nontrauma adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who underwent out-of-hospital airway management including intubation, laryngeal mask airway, or bag-valve-mask ventilation. The primary analysis was intubation success on patient outcomes. The primary outcome was survival to discharge and the secondary outcomes included sustained return of spontaneous circulation and favorable neurologic survival. Sensitivity analysis was performed with intubation attempts rather than intubation success. Subgroup analysis of advanced life support-serviced districts was also performed. A total of 10,853 cases from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. Among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients receiving airway management, successful intubation, laryngeal mask airway, and bag-valve-mask ventilation was reported in 1,541, 3,099, and 6,213 cases, respectively. Compared with bag-valve-mask device use, successful out-of-hospital intubation was associated with improved chances of sustained return of spontaneous circulation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66 to 2.19), survival to discharge (aOR 1.98; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.49), and favorable neurologic outcome (aOR 1.44; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.03). The results were comparable in sensitivity and subgroup analyses. In nontrauma adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Taipei, successful out-of-hospital intubation was associated with improved odds of sustained return of spontaneous circulation, survival to discharge, and favorable neurologic outcome. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by

  12. Status of radioactive waste management in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Taiwan started to generate nuclear power in 1977. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy generated radwaste. The major radwaste generators are nuclear power plants of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). The other generators are the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), industry, medicine, agriculture, and education. Radwaste Administration (RWA), a subsidiary of Atomic Energy Council (AEC), is the regulatory body of radwaste in Taiwan. Radwaste management projects in Taiwan include: (1) construction of a Volume Reduction Center (VRC); (2) construction of a low-level radwaste transport ship; (3) construction of low-level waste final disposal facility; (4) construction of a spent fuel interim storage facility; (5) construction of spent fuel disposal facility. In the near future, final disposal of low-level waste is the most important work of both Taipower and RWA. Both organizations will put much more effort into this work

  13. Collaboration with Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through this partnership, U.S. and Taiwan environmental authorities have developed a strong capacity to reduce pollution and manage the environment through joint projects, innovate research, and knowledge exchange.

  14. Biogeochemical cycling in the Taiwan Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, H.; Chen, C-T.A.

    -limiting macronutrient. The Taiwan Strait receives copious supplies of nutrients through river runoff and upwelling in its western and northeastern parts, respectively, but the phytoplankton biomass, as inferred from the Chl a concentration, does not appear...

  15. Needs Assessment for Exchange Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentei Takaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growing mobility of international students in Asia and the Pacific, Taiwan has become actively involved in promoting international academic exchange. This research investigates the experience of exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China and examines their needs while studying in Taiwan. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China. The findings suggest that while exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China both encountered difficulties during their study in Taiwan, exchange students from the Philippines were inclined to encounter more difficulties compared to those from mainland China due to language difficulties. Based on the findings of this study, suggested support services for future exchange students in Taiwan are outlined to match the needs of students from both Chinese and non-Chinese-speaking backgrounds.

  16. China-Taiwan: What Kind of Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wynnyczok, Martha-Jean H

    1994-01-01

    .... This paper will review the nature of recent economic development in China, the potential impact of that development on the political unity of China, Taiwan's contribution to the mainland's economy...

  17. Newly discovered native orchids of Taiwan (X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Piao LIN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This report presents three new orchids of Taiwan, i.e., Habenaria alishanensis T.P. Lin & D.M. Huang, Neottia cinsbuensis T.P. Lin & D.M. Huang, and Nephelaphyllum tenuiflorum Blume.

  18. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Myocarditis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ju Hsiao

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric myocarditis presents primarily with gastrointestinal symptoms in Taiwan. Careful check of heart rhythm may provide a useful objective marker of myocarditis. The predictors of a poor prognosis were gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatomegaly, and hypotension.

  19. GÉOPOLITIQUE ET POPULATIONS À TAIWAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Gérard-François

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Since the sixteenth century, Taiwan served as a refuge island for Chinese minorities persecuted on the mainland. Its settlement was effected by two migratory waves: one from 1661 and extending to 1945, the other after the proclamation of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong in 1949. The strong increase of the population, sometimes giving rise to the distinction between "native Taiwanese" and "mainlanders" made Taiwan one of the world's most densely populated co...

  20. Revision of Rubus (Rosaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Yih Huang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rubus L. in Taiwan is taxonomically revised based on morphological and phytogeographical patterns. Forty taxa (34 species, 3 varieties, and 3 hybrids of the genus are recognized, including two new hybrid species R. croceacanthus × corchorifolius and R. rosifolius × fraxinifolius. Among the Rubus taxa in Taiwan, R. croceacanthus H. Lév. exhibits tremendous variation and we do believe that more investigations are needed in the future. Several taxa described in the Flora of Taiwan, 2nd ed. are treated as synonyms of other species, and several taxa in Taiwan are revised. The existence of R. howii Merr. & Chun, R. linearifoliolus Hayata, and R. parvifraxinifolius Hayata in Taiwan are reconfirmed, we described R. howii fruit information which was absent in original literature; and the third taxon is treated as a natural hydrid R. × parvifraxinifolius Hayata which putatively derived from R. rosifolius Sm. and R. linearifoliolus based on intermediate morphology and the scarcity of fruit set. Rubus pseudoacer Makino ssp. flexuosus (Y.-C. Liu & F.-Y. Lu H. Ohashi & C.-F. Hsieh is treated as synonym of R. pseudoacer Makino and is excluded in Taiwan. A key to the taxa, synonyms and taxonomic descriptions of each taxon are presented. Moreover, information about phenology, chromosome number, distribution and specimens examined for each taxon are also provided.

  1. Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Tao; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2017-11-21

    Biological classification, the hierarchical arrangement of scientific names of organisms, constitutes the core infrastructure of biological databases. For an efficient management of biological databases, adopting a stable and universal biological classification system is crucial. Currently in Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF; http://taibif.tw/ ), the national portal website that integrates Taiwan's biodiversity information databases, angiosperms are arranged according to Cronquist's System of Classification, which is not compatible with current trend of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification. To consolidate the function and management of the database, TaiBIF is moving to adopt the APG IV classification and Christenhusz et al. (Phytotaxa 19:55-70, 2011)'s classification of gymnosperms, which we summarize as the Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan. The Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan places gymnosperms in five families [vs. eight families in the Flora of Taiwan (FOT)] and angiosperms in 210 families (vs. 193 families in FOT). Three FOT gymnosperm families are synonymized in current treatment. Of the 210 APG IV families, familial circumscriptions of 114 families are identical with FOT and 50 families are recircumscription of FOT, with 46 families newly added. Of the 29 FOT families not included in current classification, two families are excluded and 27 families are synonymized. The adoption of the Phylogenetic Classification of Seed Plants of Taiwan in TaiBIF will provide better service and efficient management of the nation's biodiversity information databases.

  2. HIV/HCV Coinfection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are important global public health problems with shared transmission routes. Although HIV/HCV coinfection is not uncommon, the prevalence rates vary significantly across different studies and regions. In Taiwan, injection drug users have become the major contributors to the HIV/AIDS epidemic since 2005. Because the prevalence of HCV infection is high in injection drug users, this HIV epidemic is also associated with a significant increase of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan. To control Taiwan's HIV epidemic, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) launched a harm-reduction program in 2006. The HIV epidemic, the percentage attributed to injection drug users, and the prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection gradually declined thereafter. In this article, we aimed to thoroughly examine the current literatures of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan and hope to provide a better understanding of the needs for the management of this coinfection. We conducted a narrative review and searched for literature from PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library database untill August 2015. Studies relevant to the epidemiology and associated risk factors of HIV/HCV coinfection in Taiwan were examined and discussed.

  3. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at National Taipei University of Technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at National Taipei University of Technology. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  4. Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lun Ting

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF radio-frequency identification (RFID, ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station’s new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan’s buses.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship With Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianqian; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Chuang, Yi-Li; Zabin, Laurie S; Emerson, Mark R; Lou, Chaohua

    2015-09-01

    This study explores the association of child sexual abuse (CSA) with subsequent health risk behaviors among a cross-section of 4354 adolescents and young adults surveyed in urban and rural Taipei. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were employed. The overall proportion of CSA was 5.15%, with more females (6.14%) than males (4.16%) likely to experience CSA. CSA was differently associated with multiple adverse health outcomes, after adjusting other factors, such as age, residence, economic status, education, employment status, and household instability. Both males and females with CSA experience were more likely to report drinking, gambling, and suicidal ideation compared with those who had no history of CSA. However, the significant association between CSA and smoking, fighting, and suicidal attempt was not observed among females. Effective interventions are needed to reduce CSA and its adverse effects on adolescent well-being. © 2015 APJPH.

  6. 8 October 2012 - Taipei Cultural and Economic Delegation, Geneva Office Ambassador A. Tah-Ray Yui visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with International Relations Office Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    8 October 2012 - Taipei Cultural and Economic Delegation, Geneva Office Ambassador A. Tah-Ray Yui visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with International Relations Office Adviser R. Voss.

  7. 16 February 2012 - Chinese Taipei Ambassador to Switzerland F. Hsieh in the ATLAS visitor centre, ATLAS experimental area and LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Deputy Sookesperson A. Lankford, throughout accompanied by International Relations Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    16 February 2012 - Chinese Taipei Ambassador to Switzerland F. Hsieh in the ATLAS visitor centre, ATLAS experimental area and LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Deputy Sookesperson A. Lankford, throughout accompanied by International Relations Adviser R. Voss.

  8. Maternal diabetes or hypertension and lifestyle factors may be associated with metabolic syndrome: A population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hua Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and interventions for metabolic syndrome (MetS are the most cost-effective methods for preventing many chronic diseases. There have been discordant findings in various countries due to different genetics and lifestyles. The goal of this study was to investigate the association of MetS with parental diseases, a Chinese-style diet, and rural-urban regional differences with a large-scale epidemiological survey in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Taiwanese Survey on Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipidemia (TwSHHH, a cross-sectional population-based study with multistage stratified random sampling conducted by the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion in 2002. Public health nurses visited homes to conduct the survey, including blood drawing and an interview. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for exploring the factors associated with MetS. A total of 6591 people completed data for analysis. Our results revealed that older age, male sex, and maternal diabetes or hypertension, were significantly associated with MetS. Eating poultry with skin and fat and eating a bean-free diet may be associated with a higher risk of MetS. People who exercised regularly and the residents of the Taipei metropolitan area had a lower prevalence of MetS. As a result, people with maternal diabetes or hypertension should pay attention to their cardiovascular health and prevention of MetS. We suggest that eating skinless and low-fat poultry, eating more beans, and exercising regularly, may decrease the risk of MetS. We should make an effort to advocate for health promotion, including lifestyle modification, especially among the high-risk population and among residents in rural areas with limited medical resources.

  9. An Effective Financial Statements Fraud Detection Model for the Sustainable Development of Financial Markets: Evidence from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyan-long Jan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to establish a rigorous and effective model to detect enterprises’ financial statements fraud for the sustainable development of enterprises and financial markets. The research period is 2004–2014 and the sample is companies listed on either the Taiwan Stock Exchange or the Taipei Exchange, with a total of 160 companies (including 40 companies reporting financial statements fraud. This study adopts multiple data mining techniques. In the first stage, an artificial neural network (ANN and a support vector machine (SVM are deployed to screen out important variables. In the second stage, four types of decision trees (classification and regression tree (CART, chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID, C5.0, and quick unbiased efficient statistical tree (QUEST are constructed for classification. Both financial and non-financial variables are selected, in order to build a highly accurate model to detect fraudulent financial reporting. The empirical findings show that the variables screened with ANN and processed by CART (the ANN + CART model yields the best classification results, with an accuracy of 90.83% in the detection of financial statements fraud.

