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Sample records for sings survey iii

  1. 76 FR 38203 - Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... populations. The North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey is an essential part of the migratory bird.... II. Data OMB Control Number: 1018-0019. Title: North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey. Service...

  2. Sing, immer sing

    OpenAIRE

    Woll, Erna

    1993-01-01

    Sing, immer sing : fünf Chorlieder für Frauenst. nach Worten von William Shakespeare. - In: Deutscher Chor-Wettbewerb : 3. Deutscher Chor-Wettbewerb ´90. - Freiburg : dt. harmonia mundi. - Vol. 3. (p 1993). - Compact disc (digital). - Best.-Nr. HM/DMR 2052-2

  3. Choral Singing and Wellbeing: Findings from a Survey of the Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... article examines the health benefits of singing in terms of emotional, psychological, social and physical wellbeing. ..... and motivation. The data ... understanding of emotions, and maintaining personal wellbeing. The following ...

  4. Do singing-ground surveys reflect american woodcock abundance in the western Great Lakes region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Nelson,; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The Singing-ground Survey (SGS) is the primary monitoring tool used to assess population status and trends of American woodcock (Scolopax minor). Like most broad-scale surveys, the SGS cannot be directly validated because there are no independent estimates of abundance of displaying male American woodcock at an appropriate spatial scale. Furthermore, because locations of individual SGS routes have generally remained stationary since the SGS was standardized in 1968, it is not known whether routes adequately represent the landscapes they were intended to represent. To indirectly validate the SGS, we evaluated whether 1) counts of displaying male American woodcock on SGS routes related to land-cover types known to be related to American woodcock abundance, 2) changes in counts of displaying male American woodcock through time were related to changes in land cover along SGS routes, and 3) land-cover type composition along SGS routes was similar to land-cover type composition of the surrounding landscape. In Wisconsin and Minnesota, USA, counts along SGS routes reflected known American woodcock-habitat relations. Increases in the number of woodcock heard along SGS routes over a 13-year period in Wisconsin were related to increasing amounts of early successional forest, decreasing amounts of mature forest, and increasing dispersion and interspersion of cover types. Finally, the cover types most strongly associated with American woodcock abundance were represented along SGS routes in proportion to their composition of the broader landscape. Taken together, these results suggest that in the western Great Lakes region, the SGS likely provides a reliable tool for monitoring relative abundance and population trends of breeding, male American woodcock.

  5. A Survey of Equipment in the Singing Voice Studio and Its Perceived Effectiveness by Vocologists and Student Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Julia; Rosow, David E

    2016-05-01

    Speech-language pathologists have long used technology for the clinical measurement of the speaking voice, but present research shows that vocal pedagogues and voice students are becoming more accepting of technology in the studio. As a result, the equipment and technology used in singing voice studios by speech-language pathologists and vocal pedagogues are changing. Although guides exist regarding equipment and technology necessary for developing a voice laboratory and private voice studio, there are no data documenting the current implementation of these items and their perceived effectiveness. This study seeks to document current trends in equipment used in voice laboratories and studios. Two separate surveys were distributed to 60 vocologists and approximately 300 student singers representative of the general singing student population. The surveys contained questions about the inventory of items found in voice studios and perceived effectiveness of these items. Data were analyzed using descriptive analyses and statistical analyses when applicable. Twenty-six of 60 potential vocologists responded, and 66 student singers responded. The vocologists reported highly uniform inventories and ratings of studio items. There were wide-ranging differences between the inventories reported by the vocologist and student singer groups. Statistically significant differences between ratings of effectiveness of studio items were found for 11 of the 17 items. In all significant cases, vocologists rated usefulness to be higher than student singers. Although the order of rankings of vocologists and student singers was similar, a much higher percentage of vocologists report the items as being efficient and effective than students. The historically typical studio items, including the keyboard and mirror, were ranked as most effective by both vocologists and student singers. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Singing voice outcomes following singing voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastolfo-Hromack, Christina; Thomas, Tracey L; Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe singing voice therapy (SVT), describe referred patient characteristics, and document the outcomes of SVT. Retrospective. Records of patients receiving SVT between June 2008 and June 2013 were reviewed (n = 51). All diagnoses were included. Demographic information, number of SVT sessions, and symptom severity were retrieved from the medical record. Symptom severity was measured via the 10-item Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). Treatment outcome was analyzed by diagnosis, history of previous training, and SVHI-10. SVHI-10 scores decreased following SVT (mean change = 11, 40% decrease) (P singing lessons (n = 10) also completed an average of three SVT sessions. Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD1) and benign vocal fold lesion (lesion) were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (60%) had previous vocal training. SVHI-10 decrease was not significantly different between MTD and lesion. This is the first outcome-based study of SVT in a disordered population. Diagnosis of MTD or lesion did not influence treatment outcomes. Duration of SVT was short (approximately three sessions). Voice care providers are encouraged to partner with a singing voice therapist to provide optimal care for the singing voice. This study supports the use of SVT as a tool for the treatment of singing voice disorders. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Singing in Shakespeare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Michael

      Abstract: Singing in Shakespeare Songs in Shakespeare's plays are just one element of a whole array of discourses at the playwright's disposal In the title of this essay I've chosen the gerund form ‘singing' rather than the noun ‘songs', because  whereas most  studies  focuses on the provenance...... of dramatic uses of singing found in Shakespeare's plays....

  8. Surveys in differential-algebraic equations III

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The present volume comprises survey articles on various fields of Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAEs), which have widespread applications in controlled dynamical systems, especially in mechanical and electrical engineering and a strong relation to (ordinary) differential equations. The individual chapters provide reviews, presentations of the current state of research and new concepts in - Flexibility of DAE formulations - Reachability analysis and deterministic global optimization - Numerical linear algebra methods - Boundary value problems The results are presented in an accessible style, making this book suitable not only for active researchers but also for graduate students (with a good knowledge of the basic principles of DAEs) for self-study.

  9. MMT hypervelocity star survey. III. The complete survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We describe our completed spectroscopic survey for unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Milky Way. Three new discoveries bring the total number of unbound late B-type stars to 21. We place new constraints on the nature of the stars and on their distances using moderate resolution MMT spectroscopy. Half of the stars are fast rotators; they are certain 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} main sequence stars at 50-120 kpc distances. Correcting for stellar lifetime, our survey implies that unbound 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} stars are ejected from the Milky Way at a rate of 1.5 × 10{sup –6} yr{sup –1}. These unbound HVSs are likely ejected continuously over the past 200 Myr and do not share a common flight time. The anisotropic spatial distribution of HVSs on the sky remains puzzling. Southern hemisphere surveys like SkyMapper will soon allow us to map the all-sky distribution of HVSs. Future proper motion measurements with Hubble Space Telescope and Gaia will provide strong constraints on origin. Existing observations are all consistent with HVS ejections from encounters with the massive black hole in the Galactic center.

  10. MMT hypervelocity star survey. III. The complete survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe our completed spectroscopic survey for unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Milky Way. Three new discoveries bring the total number of unbound late B-type stars to 21. We place new constraints on the nature of the stars and on their distances using moderate resolution MMT spectroscopy. Half of the stars are fast rotators; they are certain 2.5-4 M ☉ main sequence stars at 50-120 kpc distances. Correcting for stellar lifetime, our survey implies that unbound 2.5-4 M ☉ stars are ejected from the Milky Way at a rate of 1.5 × 10 –6 yr –1 . These unbound HVSs are likely ejected continuously over the past 200 Myr and do not share a common flight time. The anisotropic spatial distribution of HVSs on the sky remains puzzling. Southern hemisphere surveys like SkyMapper will soon allow us to map the all-sky distribution of HVSs. Future proper motion measurements with Hubble Space Telescope and Gaia will provide strong constraints on origin. Existing observations are all consistent with HVS ejections from encounters with the massive black hole in the Galactic center.

