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Sample records for singular plural nouns

  1. OVERGENERALIZATION IN SINGULAR/PLURAL NOUNS AND SUFFIXED NOUNS OF IELTS COURSE STUDENTS

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    Gharizi Matiini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the morphological overgeneralization of IELTS students. It focuses on the singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns that are overgeneralized by those students. Three students are chosen as the participants of the study by collecting their writing exercises. Three writing texts are gathered taken from several weeks and materials. The writings are analyzed by sorting the nouns they produced and categorizing them according to the singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. The results reveal that the students over extended the rules of singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. However, recovery occurs very varied in both singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. They tend to be better in mentioning singular/plural nouns, yet they are being selective and careful in writing suffixed nouns. In conclusion, even though the language learners can mark their overgeneralization, it is still difficult for them to recover their errors. It is recommended here that longitudinal study that has more time to examine students recovery from overgeneralization can be conducted for the further study to give more detail evidence in students’ overgeneralizations. Keywords: overgeneralization, singular/plural nouns, suffixed nouns

  2. Usage-Based Account of the Acquisition of Liaison: Evidence from Sensitivity to the Singular/Plural Orientation of Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugua, Celine; Spinelli, Elsa; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether children's production and recognition of obligatory liaison sequences in French depend on the singular/plural orientation of nouns. Certain nouns occur more frequently in the plural (e.g., "arbre" "tree"), whereas others are found more often in the singular (e.g., "arc-en-ciel" "rainbow"). In the input, children…

  3. Old Romanian pluralized mass and abstract nouns

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    Gabriela Pană Dindelegan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a rich old Romanian corpus shows that the ‘pluralization’ of mass and abstract nouns is extremely frequent in old Romanian. The semantic effects of pluralization are similar for mass and abstract nouns, consisting in the creation of denotative and/or connotative semantic variants. Of the plural endings, –uri is specialized for the pluralization of mass nouns in Daco-Romanian. The evolution of the ending –uri illustrates the specific process by which a grammatical (plural morpheme is converted into a lexical morpheme (the so-called ‘lexical plurals’. ‘Lexical plurals’ have isolated occurrences in other Romance languages, but they have not reached the spread and regularity they display in Romanian.

  4. Danish children's acquisition of noun plurals: the role of methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi-naturalistic/s......In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi...... the experimental data and we therefore predict a lower percentage of incorrectly produced PL forms in the semi-naturalistic/semi-experimental than in the experimental data. 3) In the experimental data the children are to produce the PL form of nouns given by the investigator. We expect children to produce a large...... amount of sg. instead of PL forms, either as a repetition of the sg. form given by the investigator or as a PL error form irreguralizing the “Ø” PL marker (pure zero, e.g. sg. mus ‘mouse’ – PL mus ‘mice’). 4) The experimental data is based on a fixed number of specific pre-selected items and we therefore...

  5. A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ARABIC AND ENGLISH NOUN PLURAL MARKERS

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    Aliyatul Himmah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is attempting to explore the plural markers in both Arabic and English. The data collected qualitatively are sorted to meet the scope of this paper. Through contrastive analysis, it is discovered that there are numerous significant differences rather than similarities in terms of syllable count start, patterns of plural nouns in relation to gender, regularity, regular vs irregular plural and internal vowel change. Moreover, Arabic has some uniqueness in its plural marking system. Being well informed on all of these might pave the way for second or foreign language learners to comprehensively understand the plural marking system in Arabic and English.   Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengeksplorasi penanda jamak dalam bahasa Arab dan bahasa Inggris. Data yang dikumpulkan secara kualitatif diurutkan untuk memenuhi cakupan makalah ini. Melalui analisis kontrastif, ditemukan banyak perbedaan yang signifikan daripada kesamaan dalam segi jumlah awal suku kata, pola kata benda jamak dalam kaitannya dengan gender, keteraturan dan ketidakteraturan jamak, serta perubahan vokal. Selain itu, bahasa Arab memiliki beberapa keunikan dalam sistem menandai jamaknya. Memahami informasi hal tersebut dengan baik mungkin memudahkan pembelajar bahasa kedua atau asing untuk memahami secara komprehensif sistem penanda jamak dalam bahasa Arab dan Inggris

  6. The Semantics of Plurals: A Defense of Singularism

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    Florio, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I defend "semantic singularism", which is the view that syntactically plural terms, such as "they" or "Russell and Whitehead", are semantically singular. A semantically singular term is a term that denotes a single entity. Semantic singularism is to be distinguished from "syntactic singularism", according to which…

  7. EDITORIAL: The plurality of optical singularities

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    Berry, Michael; Dennis, Mark; Soskin, Marat

    2004-05-01

    This collection of papers arose from an Advanced Research Workshop on Singular Optics, held at the Bogolyubov Institute in Kiev, Ukraine, during 24-28 June 2003. The workshop was generously financed by NATO, with welcome additional support from Institute of Physics Publishing and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. There had been two previous international meetings devoted to singular optics, in Crimea in 1997 and 2000, reflecting the strong involvement of former Soviet Union countries in this research. Awareness of singular optics is growing within the wider optics community, indicated by symposia on the subject at several general optics meetings. As the papers demonstrate, the field of singular optics has reached maturity. Although the subject originated in an observation on ultrasound, it has been largely theory-driven until recently. Now, however, there is close contact between theory and experiment, and we speculate that this is one reason for its accelerated development. To single out particular papers for mention here would be invidious, and since the papers speak for themselves it is not necessary to describe them all. Instead, we will confine ourselves to a brief description of the main areas included in singular optics, to illustrate the broad scope of the subject. Optical vortices are lines of phase singularity: nodal lines where the intensity of the light, represented by a complex scalar field, vanishes. The subject has emerged from flatland, where the vortices are points characterized by topological charges, into the much richer world of vortex lines in three dimensions. By combining Laguerre-Gauss or Bessel beams, or reflecting light from plates with spiral steps, intricate arrangements can be generated, with vortices that are curved, looped, knotted, linked or braided. With light whose state of polarization varies with position, different singularities occur, associated with the vector nature of light. These are also lines, on which the

  8. Count Nouns - Mass Nouns, Neat Nouns - Mess Nouns

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    Fred Landman

    2010-12-01

    . 1975. ‘Non-singular reference. Some preliminaries’. In Philosophia 5. Reprinted in Francis Jeffry Pelletier (ed., 1979, Mass Terms. Some Philosophical Problems, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Pelletier, F. J. & Schubert, L. 1989/2002. ‘Mass Expressions’. In Dov Gabbay & Franz Guenthner (eds. ‘The Handbook of Philosophical Logic’, 387–453. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Rothstein, S. 1992. ‘Types of plural individuals’. Journal of Semantics 15: 641–675.Rothstein, S. 2009a. ‘Bare noun semantics’. Talk presented at the workshop on ‘Bare Nouns: Syntactic Projections and their Interpretations’, Paris, November 2009.Rothstein, S. 2009b. ‘Stubborn distributivity, multiparticipant nouns and the count/mass distinction’. To appear in: Proceedings of NELS 39.Rothstein, S. 2010. ‘Counting and the mass-count distinction’. Journal of Semantics 27: 343–397.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/ffq007Sybesma, R. 2009. Het Chinees en het Nederlands zijn eigenlijk hetzelfde. Het Spectum, Houten.ter Meulen, A. 1980. Substances, Quantities and Individuals. Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University

  9. The Enunciation of the Subject: Sharing Jean-Luc Nancy's Singular Plural in the Classroom

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    Collins, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the implications of Jean-Luc Nancy's reading of the subject for educational philosophy by connecting his re-interpretation of Descartes to his later thinking on what he names the ontological singular plural. Nancy's re-imagining of the Cogito coalesces around the figure of the mouth ("la bouche") through…

  10. Using endografts from superelastic titanium-nickelid-based alloy singular tissue plural tissues in organ-preserving surgery of laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulbakin, D. E., E-mail: kulbakin-d@mail.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny Street, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Mukhamedov, M. R., E-mail: muhamedov@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny Street, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, 2, Moscow Highway, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: choynzonov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny Street, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, 2, Moscow Highway, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gynter, V. E., E-mail: tc77@rec.tsu.ru [Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Medical Materials, 17, 19 Gv. Divizii, Tomsk, 634034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    Our study has demonstrated feasibility of performing larynx preservation surgeries in patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer after failure of radiotherapy. The technique of combined laryngeal reconstruction with endografts from superelastic titanium-nickelid-based alloy Singular tissue Plural tissues results in improvement of life quality by preserving laryngeal functions.

  11. Problem of the Classification of Quantitative Noun in the German Language

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    Elvira L. Shubina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the semantic classification of quantitative noun on the basis of a structural study (Nquant + (Adj +N (ein Glas frisches Wasser, since this model reveals the greatest variety of grammatical formulation. These word combinations can form by the genitive government eine Tasse starken Kaffees by the grammatical agreement ein Eimer kaltes Wasser, or by the adjunction mit einem Korb reife Apfel. The suggested classification of the noun performing the function of the first components is based on the form of the noun acting as the first component. Types of the first components fall into three groups: 1. The nouns, which specify quantitative characteristics of objects and substances. Two subgroups are also distingshed: word combinations with a noun in a singular form Nquant1a as the second component and word combinations with a noun in a plural form as the second component Nquant1b; 2. The nouns defining a group of living beings and objects Nquant2; 3. The nouns which formation is grounded on quantitative nouns Nquant3. Normative recommendations on the choice of subordinate connection type should be connected at least at the present stage of existence of German literary language, exactly with the semantics of the nouns which are the first components in these word combinations. The article illustrates that all types of constructions (organizes whether on the basis of government, agreement and or adjunction are connected with the completely specific semantic characteristics of the name, i.e., these nouns belong to one of three groups of noun - first components.

  12. Dizer o singular em meio plural: jogos e forjas de escrita em oficinas virtuais

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    Souza, Pedro de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte de uma pesquisa maior em que estou analisando discursivamente práticas coletivas de escrita observáveis em propostas de oficinas de textos em determinados espaços da internet. Aqui me ocupo particularmente de uma experiência francesa de produção de textos que descrevem cenas ocorridas na cidade de Paris. Detenho-me precisamente na proposta de um site na internet que convida os internautas a participar da produção de uma coletânea de descrições curtas, estruturadas segundo um conjunto de regras, mostrando cenas do cotidiano parisiense. Para o objetivo deste artigo, primeiramente apresento a proposta, desenvolvimento e estrutura deste site que é ponto de partida da análise. Em seguida, concentro-me no processo coletivo de escrita que particulariza esta experiência. Nesta parte, ocupo-me do corpus de escritos atentando para as rasuras que indicam os sucessivos estágios de reformulação por que passaram nas sessões de oficinas de escrita que observei in loco. O eixo teórico vem do que Eni Orlandi tem proposto acerca do discurso como pertinente à ordem simbólica e do texto como forma material referente à ordem da organização. Meu interesse não é focalizar a conversão deste corpus de rascunhos em textos nos termos da sistematicidade da língua na qual se desenvolve a prática em questão, o que implicaria um trabalho específico sobre o sistema do francês. O que me interessa, no quadro de uma teoria discursiva da subjetividade, é estudar a dimensão singular do acontecimento que torna possível a vigência de uma prática textual a múltiplas vozes e pontos de vistas submetidos a certo ato protocolar de escritura

  13. Noun morphophonemics and noun class restructuring: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article seeks to address the plural forms of class 11/10 nouns in Meru dialects. These are Bantu dialects spoken in the eastern province of Kenya. The dialects build the plural forms in this class in various ways. Sometimes the entire word is treated as a root and in other cases the word is considered to have two parts: a ...

  14. Noun Countability; Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns, What are the Syntactic Differences Between them?

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    Azhar A. Alkazwini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Words that function as the subjects of verbs, objects of verbs or prepositions and which can have a plural form and possessive ending are known as nouns. They are described as referring to persons, places, things, states, or qualities and might also be used as an attributive modifier. In this paper, classes and subclasses of nouns shall be presented, then, noun countability branching into count and non-count nous shall be discussed. A number of present examples illustrating differences between count and non-count nouns and this includes determiner-head-co-occurrence restrictions of number, subject-verb agreement, in addition to some exceptions to this agreement rule shall be discussed. Also, the lexically inherent number in nouns and how inherently plural nouns are classified in terms of (+/- count are illustrated. This research will discuss partitive construction of count and non-count nouns, nouns as attributive modifier and, finally, conclude with the fact that there are syntactic difference between count and non-count in the English Language.

  15. The roles of word-form frequency and phonological neighbourhood density in the acquisition of Lithuanian noun morphology.

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    Savičiūtė, Eglė; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M

    2018-05-01

    Four- and five-year-old children took part in an elicited familiar and novel Lithuanian noun production task to test predictions of input-based accounts of the acquisition of inflectional morphology. Two major findings emerged. First, as predicted by input-based accounts, correct production rates were correlated with the input frequency of the target form, and with the phonological neighbourhood density of the noun. Second, the error patterns were not compatible with the systematic substitution of target forms by either (a) the most frequent form of that noun or (b) a single morphosyntactic default form, as might be predicted by naive versions of a constructivist and generativist account, respectively. Rather, most errors reflected near-miss substitutions of singular for plural, masculine for feminine, or nominative/accusative for a less frequent case. Together, these findings provide support for an input-based approach to morphological acquisition, but are not adequately explained by any single account in its current form.

  16. From preparedness to risk: from the singular risk of nuclear war to the plurality of all hazards.

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    Deville, Joe; Guggenheim, Michael

    2017-08-17

    Debates on risk have largely assumed risk to be the outcome of calculative practices. There is a related assumption that risk objects come only in one form, and that the reason not everything can be transformed into a risk is because of the difficulties in calculating and creating universal quantitative comparisons. In this article, building on recent studies of preparedness that have broadened understandings of risk, we provide an analysis of how preparedness measures might themselves produce risk, in particular through risk's durable instantiation, or what we call 'concretization'. Our empirical focus is on how government agencies in two countries shifted their attention from the risk of nuclear attack during the Cold War to an all hazards approach to preparedness. Comparing the mid- to late-twentieth century histories of the UK and Switzerland, we show that both countries shifted from focusing from a single risk to plural risks. This shift cannot be explained by a change in prevailing calculative practices, or by the fact that the risks changed historically. Instead, it is driven by historically specific changes in how risks are produced and reproduced in relation to how materializations of risk operate over time. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  17. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    In two complementary experiments we took an integrated approach to a set of tightly interwoven, yet rarely combined questions concerning the spontaneous interpretation of novel (unfamiliar) noun-noun compounds (NNCs) when encountered in isolation, and possible (re)interpretations of novel as well...... concerning the relations between semantics and pragmatics, as well as system and usage, and psycholinguistic issues concerning the processing of NNCs. New insights and methodological tools are also provided for supporting future best practices in the field of food naming and labelling...

  18. Escola Plural Plural School

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    Glaura Vasques de Miranda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a Escola Plural, implantada na rede municipal de ensino de Belo Horizonte, no período 1993/1996. A proposta foi considerada inovadora por muitos, polêmica por outros, por ter procurado romper com a cultura tradicional da escola pública, implementando uma concepção de educação mais ampla, democrática, inclusiva, plural, que leve em conta múltiplas dimensões da formação da pessoa humana e na qual as crianças das classes populares tivessem condições de ser bem-sucedidas. Buscava-se responder aos desafios presentes nas políticas públicas para expandir o Ensino Fundamental e, especialmente, melhorar a qualidade da escola pública. O texto apresenta a proposta, algumas polêmicas e resultados de avaliação de seus efeitos.This paper presents the Plural School, implemented in Belo Horizonte’s local educational system from 1993 to 1996. This educational proposal has been considered innovative by many people and polemical by others since it attempted to break the traditional culture of public schooling, inserting a broader, democratic, inclusive and plural concept of education. It also attempted to take the multiple dimensions of an individual’s edification into account and to supply adequate conditions for children from lower socia classes to succeed. Moreover, it aimed at meeting the demands of public policies in order to expand elementary and middle level education and, above all, improve the quality of public schools. The article presents the proposal, some polemics involving it and its assessment results.

  19. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  20. NOUN CLASSIFICATION IN ESAHIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work deals with noun classification in Esahie (Kwa, Niger ... phonological information influences the noun (form) class system of Esahie. ... between noun classes and (grammatical) Gender is interrogated (in the light of ..... the (A) argument6 precedes the verb and the (P) argument7 follows the verb in a simple.

  1. Nouns in apposition : Portuguese data

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    Graça Rio-Torto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of N1N2 constructions, or nouns in apposition, is controversial: depending on the theoretical framework, they can be considered as compounds or as syntactic constructions. Indeed, nouns in apposition function as a hybrid category, in a double way: (i the same lexical structure in apposition is viewed either as a coordinative construction, as a subordinative or as an attributive construction. (ii N2 functions as a modifier or as an attributive item of N1; in Portuguese, when plural is syntactically mandatory, N1 (the head is systematically pluralized; N2 either rejects inflection or behaves as a predicator, allowing inflectional marks. We claim that Romance NN behave as a specific type of compounds. This assumption is grounded on their behaviour by contrast with phrasal properties. Portuguese compounds are characterized by a narrow relationship between internal structure, headness and inflectional patterns. In Portuguese, by default, the head of compound is inflected. NN related by an attributive semantic link are nowadays particularly unstable and problematic regarding inflection. Inflectional variation — widely attested — helps in determining the status of NN in apposition: as two inflectional patterns are available, we must verify if they correspond to two different constructions or to one structure with two readings. The analysis addressed is supported by empirical data of contemporary Portuguese language extracted from Brazilian and European databases, and requires the theoretical articulation of a double predicative class of N2 (holistic and partitive with inflectional fluctuation of attributive N2 in the second situation: performing a continuum, double inflection is close to holistic predication and single inflection (of N1 is close to partitive predication; systematic double inflection is close to coordination and inflectional oscillation is close to attribution. The predicative power of nouns in apposition supports their

  2. Is "Two" a Plural Marker in Early Child Language?

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    Barner, David; Lui, Toni; Zapf, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Is "two" ever a plural marker in child language? By some accounts, children bootstrap the distinction between the words "one" and "two" by observing their use with singular-plural marking ("one ball/two balls"). Others argue that the numeral "two" marks plurality before children begin using numerals to denote precise quantities. We tested the…

  3. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  4. Are French -ité Suffixed Nouns Property Nouns?

    OpenAIRE

    Koehl, Aurore

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to analyse French deadjectival –ité nouns construction (AitéN), from a lexematic point of view. –ité nouns are the most frequent deadjectival nouns stored in French dictionaries. Most of the time, these nouns are analysed as denoting properties. The present analysis will show that it is not always the case. We propose here a study conducted on 499 AitéN coined on denominal adjectives. We will make use of both syntactic and semantic adjectival p...

  5. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive......, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...

  6. Varieties of Religious Pluralism

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    Olusegun Noah Olawoyin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious Pluralism is one of many forms of pluralism in contemporary globalised world.  Some others include ethnic pluralism, value pluralism, doctrinal pluralism, ethical pluralism, political pluralism.  Religious pluralism is, however, one of the most important in contemporary society, considering globalization and the role of religions in many conflicts.  It has its root in poltitical liberalism. Religious pluralism is a hot debate in social sciences and in Theology and Religious Studies. This paper argues that religious pluralism, which is an acceptance of plurality as normative, is not a monolithic theory. The different religious context in which it is being discussed, the different disciplinary and philosophical influences resulted in various and even contradictory types.  However, this paper is a ‘mapping’ of the contour of contemporary discussions.  Critically reviewing relevant literature, two major theories of religious pluralism were identified: identist and differential/complementary.  Each of these also has subdivision.

  7. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts......This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word...

  8. Noun Imageability Facilitates the Acquisition of Plurals: Survival Analysis of Plural Emergence in Children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2014), s. 335-350 ISSN 0090-6905 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2047 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Language acquisition * Imageability * Morphology * Acquisition of inflections * Semantic generality Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2014

  9. Conceptual plural information is used to guide early parsing decisions: Evidence from garden-path sentences with reciprocal verbs.

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    Patson, Nikole D; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2009-05-01

    In three eyetracking studies, we investigated the role of conceptual plurality in initial parsing decisions in temporarily ambiguous sentences with reciprocal verbs (e.g., While the lovers kissed the baby played alone). We varied the subject of the first clause using three types of plural noun phrases: conjoined noun phrases (the bride and the groom), plural definite descriptions (the lovers), and numerically quantified noun phrases (the two lovers). We found no evidence for garden-path effects when the subject was conjoined (Ferreira & McClure, 1997), but traditional garden-path effects were found with the other plural noun phrases. In addition, we tested plural anaphors that had a plural antecedent present in the discourse. We found that when the antecedent was conjoined, garden-path effects were absent compared to cases in which the antecedent was a plural definite description. Our results indicate that the parser is sensitive to the conceptual representation of a plural constituent. In particular, it appears that a Complex Reference Object (Moxey et al., 2004) automatically activates a reciprocal reading of a reciprocal verb.

  10. When memorized instances compete with rules: the case of number-noun agreement in written French.

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    Largy, Pierre; Cousin, Marie-Paule; Bryant, Peter; Fayol, Michel

    2007-05-01

    It is claimed by Totereau, Thévenin & Fayol (1997) that French children understand the rule for spelling the plural inflection very early on. However, no evidence contradicts the alternative that they learn the spelling of a word's singular and plural forms by treating the two forms as entirely different words. We tested this by asking French first and second graders (85 six-year-old and 89 seven-year-old children, respectively) to read and write rare words, either in just the singular or in just the plural, and then testing their spelling. The children tended to attach plural inflections to words which they had encountered only as plural and to omit them from words encountered before only as singular.

  11. Recollection is a continuous process: Evidence from plurality memory receiver operating characteristics.

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    Slotnick, Scott D; Jeye, Brittany M; Dodson, Chad S

    2016-01-01

    Is recollection a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process? Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis can answer this question as the continuous model and the threshold model predict curved and linear recollection ROCs, respectively. As memory for plurality, an item's previous singular or plural form, is assumed to rely on recollection, the nature of recollection can be investigated by evaluating plurality memory ROCs. The present study consisted of four experiments. During encoding, words (singular or plural) or objects (single/singular or duplicate/plural) were presented. During retrieval, old items with the same plurality or different plurality were presented. For each item, participants made a confidence rating ranging from "very sure old", which was correct for same plurality items, to "very sure new", which was correct for different plurality items. Each plurality memory ROC was the proportion of same versus different plurality items classified as "old" (i.e., hits versus false alarms). Chi-squared analysis revealed that all of the plurality memory ROCs were adequately fit by the continuous unequal variance model, whereas none of the ROCs were adequately fit by the two-high threshold model. These plurality memory ROC results indicate recollection is a continuous process, which complements previous source memory and associative memory ROC findings.

  12. Media Pluralism and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the western world, a diverse and pluralistic media landscape is deemed essential for democracy. But how universal is media pluralism as a concept underpinning media policies? To what extent do normative approaches, regulatory dimensions and monitoring systems differ throughout the world......? Adopting a truly global, theoretical and multidisciplinary perspective, Media Pluralism and Diversity advances our understanding of media pluralism across the globe. It compares metrics developed in different parts of the world to assess levels of, or threats to, media pluralism. It identifies common...

  13. 7 CFR 46.1 - Words in singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in singular form. 46.1 Section 46.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Words in singular form. Words in this part in the singular form shall be deemed to import the plural...

  14. Pluralism in progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    1999-01-01

    On England's role in the development of freely improvised music and its institutions. On pluralism as a result of musicians' different backgrounds and of the ever changing constellations they perform in......On England's role in the development of freely improvised music and its institutions. On pluralism as a result of musicians' different backgrounds and of the ever changing constellations they perform in...

  15. Morpho-Syntactic Load in Judging Adjective Plural Agreement: Comparing Adults with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Ravid, Dorit; Gur, Adi

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of two grammatical factors on marking Hebrew adjectives in agreement with plural nouns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with peers without ADHD. Participants were 36 adult speakers of Hebrew, who were administered a judgment test of 144 sentences, each containing an adjective in…

  16. THE COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    The noun in Albanian language classified as common and proper. The common nouns in turn divide into countable and uncountable. Collective nouns and substance nouns are subclasses of the other classes. The structure of noun formation between Albanian and English on the general aspect of morphology and syntax still didn’t study in the way of comparative, contrast and generative. Those fields are our object of study. In Albanian and English we find some concepts of studies for noun for exam...

  17. An Analysis of Noun Definition in Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol Kit Sum; Stokes, Stephanie; Man, Yonnie; T'Sou, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the noun definitions given by Cantonese speakers at different ages. Definitional responses on six concrete nouns from 1075 children aged 4;10 to 12;01 and 15 adults were analyzed with reference to the semantic content and the syntactic form. Results showed that conventional definitions produced by Cantonese adult speakers…

  18. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...

  19. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...

  20. Religious diversity and pluralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlin, Lars; Borup, Jørn; Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup

    2012-01-01

    . Religious diversity has grown in Denmark with the arrival of new immigrant groups and with new forms and interpretations of traditional religious and spiritual traditions. More importantly, the relations and interactions between religious groups -- the hallmarks of religious pluralism -- are still incipient...

  1. Forestry: feminine plural?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veltri A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Authors discuss the results of the surveys submitted to Italian women which are engaged in various activities in the forestry sector. A quantitative analysis comes out from qualitative considerations set out by the interviews. In Italy is well known that women are rarely able to advance in employment and there are few women in managerial positions. The Authors conclude that the forestry sciences are not yet feminine plural.

  2. 7 CFR 900.80 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.80 Section 900.80....C. 608b(b) and 7 U.S.C. 608e Covering Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts § 900.80 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the plural, and vice versa...

  3. Collaborative Legal Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Decock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.

  4. Noun complement clauses as referential modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Cuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent analyses propose that so-called noun complement clauses should be analyzed as a type of relative clause. In this paper, I present a number of complications for any analysis that equates noun complement clauses to relative clauses, and conclude that this type of analysis is on the wrong track. I present cross-linguistic evidence showing that the syntactic behavior of noun complement clauses does not pattern with relative clauses. Patterns of complementizer choice and complementizer drop as well as patterns involving main clause phenomena and extraction differ in the two constructions, which I argue is unexpected under a relative clause analysis that involves operator movement. Instead I present an alternative analysis in which I propose that the referentiality of a noun complement clause is linked to its syntactic behavior. Following recent work, I claim that referential clauses have a syntactically truncated left-periphery, and this truncation can account for the lack of main clause phenomena in noun complement clauses. I argue that the truncation analysis is also able to accommodate complementizer data patterns more easily than relative clause analyses that appeal to operator movement.

  5. Grammatical-gender effects in noun-noun compound production: Evidence from German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Antje; Mädebach, Andreas; Jescheniak, Jörg D

    2018-05-01

    We examined how noun-noun compounds and their syntactic properties are lexically stored and processed in speech production. Using gender-marked determiner primes ( der masc , die fem , das neut [the]) in a picture naming task, we tested for specific effects from determiners congruent with either the modifier or the head of the compound target (e.g., Tee masc kanne fem [teapot]) to examine whether the constituents are processed independently at the syntactic level. Experiment 1 assessed effects of auditory gender-marked determiner primes in bare noun picture naming, and Experiment 2 assessed effects of visual gender-marked determiner primes in determiner-noun picture naming. Three prime conditions were implemented: (a) head-congruent determiner (e.g., die fem ), (b) modifier-congruent determiner (e.g., der masc ), and (c) incongruent determiner (e.g., das neuter ). We observed a facilitation effect of head congruency but no effect of modifier congruency. In Experiment 3, participants produced novel noun-noun compounds in response to two pictures, demanding independent processing of head and modifier at the syntactic level. Now, head and modifier congruency effects were obtained, demonstrating the general sensitivity of our task. Our data support the notion of a single-lemma representation of lexically stored compound nouns in the German production lexicon.

  6. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic

  7. Pluralism, Pragmatism and Functional Explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Jamie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While many philosophers speak of ‘pluralism’ within philosophy of biology, there has been little said about what such pluralism amounts to or what its underlying assumptions are. This has provoked so me anxiety about whether pluralism is compatible with their commitment to naturalism (Cussins 1992. This paper surveys three prominent pluralist positions (Sandra Mitchell and Michael Dietrich’s (2006 ‘integrative pluralism’, and both Peter Godfrey-Smith’s (1993 and Beth Preston’s (1998 pluralist analyses of functional explanations in evolutionary biology and demonstrates how all three are committed to a form of pragmatism. This analysis both clarifies the justification and grounding of pluralism and allows these pluralisms to avoid the criticisms of Cussins. I close by making some more general points about pluralism and its relationship to history and integration.

  8. Phonology-morphology interaction: Acquisition of Danish noun plurals as a test case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition in Normal and Hearing Impaired Populations". In E. Schmidt, U. Mikkelsen, I. Post, J. B. Simonsen & K. Fruensgaard (eds.), Brain, Hearing and Learning. 20th Danavox Symposium 2003: 165-190. Bleses, D., Vach, W., Wehberg, S., Kristensen, K. F. & Madsen, T. O. (2007). Tidlig kommunikativ udvikling...... Development Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends". Journal of Child Language 35, 651-69. Bleses, D., Vach, W., Slott, M., Wehberg, S., Thomsen, P., Madsen, T. & Basbøll, H. (2008b). “Early Vocabulary Development in Danish and Other Languages: a CDI-based Comparison”. Journal of Child Language...... on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday 12 July 2003. Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag. Slobin, D. I. (ed.) (1985a). The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Slobin, D. I. (ed.) (1985b). The Crosslinguistic Study of Language Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ...

  9. Noun combination in interlanguage typology effects in complex determiner phrases

    CERN Document Server

    Bongartz, Christiane

    2002-01-01

    This study examines effects of L1 typology on the interlanguage of L2 learners of English. Czech learners use phrasal constructs (the song about love) significantly more often than Chinese learners, who prefer noun+noun compounds (the love song). Determiner properties and the process of noun incorporation systematically relate both options.

  10. Semantic and syntactic forces in noun phrase production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigliocco, G.; Lauer, M.; Damian, M.F.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments investigated semantic and syntactic effects in the production of phrases in Dutch. Bilingual participants were presented with English nouns and were asked to produce an adjective + noun phrase in Dutch including the translation of the noun. In 2 experiments, the authors blocked

  11. Learning to categorize verbs and nouns : studies on Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Verbs and nouns are elementary notions in linguistics, so the question how children learn to categorize verbs and nouns in their first language is an intriguing one. Children not only have to learn to identify verbs and nouns as belonging to different categories based on perception, they also have

  12. On the plurality of discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart-Wallace, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We talk about the world in different ways; by better understanding the ways we talk, we can better understand the world. Anyone who can appreciate this thought can appreciate the position here called discourse pluralism, or 'pluralism' for short. This covers a family of views in the realism debate, notably those of Michael Dummett (in one guise at least), Crispin Wright and Simon Blackburn. They believe that language is divided up into discourses corresponding to traditional areas of philosop...

  13. Examination of the Locus of Positional Effects on Children's Production of Plural -s: Considerations From Local and Global Speech Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Rachel M; Demuth, Katherine; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie

    2015-06-01

    Prosodic and articulatory factors influence children's production of inflectional morphemes. For example, plural -s is produced more reliably in utterance-final compared to utterance-medial position (i.e., the positional effect), which has been attributed to the increased planning time in utterance-final position. In previous investigations of plural -s, utterance-medial plurals were followed by a stop consonant (e.g., dogsbark), inducing high articulatory complexity. We examined whether the positional effect would be observed if the utterance-medial context were simplified to a following vowel. An elicited imitation task was used to collect productions of plural nouns from 2-year-old children. Nouns were elicited utterance-medially and utterance-finally, with the medial plural followed by either a stressed or an unstressed vowel. Acoustic analysis was used to identify evidence of morpheme production. The positional effect was absent when the morpheme was followed by a vowel (e.g., dogseat). However, it returned when the vowel-initial word contained 2 syllables (e.g., dogsarrive), suggesting that the increased processing load in the latter condition negated the facilitative effect of the easy articulatory context. Children's productions of grammatical morphemes reflect a rich interaction between emerging levels of linguistic competence, raising considerations for diagnosis and rehabilitation of language disorders.

  14. Plural Governance: A Modified Transaction Cost Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  15. Plurality in Orthodox and Heterodox Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila C. Dow

    2008-01-01

    Several observers have noted signs of a growing plurality in mainstream economics. At the same time there has been a growing emphasis in heterodox economics on commonality. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of plurality in economics in order to make sense of these characterisations, and to consider the issues raised by this plurality. The critical factor is to distinguish between plurality at the level of theory and evidence, at the level of methodological approach (plurality...

  16. A SUFFIX USED TO FORM COLLECTIVE/FAMILY NOUN IN THE SOME DIALECTS OF TURKISH: +ēNi/+îNi / BAZI TÜRKIYE TÜRKÇESI AĞIZLARINDA TOPLULUK/AILE ADI YAPAN BIR EK: +ēNi / +îNi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Serpil ERSÖZ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two suffixes used to form collective/family nouns: +giland +lAr. These suffixes which also indicates plurality in nouns are used inalmost all dialects of Turkish. This essay’s topic is suffix +ēNi+/+îNi whichis used to form collective/family nouns as +gil and +lAr in some dialects ofTurkish. In this essay, we extrapolate that the form of the suffix +îN(i withclose unrounded vowel is used in dialect of immigrants whereas the form ofthe suffix +ēNi with open unrounded vowel is used in dialects of noimmigrants, of yoruk and some Oguz tribes.