  10. Factors affecting the use of anti-amoebiasis protective measures among Taiwan immigrants returning to amoebiasis-endemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S C; Tsai, Y T; Hu, S C; Lin, C L; Chen, K L; Chen, K H; Chen, K T

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the predictors of use of anti-amoebiasis protective measures (AAPMs) among Taiwan immigrants returning to their country of origin, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) to guide the investigation. Cross-sectional study. Between March and May 2011, all permanent immigrants originating from amoebiasis-endemic countries who received services at the immigrant service centres in Taipei or Tainan and who reported that they had returned to their country of origin within the past five years were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and items related to the constructs of the HBM was used as the data collection instrument. Complete information was collected from 384 immigrants, with a response rate of 80% (384/480). The mean age of the subjects was 38.4 years (standard deviation 10.6 years). The majority (70%) of participants did not receive travel information through a pretravel consultation, and more than 17% reported that they did not use measures to prevent amoebiasis. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Chinese proficiency, pretravel consultation and lower barriers to using protective measures were significantly associated with the use of AAPMs during return trips to country of origin (R(2) = 0.45; F = 77.5; P amoebiasis-endemic regions who return to their country of origin. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A low-pH medium in vitro or the environment within a macrophage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, ...

  12. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  13. Multi-parametric investigation of the volcano-hydrothermal system at Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rontogianni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004–2007 of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7–8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1 HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5–6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.

  14. Multi-parametric investigation of the volcano-hydrothermal system at Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontogianni, S.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Lin, C.-H.

    2012-07-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004-2007) of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF) earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF) events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7-8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1) HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5-6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of carbapenem non-susceptible Acinetobacter nosocomialis in a medical center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Sung; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Wang, Yung-Chih; Chiu, Chun-Hsiang; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Sun, Jun-Ren; Yin, Ti; Chen, Te-Li; Lin, Jung-Chung; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism by which carbapenem non-susceptible Acinetobacter nosocomialis (CNSAN) is disseminated is rarely described in the literature. In this study, we delineated the molecular epidemiology of CNSAN isolated from patients in a medical center in Taiwan. Fifty-four non-duplicate bloodstream isolates of CNSAN were collected at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital between 2001 and 2007. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine their clonal relationship. Carbapenem-resistance genes and associated genetic structures were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mapping. Southern hybridization was performed to determine the plasmid location of carbapenem-resistance genes. Transmissibility of these genes to Acinetobacterbaumannii was demonstrated by conjugation tests. The overall carbapenem non-susceptibility rate among A. nosocomialis isolates during the study period was 21.6% (54/250). PFGE revealed three major pulsotypes: H (n=23), I (n=10), and K (n=8). The most common carbapenem-resistance gene was blaOXA-58 (43/54, 79.6%), containing an upstream insertion sequence IS1006 and a truncated ISAba3 (IS1006-ΔISAba3-like-blaOXA-58). All isolates belonging to the pulsotypes H, I, and K carried plasmid located IS1006-ΔISAba3-like-blaOXA-58. A common plasmid carrying ISAba1-blaOXA-82 was found in six isolates, which belonged to five pulsotypes. A type 1 integron that carried blaIMP-1 was detected in different plasmids of seven isolates, which belonged to five pulsotypes. Plasmids carrying these carbapenem-resistant determinants were transmissible from A. nosocomialis to A. baumannii via conjugation. In this medical center, CNSAN mainly emerged through clonal dissemination; propagation of plasmids and integrons carrying carbapenem-resistant determinants played a minor role. This study showed that plasmids carrying carbapenem-resistant determinants are transmissible from A. nosocomialis to A. baumannii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Media alcohol advertising with drinking behaviors among young adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Hsueh-Yu; Tseng, Fang-Yi; Chiu, Yu-Chan; Chen, Wei J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate potential effects of alcohol ads in six major marketing channels on drinking behaviors among young adolescents in Taiwan. The data were derived from the Alcohol-Related Experiences among Children study. The baseline sample was comprised of 1926 seventh-eighth graders from 11 public middle schools in Taipei in 2010; follow-up was conducted one year later (follow-up rate=97%). Information concerning individual sociodemographics, family characteristics, exposure to media portrayals of drinking and alcohol ads on major marketing channels, and drinking experience was collected through web-based self-administered questionnaires. Complex survey analyses were used to evaluate the association estimates, with stratification by prior drinking experiences in childhood. Television, in-store displays, and websites are the three most common marketing channels for young adolescents to report past-month alcohol advertising exposure. With statistical adjustment for potential confounders and six market channels, exposure to alcohol ads on television was associated with subsequent increased drinking initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.62; 95% CI=1.14-6.02). For those who have initiated alcohol use in childhood, the exposure to ads on the web (aOR=1.50; 95% CI=1.04-2.15) and radio (aOR=2.58; 95% CI=1.60-4.15) may elevate subsequent risk of occasional drinking. Exposure to media drinking portrayals was not related to subsequent drinking behaviors in this sample. Our results demonstrated that the effects of alcohol advertising on drinking behaviors in early adolescence may differ by marketing channels. Preventive strategies targeting underage drinking should consider restraining marketing channels (e.g., websites and radio) from certain advertising content and placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation on the Efficiency of Subsurface Drainage in Chiu-Fen Landslide at Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, L. Y.; Lin, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    For administrative district, the Chiu-Fen landslide is situated at northern Taiwan and comes within the jurisdiction of Ruei-Fang district, New Taipei City Government. Chiu-Fen village is a famous spot for sightseeing and tourism in Southeast Asia. In the last decade, for economic purpose, a vast area of slope land in Chiu-Fen area was reclaimed into business and commercial districts. However, due to the complicated geological and hydrological conditions, improper reclamation, and lack of appropriate soil and water conservation facilities, large scale landslides are frequently triggered by typhoon rainfall and causes damages to the transportation and residential building in the community. As a consequence, the government initiated a comprehensive field investigations and remediation plans to stabilize the landslide from 1997 and the remediation works were concentrated on subsurface drainages, namely the application of drainage well (a vertical shaft with multi-level horizontal drainage boreholes). To investigate the efficiency of drainage wells on the landslide, the A1-profile in the landslide which covers the drainage wells W2 and W4 was selected for a series of rainfall seepage and slope stability analyses. In addition, a 48-hrs design rainfall with return period of 25, 50 and 100 years based on the local meteorological data bank was adopted for the analyses. The numerical results indicate the factor safety FS of the three potential sliding surfaces within A1-profile are constantly keeping greater than one (FS > 1.0) and without decreasing with the elapsed time during rainfall. This implies that the subsurface drainage works can drain off the infiltrated rainwater from a high intensity and long duration rainfall and preserve the slope stability of landslides from deterioration. Finally, the efficiency of the drainage wells can be evaluated quantitatively in terms of the time-dependent factor of safety and the pore water pressure distribution on several potential

  18. Trends of Do-Not-Resuscitate consent and hospice care utilization among noncancer decedents in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan between 2010 and 2014: A Hospital-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chen, Chun-Ku; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2016-11-01

    Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) and hospice care are not only applied to cancer patients but also to patients with noncancer progressive illness. However, the trends of DNR consent and hospice utilization are not well explored for noncancer patients. This study aimed to explore the trends of DNR consent and hospice care utilization among noncancer decedents in a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. We analyzed the Death and Hospice Palliative Care Database from the Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan. The Death and Hospice Palliative Care Database contains information including patient sex, major diagnosis, admission date, date of death, age at death, department at discharge, status of DNR consent, and status of hospice care of patients who died in the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Data on patients aged 20 years old or more who died of major terminal noncancer diseases, including brain diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other lung diseases, heart failure, chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis, and renal failure between 2010 and 2014 were extracted for analysis. A total of 1416 patients aged 20 years or more died of major noncancer diseases in Taipei Veterans General Hospital during the study period. The most common diagnosis was brain diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dementias (n = 510, 36%) followed by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other lung diseases (n = 322, 22.7%). Among these noncancer decedents, 1045 (73.8%) had DNR consents, while 134 (9.5%) received hospice care. Patients diagnosed with renal failure had the highest percentage of DNR consent (80%), followed by chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (77.7%). Patients diagnosed with chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis had the highest percentage of hospice utilization (17.4%), followed by renal failure (15.8%). The percentages of DNR consent and hospice utilization were significantly different across different disease

  19. Factors associated with Taiwan anesthesiologists' intention to leave anesthesia practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-O Wang

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Unfavorable working conditions were considered to lower the satisfaction of anesthesiologists in Taiwan. In particular, an inability to take care of the family and a low salary were major factors in deterring anesthesiologists in Taiwan from continuing in anesthesia.

  20. Underreporting of maternal mortality in Taiwan: A data linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Pi Wu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Approximately two-thirds of the maternal deaths in Taiwan were unreported in the officially published mortality data. Hence, routine nationwide data linkage is essential to monitor maternal mortality in Taiwan accurately.

  1. Taiwan: Recent Developments and U.S. Policy Choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    .... Among other things, President Bush publicly stated in 2001 that the United States would do "whatever it takes" to help Taiwan's defense and approved, in April 2001, a substantial sale of U.S. weapons to Taiwan...

  2. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan, E-mail: yungjaanlee@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO{sub 2} emitted by a certain activity or the CO{sub 2} accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO{sub 2} emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO{sub 2} land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m{sup 3} in 2000 and 784 m{sup 3} in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m{sup 3} blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has

  3. Land, carbon and water footprints in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2015-01-01

    The consumer responsibility approach uses footprints as indicators of the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. This study used a time-series analysis of three environmental pressures to quantify the total environmental pressures caused by consumption in Taiwan: land footprint, carbon footprint, and water footprint. Land footprint is the pressure from appropriation of biologically productive land and water area. Carbon footprint is the pressure from greenhouse gas emissions. Water footprint is the pressure from freshwater consumption. Conventional carbon footprint is the total CO 2 emitted by a certain activity or the CO 2 accumulation during a product life cycle. This definition cannot be used to convert CO 2 emissions into land units. This study responds to the needs of “CO 2 land” in the footprint family by applying the carbon footprint concept used by GFN. The analytical results showed that consumption by the average Taiwan citizen in 2000 required appropriation of 5.39 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity) and 3.63 gha in 2011 in terms of land footprint. The average Taiwan citizen had a carbon footprint of 3.95 gha in 2000 and 5.94 gha in 2011. These results indicate that separately analyzing the land and carbon footprints enables their trends to be compared and appropriate policies and strategies for different sectors to be proposed accordingly. The average Taiwan citizen had a blue water footprint of 801 m 3 in 2000 and 784 m 3 in 2011. By comparison, their respective global averages were 1.23 gha, 2.36 gha and 163 m 3 blue water in 2011, respectively. Overall, Taiwan revealed higher environmental pressures compared to the rest of the world, demonstrating that Taiwan has become a high footprint state and has appropriated environmental resources from other countries. That is, through its imports of products with embodied pressures and its exports, Taiwan has transferred the environmental

  4. Optimal installation locations for automated external defibrillators in Taipei 7-Eleven stores: using GIS and a genetic algorithm with a new stirring operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Immediate treatment with an automated external defibrillator (AED) increases out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patient survival potential. While considerable attention has been given to determining optimal public AED locations, spatial and temporal factors such as time of day and distance from emergency medical services (EMSs) are understudied. Here we describe a geocomputational genetic algorithm with a new stirring operator (GANSO) that considers spatial and temporal cardiac arrest occurrence factors when assessing the feasibility of using Taipei 7-Eleven stores as installation locations for AEDs. Our model is based on two AED conveyance modes, walking/running and driving, involving service distances of 100 and 300 meters, respectively. Our results suggest different AED allocation strategies involving convenience stores in urban settings. In commercial areas, such installations can compensate for temporal gaps in EMS locations when responding to nighttime OHCA incidents. In residential areas, store installations can compensate for long distances from fire stations, where AEDs are currently held in Taipei.