  11. Target Selection for the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.; De Lee, Nathan; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mack, Claude E., III; Dhital, Saurav; Hebb, Leslie; Ge, Jian

    2015-06-01

    We present the target selection process for the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III. MARVELS is a medium-resolution (R ∼ 11,000) multi-fiber spectrograph capable of obtaining radial velocities for 60 objects at a time in order to find brown dwarfs and giant planets. The survey was configured to target dwarf stars with effective temperatures approximately between 4500 and 6250 K. For the first 2 years MARVELS relied on low-resolution spectroscopic pre-observations to estimate the effective temperature and log (g) for candidate stars and then selected suitable dwarf stars from this pool. Ultimately, the pre-observation spectra proved ineffective at filtering out giant stars; many giants were incorrectly classified as dwarfs, resulting in a giant contamination rate of ∼30% for the first phase of the MARVELS survey. Thereafter, the survey instead applied a reduced proper motion cut to eliminate giants and used the Infrared Flux Method to estimate effective temperatures, using only extant photmetric and proper-motion catalog information. The target selection method introduced here may be useful for other surveys that need to rely on extant catalog data for selection of specific stellar populations.

  12. Attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival: Swedish interview survey of living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, L O; Konlaan, B B; Johansson, S E

    To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start.

  13. Singing and social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  14. Singing and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  15. Singing and social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Frederick Welch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  16. Rap and singing are used by music therapists to enhance emotional self-regulation of youth: Results of a survey of music therapists in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, S.; Dimitriadis, Theo; Hackvoort, Laurien; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Music therapists use rap and singing for at-risk youth and young adults in different treatment settings. However, it is unclear how often and what kind of interventions they apply, and what kind of treatment goals are pursued. The purpose of this study was to examine approaches of music therapists

  17. When Instrumentalists Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact that choral singing has on instrumental students' development as musicians. Instrumental music students (N = 23) enrolled in a choral elective module at a tertiary music conservatory completed an eight-item questionnaire. Descriptive answers were collated and interpreted revealing six…

  18. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  19. The neural control of singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Mary eZarate

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Singing provides a unique opportunity to examine music performance—the musical instrument is contained wholly within the body, thus eliminating the need for creating artificial instruments or tasks in neuroimaging experiments. Here, more than two decades of voice and singing research will be reviewed to give an overview of the sensory-motor control of the singing voice, starting from the vocal tract and leading up to the brain regions involved in singing. Additionally, to demonstrate how sensory feedback is integrated with vocal motor control, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI research on somatosensory and auditory feedback processing during singing will be presented. The relationship between the brain and singing behavior will be explored also by examining: 1 neuroplasticity as a function of various lengths and types of training, 2 vocal amusia due to a compromised singing network, and 3 singing performance in individuals with congenital amusia. Finally, the auditory-motor control network for singing will be considered alongside dual-stream models of auditory processing in music and speech to refine both these theoretical models and the singing network itself.

  20. Tuvan Throat Singing and Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Wilken, David

    2018-01-01

    Tuvan throat singing, also called overtone singing, provides for an exotic demonstration of the physics of harmonics as well as introducing an Asian musical aesthetic. A low fundamental is sung and the singer skillfully alters the resonances of the vocal system to enhance an overtone (harmonic above the fundamental). The result is that the…

  1. RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS, GAS, AND DUST IN SINGS GALAXIES. III. MODELING THE EVOLUTION OF THE STELLAR COMPONENT IN GALAXY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Boissier, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.; Kennicutt, R. C. Jr; Moustakas, J.; Prantzos, N.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of 42 spiral galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We make use of ultraviolet (UV), optical, and near-infrared radial profiles, corrected for internal extinction using the total-infrared to UV ratio, to probe the emission of stellar populations of different ages as a function of galactocentric distance. We fit these radial profiles with models that describe the chemical and spectro-photometric evolution of spiral disks within a self-consistent framework. These backward evolutionary models successfully reproduce the multi-wavelength profiles of our galaxies, except for the UV profiles of some early-type disks for which the models seem to retain too much gas. From the model fitting we infer the maximum circular velocity of the rotation curve V C and the dimensionless spin parameter λ. The values of V C are in good agreement with the velocities measured in H I rotation curves. Even though our sample is not volume limited, the resulting distribution of λ is close to the lognormal function obtained in cosmological N-body simulations, peaking at λ ∼ 0.03 regardless of the total halo mass. We do not find any evident trend between λ and Hubble type, besides an increase in the scatter for the latest types. According to the model, galaxies evolve along a roughly constant mass-size relation, increasing their scale lengths as they become more massive. The radial scale length of most disks in our sample seems to have increased at a rate of 0.05-0.06 kpc Gyr -1 , although the same cannot be said of a volume-limited sample. In relative terms, the scale length has grown by 20%-25% since z = 1 and, unlike the former figure, we argue that this relative growth rate can be indeed representative of a complete galaxy sample.

  2. Radial Distribution of Stars, Gas, and Dust in SINGS Galaxies. III. Modeling the Evolution of the Stellar Component in Galaxy Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Boissier, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Moustakas, J.; Prantzos, N.; Gallego, J.

    2011-04-01

    We analyze the evolution of 42 spiral galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We make use of ultraviolet (UV), optical, and near-infrared radial profiles, corrected for internal extinction using the total-infrared to UV ratio, to probe the emission of stellar populations of different ages as a function of galactocentric distance. We fit these radial profiles with models that describe the chemical and spectro-photometric evolution of spiral disks within a self-consistent framework. These backward evolutionary models successfully reproduce the multi-wavelength profiles of our galaxies, except for the UV profiles of some early-type disks for which the models seem to retain too much gas. From the model fitting we infer the maximum circular velocity of the rotation curve V C and the dimensionless spin parameter λ. The values of V C are in good agreement with the velocities measured in H I rotation curves. Even though our sample is not volume limited, the resulting distribution of λ is close to the lognormal function obtained in cosmological N-body simulations, peaking at λ ~ 0.03 regardless of the total halo mass. We do not find any evident trend between λ and Hubble type, besides an increase in the scatter for the latest types. According to the model, galaxies evolve along a roughly constant mass-size relation, increasing their scale lengths as they become more massive. The radial scale length of most disks in our sample seems to have increased at a rate of 0.05-0.06 kpc Gyr-1, although the same cannot be said of a volume-limited sample. In relative terms, the scale length has grown by 20%-25% since z = 1 and, unlike the former figure, we argue that this relative growth rate can be indeed representative of a complete galaxy sample.

  3. Psalm 98: Sing 'n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psalm 98: Sing 'n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe. W S Prinsloo. Universiteit van Pretoria. Abstract. Sing a new song in praise of the king, Yahweh. This article surveys the problems of interpreting Psalm. 98. The chief problems are those concerned with determining the Gattung, the redactional history, strophic ...

  4. The Role of Choral Singing in the Lives of Amateur Choral Singers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja; Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what motivates people to sing in choirs as a leisure activity. Subjects were retrieved from members of 10 amateur choirs of various types in Iceland through a paper-based survey. Results indicated that participants gain both personal and social benefits from singing in a choir. Findings revealed…

  5. Singing comet changes its song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volwerk, M.; Goetz, C.; Delva, M.; Richter, I.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Eriksson, A.; Odelstad, E.; Meier, P.; Nilsson, H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2017-09-01

    The singing comet was discovered at the beginning of the Rosetta mission around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Large amplitude compressional waves with frequencies between 10 and 100 mHz were observed. When the comet became more active this signal was no longer measured. During the so-called tail excursion, late in the mission after perihelion, with again a less active comet, the singing was observed again and interestingly, going from 26 March to 27 March 2016 the character of the singing changed.

  6. Tibetan singing bowls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwagne, Denis; Bush, John W M

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behaviour is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface. (invited article)

  7. National Youth Survey US: Wave III (NYS-1978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the third wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection, which includes data for youth interviewed in 1979 about events and...