  17. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  18. Relations as Plural-Predications in Plato

    OpenAIRE

    Scaltsas, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Plato was the first philosopher to discover the metaphysical phenomenon of plural-subjects and plural-predication; e.g. you and I are two, but neither you, nor I are two. I argue that Plato devised an ontology for plural-predication through his Theory of Forms, namely, plural-partaking in a Form. Furthermore, I argue that Plato used plural-partaking to offer an ontology of related individuals without reifying relations. My contention is that Plato’s theory of plural-relatives has evaded detec...

  19. Heavy noun phrase constructions in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy noun phrase constructions in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander Land: a cognitive account of a stylistic feature. Luna Beard. Abstract. This article focusses on one grammatical construction, namely heavy noun phrase (NP) constructions in Afrikaans, and more specifically on those instances encountered in the Afrikaans ...

  20. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  1. Broohm: Noun Classification in Esahie | Broohm | Ghana Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tano, Kwa, Niger-Congo). It contends that, though the noun class system of Esahie per se is morpho-syntactically vestigial, hence differing from other African languages (e.g. most Bantu languages) where noun classes can be assimilated with ...

  2. Exploring Noun Bias in Filipino-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rochelle Irene G.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that there is a noun bias in children's early vocabularies brought about by features of adults' child-directed utterances, which may vary across languages (E. V. Bates et al., 1994; D. Gentner, 1982). In the present study, the authors explored noun bias in 60 Filipino-English bilingual children whose 2 languages differed…

  3. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  4. The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reintroduce Dik’s idea of Dynamic Term Construction and extend the current ontology of entities. The result would be a more cogent treatment of scope and NP syntax, which does not force the theory to abandon any of its fundamental methodological principles. Evelien Keizer (University of Amsterdam...... can account for NP-internal agreement phenomena, including speech errors, as attested in a large corpus of spoken German. Daniel García Velasco (University of Oviedo) examines the so-called Complex Noun Phrase Constraint within the context of FDG. The existence of restrictions on the displacement......, with regard to both form and content. Daniel García Velasco also wishes to acknowledge the financial support of the Dept. of Anglogermanic and French Studies and the Research Vice-Rectorate of the University of Oviedo....

  5. THE GENDER OF COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    In Albanian and English we have three kinds of gender: masculine, feminine and neuter. In Albanian language we have this concept for gender: “Gjinia është një nga kategoritë gramatikore më karakteristikë për emrat në gjuhën shqipe. Nga natyra e saj, ajo dallohet nga kategoritë e tjera të emrit, nga numri, rasa dhe nga kategoritë e shquarsisë dhe të pashquarsisë, sepse i kundërvihet mashkullore-femërore dhe asnjanëse...”[1], it’s same and with English: “a grouping of nouns and pronouns into c...

  6. The challenge of plural identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Bojan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of collective existence is expressed through an awareness of its real identity, which then entails an appropriate attitude towards its own negativity. Within the hierarchically structured identity, different levels of its generality make it possible to consider them as factors of a plural reality. If negativity is raised to consciousness, then its dark side is dismantled. Thus, instead of being a factor of conflict, negativity becomes an element of complementariness and a factor in the construction of a shared identity at a higher level of generality.

  7. Plural beam electron gun assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    The invention relates to a cathode ray tube plural-beam-in-line bi-potential electron gun assembly, having applied beam currents of differing levels, manifests structurally modified gun structures to effect focused beam landings at the screen that are evidenced as substantially equi-sized spots thereby providing improved resolution and brightness of the screen imagery. The structural changes embody modifications of the related focusing and accelerator electrodes of the respective guns to provide a partial telescoping arrangement for effecting the discrete placement, forming and shielding of the final focusing lenses. The three lenses so formed are in different planes in partial overlapping axial relationship

  8. Singular stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cherny, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  9. The Intonation of Noun Phrase Subjects and Clause- Modifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Oladipupo, Rotimi O. - Centre for Foundation Education, Bells University of. Technology ... native Englishes, especially at the level of phonology, this study investigates ... Keywords: Intonation tunes, Nigerian English, Noun Phrase Subjects,.

  10. Nicht-referentielle Nominalphrasen (Non-Referential Noun Phrases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Odo

    1973-01-01

    Appeared as Working Report No. 21 of the Linguistic Institute of the University of Cologne; critical observations on S. Kuno's Some Properties of Non-Refential Noun Phrases,'' in Studies in General and Oriental Linguistics, 1970. (RS)

  11. Quantum evolution across singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to consider evolution across space-time singularities often lead to quantum systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians developing an isolated singularity as a function of time. Examples include matrix theory in certain singular time-dependent backgounds and free quantum fields on the two-dimensional compactified Milne universe. Due to the presence of the singularities in the time dependence, the conventional quantum-mechanical evolution is not well-defined for such systems. We propose a natural way, mathematically analogous to renormalization in conventional quantum field theory, to construct unitary quantum evolution across the singularity. We carry out this procedure explicitly for free fields on the compactified Milne universe and compare our results with the matching conditions considered in earlier work (which were based on the covering Minkowski space)

  12. Introduction to singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Shihoko

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to singularities for graduate students and researchers. It is said that algebraic geometry originated in the seventeenth century with the famous work Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences by Descartes. In that book he introduced coordinates to the study of geometry. After its publication, research on algebraic varieties developed steadily. Many beautiful results emerged in mathematicians’ works. Most of them were about non-singular varieties. Singularities were considered “bad” objects that interfered with knowledge of the structure of an algebraic variety. In the past three decades, however, it has become clear that singularities are necessary for us to have a good description of the framework of varieties. For example, it is impossible to formulate minimal model theory for higher-dimensional cases without singularities. Another example is that the moduli spaces of varieties have natural compactification, the boundar...

  13. The Treatment of Borrowed Nouns in Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele and Isichazamazwi SezoMculo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eventhough Ndlovu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on the lemmatisation of vowel-commencing borrowed nouns and the allo-cation of borrowed nouns to noun class prefixes in Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele, the first monolingual general-purpose Ndebele dictionary, and Isichazamazwi SezoMculo, the first specialised Ndebele dictionary of musical terms. It adopts a comparative approach, also highlighting the controversies surrounding the status of the initial vowel of the prefix or the pre-prefix in Ndebele and other Nguni languages. It further looks at the challenges and limitations of lemmatising the noun using either the initial vowel of the prefix or the initial letter of the noun stem. It is found that there are some inconsistencies in the lemmatisation of vowel-com-mencing borrowed nouns and the allocation of borrowed nouns to noun class prefixes in the two dictionar-ies. These inconsistencies impact negatively on the standardisation and treatment of borrowed nouns.

  14. The Meaning of the Old Russian Plurale Tantum PAMIATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Bobrik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the meaning of the Old Russian plurale tantum pamiati, hitherto attested only in a 17th-century list of food served at banquets that is published in Ivan Zabelin’s Domashnii byt russkikh tsarei. The tentative meaning ‘brain (of crane’ proposed in the Slovarʹ russkogo iazyka 11–17 vv. does not reflect actual practice. Other 17th- and 18th-century written sources, primarily food lists but also lexicographic sources and Russian dialect data, allow for the definition ‘breastbone and meat (of poultry.’ In this meaning, as well as in other meanings of the Russian dialectal word pamiati, the plural and the singular forms are synonyms. In the newly found context of the 17th-century Skazka o molodtse, kone i sable, the word pamiati refers to the breastbone of a horse, so the meaning can now be more precisely defined as ‘breastbone and meat (of poultry and cattle.’ The definition of pamiati proposed in the Slovarʹ russkogo iazyka 11–17 vv. seems to reflect the “mental” notion of memory as being positioned in the head, whereas the meaning ‘breastbone and meat (of poultry and cattle,’ discussed here, relates rather to the ancient idea of memory as being placed in the breast.

  15. Dynamic pluralism: A pluralist framework for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferret, Juan

    The problem of measurement in quantum physics is one of the most recalcitrant problems of science. Part of the problem lies in the fact that several conflicting interpretations that account for how measurement takes place have endured. Most theorists of science assume that one of the available interpretations, or a future variation of one, will prove to be the true interpretation. What I argue in this dissertation is that the proper response to this problem may be to have a framework in which different relevant interpretations can coexist and offer critical examinations of the conceptual issues related to the problem of measurement. This pluralism of interpretations is not the result of some flaw or inadequacy in quantum physics. From this alternative framework, pluralism in the problem of measurement can be understood as an acceptable, even necessary, response to the process of theorizing and experimentation in quantum mechanics. An important claim in this dissertation is that contemporary versions of pluralism in philosophy of science do not provide an account that recognizes the viability of all the interpretations of the problem of measurement. After showing how these versions of pluralism in philosophy of science fall short, as they apply to the problem of measurement, I argue for several conditions that a pluralism needs to satisfy in order to serve as a pluralistic framework for the evaluation of all interpretations of the problem of measurement. I develop an alternative version of pluralism that does account for the existing and future plurality of interpretations of the problem of measurement. My proposal is that a version of pluralism based on the work of William James and Paul Feyerabend will meet these conditions. Specifically, after introducing the complex pluralism of James as a version of pluralism that comes close to accounting for the multiplicity of interpretations of the problem of measurement, I argue that his version of pluralism does not

  16. Morpho-syntactic processing of Arabic plurals after aphasia: dissecting lexical meaning from morpho-syntax within word boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaileh, Tariq; Body, Richard; Herbert, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Within the domain of inflectional morpho-syntax, differential processing of regular and irregular forms has been found in healthy speakers and in aphasia. One view assumes that irregular forms are retrieved as full entities, while regular forms are compiled on-line. An alternative view holds that a single mechanism oversees regular and irregular forms. Arabic offers an opportunity to study this phenomenon, as Arabic nouns contain a consonantal root, delivering lexical meaning, and a vocalic pattern, delivering syntactic information, such as gender and number. The aim of this study is to investigate morpho-syntactic processing of regular (sound) and irregular (broken) Arabic plurals in patients with morpho-syntactic impairment. Three participants with acquired agrammatic aphasia produced plural forms in a picture-naming task. We measured overall response accuracy, then analysed lexical errors and morpho-syntactic errors, separately. Error analysis revealed different patterns of morpho-syntactic errors depending on the type of pluralization (sound vs broken). Omissions formed the vast majority of errors in sound plurals, while substitution was the only error mechanism that occurred in broken plurals. The dissociation was statistically significant for retrieval of morpho-syntactic information (vocalic pattern) but not for lexical meaning (consonantal root), suggesting that the participants' selective impairment was an effect of the morpho-syntax of plurals. These results suggest that irregular plurals forms are stored, while regular forms are derived. The current findings support the findings from other languages and provide a new analysis technique for data from languages with non-concatenative morpho-syntax.

  17. Properties of kinematic singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coley, A A [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Hervik, S [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Lim, W C [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); MacCallum, M A H, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.c, E-mail: sigbjorn.hervik@uis.n, E-mail: wclim@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: m.a.h.maccallum@qmul.ac.u [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-07

    The locally rotationally symmetric tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type V cosmological model provides examples of future geodesically complete spacetimes that admit a 'kinematic singularity' at which the fluid congruence is inextendible but all frame components of the Weyl and Ricci tensors remain bounded. We show that for any positive integer n there are examples of Bianchi type V spacetimes admitting a kinematic singularity such that the covariant derivatives of the Weyl and Ricci tensors up to the nth order also stay bounded. We briefly discuss singularities in classical spacetimes.

  18. Nouns and verbs in the vocabulary acquisition of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco

    2007-11-01

    The vocabulary development of 24 Italian children aged between 1;4 and 1;6 at the beginning of the study was longitudinally monitored on a monthly basis using the Italian version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory drawn up by their mothers. This study analyzes data from children for whom two sampling stages were available; the first corresponding to a vocabulary size as close as possible to 200 words (mean 217, range 167-281), the second to a vocabulary size ranging from 400 to 650 words (mean 518, range 416-648). The children's vocabulary composition was analyzed by calculating, for each sampling stage, the percentage of common nouns, verbs and closed-class words. The increase in percentage points of the various lexical items between the first and second sampling stages was also analyzed. Data confirmed the predominance of nouns over verbs and closed-class words at both sampling stages, while verbs and closed-class words showed a higher percentage increase than nouns. The results provide evidence that children who reached the first sampling point at an earlier age had a higher percentage of nouns than children who reached the same stage at an older age. However, in the passage from the first to the second sampling point no relationship emerged between a style of acquisition based on the acquisition of nouns and an increase in the rate of vocabulary growth.

  19. Nonlinear singular elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Minh Duc.

    1988-09-01

    We improve the Poincare inequality, the Sobolev imbedding theorem and the Trudinger imbedding theorem and prove a Mountain pass theorem. Applying these results we study a nonlinear singular mixed boundary problem. (author). 22 refs

  20. Coloured phase singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    For illumination with white light, the spectra near a typical isolated phase singularity (nodal point of the component wavelengths) can be described by a universal function of position, up to linear distortion and a weak dependence on the spectrum of the source. The appearance of the singularity when viewed by a human observer is predicted by transforming the spectrum to trichromatic variables and chromaticity coordinates, and then rendering the colours, scaled to constant luminosity, on a computer monitor. The pattern far from the singularity is a white that depends on the source temperature, and the centre of the pattern is flanked by intensely coloured 'eyes', one orange and one blue, separated by red, and one of the eyes is surrounded by a bright white circle. Only a small range of possible colours appears near the singularity; in particular, there is no green. (author)

  1. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  2. Surface Plasmon Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Martínez-Niconoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to compare the physical features of the electromagnetic field, we describe the synthesis of optical singularities propagating in the free space and on a metal surface. In both cases the electromagnetic field has a slit-shaped curve as a boundary condition, and the singularities correspond to a shock wave that is a consequence of the curvature of the slit curve. As prototypes, we generate singularities that correspond to fold and cusped regions. We show that singularities in free space may generate bifurcation effects while plasmon fields do not generate these kinds of effects. Experimental results for free-space propagation are presented and for surface plasmon fields, computer simulations are shown.

  3. Timelike naked singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    2004-01-01

    We construct a class of spherically symmetric collapse models in which a naked singularity may develop as the end state of collapse. The matter distribution considered has negative radial and tangential pressures, but the weak energy condition is obeyed throughout. The singularity forms at the center of the collapsing cloud and continues to be visible for a finite time. The duration of visibility depends on the nature of energy distribution. Hence the causal structure of the resulting singularity depends on the nature of the mass function chosen for the cloud. We present a general model in which the naked singularity formed is timelike, neither pointlike nor null. Our work represents a step toward clarifying the necessary conditions for the validity of the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture

  4. Algorithms in Singular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schonemann

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Some algorithms for singularity theory and algebraic geometry The use of Grobner basis computations for treating systems of polynomial equations has become an important tool in many areas. This paper introduces of the concept of standard bases (a generalization of Grobner bases and the application to some problems from algebraic geometry. The examples are presented as SINGULAR commands. A general introduction to Grobner bases can be found in the textbook [CLO], an introduction to syzygies in [E] and [St1]. SINGULAR is a computer algebra system for computing information about singularities, for use in algebraic geometry. The basic algorithms in SINGULAR are several variants of a general standard basis algorithm for general monomial orderings (see [GG]. This includes wellorderings (Buchberger algorithm ([B1], [B2] and tangent cone orderings (Mora algorithm ([M1], [MPT] as special cases: It is able to work with non-homogeneous and homogeneous input and also to compute in the localization of the polynomial ring in 0. Recent versions include algorithms to factorize polynomials and a factorizing Grobner basis algorithm. For a complete description of SINGULAR see [Si].

  5. Numerical method of singular problems on singular integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huaiguo; Mou Zongze

    1992-02-01

    As first part on the numerical research of singular problems, a numerical method is proposed for singular integrals. It is shown that the procedure is quite powerful for solving physics calculation with singularity such as the plasma dispersion function. Useful quadrature formulas for some class of the singular integrals are derived. In general, integrals with more complex singularities can be dealt by this method easily

  6. Order in the noun phrase of the languages of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The current investigation of the word order characteristics of the constituents of the noun phrase (NP) differs from other typological investigations of the issue in two major respects. First of all, it does not take for granted the existence of NPs or of the various NP-internal categories...... that it also has noun phrases: it may use a string of appositives rather than a proper, integral NP. The existence of NPs and the presence of various NP-internal categories is not an issue that has received considerable attention in typological word order studies. Yet how can we hope to establish the cross...... in a representative sample of European languages (Appendix 1), we first need to devote some attention to such basic questions as: Do all European languages have nouns? Do all European languages have proper NPs? Which NP-internal modifiers are attested in the European languages, and which are absent? These issues...

  7. Designing a noun guesser for part of speech tagging in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... used to recognize nouns that are not contained in the noun lexicon of the system. ... Our implementation is a symbolic, voting-based process: together, all tests ...

  8. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  9. Vatican II and pluralism in pastoral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D A

    1978-01-01

    The documents of Vatican II imply that the ever increasing plurality of needs in the world and in Catholic health care institutions must be met by plurality in Christian response. Catholic hospitals should welcome onto their pastoral care teams people with diverse credentials and use them to promote the spiritual care of patients--Catholic and non-Catholic. In addition, this pluralistic ministry should extend itself beyond institutional walls toward the social needs of the community.

  10. INDONESIA: FROM PLURALISM TO MULTICULTURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasino Wasino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia was not a new entity when started to become national country. It was called a continuation of the history of the Dutch East Indies. The people lived under western colonial was a pluralistic society, people separated by social class, ethnicity, religion, race and inter-group. Between the authorities and the people separated along racial lines. In addition there was the separation of ethnic groups associated with the economic, educational and social relations. After Indonesian independence the pluralistic society situation continues. The end of the New Order has opened a Pandora's Box of poor relations between ethnic and inter-religious. As a result many conflicts occurred based on religious and ethnic differences. The conflict heated up as the influx of political interests. The process of political reform gave birth to a new awareness of the relationship between ethnicity and religion. The starting point of this change was when the President Abdurrahman Wahid unlocked barriers on multicultural relationship that respects the differences of cultural orientation among the existing ethnic. From that moment the concept of multiculturalism experienced socialization process within Indonesian society. Key words: pluralism, multiculturalism, colonial, new order, socialization Ketika Indonesia lahir sebagai negara nasional, Indonesia bukanlah  entitas yang baru. Ia merupakan kelanjutan  sejarah dari masyarakat yang disebut Hindia Belanda. Masyarakat di bawah penjajah Barat ini merupakan masyarakat majemuk, masyarakat yang terpisah-pisah berdasarkan kelas sosial, suku, agama, ras, dan antar golongan. Antara penguasa dan rakyat terpisah secara garis rasial. Selain itu ada pe-misahan suku bangsa terkait dengan ekonomi, pendidikan, dan hubungan-hubungan sosial. Setelah Indonesia merdeka situasi masyarakat majemuk terus berlangsung. Berakhirnya Orde Baru telah membuka kotak pandora  buruknya hubungan antar etnik dan antar agama. Akibatnya

  11. Pluralism v. relativism : an appraisal of Isaiah Berlin´s defence of pluralism

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    Isaiah Berlin’s conception of pluralism is often confused with relativism. The purpose of this thesis is to assess the solidity of his arguments concerning the distinction between the two theories against the backdrop of two interpretations by two very different thinkers that similarly approximate pluralism to relativism: John Gray, the radical pluralist, and Leo Strauss, the steward of naturalism. Berlin tendered a conception of pluralism whereby the inevitable conflict among ...

  12. Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in Published and ESL Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Rahime Nur; Cortes, Viviana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of a special type of unspecific noun, called "shell nouns" [Hunston, S., & Francis, G. (1999). "Pattern grammar". Amsterdam: Benjamins; Schmid, H. (2000). "English abstract nouns as conceptual shells: From corpus to cognition". Berlin: Walter de Gruyter], which are frequently used as cohesive devices, in the written…

  13. Categorical Structure among Shared Features in Networks of Early-Learned Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T.; Maouene, Mounir; Maouene, Josita; Sheya, Adam; Smith, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The shared features that characterize the noun categories that young children learn first are a formative basis of the human category system. To investigate the potential categorical information contained in the features of early-learned nouns, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of noun-feature networks. The networks are built from the…

  14. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer's patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patients' error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain-specific impairments for living nouns and…

  15. Singularities in FLRW spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    het Lam, Huibert; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2017-12-01

    We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept following that geodesic. That indicates a breakdown of the particle's description, which is why we should not consider those trajectories for the definition of an initial singularity. When one only considers test particles that do not have this breakdown of their trajectory, it turns out that the only singular FLRW spacetimes are the ones that have a scale parameter that vanishes at some initial time.

  16. The Contrastive Study of Igbo and English Denominal Nouns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teaching of nominalization has not been all smooth for an Igbo second language learner of English language. That is why this study is set to contrast English and Igbo Denominal nouns. The objective is to find out the similarities and differences between the nominalization process in Igbo and that of the English ...

  17. National open university of Nigeria (noun) students' perception of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studied the perception and challenges of students of open and distance learning (ODL) mode. ODL is a welcome development in Nigeria educational system. Participants in this study were 500 NOUN students that were randomly selected from Abuja study center. A well structured and validated questionnaire ...

  18. Exploring Atypical Verb+Noun Combinations in Learner Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon Marco, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and…

  19. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  20. Lemmatisation of Vowel Commencing Borrowed Nouns and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    its noun class prefixes, the presence of the initial vowel or pre-prefix, or the augment, as ..... Grammatical information has to be as accurate as the defini- ... achieve a semantic ordering of entries gives the impression that language con- sists of ...

  1. Nouns cut slices: Effects of linguistic forms on intergroup bias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graf, Sylvie; Bilewicz, M.; Finell, E.; Geschke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-61 ISSN 0261-927X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : nouns * adjectives * intergroup bias * intergroup attitudes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.872, year: 2013

  2. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.

  3. Pseudospherical surfaces with singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of constant Gauss curvature −1 surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, based on Lorentzian harmonic maps, that we call pseudospherical frontals. We analyse the singularities of these surfaces, dividing them into those of characteristic and non-characteristic type. We give methods...

  4. Supersymmetry in singular spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric

    2002-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in spaces with a boundary, i.e. singular spaces. In particular, we discuss the situation in ten and five dimensions. In both these cases we review the construction of supersymmetric domain wall actions situated at the boundary. These domain walls act as sources inducing a

  5. Singularities in FLRW Spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Huibert het; Prokopec, Tom

    2017-01-01

    We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept

  6. Charged singularities: repulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    The repulsive phenomena which a particle experiences in the vicinity of a naked singularity are investigated in the Kerr-Newman space-time. The aim is to extend the knowledge of this fact to charged solutions and to have a direct indication of how, in these situations, the gravitational and electrostatic interactions are competing.

  7. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    Following Papapetrou [1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)], a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture. (author)

  8. Singular potentials in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Koo, E. Ley

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a review of some mathematical methods as recently developed and applied to deal with singular potentials in Quantum Mechanics. Regular and singular perturbative methods as well as variational treatments are considered. (author). 25 refs

  9. Singularities: the Brieskorn anniversary volume

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brieskorn, Egbert; Arnolʹd, V. I; Greuel, G.-M; Steenbrink, J. H. M

    1998-01-01

    ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Main theorem ... 3 Ideals of ideal-unimodal plane curve singularities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References ... Gert-Martin Greuel and Gerhard Pfister...

  10. Investigating differences between proper and common nouns using novel word learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Romanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown higher rates of tip-of-the-tongue states for proper nouns, in comparison to common nouns, in non-brain-damaged speakers (e.g., Valentine & Moore, 1995, and higher retrieval failure rates for proper nouns relative to common nouns in people with aphasia (e.g., Semenza, 2009. Some authors suggest the source of these differences lies in logical properties (e.g., Semenza, 2009. That is, common nouns refer to a category of beings or objects that share certain semantic properties, while proper nouns designate specific individual beings or objects with unique features. Other authors attribute the distinction in processing to a number of statistical properties that differ across common and proper nouns (Kay, Hanley, & Miles, 2001. The aims of the present study were: 1 to dissociate the effects of logical and statistical properties by using novel words with equal statistical properties; 2 to determine whether people with aphasia show disproportionate impairments in learning proper nouns relative to common nouns, compared to aged-matched subjects. Methods We tested young (n=16 and elderly (n=14 adult non-brain-damaged participants and people with aphasia (n=2. Items-to-be-learnt were given as representatives of an unknown species (n=10 in the common noun condition, or as individual creatures (n=10 in the proper noun condition. The experiment consisted of 5 sessions. Each session included a learning phase and a test phase with naming and word-picture verification tasks. Results and Discussion Preliminary analysis showed learning of both common and proper nouns for both younger (F(4=140.68, p<.01 and elderly (F(4=34.87, p<.01 non-brain-damaged participants, with learning being significantly better for the younger group (F(4=6.5, p<.01. Contrary to expectations, performance on proper nouns was better than that for common nouns for both young and elderly subjects (F(1=6.47, p=.02 and F(1=9.75, p<.01, respectively, possibly due to

  11. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Well-known examples are singularities inside black holes and initial or final singularities in expanding or contracting universes. In recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which may lead to an understanding of these in the standard framework of time evolution in quantum mechanics.

  12. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbón, José L.F. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, Eliezer [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-15

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  13. Are naked singularities really visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1978-12-09

    The question whether a Kerr naked singularity is actually visible from infinity is investigated; it is shown that in fact any signal which could be emitted from the singularity is infinitely red-shifted. This implies that naked singularities would be indistinguishable from a black hole.

  14. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbón, José L.F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  15. The cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Written for researchers focusing on general relativity, supergravity, and cosmology, this is a self-contained exposition of the structure of the cosmological singularity in generic solutions of the Einstein equations, and an up-to-date mathematical derivation of the theory underlying the Belinski–Khalatnikov–Lifshitz (BKL) conjecture on this field. Part I provides a comprehensive review of the theory underlying the BKL conjecture. The generic asymptotic behavior near the cosmological singularity of the gravitational field, and fields describing other kinds of matter, is explained in detail. Part II focuses on the billiard reformulation of the BKL behavior. Taking a general approach, this section does not assume any simplifying symmetry conditions and applies to theories involving a range of matter fields and space-time dimensions, including supergravities. Overall, this book will equip theoretical and mathematical physicists with the theoretical fundamentals of the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Black Hole singula...

  16. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  17. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  18. Dyslexia singular brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habis, M.; Robichon, F.; Demonet, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Of late ten years, neurologists are studying the brain of the dyslectics. The cerebral imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography) has allowed to confirm the anatomical particularities discovered by some of them: asymmetry default of cerebral hemispheres, size abnormally large of the white substance mass which connect the two hemispheres. The functional imagery, when visualizing this singular brain at work, allows to understand why it labors to reading. (O.M.)

  19. A proposal of methodology for automatic indexation using noun phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rocha Souza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available It can be noticed that the indexing and representation strategies nowadays seems to be near the exhaustion, and it is worth to investigate new approaches to the indexing and information retrieving systems. Among these, a branch tries to consider the intrinsic semantics of the textual documents using noun phrases as descriptors instead of single keywords. We present in this article a methodology that was developed in the scope of a doctorate research.

  20. Pluralism and Objectivism: Cornerstones for Interpersonal Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    comparison, and between a subjectivist and objectivist standard of interpersonal comparison. The paper provides a normative argument for pluralism and objectivism with regard to interpersonal comparison, and it suggests that the Capability Approach as developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum fits...

  1. Acquisition of noun derivation in Estonian and Russian L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of derivation is not a well-studied area in first language research and a comparative approach to the acquisition of derivation in different languages doesn’t exist. There is no information on how a child acquires derivation in a language with a rich and regular system of derivational patterns, or in a language where derivation is productive, but the system of derivational patterns is opaque. According to general ideas of complexity in a language, the child should start to use simplex stems first and, only after that, complex ones, that is, complexity should increase in the course of acquisition. Our paper is intended to address these issues, based on longitudinal child data from typologically different languages, Estonian and Russian. The results revealed significant differences in the acquisition of noun derivation in the two languages under observation. The system of noun derivation is acquired at a faster pace in Russian, while Estonian children have far fewer noun derivatives in their speech and they use different derivation suffixes with less regularity. Even so, the so-called building block model may be applied for both languages only partially.

  2. Rule-based Approach on Extraction of Malay Compound Nouns in Standard Malay Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Zamri; Kamal Ismail, Normaly; Rawi, Mohd Izani Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Malay compound noun is defined as a form of words that exists when two or more words are combined into a single syntax and it gives a specific meaning. Compound noun acts as one unit and it is spelled separately unless an established compound noun is written closely from two words. The basic characteristics of compound noun can be seen in the Malay sentences which are the frequency of that word in the text itself. Thus, this extraction of compound nouns is significant for the following research which is text summarization, grammar checker, sentiments analysis, machine translation and word categorization. There are many research efforts that have been proposed in extracting Malay compound noun using linguistic approaches. Most of the existing methods were done on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, the result still produces some problems as to give a better result. This paper explores a linguistic method for extracting compound Noun from stand Malay corpus. A standard dataset are used to provide a common platform for evaluating research on the recognition of compound Nouns in Malay sentences. Therefore, an improvement for the effectiveness of the compound noun extraction is needed because the result can be compromised. Thus, this study proposed a modification of linguistic approach in order to enhance the extraction of compound nouns processing. Several pre-processing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization and tagging. The first step that uses the linguistic approach in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Finally, we describe several rules-based and modify the rules to get the most relevant relation between the first word and the second word in order to assist us in solving of the problems. The effectiveness of the relations used in our study can be measured using recall, precision and F1-score techniques. The comparison of the baseline values is very essential because it can provide whether there has been an improvement

  3. Stochastic singular optics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roux Presented at the International Conference on Correlation Optics 2013 Chernivtsi, Ukraine 18-20 September 2013 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa – p. 1/24 Contents ⊲ Defining Stochastic Singular Optics (SSO) ⊲ Tools of Stochastic... of vortices: topological charge ±1 (higher order are unstable). Positive and negative vortex densities np(x, y, z) and nn(x, y, z) ⊲ Vortex density: V = np + nn ⊲ Topological charge density: T = np − nn – p. 4/24 Subfields of SSO ⊲ Homogeneous, normally...

  4. Cosmological models without singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.

    1981-01-01

    A previously studied theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. There exist two different classes of models without singularities: (i) ever-expanding models, (ii) oscillating models. The first class contains models with hot big bang. For these models there exist at the beginning of the universe-in contrast to Einstein's theory-very high but finite densities of matter and radiation with a big bang of very short duration. After short time these models pass into the homogeneous and isotropic models of Einstein's theory with spatial curvature equal to zero and cosmological constant ALPHA >= O. (author)

  5. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  6. ABDURRAHMAN WAHID, DEPTH ISLAM, AND RELIGIOUS PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Media Zainul Bahri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay elucidates the idea of religious pluralism of Abdurrahman Wahid (1940-2009, a very important figure in the tradition of Indonesian Islam. Wahis’s ideas  of religious pluralism is based on what the so-called “Depth Islam” (DI. DI is different from the usual theological dogmas that only contains concepts and structures. DI  is  not a literal and superficial forms of religion. It is an understanding  that goes beyond the literal texts to look for the principles and spirit of religion in appreciating humanity, diversity and peace.  DI may have arisen because of the long process of religious internalization within Wahid experiences, but it is also a hybrid form, i.e., it is a result of the process of encountering or learning Wahid’s traditions inter-mingling with cultures of the wider world. 

  7. From Iron to Glass: Transparency and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse Fauvel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The author reads a number of recent architectural constructions in Paris (mainly the Louvre pyramid, but also the Musée d'Orsay and the Institut du monde arabe and argues that they affirm the plurality of contemporary France while at once inscribing and subverting the conventions of its (once dominant culture: the Arab world in the heart of Paris, the museum cum railway station as the focal point of conflicting tastes, the pyramid as both accomplice and critic of history. Their pluralism qualifies them as postmodern. These monuments also propose a new role for today's museum. The building itself becomes an art object, and the museum is not reduced to its function as a place for education and edification; it demands an inventive and exploratory initiative on the part of the visitor.

  8. Value pluralism and incommensurability in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirgmaier, Elke; Urhammer, Emil

    2015-01-01

    problems of our time lie in a democracy where multiple values can be communicated. In order to provide inspiration for thinking about such a democracy, this paper provides an overview of a wide range of philosophical positions on values and value pluralism and analyses how values and value pluralism...... territory. This is reflected in a value hegemony framing everything from biodiversity to carbon emissions in monetary terms. We consider this a democratic problem since the diversity of values is thus not fairly represented in our current mode of decision-making. We believe that the solutions to the grand...... are treated in a selection of articles in ecological economics. The paper concludes that the treatment of values and incommensurability in ecological economics can be characterised as ambiguous. There is a need for further research on the theoretical aspects of these issues....