  5. The impact of Chinese cultural values on Taiwan nursing leadership styles: comparing the self-assessments of staff nurses and head nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuanmay

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Chinese culture on nursing leadership behavior in Taiwan nurses. A descriptive study compared staff nurses' assessment of Chinese value in the leadership behavior of their head nurses. Data analysis was made on a convenience sample in Taiwan of 214 head nurses and 2,127 staff nurses who had worked with their head nurse for at least one year. Six medical centers and regional hospitals in northern (Taipei), central (Taichung) and southern (Kaohsiung) Taiwan were recruited for this study. Instruments included the demographic questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey, and Kang's Chinese Leadership Behaviors Module Scale. Results indicated that head nurses scored significantly higher than staff nurses in terms of all cultural values and leadership behaviors. Both staff nurses and head nurses scored the highest mean scores in personal integrity (Yi) and human connectedness (Ren) and the lowest in moral discipline (Li). Staff nurse perceptions of leadership behavior indicated the role of parent to be higher than either the role of director or mentor. Head nurses perceptions of leadership behavior emphasized the role of the director more than either parent or mentor. There were no significant differences between the staff nurses and head nurses in terms of expectative leadership behavior, which gave the role of director higher mean scores than those of either the parent or mentor. Positive and significant associations (r = .266 to r = .334) were found between cultural values and perceptions of leadership behavior. Cultural values predicted 10.6% of leadership behavior variance. The three demographic characteristics of location in northern Taiwan (beta = .09), intention to leave (beta = -.14), and general unit (beta = .10) and the two cultural values of human connectedness (Ren) (beta = .16) and personal integrity (Yi) (beta = .16) together reported a cumulative R2 of 14.6% to explain variance in leadership behavior

  6. Evaluating service marketing in airline industry and its influence on student passengers' purchasing behaviour-using Taipei-London route as an example.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huiling; Peng, Norman; Hackley, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical study into airline consumer purchase behaviour on a major global route, that between the United Kingdom and Taipei. It focuses on the factors influencing airline choice for a sample of 60 Taiwanese students based at UK Universities and travelling on five airlines: British Airways, Cathay Pacific Airways, China Airlines, EVA Airways and Royal Dutch Airways. Several stages of data-gathering were undertaken and a well-established analytical framework for services ...

  7. New Additions of the Bladderworts (Lentibulariaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan HSU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild populations of three bladderworts (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae were newly recognized in Taiwan. Utricularia heterosepala is newly recorded in Hualien, and two naturalized species, U. smithiana and U. tricolor, are found in northern Taiwan. Morphology, ecology and conservation status of these species are described. A renewed key for all Utricularia species ever recorded in Taiwan and Kinmen is also presented.

  8. An Event Study of Chinese Tourists to Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); S.-H. Hsu (Shu-Han); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe number of Chinese tourists visiting Taiwan has been closely related to the political relationship across the Taiwan Strait. The occurrence of political events and disasters or accidents have had, and will continue to have, a huge impact on the Taiwan tourism market. To date,

  9. Memory contested, locality transformed : representing Japanese colonial 'heritage' in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiang, Min-Chin

    2012-01-01

    In the search for a Taiwanese identity rooted in the land of Taiwan the Japanese colonial past plays an ambiguous role. The Japanese colonial sites became a constituent part of the new identity and cultural narrative of Taiwan in the 1990s and 2000s, when a memory boom was experienced in Taiwan

  10. The herbal composition GGEx18 from Laminaria japonica, Rheum palmatum, and Ephedra sinica inhibits visceral obesity and insulin resistance by upregulating visceral adipose genes involved in fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaeho; Lee, Hyunghee; Lim, Hyesook; Woo, Sangee; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2015-02-01

    The herbal composition Gyeongshingangjeehwan 18 (GGEx18) extracted from Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), Laminaria japonica Aresch (Laminariaceae), and Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae) is traditionally used as an anti-obesity drug by local clinics in Korea. This study investigates the effects of GGEx18 on visceral obesity and insulin resistance and determines the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. After C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with GGEx18 (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) for 8 weeks and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with GGEx18 (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/ml); variables and determinants of visceral obesity and insulin resistance were measured using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Administration of GGEx18 to obese mice decreased visceral adipose tissue weight with an ED50 value of 232 mg/kg. 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with GGEx18 showed a reduction in lipid accumulation with an ED50 value of 0.7 µg/ml. GGEx18 significantly increased the expression of fatty acid oxidation genes, including adiponectin, AMPKs, PPARα and its target enzymes, and CPT-1, in both mesenteric adipose tissues and 3T3-L1 cells. However, GGEx18 treatment decreased the mRNA levels of adipocyte marker genes such as PPARγ, aP2, TNFα, and leptin. GGEx18 normalized hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in obese mice. Blood glucose levels of GGEx18-treated mice were significantly reduced during oral glucose tolerance tests compared with obese controls. These results suggest that GGEx18 may treat visceral obesity and visceral obesity-related insulin resistance by upregulating the visceral adipose expression of fatty acid oxidative genes.

  11. GEOPHYSICS. Layered deformation in the Taiwan orogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T-Y; Gung, Y; Kuo, B-Y; Chiao, L-Y; Chen, Y-N

    2015-08-14

    The underthrusting of continental crust during mountain building is an issue of debate for orogens at convergent continental margins. We report three-dimensional seismic anisotropic tomography of Taiwan that shows a nearly 90° rotation of anisotropic fabrics across a 10- to 20-kilometer depth, consistent with the presence of two layers of deformation. The upper crust is dominated by collision-related compressional deformation, whereas the lower crust of Taiwan, mostly the crust of the subducted Eurasian plate, is dominated by convergence-parallel shear deformation. We interpret this lower crustal shearing as driven by the continuous sinking of the Eurasian mantle lithosphere when the surface of the subducted plate is coupled with the orogen. The two-layer deformation clearly defines the role of subduction in the formation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Diatoms of the Mystery Lake, Taiwan (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Tzong Wu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the last part of study about the diatom flora found in the Mystery Lake, a slightly acidic lake situated within a hardwood nature preserve in northeastern Taiwan. In this article, we reported 17 species, belonging to 4 genera, 4 families, and 2 orders, based on scanning electron microscopic observations. The species described here, 9 are newly recorded in Taiwan. They are: Navicula cryptotenella, Navicula ingrata, Navicula subfasciata, Pinnularia borealis var. rectangularis, Pinnularia interrupta, Pinnularia maior, Sellaphora laevissima, S. vitabunda, and Nitzschia perminuta. In total, we found 76 diatom species in the surface sediments of this lake. Among them, 33 (43% are newly recorded to Taiwan. The present study indicates that this lake is characterized by high species diversity and high species richness, which are related to the oligotrophic and non-polluted environmental conditions.

  13. Epidemiology of organophosphate pesticide poisoning in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzeng Jih; Walter, Frank Gardner; Hung, Dong Zong; Tsai, Jin Lian; Hu, Sheng Chuan; Chang, Jung San; Deng, Jou-Fang; Chase, Jung San; Denninghoff, Kurt; Chan, Hon Man

    2008-11-01

    The nationwide epidemiology of organophosphate pesticide (OP) poisoning has never been reported in detail for Taiwan. This study retrospectively reviewed all human OP exposures reported to Taiwan's Poison Control Centers (PCCs) from July 1985 through December 2006. There were 4799 OP exposures. Most OP exposures were acute (98.37%) ingestions (74.50%) of a single OP (80.37%) to attempt suicide (64.72%) in adults (93.25%). Males were the most common gender (64.95%). Most patients (61.97%) received atropine and/or pralidoxime. The mortality rate for all 4799 OP exposures was 12.71%. Exposures to single OPs without co-intoxicants caused 524 deaths; of these, 63.36% were due to dimethyl OPs. Dimethyl OPs cause the majority of deaths in Taiwan.

  14. Russia-Taiwan Relations: History and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vradiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of potential possibilities for the development of business, scientific and technical cooperation, Taiwan could be considered as a prospective partner for Russian businessmen in East Asia. It is defined by the island’s high degree of import dependence upon main categories of raw material resources and by its leading role in producing a number of articles in the manufacturing industry. The article will briefly review the contemporary history of Russia’s relations with Taiwan. It will also analyze the current status and presume the possibility for future prospects of bilateral economic and trade relations.

  15. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai; Hebenton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  16. Risk factors for myopia progression in second-grade primary school children in Taipei: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chien; Huang, Nicole; Lin, Pei-Yu; Fang, Shao-You; Tsai, Der-Chong; Chen, Shing-Yi; Tsai, Ching-Yao; Woung, Lin-Chung; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the 1-year progression of myopia and associated risk factors in second-grade primary school children. The myopia investigation study in Taipei provided semiannual visual acuity testing and cycloplegic refraction for all second-grade primary school children (mean age: 7.49 years) in Taipei who provided parental consent. A questionnaire was distributed to the participants' parents before the first and third examinations. We evaluated 1-year follow-up data for children noted to have myopia on the first examination. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to assess risk factors associated with myopia progression. Myopia progression was categorised, based on the change in spherical equivalent (ΔSE) over 1 year, as slow (ΔSE>-0.5 dioptres (D)), moderate (-1.0 D<ΔSE≤-0.5 D) or fast (ΔSE≤-1.0 D). Of the 4214 myopic children, data were analysed for 3256 (77.3%) who completed the 1-year follow-up evaluation. The baseline SE was -1.43±1.1 D. The average ΔSE was -0.42±0.85 D, with 46.96%, 28.50% and 24.54% of the study subjects showing slow, moderate and fast myopia progression, respectively. When compared with slow myopia progression, fast myopia progression was associated with a greater myopic SE at baseline (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.72) and a shorter eye-object distance when doing near work (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.78). More outdoor activity time and self-reported cycloplegic treatment were not associated with slow myopia progression. Children with fast annual myopia progression were more myopic at baseline and had a shorter reading distance. Our study results highlight the importance of having children keep a proper reading distance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Supplements to the Grasses (Poaceae in Taiwan (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst has recently become naturalized in low elevations of Taiwan, and Tripsacum dactyloides (L. L. established its population in low elevations, central Taiwan. The occurrence of Eragrostis cumingii Steud. in lowlands and low elevations in Taiwan was confirmed. We describe these three grasses new to the flora of Taiwan. Besides, we provide a key to species of Cynodon in Taiwan, and the treatment of C. arcuatus J. Presl ex C. Presl, as the synonym of C. radiatus Roth ex Roemer & Schultes.

  18. [Review of the CD Betel Nuts by Christopher Roberts (1996)

    OpenAIRE

    Senft, G.