  8. QUEST1 Variability Survey. III. Light Curve Catalog Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstorf, A. W.; Thompson, D. L.; Mufson, S. L.; Andrews, P.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C.; Adams, B.; Bailyn, C.; Baltay, C.; Bongiovanni, A.; Briceño, C.; Bruzual, G.; Coppi, P.; Della Prugna, F.; Emmet, W.; Ferrín, I.; Fuenmayor, F.; Gebhard, M.; Hernández, J.; Magris, G.; Musser, J.; Naranjo, O.; Oemler, A.; Rosenzweig, P.; Sabbey, C. N.; Sánchez, Ge.; Sánchez, Gu.; Schaefer, B.; Schenner, H.; Sinnott, J.; Snyder, J. A.; Sofia, S.; Stock, J.; van Altena, W.

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports an update to the QUEST1 (QUasar Equatorial Survey Team, Phase 1) Variability Survey (QVS) light curve catalog, which links QVS instrumental magnitude light curves to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) objects and photometry. In the time since the original QVS catalog release, the overlap between publicly available SDSS data and QVS data has increased by 8% in sky coverage and 16,728 in number of matched objects. The astrometric matching and the treatment of SDSS masks have been refined for the updated catalog. We report on these improvements and present multiple bandpass light curves, global variability information, and matched SDSS photometry for 214,941 QUEST1 objects. Based on observations obtained at the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory, operated by the Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía for the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Venezuela.

  9. THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF SDSS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Kyle S.; Ahn, Christopher P.; Bolton, Adam S.; Schlegel, David J.; Bailey, Stephen; Anderson, Scott F.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Borde, Arnaud; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, W. N.

    2013-01-01

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) is designed to measure the scale of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the clustering of matter over a larger volume than the combined efforts of all previous spectroscopic surveys of large-scale structure. BOSS uses 1.5 million luminous galaxies as faint as i = 19.9 over 10,000 deg 2 to measure BAO to redshifts z A to an accuracy of 1.0% at redshifts z = 0.3 and z = 0.57 and measurements of H(z) to 1.8% and 1.7% at the same redshifts. Forecasts for Lyα forest constraints predict a measurement of an overall dilation factor that scales the highly degenerate D A (z) and H –1 (z) parameters to an accuracy of 1.9% at z ∼ 2.5 when the survey is complete. Here, we provide an overview of the selection of spectroscopic targets, planning of observations, and analysis of data and data quality of BOSS.

  10. Fun with singing wine glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-05-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency against water volume percent are made using a spreadsheet. Students can also play combinations of pitches with several glasses. A video (Ruiz 2018 Video: Singing glasses http://mjtruiz.com/ped/wineglasses/) is provided which includes an excerpt of a beautiful piece written for singing glasses and choir: Stars by Latvian composer Ēriks Ešenvalds.

  11. Tuvan throat singing and harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Wilken, David

    2018-05-01

    Tuvan throat singing, also called overtone singing, provides for an exotic demonstration of the physics of harmonics as well as introducing an Asian musical aesthetic. A low fundamental is sung and the singer skillfully alters the resonances of the vocal system to enhance an overtone (harmonic above the fundamental). The result is that the listener hears two pitches simultaneously. Harmonics such as H8, H9, H10, and H12 form part of a pentatonic scale and are commonly selected for melody tones by Tuvan singers. A real-time spectrogram is provided in a video (Ruiz M J 2018 Video: Tuvan Throat Singing and Harmonics http://mjtruiz.com/ped/tuva/) so that Tuvan harmonics can be visualized as they are heard.

  12. The KTH synthesis of singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sundberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of the work with synthesizing singing that has been carried out at the Speech Music Hearing Department, KTH since 1977. The origin of the work, a hardware synthesis machine, is described and some aspects of the control program, a modified version of a text-to-speech conversion system are reviewed. Three applications are described in which the synthesis system has paved the way for investigations of specific aspects of the singing voice. One concerns the perceptual relevance of the center frequency of the singer's formant, one deals with characteristics of an ugly voice, and one regards intonation. The article is accompanied by 18 sound examples, several of which were not published before. Finally, limitations and advantages of singing synthesis are discussed.

  13. THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF SDSS-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Kyle S.; Ahn, Christopher P.; Bolton, Adam S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schlegel, David J.; Bailey, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Aubourg, Eric; Bautista, Julian E. [APC, University of Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Barkhouser, Robert H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beifiori, Alessandra [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Berlind, Andreas A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Blake, Cullen H. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Blomqvist, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Borde, Arnaud [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Brandt, W. N., E-mail: kdawson@astro.utah.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) is designed to measure the scale of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the clustering of matter over a larger volume than the combined efforts of all previous spectroscopic surveys of large-scale structure. BOSS uses 1.5 million luminous galaxies as faint as i = 19.9 over 10,000 deg{sup 2} to measure BAO to redshifts z < 0.7. Observations of neutral hydrogen in the Ly{alpha} forest in more than 150,000 quasar spectra (g < 22) will constrain BAO over the redshift range 2.15 < z < 3.5. Early results from BOSS include the first detection of the large-scale three-dimensional clustering of the Ly{alpha} forest and a strong detection from the Data Release 9 data set of the BAO in the clustering of massive galaxies at an effective redshift z = 0.57. We project that BOSS will yield measurements of the angular diameter distance d{sub A} to an accuracy of 1.0% at redshifts z = 0.3 and z = 0.57 and measurements of H(z) to 1.8% and 1.7% at the same redshifts. Forecasts for Ly{alpha} forest constraints predict a measurement of an overall dilation factor that scales the highly degenerate D{sub A} (z) and H {sup -1}(z) parameters to an accuracy of 1.9% at z {approx} 2.5 when the survey is complete. Here, we provide an overview of the selection of spectroscopic targets, planning of observations, and analysis of data and data quality of BOSS.

  14. Development of aerial gamma radiation survey system III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Miyasaka, Satoshi.

    1985-01-01

    An aerial gamma-ray survey system using a helicopter has been developed since 1980 in order to perform quick gamma-ray survey covering a wide area. To form a line in the chain of the development, a series of flight measurements were conducted in Watarase reservoir, Tochigi prefecture, in which artificial gamma-ray fields were realized using 60 Co (100 and 400 mCi) and 137 Cs (100 and 300 mCi) point sources located on the ground. For the purpose of obtaining gamma-ray pulse height spectra in the field, 6 sets of NaI(Tl) scientillation detectors were prepared. These sets of detectors consist of ones for evaluation with high accuracy as the standard, for intercomparison with other authors' results, and for practical use. Two sets of them were boarded for each flight considering the exposure rate level and detector's sensitivity. The flight measurements were performed in a space of 20 m to 500 m in altitude, and 0 m to 500 m in horizontal distance from the source. The experimental results of the spatial gamma-ray distribution for each gamma-ray field satisfactorily agreed with calculational results by Monte Carlo method. Throughout this experiment, characteristics of this survey system and detectors were clarified, and versatile data processing and analysis code was completed. Also, a method for subtraction of background exposure rate in a field including artificial radiation component was discussed using energy band information, and the coefficients for this method were determined. These data obtained are expected to be used as widely applicable data not only for the interpretation of measured value, but also for analysis of environmental gamma-ray field. (author)

  15. "The mute who can sing": a cortical stimulation study on singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Borsa, Stefano; Démonet, Jean-François

    2009-02-01

    In an attempt to identify cortical areas involved in singing in addition to language areas, the authors used a singing task during direct cortical mapping in 5 patients who were amateur singers and had undergone surgery for brain tumors. The organization of the cortical areas involved in language and singing was analyzed in relation with these surgical data. One left-handed and 4 right-handed patients with brain tumors in left (2 cases) and right (3 cases) hemispheres and no significant language or singing deficits underwent surgery with the "awake surgery" technique. All patients had a special interest in singing and were involved in amateur singing activities. They were tested using naming, reading, and singing tasks. Outside primary sensorimotor areas, singing interferences were rare and were exclusively localized in small cortical areas (singing in the Broca region. In the Broca region, no singing interference was found in areas in which interference in naming and reading tasks were detected. Conversely, a specific singing interference was found in nondominant middle frontal gyri in one patient. This interference consisted of abrupt singing arrest without apparent face, mouth, and tongue contraction. Finally, nonspecific singing interferences were found in the right and left precentral gyri in all patients (probably by interference in final articulatory mechanisms of singing). Dissociations between speech and singing found outside primary sensorimotor areas showed that these 2 functions use, in some cortical stages, different cerebral pathways.