  9. Plurality or convergence in sustainability reporting standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Albu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years an increasing number of companies issued Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR or Sustainability Reports to complement their traditional financial reporting. Companies use various sustainability reporting standards or develop their own reporting frameworks starting from the existing ones. This variation of practices pointed out by empirical research raises questions about the quality and comparability of sustainability reporting, its role in the sustainable development, and also about the suitability of accepting the plurality of reporting frameworks or the need for convergence. This study aims to investigate the issues of plurality and convergence in sustainability reporting standards, by mobilizing the discourses on regulation and the case of a group of companies in the IT industry in order to shed some light on the current challenges in this area. We frame a discussion on the opportunities and pitfalls of convergence in sustainability reporting regulations and contribute to a better understanding of this issue by academics, preparers, users and standard setters

  10. Medical pluralism: global perspectives on equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Florica

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decades, awareness has increased about the phenomenon of medical pluralism and the importance to integrate biomedicine and other forms of health care. The broad variety of healing cultures existing alongside biomedicine is called complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) in industrialized countries and traditional medicine (TM) in developing countries. Considerable debate has arisen about ethical problems related to the growing use of CAM in industrialized countries. This article focuses on equity issues and aims to consider them from a global perspective of medical pluralism. Several dimensions of equity are explored and their interrelatedness discussed: access to care, research (paradigm and founding) and recognition. This so-called 'equity circle' is then related to Iris Marion Young's justice theory and particularly to the concepts of cultural imperialism, powerlessness and marginalisation.

  11. Acquisition of German Pluralization Rules in Monolingual and Multilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Eugen; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Neumann, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year-old monolingual…

  12. Plurality and equality in the Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimar Ramis-Salas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to present empirical evidence of the success generated as a result of the types of organization of the centres and the classrooms in the CA. The inclusion of the plurality of voices of families from very different origins allows for an education that based on the plurality and diversity manages to achieve a greater equality in the results of all children. Design/methodology/approach: the present article is based on 1 review of the scientific literature in journals selected in the Journal Citation Reports about the types of participation of migrant families and from cultural minorities and their effect on the education of their children; and 2 on the collection of testimonies of migrant and cultural minority families through qualitative techniques. Findings and Originality/value: empirical evidence is presented about how the types of management and organization of the families participation in the classroom and the school of Learning communities maximize the plurality of voices (migrant and cultural minority families and contribute to improve the results of the children of the social groups who are most underprivileged and who obtain a greater improvement in the results levelling them with those of the mainstream society. Research limitations/implications: complexity to achieve a climate of ideal egalitarian dialogue in the framework of the communicative research data collection techniques Social implications: the article emphasizes the fact that evidence based actions achieve social and educational transformation, contributing to respond to the objectives of Europe 2020 to achieve more inclusive societies. Originality/value: how through implementing certain forms of classroom and school organization based on the inclusion of the plurality of voices, we contribute evidence of the improvement of the management of the center and the transformation of the relations with the community, beyond the educational success.

  13. Absolutyzm i pluralizm (ABSOLUTISM AND PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ziemińska

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Alethic absolutism is a thesis that propositions can not be more or less true, that they are true or false for ever (if true at all and that their truth is independent on any circumstances of their assertion. In negative version, easier to defend, alethic absolutism claims the very same proposition can not be both true and false relative to circumstances of its assertion. Simple alethic pluralism is a thesis that we have many concepts of truth. It is a very good way to dissolve the controversy between alethic relativism and absolutism. Many philosophical concepts of truth are the best reason for such pluralism. If concept is meaning of a name, we have many concepts of truth because the name 'truth' was understood in many ways. The variety of meanings however can be superficial. Under it we can find one idea of truth expressed in correspondence truism or schema (T. The content of the truism is too poor to be content of anyone concept of truth, so it usually is connected with some picture of the world (ontology and we have so many concepts of truth as many pictures of the world. The authoress proposes the hierarchical pluralism with privileged classic (or correspondence in weak sense concept of truth as absolute property.Other author's publications:

  14. Residues and duality for singularity categories of isolated Gorenstein singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Murfet, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We study Serre duality in the singularity category of an isolated Gorenstein singularity and find an explicit formula for the duality pairing in terms of generalised fractions and residues. For hypersurfaces we recover the residue formula of the string theorists Kapustin and Li. These results are obtained from an explicit construction of complete injective resolutions of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules.

  15. Recently learned foreign abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct cortical networks similar to the native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Katja M; Macedonia, Manuela; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2017-09-01

    In the native language, abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct areas of the cerebral cortex. Currently, it is unknown whether this is also the case for abstract and concrete nouns of a foreign language. Here, we taught adult native speakers of German 45 abstract and 45 concrete nouns of a foreign language. After learning the nouns for 5 days, participants performed a vocabulary translation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Translating abstract nouns in contrast to concrete nouns elicited responses in regions that are also responsive to abstract nouns in the native language: the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle and superior temporal gyri. Concrete nouns elicited larger responses in the angular gyri bilaterally and the left parahippocampal gyrus than abstract nouns. The cluster in the left angular gyrus showed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) with the left lingual gyrus. The left parahippocampal gyrus showed PPI with the posterior cingulate cortex. Similar regions have been previously found for concrete nouns in the native language. The results reveal similarities in the cortical representation of foreign language nouns with the representation of native language nouns that already occur after 5 days of vocabulary learning. Furthermore, we showed that verbal and enriched learning methods were equally suitable to teach foreign abstract and concrete nouns. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4398-4412, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Singular Poisson tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structures discovered by Morrison and Greene for various fluid equations were obtained by guessing a Hamiltonian and a suitable Poisson bracket formula, expressed in terms of noncanonical (but physical) coordinates. In general, such a procedure for obtaining a Hamiltonian system does not produce a Hamiltonian phase space in the usual sense (a symplectic manifold), but rather a family of symplectic manifolds. To state the matter in terms of a system with a finite number of degrees of freedom, the family of symplectic manifolds is parametrized by a set of Casimir functions, which are characterized by having vanishing Poisson brackets with all other functions. The number of independent Casimir functions is the corank of the Poisson tensor J/sup ij/, the components of which are the Poisson brackets of the coordinates among themselves. Thus, these Casimir functions exist only when the Poisson tensor is singular

  17. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  18. Merger of noun classes 3 and 1: A case study with bilingual isiXhosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Class reduction (the loss of a noun class) in Southern Bantu languages is an acknowledged but under-researched phenomenon. A recent study of isiXhosa concords suggests an incipient merger of noun classes 11 and 5, but no research to date has examined other possible concord mergers or concord flux in the ...

  19. Onondaga Noun Incorporation: Some Notes on the Interdependence of Syntax and Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Hanni

    1975-01-01

    In Onondaga and all northern Iroquoian languages, nouns can be incorporated into verbs. The function of this is semantic as well as syntactic. It is semantic in that the sense of an incorporated noun will be narrower than its unincorporated counterpart regardless of modifiers. Incorporation changes the transformational structure of the sentence.…

  20. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  1. Making room for pluralism by redefining journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Lund, Anker Brink

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the ideal of pluralism, this essay explores an apparent paradox: although many different kinds of journalism may have evolved, because journalism is only vaguely defined by connections to ‘the media' and ‘news', there is a trend towards increasing journalistic standardization....... It is proposed that this standardization represents attempts to rationalize journalism. But rationalism is a framework of thought which is alien to journalism and to political life in general, it is argued. As an alternative framework for the philosophy and practice of journalism, the classical notions of praxis...

  2. BADUY PLURALISM: FROM MYTH TO REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Misno Bambang Prawiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a land of many tribes, with each tribe having different customs. However they have a bond in the form of the state motto, Bhineka Tunggal Ika. This motto is based on a philosophy embraced by every tribe in the form of the teachings passed down from the ancestors such as pantun (Malay poetic form, rhyme, guguritan (Sundanese literary works, history and myths. Myths here are stories about things that happened in the past in the form of the history of the origins of man and nature, or the origin of a nation. Myths as a local wisdom are believed to be the truth by every member of the tribe applied in everyday life. This includes the myth that tells about human cultural diversity (plurality, and the community will implement its content. What about the Baduy community in Banten, do they have myths and apply the myths that deal with pluralism in their life? The Baduy are one of the ethnic groups in Indonesia who have myths about the creation of the universe, human origins, and even myths about the events that will occur. The myth about the origin of humans in the Baduy community begins with the creation of Adam as the first human, and then he had children that gave birth to the whole nation in the world. Because every human in the world is the great-grandsons of Adam, the Baduy believe that all humanity is dulur (brother despite differences in customs and religion. The reality of social life of the Baduy community, either Baduy Dalam (inner baduy or Baduy Luar (outer baduy is that they greatly respect all mankind despite the different cultures and religions. Prohibition to enter the Baduy traditional village for foreigners is because of historical factors, namely the agreement made by their ancestors with the Dutch. This research concluded that the Baduy society is a society that understands the plurality of cultures; it is based on a myth that they believe and apply in their life about tolerance of other religions. Key Word: Pluralism

  3. Parentescos en plural: reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Bogino Larrambebere, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Reseña de la obra "Parentescos en plural. María Eugenia Olavarría (ed.). México: UAM/Iztapalapa/Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, 2013, 320 p. ISBN 9786074016529 Este libro reúne distintas investigaciones etnográficas sobre nuevas formas y vínculos de parentesco en la Ciudad de México del siglo XXI. En este escenario multicultural, entre los años 2006 y 2012, se producen importantes cambios legislativos que permiten reconocer distintos procesos de creación y reinvención de la familia: el...

  4. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo, E-mail: Remo.Garattini@unibg.it [Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); I.N.F.N. – sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India)

    2014-07-15

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  5. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-07-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheele-DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  6. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-01-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity

  7. Loop quantum cosmology and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyve, Ward

    2017-08-15

    Loop quantum gravity is believed to eliminate singularities such as the big bang and big crunch singularity. This belief is based on studies of so-called loop quantum cosmology which concerns symmetry-reduced models of quantum gravity. In this paper, the problem of singularities is analysed in the context of the Bohmian formulation of loop quantum cosmology. In this formulation there is an actual metric in addition to the wave function, which evolves stochastically (rather than deterministically as the case of the particle evolution in non-relativistic Bohmian mechanics). Thus a singularity occurs whenever this actual metric is singular. It is shown that in the loop quantum cosmology for a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with arbitrary constant spatial curvature and cosmological constant, coupled to a massless homogeneous scalar field, a big bang or big crunch singularity is never obtained. This should be contrasted with the fact that in the Bohmian formulation of the Wheeler-DeWitt theory singularities may exist.

  8. Patterns of third person plural verbal agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodrigues Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a Labovian sociolinguistic description of 3rd person plural patterns of agreement in European (EP, Brazilian (BP and São Tomé (STP Portuguese based on very recent samples of speech stratified for age, sex/gender and education. Linguistic and social restrictions for the variation are investigated. Results from statistical analysis indicate that there are two patterns of agreement in Portuguese: a semi-categorical rule, typical of EP, and a variable rule, typical of BP and STP, restricted by specific linguistic and social factors. Additionally, the results indicate that general linguistic constraints – such as the position of the subject, semantic feature of the subject or even discursive parallelism – cannot say anything about historical origin of Portuguese varieties, since they can be concerned with any language. Therefore, besides the quantitative expression of non-agreement, the quality of the occurrences of non-plural marking may support the characterization of each variety.

  9. Singularity resolution in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We examine the singularity resolution issue in quantum gravity by studying a new quantization of standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometrodynamics. The quantization procedure is inspired by the loop quantum gravity program, and is based on an alternative to the Schroedinger representation normally used in metric variable quantum cosmology. We show that in this representation for quantum geometrodynamics there exists a densely defined inverse scale factor operator, and that the Hamiltonian constraint acts as a difference operator on the basis states. We find that the cosmological singularity is avoided in the quantum dynamics. We discuss these results with a view to identifying the criteria that constitute 'singularity resolution' in quantum gravity

  10. The theory of singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, E M

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat

  11. Van Hove singularities revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyaloshinskii, I.

    1987-07-01

    Beginning with the work of Hirsch and Scalapino the importance of ln 2 -Van Hove singularity in T c -enhancement in La 2 CuO 4 -based compounds was realized, which is nicely reviewed by Rice. However, the theoretical treatment carried out before is incomplete. Two things were apparently not paid due attention to: interplay of particle-particle and particle-hole channels and Umklapp processes. In what follows a two-dimensional weak coupling model of LaCuO 4 will be solved exactly in the ln 2 -approximation. The result in the Hubbard limit (one bare charge) is that the system is unstable at any sign of interaction. Symmetry breaking moreover is pretty peculiar. Of course, there are separate singlet superconducting pairings in the pp-channel (attraction) and SDW (repulsion) and CDW (attraction) in the ph-channel. It is natural that Umklapps produce an SDW + CDW mixture at either sign of the interaction. What is unusual is that both the pp-ph interplay and the Umklapps give rise to a monster-coherent SS + SDW + CDW mixture, again at either sign of the bare charge. In the general model where all 4 charges involved are substantially different, the system might remain metallic. A more realistic approach which takes into account dopping in La-M-Cu-O and interlayer interaction provides at least a qualitative understanding of the experimental picture. 10 refs, 5 figs

  12. Pluralism in mathematics a new position in philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friend, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    This book is about philosophy, mathematics and logic, giving a philosophical account of Pluralism which is a family of positions in the philosophy of mathematics. There are four parts to this book, beginning with a look at motivations for Pluralism by way of Realism, Maddy's Naturalism, Shapiro's Structuralism and Formalism. In the second part of this book the author covers: the philosophical presentation of Pluralism; using a formal theory of logic metaphorically; rigour and proof for the Pluralist; and mathematical fixtures. In the third part the author goes on to focus on the transcendental presentation of Pluralism, and in part four looks at applications of Pluralism, such as a Pluralist approach to proof in mathematics and how Pluralism works in regard to together-inconsistent philosophies of mathematics. The book finishes with suggestions for further Pluralist enquiry. In this work the author takes a deeply radical approach in developing a new position that will either convert readers, or act as a stron...

  13. Number in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    had a marked singular and an unmarked plural. Synchronically, however, the singular is arguably the basic member of the number category as revealed by the use of the two numbers. In addition, some nouns have a collective form, which is grammatically singular. Number also plays a role...

  14. Singularity: Raychaudhuri equation once again

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology; Raychaudhuri equation; Universe; quantum gravity; loop quan- tum gravity ... than the observation verifying the prediction of theory. This gave .... which was now expanding, would have had a singular beginning in a hot Big Bang.

  15. Inflection of modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives and adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a list of Modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, analysed into their respective stems and endings; the declension of the suffixed definite article is also included. Under each item it is stated which rules, if any, apply in the derivation of its grammatical forms. The following items of the list should be consulted for new phonological rules: (3, (11, (12, and (133. A grammatical innovation has been implemented in the list, namely the so-called REPLACING ENDINGS. These are not added after the last segment of the stem, as endings usually are, but replace the last segment(s of the stem. More is said on replacing endings in the Introduction.

  16. An analysis of Pitch Patterns of English Adjective + Noun Pharases in Model Reading and Some Educational Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, Mie; Yamada, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A basic English accent rule for a noun phrase consisting of an adjective and a noun is that the head,o r noun,is accented unless the adjective is contrastively focused in the context. A question of interest for Japanese learners of English is to what extent this basic principle is observed in model reading to which the learners may be exposed in their English classrooms. This study measured F0 values of adjectives and nouns in noun phrases which appeared in model English reading on commercial...

  17. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel

    2015-01-01

    stimuli varying in complexity -black and white line drawings, coloured line drawings, and arrays of drawings-in participants producing single nouns. Whilst naming latencies were similar for single noun production between visual stimuli conditions, ERPs differed between drawing arrays and single drawings...... in a time-window extending beyond early visual analysis. In a second experiment, different participants were asked to produce either single noun or adjective-noun dual-word phrases to black-and-white and coloured line drawings, respectively. Adjective-noun phrase production (2W) resulted in naming latencies...

  18. Nouns referring to tools and natural objects differentially modulate the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Patricia M; Riggio, Lucia; Chersi, Fabian; Sato, Marc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a critical role for the motor system in language processing, the focus of previous work has been on the linguistic category of verbs. Here we tested whether nouns are effective in modulating the motor system and further whether different kinds of nouns - those referring to artifacts or natural items, and items that are graspable or ungraspable - would differentially modulate the system. A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) study was carried out to compare modulation of the motor system when subjects read nouns referring to objects which are Artificial or Natural and which are Graspable or Ungraspable. TMS was applied to the primary motor cortex representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of the right hand at 150 ms after noun presentation. Analyses of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) revealed that across the duration of the task, nouns referring to graspable artifacts (tools) were associated with significantly greater MEP areas. Analyses of the initial presentation of items revealed a main effect of graspability. The findings are in line with an embodied view of nouns, with MEP measures modulated according to whether nouns referred to natural objects or artifacts (tools), confirming tools as a special class of items in motor terms. Additionally our data support a difference for graspable versus non graspable objects, an effect which for natural objects is restricted to initial presentation of items. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Public Space and Plurality of Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Rovira i Llopart

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the author deals with how the issue of religion can be managed in the public space. For this, he wonders and argues whether or not the public space should be a homogeneous space from the point of view of convictions or if it can give room to heterogeneousexpressions, stemming from the plurality of profound convictions existing among the citizens. In addition, he lays out the concept of public space, discusses its “contaminations” and focuses fundamentally on its meaning as a place in which the supply, exchangeand debate of ideas, principles, intuitions, etc. are openly developed, although he devotes a little bit of attention to their most tangible or physical aspects. And he underscores the idea that in a context of democratically chosen public powers and a secular institutional framework, there should not exist privileges nor discriminations.

  20. Local and nonlocal space-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to subdivide the singularities into two classes: local and nonlocal, each of them to be defined independently, is proved. Both classes of the singularities are defined, and the relation between the definitions introduced and the standard definition of singularities, based on space-time, incompleteness, is established. The relation between definitions introduced and theorems on the singularity existence is also established

  1. [Darwinism as a constraint of ecological pluralism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliarov, A M

    2003-01-01

    In his respond to critical remarks of Mirkin (2003), the author claims that pluralism in ecology is not only its strength but also a weakness. Contemporary ecology became less pluralistic and this can be considered as good sign of maturing science. Ecological pluralism can be exemplified by the coexistence in 1920-30s of two different approaches to plant community: that of Frederic Clements in USA and that of Josias Braun-Blanquet in France. However the way to progress in this branch of ecology was paved rather by heretical ideas of Henry Gleason in USA and Ramensky in Russia (both authors independently developed non-holistic view of community as an assemblage of individualistically distributed species) than by "peaceful" coexistence of well-established schools, representatives of which tried not to interfere into argumentation of each other. Notable success in ecology of last decades was connected with several new methodologies, e.g. macroecology that concerned large scale of space and time. However Darwinism in its attempt to explain the order of nature referring to its origin remains the most universal and fruitful methodology of ecology. The success of Darwinism in ecology is understandable because this generalizing theory is based on the same universal principles that underlie the survival of any population. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists trying to understand various natural patterns actually deal with the same fundamental laws, i.e. exponential population growth, limitation of this growth by resource shortage and/or press of predators, the existence of individual variability in survival, etc.

  2. Descriptive and discourse-referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that adnominal modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase can be divided into two major subcategories: descriptive modifiers and discourse-referential modifiers. Whereas descriptive modifiers can be subdivided into classifying, qualifying, quantifying and localizing...... modifiers (section 2), discourse-referential modifiers in the noun phrase are concerned with the status of entities as referents in the world of discourse (section 3). I will pay particular attention to three issues: (i) formal reflections of the layered, semantic structure of the noun phrase (section 4...

  3. Plural Form in Franchising: An Incomplete Contracting Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); T. Jiang (Tao)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPlural form franchising is modeled from an incomplete contracting perspective. Complete franchising is the unique, efficient governance structure only when the plural form externality is limited and the costs of investment are low for both franchisees. Governance structure choice is

  4. What Plurals and Compounds Reveal about Constraints in Word Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaensch, Carol; Heyer, Vera; Gordon, Peter; Clahsen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Morphological systems are constrained in how they interact with each other. One case that has been widely studied in the psycholinguistic literature is the avoidance of plurals inside compounds (e.g. *"rats eater" vs. "rat eater") in English and other languages, the so-called "plurals-in-compounds effect." Several…

  5. Plural number words in Alor-Pantar languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapper, Antoinette; Klamer, Marian; Corbett, Greville; Klamer, Marian

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the variation in form, syntax and semantics of the plural words found across the Alor-Pantar languages. We study five AP languages: Western Pantar, Teiwa, Abui, Kamang and Wersing. We show that plural words in Alor-Pantar family are diachronically instable: although

  6. On the singularities of solutions to singular perturbation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, A; Schaefke, R

    2005-01-01

    We consider a singularly perturbed complex first order ODE εu ' Φ(x, u, a, ε), x, u element of C, ε > 0 is a small complex parameter and a element of C is a control parameter. It is proven that the singularities of some solutions are regularly spaced and that they move from one to the next as a runs about a loop of index one around a value of overstability. This gives a positive answer to a question of J. L. Callot

  7. On the singularities of solutions to singular perturbation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Informatique et Applications, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Haute Alsace, 4 rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse cedex (France); Schaefke, R [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene-Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    We consider a singularly perturbed complex first order ODE {epsilon}u ' {phi}(x, u, a, {epsilon}), x, u element of C, {epsilon} > 0 is a small complex parameter and a element of C is a control parameter. It is proven that the singularities of some solutions are regularly spaced and that they move from one to the next as a runs about a loop of index one around a value of overstability. This gives a positive answer to a question of J. L. Callot.

  8. High-frequency collocations of nouns in research articles across eight disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Peacock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based analysis of the distribution of the high-frequency collocates of abstract nouns in 320 research articles across eight disciplines: Chemistry, Computer Science, Materials Science, Neuroscience, Economics, Language and Linguistics, Management, and Psychology. Disciplinary variation was also examined – very little previous research seems to have investigated this. The corpus was analysed using WordSmith Tools. The 16 highest-frequency nouns across all eight disciplines were identified, followed by the highest-frequency collocates for each noun. Five disciplines showed over 50% variance from the overall results. Conclusions are that the differing patterns revealed are disciplinary norms and represent standard terminology within the disciplines arising from the topics discussed, research methods, and content of discussions. It is also concluded that the collocations are an important part of the meanings and functions of the nouns, and that this evidence of sharp discipline differences underlines the importance of discipline-specific collocation research.

  9. Noun and verb processing in aphasia: Behavioural profiles and neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem S.W. Alyahya

    Full Text Available The behavioural and neural processes underpinning different word classes, particularly nouns and verbs, have been a long-standing area of interest in psycholinguistic, neuropsychology and aphasiology research. This topic has theoretical implications concerning the organisation of the language system, as well as clinical consequences related to the management of patients with language deficits. Research findings, however, have diverged widely, which might, in part, reflect methodological differences, particularly related to controlling the psycholinguistic variations between nouns and verbs. The first aim of this study, therefore, was to develop a set of neuropsychological tests that assessed single-word production and comprehension with a matched set of nouns and verbs. Secondly, the behavioural profiles and neural correlates of noun and verb processing were explored, based on these novel tests, in a relatively large cohort of 48 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia. A data-driven approach, principal component analysis (PCA, was also used to determine how noun and verb production and comprehension were related to the patients' underlying fundamental language domains. The results revealed no performance differences between noun and verb production and comprehension once matched on multiple psycholinguistic features including, most critically, imageability. Interestingly, the noun-verb differences found in previous studies were replicated in this study once un-matched materials were used. Lesion-symptom mapping revealed overlapping neural correlates of noun and verb processing along left temporal and parietal regions. These findings support the view that the neural representation of noun and verb processing at single-word level are jointly-supported by distributed cortical regions. The PCA generated five fundamental language and cognitive components of aphasia: phonological production, phonological recognition, semantics, fluency, and

  10. Differential Impairment of Noun and Verb Consequent to LH Lesions in Persian Aphasic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Reza Nilipour; Rabeeh Ariaei; Dr. Hassan Ashayeri

    2003-01-01

    The major focus of this research is on the differential disruption of language abilities subsequent to brain damages as they relate to site and size of lesion, especially left hemisphere lesions which disrupt the production and processing of "Nouns" vs. "Verbs" as two functionally different lexical categories. Several clinical as well as experimental studies reported on different language have shown that nouns and verbs can be independently disrupted due to brain damage. A prevalent impairmen...

  11. Noun and verb differences in picture naming: past studies and new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mätzig, Simone; Druks, Judit; Masterson, Jackie; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2009-06-01

    We re-examine the double dissociation view of noun-verb differences by critically reviewing past lesion studies reporting selective noun or verb deficits in picture naming, and reporting the results of a new picture naming study carried out with aphasic patients and comparison participants. Since there are theoretical arguments and empirical evidence that verb processing is more demanding than noun processing, in the review we distinguished between cases that presented with large and small differences between nouns and verbs. We argued that the latter cases may be accounted for in terms of greater difficulty in processing verbs than nouns. For the cases reporting large differences between nouns and verbs we assessed consistency in lesion localization and consistency in diagnostic classification. More variability both in terms of diagnostic category and lesion sites was found among the verb impaired than the noun impaired patients. In the experimental study, nine aphasic patients and nine age matched neurologically unimpaired individuals carried out a picture naming study that used a large set of materials matched for age of acquisition and in addition to accuracy measures, latencies were also recorded. Despite the patients' variable language deficits, diagnostic category and the matched materials, all patients performed faster and more accurately in naming the object than the action pictures. The comparison participants performed similarly. We also carried out a qualitative analysis of the errors patients made and showed that different types of errors were made in response to object and action pictures. We concluded that action naming places more and different demands on the language processor than object naming. The conclusions of the literature review and the results of the experimental study are discussed in relation to claims previous studies have made on the basis of the double dissociation found between nouns and verbs. We argue that these claims are only

  12. Is the cosmological singularity compulsory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.; Meisels, A.

    1980-01-01

    The cosmological singularity is inherent in all conventional general relativistic cosmological models. There can be no question that it is an unphysical feature; yet there does not seem to be any convervative way of eliminating it. Here we present singularity-free isotropic cosmological models which are indistinguishable from general relativistic ones at late times. They are based on the general theory of variable rest masses that we developed recently. Outside cosmology this theory simulates general relativity well. Thus it provides a framework incorporating those features which have made geneal relativity so sucessful while providing a way out of singularity dilemma. The cosmological models can be made to incorporate Dirac's large numbers hypothesis. G(now)/G(0)approx.10 -38

  13. A 1 + 5-dimensional gravitational-wave solution. Curvature singularity and spacetime singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Zhu [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Li, Wen-Du [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Dai, Wu-Sheng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University and Tianjin University, LiuHui Center for Applied Mathematics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-12-15

    We solve a 1 + 5-dimensional cylindrical gravitational-wave solution of the Einstein equation, in which there are two curvature singularities. Then we show that one of the curvature singularities can be removed by an extension of the spacetime. The result exemplifies that the curvature singularity is not always a spacetime singularity; in other words, the curvature singularity cannot serve as a criterion for spacetime singularities. (orig.)

  14. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  15. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725

  16. Scientific pluralism and the Chemical Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable "systems of practice" in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment of Lavoisier's and Priestley's work and character follows the phlogistonists' "actors' sociology"; second, that Chang simplifies late-eighteenth-century chemical debates by reducing them to an alleged conflict between two systems of practice; third, that Chang's evidence for a slow transition from phlogistonist theory to oxygen theory is not strong; and fourth, that he is wrong to assume that chemists at the time did not have overwhelming good reasons to favour Lavoisier's over the phlogistonists' views. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methodological pluralism in the teaching of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of using a teaching strategy called methodological pluralism, consisting of the use of various methodological resources in order to provide a meaningful learning. It is part of a doctoral thesis, which aims to investigate contributions to the use of traditional resources combined with digital technologies, in order to create autonomy for future teachers of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in relation to themes in Astronomy. It was offered an extension course at the "Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology" in the North of Minas Gerais (FINMG), Campus Januaria, for thirty-two students of licentiate courses in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, involving themes of Astronomy, in order to search and contribute to improving the training of future teachers. The following aspects are used: the mixed methodology, with pre-experimental design, combined with content analysis. The results indicate the rates of students' prior knowledge in relation to Astronomy was low; meaningful learning indications of concepts related to Astronomy, and the feasibility of using digital resources Involving technologies, articulated with traditional materials in the teaching of Astronomy. This research sought to contribute to the initial teacher training, especially in relation to Astronomy Teaching, proposing new alternatives to promote the teaching of this area of knowledge, extending the methodological options of future teachers.

  18. Reimagining SSR in Contexts of Security Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Price

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the repertoire of international stabilization interventions, security sector reform (SSR and other conventional efforts to strengthen security and governance institutions remain central. There is increasing recognition that the policies and practices operating under the rubric of SSR are blind to the empirical reality of 'security pluralism' in most stabilization contexts. In these contexts, both security providers directly authorized by the state (police, army and a multitude of other coercive actors engage in producing and reproducing order, and enjoy varying degrees of public authority and legitimacy. Recognizing this, research was undertaken in three cities (Beirut, Nairobi, and Tunis to discern the conditions enabling various security providers to forge constructive relations with local populations and governance actors. Drawing on insights generated by these case studies, this article problematizes conventional state-centric approaches and argues for a bold reimagining of SSR. It makes the case for an SSR approach that prioritizes promoting the accountability and responsiveness of all security providers, integrating efforts to strengthen the social determinants of security, and enabling a phased transition from relational to rules-based systems of security provision and governance.

  19. Singularities in geodesic surface congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

    2008-01-01

    In the stringy cosmology, we investigate singularities in geodesic surface congruences for the timelike and null strings to yield the Raychaudhuri type equations possessing correction terms associated with the novel features owing to the strings. Assuming the stringy strong energy condition, we have a Hawking-Penrose type inequality equation. If the initial expansion is negative so that the congruence is converging, we show that the expansion must pass through the singularity within a proper time. We observe that the stringy strong energy conditions of both the timelike and null string congruences produce the same inequality equation.

  20. Singular perturbation of simple eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two operator theoretic theorems which generalize those of asymptotic regular perturbation theory and which apply to singular perturbation problems are proved. Application of these theorems to concrete problems is involved, but the perturbation expansions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors are developed in terms of solutions of linear operator equations. The method of correctors, as well as traditional boundary layer techniques, can be used to apply these theorems. The current formulation should be applicable to highly singular ''hard core'' potential perturbations of the radial equation of quantum mechanics. The theorems are applied to a comparatively simple model problem whose analysis is basic to that of the quantum mechanical problem

  1. Singularity Theory and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian; Mond, David; Montaldi, James

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Singularities, Bifuraction and Dynamics was held at Warwick in July 1989, as part of a year-long symposium on Singularity Theory and its applications. The proceedings fall into two halves: Volume I mainly on connections with algebraic geometry and volume II on connections with dynamical systems theory, bifurcation theory and applications in the sciences. The papers are original research, stimulated by the symposium and workshop: All have been refereed and none will appear elsewhere. The main topic of volume II is new methods for the study of bifurcations in nonlinear dynamical systems, and applications of these.

  2. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  3. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  4. Singular moduli and Arakelov intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Lin.

    1994-05-01

    The value of the modular function j(τ) at imaginary quadratic arguments τ in the upper half plane is usually called singular moduli. In this paper, we use Arakelov intersection to give the prime factorizations of a certain combination of singular moduli, coming from the Hecke correspondence. Such a result may be considered as the degenerate one of Gross and Zagier on Heegner points and derivatives of L-series in their paper [GZ1], and is parallel to the result in [GZ2]. (author). 2 refs

  5. Singularities in minimax optimization of networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of singularities in nonlinear minimax optimization problems, which allows for a classification in regular and singular problems, is presented. A theorem for determining a singularity that is present in a given problem is formulated. A group of problems often used in the li......A theoretical treatment of singularities in nonlinear minimax optimization problems, which allows for a classification in regular and singular problems, is presented. A theorem for determining a singularity that is present in a given problem is formulated. A group of problems often used...

  6. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  7. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which .... holes appear as stacks of a large number of D-branes wrapped in internal .... results into a well-known measure factor which makes the wave function into a.

  8. Charged singularities: the causality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-12-01

    A search is made for examples of particle trajectories which, approaching a naked singularity from infinity, make up for lost time before going back to infinity. In the Kerr-Newman metric a whole family of such trajectories is found showing that the causality violation is indeed a non-avoidable pathology.

  9. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  10. Plurality of Type A evaluations of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Pintar, Adam L.

    2017-10-01

    The evaluations of measurement uncertainty involving the application of statistical methods to measurement data (Type A evaluations as specified in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, GUM) comprise the following three main steps: (i) developing a statistical model that captures the pattern of dispersion or variability in the experimental data, and that relates the data either to the measurand directly or to some intermediate quantity (input quantity) that the measurand depends on; (ii) selecting a procedure for data reduction that is consistent with this model and that is fit for the purpose that the results are intended to serve; (iii) producing estimates of the model parameters, or predictions based on the fitted model, and evaluations of uncertainty that qualify either those estimates or these predictions, and that are suitable for use in subsequent uncertainty propagation exercises. We illustrate these steps in uncertainty evaluations related to the measurement of the mass fraction of vanadium in a bituminous coal reference material, including the assessment of the homogeneity of the material, and to the calibration and measurement of the amount-of-substance fraction of a hydrochlorofluorocarbon in air, and of the age of a meteorite. Our goal is to expose the plurality of choices that can reasonably be made when taking each of the three steps outlined above, and to show that different choices typically lead to different estimates of the quantities of interest, and to different evaluations of the associated uncertainty. In all the examples, the several alternatives considered represent choices that comparably competent statisticians might make, but who differ in the assumptions that they are prepared to rely on, and in their selection of approach to statistical inference. They represent also alternative treatments that the same statistician might give to the same data when the results are intended for different purposes.