    2001-01-01

    (TMCD 9602). Taipei: Trees Music & Art, 12-1, Lane 10, Sec. 2, Hsin Yi Rd. Taipei, TAIWAN. Distributed by Sony Music Entertainment (Taiwan)Ltd.,6th fl. No 35 , Lane 11, Kwang-Fu N. Rd., Taipei TAIWAN (CD accompanied by a full color bucklet)

  19. Incidence of respiratory viral infections and associated factors among children attending a public kindergarten in Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Yi; Huang, Li-Min; Fan, Tsui-Yien; Cheng, A-Ling; Chang, Luan-Yin

    2018-02-01

    Kindergarteners frequently encounter various infectious diseases, so surveillance of viral infectious diseases would provide information for their health promotion. We enrolled kindergarten attendees, age 2-5 years, during the academic years of 2006 and 2007 in a Taipei City kindergarten. Daily monitoring of illness and regular biweekly physical examinations were undertaken. Multiple infections were defined as one child having two or more laboratory-confirmed viral infections with different viruses or different serotypes during one academic year. The overall laboratory-confirmed incidence rate of respiratory viral infection was 239 per 100 person-years in the 2006 academic year and 136 per 100 person-years in the 2007 academic year. The attack rate for seasonal influenza was 17% in the 2006 academic year and 27% in the 2007 academic year. Boys and children with allergies had significantly higher risks to get multiple viral infections [odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.75; OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.00-2.39, respectively]. Boys also tended to get enterovirus infections (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.02-2.38) while children with allergies tended to acquire adenovirus infections (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.12-2.66). Boys and children with allergies were more susceptible to multiple viral infections, so they should be more cautious about viral infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Estimation of heat rejection based on the air conditioner use time and its mitigation from buildings in Taipei City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chun-Ming; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Urban Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The main work in the research focuses on the analysis and mitigation of the anthropogenic heat discharged from buildings, which is one of the main reasons leading to the heat island effect. The residential and commercial buildings, divided into 10 categories, with HVAC systems were analyzed by the building energy program, EnergyPlus. With the help of GIS, the heat rejection of all the residential and commercial buildings in DaAn Ward of Taipei City were evaluated, in which the spatial data and diurnal variation of the heat rejection were described by 3-h time periods. Furthermore, the effect of mitigation strategies was discussed. The first strategy was to change the wall/roof material of building envelope. The second and third strategies, from the viewpoint of energy saving, were to change the temperature setting of air conditioners and to turn off the lighting and equipment when not in use. The fourth strategy was to use a better efficiency of the cooling systems. Finally, the evaluation of installing the water-cooled cooling system, which discharges heat in the form of sensible and latent heat, was also included. (author)

  1. Constructing Taipei City Sports Centre Performance Evaluation Model with Fuzzy MCDM Approach Based on Views of Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to utilize the fuzzy analytical/network process (FAHP/FANP and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL approach to recognize the influential indicators of sport centre business management in Taipei city’s sports centre. Twenty-three of sports centres with six-dimensions were identified from the literature review and interview with twelve experts (academic and practical experience. By considering the interrelationships among the indices, DEMATEL was used to deal with the importance and causal relationships among the evaluation indices of sports centre. Then, we employ the FAHP/FANP to determine the weight of each management criterion. Our empirical results provide two main insights: first, sports centre business management strategies comprise six-dimensions and 23 indexes; second, the FANP analysis shows that the six key factors are (in order of priority service price, site conditions, operations management, traffic conditions, sports products, and staff quality. This study uses the FANP and DEMATEL along with mathematical computing in order to provide sports centre managers with a reliable decision-making reference and to assist them in formulating the most effective business strategy possible.

  2. An Investigation of the Methods of Logicalizing the Code-Checking System for Architectural Design Review in New Taipei City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-I Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The New Taipei City Government developed a Code-checking System (CCS using Building Information Modeling (BIM technology to facilitate an architectural design review in 2014. This system was intended to solve problems caused by cognitive gaps between designer and reviewer in the design review process. Along with considering information technology, the most important issue for the system’s development has been the logicalization of literal building codes. Therefore, to enhance the reliability and performance of the CCS, this study uses the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM on the basis of design thinking and communication theory to investigate the semantic difference and cognitive gaps among participants in the design review process and to propose the direction of system development. Our empirical results lead us to recommend grouping multi-stage screening and weighted assisted logicalization of non-quantitative building codes to improve the operability of CCS. Furthermore, CCS should integrate the Expert Evaluation System (EES to evaluate the design value under qualitative building codes.

  3. Effect of photochemical smog associated with synoptic weather patterns on cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between photochemical smog (PS) (hourly ozone conc. >100 ppb), PS-related diseases, and the synoptic weather patterns during 2005-2009 in metropolitan Taipei. The results show that compared to respiratory ailments (ICD code 460-519) and asthma (ICD code 493), cardiovascular ailments (ICD code 390-459) were more clearly influenced by PS events. On the PS event day, the number of admissions of babies, children, and adults increased by 0.04 [95% CI 0.01-0.06], 0.03 [95% CI 0.00-0.07], and 1.12 [95% CI 0.36-1.89] (P < 0.05), respectively. The investigation showed that more than 70% of the PS events were associated primarily with the peripheral circulation of typhoons, Pacific pressure, and discrete Pacific pressure. PS events are a threat to public health. To avoid the ill effects of air pollution, residents should be informed about the daily weather patterns and air quality.

  4. The real of community colleges in Taipei : Approach method of forming “civil society” by Shilin community college

    OpenAIRE

    山口, 香苗

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how approach the community colleges establish idea “form civil society”, through clarify the character and issues of Shilin community college. The original idea of community college in Taiwan is based on academic curriculum and organization curriculum, through this two curriculums, heighten people ’s ability of deal with public affairs problems. However, this study clarifies Shilin community college attaches importance to life artistic skill curriculum,...

  5. The Quality of Life in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,006 respondents shows that in Taiwan, people have access to modern utilities and digital media, signs of materialistic achievement, and yet are more concerned with physical security and financial safety than with personal growth. Regardless of their demographic backgrounds and value priorities, the Taiwanese, like…

  6. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Chu (Lan-Fen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-C. Chang (Ching-Chung)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  7. Statistical Modelling of Extreme Rainfall in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chu (LanFen); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C-H. Chang (Chu-Hsiang)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, the annual maximum daily rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 are modelled for 18 stations in Taiwan. We fit the rainfall data with stationary and non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions (GEV), and estimate their future behaviour based on the best fitting model.

  8. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  9. Gestalt Group Dreamwork Demonstrations in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coven, Arnold B.

    2004-01-01

    The application of Gestalt dreamwork was explored with counselor education students and professors at two Taiwan universities. The literature indicates Asians are reluctant to disclose personal matters or to display emotions. Contrary to expectations, the Taiwanese participants readily enacted roles, were personally open, and expressed intense…

  10. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  11. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  12. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  13. Language Policy and Group Identification in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruey-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multilingual society. Generally speaking, Taiwanese residents fall into one of four ethnic groups. Each ethnic group has a different cultural context and a preferred language. Therefore, one's use of language may reveal his/her identification with an ethnic group, and language policy implementation may imply the power…

  14. Empirical research on constructing Taiwan's ecoenvironmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the material flow indicators and ecological footprint approach structured are adopted to construct eco-environmental stress indicators. We use relevant data to proceed with the empirical analyses on environmental stress and ecological impacts in Taiwan between the years of 1998 and 2007. Analysis of ...

  15. The Workforce Education and Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Workforce education and development (WED) can be broadly defined as those formal, informal and nonformal activities that prepare people for work. In Taiwan, it includes technological and vocational education (TVE), human resource development (HRD), public vocational training and adult education. In order to promote information exchanges and…

  16. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig (Sus Scrofa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Taiwan Lanyu pig (Sus scrofa) and its phylogenetic relationships with other pig breeds. Thirty-four forward and reverse primers were designed. Sequencing was performed in both directions.

  17. Servicing NPPs in Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmann, W.; Poetz, F.

    1991-01-01

    More than 45 comparable orders (for equipment or services ) have been carried out in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by ABB Reaktor since 1982. Recently contracts to deliver inspection and repair equipment for the core baffle former bolts of Japanese NPPs, and in 1990, a contract to clean two steam generators in Korea, together with Pacific Nuclear Services, USA, were won. 2 figs

  18. Geochemistry of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan. Department of Tourism, Aletheia University, Tamsui 25103, Taiwan. National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung 404, Taiwan. Sinotech Engineering Consultants Inc., Taipei 114, Taiwan. Department of Leisure Business Management, DeLin ...

  19. Climate change impacts in Zhuoshui watershed, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Chao-Tzuen; Li, Hsin-Chi; Wu, Tingyeh; Chen, Wei-Bo; Shih, Hung-Ju

    2017-04-01

    There are 5.3 typhoons hit Taiwan per year on average in last decade. Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the most severe typhoon, causes huge damage in Taiwan, including 677 casualty and roughly NT 110 billion (3.3 billion USD) in economic loss. Some researches documented that typhoon frequency will decrease but increase in intensity in western North Pacific region. It is usually preferred to use high resolution dynamical model to get better projection of extreme events; because coarse resolution models cannot simulate intense extreme events. Under that consideration, dynamical downscaling climate data was chosen to describe typhoon satisfactorily. One of the aims for Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform (TCCIP) is to demonstrate the linkage between climate change data and watershed impact models. The purpose is to understand relative disasters induced by extreme rainfall (typhoons) under climate change in watersheds including landslides, debris flows, channel erosion and deposition, floods, and economic loss. The study applied dynamic downscaling approach to release climate change projected typhoon events under RCP 8.5, the worst-case scenario. The Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) and FLO-2D models, then, were used to simulate hillslope disaster impacts in the upstream of Zhuoshui River. CCHE1D model was used to elevate the sediment erosion or deposition in channel. FVCOM model was used to asses a flood impact in urban area in the downstream. Finally, whole potential loss associate with these typhoon events was evaluated by the Taiwan Typhoon Loss Assessment System (TLAS) under climate change scenario. Results showed that the total loss will increase roughly by NT 49.7 billion (1.6 billion USD) in future in Zhuoshui watershed in Taiwan. The results of this research could help to understand future impact; however model bias still exists. Because typhoon track is a critical factor to consider regional

  20. Numerical Simulation of Barotropic Tides around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Kai Hu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1/12°, 2-D barotropic tide model was used to examine the characteristics of barotropic tides and to improve the accuracy of predicting tidal sea levels and currents in the seas around Taiwan. The form ratio suggests that tides are predominantly semidiurnal in the northern reaches of the Taiwan Strait and mixed of diurnal and semidiurnal elsewhere around Taiwan. When the dominant M2 wave enters the Strait from the north, its amplitude is magnified to ~2 m in the middle, and then decreases rapidly toward the south end of the Strait. The predominance of diurnal tides along the southwest to the south coast of Taiwan is attributed to the quasi-resonance of diurnal waves in the South China Sea. The tidal range is small and tidal currents are weak off the east coast of Taiwan. Barotropic tidal energy is mostly dissipated on the shallow banks of the southwestern Strait. Results summarized from sensitivity tests on the bottom drag coefficient (CD and horizontal eddy viscosity (AM indicate that CD = 0.0015 - 0.00175 and AM = 150 m2 s-1 lead to the best model-data fit when compared to the observed tidal sea levels at ten reference tide-gauge stations around Taiwan. The averaged root-mean-squared (RMS differences of the simulated tidal sea level for the six principal constituents of O1, P1, K1, N2, M2, and S2 are significantly reduced to 1.3, 0.7, 2.0, 1.6, 5.1, and 3.1 cm, respectively, compared to that calculated from a 0.5° resolution global tide harmonic constant database, NAO.99b (Matsumoto et al. 2000. The averaged RMS differences of barotropic tidal currents (U, V for O1, K1, M2, and S2 are (0.92, 1.64, (1.17, 0.61, (3.88, 2.37, and (1.52, 1.20 cm s-1. A database of tidal sea levels and current harmonic constants, TWTIDE08, for Q1, O1, P1, K1, J1, OO1, 2N2, μ2, N2, ν2, M2, L2, T2, S2, and K2 is established with this study.