  16. Groups of galaxies. III. the CfA survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    We present a statistically homogeneous group catalog (CfA) based on the CfA redshift survey (Huchra et al.). Groups in the catalog are all density enhancements in redshift space of a factor greater than 20. Group members are identified according to the procedure described in our previous study (Huchra and Geller) of a shallower whole-sky sample. All groups contain at least three members. Of the 176 groups in the CfA catalog, 102 have been identified in one or more previous studies. Because our algorithm searches for volume rather than surface density enhancements, the groups in a given region generally change only through the addition of fainter members when the magnitude limit of the galaxy catalog increases. In the region of overlap, agreement between our shallow catalog and the CfA catalog is excellent

  17. Singing and Vocal Interventions in Palliative and Cancer Care: Music Therapists' Perceptions of Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Cortés, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Music therapists in palliative and cancer care settings often use singing and vocal interventions. Although benefits for these interventions are emerging, more information is needed on what type of singing interventions are being used by credentialed music therapists, and what goal areas are being addressed. To assess music therapists' perceptions on how they use singing and vocal interventions in palliative and cancer care environments. Eighty credentialed music therapists from Canada and the United States participated in this two-part convergent mixed-methods study that began with an online survey, followed by individual interviews with 50% (n = 40) of the survey participants. In both palliative and cancer care, singing client-preferred music and singing for relaxation were the most frequently used interventions. In palliative care, the most commonly addressed goals were to increase self-expression, improve mood, and create a feeling of togetherness between individuals receiving palliative care and their family. In cancer care, the most commonly addressed goals were to support breathing, improve mood, and support reminiscence. Seven themes emerged from therapist interviews: containing the space, connection, soothing, identity, freeing the voice within, letting go, and honoring. Music therapists use singing to address the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual goals of patients, and described singing interventions as accessible and effective. Further research is recommended to examine intervention efficacy and identify factors responsible that contribute to clinical benefit. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. 67P, Singing Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    I would like to propose to present a short science-art-music collaboration film called "67P, Singing Comet" (5:27 min). If time of the session will allow, prior to the film I would like to make a slide show introduction to this project, highlighting the inspiration - the mission Rosetta by the European Space Agency (ESA) - and the artistic collaboration that took place in creating this piece. Inspired by the ESA Rosetta mission to the comet 67P, Ekaterina Smirnova (artist and project director, New York), Lee Mottram (clarinetist, Wales), Takuto Fukuda (composer, Japan) and Brian Hekker (video editor, New York) collaborated to create a unique atmospheric piece. Water and the origins of life throughout the Universe (specifically the Earth) is an element of the mission and the focus of Ekaterina's artistic vision. Ekaterina literally and figuratively paints a sensory assemblage using a combination of synthetic and natural elements to shape this artistic creation. To paint her watercolor works she is using a replica of the water found on the comet and implementing her own heartbeat into the music to create a recognizable inward sound of life. The Electro-Acoustic composition by Takuto Fukuda features an electronically manipulated performance by clarinetist Lee Mottram. The piece ceremoniously begins with reverberant bursts of low-register atonal bells transporting the listener to their ethereal inner origins of body and mind. The imagination takes the experience to an unknown destination as it gains speed gliding through the visual and audible textures of space and time. The comet's water similarly reacts with an ebb and flow thawing ice to potentially give life a chance as it is thrust along an orbit around the Sun. Near then far from the heat the comet forms frozen particles from vapors as it reaches it's furthest stretches creating an aerodynamic tail of icicles that slowly dissipate in a cycle that repeats itself until the comet's ultimate collision with an

  19. THE OPTICALLY UNBIASED GRB HOST (TOUGH) SURVEY. III. REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, P.; Chapman, R.; Vreeswijk, P. M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Tanvir, N. R.; Starling, R. L. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Letawe, G. [Departement d' Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, ULg, Allee du 6 aout, 17-Bat. B5c B-4000 Liege (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium)

    2012-06-10

    We present 10 new gamma-ray burst (GRB) redshifts and another five redshift limits based on host galaxy spectroscopy obtained as part of a large program conducted at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The redshifts span the range 0.345 {<=} z {approx}< 2.54. Three of our measurements revise incorrect values from the literature. The homogeneous host sample researched here consists of 69 hosts that originally had a redshift completeness of 55% (with 38 out of 69 hosts having redshifts considered secure). Our project, including VLT/X-shooter observations reported elsewhere, increases this fraction to 77% (53/69), making the survey the most comprehensive in terms of redshift completeness of any sample to the full Swift depth, analyzed to date. We present the cumulative redshift distribution and derive a conservative, yet small, associated uncertainty. We constrain the fraction of Swift GRBs at high redshift to a maximum of 14% (5%) for z > 6 (z > 7). The mean redshift of the host sample is assessed to be (z) {approx}> 2.2, with the 10 new redshifts reducing it significantly. Using this more complete sample, we confirm previous findings that the GRB rate at high redshift (z {approx}> 3) appears to be in excess of predictions based on assumptions that it should follow conventional determinations of the star formation history of the universe, combined with an estimate of its likely metallicity dependence. This suggests that either star formation at high redshifts has been significantly underestimated, for example, due to a dominant contribution from faint, undetected galaxies, or that GRB production is enhanced in the conditions of early star formation, beyond that usually ascribed to lower metallicity.

  20. Whoever Can Speak, Can Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rhetoric of failure inherent in the long-lasting debates over school music instruction in Russia, the practice of school singing teaching in Russian schools, especially those serving peasants and the urban lower classes, satisfied to a large degree the needs of the community. However, the limited role for school music and singing…

  1. Fun with Singing Wine Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency…

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LMC OGLE-III Shallow Survey variable stars (Ulaczyk+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaczyk, K.; Szymanski, M. K.; Udalski, A.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Poleski, R.; Gieren, W.; Walker, A. R.; Garcia-Varela, A.

    2017-07-01

    Photometric data were collected using the 1.3-m Warsaw Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory, operated by the Carnegie Institution for Science. We used exactly the same photometric system as in the OGLE-III main survey. Detailed information about whole instrumentation can be found in Udalski (2003AcA....53..291U). (5 data files).

  3. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  5. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  6. [Singing as an aid in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Poullain, Chrystelle; Milou, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals expect the beneficial effects of singing in neonatology, but remain reluctant to use it. The sensorimotor behaviour of newborns has been analysed when a professional or a mother sings. The results of a qualitative study show that singing before performing a care procedure can modify alertness by favouring interaction and have a positive impact on the behavioural assessment score. During the procedure, singing can help the baby's stability. A factor of well-being for the newborn, this practice could be developed on a wider scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Group singing and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Romane V; Baird, Amee D; Chalmers, Kerry A