  11. Membangun Sikap Toleransi Beragama dalam Masyarakat Plural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casram Casram

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The reality of social life is possible because of accommodating differences and diversities among human being. One of these diversities related to the choice of the faith, and therefore, we should be able to getting along either with the members of the same religious community as well as with those of others. In this case, religious tolerance is a necessity to guarantee social stability against the unwanted ideological force and even physical collisions in the society. Social and religious lives are not to be isolated from each other, but must be integrated into one another. Building educated and open minded religious community is a requirement to achieve this goal. The ideal religious tolerance should be built trough active participation from all members of diverse religious communities to achieve the same goals based on togetherness, inclusive attitude, respect and mutual understanding related to performing certain rituals and doctrins of each religions. The variety of typologies of interfaith relations, such as exclusivism, inclusivisme, pluralism, ect., are commonly formulated to bring these diversities into further step of harmonious religious dialogues. This article reminds us that our comprehension and implementation of religious doctrines should not stop in the claim of exclucivism (“I” which culminate in realizing personal relationship with God (solitary, nor in the claim of inclusivism (“You” with its concern with recruiting theological and ideological allies (solidarity, but also in the openness (“We” where our religious comprehension of human values get emphasized (humanist-functional. In addition, all parties should suspend such a judgment as theological or ideological one directed to other religious community. This is a kind of phenomenological epoché we need to take if we wish to put religious tolerance into practice and not let it stay only on discourse level

  12. Computation at a coordinate singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Joseph M.

    2018-05-01

    Coordinate singularities are sometimes encountered in computational problems. An important example involves global atmospheric models used for climate and weather prediction. Classical spherical coordinates can be used to parameterize the manifold - that is, generate a grid for the computational spherical shell domain. This particular parameterization offers significant benefits such as orthogonality and exact representation of curvature and connection (Christoffel) coefficients. But it also exhibits two polar singularities and at or near these points typical continuity/integral constraints on dependent fields and their derivatives are generally inadequate and lead to poor model performance and erroneous results. Other parameterizations have been developed that eliminate polar singularities, but problems of weaker singularities and enhanced grid noise compared to spherical coordinates (away from the poles) persist. In this study reparameterization invariance of geometric objects (scalars, vectors and the forms generated by their covariant derivatives) is utilized to generate asymptotic forms for dependent fields of interest valid in the neighborhood of a pole. The central concept is that such objects cannot be altered by the metric structure of a parameterization. The new boundary conditions enforce symmetries that are required for transformations of geometric objects. They are implemented in an implicit polar filter of a structured grid, nonhydrostatic global atmospheric model that is simulating idealized Held-Suarez flows. A series of test simulations using different configurations of the asymptotic boundary conditions are made, along with control simulations that use the default model numerics with no absorber, at three different grid sizes. Typically the test simulations are ∼ 20% faster in wall clock time than the control-resulting from a decrease in noise at the poles in all cases. In the control simulations adverse numerical effects from the polar

  13. Remarks on gauge variables and singular Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Janica-de-la-Torre, R.; Kalnay, A.J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Rodriguez-Nunez, J.; Tascon, R.

    1977-01-01

    The relevance is discussed of gauge theory, based on a singular Lagrangian density, to the foundations of field theory. The idea that gauge transformations could change the physics of systems where the Lagrangian is singular is examined. (author)

  14. Singular multiparameter dynamic equations with distributional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singular multiparameter dynamic equations with distributional potentials on time scales. ... In this paper, we consider both singular single and several multiparameter ... multiple function which is of one sign and nonzero on the given time scale.

  15. Morpho-semantic properties of Serbian nouns: Animacy and gender pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether and how the cognitive system uses morphological markedness of animacy and gender pairs. In the Serbian language masculine nouns are marked for animacy (i.e., genitive-accusative syncretism, while for feminine nouns the animacy distinction is purely semantic. Thus, in Experiment 1 we used this natural, linguistic differentiation to test whether morphological markedness of animacy influences lexical processing. In the same experiment, we tested whether the cognitive system is sensitive to the fact that some animate nouns have a sibling in the other gender (e.g., dečak /”boy”/ - devojčica /”girl”/, while others do not have it (e.g., vojnik /”soldier”/ or žirafa /”giraffe”/. We labeled this indicator sibling presence. The analysis did not confirm the effect of animacy, neither between nor within genders. However, animate nouns with a sibling were processed faster than those without a sibling. Since the majority of sibling nouns are morphologically related (like konobar /”waiter”/ - konobarica /”waitress”/, while the rest are not (e.g., petao /”rooster”/ - kokoška /”hen”/, in Experiment 2 we tested whether morphological relatedness contributed to the effect of sibling presence. Results showed that this is not the case: morphologically related and unrelated masculine-feminine pairs of nouns (siblings were processed equally fast. Furthermore, an interaction between the target’s frequency and the frequency of its sibling was observed: nouns with a more frequent sibling benefited more from their own frequency than those with a less frequent sibling. We argue that sibling support is realized through semantic, not morphological relations. Taken together, our findings suggest that morphological markedness is not used in lexical processing, which is in line with an amorphous approach to lexical processing.

  16. Verb-Noun Collocations in Written Discourse of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When native speakers of English write, they employ both grammatical rules and collocations. Collocations are words that are present in the memory of native speakers as ready-made prefabricated chunks. Non-native speakers who wish to acquire native-like fluency should give appropriate attention to collocations in writing in order not to produce sentences that native speakers may consider odd. The present study tries to explore the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse of English as foreign language (EFL among Iranian EFL learners from one academic year to the next in Iran. To measure the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse, there was a 60-minute task of writing story  based on a series of six pictures whereby for each picture, three verb-noun collocations were measured, and nouns were provided to limit the choice of collocations. The results of the statistical analysis of ANOVA for the research question indicated that there was a significant difference in the use of lexical verb-noun collocations in written discourse both between and within the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests confirmed that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, between the second and the fourth, and between the third and the fourth academic year which indicate substantial development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  The vital implication is that the learners could use verb-noun collocations in productive skill of writing.

  17. Analysis of singularity in redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Koichi

    2000-03-01

    In the analysis of arm positions and configurations of redundant manipulators, the singularity avoidance problems are important themes. This report presents singularity avoidance computations of a 7 DOF manipulator by using a computer code based on human-arm models. The behavior of the arm escaping from the singular point can be identified satisfactorily through the use of 3-D plotting tools. (author)

  18. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  19. Islam, Context, Pluralism and Democracy : Classical and Modern Interpretations,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellethy, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Islam, Context, Pluralism and Democracy aspires to clarify the tensions and congruences between the revelational and the rational, the text and the context, the limits and the horizons of contextualization in Islam, as these emanate from the Islamic interpretative tradition.

  20. De toegevoegde waarde van de plural form in de apotheeksector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldewereld-Duijvis, R.; Peelen, E.; Montfort, van K.; Commandeur, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    De ‘plural form’, het gelijktijdige gebruik van franchise- en eigendomsvestigingen door ketenorganisaties, is een actueel onderwerp in de Nederlandse apotheeksector. Op dit moment maken twee apotheekketens gebruik van een combinatie van franchise- en eigendomsvestigingen, terwijl andere ketens ook

  1. Kriitika ja eimiski ('Traditsioon ja pluralism') / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-

    1996-01-01

    Ettekanne seminaril 'Traditsioon ja pluralism I' 31. V 1996 Tallinnas. Ka Mati Undi raamatust 'Vastne argimütoloogia' (Tln. : Vagabund, 1996) Vastukaja: Unt, Mati. Sekundaarsed // Kultuurimaa. - 1996. - 25. sept. - Lk. 3

  2. Assimilation and Cultural Pluralism in American Social Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, R. Fred

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the philosophies of assimilationist liberalism and cultural pluralism as they emerged between 1900 and 1925 in opposition to social Darwinism and the immigration restriction, eugenics, and Americanization movements. (GC)

  3. Plural Form and Franchisors Performance : Early Empirical Findings From Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Perdreau , Frédéric; Le Nadant , Anne-Laure; Cliquet , Gérard

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the relationships between plural form and performance in franchising networks in Europe. It is proposed that a franchisor's life cycle stage and human capital assets influence the relationship between plural form and performance. The model has been estimated using panel data on 41 publicly listed European franchising networks in the 1998-2007 period. The proportion of network-franchised units to the total number of its units in its distribution system is used as the indi...

  4. Trinidad y mundo plural: Algunas elucubraciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zañartu U.

    2001-01-01

    we become adopted children of the Father. In the plurality of the world which goes back to the Father through Christ’s Passover, the glory of God’s shines out. To illustrate the Father-Son dialogue of the Passover, the author turns to the image of a distant refracted reflection.

  5. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Yi

    Full Text Available Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  6. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengnan; He, Weiqi; Zhan, Lei; Qi, Zhengyang; Zhu, Chuanlin; Luo, Wenbo; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  7. Viewing photos and reading nouns of natural graspable objects similarly modulate motor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara FM Marino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the observation of graspable objects recruits the same motor representations involved in their actual manipulation. Recent evidence suggests that the presentation of nouns referring to graspable objects may exert similar effects. So far, however, it is not clear to what extent the modulation of the motor system during object observation overlaps with that related to noun processing. To address this issue, 2 behavioral experiments were carried out using a go-no go paradigm. Healthy participants were presented with photos and nouns of graspable and non-graspable natural objects. Also scrambled images and pseudowords obtained from the original stimuli were used. At a go-signal onset (150 ms after stimulus presentation participants had to press a key when the stimulus referred to a real object, using their right (Experiment 1 or left (Experiment 2 hand, and refrain from responding when a scrambled image or a pseudoword was presented. Slower responses were found for both photos and nouns of graspable objects as compared to non-graspable objects, independent of the responding hand. These findings suggest that processing seen graspable objects and written nouns referring to graspable objects similarly modulates the motor system.

  8. A three-dimensional approach to the gender/sex of nouns in Biblical Hebrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Kroeze

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the gender/sex of nouns is normally handled two-dimensionally. Two levels are distinguished: (grammatical gender and sex. Gender refers to the morphological and syntactic features of the noun, sex to the extralingual reality. This use of the term gender rests on the assumption that the morphological and syntactic features o f a noun are normally consistent. This assumption is tested and the results show that a three-dimensional approach would he better. In the relevant literature, there are indications of such a three-dimensional differentiation, where gender is used to indicate only the syntactic features of a noun. In this article it is proposed that morphological gender, syntactic gender and semantic gender (sex should be distinguished consistently. A list of 23 different combinations were found among nouns occurring most frequently. These combinations are illustrated with examples. Morphological, syntactic and semantic statistics are also given which illustrate the unique characteristics of the three levels.

  9. Infants use known verbs to learn novel nouns: evidence from 15- and 19-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Brock; Graf, Eileen; Waxman, Sandra R

    2014-04-01

    Fluent speakers' representations of verbs include semantic knowledge about the nouns that can serve as their arguments. These "selectional restrictions" of a verb can in principle be recruited to learn the meaning of a novel noun. For example, the sentence He ate the carambola licenses the inference that carambola refers to something edible. We ask whether 15- and 19-month-old infants can recruit their nascent verb lexicon to identify the referents of novel nouns that appear as the verbs' subjects. We compared infants' interpretation of a novel noun (e.g., the dax) in two conditions: one in which dax is presented as the subject of animate-selecting construction (e.g., The dax is crying), and the other in which dax is the subject of an animacy-neutral construction (e.g., The dax is right here). Results indicate that by 19months, infants use their representations of known verbs to inform the meaning of a novel noun that appears as its argument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy conditions and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, a number of theorems are proven which collectively show that singularities will occur in spacetime under weaker energy conditions than the strong energy condition. In particular, the Penrose theorem, which uses only the weak energy condition but which applies only to open universes, is extended to all closed universes which have a Cauchy surface whose universal covering manifold is not a three-sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the strong energy condition in the Hawking-Penrose theorem can be replaced by the weak energy condition and the assumption that the strong energy condition holds only on the average. In addition, it is demonstrated that if the Universe is closed, then the existence of singularities follows from the averaged strong energy condition alone. It is argued that any globally hyperbolic spacetime which satisfies the weak energy condition and which contains a black hole must be null geodesically incomplete

  11. Multidimensional singular integrals and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhlin, Solomon Grigorievich; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Multidimensional Singular Integrals and Integral Equations presents the results of the theory of multidimensional singular integrals and of equations containing such integrals. Emphasis is on singular integrals taken over Euclidean space or in the closed manifold of Liapounov and equations containing such integrals. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of some theorems on linear equations in Banach spaces, followed by a discussion on the simplest properties of multidimensional singular integrals. Subsequent chapters deal with compounding of singular integrals

  12. Anthropophagy: a singular concept to understand Brazilian culture and psychology as specific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Arthur Arruda Leal

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to present the singularity of the concept of anthropophagy in Brazilian culture. This article examines its use in the Modernist Movement of the 1920s and explores the possibilities it creates for thinking about Brazilian culture in nonidentitarian terms. We then use the concept of anthropophagy in a broader, practical sense to understand psychology as a kind of anthropophagical knowledge. We do so because in many ways the discipline of psychology is similar to Brazilian culture in its plurality and complexity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selesi, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.

  14. Why the Singularity Cannot Happen

    OpenAIRE

    Modis, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a Singularity as described in Ray Kurzweil's book cannot happen for a number of reasons. One reason is that all natural growth processes that follow exponential patterns eventually reveal themselves to be following S-curves thus excluding runaway situations. The remaining growth potential from Kurzweil's ''knee'', which could be approximated as the moment when an S-curve pattern begins deviating from the corresponding exponential, is a factor of only one order of magnitude grea...

  15. Black holes, singularities and predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper favours the view that singularities may play a central role in quantum gravity. The author reviews the arguments leading to the conclusion, that in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, an initial pure state evolves to a final density matrix, thus signaling a breakdown in ordinary quantum dynamical evolution. Some related issues dealing with predictability in the dynamical evolution, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  16. On singularities of lattice varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.

  17. Quantum propagation across cosmological singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil

    2017-05-01

    The initial singularity is the most troubling feature of the standard cosmology, which quantum effects are hoped to resolve. In this paper, we study quantum cosmology with conformal (Weyl) invariant matter. We show that it is natural to extend the scale factor to negative values, allowing a large, collapsing universe to evolve across a quantum "bounce" into an expanding universe like ours. We compute the Feynman propagator for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds exactly, identifying curious pathologies in the case of curved (open or closed) universes. We then include anisotropies, fixing the operator ordering of the quantum Hamiltonian by imposing covariance under field redefinitions and again finding exact solutions. We show how complex classical solutions allow one to circumvent the singularity while maintaining the validity of the semiclassical approximation. The simplest isotropic universes sit on a critical boundary, beyond which there is qualitatively different behavior, with potential for instability. Additional scalars improve the theory's stability. Finally, we study the semiclassical propagation of inhomogeneous perturbations about the flat, isotropic case, at linear and nonlinear order, showing that, at least at this level, there is no particle production across the bounce. These results form the basis for a promising new approach to quantum cosmology and the resolution of the big bang singularity.

  18. Singularities in Free Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet Suresh

    Free surface flows where the shape of the interface separating two or more phases or liquids are unknown apriori, are commonplace in industrial applications and nature. Distribution of drop sizes, coalescence rate of drops, and the behavior of thin liquid films are crucial to understanding and enhancing industrial practices such as ink-jet printing, spraying, separations of chemicals, and coating flows. When a contiguous mass of liquid such as a drop, filament or a film undergoes breakup to give rise to multiple masses, the topological transition is accompanied with a finite-time singularity . Such singularity also arises when two or more masses of liquid merge into each other or coalesce. Thus the dynamics close to singularity determines the fate of about-to-form drops or films and applications they are involved in, and therefore needs to be analyzed precisely. The primary goal of this thesis is to resolve and analyze the dynamics close to singularity when free surface flows experience a topological transition, using a combination of theory, experiments, and numerical simulations. The first problem under consideration focuses on the dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling applications that are relevant to pharmaceutical and consumer products industry, using numerical techniques based on Galerkin Finite Element Methods (GFEM). The second problem addresses the dual flow behavior of aqueous foams that are observed in oil and gas fields and estimates the relevant parameters that describe such flows through a series of experiments. The third problem aims at understanding the drop formation of Newtonian and Carreau fluids, computationally using GFEM. The drops are formed as a result of imposed flow rates or expanding bubbles similar to those of piezo actuated and thermal ink-jet nozzles. The focus of fourth problem is on the evolution of thinning threads of Newtonian fluids and suspensions towards singularity, using computations based on GFEM and experimental

  19. Concreteness and relational effects on recall of adjective-noun pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A; Khan, M; Begg, I

    2000-09-01

    Extending previous research on the problem, we studied the effects of concreteness and relatedness of adjective-noun pairs on free recall, cued recall, and memory integration. Two experiments varied the attributes in paired associates lists or sentences. Consistent with predictions from dual coding theory and prior results with noun-noun pairs, both experiments showed that the effects of concreteness were strong and independent of relatedness in free recall and cued recall. The generally positive effects of relatedness were absent in the case of free recall of sentences. The two attributes also had independent (additive) effects on integrative memory as measured by conditionalized free recall of pairs. Integration as measured by the increment from free to cued recall occurred consistently only when pairs were high in both concreteness and relatedness. Explanations focused on dual coding and relational-distinctiveness processing theories as well as task variables that affect integration measures.

  20. Exploring atypical verb+noun combinations in learner technical writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Luzón Marco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and attempt to explore the reasons why the learners deviate from NS's norms. The analysis indicates that these learners tend to have problems with a set of sub-technical and high-frequency verbs. Deviant combinations involving these verbs are frequently the result of a deficient knowledge of the phraseology of academic and technical discourse. The unawareness of collocations that are typical of this discourse often leads students to create V+N combinations by relying on the “Open Choice Principle” (Sinclair, 1991 or by using patterns from their mother tongue.El discurso profesional y académico se caracteriza por una fraseología específica, que suele plantear problemas a los estudiantes. Este artículo investiga colocaciones de verbo+nombre atípicas en un corpus de textos técnicos en inglés escritos por estudiantes españoles. El estudio se centra en los verbos que más frecuentemente aparecen en estas combinaciones atípicas y explora las razones por las que los estudiantes se desvían de la norma. El análisis indica que estos estudiantes suelen tener problemas con un grupo de verbos sub-técnicos y verbos de alta frecuencia. Las combinaciones atípicas en las que estos verbos aparecen son frecuentemente el resultado de un conocimiento deficiente de la fraseología del discurso académico y técnico. El desconocimiento de colocaciones que son típicas de este discurso a menudo lleva a los estudiantes a crear combinaciones basándose en el “principio de opción abierta” (Sinclair, 1991 o a usar colocaciones prestadas de su lengua materna.

  1. Mathematical models with singularities a zoo of singular creatures

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    The book aims to provide an unifying view of a variety (a 'zoo') of mathematical models with some kind of singular nonlinearity, in the sense that it becomes infinite when the state variable approaches a certain point. Up to 11 different concrete models are analyzed in separate chapters. Each chapter starts with a discussion of the basic model and its physical significance. Then the main results and typical proofs are outlined, followed by open problems. Each chapter is closed by a suitable list of references. The book may serve as a guide for researchers interested in the modelling of real world processes.

  2. Why Are Verbs so Hard to Remember? Effects of Semantic Context on Memory for Verbs and Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, Julie L.; Kersten, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments test the theory that verb meanings are more malleable than noun meanings in different semantic contexts, making a previously seen verb difficult to remember when it appears in a new semantic context. Experiment 1 revealed that changing the direct object noun in a transitive sentence reduced recognition of a previously seen verb,…

  3. How Do Children Ascribe Gender to Nouns? A Study of Spanish-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raquel T.; Lockowitz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify how Spanish-speaking preschool children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) use the various cues available for ascribing a noun's inherent gender in the language. Via an invented word task, four types of cues were isolated and presented to each child: (1) two types of noun-internal…

  4. On important precursor of singular optics (tutorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskii, Peter V.; Felde, Christina V.; Bogatyryova, Halina V.; Konovchuk, Alexey V.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of singular optics is usually associated with the seminal paper by J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 336, 165-189 (1974)]. Intense development of this area of modern photonics has started since the early eighties of the XX century due to invention of the interfrence technique for detection and diagnostics of phase singularities, such as optical vortices in complex speckle-structured light fields. The next powerful incentive for formation of singular optics into separate area of the science on light was connectected with discovering of very practical technique for creation of singular optical beams of various kinds on the base of computer-generated holograms. In the eghties and ninetieth of the XX century, singular optics evolved, almost entirely, under the approximation of complete coherency of light field. Only at the threshold of the XXI century, it has been comprehended that the singular-optics approaches can be fruitfully expanded onto partially spatially coherent, partially polarized and polychromatic light fields supporting singularities of new kinds, that has been resulted in establishing of correlation singular optics. Here we show that correlation singular optics has much deeper roots, ascending to "pre-singular" and even pre-laser epoch and associated with the concept of partial coherence and polarization. It is remarcable that correlation singular optics in its present interpretation has forestalled the standard coherent singular optics. This paper is timed to the sixtieth anniversary of the most profound precursor of modern correlation singular optics [J. Opt. Soc. Am., 47, 895-902 (1957)].

  5. Sir David Brewster's changing ideas on the plurality of worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    In the course of his long life the Scottish physicist David Brewster wrote copiously about the plurality of worlds. More Worlds than One (1854), perhaps his strongest statement on the question, was written as an answer to William Whewell's On the Plurality of Worlds (1853), which argued that life was a privilege of the Earth. Brewster's ideas changed drastically along the years in many crucial issues such as the habitability of the Sun and the Moon, the possibility that extraterrestrials could be different from humans, and the occupation of the Earth by intelligent races in the distant past. This paper succinctly surveys Brewster's main lines of thought about the plurality of worlds underlining the significance of his first two articles devoted exclusively to this topic. They were published in 1838 in The Monthly Chronicle, and affirm the habitability of the planets while denying that of the Moon. As is the case with many Victorian scientists, belief in pluralism was for Brewster part and parcel of a complex of ideas and attitudes in which it is hard to distinguish science from religion. I shall argue that a fair number of the shifting opinions and inconsistencies detectable in Brewster's ideas on the plurality of worlds can be attributed to the fact that these were used as pliable apologetic instruments in his scientific writings, many of which are permeated by strong religious concerns.

  6. Analysis of the Word-Initial Segment with Reference to Lemmatising Zulu Nasal Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mpungose

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The process of lemmatising nasal nouns in the Zulu lexicon is problematic. The traditional method is to lemmatise a Zulu lexical noun by etymological noun-stem. This practice creates difficulties in harmonising lexical nouns with their syntactic application. Most authors and dictionary-makers are inconsistent in identifying the word-initial segment which determines the letter of the alphabet under which the lexical noun should be included. Consequently, dictionary users do not find Zulu dictionaries user-friendly. This article therefore proposes the principle of "a noun without initial vowel" as a method for lemmatising Zulu nasal nouns. It concludes that it is not necessary to delve into the derivational history of a lexical noun, but rather to focus on the product of the operation of morphophonological rules. The article also suggests the need to identify the distinctiveness of the segments of a syllable and to acknowledge that identical forms of a segment do occur at different segmental positions (initial, medial and final. Finally it is argued that the Zulu nasal noun class prefix is constructed according to an open syllable pattern defined by a general CV-formula based on a VCV noun prefix open syllable pattern.

    Keywords: adjoined letter; compound; composite; consonant; element; etymological; evolutionary; homorganic; initial; intravowel; lemma; lemmatise; lexical; morphophonological; nasal; noun class prefix; segment; syllable; vowel

     

    Die proses van lemmatisering van nasale naamwoorde in die Zoeloeleksikon is problematies. Die tradisionele metode is om leksikale selfstandige naamwoorde in Zoeloe volgens die etimologiese naamwoordstam te lemmatiseer. Hierdie gebruik veroorsaak moeilikhede by die harmonisering van leksikale selfstandige naamwoorde met hul sintaktiese toepassing. Die meeste outeurs en leksikograwe is inkonsekwent in die identifisering van die woordinisiële segment wat die letter van die alfabet bepaal

  7. Symmetry generators in singular theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrov, P.M.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is proved that in the singular nondegenerate theories any symmetry of the lagrangian under non-point transformations of lagrangian variables with the open (in the general case) algebra in the hamiltonian approach generates corresponding transformations of canonical variables the generator of which is the Noether charge with respect to the Dirac brackets. On the surface of all constraints these transformations leave the hamiltonian invariant and the algebra of the Noether charges is closed. As a consequence it is shown that the nilpotent BRST charge operator always exists in gauge theories of the general form (if possible anomalies are not taken into account)

  8. Comprehension of verb number morphemes in Czech children: Singular and plural show different relations to age and vocabulary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Filip; Bláhová, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2017), s. 42-57 ISSN 0142-7237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26779S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : comprehension * grammatical agreement * grammatical number * morphology * picture-pointing task * picture-pointing task Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2016

  9. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-01

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  10. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-21

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric S U ( 2 ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  11. Singularities of Type-Q ABS Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Atkinson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The type-Q equations lie on the top level of the hierarchy introduced by Adler, Bobenko and Suris (ABS in their classification of discrete counterparts of KdV-type integrable partial differential equations. We ask what singularities are possible in the solutions of these equations, and examine the relationship between the singularities and the principal integrability feature of multidimensional consistency. These questions are considered in the global setting and therefore extend previous considerations of singularities which have been local. What emerges are some simple geometric criteria that determine the allowed singularities, and the interesting discovery that generically the presence of singularities leads to a breakdown in the global consistency of such systems despite their local consistency property. This failure to be globally consistent is quantified by introducing a natural notion of monodromy for isolated singularities.

  12. The geometry of warped product singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    In this article, the degenerate warped products of singular semi-Riemannian manifolds are studied. They were used recently by the author to handle singularities occurring in General Relativity, in black holes and at the big-bang. One main result presented here is that a degenerate warped product of semi-regular semi-Riemannian manifolds with the warping function satisfying a certain condition is a semi-regular semi-Riemannian manifold. The connection and the Riemann curvature of the warped product are expressed in terms of those of the factor manifolds. Examples of singular semi-Riemannian manifolds which are semi-regular are constructed as warped products. Applications include cosmological models and black holes solutions with semi-regular singularities. Such singularities are compatible with a certain reformulation of the Einstein equation, which in addition holds at semi-regular singularities too.

  13. The dominant balance at cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Barrow, John D

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of a finite-time singularity of a vector field and then discuss a technique suitable for the asymptotic analysis of vector fields and their integral curves in the neighborhood of such a singularity. Having in mind the application of this method to cosmology, we also provide an analysis of the time singularities of an isotropic universe filled with a perfect fluid in general relativity

  14. Exact solutions and singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail

  15. Dressing up a Kerr naked singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1979-06-11

    The evolution of a naked singularity surrounded by an accreting disk of matter is studied; two kinds of disks are considered: the standard thin-disk model and the thick barytropic model, for several initial conditions. It is shown that any Kerr naked singularity slows down in a finite time to a maximal Kerr black hole. The final mass, the luminosity and the time of evolution of the singularity are evaluated.

  16. Naked singularity, firewall, and Hawking radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-21

    Spacetime singularity has always been of interest since the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorem. Naked singularity naturally emerges from reasonable initial conditions in the collapsing process. A recent interesting approach in black hole information problem implies that we need a firewall to break the surplus entanglements among the Hawking photons. Classically, the firewall becomes a naked singularity. We find some vacuum analytical solutions in R n -gravity of the firewall-type and use these solutions as concrete models to study the naked singularities. By using standard quantum theory, we investigate the Hawking radiation emitted from the black holes with naked singularities. Here we show that the singularity itself does not destroy information. A unitary quantum theory works well around a firewall-type singularity. We discuss the validity of our result in general relativity. Further our result demonstrates that the temperature of the Hawking radiation still can be expressed in the form of the surface gravity divided by 2π. This indicates that a naked singularity may not compromise the Hakwing evaporation process.

  17. Spacetime averaging of exotic singularity universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a spacetime average as a measure of the strength of singularities we show that big-rips (type I) are stronger than big-bangs. The former have infinite spacetime averages while the latter have them equal to zero. The sudden future singularities (type II) and w-singularities (type V) have finite spacetime averages. The finite scale factor (type III) singularities for some values of the parameters may have an infinite average and in that sense they may be considered stronger than big-bangs.

  18. On local invariants of singular symplectic forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrz, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    We find a complete set of local invariants of singular symplectic forms with the structurally stable Martinet hypersurface on a 2 n-dimensional manifold. In the C-analytic category this set consists of the Martinet hypersurface Σ2, the restriction of the singular symplectic form ω to TΣ2 and the kernel of ω n - 1 at the point p ∈Σ2. In the R-analytic and smooth categories this set contains one more invariant: the canonical orientation of Σ2. We find the conditions to determine the kernel of ω n - 1 at p by the other invariants. In dimension 4 we find sufficient conditions to determine the equivalence class of a singular symplectic form-germ with the structurally smooth Martinet hypersurface by the Martinet hypersurface and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to it. We also study the singular symplectic forms with singular Martinet hypersurfaces. We prove that the equivalence class of such singular symplectic form-germ is determined by the Martinet hypersurface, the canonical orientation of its regular part and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to its regular part if the Martinet hypersurface is a quasi-homogeneous hypersurface with an isolated singularity.

  19. Early Acquisition of Gender Agreement in the Spanish Noun Phrase: Starting Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Nativist and constructivist accounts differ in their characterization of children's knowledge of grammatical categories. In this paper we present research on the process of acquisition of a particular grammatical system, gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase, in children under three years of age. The design of the longitudinal study employed…

  20. Prosodic Disambiguation of Noun/Verb Homophones in Child-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Erin

    2017-01-01

    One strategy that children might use to sort words into grammatical categories such as noun and verb is distributional bootstrapping, in which local co-occurrence information is used to distinguish between categories. Words that can be used in more than one grammatical category could be problematic for this approach. Using naturalistic corpus…

  1. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Difference between Written and Spoken Czech: The Case of Verbal Nouns Denoting an Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002.xml

  3. Does Lexical Stress Influence 17-Month-Olds' Mapping of Verbs and Nouns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer; Mihalicz, Patrick; Thiessen, Erik; Curtin, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    English-learning infants attend to lexical stress when learning new words. Attention to lexical stress might be beneficial for word learning by providing an indication of the grammatical class of that word. English disyllabic nouns commonly have trochaic (strong-weak) stress, whereas English disyllabic verbs commonly have iambic (weak-strong)…

  4. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed.

  5. Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, M.; van der Pompe, G.; Baas, D; Mulder, L.J.M.; Den Boer, J.A.; Meijman, T.F.; Korf, J

    The present study investigated the acute effects of cortisol administration in normal healthy male volunteers on immediate free recall and recognition of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral nouns using a between-subjects double-blind design. Two hours after cortisol (10 mg) or placebo administration,

  6. Subsequent to suppression: Downstream comprehension consequences of noun/verb ambiguity in natural reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2015-01-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate the downstream processing consequences of encountering noun/verb (NV) homographs (i.e., park) in semantically neutral but syntactically constraining contexts. Target words were followed by a prepositional phrase containing a noun that was plausible for only one meaning of the homograph. Replicating previous work, we found increased first fixation durations on NV homographs compared to unambiguous words, which persisted into the next sentence region. At the downstream noun, we found plausibility effects following ambiguous words that were correlated with the size of a reader's first fixation effect, suggesting that this effect reflects the recruitment of processing resources necessary to suppress the homograph's context-inappropriate meaning. Using these same stimuli, Lee and Federmeier (2012) found a sustained frontal negativity to the NV homographs, and, on the downstream noun, found a plausibility effect that was also positively correlated with the size of a reader's ambiguity effect. Together, these findings suggest that when only syntactic constraints are available, meaning selection recruits inhibitory mechanisms that can be measured in both first fixation slowdown and ERP ambiguity effects. PMID:25961358

  7. Noun or Verb? Adult Readers' Sensitivity to Spelling Cues to Grammatical Category in Word Endings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Nenagh; Nilsson, Jodi; Arciuli, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The spelling of many disyllabic English word endings holds cues to their grammatical category, beyond obvious inflectional endings such as "-ing" for verbs. For example, some letter sequences are clearly associated with nouns (e.g., "-oon") and others with verbs (e.g., "-erge"). This study extended recent research by Arciuli and Cupples (2006),…

  8. Dissociable intrinsic functional networks support noun-object and verb-action processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huichao; Lin, Qixiang; Han, Zaizhu; Li, Hongyu; Song, Luping; Chen, Lingjuan; He, Yong; Bi, Yanchao

    2017-12-01

    The processing mechanism of verbs-actions and nouns-objects is a central topic of language research, with robust evidence for behavioral dissociation. The neural basis for these two major word and/or conceptual classes, however, remains controversial. Two experiments were conducted to study this question from the network perspective. Experiment 1 found that nodes of the same class, obtained through task-evoked brain imaging meta-analyses, were more strongly connected with each other than nodes of different classes during resting-state, forming segregated network modules. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral relevance of these intrinsic networks using data from 88 brain-damaged patients, finding that across patients the relative strength of functional connectivity of the two networks significantly correlated with the noun-object vs. verb-action relative behavioral performances. In summary, we found that verbs-actions and nouns-objects are supported by separable intrinsic functional networks and that the integrity of such networks accounts for the relative noun-object- and verb-action-selective deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-Adherence to Study Time Management Strategies among NOUN Students and Implications for Academic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okopi, Fidel O.