  1. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... (Preliminary)] Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan... reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine..., Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. Accordingly...

  2. Origins of Semisulcospira libertina (gastropoda: semisulcospiridae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yuh-Wen; Bor, Hor; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Hsu, Kui-Ching; Tan, Mian-Shin; Wang, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Hung-Du

    2017-07-01

    The most accepted hypothesis has suggested that the fauna in Taiwan Island originated from South China, but some studies supported the Japan, Ryukyu Archipelago, and Taiwan Islands as a unique biogeographical district. This study examines whether the populations of freshwater snail Semisulcospira libertina in Taiwan are closer to those in Japan based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Our study shows the populations in North Taiwan originated from Japan and the cyclic glacial caused the migrations among islands and continent repeatedly; the populations in South Taiwan might originate from South China or South Asia. Our results will not only affect the conclusions in phylogeography of freshwater species in Taiwan but also change the sampling plans in the future studies about evolutionary of freshwater species in East Asia.

  3. Associations between mortality and meteorological and pollutant variables during the cool season in two Asian cities with sub-tropical climates: Hong Kong and Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggins, William B; Chan, Emily Y Y; Yang, Chunyuh; Chong, Marc

    2013-07-19

    Numerous studies have found associations between extreme temperatures and human mortality but relatively few studies have been done in sub-tropical and tropical cities, especially in Asia. In this study we examine the impact of cold temperatures, cold waves and other meteorological and environmental variables on cool season mortality in 2 subtropical Asian cities. Separate analysis of daily mortality time-series from Hong Kong and Taipei using Generalized Additive Models with natural mortality as the outcome daily mean temperature as the main explanatory variable and relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, pollutants (nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), respirable suspended particulates (PM(10)), ozone (O(3)), seasonality and day of the week controlled as potential confounders. Lags up to 35 days were considered for temperature, and distributed lag models were used to determine the number of lags for final models. Subgroup analyses were also done by gender, age group, cause of death and geographical area of residence. Cold temperatures were strongly associated with higher mortality with lagged effects persisting up to 3 weeks in Hong Kong and 2 weeks in Taipei. Cold effects were much stronger for deaths among older people and non-cancer deaths. Prolonged cold spells modestly but significantly raised mortality after accounting for the effects of individual cold days. Higher daily ozone levels were also strongly associated with higher short-term mortality in Taipei and Hong Kong, while relative humidity and solar radiation were weakly and inconsistently associated with mortality. Cold temperatures and cold spells substantially increase short-term mortality in sub-tropical Asian cities particularly among the elderly. Greater attention needs to be paid to the adverse health effects of cold temperatures. Interventions including provisions of shelters, cold weather warnings and education about the possible health effects of cold temperature should

  4. A Nine-Year Follow-up Study of Sleep Patterns and Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chung; Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To simultaneously explore the associations between mortality and insomnia, sleep duration, and the use of hypnotics in older adults. Design: A fixed cohort study. Setting: A community in Shih-Pai area, Taipei, Taiwan. Participants: A total of 4,064 participants over the age of 65 completed the study. Intervention: N/A. Measurements and Results: Insomnia was classified using an exclusionary hierarchical algorithm, which categorized insomnia as “no insomnia,” “subjective poor sleep quality,” “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5 insomnia,” “1-month insomnia disorder,” and “6-month insomnia disorder.” The main outcome variables were 9-year all-cause mortality rates. In the all-cause mortality analyses, when hypnotic use, depressive symptoms and total sleep time were excluded from a proportional hazards regression model, subjects with “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5 insomnia” had a higher mortality risk (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.45). In the full model, frequent hypnotic use and long sleep duration predicted higher mortality rates. However, the increased mortality risk for subjects with “Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5 insomnia” was not observed in the full model. On the contrary, individuals with a 6-month DSM-IV insomnia disorder had a lower risk for premature death (HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.96). Conclusions: Long sleep duration and frequent hypnotics use predicted an increased mortality risk within a community-dwelling sample of older adults. The association between insomnia and mortality was affected by insomnia definition and other parameters related to sleep patterns. Citation: Chen HC; Su TP; Chou P. A nine-year follow-up study of sleep patterns and mortality in community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1187-1198. PMID:23904679

  5. Aspects of digestive anatomy, feed intake and digestion in the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) at Taipei zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei Fong; Chang, Chi-Yen; Yang, Ci Wen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are considered difficult to maintain in zoos, often attributed to problems in feeding management. Taipei Zoo's designation as a wildlife rescue center for Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) has resulted in long term feeding experience with development of diets that support recovery, maintenance, and reproduction, as well as experimental opportunities to further understand digestive physiology to optimize nutrition. Opportunistic dissection of 10 animals revealed details of the tongue, salivary glands, stomach and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including confirmation of anatomical differences between Asian and African pangolin species. Length of the total GIT relative to body length (∼ 9:1) was greater than found in domestic carnivores, more similar to omnivorous species. Intake and digestion trials conducted with 4 animals demonstrated that pangolins maintained body weights (BW; 6-9 kg) consuming diets containing 32-40% crude protein, 20-25% crude fat, and 13-28% crude fiber (DM basis). Daily DM intakes ranged from ∼40 to 70 g per animal, with digestible energy intake 51.5-87.5 kcal /kg BW(0.75) /day; pangolins consumed 9.4-15.2 g DM/kg BW(0.75) /day. Dietary energy data support observations of low metabolism and maintenance requirements for this species, similar to values reported for other myrmecophageous species. Addition of 5% ground chitin to diets improved fecal consistency, and decreased digestibility of DM, protein, and energy; addition of chitosan (chitin treated with NaOH) resulted in diet rejection. This information may assist in enhancement of captive diets, as well as in controlling obesity in pangolins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Response of Taiwan nursing education to today's nursing shortage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2012-10-01

    The shortage of nursing manpower has recently attracted significant attention from Taiwan society. Government efforts to improve the nursing practice environment have challenged the quality of current domestic nursing education. This article provides an overview of Taiwan nursing education in terms of its development under current nursing shortage conditions and in light of Taiwan's low birthrate, ageing society. A few suggestions for nursing education are listed at the end of the article.

  7. Physics teaching in the medical schools of Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy

    2012-01-01

    We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching phys...

  8. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai [Department of Regional Studies in Humanity and Social Sciences, National Hsin-Chu University of Education, No. 521 Nan-Da Road, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Hebenton, Bill [School of Law, University of Manchester, M13 9PP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  9. Application of the balanced scorecard to an academic medical center in Taiwan: the effect of warning systems on improvement of hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Hou, Ying-Hui; Chang, Ray-E

    2012-10-01

    The balanced scorecard (BSC) is considered to be a useful tool for management in a variety of business environments. The purpose of this article is to utilize the experimental data produced by the incorporation and implementation of the BSC in hospitals and to investigate the effects of the BSC red light tracking warning system on performance improvement. This research was designed to be a retrospective follow-up study. The linear mixed model was applied for correcting the correlated errors. The data used in this study were secondary data collected by repeated measurements taken between 2004 and 2010 by 67 first-line medical departments of a public academic medical center in Taipei, Taiwan. The linear mixed model of analysis was applied for multilevel analysis. Improvements were observed with various time lags, from the subsequent month to three months after red light warning. During follow-up, the red light warning system more effectively improved controllable costs, infection rates, and the medical records completion rate. This further suggests that follow-up management promotes an enhancing and supportive effect to the red light warning. The red light follow-up management of BSC is an effective and efficient tool where improvement depends on ongoing and consistent attention in a continuing effort to better administer medical care and control costs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Knowledge of the new Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act is associated with smokers' behavior of seeking help in smoking cessation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai-Yin; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chen, Chien-Chih; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-03-01

    Evidence that smoking area restrictions and raising cigarette taxes affect smokers' behavior of seeking help in cessation is limited. The authors conducted a case-control study of 200 participants in Taipei City, Taiwan, from December 2008 to June 2009 to evaluate the association between knowledge on legislation and the behavior of seeking help in smoking cessation. They compared smokers who sought assistance in clinics/classes and smokers who did not, matching for age, gender, and recruitment time. In a univariate model, both banning smoking and increasing prices had positive effects on smokers' behavior, but the effect size of the latter was larger (P = .021). A better knowledge of the regulations was associated with cessation effort (odds ratio [OR] = 2.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44-5.23), as were being more influenced by increased prices (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.38-4.34) and by smoking bans (OR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.29-4.16). Increased knowledge of the regulations is associated with seeking help for smoking. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. Community-onset Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in Taiwan: clinical features of the disease and associated microbiological characteristics of isolates from pneumonia and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Tsung; Wang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Fu-Der; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of community-onset pneumonia in Asian countries and South Africa. We investigated the clinical characteristics of K. pneumoniae causing community-onset pneumonia, and the associated microbiological features between K. pneumoniae isolates from pneumonia and those from the nasopharynx in Taiwan. This study was conducted at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital during July, 2012 to February, 2014. The clinical characteristics in patients with community-onset K. pneumoniae pneumonia were analyzed. K. pneumoniae isolates from the nasopharynx of adults attending otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinics were collected to compare their microbiological features with those from pneumonia. Capsular genotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and multilocus sequence type (MLST) were determined among these strains. Ninety-one patients with community-onset K. pneumoniae pneumonia were enrolled. We found a high mortality (29.7%) among these patients. Capsular types K1, K2, K5, K20, K54, and K57 accounted for ∼70% of the K. pneumoniae isolates causing pneumonia, and ∼70% of all the K. pneumoniae strains isolated from the nasopharynx of patients in outpatient clinics. The MLST profiles further demonstrated the genetic relatedness between most pneumonia isolates and those from the nasopharynx. In conclusion, our results show that community-onset pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae was associated with high mortality and could have a reservoir in the nasopharynx. To tackle this high-mortality disease, the distribution of capsular types in the nasopharynx might have implications for future vaccine development.

  12. A nine-year follow-up study of sleep patterns and mortality in community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chung; Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2013-08-01

    To simultaneously explore the associations between mortality and insomnia, sleep duration, and the use of hypnotics in older adults. A fixed cohort study. A community in Shih-Pai area, Taipei, Taiwan. A total of 4,064 participants over the age of 65 completed the study. N/A. Insomnia was classified using an exclusionary hierarchical algorithm, which categorized insomnia as "no insomnia," "subjective poor sleep quality," "Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5 insomnia," "1-month insomnia disorder," and "6-month insomnia disorder." The main outcome variables were 9-year all-cause mortality rates. In the all-cause mortality analyses, when hypnotic use, depressive symptoms and total sleep time were excluded from a proportional hazards regression model, subjects with "Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5 insomnia" had a higher mortality risk (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.45). In the full model, frequent hypnotic use and long sleep duration predicted higher mortality rates. However, the increased mortality risk for subjects with "Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5 insomnia" was not observed in the full model. On the contrary, individuals with a 6-month DSM-IV insomnia disorder had a lower risk for premature death (HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.96). Long sleep duration and frequent hypnotics use predicted an increased mortality risk within a community-dwelling sample of older adults. The association between insomnia and mortality was affected by insomnia definition and other parameters related to sleep patterns.