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Previous studies have shown that participating in group singing activities can improve quality of life in some patient populations (e.g., people with chronic mental health or neurological conditions). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group singing on HRQoL for people diagnosed with PD. Eleven participants (mean age 70.6 years) with a formal diagnosis of PD between Hoehn and Yahr Stages I-III were recruited from a community singing group for people with PD, their family and their carers. Participants' perceptions of the effect of group singing on their quality of life were captured in a semistructured interview. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), a qualitative methodology, informed data collection and analysis. The IPA analysis revealed 6 categories that characterized the effects of group singing: physical, mood, cognitive functioning, social connectedness, "flow-on" effects, and sense-of-self. All participants reported positive effects across at least 4 of these categories. Three participants reported a negative effect in 1 category (physical, mood, or sense-of-self). The results suggest that group singing improved HRQoL with all participants reporting positive effects regardless of PD stage or symptom severity. Weekly engagement in group singing resulted in multiple benefits for the participants and counteracted some of the negative effects of PD. These findings suggest that group singing "gives back" some of what PD "takes away." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Arecibo pulsar survey using ALFA. III. Precursor survey and population synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiggum, J. K.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bates, S. D.; Senty, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Champion, D. J.; Lazarus, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ransom, S. M. [NRAO, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Ellis, J.; Allen, B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee WI 53211 (United States); Bhat, N. D. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Crawford, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003 (United States); Deneva, J. S. [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° ≲ ℓ ≲ 77° and 168° ≲ ℓ ≲ 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| ≲ 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA survey is sensitive to sources fainter and more distant than have previously been seen because of Arecibo's unrivaled sensitivity. In this paper we detail a precursor survey of this region with PALFA, which observed a subset of the full region (slightly more restrictive in ℓ and |b| ≲ 1°) and detected 45 pulsars. Detections included 1 known millisecond pulsar and 11 previously unknown, long-period pulsars. In the surveyed part of the sky that overlaps with the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey (36° ≲ ℓ ≲ 50°), PALFA is probing deeper than the Parkes survey, with four discoveries in this region. For both Galactic millisecond and normal pulsar populations, we compare the survey's detections with simulations to model these populations and, in particular, to estimate the number of observable pulsars in the Galaxy. We place 95% confidence intervals of 82,000 to 143,000 on the number of detectable normal pulsars and 9000 to 100,000 on the number of detectable millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk. These are consistent with previous estimates. Given the most likely population size in each case (107,000 and 15,000 for normal and millisecond pulsars, respectively), we extend survey detection simulations to predict that, when complete, the full PALFA survey should have detected 1000{sub −230}{sup +330} normal pulsars and 30{sub −20}{sup +200} millisecond pulsars. Identical estimation techniques predict that 490{sub −115}{sup +160} normal pulsars and 12{sub −5}{sup +70} millisecond pulsars would be detected by the beginning of 2014; at the time, the PALFA survey had detected 283 normal pulsars and 31 millisecond pulsars, respectively. We attribute the deficiency in normal pulsar

  9. Bipolar patients sing more in singapore: singing as a signal for mania in psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leslie; Leow, Me Lye; Soh, Bee Leng; Chan, Yiong Huak; Parker, Gordon

    2013-10-01

    Singing in psychotic patients has received little attention in the psychiatric literature. In this preliminary study, we test the hypothesis that manic patients sing more than schizophrenic patients (SPs). Manic patients and SP inpatients and outpatients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire which included questions on musical interests, and how much they felt like singing prior to their most recent admission to hospital. They were asked if they were willing to sing during the interview and responses were observed. Of the 69 manic patients and 68 SPs interviewed, manic patients were more likely to report singing than SPs (76% vs 24%) prior to their most recent admission to hospital. There was a trend for manic inpatients to be more willing to sing during the interview. Increased singing is suggested as a useful symptom and sign in patients suffering from a manic illness.

  10. Gender and Boys' Singing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Clare

    2005-01-01

    This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…

  11. Drawing melodies: evaluation of chironomic singing synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessandro, Christophe; Feugère, Lionel; Le Beux, Sylvain; Perrotin, Olivier; Rilliard, Albert

    2014-06-01

    Cantor Digitalis, a real-time formant synthesizer controlled by a graphic tablet and a stylus, is used for assessment of melodic precision and accuracy in singing synthesis. Melodic accuracy and precision are measured in three experiments for groups of 20 and 28 subjects. The task of the subjects is to sing musical intervals and short melodies, at various tempi, using chironomy (hand-controlled singing), mute chironomy (without audio feedback), and their own voices. The results show the high accuracy and precision obtained by all the subjects for chironomic control of singing synthesis. Some subjects performed significantly better in chironomic singing compared to natural singing, although other subjects showed comparable proficiency. For the chironomic condition, mean note accuracy is less than 12 cents and mean interval accuracy is less than 25 cents for all the subjects. Comparing chironomy and mute chironomy shows that the skills used for writing and drawing are used for chironomic singing, but that the audio feedback helps in interval accuracy. Analysis of blind chironomy (without visual reference) indicates that a visual feedback helps greatly in both note and interval accuracy and precision. This study demonstrates the capabilities of chironomy as a precise and accurate mean for controlling singing synthesis.

  12. Masculinity and Choral Singing: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceptions of masculinity amongst male participants in choral singing, drawing on data that form part of a larger project where the overarching aim was to explore how these perceptions influenced male participation in choir. Masculinity was considered in terms of the stereotypes associated with being a male singing in…

  13. A Statistical Study of Brown Dwarf Companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; De Lee, Nathan M.; Lee, Brian L.; Fleming, Scott W.; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Varosi, Frank; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Li, Rui; Agol, Eric; MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present 23 new Brown Dwarf (BD) candidates from the Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III). The BD candidates were selected from the processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida 2D pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over the 1D pipeline results included in the SDSS Data Release 12. This sample is the largest BD yield from a single radial velocity survey. Of the 23 candidates, 18 are around main sequence stars and 5 are around giant stars. Given a giant contamination rate of ~24% for the MARVELS survey, we find a BD occurrence rate around main sequence stars of ~0.7%, which agrees with previous studies and confirms the BD desert, while the BD occurrence rate around the MARVELS giant stars is ~0.6%. Preliminary results show that our new candidates around solar type stars support a two population hypothesis, where BDs are divided at a mass of ~42.5 MJup. BDs less massive than 42.5 MJup have eccentricity distributions consistent with planet-planet scattering models, where BDs more massive than 42.5 MJup have both period and eccentricity distributions similar to that of stellar binaries. Special Brown Dwarf systems such as multiple BD systems and highly eccentric BDs will also be presented.

  14. Singing about family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emah, E

    1993-01-01

    The Nigerian Family Health services project teamed up with the Johns Hopkins University's Population Communication Services to produce songs called "Choices" and "Wait for Me." The songs, which were about sexual responsibility, were performed by popular music stars King Sunny Ade and Onyeka Onwenu and appeared under King Sonny Ade's long playing albums in 1989. Teaching sexual responsibility through song was suggested in focus group discussions. Findings indicated that young people were responsive to messages about sexual responsibility, postponing sex or saying "no," male sexual responsibility, and children by informed choice and not chance among married couples. An impact assessment of the songs was conducted in February, 1991. Survey findings revealed that 64% of urban and 22% of rural respondents recalled having heard the songs and seen the videos. 48% of urban youth discussed the songs with friends, and 27% discussed the songs with sexual partners. 90% of respondents reported agreement with the message that couples should have only the number of children that they can care for, and that couples should practice family planning. The target population that was affected most by the songs was aged less than 35 years. The strategy of using songs to teach youth responsible parenting appears to be a reliable strategy for mass education and mobilization. There is mass support from among members of the National Council for Women's Societies, the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria, and Coca Cola Corporation, as well as the public at large.

  15. THE ELM SURVEY. III. A SUCCESSFUL TARGETED SURVEY FOR EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-01-10

    Extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs) with masses < 0.25 M{sub Sun} are rare objects that result from compact binary evolution. Here, we present a targeted spectroscopic survey of ELM WD candidates selected by color. The survey is 71% complete and has uncovered 18 new ELM WDs. Of the seven ELM WDs with follow-up observations, six are short-period binaries and four have merger times less than 5 Gyr. The most intriguing object, J1741+6526, likely has either a pulsar companion or a massive WD companion making the system a possible supernova Type Ia or an Ia progenitor. The overall ELM survey has now identified 19 double degenerate binaries with <10 Gyr merger times. The significant absence of short orbital period ELM WDs at cool temperatures suggests that common envelope evolution creates ELM WDs directly in short period systems. At least one-third of the merging systems are halo objects, thus ELM WD binaries continue to form and merge in both the disk and the halo.