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the NOUN students' non-adherence to their time management strategies (TMS) during the course of their studies. The researcher also wanted to find out whether their gender, age, marital and employment statuses have influence on their adherence/non-adherence to the plan or not. The researcher also examined the…

  10. Distributional structure in language: contributions to noun-verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Jon A; Seidenberg, Mark S; Saffran, Jenny R

    2014-09-01

    What makes some words easy for infants to recognize, and other words difficult? We addressed this issue in the context of prior results suggesting that infants have difficulty recognizing verbs relative to nouns. In this work, we highlight the role played by the distributional contexts in which nouns and verbs occur. Distributional statistics predict that English nouns should generally be easier to recognize than verbs in fluent speech. However, there are situations in which distributional statistics provide similar support for verbs. The statistics for verbs that occur with the English morpheme -ing, for example, should facilitate verb recognition. In two experiments with 7.5- and 9.5-month-old infants, we tested the importance of distributional statistics for word recognition by varying the frequency of the contextual frames in which verbs occur. The results support the conclusion that distributional statistics are utilized by infant language learners and contribute to noun-verb differences in word recognition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Decomposition into Multiple Morphemes during Lexical Access: A Masked Priming Study of Russian Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanina, Nina; Dukova-Zheleva, Galina; Geber, Dana; Kharlamov, Viktor; Tonciulescu, Keren

    2008-01-01

    The study reports the results of a masked priming experiment with morphologically complex Russian nouns. Participants performed a lexical decision task to a visual target that differed from its prime in one consonant. Three conditions were included: (1) "transparent," in which the prime was morphologically related to the target and contained the…

  12. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  13. Difference between Written and Spoken Czech: The Case of Verbal Nouns Denoting an Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002. xml

  14. An analysis of the status of the secondary noun prefixes in Ndebele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article probes into the nature of secondary noun class prefixes in the morphology of some Nguni languages and Ndebele in particular. The secondary prefixes are known as commentary prefixes mainly because they carry overtones of sarcasm, criticism and caricature among other elements, through loading an implied ...

  15. Processing graspable object images and their nouns is impaired in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Giovanni; Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Arabia, Gennarina; Morelli, Maurizio; Chiriaco, Carmelina; Lupo, Angela; Silipo, Franco; Quattrone, Aldo

    2018-03-01

    According to embodiment, the recruitment of the motor system is necessary to process language material expressing a motor content. Coherently, an impairment of the motor system should affect the capacity to process language items with a motor content. The aim of the present study was to assess the capacity to process graspable objects and their nouns in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls. Participants saw photos and nouns depicting graspable and non-graspable objects. Scrambled images and pseudo-words served as control stimuli. At 150 msec after stimulus presentation, they had to respond when the stimulus referred to a real object, and refrain from responding when it was meaningless (go-no go paradigm). In the control group, participants gave slower motor responses for stimuli (both photos and nouns) related to graspable objects as compared to non-graspable ones. This in keeping with data obtained in a previous study with young healthy participants. In the PD group, motor responses were similar for both graspable and non-graspable items. Moreover, error number was significantly greater than in controls. These findings support the notion that when the motor circuits are lesioned, like in PD, patients do not show the typical modulation of motor responses and have troubles in processing graspable objects and their nouns. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. ABSTRACT NOUNS IN THE SPEECH OF THE EMGLISHMEN (BASED ON FICTION WORKS AND BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Veniaminovna Khokhlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at studying the use of abstract nouns in the Englishmen’s speech from the standpoint of sociolinguistics. The article introduces a new, sociolinguistic, approach to research of abstract nouns; it is also the first time they are studied in a language corpus. The first stage of the research was based on fiction literary works: abstract nouns were extracted of analysis from the statements of the characters belonging to the opposite social classes. Later, these data was compared with the results of the original corpus research based on the British national corpus: sentences with nouns were selected out of the conversational subcorpus of BNC and were further sorted into abstract, concrete and words denoting people. Then, their frequency and vocabulary was studied with regards to speakers’ age, gender and social standing. The results revealed that abstract words are used more often that concrete ones regardless of the speaker’s social characteristics, however, the size and content of vocabulary is different (it is generally more substantial in the speech of women and representatives of higher social classes. The results of this research can be used in elaborating a course of the English language or in teaching general linguistics, sociolinguistics and country studies. 

  17. ZHE: [Noun] Undefined--An Interview with Performers Antonia Kemi Coker and Tonderai Munyevu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaskan, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2012, London-based theatre company Collective Artistes previewed "ZHE: [noun] Undefined," a new play created by director Chuck Mike and performers Tonderai Munyevu and Antonia Kemi Coker. The play follows the true life stories of the two performers, both British Africans, living at the intersections of culture, nationality, gender and…

  18. Machine translation of noun phrases from English to Igala using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the structural differences between English and Igala, noun phrases coupled with the non- availability of large amount of parallel aligned corpus for English and Igala language, the rule based technology was adopted to develop the model. The model was implemented using VB.net programming language as front ...

  19. The production and processing of determiner-noun agreement in child L2 Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Vasić, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children who learn Dutch as their second language (L2) have difficulties with Dutch grammatical gender. This study shows that six to nine year old L2 Dutch children whose first language (L1) is Turkish noticed incorrect gender agreement between determiner and noun only

  20. Problems in the acquisition of Noun Class 11 among Xhosa children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there has been research on the partial or complete merger of Noun Classes 5 and 11 in a number of Bantu languages, no study has focused specifically on the acquisition of Cl. 11 by Xhosa-speaking children. In this paper we test our hypothesis that Xhosa-speaking children in both urban and rural areas no longer, ...

  1. Vantage Theory and the Use of English Demonstrative Determiners with Proper Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some apparently paradoxical behavior of the English demonstratives "this/these" and "that/those" as determiners of proper nouns and as metaphorical signals of epistemic and affective stance within the proximal-distal opposition. It is argued that the apparent paradoxes are actually cases of shifting perspectives or points of…

  2. Coupled singular and non singular thermoelastic system and double lapalce decomposition methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Gadain; Hassan Gadain

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the double Laplace decomposition methods are applied to solve the non singular and singular one dimensional thermo-elasticity coupled system and. The technique is described and illustrated with some examples

  3. EEG source reconstruction evidence for the noun-verb neural dissociation along semantic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Dang, Jianwu; Zhang, Gaoyan

    2017-09-17

    One of the long-standing issues in neurolinguistic research is about the neural basis of word representation, concerning whether grammatical classification or semantic difference causes the neural dissociation of brain activity patterns when processing different word categories, especially nouns and verbs. To disentangle this puzzle, four orthogonalized word categories in Chinese: unambiguous nouns (UN), unambiguous verbs (UV), ambiguous words with noun-biased semantics (AN), and ambiguous words with verb-biased semantics (AV) were adopted in an auditory task for recording electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from 128 electrodes on the scalps of twenty-two subjects. With the advanced current density reconstruction (CDR) algorithm and the constraint of standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography, the spatiotemporal brain dynamics of word processing were explored with the results that in multiple time periods including P1 (60-90ms), N1 (100-140ms), P200 (150-250ms) and N400 (350-450ms), noun-verb dissociation over the parietal-occipital and frontal-central cortices appeared not only between the UN-UV grammatical classes but also between the grammatically identical but semantically different AN-AV pairs. The apparent semantic dissociation within one grammatical class strongly suggests that the semantic difference rather than grammatical classification could be interpreted as the origin of the noun-verb neural dissociation. Our results also revealed that semantic dissociation occurs from an early stage and repeats in multiple phases, thus supporting a functionally hierarchical word processing mechanism. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lexical development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Ramona Kunene; Ahmed, Saaliha

    2016-07-28

    This study seeks to investigate the development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu-speaking children between the ages of 25 and 36 months. It compares lexical comprehension and production in isiZulu, using an Italian developed and validated vocabulary assessment tool: The Picture Naming Game (PiNG) developed by Bello, Giannantoni, Pettenati, Stefanini and Caselli (2012). The PiNG tool includes four subtests, one each for subnoun comprehension (NC), noun production (NP), predicate comprehension (PC), and predicate production (PP). Children are shown these lexical items and then asked to show comprehension and produce certain lexical items. After adaptation into the South African context, the adapted version of PiNG was used to directly assess the lexical development of isiZulu with the three main objectives to (1) test the efficiency of the adaptation of a vocabulary tool to measure isiZulu comprehension and production development, (2) test previous findings done in many cross-linguistic comparisons that have found that both comprehension and production performance increase with age for a lesser-studied language, and (3) present our findings around the comprehension and production of the linguistic categories of nouns and predicates. An analysis of the results reported in this study show an age effect throughout the entire sample. Across all the age groups, the comprehension of the noun and predicate subtests was better performed than the production of noun and predicate subtests. With regard to lexical items, the responses of children showed an influence of various factors, including the late acquisition of items, possible problems with stimuli presented to them, and the possible input received by the children from their home environment.

  5. Lexical development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Kunene Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to investigate the development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu-speaking children between the ages of 25 and 36 months. It compares lexical comprehension and production in isiZulu, using an Italian developed and validated vocabulary assessment tool: The Picture Naming Game (PiNG developed by Bello, Giannantoni, Pettenati, Stefanini and Caselli (2012. The PiNG tool includes four subtests, one each for subnoun comprehension (NC, noun production (NP, predicate comprehension (PC, and predicate production (PP. Children are shown these lexical items and then asked to show comprehension and produce certain lexical items. After adaptation into the South African context, the adapted version of PiNG was used to directly assess the lexical development of isiZulu with the three main objectives to (1 test the efficiency of the adaptation of a vocabulary tool to measure isiZulu comprehension and production development, (2 test previous findings done in many cross-linguistic comparisons that have found that both comprehension and production performance increase with age for a lesser-studied language, and (3 present our findings around the comprehension and production of the linguistic categories of nouns and predicates. An analysis of the results reported in this study show an age effect throughout the entire sample. Across all the age groups, the comprehension of the noun and predicate subtests was better performed than the production of noun and predicate subtests. With regard to lexical items, the responses of children showed an influence of various factors, including the late acquisition of items, possible problems with stimuli presented to them, and the possible input received by the children from their home environment.

  6. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-11-01

    Following Papapetrou (1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)), a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture.

  7. Logical space and the origins of pluralism in logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arazim, Pavel

    -, č. 2 (2017), s. 7-26 ISSN 0567-8293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : pluralism * expressivism * logical space * geometry * holism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  8. From Orthodoxy to Pluralism: New Views of School Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David L.; McKibbin, Sue

    1982-01-01

    Presents a reader quiz on attitudes about school administration. Analyzes likely responses to the quiz and concludes that the assumption that schools are rational, bureaucratic organizations leads to rigidity and confusion because it does not accurately describe schools as they exist. Argues for pluralism in organizational views. (WD)

  9. Purple vests. The origins of plural policing in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.

    2015-01-01

    This article increases the body of knowledge on the origins of plural policing in a continental setting, more specifically in Belgium. Compared to other European countries, Belgium occupies a unique position, which can be explained by its particular constitutional setting. While non-police public

  10. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.A.; Pochan, P.D.; Siegal, M.P.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-07-11

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors. 3 figs.

  11. L2 Processing of Plural Inflection in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoonsang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates (1) whether late second language (L2) learners can attain native-like knowledge of English plural inflection even when their first language (L1) lacks an equivalent and (2) whether they construct hierarchically structured representations during online sentence processing like native speakers. In a self-paced reading task,…

  12. Cultural Pluralism in Education: A Mandate for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stent, Madelon D.; And Others

    "Having a diversity of cultures within a single country can be a threat, a problem, or an asset." The contributors to this book argue that cultural pluralism rather than cultural homogeneity must be recognized and accepted within our educational institutions--not as a necessary evil, but as a strong positive force. For different does not mean…

  13. John Hick's Philosophy of Religious Pluralism in the Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is an interpretation of John Hick's philosophy of religious pluralism in the context of traditional Yoruba religion. The ultimate goal of the article is pragmatic, viz. to provide a theoretical basis for peaceful coexistence among different religions in Nigeria. The methods adopted to achieve this objective are ...

  14. 10. O Olawoyin John Hick Pluralism in the Traditional Yoruba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGINALDS

    equated with the Yoruba concept of the Supreme Being or Olodumare. ... pluralism should also be distinguished from religious relativism. ... is beyond comprehension and language, and from the culture in which the experiencer ..... being determines the moral issue of life, so that it is unmistakably implied in Yoruba theology ...

  15. Plural religious beliefs: A Comparison between the Dutch and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of religious beliefs is distilled from the perspective of one's belief in God. With regard to this belief in God we propose to distinguish between two dimensions: The personal versus the a-personal character of God and his transcendent versus his immanent nature. This leaves us with a plurality of beliefs in God.

  16. Eboo Patel (2012). Sacred Ground: Pluralism, Prejudice and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries have done a great deal to recognise the importance of racial, ethnic and gender diversity, they have often devoted less attention to recognising and accommodating religious differences. Colleges and universities have done even less to actively promote the goal of religious pluralism. Consequently, interreligious ...

  17. Moral Pluralism in Business Ethics Education: It Is about Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Brian K.; Dunn, Craig P.; Goldsby, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The teaching of business ethics is almost inherently pluralistic, but little evidence of explicitly pluralistic approaches exists in teaching materials besides the available decision-making frameworks. In this article, it is argued that the field needs to acknowledge and adopt pluralism as the standard pedagogical approach, whether the individual…

  18. The bright future of value pluralism in public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.

    2015-01-01

    In their critique of Spicer’s and Wagenaar’s account of value pluralism (VP), Talisse, Overeem, and Verhoef seem to suggest either that VP does not exist or that it is irrelevant for public administration (PA). My argument is that in public governance, there are many conflicting intrinsic values.

  19. Legal pluralism and social justice in economic and political development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, von F.

    2001-01-01

    Legal pluralism is an approach which accepts the possibility that within any given polity, there can be more than one 'legal order' and that the state is not the exclusive source of legal regulation. Nevertheless, defining whether a particular claim or social relation is legally sanctioned is a

  20. Reductionist Challenges to Explanatory Pluralism : Comment on McCauley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eronen, Markus I.

    2009-01-01

    In this comment, I first point out some problems in McCauley's defense of the traditional conception of general analytical levels. Then I present certain reductionist arguments against explanatory pluralism that are not based on the New Wave model of intertheoretic reduction, against which McCauley

  1. Promoting Moral Growth through Pluralism and Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Issues of morality, including deciding among competing values and negotiating obligations to self and community, are pervasive and saturate many aspects of life. This article explores the role of educating for pluralism and social justice in promoting moral growth among college students. James Rest's four-component model of moral maturity frames…

  2. Beyond Coexistence: Toward a More Reflective Religious Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblith, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    If a pluralistic democratic state such as the United States wishes to move beyond coexistence and toward a more reflective religious pluralism, then public schools must take epistemic issues seriously. Taking a cue from multicultural education, many have called for including the study of religion from a cultural perspective. I argue instead that,…

  3. Radical democracy, agonism and the limits of pluralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer; Sonnichsen, André

    2014-01-01

    In this interview, Chantal Mouffe discusses her theoretical endeavour since the publication of Hegemony and Socialist Strategy; the theory of politics via the combined critique of Marxism and liberalism; Carl Schmitt and the formulation of an agonistic politics; as well as the limits of pluralism...... and the necessity of exclusion....

  4. Educational Leadership with an Ethics of Plurality and Natality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to impregnate the concept of educational leadership with new meanings and new possibilities. I draw on Hannah Arendt's ("The human condition." University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1958/1998) political thought, particularly, her concepts of "plurality" and "natality" alongside the distinction she made…

  5. Pragmatism and pluralism: How to avoid becoming a physicalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, John Miller

    This thesis can be split into two sections. The first section is an argument against physicalism and its naturalistic pretensions. The second section presents an alternative to physicalism - pragmatic pluralism. The arguments for the first section are split into four chapters. In chapter one it is argued that an examination of science lends no support to physicalist ontology. The case of quantum chemistry is studied in some detail and its shown that higher-level chemical facts are needed to support the quantum mechanical explanations given. The second and third chapters look at various ways in which physicalist have sought to explain away the apparent lack of unity in the sciences. Various accounts of the supervenience relation and functionalism are discussed and shown to be either inadequate for the physicalist programme or empirically implausible. The final chapter of this section discusses the so called completeness of physics. It is shown that like physicalism in general, there is no way to formulate this doctrine to make it plausible in light of contemporary physics and able to underpin a physicalist ontology. The second section critically discusses alternatives to physicalism. The scientific pluralisms of John Dupre and Nancy Cartwright and the pragmatic pluralisms of Hilary Putnam and Nelson Goodman are discussed in detail. Drawing on the work of Putnam, in particular, and presenting Davidson's anomalous monism in a new guise, an original form of pragmatic or metaphysically deflationary pluralism is defended.

  6. Optical Manipulation System Using a Plurality of Optical Traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical manipulation system (10) for generation of a plurality of optical traps for manipulation of micro-objects including nano-objects using electromagnetic radiation forces in a micro-object manipulation volume (14), the system comprising a spatially modulat...

  7. The Things of Caesar: Mark-ing the Plural (Mk 12:13–17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Carter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article observes the rarely-discussed phenomenon that the Marcan paying-the-tax scene refers to tax in the singular, whilst the concluding saying uses the plural ‘the things of Caesar and of God’. The article accounts for this phenomenon by means of developing traditions. The section under the heading ‘Mark’s scene and saying about taxes (12:13–17’ counters the common claim that scene and saying originated as a unit from the historical Jesus. It proposes that whilst the saying may have originated with Jesus, the scene as we have it did not. The section under the heading ‘Social memory, orality, and a multi-referential saying?’ suggests some contexts that the saying about the things of Caesar addressed pre-Mark. And under the section ‘Trauma and Mark’s scene’ it is argued that Mark created a unit comprising scene and saying to negotiate the ‘ trauma’ of the 66–70 war. The unit evaluates freshly-asserted Roman power as idolatrous and blasphemous whilst simultaneously authorising the continued involvement of Jesus-believers in imperial society.

  8. Stable singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinwall, P.S.; Morrison, D.R.; Gross, M.

    1996-01-01

    We study a topological obstruction of a very stringy nature concerned with deforming the target space of an N=2 non-linear σ-model. This target space has a singularity which may be smoothed away according to the conventional rules of geometry, but when one studies the associated conformal field theory one sees that such a deformation is not possible without a discontinuous change in some of the correlation functions. This obstruction appears to come from torsion in the homology of the target space (which is seen by deforming the theory by an irrelevant operator). We discuss the link between this phenomenon and orbifolds with discrete torsion as studied by Vafa and Witten. (orig.). With 3 figs

  9. Economías singulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Alccinelli

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendemos mostrar que le conjunto de las economías singulares, si bien pequeño desde el punto de vista de la topología y/o desde el punto de vista de la teoría de la medida, tiene importantes efectos en el desarrollo de los regímenes económicos. Es el responsable de los cambios abruptos en los estados de equilibrio y de la multiplicidad de tales estados. Permite además establecer a partir de los tipos de singularidades posibles, una partición del conjunto de economías según tenga lugar uno u otro tipo de singularidad cuya presencia o no, caracteriza el comportamiento posible de la economía en cuestión.

  10. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick, E-mail: sebastian.bramberger@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: thomas.hertog@kuleuven.be, E-mail: jlehners@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: yannick.vreys@kuleuven.be [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-07-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  11. Coulomb branches with complex singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario

    2018-06-01

    We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.

  12. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  13. Kategorie čísla a tzv. singularia tantum na základě výzkumu Českého národního korpusu.

    OpenAIRE

    Chobalko, Antonina

    2017-01-01

    In our thesis, we focus on singularia tantum, which are nouns that are used only in the singular. More specifically, we focused on the names of the food that are typical examples of singularia tantum. However, we found that many of these nouns are to be found in the plural as well, but the most recent Czech dictionary (2005) does not include this kind of information. In our thesis, we show list of these nouns and we show how they are used in plural. At the same time we find many examples, whe...

  14. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...

  15. Building Reproducible Science with Singularity Containers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Michael Bauer first began working with containers at GSI national lab in Darmstadt, Germany, in 2017 while taking a semester off of school at the University of Michigan. Michael met Greg Kurtzer, project lead of Singularity, during his time at GSI and he began contributing heavily to the Singularity project. At the start of summer 2017, Greg hired Michael to work at the ...

  16. Reasons for singularity in robot teleoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhenke, Ilka; Fischer, Kerstin; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the causes for singularity of a robot arm in teleoperation for robot learning from demonstration are analyzed. Singularity is the alignment of robot joints, which prevents the configuration of the inverse kinematics. Inspired by users' own hypotheses, we investigated speed and dela...

  17. The Geometry of Black Hole Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results show that important singularities in General Relativity can be naturally described in terms of finite and invariant canonical geometric objects. Consequently, one can write field equations which are equivalent to Einstein's at nonsingular points but, in addition remain well-defined and smooth at singularities. The black hole singularities appear to be less undesirable than it was thought, especially after we remove the part of the singularity due to the coordinate system. Black hole singularities are then compatible with global hyperbolicity and do not make the evolution equations break down, when these are expressed in terms of the appropriate variables. The charged black holes turn out to have smooth potential and electromagnetic fields in the new atlas. Classical charged particles can be modeled, in General Relativity, as charged black hole solutions. Since black hole singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction, this should affect Feynman's path integrals. Therefore, it is expected that singularities induce dimensional reduction effects in Quantum Gravity. These dimensional reduction effects are very similar to those postulated in some approaches to make Quantum Gravity perturbatively renormalizable. This may provide a way to test indirectly the effects of singularities, otherwise inaccessible.

  18. Singularities in the nonisotropic Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.; Martiarena, M.L.; Zanette, D.

    1987-09-01

    We consider solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation (NLBE) with anisotropic singular initial conditions, which give a simplified model for the penetration of a monochromatic beam on a rarified target. The NLBE is transformed into an integral equation which is solved iteratively and the evolution of the initial singularities is discussed. (author). 5 refs

  19. Cold atoms in singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, J. P.

    1998-09-01

    We studied both theoretically and experimentally the interaction between cold Li atoms from a magnetic-optical trap (MOT) and a charged or current-carrying wire. With this system, we were able to realize 1/r 2 and 1/r potentials in two dimensions and to observe the motion of cold atoms in both potentials. For an atom in an attractive 1/r 2 potential, there exist no stable trajectories, instead there is a characteristic class of trajectories for which atoms fall into the singularity. We were able to observe this falling of atoms into the center of the potential. Moreover, by probing the singular 1/r 2 potential with atomic clouds of varying size and temperature we extracted scaling properties of the atom-wire interaction. For very cold atoms, and very thin wires the motion of the atoms must be treated quantum mechanically. Here we predict that the absorption cross section for the 1/r 2 potential should exhibit quantum steps. These quantum steps are a manifestation of the quantum mechanical decomposition of plane waves into partial waves. For the second part of this work, we realized a two dimensional 1/r potential for cold atoms. If the potential is attractive, the atoms can be bound and follow Kepler-like orbits around the wire. The motion in the third dimension along the wire is free. We were able to exploit this property and constructed a novel cold atom guide, the 'Kepler guide'. We also demonstrated another type of atom guide (the 'side guide'), by combining the magnetic field of the wire with a homogeneous offset magnetic field. In this case, the atoms are held in a potential 'tube' on the side of the wire. The versatility, simplicity, and scaling properties of this guide make it an interesting technique. (author)

  20. An adaptive singular ES-FEM for mechanics problems with singular field of arbitrary order

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Xuan, H.; Liu, G. R.; Bordas, Stéphane; Natarajan, S.; Rabczuk, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a singular edge-based smoothed finite element method (sES-FEM) for mechanics problems with singular stress fields of arbitrary order. The sES-FEM uses a basic mesh of three-noded linear triangular (T3) elements and a special layer of five-noded singular triangular elements (sT5) connected to the singular-point of the stress field. The sT5 element has an additional node on each of the two edges connected to the singular-point. It allows us to represent simple and efficient ...

  1. A singularity extraction technique for computation of antenna aperture fields from singular plane wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    An effective technique for extracting the singularity of plane wave spectra in the computation of antenna aperture fields is proposed. The singular spectrum is first factorized into a product of a finite function and a singular function. The finite function is inverse Fourier transformed...... numerically using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, while the singular function is inverse Fourier transformed analytically, using the Weyl-identity, and the two resulting spatial functions are then convolved to produce the antenna aperture field. This article formulates the theory of the singularity...

  2. Biclustering via Sparse Singular Value Decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Mihee

    2010-02-16

    Sparse singular value decomposition (SSVD) is proposed as a new exploratory analysis tool for biclustering or identifying interpretable row-column associations within high-dimensional data matrices. SSVD seeks a low-rank, checkerboard structured matrix approximation to data matrices. The desired checkerboard structure is achieved by forcing both the left- and right-singular vectors to be sparse, that is, having many zero entries. By interpreting singular vectors as regression coefficient vectors for certain linear regressions, sparsity-inducing regularization penalties are imposed to the least squares regression to produce sparse singular vectors. An efficient iterative algorithm is proposed for computing the sparse singular vectors, along with some discussion of penalty parameter selection. A lung cancer microarray dataset and a food nutrition dataset are used to illustrate SSVD as a biclustering method. SSVD is also compared with some existing biclustering methods using simulated datasets. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  3. One dimensional systems with singular perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J J; Gadella, M; Nieto, L M; Glasser, L M; Lara, L P

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some one dimensional quantum models with singular perturbations. Eventually, a mass discontinuity is added at the points that support the singular perturbations. The simplest model includes an attractive singular potential with a mass jump both located at the origin. We study the form of the only bound state. Another model exhibits a hard core at the origin plus one or more repulsive deltas with mass jumps at the points supporting these deltas. We study the location and the multiplicity of these resonances for the case of one or two deltas and settle the basis for a generalization. Finally, we consider the harmonic oscillator and the infinite square well plus a singular potential at the origin. We see how the energy of bound states is affected by the singular perturbation.

  4. Noncrossing timelike singularities of irrotational dust collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.T.

    1979-01-01

    Known naked singularities in spherical dust collapse are either due to shell-crossing or localized to the central world line. They will probably be destroyed by pressure gradients or blue-shift instabilities. To violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis in a more convincing and general context, collapse solutions with naked singularities that are at least nonshell-crossing and nonlocalized need to be constructed. Some results concerning the probable structure of a class of nonshellcrossing and nonlocalized timelike singularities are reviewed. The cylindrical dust model is considered but this model is not asymptotically flat. To make these noncrossing singularities viable counter examples to the cosmic censorship hypothesis, the occurrence of such singularities in asymptotically flat collapse needs to be demonstrated. (UK)

  5. Minimal solution for inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikuie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy matrix equations $Ailde{X}=ilde{Y}$ is called a singular fuzzy matrix equations while the coefficients matrix of its equivalent crisp matrix equations be a singular matrix. The singular fuzzy matrix equations are divided into two parts: consistent singular matrix equations and inconsistent fuzzy matrix equations. In this paper, the inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations is studied and the effect of generalized inverses in finding minimal solution of an inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations are investigated.

  6. The School as Melting Pot: Pluralism and Americanization Vie for Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Marvin

    1978-01-01

    Appeals for ethnic pluralism have a long history in education. However, an ideological commitment to cultural homogeneity has created a bureaucratic administrative structure which has made public education highly resistant to ethnic pluralism. (Author/EB)

  7. Quantum cosmology and late-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenshchik, A Yu

    2013-01-01

    The development of dark energy models has stimulated interest to cosmological singularities, which differ from the traditional Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. We review a broad class of phenomena connected with soft cosmological singularities in classical and quantum cosmology. We discuss the classification of singularities from the geometrical point of view and from the point of view of the behavior of finite size objects, crossing such singularities. We discuss in some detail quantum and classical cosmology of models based on perfect fluids (anti-Chaplygin gas and anti-Chaplygin gas plus dust), of models based on the Born–Infeld-type fields and of the model of a scalar field with a potential inversely proportional to the field itself. We dwell also on the phenomenon of the phantom divide line crossing in the scalar field models with cusped potentials. Then we discuss the Friedmann equations modified by quantum corrections to the effective action of the models under considerations and the influence of such modification on the nature and the existence of soft singularities. We review also quantum cosmology of models, where the initial quantum state of the universe is presented by the density matrix (mixed state). Finally, we discuss the exotic singularities arising in the braneworld cosmological models. (topical review)

  8. Self-interest and Altruism: Pluralism as a Basis for Leadership in Business

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines the case for pluralism between self-interest (egoism) and altruism in business leadership. Scientific progression demonstrating pluralism is discussed, providing a multidisciplinary view of pluralism from evolutionary biology, psychology, moral philosophy, economic theory and organisational behavior. Findings show that myopic views of self-interest and altruism were once dominant in a number of fields however shifts in contemporary theory have provided a basis for pluralism...

  9. Adaptation of Proper Nouns in Czech-American Periodicals at the End of the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Burdová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of adaptation of proper nouns in chosen periodicals of the end of the 19th century that were published in the USA by Czech immigrants. Based on the analysis of periodicals collected from the Library of the Naprstek Museum of Prague there originated a list of proper nouns that has been studied from various points of view, namely the phonetics and phonology, morphology including the word-class competition (Cedar Rapidský - Cedar Rapids), translatedan...

  10. Simultaneous Processing of Noun Cue and to-be-Produced Verb in Verb Generation Task: Electromagnetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Butorina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing but implicit assumption is that words strongly associated with a presented cue are automatically activated in the memory through rapid spread of activation within brain semantic networks. The current study was aimed to provide direct evidence of such rapid access to words’ semantic representations and to investigate its neural sources using magnetoencephalography (MEG and distributed source localization technique. Thirty-three neurotypical subjects underwent the MEG recording during verb generation task, which was to produce verbs related to the presented noun cues. Brain responses evoked by the noun cues were examined while manipulating the strength of association between the noun and the potential verb responses. The strong vs. weak noun-verb association led to a greater noun-related neural response at 250–400 ms after cue onset, and faster verb production. The cortical sources of the differential response were localized in left temporal pole, previously implicated in semantic access, and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC, thought to subserve controlled semantic retrieval. The strength of the left VLPFC’s response to the nouns with strong verb associates was positively correlated to the speed of verbs production. Our findings empirically validate the theoretical expectation that in case of a strongly connected noun-verb pair, successful access to target verb representation may occur already at the stage of lexico-semantic analysis of the presented noun. Moreover, the MEG results suggest that contrary to the previous conclusion derived from fMRI studies left VLPFC supports selection of the target verb representations, even if they were retrieved from semantic memory rapidly and effortlessly. The discordance between MEG and fMRI findings in verb generation task may stem from different modes of neural activation captured by phase-locked activity in MEG and slow changes of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD signal

  11. A Study on Noun Suffixes: Accounting for the Vernacularisation of English in Late Medieval Medical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Crespo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the study of the vernacularisation process in late Middle English by measuring up to what an extent concrete and abstract noun suffixes (in line with Dalton-Puffer 1996 attach to either Germanic or Romance bases in the medical texts extracted from the MEMT (Middle English Medical Texts corpus. The findings obtained have been further described according to text type or genre and to target audience/readership. The description of these suffixes in relation to all the parameters already mentioned has confirmed the predominance of abstract suffixes of Romance origin although Germanic abstract suffixes are also abundant. More hybrid formations have been found with Germanic noun suffixes than with Romance ones which might be indicative of their versatility towards vernacularisation.

  12. Initial singularity and pure geometric field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, M. I.; Kamal, Mona M.; Dabash, Tahia F.

    2018-01-01

    In the present article we use a modified version of the geodesic equation, together with a modified version of the Raychaudhuri equation, to study initial singularities. These modified equations are used to account for the effect of the spin-torsion interaction on the existence of initial singularities in cosmological models. Such models are the results of solutions of the field equations of a class of field theories termed pure geometric. The geometric structure used in this study is an absolute parallelism structure satisfying the cosmological principle. It is shown that the existence of initial singularities is subject to some mathematical (geometric) conditions. The scheme suggested for this study can be easily generalized.

  13. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...... solely on an orthogonal polynomial basis is adequate, provided the Gauss-Lobatto or Gauss-Radau quadrature rule is used. This ensures that the mesh contains the singular points and by simply discarding the DVR functions corresponding to those points, all matrix elements become well behaved. the boundary...

  14. Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz

    2008-11-15

    We propose a method for eliminating a class of singularities in optical media where the refractive index goes to zero or infinity at one or more isolated points. Employing transformation optics, we find a refractive index distribution equivalent to the original one that is nonsingular but shows a slight anisotropy. In this way, the original singularity is 'transmuted' into another, weaker type of singularity where the permittivity and permeability tensors are discontinuous at one point. The method is likely to find applications in designing and improving optical devices by making them easier to implement or to operate in a broad band of the spectrum.