  13. Economic evaluation of vaccination against influenza in the elderly: an experience from a population-based influenza vaccination program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen-Te; Lee, Long-Teng; Chen, Li-Sheng; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi

    2005-03-14

    Due to viral strains, influenza season, and consultations and admission rates varying from country to country, the continued economic evaluation of influenza vaccination for the elderly people aged 65 years and above is paramount, particularly in areas with dense population. Efficacy and cost-effective analysis of influenza vaccination in reducing all-cause mortality and hospitalization was therefore elucidated based on a prospective and population-based study targeted to 226,997 elderly people aged 65 years and above residing in Taipei county, Taiwan between 1 October 2000 and 31 March 2001. Vaccination against influenza for the elderly persons can lead to a 29% (95% CI: 23-35%) significant reduction of all-cause deaths. Approximately, 20% (95% CI: 9-30%) significant reduction in hospitalization was observed for average-risk group but 4% (95% CI: -4-11%) non-significant reduction for high-risk group. Community-based influenza vaccination program for elderly people aged 65 years and above was demonstrated to be effective in reducing mortality in all elderly people but not significantly in reducing hospitalization. Universal vaccination program for the elderly people seems cost-effective in averting death or gaining life years.

  14. Transmission Modes of Melioidosis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Tan Hsueh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, melioidosis is an emerging disease that suddenly increased in the Er-Ren River Basin, beginning in 2005 and in the Zoynan region during 2008–2012, following a typhoon. Additionally, the disease sporadically increased in a geography-dependent manner in 2016. Subcutaneous inoculation, ingestion, and the inhalation of soil or water contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei are recognized as the transmission modes of melioidosis. The appearance of environmental B. pseudomallei positivity in northern, central and southern Taiwan is associated with disease prevalence (cases/population: 0.03/100,000 in the northern region, 0.29/100,000 in the central region and 1.98/100,000 in the southern region. However, melioidosis-clustered areas are confined to 5 to 7.5 km2 hot spots containing high-density populations, but B. pseudomallei-contaminated environments are located >5 km northwestern of the periphery of these hot spots. The observation that the concentration of B. pseudomallei-specific DNA in aerosols was positively correlated with the incidence of melioidosis and the appearance of a northwesterly wind in a hot spot indicated that airborne transmission had occurred in Taiwan. Moreover, the isolation rate in the superficial layers of a contaminated crop field in the northwest was correlated with PCR positivity in aerosols collected from the southeast over a two-year period. The genotype ST58 was identified by multilocus sequence typing in human and aerosol isolates. The genotype ST1001 has increased in prevalence but has been sporadically distributed elsewhere since 2016. These data indicate the transmission modes and environmental foci that support the dissemination of melioidosis are changing in Taiwan.

  15. Low-level radwaste transportation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, L.F.; Huang, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the past ten years, 273 voyages have been made to ship radwaste produced by nuclear power plants and Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). It more or less lowers the problem of insufficient storage space in Taiwan. Although all organizations followed various regulations to operate the transportation, ten events occurred in marine transport. However, they were ordinary incidents and neither released any radiation to contaminate the environment nor caused any casualty. (J.P.N.)

  16. Transformation of Taiwan’s Reserve Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    sim - ulations, and games have important value, but they miss other quali- tative factors that history shows are important and often decisive for...deployed on Taiwan’s frontline islands at locations that Wins Most Gold Medals at Asia Pacific ICT Competition,” Focus Taiwan, November 26, 2015; and John...are sim - ilar in one key respect: They confront an overtly hostile neighbor (in Taiwan’s case) or neighbors (in Israel’s) who pose an existential

  17. Japan’s National Interests in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    University of Hawaii Press, 1974, 8 territories. The commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy’s combined fleet, Admiral Takahashi Sankichi, put it...that another takeover by another off-island regime will be an improvement over what has been done before. The Japanese colonial period in Taiwan...1895-1945). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1974. Kissinger, Henry. On China. New York: Penguin, 2011. Ko, Shu-ling. “China not the only

  18. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  19. Energy statistics and the role of nuclear energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.T.; Chen, Y.B.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the very limited indigenous energy resources, Taiwan has to import over 95% of the energy from overseas to meet her need. In this paper, the supply and demand of various kind of major energies will be discussed. Also, in order to lessen the environmental burden and increase the energy independence for Taiwan, the so-called quasi-indigenous energy - nuclear energy, will play an important role in Taiwan's future energy mix. The optimal ratios of the mix in the year of 2005 in Taiwan area using multiobjective method by independent research Institute will also be discussed. (author)

  20. Physics teaching in the medical schools of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy

    2012-02-01

    We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Taiwan in 2004: Elections, Referenda, and Other Democratic Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    .... In both the presidential and legislative election campaigns, Chen emphasized gaining a separate international identity for Taiwan -- an emphasis to which Beijing strenuously objected as dangerously...

  2. Transmission capability of asymmetric digital subscriber lines in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shyue-Win; Leu, Shyue-Tzong; Wei, Che-Ho

    1995-04-01

    The transmission capacity of discrete multitone (DMT) modulation system for Taiwan's subscriber loops is evaluated in this study. Based on the characteristics of Taiwan's local loops, the transmission capacity is estimated to be 1.544 Mb/s and 6 Mb/s in Taiwan. Simulation results also show how many percents of users in Taiwan may have 1.544 Mb/s or 6 Mb/s of asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL) services. Self far-end crosstalk (FEXT) and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are considered to be the dominant noise sources in the work.

  3. The study on the evaluation of the pollution control situation of the sewage systems in the counties and cities of Taiwan by applying the VIKOR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jun-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    County (0.2253) and Kaohsiung City (0.1334). Other cities and counties of Taiwan have good performance in the pollution control of the industrial area sewage systems. The VIKOR value of Kinmen County is 1.0000, which is the worst pollution control among the all public community sewage systems, followed by Hsinchu County (0.7458) and New Taipei City (0.5527). Among the cities and counties with good pollution control of the public community sewage systems, the best is Chiayi County (0.0000), followed by Kaohsiung City (0.0159) and Hsinchu City (0.0352). Chiayi County is a good performance compromise between all VIKOR values (0.0000), whether in industrial or public community area pollution control sewage systems. Yilan County industrial pollution control has the poorest performance of all the industrial area sewage systems in Taiwan, but in the public community, it ranked as fourth place of all the public community area sewage systems in Taiwan. The VIKOR method proposed in this study can effectively evaluate the pollution control situation of the sewage systems, and serve as a reference for the environmental protection authorities in developing the strategies for the pollution control of the sewage systems.

  4. Additional Remarks on Ranunculaceae in Taiwan (8 -Revision of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Aleck Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a taxonomic study of the genera of Ranunculaceae in Taiwan, including Aconitum L., Anemone L., Calathodes L., Cimicifuga Hook.f. & Thomson, Coptis L., Dichocarpum L., Ranunculus L., Semiaquilegea Makino, Thalictrum L. and Trollius L. Anemone vitifolia Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. matsudae Yamam. is recognized in Taiwan; the concept of the genus Cimicifuga is still accepted, excluding genus Actaea. A key to the genera, keys to the taxa under each genus and synonyms of each taxon are provided. The taxonomic descriptions of taxa are only for those published after 1996. For easy understanding and checking of Taiwanese Ranunculaceae, phenology, distribution and specimens examined in each taxon are also presented. Totally, there are 11 genera and 51 taxa (including 41 species, 2 subspecies and 8 varieties of family Ranunculaceae in Taiwan.

  5. Towards Marine Spatial Planning in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tsung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to population growth, rapid economic development and inadequate marine control, the use of ocean and coastal regions in Taiwan has become more frequent and intense in recent years. However, the lack of comprehensive marine and coastal planning in this island nation has led to many conflicts over space and resources and limited its ability to prepare for and respond to environmental hazards, thus threatening national security as well as the safety and property of its citizens. This study proposes a marine zoning scheme for southern Taiwan. The results show that many important habitats in the southern sea areas have not been properly protected due to the extremely small size of the marine protected area. Furthermore, the majority of the conflicts derive from the exclusive fishing right vs. other uses such as marine conservation. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the marine spatial planning (MSP for the Southern Taiwan to deal with the conflicts of use seas and uncertainties associated with complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic marine system.

  6. Predictors of Burnout Among Nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huan-Fang; Yen, Miaofen; Fetzer, Susan; Chien, Tsair Wei

    2015-08-01

    Nurse burnout is a crucial issue for health care professionals and impacts nurse turnover and nursing shortages. Individual and situational factors are related to nurse burnout with predictors of burnout differing among cultures and health care systems. The predictors of nurse burnout in Asia, particularly Taiwan, are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of burnout among a national sample of nurses in Taiwan. A secondary data analysis of a nationwide database investigated the predictors of burnout among 1,846 nurses in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analysis determined the relationship between predictors and burnout. Predictors of Taiwanese nurse burnout were age, physical/psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, work engagement, and work environment. The most significant predictors were physical/psychological symptoms and work engagement. The variables explained 35, 39, and 18 % of the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization variance for 54 % of the total variance of burnout. Individual characteristics and nurse self-awareness, especially work, engagement can impact Taiwanese nurses' burnout. Nurse burnout predictors provide administrators with information to develop strategies including education programs and support services to reduce nurse burnout.

  7. Historical overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented.

  8. Transformation of Taiwan's Upper Secondary Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Lirng Laih

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy issues circling around the structural "transition" in upper secondary education implicit in the twenty-year increase in secondary and third-level school enrollment rates in Taiwan. This expansion has taken place within a secondary school system which is rigidly divided into both general, i.e., academic, and vocational tracks and into public and private sectors: the majority of students are enrolled in the private vocational sector which is only loosely articulated with the university sector. These features of the school system are analysed against the background of social and economic developments in Taiwan as well as public opinion. The analysis suggests that the present structures of school must be "reformed" in ways that will result in a more unified secondary system with both greater public funding and better articulation of all school types with the third level. The policy options that circle around the possibility of such reforms in the areas of curriculum, examination structures and second level-third level articulation are discussed and a policy framework for the reform of the Taiwan secondary education sector is outlined.

  9. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  10. Perspectives for solar thermal applications in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keh-Chin; Lin, Wei-Min; Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Chung, Kung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan has long depended on imported fossil energy. The government is thus actively promoting the use of renewable energy. Since 2000, domestic installations of solar water heaters have increased substantially because of the long-term subsidies provided for such systems. However, data on the annual installation area of solar collectors in recent years indicated that the solar thermal industry in Taiwan has reached a bottleneck. The long-term policy providing subsidies must thus be revised. It is proposed that future thermal applications in Taiwan should focus on building-integrated solar thermal, photovoltaic/thermal, and industrial heating processes. Regarding building-integrated solar thermal systems, the current subsidy model can be continued (according to area of solar collectors); nevertheless, the application of photovoltaic/thermal and industrial heating systems must be determined according to the thermal output of such systems. - Highlights: •The long-term subsidization for solar water heaters has lost effectiveness. •Solar thermal applications include BIST, PV/T and industrial heating process. •A performance-based subsidy policy should be implemented.