  16. THE ELM SURVEY. III. A SUCCESSFUL TARGETED SURVEY FOR EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs) with masses ☉ are rare objects that result from compact binary evolution. Here, we present a targeted spectroscopic survey of ELM WD candidates selected by color. The survey is 71% complete and has uncovered 18 new ELM WDs. Of the seven ELM WDs with follow-up observations, six are short-period binaries and four have merger times less than 5 Gyr. The most intriguing object, J1741+6526, likely has either a pulsar companion or a massive WD companion making the system a possible supernova Type Ia or an Ia progenitor. The overall ELM survey has now identified 19 double degenerate binaries with <10 Gyr merger times. The significant absence of short orbital period ELM WDs at cool temperatures suggests that common envelope evolution creates ELM WDs directly in short period systems. At least one-third of the merging systems are halo objects, thus ELM WD binaries continue to form and merge in both the disk and the halo.

  17. Vocal tract shapes in different singing functions used in musical theater singing-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Popeil, Lisa; Traser, Louisa; Wienhausen, Sascha; Richter, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Singing styles in Musical Theater singing might differ in many ways from Western Classical singing. However, vocal tract adjustments are not understood in detail. Vocal tract shapes of a single professional Music Theater female subject were analyzed concerning different aspects of singing styles using dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging technology with a frame rate of 8 fps. The different tasks include register differences, belting, and vibrato strategies. Articulatory differences were found between head register, modal register, and belting. Also, some vibrato strategies ("jazzy" vibrato) do involve vocal tract adjustments, whereas others (classical vibrato) do not. Vocal tract shaping might contribute to the establishment of different singing functions in Musical Theater singing. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Singing proficiency in the majority: normality and "phenotypes" of poor singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena

    2009-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the majority of occasional singers can carry a tune. For example, when asked to sing a well-known song (e.g., "Happy Birthday"), nonmusicians performing at a slow tempo are as proficient as professional singers. Yet, some occasional singers are poor singers, mostly in the pitch domain, and sometimes despite not having impoverished perception. Poor singing is not a monolithic deficit, but is likely to be characterized by a diversity of singing "phenotypes." Here we systematically examined singing proficiency in a group of occasional singers, with the goal of characterizing the different patterns of poor singing. Participants sang three well-known melodies (e.g., "Jingle Bells") at a natural tempo and at a slow tempo, as indicated by a metronome. For each rendition, we computed objective measures of pitch and time accuracy with an acoustical method. The results confirmed previous observations that the majority of occasional singers can sing in tune and in time. Moreover, singing at a slow tempo after the target melody to be imitated was presented with a metronome improved pitch and time accuracy. In general, poor singers were mostly impaired on the pitch dimension, although various patterns of impairment emerged. Pitch accuracy or time accuracy could be selectively impaired; moreover, absolute measures of singing proficiency (pitch or tempo transposition) dissociated from relative measures of proficiency (pitch intervals, relative duration). These patterns of dissociations point to a multicomponent system underlying proficient singing that fractionates as a result of a developmental anomaly.

  19. The SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity survey of M dwarfs. I. Description of the survey and science goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, R.; Bender, C. F.; Mahadevan, S.; Terrien, R. C.; Schneider, D. P.; Fleming, S. W. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Blake, C. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Carlberg, J. K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Zasowski, G.; Hearty, F. [University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Crepp, J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C. [Institut UTINAM, CNRS UMR 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l' Univers THETA Franche-Comt é-Bourgogne, Université de Franche Comté, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France); Nidever, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Prieto, C. Allende; Hernández, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, D. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Ebelke, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Frinchaboy, P. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Ge, J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    We are carrying out a large ancillary program with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS-III, using the fiber-fed multi-object near-infrared APOGEE spectrograph, to obtain high-resolution H-band spectra of more than 1200 M dwarfs. These observations will be used to measure spectroscopic rotational velocities, radial velocities, physical stellar parameters, and variability of the target stars. Here, we describe the target selection for this survey, as well as results from the first year of scientific observations based on spectra that will be publicly available in the SDSS-III DR10 data release. As part of this paper we present radial velocities and rotational velocities of over 200 M dwarfs, with a vsin i precision of ∼2 km s{sup –1} and a measurement floor at vsin i = 4 km s{sup –1}. This survey significantly increases the number of M dwarfs studied for rotational velocities and radial velocity variability (at ∼100-200 m s{sup –1}), and will inform and advance the target selection for planned radial velocity and photometric searches for low-mass exoplanets around M dwarfs, such as the Habitable Zone Planet Finder, CARMENES, and TESS. Multiple epochs of radial velocity observations enable us to identify short period binaries, and adaptive optics imaging of a subset of stars enables the detection of possible stellar companions at larger separations. The high-resolution APOGEE spectra, covering the entire H band, provide the opportunity to measure physical stellar parameters such as effective temperatures and metallicities for many of these stars. At the culmination of this survey, we will have obtained multi-epoch spectra and radial velocities for over 1400 stars spanning the spectral range M0-L0, providing the largest set of near-infrared M dwarf spectra at high resolution, and more than doubling the number of known spectroscopic vsin i values for M dwarfs. Furthermore, by modeling telluric lines to correct for small instrumental radial velocity shifts, we

  20. Singing teaching as a therapy for chronic respiratory disease - a randomised controlled trial and qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Julia L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite optimal pharmacological therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation, patients with COPD continue to be breathless. There is a need to develop additional strategies to alleviate symptoms. Learning to sing requires control of breathing and posture and might have benefits that translate into daily life. Methods To test this hypothesis we performed a randomised controlled trial, comparing a six week course of twice weekly singing classes to usual care, in 28 COPD patients. The experience of singing was assessed in a qualitative fashion, through interviews with a psychologist. In addition, we surveyed patients with chronic respiratory conditions who participated in a series of open singing workshops. Results In the RCT, the physical component score of the SF36 improved in the singers (n = 15 compared to the controls (n = 13; +7.5(14.6 vs. -3.8(8.4 p = 0.02. Singers also had a significant fall in HAD anxiety score; -1.1(2.7 vs. +0.8(1.7 p = 0.03. Singing did not improve single breath counting, breath hold time or shuttle walk distance. In the qualitative element, 8 patients from the singing group were interviewed. Positive effects on physical sensation, general well-being, community/social support and achievement/efficacy emerged as common themes. 150 participants in open workshops completed a questionnaire. 96% rated the workshops as "very enjoyable" and 98% thought the workshop had taught them something about breathing in a different way. 81% of attendees felt a "marked physical difference" after the workshop. Conclusion Singing classes can improve quality of life measures and anxiety and are viewed as a very positive experience by patients with respiratory disease; no adverse consequences of participation were observed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials - ISRCTN17544114.

  1. Brazil Geologic Basic Survey Program - Barbacena - Sheet SF.23-X-C-III -Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandalise, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The present report refers to the Barbacena sheet (SF.23-X-C-III) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:10,000 scale, related to the Levantamentos Geologicos Basicos do Brasil Program - PLGB, carried out by CPRM for the DNPM. Integrated to geochemical and geophysical surveys, the geological mapping not only yielded geophysical and geochemical maps but a consistent to the 1:100.000 scale Metallogenetic/Provisional one as well. The geological mapping carried out during the Project has really evidenced that samples of distinct stratigraphic units had been employed to define the one and only isochrone. However geochronologic Rb/Sr dating performed during the geological mapping phase evidenced Archean ages for rocks of the Sao Bento dos Torres Metamorphic Suite (2684 ± 110 m.y.) and ages of about 2000 m.y. for the Ressaquinha Complex rocks. An analysis of crustal evolution patterns based on geological mapping, gravimetric survey data, aeromagnetometry and available geochronologic data is given in the Chapter 6, Part II, in the test. Major element oxides, trace-elements and rare-earths elements were analysed to establish parameters for the rocks environment elucidation. Geochemical survey was carried out with base on pan concentrated and stream sediments distributed throughout the sheet. (author)