  15. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Casals

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space–time with a negative cosmological constant in (2+1-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress–energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space–time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak cosmic censorship.

  16. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco; Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Sá nchez-Morgado, Hé ctor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  17. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco

    2016-11-22

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  18. G×E Interaction and Pluralism in the Postgenomic Era

    OpenAIRE

    Perbal, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral genetics is in a postgenomic era, and this paper illustrates this epistemological evolution using the debate between developmental criticism and traditional biometric genetics about gene x environment interaction. Quantitative geneticists are blamed for failing to respect the complexity of development; as a response, they claim a defensive position, called isolationist pluralism, which supports the idea that studying development is not their problem. But postgenomics seems to have ...

  19. Pesantren Responses to Religious Tolerance, Pluralism and Democracy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrohman Nurrohman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesantren (Islamic boarding school is the oldest Islamic institution in Indonesia that often affiliated to the largest mass Muslim organization Nahdlatul Ulama. This organization is well known for its stance to uphold moderate, tolerance Islam and accepting pluralistic state based on Pancasila. Pesantren also often referred as the barometer to understand the way of thinking of Muslims grass root in Indonesia because many Islamic figures in Indonesian village are alumni of pesantren.  There are debates among scholars on whether religious violence has a root in religious doctrine or it is caused by factors outside religion such as poverty or injustice. By assuming that both inside and outside factors have significant contribution to violence or radicalism this study will discuss the doctrine that potentially can be used to justify violence and intolerance by reviewing the opinion of pesantren leaders in West Java on jihad, violence or intolerance and power. This study is aimed to examine whether the commitment of Muslim leaders in national level on democracy and plurality is supported by grass root particularly from pesantren leaders.  Overall the study found that although they agree that democracy is compatible with Islam, this study reveals that their acceptance to pluralism still be questioned as evidenced by almost half of them supported theocratic caliphate carry out by radical group. Although many argued that pesantren promotes tolerance and pluralism, nevertheless this  study shows that some of their teaching tacitly supported violence act in the name of religion that will tarnished the effort of Indonesia to synchronize Islam, democracy and modernity. It means that many of them actually not wholeheartedly accepted democracy and pluralism.

  20. Decision structures in franchise systems of the plural form

    OpenAIRE

    Kranz, Sebastian; Lewin-Solomons, Shira B.

    2008-01-01

    Many successful franchise chains directly own a positive fraction of stores --- a structure referred to as plural form. We propose that this ownership structure is chosen as a commitment not to expropriate franchisees. The theoretical model is based on an empirical analysis of contract and interview data from the US fast-food sector and well known stylized facts: First, franchisees typically have strong contractual obligations to implement activities selected by the chain. Second, franchisees...

  1. A Scandinavian Island in a Slavonic Linguistic Environment. The Dialect of Gammalsvenskby: Nouns (Paper 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Mankov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the series of publications on the morphology of the dialect of Staroshvedskoye (Sw. Gammalsvenskby, which is the only surviving Scandinavian dialect in the territory of the former Soviet Union. The village of Staroshvedskoye is located in the Kherson region, Ukraine. Its Swedish dialect historically belongs to the group of Swedish dialects of Estonia and goes back to the dialect of the island of Dagö (Hiiumaa. The dialect of Gammalsvenskby is of interest to slavists as an example of a language island in the Slavonic environment. From around the 1950s, the main spoken language of all village residents, including dialect speakers, has been surzhik. Due to the complete lack of studies of the present-day dialect and because of the severe endangerment in which the dialect is currently situated, the most urgent task is to collect, classify, and publish the factual material. This paper introduces comprehensive material on nouns in the conservative variety of the present-day dialect. It lists all masculine nouns of types 1b, c, d, and e together with their cognates from Estonian Swedish dialects; comments on the history of the forms are given as well. The sources for the material presented here are interviews with speakers of the conservative variety of the dialect recorded by the author during fieldwork in the village from 2004 to 2013. We plan to publish nouns of other types in later articles.

  2. Semantic markup of nouns and adjectives for the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajlak Ch. Oorzhak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the progress of semantic markup of the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language (ECTTL, which is another stage of adding Tuvan texts to the database and marking up the corpus. ECTTL is a collaborative project by researchers from Tuvan State University (Research and Education Center of Turkic Studies and Department of Information Technologies. Semantic markup of Tuvan lexis will come as a search engine and reference system which will help users find text snippets containing words with desired meanings in ECTTL. The first stage of this process is setting up databases of basic lexemes of Tuvan language. All meaningful lexemes were classified into the following semantic groups: humans, animals, objects, natural objects and phenomena, and abstract concepts. All Tuvan object nouns, as well as both descriptive and relative adjectives, were assigned to one of these lexico-semantic classes. Each class, sub-class and descriptor is tagged in Tuvan, Russian and English; these tags, in turn, will help automatize searching. The databases of meaningful lexemes of Tuvan language will also outline their lexical combinations. The automatized system will contain information on semantic combinations of adjectives with nouns, adverbs with verbs, nouns with verbs, as well as on the combinations which are semantically incompatible.

  3. Singularities in cosmologies with interacting fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kittou, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics near finite-time singularities of flat isotropic universes filled with two interacting but otherwise arbitrary perfect fluids. The overall dynamical picture reveals a variety of asymptotic solutions valid locally around the spacetime singularity. We find the attractor of all solutions with standard decay, and for ‘phantom’ matter asymptotically at early times. We give a number of special asymptotic solutions describing universes collapsing to zero size and others ending at a big rip singularity. We also find a very complicated singularity corresponding to a logarithmic branch point that resembles a cyclic universe, and give an asymptotic local series representation of the general solution in the neighborhood of infinity.

  4. Singularities: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.J.S.; Schmidt, B.G.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, but precise and unified account is given of the results that have been rigorously established at the time of writing concerning the existence and nature of singularities in classical relativity. (author)

  5. Technological Singularity: What Do We Really Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Potapov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the technological singularity is frequently reified. Futurist forecasts inferred from this imprecise reification are then criticized, and the reified ideas are incorporated in the core concept. In this paper, I try to disentangle the facts related to the technological singularity from more speculative beliefs about the possibility of creating artificial general intelligence. I use the theory of metasystem transitions and the concept of universal evolution to analyze some misconceptions about the technological singularity. While it may be neither purely technological, nor truly singular, we can predict that the next transition will take place, and that the emerged metasystem will demonstrate exponential growth in complexity with a doubling time of less than half a year, exceeding the complexity of the existing cybernetic systems in few decades.

  6. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  7. Topological Signals of Singularities in Ricci Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Alsing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We implement methods from computational homology to obtain a topological signal of singularity formation in a selection of geometries evolved numerically by Ricci flow. Our approach, based on persistent homology, produces precise, quantitative measures describing the behavior of an entire collection of data across a discrete sample of times. We analyze the topological signals of geometric criticality obtained numerically from the application of persistent homology to models manifesting singularities under Ricci flow. The results we obtain for these numerical models suggest that the topological signals distinguish global singularity formation (collapse to a round point from local singularity formation (neckpinch. Finally, we discuss the interpretation and implication of these results and future applications.

  8. Asymptotic safety, singularities, and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Mirza, Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    Asymptotic safety (an ultraviolet fixed point with finite-dimensional critical surface) offers the possibility that a predictive theory of quantum gravity can be obtained from the quantization of classical general relativity. However, it is unclear what becomes of the singularities of classical general relativity, which, it is hoped, might be resolved by quantum effects. We study dust collapse with a running gravitational coupling and find that a future singularity can be avoided if the coupling becomes exactly zero at some finite energy scale. The singularity can also be avoided (pushed off to infinite proper time) if the coupling approaches zero sufficiently rapidly at high energies. However, the evolution deduced from perturbation theory still implies a singularity at finite proper time.

  9. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  10. On Borel singularities in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, S.; Olesen, P.

    1977-10-01

    The authors consider the effective one-loop Lagrangian in a constant electric field. It is shown that perturbation theory behaves as n factorial giving rise to singularities in the Borel plane. Comparing with the known exact result it is shown how to integrate these singularities. It is suggested that renormalons in QED and QCD should be integrated in a similar way. A speculation is made on a possible interpretation of this integration. (Auth.)

  11. Singularity theorems from weakened energy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewster, Christopher J; Galloway, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    We establish analogues of the Hawking and Penrose singularity theorems based on (a) averaged energy conditions with exponential damping; (b) conditions on local stress-energy averages inspired by the quantum energy inequalities satisfied by a number of quantum field theories. As particular applications, we establish singularity theorems for the Einstein equations coupled to a classical scalar field, which violates the strong energy condition, and the nonminimally coupled scalar field, which also violates the null energy condition.

  12. Differential Impairment of Noun and Verb Consequent to LH Lesions in Persian Aphasic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Reza Nilipour

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The major focus of this research is on the differential disruption of language abilities subsequent to brain damages as they relate to site and size of lesion, especially left hemisphere lesions which disrupt the production and processing of "Nouns" vs. "Verbs" as two functionally different lexical categories. Several clinical as well as experimental studies reported on different language have shown that nouns and verbs can be independently disrupted due to brain damage. A prevalent impairment in naming actions (Producing verbs is reported in non-fluent aphasic patients, with lesions involving left frontal lobe, whereas a selective in naming objects (Producing nouns has been observed in amnesic patients, with lesions involving the temporal lobe and the temporal lobe and the posterior association aresas. This research is a theoretical and fundamental based on descriptive and analytical method. The aphasic data in this research were obtained by assessing each patient's aphasic symptoms using a standard Persian aphasia test (Paradis, Nilipoure, Paribakht, 1989 as well as post-test analysis of each patient' connected descriptive speech. The subjects were selected form among aphasics who referred to speech therapy centers in Tehran during a pe5iod of one year since autumn 1999. The subjects selected in the study were a homogenous group with left hemisphere lesions due to CVA. They were educated adult right handed. Speakers of Persian without any risk factor such as nicotine, alcohol or any addiction and diabetes with no gross depression or anxiety problems or face and oral paralysis and hemiaopsia. The subjects in this study comprised to adults ranging between 33 and 76 years of age. The results indicated that there are significant correlation between: 1 The production of nouns and left hemisphere lesion. 2 The production of verbs and left hemisphere lesion. 3 Brain lesion and language deficits. 4 The site of lesion and language abilities

  13. Observational constraints on cosmological future singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose [Aix Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); Lazkoz, Ruth [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Bilbao (Spain); Saez-Gomez, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Salzano, Vincenzo [University of Szczecin, Institute of Physics, Szczecin (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolution regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the behavior of the Hubble factor). We show that, for our family of parameterizations, the lower bound for the singularity time cannot be smaller than about 1.2 times the age of the universe, what roughly speaking means ∝2.8 Gyrs from the present time. (orig.)

  14. Observational constraints on cosmological future singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose; Lazkoz, Ruth; Saez-Gomez, Diego; Salzano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolution regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the behavior of the Hubble factor). We show that, for our family of parameterizations, the lower bound for the singularity time cannot be smaller than about 1.2 times the age of the universe, what roughly speaking means ∝2.8 Gyrs from the present time. (orig.)

  15. Naked singularities and cosmic censorship: comment on the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The current discussion is mainly concerned with how, or indeed, whether space-times possessing naked singularities can be ruled out as being too unrealistic or not being singular at all. The present position is summarized, with references, under the following headings: the Hawking-Penrose existence theorems, hydrodynamical singularities and the strength of naked singularities. (UK)

  16. Cosmologies with quasiregular singularities. II. Stability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkowski, D.A.; Helliwell, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    The stability properties of a class of spacetimes with quasiregular singularities is discussed. Quasiregular singularities are the end points of incomplete, inextendible geodesics at which the Riemann tensor and its derivatives remain at least bounded in all parallel-propagated orthonormal (PPON) frames; observers approaching such a singularity would find that their world lines come to an end in a finite proper time. The Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino)-type cosmologies investigated are R 1 x T 3 and R 3 x S 1 flat Kasner spacetimes, the two-parameter family of spatially homogeneous but anisotropic Bianchi type-IX Taub-NUT spacetimes, and an infinite-dimensional family of Einstein-Rosen-Gowdy spacetimes studied by Moncrief. The behavior of matter near the quasiregular singularity in each of these spacetimes is explored through an examination of the behavior of the stress-energy tensors and scalars for conformally coupled and minimally coupled, massive and massless scalar waves as observed in both coordinate and PPON frames. A conjecture is postulated concerning the stability of the nature of the singularity in these spacetimes. The conjecture for a Taub-NUT-type background spacetime is that if a test-field stress-energy tensor evaluated in a PPON frame mimics the behavior of the Riemann tensor components which indicate a particular type of singularity (quasiregular, nonscalar curvature, or scalar curvature), then a complete nonlinear backreaction calculation, in which the fields are allowed to influence the geometry, would show that this type of singularity actually occurs. Evidence supporting the conjecture is presented for spacetimes whose symmetries are unchanged when fields with the same symmetries are added

  17. Biografema de Mário de Andrade: do plural

    OpenAIRE

    Kossovitch,Elisa Angotti

    1987-01-01

    Este texto é a primeira parte do terceiro capítulo de minha tese de doutoramento - MÁRIO DE ANDRADE, PLURAL (Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas - Universidade de São Paulo). Aí, tenta-se a produção de um biografema à maneira de Roland Barthes, de quem é a epígrafe do capítulo. O biografema é uma livre-produção textual na medida em que não deriva de significado (como a biografia), mas, enfatizando imagens, cenas, gestos, fragmentos textuais, pulsões, opera significancias. O biog...

  18. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  19. Generalized teleparallel cosmology and initial singularity crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel; Nashed, Gamal, E-mail: Adel.Awad@bue.edu.eg, E-mail: gglnashed@sci.asu.edu.eg [Center for Theoretical Physics, the British University in Egypt, Suez Desert Road, Sherouk City 11837 (Egypt)

    2017-02-01

    We present a class of cosmological solutions for a generalized teleparallel gravity with f ( T )= T +α̃ (− T ) {sup n} , where α̃ is some parameter and n is an integer or half-integer. Choosing α̃ ∼ G {sup n} {sup −1}, where G is the gravitational constant, and working with an equation of state p = w ρ, one obtains a cosmological solution with multiple branches. The dynamics of the solution describes standard cosmology at late times, but the higher-torsion correction changes the nature of the initial singularity from big bang to a sudden singularity. The milder behavior of the sudden singularity enables us to extend timelike or lightlike curves, through joining two disconnected branches of solution at the singularity, leaving the singularity traversable. We show that this extension is consistent with the field equations through checking the known junction conditions for generalized teleparallel gravity. This suggests that these solutions describe a contracting phase a prior to the expanding phase of the universe.

  20. Regulation of pluralism in France. Context, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Almiron-Roig, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical and up-to-date study of the media regulation in France with regards to the protection of pluralism. To this end, the article presents a study on the French legal framework for the media, which is complemented with the opinions of scholars, journalists, trade union representatives, members of public organizations regulating the media, and relevant figures with expertise in the media sector in France. The views of these actors were obtained through a series of in-depth interviews conducted in Paris in July 2008 and December 2009. The study reveals that the legal framework, which uses multiple mechanisms and instruments to guarantee pluralism, both external (mainly, corporate concentration and internal (media contents, is highly complex, vast, difficult, and almost impossible to apply. The study suggests that the French legal framework is a top example of inefficient hyper-regulation, which the author sees as a result of the ferocious battle between the two strongest modern forces in France: the egalitarian democratic values, based on solidarity and deeply rooted in the historical tradition of the French Republic; and the neoliberal capitalism based on the ideas of material accumulation and individualism.

  1. Reasonable Plurality and Moral Education. New Perspectives on Old Paradoxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Salmerón Castro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This article faces an old paradox of moral education: the apparently logical impossibility of choosing the transmission of agreed-upon values and the autonomous exercise of reason. The author takes an epistemological position in which human learning is considered the result of an interaction of individual developmental processes and the acquisition of knowledge. She assumes knowledge as a category subjected to criteria of truth, and this, as preceded by an agreement concerning values. She states that transmission of the community consensus is not only inevitable, but is essential to the development of the autonomous deliberative game and to the exercise of critical intelligence as well. However, she warns us against a possible danger: the mere transmission of accepted principles and values may place moral education under a heterogeneous direction of conduct. Educators should, by all means, avoid such a risk. She suggests seeking a reasonable plurality as a means of transmitting agreed-upon values. The notion of reasonable plurality derives from a feature assigned to John Rawls’ concept of “overlapping consensus”.

  2. Cultural Diversities and Human Rights: History, Minorities, Pluralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO J. RUIZ VIEYTEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity plays today a prominent role in the updating and developing of human rights. Past developments in the protection of rights have essentially forgotten the democratic management of cultural and identity-based diversity. States have stifled the main developments of the rights and constrained them to partial views in favour of the majority or dominant groups in each country. The current context of regional progressive integration and social diversification within each state agrees on the need to address the adequacy of systems for the protection of rights from different strategies to the context of multiculturalism. Against the process of "nationalization of rights" it is necessary to adopt a strategy for pluralization. On the one hand, the concept of minority has to be given its corresponding importance in both international and domestic law. On the other hand, different kind of policies and legal instruments for the accommodation of diversity can be identified and used to foster this necessary process of pluralization.

  3. Confronting moral pluralism in posttraditional Western societies: bioethics critically reassessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2011-06-01

    In the face of the moral pluralism that results from the death of God and the abandonment of a God's eye perspective in secular philosophy, bioethics arose in a context that renders it essentially incapable of giving answers to substantive moral questions, such as concerning the permissibility of abortion, human embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia, etc. Indeed, it is only when bioethics understands its own limitations and those of secular moral philosophy in general can it better appreciate those tasks that it can actually usefully perform in both the clinical and academic setting. It is the task of this paper to understand and reevaluate bioethics by understanding these limits. Academic bioethicists can analyze ideas, concepts, and claims necessary to understanding the moral questions raised in health care, assessing the arguments related to these issues, and provide an understanding of the different moral perspectives on bioethical issues. In the clinical setting, bioethicists can provide legal advice, serve as experts on IRBs, mediating disputes, facilitating decision-making and risk management, and clarifying normative issues. However, understanding this is only possible when one understands the history, genesis, and foundations of bioethics and its inability to provide a resolution to postmodern moral pluralism.

  4. Nouns and verbs in Chintang: children's usage and surrounding adult speech

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Sabine; Bickel, Balthasar; Lieven, Elena; Banjade, Goma; Bhatta, Toya Nath; Gaenszle, Martin; Paudyal, Netra P; Pettigrew, Judith; Rai, Ichchha Purna; Rai, Manoj; Rai, Novel Kishore

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Analyzing the development of the noun-to-verb ratio in a longitudinal corpus of four Chintang (Sino-Tibetan) children, we find that up to about age four, children have a significantly higher ratio than adults. Previous cross-linguistic research rules out an explanation of this in [*] This research was made by possible by Grant Nos. BI 799/1-2 and II/81 961 from the Volkswagen Foundation (DoBeS program). Author contributions: Stoll designed the study; Bickel ...

  5. COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES OF NON-ENGLISH DEPARTMENT STUDENTS ON NOUN STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shierly Novalita Yappy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning English for non-English department students is not as easy as it seems. Besides, as much as it is necessary to know how successful learners learn, not less important is to know how less successful learners learn. Using think aloud method, this study aims at finding out the cognitive strategies used by the engineering department students in answering incorrectly problems on TOEFL noun structure-the grammar point in which students made the most errors. Findings uncover the students' strategies and reasoning upon which pedagogical implications can be put forth so that more effective and fruitful instruction can be tailored.

  6. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats - ICREA and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurov, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-23

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time ('phantom energy' without 'Big Rip' singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time ('cosmological constant' with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  7. Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muren, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Sabbatsbergs Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadin, K. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Dimopoulos, P. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-08-01

    The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

  8. Enveloping branes and brane-world singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN-Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Samos (Greece)

    2014-12-01

    The existence of envelopes is studied for systems of differential equations in connection with the method of asymptotic splittings which allows one to determine the singularity structure of the solutions. The result is applied to brane-worlds consisting of a 3-brane in a five-dimensional bulk, in the presence of an analog of a bulk perfect fluid parameterizing a generic class of bulk matter. We find that all flat brane solutions suffer from a finite-distance singularity contrary to previous claims. We then study the possibility of avoiding finite-distance singularities by cutting the bulk and gluing regular solutions at the position of the brane. Further imposing physical conditions such as finite Planck mass on the brane and positive energy conditions on the bulk fluid, excludes, however, this possibility as well. (orig.)

  9. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Yurov, Artyom V.

    2012-01-01

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time (“phantom energy” without “Big Rip” singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time (“cosmological constant” with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  10. Global embeddings for branes at toric singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Braun, Volker; García-Etxebarria, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    We describe how local toric singularities, including the Toric Lego construction, can be embedded in compact Calabi-Yau manifolds. We study in detail the addition of D-branes, including non-compact flavor branes as typically used in semi-realistic model building. The global geometry provides constraints on allowable local models. As an illustration of our discussion we focus on D3 and D7-branes on (the partially resolved) (dP0)^3 singularity, its embedding in a specific Calabi-Yau manifold as a hypersurface in a toric variety, the related type IIB orientifold compactification, as well as the corresponding F-theory uplift. Our techniques generalize naturally to complete intersections, and to a large class of F-theory backgrounds with singularities.

  11. Holographic subregion complexity for singular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshaei, Elaheh [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mollabashi, Ali [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirzad, Ahmad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Recently holographic prescriptions were proposed to compute the quantum complexity of a given state in the boundary theory. A specific proposal known as 'holographic subregion complexity' is supposed to calculate the complexity of a reduced density matrix corresponding to a static subregion. We study different families of singular subregions in the dual field theory and find the divergence structure and universal terms of holographic subregion complexity for these singular surfaces. We find that there are new universal terms, logarithmic in the UV cut-off, due to the singularities of a family of surfaces including a kink in (2 + 1) dimensions and cones in even dimensional field theories. We also find examples of new divergent terms such as squared logarithm and negative powers times the logarithm of the UV cut-off parameter. (orig.)

  12. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  13. Singularities in four-body final-state amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    Like three-body amplitudes, four-body amplitudes have subenergy threshold singularities over and above total-energy singularities. In the four-body problem we encounter a new type of subenergy singularity besides the usual two- and three-body subenergy threshold singularities. This singularity will be referred to as ''independent-pair threshold singularity'' and involves pair-subenergy threshold singularities in each of the two independent pair subenergies in four-body final states. We also study the particularly interesting case of resonant two- and three-body interactions in the four-body isobar model and the rapid (singular) dependence of the isobar amplitudes they generate in the four-body phase space. All these singularities are analyzed in the multiple-scattering formalism and it is shown that they arise from the ''next-to-last'' rescattering and hence may be represented correctly by an approximate amplitude which has that rescattering

  14. Endpoint singularities in unintegrated parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Hautmann, F

    2007-01-01

    We examine the singular behavior from the endpoint region x -> 1 in parton distributions unintegrated in both longitudinal and transverse momenta. We identify and regularize the singularities by using the subtraction method, and compare this with the cut-off regularization method. The counterterms for the distributions with subtractive regularization are given in coordinate space by compact all-order expressions in terms of eikonal-line operators. We carry out an explicit calculation at one loop for the unintegrated quark distribution. We discuss the relation of the unintegrated parton distributions in subtractive regularization with the ordinary parton distributions.

  15. Characteristic classes, singular embeddings, and intersection homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, S E; Shaneson, J L

    1987-06-01

    This note announces some results on the relationship between global invariants and local topological structure. The first section gives a local-global formula for Pontrjagin classes or L-classes. The second section describes a corresponding decomposition theorem on the level of complexes of sheaves. A final section mentions some related aspects of "singular knot theory" and the study of nonisolated singularities. Analogous equivariant analogues, with local-global formulas for Atiyah-Singer classes and their relations to G-signatures, will be presented in a future paper.

  16. Cosmic censorship and the strengths of singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the principal definitions concerning limiting curvature strength on geodesics, and on non-spacelike geodesics in particular. They are formulated in terms of focussing conditions. Two definitions suggest themselves, and these are given in terms of a concept of a generalized Jacobi field. An historical survey is presented on some important developments concerning examples of naked singularities. The historical context is recalled in which these models, and cosmic censorship in general, have arisen. It is the author's opinion that one can expect to obtain theoretical limitations on the strengths of any naked singularities which do occur

  17. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  18. Switching Between Noun and Verb Agreement Rules Comes at a Cost: Cross-Sectional and Interventional Studies in a Developmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Reybroeck Marie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study clarifies the impact of switching context between noun and verb number agreement rules in written language production. In Experiment 1, children from grade 3 to 6 were asked to fill in sentences with nouns and verbs in either a switching condition (noun followed by verb or a repeating condition (noun followed by noun. The results showed that third- and fourth-grade children produced more erroneous agreements in the switching condition than in the repeating condition, showing that switching between rules comes at a cost, whereas fifth- and sixth-grade participants’ performance was not affected by the switching context. Based on these findings, Experiment 2 aimed to assess whether a switching treatment offers a greater opportunity to improve the acquisition of grammatical agreement production, as compared to a simple treatment. Teachers from grade 3 gave either a switching treatment (mixed noun and verb exercises or a simple treatment (noun exercises followed by verb exercises. The results show that children learned better from the switching treatment than from the simple treatment. These findings highlight the cost of switching between noun and verb agreement rules during the acquisition of grammatical number agreement and also how grammatical spelling acquisition can be improved at school.

  19. Towards the study of color naming in Portuguese: structure and meaning of constructed nouns and adjectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Correia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Color naming is a central study subject in Lexicology, although its systematic morphological description in Portuguese is still lacking. In this study we describe the morphological and semantic aspects of complex nouns and adjectives constructed on the basis of the basic color terms from the Portuguese language. We focus on a description of the internal structure of these complex words, as well as on aspects concerning the productivity of the morphological processes, and attempt to associate those aspects with the referential capacities of the studied words. Lexicographical data were used, collected from the Vocabulário Ortográfico do Português, and the theoretical framework of this research is SILEX’s constructional model of Morphology. We verified that suffixation is the most productive process, followed by composition. Prefixation is rather unproductive. There are differences in the way that derived nouns and adjectives, on the one hand, and compounds, on the other, may name color tones and degrees of saturation. Derived words give rise to the naming of tones in a very imprecise manner, while compounds are much more effective and precise in the way they may name them, and composition is the most efficient resource available to denote degrees of brightness.

  20. Student Assessment of Quality of Access at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Obhajajie Inegbedion

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted by Inegbedion, Adu and Ofulue from the National Open University of Nigeria. The study focused on the quality of access (admission and registration at NOUN from a student perspective. A survey design was used for the study while a multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the sample size. All the 78,555 registered students in all the 61 Study Centres of the University at the time of the study formed the population; out of which 3,060 students were sampled. The questionnaire instrument is the Institutional Internal QA Tools and Instrument developed by the African Council for Distance Education (ACDE as a regulatory mechanism. The data collected were analyzed using simple statistics. The result showed that 66% of the students confirmed that NOUN has published clear policies on the admission and registration of students. About 29.1% of the students were not satisfied with the transparency of the admission process. In conclusion, the study revealed high quality of access and some deficiencies in website and Internet connectivity.

  1. Singular Linear Differential Equations in Two Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, B.L.J.; Put, M. van der

    2008-01-01

    The formal and analytic classification of integrable singular linear differential equations has been studied among others by R. Gerard and Y. Sibuya. We provide a simple proof of their main result, namely: For certain irregular systems in two variables there is no Stokes phenomenon, i.e. there is no

  2. Singular continuous spectrum for palindromic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, A.; Knill, O.; Simon, B.

    1995-01-01

    We give new examples of discrete Schroedinger operators with potentials taking finitely many values that have purely singular continuous spectrum. If the hull X of the potential is strictly ergodic, then the existence of just one potential x in X for which the operator has no eigenvalues implies that there is a generic set in X for which the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum. A sufficient condition for the existence of such an x is that there is a z element of X that contains arbitrarily long palindromes. Thus we can define a large class of primitive substitutions for which the operators are purely singularly continuous for a generic subset in X. The class includes well-known substitutions like Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Period Doubling, binary non-Pisot and ternary non-Pisot. We also show that the operator has no absolutely continuous spectrum for all x element of X if X derives from a primitive substitution. For potentials defined by circle maps, x n =l J (θ 0 +nα), we show that the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum for a generic subset in X for all irrational α and every half-open interval J. (orig.)

  3. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints

  4. Mobile communications technology: The singular factor responsible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the factors responsible for the growth of Internet usage on the African continent. The principal finding was that increasing growth of Internet usage is also down to one singular factor: mobile communications technology. The proliferation of mobile phone usage in Africa has resulted in the sustained ...

  5. Diamagnetism of quantum gases with singular potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briet, Philippe; Cornean, Horia; Savoie, Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    We consider a gas of quasi-free quantum particles confined to a finite box, subjected to singular magnetic and electric fields. We prove in great generality that the finite volume grand-canonical pressure is analytic with respect to the chemical potential and the intensity of the external magnetic...

  6. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics under point singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Takashi; Tsutsui, Izumi

    2003-01-01

    We provide a systematic study on the possibility of supersymmetry (SUSY) for one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems consisting of a pair of lines R or intervals [-l, l] each having a point singularity. We consider the most general singularities and walls (boundaries) at x = ±l admitted quantum mechanically, using a U(2) family of parameters to specify one singularity and similarly a U(1) family of parameters to specify one wall. With these parameter freedoms, we find that for a certain subfamily the line systems acquire an N = 1 SUSY which can be enhanced to N = 4 if the parameters are further tuned, and that these SUSY are generically broken except for a special case. The interval systems, on the other hand, can accommodate N = 2 or N = 4 SUSY, broken or unbroken, and exhibit a rich variety of (degenerate) spectra. Our SUSY systems include the familiar SUSY systems with the Dirac δ(x)-potential, and hence are extensions of the known SUSY quantum mechanics to those with general point singularities and walls. The self-adjointness of the supercharge in relation to the self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian is also discussed

  7. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2007 physics pp. 31–47. A singularity theorem based on spatial ... In this paper I would like to present a result which confirms – at least partially – ... A detailed analysis of how the model fits in with the .... Further, the statement that the spatial average ...... Financial support under grants FIS2004-01626 and no.

  8. Symmetries and singularities in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains several results concerning the role of symmetries and singularities in the mathematical formulation of many physical systems. We concentrate in systems which find their mathematical model on a symplectic or Poisson manifold and we present old and new results from a global perspective.

  9. Singular interactions supported by embedded curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O Teoman

    2012-01-01

    In this work, singular interactions supported by embedded curves on Riemannian manifolds are discussed from a more direct and physical perspective, via the heat kernel approach. We show that the renormalized problem is well defined, the ground state is finite and the corresponding wavefunction is positive. The renormalization group invariance of the model is also discussed. (paper)

  10. Resolving curvature singularities in holomorphic gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantz, C.L.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a holomorphic theory of gravity and study how the holomorphy symmetry alters the two most important singular solutions of general relativity: black holes and cosmology. We show that typical observers (freely) falling into a holomorphic black hole do not encounter a curvature

  11. Classical resolution of singularities in dilaton cosmologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, EA; Collinucci, A; Roest, D; Russo, JG; Townsend, PK

    2005-01-01

    For models of dilaton gravity with a possible exponential potential, such as the tensor-scalar sector of ITA supergravity, we show how cosmological solutions correspond to trajectories in a 2D Milne space (parametrized by the dilaton and the scale factor). Cosmological singularities correspond to

  12. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative–nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov–Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov–Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov–Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative–nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results. (paper)

  13. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative-nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov-Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov-Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov-Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative-nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results.

  14. A Systolic Architecture for Singular Value Decomposition,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Presented at the 1 st International Colloquium on Vector and Parallel Computing in Scientific Applications, Paris, March 191J Contract N00014-82-K.0703...Gene Golub. Private comunication . given inputs x and n 2 , compute 2 2 2 2 /6/ G. H. Golub and F. T. Luk : "Singular Value I + X1 Decomposition

  15. Sporadic simple groups and quotient singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, I A; Shramov, C A

    2013-01-01

    We show that if a faithful irreducible representation of a central extension of a sporadic simple group with centre contained in the commutator subgroup gives rise to an exceptional (resp. weakly exceptional but not exceptional) quotient singularity, then that simple group is the Hall-Janko group (resp. the Suzuki group)

  16. Singularity is the Future of ICT Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... innovation if the black race are not to be left one hundred years ... aspects of innovation in mechatronics design philosophy which illustrate the benefits obtainable by an a priori ..... An overview of models of technological singularity ... the Singularity—representing a profound and disruptive transformation in.