  11. Failure Mechanism analysis of rainfall-induced landslide at Pingguang Stream in Taiwan: Mapping, Investigation, and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Kai; Lee, Ching-Fang; Lo, Chia-Ming; Chiu, Chun-Jung

    2015-04-01

    On September 15, 2012, torrential storm carried by the peripheral circulation of Typhoon Sanba and the northeast monsoon induced a translational landslide near Pingguang Road in Xindian District of New Taipei City, Taiwan. The total volume of the landslide was approximately 162,000 m^3. The sliding mass destroyed two houses across the stream and formed a landslide dam at the toe of the slope, constricting the stream. In this study, remote sensing images and LiDAR scanning were interpreted, and conducted onsite surveys to obtain material parameters, and performed simulations using the discrete element method to reconstruction the post event, in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the landslide process. Survey results revealed complex geological conditions with wide spreading tension cracks at source area. This facilitated the infiltration of surface runoff into weak surfaces and raised groundwater levels. Once the shear strength falls below a critical value, failure surface will occur along the stratum boundary. The results of numerical simulation reveal that at 80 sec after the Pingguang Stream landslide began, a maximum deposition depth of 20 m had been reached. The sliding mass cut off the stream and pushed the stream flow roughly 35 m to the southeast. Because the slope materials surrounding the study area and the landslide-inducing mechanisms are similar, the top of the slopes to the northwest of the study area require monitoring immediately. In addition to filling in the tension cracks, drainage facilities should be constructed to prevent further landslides. Keywords: translational landslide, onsite survey, discrete element method, mechanism, landslide process

  12. Comparison of children's self-reports of depressive symptoms among different family interaction types in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that family interactions are associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, detailed classifications of family interaction types have not been studied thoroughly. This study aims to understand the types of family interactions children experience and to identify the specific types of family interactions that are associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in children. Methods Data used in the study was collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long term Evolution (CABLE project in 2003. CABLE is a longitudinal cohort study that commenced in 2001 and collects data annually from children in Taipei city and Hsinchu county in northern Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was that obtained from the sixth graders (aged 11 to 12 years old in 2003. Of the 2,449 sixth graders, 51.2% were boys and 48.8% were girls. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the types of family interactions. One way ANOVA was used to establish the relationship between family interaction types and children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results Based on the results of factor analysis, the latent factors for family interactions included supporting activities, psychological control, parental discipline, behavioral supervision, and family conflict. After conducting cluster analysis using factor scores, four types of family interactions were revealed: supervised (29.66%, disciplined (13.56%, nurtured (40.96% and conflict (15.82%. Children from the disciplined or conflict families were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Children from the nurtured families were least likely to report depressive symptoms. Conclusion Family interactions can be classified into four different types, which are related to children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. The creation of a family interaction environment that is beneficial for children's mental health is an important

  13. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  14. Current outlook of infectious diseases in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M

    1998-06-01

    The "emerging" infectious diseases have received global attention. Taiwan is a country which is going through the process of becoming "developed" from being "developing". If we compare five leading causes of death in 1952 and in 1993, three were infectious diseases in 1952 and there was none in 1993. And yet today, infectious diseases remain a major problem in this country as well in every country in the world, whether developing or developed. Some of the problems Taiwan faces are old problems with old faces. They have never been adequately solved because the societal and environmental sanitary infrastructure does not ensure proper sewage disposal, safe potable water and freedom from dangerous vectors. Examples are the diarrheal diseases, parasitic diseases, scrub typhus and Japanese encephalitis. Some of the Taiwan's problems are caused by old agents which present a new face. Mortality from tuberculosis took a dramatic and gratifying plunge in the last fifty years. Yet tuberculosis is ever present and a constant public health threat. Dengue has become a problem again because of a world breakdown in the control of the mosquito, Aedes egypti, and it is partly contributed to by increased urbanization and world travel. The problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria causing hospital acquired and community acquired infections is probably the most serious "new" problem. The most important cause is excessive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the community and in hospitals. We propose the establishment of "Bacterial Infections Reference Laboratory" at the National Health Research Institutes to be a national facility to study the epidemiology and control of antibiotic resistance. All infectious diseases require a rigorous system of surveillance, and precise etiological diagnosis before they can be treated or prevented. This should be kept clearly in mind when one considers the changing role of the infectious disease physician in Taiwan in the face of unsolved disease

  15. Lifestyle and Addictive Behaviors Among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong, Macau, Taipei, Wuhan, and Zhuhai-a First Cross-subculture Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Lau, Maggie; Kan, Ming Yue; Chiang, I-Chyun; Hu, Yih-Jin; Gong, Jie; Li, Lue; Ngok, King-Lun

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the differences in prevalence rates of common health behavior among adolescents in the five Chinese cities and the influential factors at the contextual and individual levels. We compared the standardized rates of three lifestyle behaviors (sedentary, dietary, and physical activity) and three addictive behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and participation in gambling) among a sample of 13,950 adolescents. The sample was randomly selected from five cities, including Hong Kong, Macau, Taipei, Zhuhai, and Wuhan. Population size, GDP per capita, and literacy at the city level as well as parental monitoring and school performance at the student's level were assessed. Multi-level mixed effect models were used to examine the interaction of individual level factors with study sites. The six health behaviors differed significantly across sites with the highest rates of alcohol consumption in Hong Kong (39.5 %), of cigarette smoking in Macau (9.8 %), and of gambling in Taipei (37.1 %) and Hong Kong (35.9 %). The city-level measures were associated with only a few behavioral measures. Relative to Hong Kong, parental monitoring had stronger association with the three addictive behaviors in the other sites. Findings suggest that although the study sites share similar Chinese culture, students in the five cities differed from each other with regard to levels of health behaviors. Relative to the broad socioeconomic development, differences in parental monitoring played a significant role in explaining the observed difference.

  16. Optimal Installation Locations for Automated External Defibrillators in Taipei 7-Eleven Stores: Using GIS and a Genetic Algorithm with a New Stirring Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yuan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment with an automated external defibrillator (AED increases out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patient survival potential. While considerable attention has been given to determining optimal public AED locations, spatial and temporal factors such as time of day and distance from emergency medical services (EMSs are understudied. Here we describe a geocomputational genetic algorithm with a new stirring operator (GANSO that considers spatial and temporal cardiac arrest occurrence factors when assessing the feasibility of using Taipei 7-Eleven stores as installation locations for AEDs. Our model is based on two AED conveyance modes, walking/running and driving, involving service distances of 100 and 300 meters, respectively. Our results suggest different AED allocation strategies involving convenience stores in urban settings. In commercial areas, such installations can compensate for temporal gaps in EMS locations when responding to nighttime OHCA incidents. In residential areas, store installations can compensate for long distances from fire stations, where AEDs are currently held in Taipei.

  17. Non-volcanic tremor characteristics and tremor generation environment in Taiwan and a case study of their stress interaction with local earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, K.; Obara, K.; Nagai, S.; Hirata, N.; Pu, H.; Peng, Z.; Hsu, Y.; Wech, A.; Ching, K.; Leu, P.; Shin, T.; Huang, B.

    2013-12-01

    Recent finding of tremor in Taiwan provides an ideal place to study tremor in collision tectonic environment and its relationship with local earthquakes. Although several studies have identified triggered and ambient tremor beneath the southern Central Range of Taiwan, a number of fundamental questions of tremor remain unclear. For example, it is still not clear whether tremor occurred in the low-angle detachment fault beneath the Central Range, or high-angle thrust fault beneath the Chaochou-Lishan fault. Here we present comprehensive study of tremor in Taiwan by utilizing two different seismic datasets. First, we applied the Waveform Envelope Correlation and Clustering (WECC) method and a spatio-temporal clustering criterion to automatically detect tremor from 2004 to 2012, using continuous data recorded by ten permanent stations operated by the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network (CWBSN) and the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS). The tremor activity in this region is characterized by frequent occurrence with short duration of 5~24 min. We found that ambient tremor surrounds an active triggered tremor source and that its spectrum is similar to that of triggered tremor but with lower amplitude, suggesting similar source mechanisms but different driving forces. We also quantified tremor activity before and after the 4 March 2010, Mw6.3 Jiashian earthquake that occurred about 20km southwest from active tremor sources. We found that maximum tremor activity occurred at around 10 days after the Jiashian mainshock and the long-term tremor rate increased 51.7% in a 14-month period, possibly caused by a static Coulomb stress increase with a maximum 20KPa around tremor sources based on the detachment fault model. Interestingly, the tremor rate started to increase about 20 days before the mainshock. We have examined the borehole dilatometer data located at ~36km northeast of the tremor sources, but found no clear change of volumetric strain before the

  18. Watershed management for disaster mitigation and sustainable development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Cheng; H. K. Hsu; Way Jane Ho; T. C. Chen

    2000-01-01

    Heavy torrential rains during the typhoon season, steep topography, young and weak geologic formations, erodible soils and improper land uses are factors contributing to disasters associated with erosion, landslides, debris flows, and floods in Taiwan. With steady public and government support over the past 5 decades, Taiwan's watershed management program in which...

  19. The Buddha and the Computer: Career Guidance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Martin R.

    Career decision making in Taiwan was examined in the context of a society undergoing dynamic change as modern entrepreneurial values are accommodated in a cherished traditional culture. Especially during the past 20 years, the economy of Taiwan has changed from agriculture to technology. At the same time, the educational needs of students have…

  20. Social Context, Parental Exogamy and Hakka Language Retention in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Jie-Sheng; Kuan, Ping-Yin; Lomeli, Arlett

    2016-01-01

    The Hakka people, the largest ethno-linguistic minority group in Taiwan, have found their ethnic language retention diminishing. Using the data collected by the Taiwan Education Panel Survey and Beyond in 2010, we are the first to study its reason for decrease. Results indicate that out-marriage amongst Hakka people and losing ethnic concentration…

  1. Transformation and Framework of Teacher Professional Development in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the situation of teacher professional development in Taiwan, including the history and the framework of teacher professional development. With diversification of teacher education systems and institutions, teacher professional development in Taiwan is undergoing a gradual governance shift from the model of centralised state…

  2. The United States, China and Taiwan: Reunification, Reconciliation or War?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fogarty, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    ....), the Peoples Republic of China (PRO) and Taiwan from 1949 until 2020. The primary question this project will attempt to answer is whether the three countries will be able to achieve a peaceful resolution to ongoing tensions over the Taiwan Straits...

  3. A Case Study of Undergraduate Course Syllabi in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yao-Tsu

    2010-01-01

    Higher education in Taiwan has been influenced by U.S. and Western practices, and syllabi represent one means to verify this. However, limited research exists in Taiwan on course syllabi and on similarities of syllabi with practices in other countries. In the U.S. as the paradigm shifted from teaching to learning and to the learning-centered…

  4. Teacher Preparation for Early Childhood: Special Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is intended to present the current model of teacher preparation for early childhood special education in Taiwan. Documentary analysis was conducted in the study to collect and analyze the obtained data. The main features of teacher preparation policies for early childhood special education in Taiwan could be summarized…

  5. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  6. Teaching Benchmark Strategy for Fifth-Graders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lai, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    The key purpose of this study was how we taught the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction for fifth-graders in Taiwan. 26 fifth graders from a public elementary in south Taiwan were selected to join this study. Results of this case study showed that students had a much progress on the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction…

  7. Research on English Teaching and Learning: Taiwan (2004-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suchiao; Tsai, Yachin

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes research in second/foreign language teaching and learning conducted in Taiwan over the period 2004-2009. Representative articles published in local refereed journals and conference proceedings--not readily accessible outside Taiwan--are reviewed to reflect current trends in English teaching and learning. The main themes…

  8. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  9. Counseling Psychology Licensure in Taiwan: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-fei; Kwan, Kwong-Liem K.; Huang, Su-Fei

    2011-01-01

    The development and consequences of licensure for counseling psychologists in Taiwan are presented to promote cross-cultural awareness surrounding issues in the counseling psychology profession. The national licensure statute for counseling psychologists in Taiwan was established by the Taiwanese Legislature in 2001. While the licensing system…

  10. GIS Adoption among Senior High School Geography Teachers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Jinn-Guey; Chen, Yu-Wen; Chi, Yu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the adoption of geographic information system (GIS) knowledge and skills through in-service training for high school geography teachers in Taiwan. Through statistical analysis of primary data collected from a census of Taiwan's high school geography teachers, it explores what motivates these teachers to undertake GIS…