  2. Social Theory, Sacred Text, and Sing-Sing Prison: A Sociology of Community-Based Reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Victoria Lee

    2002-01-01

    Examines the sociological component of the urban community-based professional education programs at New York Theological Seminary offered at Sing-Sing Prison. Explores the simultaneous use of social theory and sacred texts as teaching tools and intervention strategies in the educational and personal transformation processes of men incarcerated for…

  3. Impact of group-singing on older adult health in senior living communities: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Musetta C; Belza, Basia; Nguyen, Huong; Logsdon, Rebecca; Demorest, Steven

    Participating in a group-singing program may be beneficial to healthy aging through engaging in active music-making activities and breathing exercises. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a 12-week group singing program on cognitive function, lung health and quality of life (QoL) of older adults. A pre and post-test quasi-experimental design evaluated the impact of a group-singing program on older adult health. The intervention consisted of pre-singing exercises, song-singing and learning, and socialization. Classes were 75 min/week for 12 weeks. Inclusion criteria were age ≥60, no self-reported diagnosis of dementia, and able to hear conversations within 2 feet. Participants were recruited from 3 senior living communities. Outcome measures included cognition, lung function, QoL, and program feasibility and acceptability. A paired t-test with 2-sided alpha level at 0.05 was used to test the null hypotheses. We enrolled 49 participants (mean age 83.6). Forty-two (86%) completed the posttests and exit survey. At the 12th week there was significant improvement in phonological (p memory, language, speech information processing, executive function, and respiratory muscle strength in older adults. The program was feasible and well-accepted. A clinical trial with a larger sample is indicated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, H U; Zhao, S; Kessler, R C; Eaton, W W

    1994-05-01

    Nationally representative general population data are presented on the current, 12-month, and lifetime prevalence of DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as well as on risk factors, comorbidity, and related impairments. The data are from the National Comorbidity Survey, a large general population survey of persons aged 15 to 54 years in the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United States. DSM-III-R GAD was assessed by lay interviewers using a revised version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Generalized anxiety disorder was found to be a relatively rare current disorder with a current prevalence of 1.6% but was found to be a more frequent lifetime disorder affecting 5.1% of the US population aged 15 to 45 years. Generalized anxiety disorder was twice as common among women as among men. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being older than 24 years, separated, widowed, divorced, unemployed, and a homemaker are significant correlates of GAD. Consistent with studies in treatment samples, we found that GAD was frequently associated with a wide spectrum of other mental disorders, with a lifetime comorbidity among 90.4% of the people who had a history of GAD. Contrary to the traditional view that GAD is a mild disorder, we found that the majority of people with GAD, whether they were comorbid or not, reported substantial interference with their life, a high degree of professional help seeking, and a high use of medication because of their GAD symptoms. Although lifetime GAD is highly comorbid, the proportion of current GAD that is not accompanied by any other current diagnosis is high enough to indicate that GAD should be considered an independent disorder rather than exclusively a residual or prodrome of other disorders.

  5. Psalm 98: Sing 'n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe | Prinsloo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sing a new song in praise of the king, Yahweh This article surveys the problems of interpreting Psalm 98. The chief problems are those concerned with determining the Gattung, the redactional history, strophic division and the dating of the Psalm. A textimmanent reading of the Psalm is used in an effort to make a significant ...

  6. Exploring the brown dwarf desert: new substellar companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Ghezzi, Luan; Kimock, Ben; Willis, Kevin; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian; Fleming, Scott W.; Agol, Eric; Troup, Nicholas; Paegert, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.; Stassun, Keivan; Varosi, Frank; Zhao, Bo; Jian, Liu; Li, Rui; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Santiago, Basílio X.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; del Peloso, E. F.

    2017-06-01

    Planet searches using the radial velocity technique show a paucity of companions to solar-type stars within ˜5 au in the mass range of ˜10-80 MJup. This deficit, known as the brown dwarf desert, currently has no conclusive explanation. New substellar companions in this region help assess the reality of the desert and provide insight to the formation and evolution of these objects. Here, we present 10 new brown dwarf and 2 low-mass stellar companion candidates around solar-type stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. These companions were selected from processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida Two Dimensional pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over previous pipelines. The 10 brown dwarf companions range in mass from ˜13 to 76 MJup and have orbital radii of less than 1 au. The two stellar companions have minimum masses of ˜98 and 100 MJup. The host stars of the MARVELS brown dwarf sample have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.03 ± 0.08 dex. Given our stellar sample we estimate the brown dwarf occurrence rate around solar-type stars with periods less than ˜300 d to be ˜0.56 per cent.

  7. The Eighth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Data from SDSS-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, Hiroaki; /Tokyo U.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; /Laguna U., Tenerife; An, Deokkeun; /Ewha Women' s U., Seoul; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Aubourg, Eric; /APC, Paris /DAPNIA, Saclay; Balbinot, Eduardo; /Rio Grande do Sul U. /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Beers, Timothy C.; /Michigan State U.; Berlind, Andreas A.; /Vanderbilt U.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; /Apache Point Observ.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U., CCPP /Penn State U.

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in August 2008, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Ly{alpha} forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around {approx}8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes 5-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg{sup 2} in the Southern Galactic Cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg{sup 2}, or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Evolution (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameters pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high metallicity stars.

  8. THE MAGELLANIC QUASARS SURVEY. III. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF 758 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI BEHIND THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozłowski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Onken, Christopher A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Meixner, M.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2013-01-01

    The Magellanic Quasars Survey (MQS) has now increased the number of quasars known behind the Magellanic Clouds by almost an order of magnitude. All survey fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 70% of those in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) have been observed. The targets were selected from the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) based on their optical variability, mid-IR, and/or X-ray properties. We spectroscopically confirmed 758 quasars (565 in the LMC and 193 in the SMC) behind the clouds, of which 94% (527 in the LMC and 186 in the SMC) are newly identified. The MQS quasars have long-term (12 yr and growing for OGLE), high-cadence light curves, enabling unprecedented variability studies of quasars. The MQS quasars also provide a dense reference grid for measuring both the internal and bulk proper motions of the clouds, and 50 quasars are bright enough (I ∼< 18 mag) for absorption studies of the interstellar/intergalactic medium of the clouds

  9. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... to it. Former Alabama lead singer Randy Owen sings his new song, "Braid My Hair." Photo courtesy ...

  10. A Dual-Stream Neuroanatomy of Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche

    2015-02-01

    Singing requires effortless and efficient use of auditory and motor systems that center around the perception and production of the human voice. Although perception and production are usually tightly coupled functions, occasional mismatches between the two systems inform us of dissociable pathways in the brain systems that enable singing. Here I review the literature on perception and production in the auditory modality, and propose a dual-stream neuroanatomical model that subserves singing. I will discuss studies surrounding the neural functions of feedforward, feedback, and efference systems that control vocal monitoring, as well as the white matter pathways that connect frontal and temporal regions that are involved in perception and production. I will also consider disruptions of the perception-production network that are evident in tone-deaf individuals and poor pitch singers. Finally, by comparing expert singers against other musicians and nonmusicians, I will evaluate the possibility that singing training might offer rehabilitation from these disruptions through neuroplasticity of the perception-production network. Taken together, the best available evidence supports a model of dorsal and ventral pathways in auditory-motor integration that enables singing and is shared with language, music, speech, and human interactions in the auditory environment.

  11. Singing and Cultural Understanding: A Music Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Chen-Hafteck, Lily; Crawford, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between singing and cultural understanding. Singing emerges in infancy and develops through processes of enculturation and socialization. When we sing songs from diverse cultures, we are granted with opportunities to learn about the cultures of others, and gain a better understanding of our own. Thus, singing…

  12. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth; Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seo, Hee-Jong; De Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Saito, Shun; Schlafly, Eddie; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    spectra give consistent constraints on cosmological models when compared with pre-systematic correction power spectra in the angular scales of interest. The SDSS-III Data Release 8 (SDSS-III DR8) Angular Clustering Data allow a wide range of investigations into the cosmological model, cosmic expansion (via BAO), Gaussianity of initial conditions, and neutrino masses. Here, we refer to our companion papers for further investigations using the clustering data. Our calculation of the survey selection function, systematics maps, and likelihood function for the COSMOMC package will be released at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/boss/galaxy/photoz/.