  17. Radiometric analyzer with plural radiation sources and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring characteristics of a material by radiation comprises a plurality of systems in which each consists of a radiation source and a radiation detector which are the same in number as the number of elements of the molecule of the material and a linear calibration circuit having inverse response characteristics (calibration curve) of the respective systems of detectors, whereby the measurement is carried out by four fundamental rules by operation of the mutual outputs of said detector system obtained through said linear calibration circuit. One typical embodiment is a radiometric analyzer for hydrocarbons which measures the density of heavy oil, the sulfur content and the calorific value by three detector systems which include a γ-ray source (E/sub γ/ greater than 50 keV), a soft x-ray source (Ex approximately 20 keV), and a neutron ray source. 2 claims, 6 figures

  18. PLURALISM AND THE STUDY OF RELIGION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. SAMIAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian government outline of Vision 2020, the importance of the study of religion as an integral component of general education is explicitly stated. This paper examines the present state of comparative religious studies in Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning. Several philosophical issues are highlighted including the local concept and objective of religious studies, suitability of courses offered, and its relevance to the national development, i.e., industrialization of the country. An attempt is made to suggest how the religious course in a plural society like Malaysia, in the future, can be used to achieve Vision 2020 by integrating science and religion based on the position that science is a problem-solving activity.

  19. Antagonism and Imaginaries of Plurality in Bolivian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Canelas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Bolivian cinema is living a period of great activity in a unstable identitarian landscape, wherein negotiations and conflicts between the different national subjectivities are no longer able to be represented within antagonistic patterns producing uniformity. Firstly, this article deals with Jorge Sanjinés’ Filmography in order to offer an explanatory hypothesis to answer why his last productions seem to have been less engaging for national identitarian dynamics. Secondly, an analysis of a series of short films by the Socavón Cine Collective will take place, so as to underline the most important political gestures displayed by their novel audiovisual rhetoric, which have managed to devise a language capable of a more acute examination of the identitarian plurality present in Bolivia.

  20. Generalized Parton Distributions and their Singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2011-04-01

    A new approach to building models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is discussed that is based on the factorized DD (double distribution) Ansatz within the single-DD formalism. The latter was not used before, because reconstructing GPDs from the forward limit one should start in this case with a very singular function $f(\\beta)/\\beta$ rather than with the usual parton density $f(\\beta)$. This results in a non-integrable singularity at $\\beta=0$ exaggerated by the fact that $f(\\beta)$'s, on their own, have a singular $\\beta^{-a}$ Regge behavior for small $\\beta$. It is shown that the singularity is regulated within the GPD model of Szczepaniak et al., in which the Regge behavior is implanted through a subtracted dispersion relation for the hadron-parton scattering amplitude. It is demonstrated that using proper softening of the quark-hadron vertices in the regions of large parton virtualities results in model GPDs $H(x,\\xi)$ that are finite and continuous at the "border point'' $x=\\xi$. Using a simple input forward distribution, we illustrate the implementation of the new approach for explicit construction of model GPDs. As a further development, a more general method of regulating the $\\beta=0$ singularities is proposed that is based on the separation of the initial single DD $f(\\beta, \\alpha)$ into the "plus'' part $[f(\\beta,\\alpha)]_{+}$ and the $D$-term. It is demonstrated that the "DD+D'' separation method allows to (re)derive GPD sum rules that relate the difference between the forward distribution $f(x)=H(x,0)$ and the border function $H(x,x)$ with the $D$-term function $D(\\alpha)$.

  1. São Carlos Workshop on Real and Complex Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ruas, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The São Carlos Workshop on Real and Complex Singularities is the longest running workshop in singularities. It is held every two years and is a key international event for people working in the field. This volume contains papers presented at the eighth workshop, held at the IML, Marseille, July 19–23, 2004. The workshop offers the opportunity to establish the state of the art and to present new trends, new ideas and new results in all of the branches of singularities. This is reflected by the contributions in this book. The main topics discussed are equisingularity of sets and mappings, geometry of singular complex analytic sets, singularities of mappings, characteristic classes, classification of singularities, interaction of singularity theory with some of the new ideas in algebraic geometry imported from theoretical physics, and applications of singularity theory to geometry of surfaces in low dimensional euclidean spaces, to differential equations and to bifurcation theory.

  2. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    solutions of singularly perturbed nonlinear differential equations. ... for solving generalized Burgers-Huxley equation but this equation is not singularly ...... Solitary waves solutions of the generalized Burger Huxley equations, Journal of.

  3. Silly Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    There are many different kinds of words in the English language. Instruction in grammar and syntax helps young writers sort out when to use a plural or singular noun, or when to use an apostrophe. Silly Stories, a variation of a popular party game, reinforces the importance of word choice and conventions in writing. This article describes a…

  4. On Weakly Singular Versions of Discrete Nonlinear Inequalities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new weakly singular versions of discrete nonlinear inequalities are established, which generalize some existing weakly singular inequalities and can be used in the analysis of nonlinear Volterra type difference equations with weakly singular kernels. A few applications to the upper bound and the uniqueness of solutions of nonlinear difference equations are also involved.

  5. THE EXT RACORPOREAL FERTILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AND THE SINGULARITY PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Denysenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of modern medicine development connected with the technological and informative singularity are analyzed. The risks of realization of extracorporeal fertilization are examined from positions of development of informative singularity. The warning problems of origin of singularity are discussed on t h e base of t h e newest technologies development.

  6. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, I.H. (Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics); Joshi, P.S. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1989-11-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author).

  7. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, I.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author)

  8. 7 CFR 1200.50 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 1200.50 Section 1200.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING....50 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import...

  9. 7 CFR 900.1 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.1 Section 900.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  10. 7 CFR 900.20 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.20 Section 900.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 900.20 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to...

  11. 7 CFR 900.36 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.36 Section 900.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Marketing Orders § 900.36 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be...

  12. 7 CFR 900.100 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.100 Section 900.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  13. 7 CFR 900.50 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.50 Section 900.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  14. 7 CFR 61.1 - Words in singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in singular form. 61.1 Section 61.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Words in singular form. Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form shall be...

  15. Singularities and the geometry of spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this essay is to investigate certain aspects of the geometry of the spacetime manifold in the General Theory of Relativity with particular reference to the occurrence of singularities in cosmological solutions and their relation with other global properties. Section 2 gives a brief outline of Riemannian geometry. In Section 3, the General Theory of Relativity is presented in the form of two postulates and two requirements which are common to it and to the Special Theory of Relativity, and a third requirement, the Einstein field equations, which distinguish it from the Special Theory. There does not seem to be any alternative set of field equations which would not have some undeseriable features. Some exact solutions are described. In Section 4, the physical significance of curvature is investigated using the deviation equation for timelike and null curves. The Riemann tensor is decomposed into the Ricci tensor which represents the gravitational effect at a point of matter at that point and the Welyl tensor which represents the effect at a point of gravitational radiation and matter at other points. The two tensors are related by the Bianchi identities which are presented in a form analogous to the Maxwell equations. Some lemmas are given for the occurrence of conjugate points on timelike and null geodesics and their relation with the variation of timelike and null curves is established. Section 5 is concerned with properties of causal relations between points of spacetime. It is shown that these could be used to determine physically the manifold structure of spacetime if the strong causality assumption held. The concepts of a null horizon and a partial Cauchy surface are introduced and are used to prove a number of lemmas relating to the existence of a timelike curve of maximum length between two sets. In Section 6, the definition of a singularity of spacetime is given in terms of geodesic incompleteness. The various energy assumptions needed to prove

  16. Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps with prescribed singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmar, Boldizsar

    2006-01-01

    We give a Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps, and obtain results about cobordism and bordism groups of -1 codimensional stable maps with prescribed singular fibers.

  17. Mothers' Talk to Children with Down Syndrome, Language Impairment, or Typical Development about Familiar and Unfamiliar Nouns and Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Cleave, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how forty-six mothers modified their talk about familiar and unfamiliar nouns and verbs when interacting with their children with Down Syndrome (DS), language impairment (LI), or typical development (TD). Children (MLUs < 2·7) were group-matched on expressive vocabulary size. Mother-child dyads were recorded playing with…

  18. Sense of Community, Inclusion, and Religious Pluralism: A Comparison of Two Catholic Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Bottom, Todd L.; Matteo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    For decades researchers assessed sense of community (SOC), inclusion, and pluralism within academic settings. In the present study, 2,220 undergraduate students (1,442 women, 778 men; M age = 23.42 years; SD = 7.84) at two Catholic universities responded to perceived levels of school sense of community, inclusion, and religious pluralism. Analyses…

  19. Political pluralism, public policies and organizational strategic choices : Branch expansion in Indian banking, 1948 - 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozhikode, R.K.; Li, J.T.

    Data on the expansion of 94 commercial banks in India from 1948 to 2003 were analyzed to test the proposition that political pluralism-wherein competing parties control the state and national governments of a nation-can promote business expansion. The results confirm that such political pluralism

  20. Corruption and governance in a plural but fractured society: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption and governance in a plural but fractured society: the case of Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... This paper examines the impact of bad governance, corruption and value-erosion in Nigeria as a result of the plural and mal-integrated nature of the Nigerian nation-state.

  1. The Multi/Plural Turn, Postcolonial Theory, and Neoliberal Multiculturalism: Complicities and Implications for Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2016-01-01

    In applied linguistics and language education, an increased focus has been placed on plurality and hybridity to challenge monolingualism, the native speaker norm, and the modernist view of language and language use as unitary and bounded. The multi/plural turn parallels postcolonial theory in that they both support hybridity and fluidity while…

  2. Friedmann-like cosmological models without singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchowicz, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation ('general relativity with spin') provides a specific spin-spin contact interaction of matter, in addition to the usual long-range gravity. This new interaction enables us to prevent singularities in cosmological models. it is shown how this mechanism works in the case when the standard Einstein-Cartan equations are valid at a micro-physical level, and some spin-spin terms remain from the averaging procedure for randomly distributed spins. In contrast with the case of aligned spin distributions, it is possible to take over the isotropic and spatially homogeneous (i.e., Friedmannian) models into the Einstein-Cartan theory. These models can be made free from singularity, thanks to the self-interaction of spinning fluid. (author)

  3. Singularities in the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    'Regular solutions of Einstein's equations' mean very different things. In the case of the empty-space equations, Rsub(ik) = o, such solutions must be metrics gsub(ik)(xsup(l)) without additionaly singular 'field sources' (Einstein's 'Particle problem'). However the 'phenomenological matter' is defined by the Einstein equations Rsub(ik) - 1/2gsub(ik)R = -kappaTsub(ik) itselves. Therefore if 10 regular functions gsub(ik)(xsup(l)) are given (which the inequalities of Lorentz-signature fulfil) then these gsub(ik) define 10 functions Tsub(ik)(xsup(l)) without singularities. But, the matter-tensor Tsub(ik) must fulfil the two inequalities T >= o, T 0 0 >= 1/2 T only and therefore the Einstein-equations with 'phenomenological matter' mean the two inequalities R >= o, R 0 0 <= o which are incompatible with a permanently regular metric with Lorentz-signature, generally. (author)

  4. Singularity theory and equivariant symplectic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Thomas J

    1993-01-01

    The monograph is a study of the local bifurcations of multiparameter symplectic maps of arbitrary dimension in the neighborhood of a fixed point.The problem is reduced to a study of critical points of an equivariant gradient bifurcation problem, using the correspondence between orbits ofa symplectic map and critical points of an action functional. New results onsingularity theory for equivariant gradient bifurcation problems are obtained and then used to classify singularities of bifurcating period-q points. Of particular interest is that a general framework for analyzing group-theoretic aspects and singularities of symplectic maps (particularly period-q points) is presented. Topics include: bifurcations when the symplectic map has spatial symmetry and a theory for the collision of multipliers near rational points with and without spatial symmetry. The monograph also includes 11 self-contained appendices each with a basic result on symplectic maps. The monograph will appeal to researchers and graduate student...

  5. Dirac operator on spaces with conical singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Dirac operator on compact spaces with conical singularities is studied via the separation of variables formula and the functional calculus of the Dirac Laplacian on the cone. A Bochner type vanishing theorem which gives topological obstructions to the existence of non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 in the singular case is proved. An index formula relating the index of the Dirac operator to the A-genus and Eta-invariant similar to that of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer is obtained. In an appendix, manifolds with boundary with non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 are studied, and several new results on constructing complete metrics with k greater than or equal to on them are obtained

  6. Further holographic investigations of big bang singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Hertog, Thomas [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven,3001 Leuven (Belgium); Horowitz, Gary T. [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-07-09

    We further explore the quantum dynamics near past cosmological singularities in anisotropic Kasner-AdS solutions using gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution involves N=4 super Yang-Mills on the contracting branch of an anisotropic de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlator between two points separated in a direction with negative Kasner exponent p always exhibits a pole at horizon scales, in any dimension, which we interpret as a dual signature of the classical bulk singularity. This indicates that the geodesic approximation selects a non-normalizable Yang-Mills state.

  7. Further holographic investigations of big bang singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T.

    2015-07-01

    We further explore the quantum dynamics near past cosmological singularities in anisotropic Kasner-AdS solutions using gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution involves super Yang-Mills on the contracting branch of an anisotropic de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlator between two points separated in a direction with negative Kasner exponent p always exhibits a pole at horizon scales, in any dimension, which we interpret as a dual signature of the classical bulk singularity. This indicates that the geodesic approximation selects a non-normalizable Yang-Mills state.

  8. Singular tachyon kinks from regular profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Saffin, P.M.; Steer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate how Sen's singular kink solution of the Born-Infeld tachyon action can be constructed by taking the appropriate limit of initially regular profiles. It is shown that the order in which different limits are taken plays an important role in determining whether or not such a solution is obtained for a wide class of potentials. Indeed, by introducing a small parameter into the action, we are able circumvent the results of a recent paper which derived two conditions on the asymptotic tachyon potential such that the singular kink could be recovered in the large amplitude limit of periodic solutions. We show that this is explained by the non-commuting nature of two limits, and that Sen's solution is recovered if the order of the limits is chosen appropriately

  9. Cognitive categories and noun classification. Romance neuter: from [passivity] to [indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Manoliu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aims to reveal the ways in which the evolution of the grammatical category of gender from Latin to Romance reflects the dramatic changes undergone by its semantic domains. Arguments for the hypothesis that Latin gender oppositions were determined by the important role played by activeness (and not animacy in the interpretation of the state of affairs are brought into the picture in order to explain the subcategorization of nouns in both Latin and in Romance. The term activeness is to be understood as a reflection of the ‘capacity of referents for influencing human life in positive or negative ways’. The changes undergone by grammatical gender in Romance languages were triggered not only by a morpho-syntactic reorganization of case and number, but also by social and pragmatic factors that triggered a reorganization of cognitive categories and their linguistic encoding

  10. Clustering, Hierarchical Organization, and the Topography of Abstract and Concrete Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eTroche

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are disembodied in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N=365 rated target words (n=400 English nouns across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence. Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  11. Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Joshua; Crutch, Sebastian; Reilly, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are "disembodied" in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N = 365) rated target words (n = 400 English nouns) across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence). Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  12. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Nabipour; Majid Assadi

    2016-01-01

    The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested th...

  13. Non-singular spiked harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Guardiola, R.

    1990-01-01

    A perturbative study of a class of non-singular spiked harmonic oscillators defined by the hamiltonian H = d sup(2)/dr sup(2) + r sup(2) + λ/r sup(α) in the domain [0,∞] is carried out, in the two extremes of a weak coupling and a strong coupling regimes. A path has been found to connect both expansions for α near 2. (author)

  14. Singular reduction of Nambu-Poisson manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba

    The version of Marsden-Ratiu Poisson reduction theorem for Nambu-Poisson manifolds by a regular foliation have been studied by Ibáñez et al. In this paper, we show that this reduction procedure can be extended to the singular case. Under a suitable notion of Hamiltonian flow on the reduced space, we show that a set of Hamiltonians on a Nambu-Poisson manifold can also be reduced.

  15. The Morphosyntactic Structure of the Noun and Verb Phrases in Dholuo/Kiswahili Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Anyango Ojanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Code switching, the use of any two or more languages or dialects interchangeably in a single communication context, is a common linguistic practice owing to the trend of multilingualism in the world today. In many situations of language in contact, constituents of one language can be found within the constituents of another language in a number of linguistic phenomenon namely lexical borrowing, transferring, interference, code switching and diffusion (Annamalai, 1989. Codeswitching is one of the linguistic phenomenon claimed to be the most prevalent and common mode of interaction among multilingual speakers. Brock and Eastman (1971 suggest that topic discussed influences the choice of the language. Nouns and verbs have been found to be the most code switched elements in bilingual exchange. The study took a qualitative approach with the descriptive research design. It was guided by the Matrix Language Frame Model which was formulated by Myers-Scotton in1993. This model expounds on the realization and structure of the major word classes as used in code switching. Data was collected in Nyangeta Zone, Winam Division of Kisumu East District. Winam Division is mostly inhabited by elite Dholuo L1 speakers. A sample of twenty four teachers was purposively selected to provide data needed for the study. Focus group discussion was used to collect a corpus of Dholuo/Kiswahili data which was recorded through audio taping. The recorded data was then analyzed morphosyntactaically using the Matrix Language Frame Model. The data revealed that the noun and verb phrases were realized under three categories: Matrix Language Island constituent (ML Island ML+EL and Embedded Language Island (EL Island. Keywords: Code switching, multilingualism, morphosyntactic

  16. Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel Lange, Violaine; Laganaro, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs) presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favor a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-NPs may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal). Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers' production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initializing participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-NPs: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results.

  17. Tracking the time course of multi-word noun phrase production with ERPs or on when (and why) cat is faster than the big cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Words are rarely produced in isolation. Yet, our understanding of multi-word production, and especially its time course, is still rather poor. In this research, we use event-related potentials to examine the production of multi-word noun phrases in the context of overt picture naming. We track the processing costs associated with the production of these noun phrases as compared with the production of bare nouns, from picture onset to articulation. Behavioral results revealed longer naming latencies for French noun phrases with determiners and pre-nominal adjectives (D-A-N, the big cat) than for noun phrases with a determiner (D-N, the cat), or bare nouns (N, cat). The spatio-temporal analysis of the ERPs revealed differences in the duration of stable global electrophysiological patterns as a function of utterance format in two time windows, from ~190 to 300 ms after picture onset, and from ~530 ms after picture onset to 100 ms before articulation. These findings can be accommodated in the following model. During grammatical encoding (here from ~190 to 300 ms), the noun and adjective lemmas are accessed in parallel, followed by the selection of the gender-agreeing determiner. Phonological encoding (after ~530 ms) operates sequentially. As a consequence, the phonological encoding process is longer for longer utterances. In addition, when determiners are repeated across trials, their phonological encoding can be anticipated or primed, resulting in a shortened encoding process.

  18. Tracking the time course of multi-word noun phrase production with ERPs or on when (and why cat is faster than the big cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eBürki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Words are rarely produced in isolation. Yet, our understanding of multi-word production, and especially its time course, is still rather poor. In this research, we use event-related potentials to examine the production of multi-word noun phrases in the context of overt picture naming. We track the processing costs associated with the production of these noun phrases as compared with the production of bare nouns, from picture onset to articulation. Behavioral results revealed longer naming latencies for French noun phrases with determiners and pre-nominal adjectives (D-A-N, the big cat than for noun phrases with a determiner (D-N, the cat or bare nouns (N, cat. The spatio-temporal analysis of the ERPs revealed differences in the duration of stable global electrophysiological patterns as a function of utterance format in two time windows, from ~190 ms to 300 ms after picture onset, and from ~530 ms after picture onset to 100 ms before articulation. These findings can be accommodated in the following model. During grammatical encoding (here from ~190 ms to 300 ms, the noun and adjective lemmas are accessed in parallel, followed by the selection of the gender-agreeing determiner. Phonological encoding (after ~530 ms operates sequentially. As a consequence, the phonological encoding process is longer for longer utterances. In addition, when determiners are repeated across trials, their phonological encoding can be anticipated or primed, resulting in a shortened encoding process.

  19. Constraint theory, singular lagrangians and multitemporal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, L.

    1988-01-01

    Singular Lagrangians and constraint theory permeate theoretical physics, as shown by the relevance of gauge theories, string models and general relativity. Their study used finite---dimensional models as a guide to develop the theory, but their main use was in classical field theory, due to the necessity of understanding their quantization. The covariant quantization of singular Lagrangians led to the BRST approach and to the theory of the effective action. On the other hand their phase---space formulation, culminated with the BFV approach for first class, second class and reducible constraints. It, in turn, gave new insights in the theory of singular Lagrangians and constraints and in their cohomological aspects. However the Hamiltonian approach to field theory is highly nontrivial, is open to criticism due to its problems with locality, geometry and manifest covariance and its canonical quantization has still to be developed, because there is no proof of the renormalizability of the Schroedinger representation of field theory. This paper discusses how, notwithstanding these developments, there is still a big amount of ambiguity at every level of the theory

  20. An Exact Solution of the Binary Singular Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Singularity problem exists in various branches of applied mathematics. Such ordinary differential equations accompany singular coefficients. In this paper, by using the properties of reproducing kernel, the exact solution expressions of dual singular problem are given in the reproducing kernel space and studied, also for a class of singular problem. For the binary equation of singular points, I put it into the singular problem first, and then reuse some excellent properties which are applied to solve the method of solving differential equations for its exact solution expression of binary singular integral equation in reproducing kernel space, and then obtain its approximate solution through the evaluation of exact solutions. Numerical examples will show the effectiveness of this method.

  1. The Diversity of Responsibility: The Value of Explication and Pluralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicktanz, Silke; Schweda, Mark

    2012-06-01

    PURPOSE: Although the term "responsibility" plays a central role in bioethics and public health, its meaning and implications are often unclear. This paper defends the importance of a more systematic conception of responsibility to improve moral philosophical as well as descriptive analysis. METHODS: We start with a formal analysis of the relational conception of responsibility and its meta-ethical presuppositions. In a brief historical overview, we compare global-collective, professional, personal, and social responsibility. The value of our analytical matrix is illustrated by sorting out the plurality of responsibility models in three cases (organ transplantation, advance directives, and genetic testing). RESULTS: Responsibility is a relational term involving at least seven relata. The analysis of the relata allows distinguishing between individual versus collective agency, retrospective versus prospective direction, and liability versus power relations. Various bioethical ambiguities result from insufficient, implicit, or inappropriate ascriptions of responsibility. CONCLUSIONS: A systematic conception of responsibility is an important tool for bioethical reflection. It allows an in-depth understanding and critique of moral claims on a meta-ethical level without presuming one particular normative approach. Considering the concept of responsibility can also help to complement the current bioethical focus on individual autonomy by including the perspectives of other actors, such as family members or social groups.

  2. Using plural modeling for predicting decisions made by adaptive adversaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buede, Dennis M.; Mahoney, Suzanne; Ezell, Barry; Lathrop, John

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating an appropriate representation of the likelihood of terrorist decision outcomes into risk assessments associated with weapons of mass destruction attacks has been a significant problem for countries around the world. Developing these likelihoods gets at the heart of the most difficult predictive problems: human decision making, adaptive adversaries, and adversaries about which very little is known. A plural modeling approach is proposed that incorporates estimates of all critical uncertainties: who is the adversary and what skills and resources are available to him, what information is known to the adversary and what perceptions of the important facts are held by this group or individual, what does the adversary know about the countermeasure actions taken by the government in question, what are the adversary's objectives and the priorities of those objectives, what would trigger the adversary to start an attack and what kind of success does the adversary desire, how realistic is the adversary in estimating the success of an attack, how does the adversary make a decision and what type of model best predicts this decision-making process. A computational framework is defined to aggregate the predictions from a suite of models, based on this broad array of uncertainties. A validation approach is described that deals with a significant scarcity of data.

  3. Religious pluralism into Lusophony: a question of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete S. Mendes Mónico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.

  4. PLURALITY AND DIVERSITY IN ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Demonstrating the essence of the journal as a truly international platform that covers issues of interest and concern to the global academic and professional community, this issue of Archnet-IJAR, volume 11, issue # 2, July 2017 includes various topics that manifest plurality and diversity as inherent qualities of architectural and urban research published in the journal.  Topics include architectural education and design studio teaching, urban and rural slums, heritage and historic environments in various contexts, participatory planning and the charrette process, assessment of public spaces and plazas, and human perception of the built environment. These topics are debated and analytically discussed within cities, settlements, and urban environments in Bahrain, Bangladesh, California-USA, Libya, Scotland, and Spain. The issue also includes three papers selected from the Fifth Architectural Jordanian International Conference – 1-3 November 2016, which uniquely speak to the context of Jordan and the wider Middle East. The edition ends with a book review that highlights emerging issues related to border landscapes and social ecologies.

  5. Hierarchy, causation and explanation: ubiquity, locality and pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquity of top-down causal explanations within and across the sciences is prima facie evidence for the existence of top-down causation. Much debate has been focused on whether top-down causation is coherent or in conflict with reductionism. Less attention has been given to the question of whether these representations of hierarchical relations pick out a single, common hierarchy. A negative answer to this question undermines a commonplace view that the world is divided into stratified ‘levels’ of organization and suggests that attributions of causal responsibility in different hierarchical representations may not have a meaningful basis for comparison. Representations used in top-down and bottom-up explanations are primarily ‘local’ and tied to distinct domains of science, illustrated here by protein structure and folding. This locality suggests that no single metaphysical account of hierarchy for causal relations to obtain within emerges from the epistemology of scientific explanation. Instead, a pluralist perspective is recommended—many different kinds of top-down causation (explanation) can exist alongside many different kinds of bottom-up causation (explanation). Pluralism makes plausible why different senses of top-down causation can be coherent and not in conflict with reductionism, thereby illustrating a productive interface between philosophical analysis and scientific inquiry. PMID:23386966

  6. A sense of self-suspicion: global legal pluralism and the claim to legal authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Croce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism has become common currency in many contemporary debates on law and globalization. Its main claim is that a form of global legal pluralism represents both the most accurate description of law in times of globalization and the best normative option. On the descriptive level, global legal pluralism is considered more reliable than state-based accounts. On the normative level, global legal pluralism is understood as a possibility to open up the legal realm to previously unheard voices. This article assesses these claims against the background of classic legal-pluralist scholarship. After reconstructing the emergence of global legal pluralism and then examining its epistemic and normative versions, the last two sections identify the shortcoming of this approach by underlining the absence of what the authors call ‘a sense of self-suspicion’ in drawing the map of legalities in the global sphere. The main argument put forward is that global legal pluralism is oblivious of a few key insights offered by the founding fathers of classic legal pluralism.

  7. Singular Spectrum Near a Singular Point of Friedrichs Model Operators of Absolute Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iakovlev, Serguei I.

    2006-01-01

    In L 2 (R) we consider a family of self adjoint operators of the Friedrichs model: A m =|t| m +V. Here |t| m is the operator of multiplication by the corresponding function of the independent variable t element of R, and (perturbation) is a trace-class integral operator with a continuous Hermitian kernel ν(t,x) satisfying some smoothness condition. These absolute type operators have one singular point of order m>0. Conditions on the kernel ν(t,x) are found guaranteeing the absence of the point spectrum and the singular continuous one of such operators near the origin. These conditions are actually necessary and sufficient. They depend on the finiteness of the rank of a perturbation operator and on the order of singularity. The sharpness of these conditions is confirmed by counterexamples

  8. Budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for budget-based power consumption for application execution on a plurality of compute nodes that include: assigning an execution priority to each of one or more applications; executing, on the plurality of compute nodes, the applications according to the execution priorities assigned to the applications at an initial power level provided to the compute nodes until a predetermined power consumption threshold is reached; and applying, upon reaching the predetermined power consumption threshold, one or more power conservation actions to reduce power consumption of the plurality of compute nodes during execution of the applications.

  9. Protection of media pluralism in the republic of Serbia under the new legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a short review of the provisions of the Law on Public Information and Media and Law on Electronic Media, concerning to the protection of media pluralism and media concentrations. The author points out that these rules focus on better protection of media pluralism and on providing greater transparency of media ownership, because the major changes introduced by the laws are the media register and new, more detailed regulated, media concentration regime. Therefore, the new laws establish the modern regulatory framework of the Republic of Serbia in the area of media concentration, which represent a solid basis for further development of media pluralism.

  10. Toward a Return to Plurality in Arendtian Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E. Marsh Jr.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Without further ado: the perplexities surrounding the relation of Arendt’s early and late theories of judgment are rooted in her singular commitment to the abiding yet fragile possibility of human freedom. These perplexities are not a function of the theoretical faux paux conventionally ascribed to her by well meaning interpreters and sympathetic critics. Indeed, her work exhibits an admirable, if scandalous, refusal to be reduced to the imperatives of an overdetermined moral-theoretical field, an impertinence I hope to honor in this essay. For example, Seyla Benhabib seek to “resolve” Arendtian “puzzles” through reinscribing them within the neo-Kantian architectonics of discourse ethics. Ronald Beiner, by contrast, wonders why Arendt didn’t further mine Aristotelian wells in elaborating her own account(s of judgment.2 Herein I will take up these putative ambiguities. Interpreters are undoubtedly correct that decisive ambiguities remain between Arendt’s early and late accounts of judgment, but these ambiguities issue from Arendt’s own problems, concerns, and project.

  11. Spectral asymptotics for nonsmooth singular Green operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    is a singular Green operator. It is well-known in smooth cases that when G is of negative order −t on a bounded domain, its eigenvalues ors-numbers have the behavior (*)s j (G) ∼ cj −t/(n−1) for j → ∞, governed by the boundary dimension n − 1. In some nonsmooth cases, upper estimates (**)s j (G) ≤ Cj −t/(n−1...

  12. Singularity spectrum of self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.

    1992-10-01

    I introduce a simple continuous probability theory based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation that provides for the first time a common analytical basis to relate and describe the main features of two seemingly different phenomena of condensed-matter physics, namely self-organized criticality and multifractality. Numerical support is given by a comparison with reported simulation data. Within the theory the origin of self-organized critical phenomena is analysed in terms of a nonlinear singularity spectrum different form the typical convex shape due to multifractal measures. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  13. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  14. The Singularity May Never Be Near

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2017-01-01

    There is both much optimisim and pessimism around artificial intelligence (AI) today. The optimists are investing millions of dollars, and even in some cases billions of dollars into AI. The pessimists, on the other hand, predict that AI will end many things: jobs, warfare, and even the human race. Both the optimists and the pessimists often appeal to the idea of a technological singularity, a point in time where machine intelligence starts to run away, and a new, more in- telligent “species”...

  15. Compacted dimensions and singular plasmonic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, J. B.; Huidobro, Paloma Arroyo; Luo, Yu; Galiffi, Emanuele

    2017-11-01

    In advanced field theories, there can be more than four dimensions to space, the excess dimensions described as compacted and unobservable on everyday length scales. We report a simple model, unconnected to field theory, for a compacted dimension realized in a metallic metasurface periodically structured in the form of a grating comprising a series of singularities. An extra dimension of the grating is hidden, and the surface plasmon excitations, though localized at the surface, are characterized by three wave vectors rather than the two of typical two-dimensional metal grating. We propose an experimental realization in a doped graphene layer.

  16. Beyond the singularity of the 2-D charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giveon, Amit; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Sever, Amit

    2003-01-01

    Two dimensional charged black holes in string theory can be obtained as exact SL(2,R) x U(1)/U(1) quotient CFTs. The geometry of the quotient is induced from that of the group, and in particular includes regions beyond the black hole singularities. Moreover, wavefunctions in such black holes are obtained from gauge invariant vertex operators in the SL(2,R) CFT, hence their behavior beyond the singularity is determined. When the black hole is charged we find that the wavefunctions are smooth at the singularities. Unlike the uncharged case, scattering waves prepared beyond the singularity are not fully reflected; part of the wave is transmitted through the singularity. Hence, the physics outside the horizon of a charged black hole is sensitive to conditions set behind the past singularity. (author)

  17. Joint perceptual decision-making: A case study in explanatory pluralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abney, Drew; Dale, Rick; Yoshimi, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    and spatial scales, using appropriate methodological tools. Explanatory pluralism has been often described abstractly, but has rarely been applied to concrete cases. We present a case study of explanatory pluralism. We discuss three separate ways of studying the same phenomenon: a perceptual decision- making...... task (Bahrami et al., 2010), where pairs of subjects share information to jointly individuate an oddball stimulus among a set of distractors. Each approach analyzed the same corpus but targeted different units of analysis at different levels of description: decision-making at the behavioral level......, confidence sharing at the linguistic level, and acoustic energy at the physical level. We discuss the utility of explanatory pluralism for describing this complex, multiscale phenomenon, show ways in which this case study sheds new light on the concept of pluralism, and highlight good practices to critically...

  18. Protected by pluralism? Grappling with multiple legal frameworks in groundwater governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, K.I.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Threats to groundwater sustainability demand governance. However, groundwater governance regimes are developing incongruously across geographic levels. Therefore, this research raises the question, how does lack of consensus regarding principles of groundwater law manifest itself as legal pluralism

  19. America in Search of a New Ideal: An Essay on the Rise of Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, William

    1974-01-01

    Author explored the reasons behind the rise of pluralism and suggested that the resulting decline of Protestant domination has left America without an ideal to direct the socialization process. (Editor/RK)

  20. Perda da marca de plural no português brasileiro: contribuições da Fonologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaïs Cristófaro Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent works has shown that linguistic representationsincorporate redundant information which plays an important role inlinguistic systems. Works on experimental phonetics and along thelines of Laboratory Phonology indicate the gradual nature of phoneticrepresentations (BROWMAN; GOLDSTEIN, 1992; ZSIGA, 1995;ALBANO, 2001; BYBEE, 2001, 2002; PIERREHUMBERT, 2001.This paper follows this line of research by investigating plural loss inBrazilian Portuguese. We will investigate lenition in BrazilianPortuguese plural forms that end in a sibilant, as in mês ‘month’whose plural form is meses ‘months’. This paper offers evidencefor the gradual implementation of phonetic changes by showing thatthe loss of a morphological category (plural leaves traces in thecontinuum of speech in the form of compensatory lengthening.