  11. Rebuilding Public Trust in the Taiwan Military: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Social Media and the Media Usage Spectrum...Picture. Source: Google Image Search (2016). .....61  xiii LIST OF TABLES   Taiwan Social Media Usage Rate. Source: Ixresearch (2015...and profits. (2012) 3. Social Media and the Media Usage Spectrum in Taiwan In modern times, social media has proven to be an efficient marketing

  12. A Taiwan Study Abroad Program on Aging, Culture, and Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a Taiwan Study Abroad program on aging, culture, and healthcare. The program is a short-term academic summer program (6 credits) to bring U.S. students to Taiwan. During 2011 ~ 2015, a total of four groups including over 54 students and faculty members participated. This program partnered with multiple universities,…

  13. An integrative OSCE methodology for enhancing the traditional OSCE program at Taipei medical university ospital - a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Continuous development and use of new technologies and methodologies are key features in improving the learning, performance, and skills of medical students and students of all health care professions. Although significant improvements in teaching methodologies have been made in all areas of medicine and health care, studies reveal that students in many areas of health care taking an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) express difficulties. Thus, this study was planned as a feasibility study to assess the educational effectiveness of an integrated objective structured clinical examination (iOSCE) using both standardized patients and virtual patients. Methods Thirty (30) medical students in their first year of internship at Taipei Medical University volunteered to be part of a feasibility study for demonstrating the concept of iOSCE. They divided themselves into five groups of six students each and were requested to evaluate two cases: 1) a patient with abdominal pain and 2) a patient with headache using a combination of a standardized patient and a virtual patient. For each of the two cases, five stations were designed in which students were given ten minutes per station leading to a final diagnosis and concluded with a debriefing. The five stations were: • Station 1) Interacting with the standardized patient. • Station 2) Writing the patient note and developing a differential diagnosis. • Station 3) Selecting appropriate laboratory and imaging studies. • Station 4) Making a final diagnosis and stating the evidence for it. • Station 5) Having the debriefing. Each group of 6 students was assigned 2 hours per day for each case. All participants completed a survey regarding the usefulness and efficiency of the iOSCE. Results All medical students (30/30; 100%) found the iOSCE program to be very satisfactory, and all expressed that they would like to have further iOSCE experiences if given the opportunity. In terms of ease and

  14. An integrative OSCE methodology for enhancing the traditional OSCE program at Taipei Medical University Hospital--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Wei; Clinciu, Daniel L; Swartz, Mark H; Wu, Chien-Chih; Lien, Gi-Shih; Chan, Cho-Yu; Lee, Fei-Peng; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-07-26

    Continuous development and use of new technologies and methodologies are key features in improving the learning, performance, and skills of medical students and students of all health care professions. Although significant improvements in teaching methodologies have been made in all areas of medicine and health care, studies reveal that students in many areas of health care taking an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) express difficulties. Thus, this study was planned as a feasibility study to assess the educational effectiveness of an integrated objective structured clinical examination (iOSCE) using both standardized patients and virtual patients. Thirty (30) medical students in their first year of internship at Taipei Medical University volunteered to be part of a feasibility study for demonstrating the concept of iOSCE. They divided themselves into five groups of six students each and were requested to evaluate two cases: 1) a patient with abdominal pain and 2) a patient with headache using a combination of a standardized patient and a virtual patient. For each of the two cases, five stations were designed in which students were given ten minutes per station leading to a final diagnosis and concluded with a debriefing. The five stations were: Station 1) Interacting with the standardized patient. Station 2) Writing the patient note and developing a differential diagnosis. Station 3) Selecting appropriate laboratory and imaging studies. Station 4) Making a final diagnosis and stating the evidence for it. Station 5) Having the debriefing. Each group of 6 students was assigned 2 hours per day for each case. All participants completed a survey regarding the usefulness and efficiency of the iOSCE. All medical students (30/30; 100%) found the iOSCE program to be very satisfactory, and all expressed that they would like to have further iOSCE experiences if given the opportunity. In terms of ease and helpfulness, the students rated the program an average

  15. Association between temperature and emergency room visits for cardiorespiratory diseases, metabolic syndrome-related diseases, and accidents in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Lin, Yu-Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated risks of the emergency room visits (ERV) for cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive diseases, chronic renal failure (CRF), diabetes mellitus (DM), asthma, chronic airway obstruction not elsewhere classified (CAO), and accidents associated with the ambient temperature from 2000 to 2009 in metropolitan Taipei. The distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate the cumulative relative risk (RR) and confidence interval (CI) of cause-specific ERV associated with daily temperature from lag 0 to lag 3 after controlling for potential confounders. This study identified that temperatures related to the lowest risk of ERV was 26 °C for cerebrovascular diseases, 18 °C for CRF, DM, and accidents, and 30 °C for hypertensive diseases, asthma, and CAO. These temperatures were used as the reference temperatures to measure RR for the corresponding diseases. A low temperature (14°C) increased the ERV risk for cerebrovascular diseases, hypertensive diseases, and asthma, with respective cumulative 4-day RRs of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.97), 1.78 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.34), and 2.93 (95% CI: 1.26, 6.79). The effects were greater on, or after, lag one. At 32°C, the cumulative 4-day RR for ERV was significant for CRF (RR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.33, 4.19) and accidents (RR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.33) and the highest RR was seen on lag 0 for CRF (RR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58), DM (RR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.61), and accidents (RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.27). Higher temperatures are associated with the increased ERV risks for CRF, DM, and accidents and lower temperatures with the increased ERV risks for cerebrovascular diseases, hypertensive diseases, and asthma in the subtropical metropolitan.

  16. Epidemiology of Enterovirus 71 Infections in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yuan Chia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 was first described in USA in 1969 but retrospective studies in The Netherlands further detected EV71 in the clinical specimens collected in 1963. EV71 has one single serotype measured by using hyperimmune animal antisera but can be phylogenetically classified into three genogroups (A, B, and C including 11 genotypes (A, B1–B5, C1–C5. In Taiwan, EV71 caused a large-scale nationwide epidemic in 1998. Retrospective studies further detected EV71 in clinical specimens collected from hand–foot–mouth disease patients in 1980 and 1986. Therefore, EV71 may have circulated in Taiwan prior to 1980. Since 1998, EV71 has cyclically caused nationwide epidemics with different predominant genotypes in 1998 (genotype C2, 2000–2001 (B4, 2005 (C4, 2008 (B5, and 2012 (B5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that C4 viruses isolated in 2005 were probably from China, B5 viruses isolated in 2008 were probably from South Eastern Asia, and B5 viruses isolated in 2012 were probably from Xiamen, China. Several studies have collected postinfection sera from children to measure cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against different EV71 genotypes and found that antigenic differences between genogroup B and C viruses did not have a clear pattern but that genotype A virus was antigenically different from genogroup B and C viruses. In conclusion, EV71 cyclically caused nationwide epidemics through international importations. EV71 surveillance in Taiwan should combine genetic and serological methods.

  17. Governance and Economic Transformation in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the strengths and weaknesses of the developmental-state approach as compared with a broader and more flexible developmental-governance approach – in relation to economic transformation in a single case country, Taiwan. It argues that both approaches have strong and weak points......, and comes down in favour of the view that it is only through a ‘thick’ study of political forces, processes and circumstances that the reasoning behind developmental policies and institutions can be understood and the processes of economic transformation explained....

  18. Regulatory System of Radiation Protection in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F. T.; Huang, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    After the radioactive contaminated buildings incident occurred in Taiwan in 1993, the competent authority for radiation protection the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) started to review the structured problem of radiation protection regulatory system. Through several years' investigation and study, the AEC has improved two important tools in radiation protection regulatory system, i.e., control regulations and actual practice, and made them more rigorous and efficient. This paper will make a brief introduction of the efforts that Taiwan has made in this respect. Taiwan's radiation protection control was based on the Atomic Energy Law promulgated in 1968, but the control idea and authorization scope were not sufficient to appropriately respond to the highly developed economy and democracy in Taiwan. After several years' legislative process, the Ionizing Radiation Protection Law (IRP Law) was promulgated and entered into force on February 1, 2003. This IRP Law specifically emphasizes categorized risk management of radiation sources, establishment of personnel licenses and training system, enhancement of public safety control, and implementation of quality assurance program for medical exposure. The Legislative Yuan (Congress) fully authorized the competent authority to establish various technological control regulations according to control necessity without prior review by the Legislative Yuan in advance. As to the penalties of the violations of the IRP Law, the AEC adopts high-rated administrative fines and applies the Criminal Law to those who seriously contaminate the environment. In actual practice, the AEC has constructed a Radiation Protection Control Information System compatible with the IRP Law that fully combines the functions of computers and Internet. The information of facility operators who own radiation sources, radiation protection specialists, and operating personnel are entered into this system, starting from the submission of application of the

  19. A 10-year trend of dental treatments under general anesthesia of children in Taipei Veterans General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Pan; Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Ting; Wu, Fu-Ya; Shih, Wen-Yu

    2017-04-01

    General anesthesia (GA) as a pediatric dental procedure is a well-established method of behavior management. However, studies of pediatric dentistry under GA have mostly focused on handicapped patients, and various retrospective studies in Taiwan have mainly reviewed only a limited number of years. The purpose of the present study was to report trends in pediatric dental treatment performed under GA over the past 10 years. A retrospective review of the hospital records of patients receiving dental treatment under GA from 2006 until 2015 was performed. The patients were divided into three age groups:  6 years. A range of information including basic patient characteristics and types of dental treatment was identified and then analyzed. A total of 791 cases ( 6 years old: 235; 549 male, 242 female) were treated under GA. The case number was found to have increased from 94 during 2006-2007 to 238 during 2014-2015, with the increase being especially pronounced among those aged 3-6 years (2006-2007: 49, 2014-2015: 165). The most common treatments (extraction, restoration, and pulp therapy) were associated with multiple dental caries (684, 86.4%). The  6-years-old group had the lowest mean number of treated teeth by stainless-steel crowns (SSCs) and fewest cases treated with pulp therapy. From 2011 onwards, the number of primary tooth extractions significantly increased, while in 2013, there was a crossover whereby the SSC count surpassed the composite resin filling count. Over the past 10 years, there has been an increased use of GA for pediatric dental treatments, in particular, in cases with multiple dental caries. In addition, there has also been an increasing trend towards extraction of primary teeth and the use of SSCs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2014 will be held at Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan from 23-28 March 2014, with co-located events and workshops. The conference is hosted by the Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre (ASGC).“Bringing the data scientist to global e-Infrastructures” is the theme of ISGC 2014. The last decade has seen the phenomenal growth in the production of data in all forms by all research communities to produce a deluge of data from which information and knowledge need to be extracted. Key to this success will be the data scientist - educated to use advanced algorithms, applications and infrastructures - collaborating internationally to tackle society’s challenges. ISGC 2014 will bring together researchers working in all aspects of data science from different disciplines around the world to collaborate and educate themselves in the latest achievements and techniques being used to tackle the data deluge. In addition to the regular workshops, technical presentations and plenary keynotes, ISGC this year will focus on how to grow the data science community by considering the educational foundation needed for tomorrow’s data scientist. Topics of discussion include Physics (including HEP) and Engineering Applications, Biomedicine & Life Sciences Applications, Earth & Environmental Sciences & Biodiversity Applications, Humanities & Social Sciences Application, Virtual Research Environment (including Middleware, tools, services, workflow, ... etc.), Data Management, Big Data, Infrastructure & Operations Management, Infrastructure Clouds and Virtualisation, Interoperability, Business Models & Sustainability, Highly Distributed Computing Systems, and High Performance & Technical Computing (HPTC).