  1. Logarithmic of mass singularities theorem in non massive quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares G, R.; Luna, H.

    1997-01-01

    We give an explicit example of the use of dimensional regularization to calculate in a unified approach, all the ultraviolet, infrared and mass singularities, by considering the LMS (logarithms of mass singularities) theorem in the frame of massless QED (Quantum electrodynamics). In the calculation of the divergent part of the cross section, all singularities are found to cancel provided soft and hard photon emission are both taken into account. (Author)

  2. Singular vectors of Malikov-Fagin-Fux in topological theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Coincidence of singular vectors in relation to the sl(2) Katza-Mudi algebra and the algebra of the N=2 (twisted) supersymmetry is established. On the base of the Kazama-Suzuki simplest model is obtained a representation for the sl(2) currents in terms of an interacting with mater gravitation. From the Malikov-Fagin-Fux formulae for the sl(2) singular currents is obtained the general expression for singular vectors in topological theories

  3. Observer-dependent sign inversions of polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2014-10-15

    We describe observer-dependent sign inversions of the topological charges of vector field polarization singularities: C points (points of circular polarization), L points (points of linear polarization), and two virtually unknown singularities we call γ(C) and α(L) points. In all cases, the sign of the charge seen by an observer can change as she changes the direction from which she views the singularity. Analytic formulas are given for all C and all L point sign inversions.

  4. Transmutation of planar media singularities in a conformal cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichao; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Ma, Yungui; Ong, C K

    2013-11-01

    Invisibility cloaking based on optical transformation involves materials singularity at the branch cut points. Many interesting optical devices, such as the Eaton lens, also require planar media index singularities in their implementation. We show a method to transmute two singularities simultaneously into harmless topological defects formed by anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the transmuted conformal cloak consisting of two kissing Maxwell fish eyes.

  5. Deficiency indices and singular boundary conditions in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulla, W.

    1984-01-01

    We consider Schroedinger operators H in L 2 (Rsup(n)), n from IN, with countably infinitely many local singularities of the potential which are separated from each other by a positive distance. It is proved that due to locality each singularity yields a separate contribution to the deficiency index of H. In the special case where the singularities are pointlike and the potential exhibits certain symmetries near these points we give an explicit construction of self-adjoint boundary conditions

  6. Naked singularities in self-similar spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ori, A.; Piran, T.

    1987-01-01

    We present general-relativistic solutions of self-similar spherical collapse of an adiabatic perfect fluid. We show that if the equation of state is soft enough (Γ-1<<1), a naked singularity forms. The singularity resembles the shell-focusing naked singularities that arise in dust collapse. This solution increases significantly the range of matter fields that should be ruled out in order that the cosmic-censorship hypothesis will hold

  7. AHP 1:A RESPONSE TO WAYS AND THE SYNTAX OF NOUN PHRASES IN QĪNGHĂI CHINESE DIALECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Dede

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of offering a review of Zhāng Chéngcái's Ways, this paper describes the syntax of noun phrases in the Chinese dialect of Huángshuĭ, in Qīnghăi Province. Unlike other Chinese dialects, this dialect employs several postpositions for indicating syntactic nominal relationships. The origin of this phenomenon in contact with non-Sinitic languages in the region and its significance are also explored.

  8. Differential effects of plural ownership and governance mechanisms in limiting shirkers and free riders

    OpenAIRE

    Silkoset, Ragnhild; Nygaard, Arne; Kidwell, Roland E.

    2016-01-01

    Using evidence from paired franchisor-franchisee dyads, this study identifies how plural formed ownership mechanisms curb the risk of shirking and free riding in franchise systems. These risks have damaging effects on the invested capital of franchisee entrepreneurs. Although shirking and free riding produce a major source of uncertainty for the franchisee entrepreneur it can be limited by plural formed governance dimensions. These mechanisms have different effects based on unit status,...

  9. Two Accounts of Moral Diversity: The Cognitive Science of Pluralism and Absolutism

    OpenAIRE

    Bolender, Asst. Prof. John

    2004-01-01

    Advances in cognitive science are relevant to the debate between moral pluralism and absolutism. Parametric structure, which plausibly underlies syntax, gives some idea of how pluralism might be true. The cognitive mechanisms underlying mathematical intelligence give some idea of how far absolutism is right. Advances in cognitive science should help us better understand the extent to which we are divided and how far we are potentially harmonious in our values.

  10. Method of combined radionuclide assessment of the greater and uteroplacental circulation in plural pregnency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illarionova, N.M.; Fuks, M.A.; Ehventov, A.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of the clinical testing of a combined radionuclide method of assessment of the greater and uteroplacentral circulation in 15 women with plural pregnancy. The method permits the detection of hemodynamic changes without increasing radiation exposure to the mother's body and fetuses, the determination of a type of plural pregnancy (monochorionic or dichorial twins), and the prediction of pregnancy outcome that is very important for the choice of appropriate and timely therapy

  11. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K.; Barker, David H.

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers. PMID:27228032

  12. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K; Barker, David H

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers.

  13. Quantum singularities in the FRW universe revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Pitelli, Joao Paulo M.

    2010-01-01

    The components of the Riemann tensor in the tetrad basis are quantized and, through the Einstein equation, we find the local expectation value in the ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics of the energy density and pressure of a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(1/3)ρ in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker quantum cosmological model. The quantum behavior of the equation of state and energy conditions are then studied, and it is shown that the energy conditions are violated since the singularity is removed with the introduction of quantum cosmology, but in the classical limit both the equation of state and the energy conditions behave as in the classical model. We also calculate the expectation value of the scale factor for several wave packets in the many-worlds interpretation in order to show the independence of the nonsingular character of the quantum cosmological model with respect to the wave packet representing the wave function of the Universe. It is also shown that, with the introduction of nonnormalizable wave packets, solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the singular character of the scale factor, can be recovered in the ontological interpretation.

  14. Finite-time singularity signature of hyperinflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Takayasu, H.; Zhou, W.-X.

    2003-07-01

    We present a novel analysis extending the recent work of Mizuno et al. (Physica A 308 (2002) 411) on the hyperinflations of Germany (1920/1/1-1923/11/1), Hungary (1945/4/30-1946/7/15), Brazil (1969-1994), Israel (1969-1985), Nicaragua (1969-1991), Peru (1969-1990) and Bolivia (1969-1985). On the basis of a generalization of Cagan's model of inflation based on the mechanism of “inflationary expectation” of positive feedbacks between realized growth rate and people's expected growth rate, we find that hyperinflations can be characterized by a power law singularity culminating at a critical time tc. Mizuno et al.'s double-exponential function can be seen as a discrete time-step approximation of our more general non-linear ODE formulation of the price dynamics which exhibits a finite-time singular behavior. This extension of Cagan's model, which makes natural the appearance of a critical time tc, has the advantage of providing a well-defined end of the clearly unsustainable hyperinflation regime. We find an excellent and reliable agreement between theory and data for Germany, Hungary, Peru and Bolivia. For Brazil, Israel and Nicaragua, the super-exponential growth seems to be already contaminated significantly by the existence of a cross-over to a stationary regime.

  15. Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Aoyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coefficient corresponds to a real log canonical threshold of singularities for the Kullback functions (relative entropy in learning theory.

  16. Identification of discrete chaotic maps with singular points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Akishin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ability of artificial neural networks to reconstruct discrete chaotic maps with singular points. We use as a simple test model the Cusp map. We compare the traditional Multilayer Perceptron, the Chebyshev Neural Network and the Wavelet Neural Network. The numerical scheme for the accurate determination of a singular point is also developed. We show that combining a neural network with the numerical algorithm for the determination of the singular point we are able to accurately approximate discrete chaotic maps with singularities.

  17. Numerical investigation of stress singularities in cracked bimaterial body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, Lucie; Hutař, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 385-387, - (2008), s. 125-128 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /7./. Seoul, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200410803; GA ČR GP106/06/P239; GA ČR GA106/08/1409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : bimaterial interface * stress singularity exponent * corner singularity * vertex singularity * general singular stress concentrator Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  18. The road to singularities, and the roses on the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of current investigations of space-time singularities is given. The different approaches adopted by various research schools is discussed, and an analogy is drawn between this study and the mounting of an expedition that sets out on a long trail of discovery. A heuristic discussion is given of the latest classification of singularities and some brief comments are made on how physically relevant each type of singularity is. Roughly speaking, it seems that the milder types (at which quantities remain well behaved) are pathological cases, whereas the crude 'big-bang' type of singularity is more generic. (author)

  19. Can non-commutativity resolve the big-bang singularity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceda, M.; Madore, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Paris-Sud, Batiment 211, 91405, Orsay (France); Manousselis, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Patras, 26110, Patras (Greece); Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Zoupanos, G. [Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Theory Division, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2004-08-01

    A possible way to resolve the singularities of general relativity is proposed based on the assumption that the description of space-time using commuting coordinates is not valid above a certain fundamental scale. Beyond that scale it is assumed that the space-time has non-commutative structure leading in turn to a resolution of the singularity. As a first attempt towards realizing the above programme a modification of the Kasner metric is constructed which is commutative only at large time scales. At small time scales, near the singularity, the commutation relations among the space coordinates diverge. We interpret this result as meaning that the singularity has been completely delocalized. (orig.)

  20. Tools for language: patterned iconicity in sign language nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Carol; Hwang, So-One; Lepic, Ryan; Seegers, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    When naming certain hand-held, man-made tools, American Sign Language (ASL) signers exhibit either of two iconic strategies: a handling strategy, where the hands show holding or grasping an imagined object in action, or an instrument strategy, where the hands represent the shape or a dimension of the object in a typical action. The same strategies are also observed in the gestures of hearing nonsigners identifying pictures of the same set of tools. In this paper, we compare spontaneously created gestures from hearing nonsigning participants to commonly used lexical signs in ASL. Signers and gesturers were asked to respond to pictures of tools and to video vignettes of actions involving the same tools. Nonsigning gesturers overwhelmingly prefer the handling strategy for both the Picture and Video conditions. Nevertheless, they use more instrument forms when identifying tools in pictures, and more handling forms when identifying actions with tools. We found that ASL signers generally favor the instrument strategy when naming tools, but when describing tools being used by an actor, they are significantly more likely to use more handling forms. The finding that both gesturers and signers are more likely to alternate strategies when the stimuli are pictures or video suggests a common cognitive basis for differentiating objects from actions. Furthermore, the presence of a systematic handling/instrument iconic pattern in a sign language demonstrates that a conventionalized sign language exploits the distinction for grammatical purpose, to distinguish nouns and verbs related to tool use. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Mechanical quadrature method as applied to singular integral equations with logarithmic singularity on the right-hand side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjanyan, A. A.; Sahakyan, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    A singular integral equation with a Cauchy kernel and a logarithmic singularity on its righthand side is considered on a finite interval. An algorithm is proposed for the numerical solution of this equation. The contact elasticity problem of a П-shaped rigid punch indented into a half-plane is solved in the case of a uniform hydrostatic pressure occurring under the punch, which leads to a logarithmic singularity at an endpoint of the integration interval. The numerical solution of this problem shows the efficiency of the proposed approach and suggests that the singularity has to be taken into account in solving the equation.

  2. Metric dimensional reduction at singularities with implications to Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2014-01-01

    A series of old and recent theoretical observations suggests that the quantization of gravity would be feasible, and some problems of Quantum Field Theory would go away if, somehow, the spacetime would undergo a dimensional reduction at high energy scales. But an identification of the deep mechanism causing this dimensional reduction would still be desirable. The main contribution of this article is to show that dimensional reduction effects are due to General Relativity at singularities, and do not need to be postulated ad-hoc. Recent advances in understanding the geometry of singularities do not require modification of General Relativity, being just non-singular extensions of its mathematics to the limit cases. They turn out to work fine for some known types of cosmological singularities (black holes and FLRW Big-Bang), allowing a choice of the fundamental geometric invariants and physical quantities which remain regular. The resulting equations are equivalent to the standard ones outside the singularities. One consequence of this mathematical approach to the singularities in General Relativity is a special, (geo)metric type of dimensional reduction: at singularities, the metric tensor becomes degenerate in certain spacetime directions, and some properties of the fields become independent of those directions. Effectively, it is like one or more dimensions of spacetime just vanish at singularities. This suggests that it is worth exploring the possibility that the geometry of singularities leads naturally to the spontaneous dimensional reduction needed by Quantum Gravity. - Highlights: • The singularities we introduce are described by finite geometric/physical objects. • Our singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction effects. • They affect the metric, the measure, the topology, the gravitational DOF (Weyl = 0). • Effects proposed in other approaches to Quantum Gravity are obtained naturally. • The geometric dimensional reduction obtained

  3. A vida singular de um jovem militante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Maria Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo é fruto de uma pesquisa realizada no período de 2007 a 2010, junto a jovens militantes da cidade de Campinas, com o objetivo de compreender as diferentes maneiras que conduziam esses jovens tanto a reproduzir um modelo de vida quanto a criar outras possibilidades de militância na relação com esse modelo. Entre as histórias orais de vida narradas por jovens que militavam em diferentes grupos ou instituições, escolhi a vida de Biula, representante do movimento estudantil secundarista, procurando evidenciar que a singularidade desta vida, como também e a de outros jovens, estava conectada à problematização que faziam no interior de certas práticas, histórica e culturalmente constituídas, possibilitando a criação de novas formas de subjetivação nas quais se modificava a experiência que tinham deles mesmos na relação com os seus heróis ou modelos de referência. Palavras-chave: história oral – transcriação – heróis – resistência - processos de singularização.   THE SINGULAR LIFE OF A YOUNG MILITANT ABSTRACT   This article is the result of a research carried out from 2007 to 2010 with   young militants in the city of Campinas, aiming to understand the different ways which conducted these youngsters to both reproduce a life model and create other possibilities of militancy in the relationship with this model. Among oral stories narrated by young militants from different groups or institutions, I have chosen the life of Biula, a representative of the secondary students’ movement, trying to show that the singularity of this life and other youngsters’ lives was connected to the problematization they promoted within certain practices, historically and culturally built, thus enabling the creation of new subjectification modes in which the experience they had of themselves in the relationship with their heroes or reference models has changed. Key words: oral history -  transcreation – heroes

  4. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested that three revolutions in science and technology consisting genetic and molecular science, nanotechnology, and robotic (artificial intelligence provided an exponential growth rate for medicine. The "exponential medicine" is going to create more disruptive technologies in healthcare industry. The exponential medicine shifts the paradigm of medical philosophy and produces significant impacts on the healthcare system and patient-physician relationship.   

  5. Dual Vector Spaces and Physical Singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Peter

    Though we often refer to 3-D vector space as constructed from points, there is no mechanism from within its definition for doing this. In particular, space, on its own, cannot accommodate the singularities that we call fundamental particles. This requires a commutative combination of space as we know it with another 3-D vector space, which is dual to the first (in a physical sense). The combination of the two spaces generates a nilpotent quantum mechanics/quantum field theory, which incorporates exact supersymmetry and ultimately removes the anomalies due to self-interaction. Among the many natural consequences of the dual space formalism are half-integral spin for fermions, zitterbewegung, Berry phase and a zero norm Berwald-Moor metric for fermionic states.

  6. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-01-01

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  7. Branes at Singularities in Type 0 String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Alishahiha, M; Brandhuber, A; Oz, Y

    1999-01-01

    We consider Type 0B D3-branes placed at conical singularities and analyze in detail the conifold singularity. We study the non supersymmetric gauge theories on their worldvolume and their conjectured dual gravity descriptions. In the ultraviolet the solutions exhibit a logarithmic running of the gauge coupling. In the infrared we find confining solutions and IR fixed points.

  8. Eigenstructure of of singular systems. Perturbation analysis of simple eigenvalues

    OpenAIRE

    García Planas, María Isabel; Tarragona Romero, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The problem to study small perturbations of simple eigenvalues with a change of parameters is of general interest in applied mathematics. After to introduce a systematic way to know if an eigenvalue of a singular system is simple or not, the aim of this work is to study the behavior of a simple eigenvalue of singular linear system family

  9. Singularities of elastic scattering amplitude by long-range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitsinsky, A.A.; Komarov, I.V.; Merkuriev, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The angular peculiarities and the zero energy singularities of the elastic scattering amplitude by a long-range potential are described. The singularities of the elastic (2 → 2) scattering amplitude for a system of three Coulomb particles are considered [ru

  10. Singularly perturbed volterra integro-differential equations | Bijura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several investigations have been made on singularly perturbed integral equations. This paper aims at presenting an algorithm for the construction of asymptotic solutions and then provide a proof asymptotic correctness to singularly perturbed systems of Volterra integro-differential equations. Mathematics Subject

  11. Non-uniqueness of the source for singular gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanyi, G.; Pappas, R.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the singular Wu-Yang solution for SU(2) gauge fields may be interpreted as due to a point source at the origin. However, the electric or magnetic nature of the source depends on whether one approaches the singularity by means of a 'smeared' potential or a 'smeared' field strength. (Auth.)

  12. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Abstract. This paper is concerned with the existence of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed gen- eralized Gardner equation with nonlinear terms of any order. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and based on the relation between solitary wave solution and homoclinic orbits of the ...

  13. K3-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds II, singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In part I of this paper we constructed certain fibered Calabi-Yaus by a quotient construction in the context of weighted hypersurfaces. In this paper look at the case of K3 fibrations more closely and study the singular fibers which occur. This differs from previous work since the fibrations we discuss have constant modulus, and the singular fibers have torsion monodromy.

  14. Some BMO estimates for vector-valued multilinear singular integral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the multilinear operator related to some singular integral operators is obtained. The main purpose of this paper is to establish the BMO end-point estimates for some vector-valued multilinear operators related to certain singular integral operators. First, let us introduce some notations [10,16]. Throughout this paper, Q = Q(x,r).

  15. Infinite derivative gravity : non-singular cosmology & blackhole solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Both Einstein's theory of General Relativity and Newton's theory of gravity possess a short dis- tance and small time scale catastrophe. The blackhole singularity and cosmological Big Bang singularity problems highlight that current theories of gravity are incomplete description at early times and

  16. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  17. Simpson's neutrino and the singular see-saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.J.; Johnson, R.; Ranfone, S.; Schechter, J.; Walle, J.W.F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper derive explicit forms for the neutrino and lepton mixing-matrices which describe the generic singular see-saw model. The dependence on the hierarchy parameter is contrasted with the non-singular case. Application is made to Simpson's 17 keV neutrino

  18. On reliability of singular-value decomposition in attractor reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palus, M.; Dvorak, I.

    1990-12-01

    Applicability of singular-value decomposition for reconstructing the strange attractor from one-dimensional chaotic time series, proposed by Broomhead and King, is extensively tested and discussed. Previously published doubts about its reliability are confirmed: singular-value decomposition, by nature a linear method, is only of a limited power when nonlinear structures are studied. (author). 29 refs, 9 figs

  19. One Critical Case in Singularly Perturbed Control Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the special critical case in the theory of singularly perturbed optimal control problems. We reduce the original singularly perturbed problem to a regularized one such that the existence of slow integral manifolds can be established by means of the standard theory. We illustrate our approach by an example of control problem.

  20. 7 CFR 1200.1 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 1200.1 Section 1200.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Governing Proceedings To Formulate and Amend an Order § 1200.1 Words in the singular form. Words in this...

  1. Periodic solutions to second-order indefinite singular equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hakl, Robert; Zamora, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 263, č. 1 (2017), s. 451-469 ISSN 0022-0396 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : degree theory * indefinite singularity * periodic solution * singular differential equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039617301134

  2. Non-singular cosmologies in the conformally invariant gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kembhavi, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that in the framework of a conformally invariant gravitation theory, the singularity which is present in some anisotropic universes in general relativity is due to a wrong choice of conformal frame. Frames exist in which these models can be made singularity free. (author)

  3. A numerical method for solving singular De`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaver, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    A numerical method is developed for solving singular differential equations using steepest descent based on weighted Sobolev gradients. The method is demonstrated on a variety of first and second order problems, including linear constrained, unconstrained, and partially constrained first order problems, a nonlinear first order problem with irregular singularity, and two second order variational problems.

  4. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.

  5. Singular Null Hypersurfaces in General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dray, T

    2006-01-01

    Null hypersurfaces are a mathematical consequence of the Lorentzian signature of general relativity; singularities in mathematical models usually indicate where the interesting physics takes place. This book discusses what happens when you combine these ideas. Right from the preface, this is a no-nonsense book. There are two principal approaches to singular shells, one distributional and the other 'cut and paste'; both are treated in detail. A working knowledge of GR is assumed, including familiarity with null tetrads, differential forms, and 3 + 1 decompositions. Despite my own reasonably extensive, closely related knowledge, there was material unfamiliar to me already in chapter 3, although I was reunited with some old friends in later chapters. The exposition is crisp, with a minimum of transition from chapter to chapter. In fact, my main criticism is that there is no clear statement of the organization of the book, nor is there an index. Everything is here, and the story is compelling if you know what to look for, although it is less easy to follow the story if you are not already familiar with it. But this is really a book for experts, and the authors certainly qualify, having played a significant role in developing and extending the results they describe. It is also entirely appropriate that the book is dedicated to Werner Israel, who pioneered the thin-shell approach to (non-null) singular surfaces and later championed the use of similar methods for analysing null shells. After an introductory chapter on impulsive signals, the authors show how the Bianchi identities can be used to classify spacetimes with singular null hypersurfaces. This approach, due to the authors, generalizes the framework originally proposed by Penrose. While astrophysical applications are discussed only briefly, the authors point out that detailed physical characteristics of signals from isolated sources can be determined in this manner. In particular, they describe the behaviour of

  6. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

  7. Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-10

    We explore the tight focusing behavior of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities, and analyze the influences of the number, position, and topological charge of the singularities on the focal fields. It is found that the ellipticity of the local polarization states at the focal plane could be determined by the spatial distribution of the polarization singularities of the vector beam. When the spatial location and topological charge of singularities have even-fold rotation symmetry, the transverse fields at the focal plane are locally linearly polarized. Otherwise, the polarization state becomes a locally hybrid one. By appropriately arranging the distribution of the polarization singularities in the vector beam, the polarization distributions of the focal fields could be altered while the intensity maintains unchanged.

  8. Workshop on Singularities in Geometry, Topology, Foliations and Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lê, Dung; Oka, Mutsuo; Snoussi, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    This book features state-of-the-art research on singularities in geometry, topology, foliations and dynamics and provides an overview of the current state of singularity theory in these settings. Singularity theory is at the crossroad of various branches of mathematics and science in general. In recent years there have been remarkable developments, both in the theory itself and in its relations with other areas. The contributions in this volume originate from the “Workshop on Singularities in Geometry, Topology, Foliations and Dynamics”, held in Merida, Mexico, in December 2014, in celebration of José Seade’s 60th Birthday. It is intended for researchers and graduate students interested in singularity theory and its impact on other fields.

  9. Cusp singularities in f(R) gravity: pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-01-01

    We investigate cusp singularities in f(R) gravity, especially for Starobinsky and Hu-Sawicki dark energy models. We illustrate that, by using double-null numerical simulations, a cusp singularity can be triggered by gravitational collapses. This singularity can be cured by adding a quadratic term, but this causes a Ricci scalar bump that can be observed by an observer outside the event horizon. Comparing with cosmological parameters, it seems that it would be difficult to see super-Planckian effects by astrophysical experiments. On the other hand, at once there exists a cusp singularity, it can be a mechanism to realize a horizon scale curvature singularity that can be interpreted by a firewall

  10. Fold points and singularity induced bifurcation in inviscid transonic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marszalek, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Transonic inviscid flow equation of elliptic–hyperbolic type when written in terms of the velocity components and similarity variable results in a second order nonlinear ODE having several features typical of differential–algebraic equations rather than ODEs. These features include the fold singularities (e.g. folded nodes and saddles, forward and backward impasse points), singularity induced bifurcation behavior and singularity crossing phenomenon. We investigate the above properties and conclude that the quasilinear DAEs of transonic flow have interesting properties that do not occur in other known quasilinear DAEs, for example, in MHD. Several numerical examples are included. -- Highlights: ► A novel analysis of inviscid transonic flow and its similarity solutions. ► Singularity induced bifurcation, singular points of transonic flow. ► Projection method, index of transonic flow DAEs, linearization via matrix pencil.

  11. Crack initiation criteria for singular stress concentrations Part I: A universal assessment of singular stress concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knésl, Zdeněk; Klusák, Jan; Náhlík, Luboš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2007), s. 399-408 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/0320; GA ČR GA101/05/0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fracture mechanics * stability criteria * singular stress concentrations * crack initiation * critical stress Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  12. Early sensitivity of left perisylvian cortex to relationality in nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Adina; Reddigari, Samir; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2017-06-01

    The ability to track the relationality of concepts, i.e., their capacity to encode a relationship between entities, is one of the core semantic abilities humans possess. In language processing, we systematically leverage this ability when computing verbal argument structure, in order to link participants to the events they participate in. Previous work has converged on a large region of left posterior perisylvian cortex as a locus for such processing, but the wide range of experimental stimuli and manipulations has yielded an unclear picture of the region's exact role(s). Importantly, there is a tendency for effects of relationality in single-word studies to localize to posterior temporo-parietal cortex, while argument structure effects in sentences appear in left superior temporal cortex. To characterize these sensitivities, we designed two MEG experiments that cross the factors relationality and eventivity. The first used minimal noun phrases and tested for an effect of semantic composition, while the second employed full sentences and a manipulation of grammatical category. The former identified a region of the left inferior parietal lobe sensitive to relationality, but not eventivity or combination, beginning at 170ms. The latter revealed a similarly-timed effect of relationality in left mid-superior temporal cortex, independent of eventivity and category. The results suggest that i) multiple sub-regions of perisylvian cortex are sensitive to the relationality carried by concepts even in the absence of arguments, ii) linguistic context modulates the locus of this sensitivity, consistent with prior studies, and iii) relationality information is accessed early - before 200ms - regardless of the concept's event status or syntactic category. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Joint perceptual decision-making: A case study in explanatory pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Hamilton Abney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally different approaches to the study of cognition have been viewed as competing explanatory frameworks. An alternative view, explanatory pluralism, regards different approaches to the study of cognition as complementary ways of studying the same phenomenon, at specific temporal and spatial scales, using appropriate methodological tools. Explanatory pluralism has been often described abstractly, but has rarely been applied to concrete cases. We present a case study of explanatory pluralism. We discuss three separate ways of studying the same phenomenon: a perceptual decision- making task (Bahrami et al., 2010, where pairs of subjects share information to jointly individuate an oddball stimulus among a set of distractors. Each approach analyzed the same corpus but targeted different units of analysis at different levels of description: decision-making at the behavioral level, confidence sharing at the linguistic level, and acoustic energy at the physical level. We discuss the utility of explanatory pluralism for describing this complex, multiscale phenomenon, show ways in which this case study sheds new light on the concept of pluralism, and highlight good practices to critically assess and complement approaches.

  14. PLURALISM, FATWA, AND COURT IN INDONESIA: The Case of Yusman Roy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirsyah Hosen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The interrelation between Islam, state and pluralism is an unfinished discussion in Indonesia. This paper examines an issue of promoting individual freedom to practice his/her belief, and at the same time not insulting the majority belief in a plural society. It takes the case of Yusman Roy on performing the salah (prayer in a local language as the subject of analysis in order to identify the fault lines of religion and pluralism, and to consider how best to address them. The paper argues that fatwa and court should not be used as mechanisms to deal with the issue of religion and pluralism. It further argues for an “alternative dispute resolution” in dealing with the plurality of interpretation within Islamic tradition and at the same time maintaining the unity and harmony Islamic communities. It maintains that Roy should have the rights to practice what he believes, but at the same time, a negotiation on how he spreads his ideas outside his schools should take place in order to avoid provocative actions that invite violence.

  15. 3rd Singularity Theory Meeting of Northeast region & the Brazil-Mexico 2nd Meeting on Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Aurélio; Mond, David; Saia, Marcelo; Snoussi, Jawad; BMMS 2/NBMS 3; ENSINO; Singularities and foliations geometry, topology and applications

    2018-01-01

    This proceedings book brings selected works from two conferences, the 2nd Brazil-Mexico Meeting on Singularity and the 3rd Northeastern Brazilian Meeting on Singularities, that were hold in Salvador, in July 2015. All contributions were carefully peer-reviewed and revised, and cover topics like Equisingularity, Topology and Geometry of Singularities, Topological Classification of Singularities of Mappings, and more. They were written by mathematicians from several countries, including Brazil, Spain, Mexico, Japan and the USA, on relevant topics on Theory of Singularity, such as studies on deformations, Milnor fibration, foliations, Catastrophe theory, and myriad applications. Open problems are also introduced, making this volume a must-read both for graduate students and active researchers in this field.

  16. Children's grammatical categories of verb and noun: a comparative look at children with specific language impairment (SLI) and normal language (NL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipp, Amy; Windfuhr, Kirsten L; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the development of grammatical categories (noun and verb) in young language learners. Twenty-eight children with specific language impairment (SLI) with a mean language age of 35 months and 28 children with normal language (NL) with a mean language age of 34 months were exposed to four novel verbs and four novel nouns during 10 experimental child-directed play sessions. The lexical items were modelled with four experimentally controlled argument structures. Both groups of children showed little productivity with syntactic marking of arguments in the novel verb conditions. Thus, both groups of children mostly followed the surface structure of the model presented to them, regardless of the argument they were trying to express. Therefore, there was little evidence of verb-general processes. In contrast, both groups used nouns in semantic roles that had not been modelled for them. Importantly, however, children with SLI still appeared to be more input dependent than NL children. This suggests that children with NL were working with a robust noun schema, whereas children with SLI were not. Taken together, the findings suggest that neither group of children had a grammatical category of verb, but demonstrated a general knowledge of the grammatical category of noun. These findings are discussed in relation to current theories of normal and impaired language development.

  17. The Theory of EU Constitutional Pluralism: A Crisis in a Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierdominici Leonardo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the validity of constitutional pluralism as a constitutional theory for the European Union and a paradigm for the understanding of EU law in the current times of crisis. It reconstructs the way in which constitutional pluralism came to the fore, the different ways in which the theory was presented, and considers historical criticism it has faced. It then looks at the anomalies that, allegedly, cannot be explained today by constitutional pluralism as a paradigm, linked to the current economic and political crises in the Union. The reconstruction of the debate is complemented with reflections on both the descriptive and normative validity of EU constitutional pluralism’s claims.

  18. The strategic effect of the plurality vote at the district level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The plurality vote (first-past-the-post) is one of the most restrictive electoral systems used for parliamentary elections. Empirically, its deterring effect on small political parties has been widely studied at the national level, while theoretical arguments highlight its strategic effect...... at the district level. This paper argues that the strategic effect, reducing the votes expressed for minor parties in plurality vote systems, is uneven across districts. The strongest strategic effect is expected in very competitive constituencies, where the two strongest candidates are in close competition...... with each other. The paper estimates the effect empirically, based on electoral results for minor political parties from six parliamentary democracies using the plurality vote. The methodology proposed in this paper allows me to separate sociological or geographical factors from strategic factors affecting...

  19. Semantics of Islam and Quran and it’s Relation with Religious Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mohammadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to consider the relationship between "Islam" And "religious pluralism" through lexical and Quranic semantic of "Islam ". This word derived from "Selm" in Arabic and means subordination, humility and submission, because it does not have any insubordination and refusal. In Quranic verses " Islam" means "being surrendered to God and his commands", the commands that transmitted to people by messengers of God. Therefore, according to the verses of noble Quran, one of the most important submission conditions is the belief that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh, is the messenger of God. This reading is consistent with a meaning of the religious pluralism that emphasizes on rightfulness of Islam along the salvation of non Muslim people and , also, peaceful life with them, while is inconsistent with the definition that believe in plurality and equality of religions in rightfulness .

  20. Virtual Singular Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Transformation Media Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Barabanenkov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available If a scatterer and an observation point (receive both approach the so-called near field zone of a source of electromagnetic waves, the scattering process becomes singular one which is mathematically attributed to the spatial singularity of the free space Green function at the origin. Starting from less well known property of left-handed material slab to transfer the singularity of the free space Green function by implementing coordinate transformation, we present a phenomenon of virtual singular scattering of electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneity located in the volume of left – handed material slab. Virtual singular scattering means that a scatterer is situated only virtually in the near field zone of a source, being, in fact, positioned in the far field zone. Such a situation is realized if a scatterer is embedded into a flat Veselago’s lens and approaches the lens’s inner focus because a slab of Veselago medium produces virtual sources inside and behind the slab and virtual scatterer (as a source of secondary waves from both slab sides. Considering a line-like dielectric scatterer we demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is proportional to product of singular quasistatic parts of two empty space Green functions that means a multiplicative quasistatic singularity of the Green function for a slab of inhomogeneous Veselago medium. We calculate a resonance value of the scattering amplitude in the regime similar to the known Mie resonance scattering.