  13. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2012-12-10

    surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power spectra give consistent constraints on cosmological models when compared with pre-systematic correction power spectra in the angular scales of interest. The SDSS-III Data Release 8 (SDSS-III DR8) Angular Clustering Data allow a wide range of investigations into the cosmological model, cosmic expansion (via BAO), Gaussianity of initial conditions, and neutrino masses. Here, we refer to our companion papers for further investigations using the clustering data. Our calculation of the survey selection function, systematics maps, and likelihood function for the COSMOMC package will be released at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/boss/galaxy/photoz/.

  14. SDSS-III: MASSIVE SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEYS OF THE DISTANT UNIVERSE, THE MILKY WAY, AND EXTRA-SOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Anderson, Scott F.; Aihara, Hiroaki; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Eric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8), which was made public in 2011 January and includes SDSS-I and SDSS-II images and spectra reprocessed with the latest pipelines and calibrations produced for the SDSS-III investigations. This paper presents an overview of the four surveys that comprise SDSS-III. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Lyα forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation feature of large-scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z 5 evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for ∼15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s -1 , ∼24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of 2011 January, SDSS-III has obtained spectra of more than 240,000 galaxies, 29,000 z ≥ 2.2 quasars, and 140,000 stars, including 74,000 velocity measurements of 2580 stars for MARVELS.

  15. Singing Voice Analysis, Synthesis, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmoo E.

    The singing voice is the oldest musical instrument, but its versatility and emotional power are unmatched. Through the combination of music, lyrics, and expression, the voice is able to affect us in ways that no other instrument can. The fact that vocal music is prevalent in almost all cultures is indicative of its innate appeal to the human aesthetic. Singing also permeates most genres of music, attesting to the wide range of sounds the human voice is capable of producing. As listeners we are naturally drawn to the sound of the human voice, and, when present, it immediately becomes the focus of our attention.

  16. "I Can't Sing!" the Concept of Teacher Confidence in Singing and the Use within Their Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyning, Lyndell

    2011-01-01

    When teachers become more confident and competent in relation to singing, then they are more likely to use singing and to use it successfully. Teachers are expected to gain such skills in pre-service teacher education, to enhance their capability in teaching music, so that singing can be utilised and supported in schools. Confidence is definitely…

  17. Development and preliminary validation of the EASE: a tool to measure perceived singing voice function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyland, Debra J; Pallant, Julie F; Benninger, Michael S; Thibeault, Susan L; Greenwood, Ken M; Smith, Julian A; Vallance, Neil

    2013-07-01

    Most voice self-rating tools are disease-specific measures and are not suitable for use with healthy voice users. There is a need for a tool that is sensitive to the subtleties of a singer's voice and to perceived physical changes in the singing voice mechanism as a function of load. The aim of this study was to devise and validate a scale to assess singer's perceptions of the current status of their singing voice. Ninety-five vocal health descriptors were collected from focus group interviews of singers. These were reviewed by 25 currently performing music theater (MT) singers. Based on a consensus technique, the number of descriptors was decreased to 42 items. These were administered to a sample of 284 professional MT singers using an online survey to evaluate their perception of current singing voice status. Principal component analysis identified two subsets of items. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate and refine these sets of items to form two 10-item subscales. Both subscales demonstrated good overall fit to the Rasch model, no differential item functioning by sex or age, and good internal consistency reliability. The two subscales were strongly correlated and subsequent Rasch analysis supported their combination to form a single 20-item scale with good psychometric properties. The Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) is a concise clinical tool to assess singer's perceptions of the current status of their singing voice with good measurement properties. EASE may prove a useful tool to measure changes in the singing voice as indicators of the effect of vocal load. Furthermore, it may offer a valuable means for the prediction or screening of singers "at risk" of developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  18. THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: QUASAR TARGET SELECTION FOR DATA RELEASE NINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Nicholas P.; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A.; Carithers, William C.; Ho, Shirley [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Astronomy, MC-221, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sheldon, Erin S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton, NY 11375 (United States); Yeche, Christophe; Aubourg, Eric [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Strauss, Michael A.; Lee, Khee-Gan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bovy, Jo; Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Croft, Rupert A. C. [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Da Silva, Robert [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dawson, Kyle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hennawi, Joseph F., E-mail: npross@lbl.gov [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-03-01

    The SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), a five-year spectroscopic survey of 10,000 deg{sup 2}, achieved first light in late 2009. One of the key goals of BOSS is to measure the signature of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in the distribution of Ly{alpha} absorption from the spectra of a sample of {approx}150,000 z > 2.2 quasars. Along with measuring the angular diameter distance at z Almost-Equal-To 2.5, BOSS will provide the first direct measurement of the expansion rate of the universe at z > 2. One of the biggest challenges in achieving this goal is an efficient target selection algorithm for quasars in the redshift range 2.2 < z < 3.5, where their colors tend to overlap those of the far more numerous stars. During the first year of the BOSS survey, quasar target selection (QTS) methods were developed and tested to meet the requirement of delivering at least 15 quasars deg{sup -2} in this redshift range, with a goal of 20 out of 40 targets deg{sup -2} allocated to the quasar survey. To achieve these surface densities, the magnitude limit of the quasar targets was set at g {<=} 22.0 or r {<=} 21.85. While detection of the BAO signature in the distribution of Ly{alpha} absorption in quasar spectra does not require a uniform target selection algorithm, many other astrophysical studies do. We have therefore defined a uniformly selected subsample of 20 targets deg{sup -2}, for which the selection efficiency is just over 50% ({approx}10 z > 2.20 quasars deg{sup -2}). This 'CORE' subsample will be fixed for Years Two through Five of the survey. For the remaining 20 targets deg{sup -2}, we will continue to develop improved selection techniques, including the use of additional data sets beyond the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this paper, we describe the evolution and implementation of the BOSS QTS algorithms during the first two years of BOSS operations (through 2011 July), in support of the science investigations

  19. Giant Planet Candidates, Brown Dwarfs, and Binaries from the SDSS-III MARVELS Planet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Ge, Jian; Li, Rui; de Lee, Nathan M.; Heslar, Michael; Ma, Bo; SDSS-Iii Marvels Team

    2015-01-01

    We report the discoveries of giant planet candidates, brown dwarfs, and binaries from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey. The finalized 1D pipeline has provided 18 giant planet candidates, 16 brown dwarfs, and over 500 binaries. An additional 96 targets having RV variability indicative of a giant planet companion are also reported for future investigation. These candidates are found using the advanced MARVELS 1D data pipeline developed at UF from scratch over the past three years. This pipeline carefully corrects most of the instrument effects (such as trace, slant, distortion, drifts and dispersion) and observation condition effects (such as illumination profile, fiber degradation, and tracking variations). The result is long-term RV precisions that approach the photon limits in many cases for the ~89,000 individual stellar observations. A 2D version of the pipeline that uses interferometric information is nearing completion and is demonstrating a reduction of errors to half the current levels. The 2D processing will be used to increase the robustness of the detections presented here and to find new candidates in RV regions not confidently detectable with the 1D pipeline. The MARVELS survey has produced the largest homogeneous RV measurements of 3300 V=7.6-12 FGK stars with a well defined cadence of 27 RV measurements over 2 years. The MARVELS RV data and other follow-up data (photometry, high contrast imaging, high resolution spectroscopy and RV measurements) will explore the diversity of giant planet companion formation and evolution around stars with a broad range in metallicity (Fe/H -1.5-0.5), mass ( 0.6-2.5M(sun)), and environment (thin disk and thick disk), and will help to address the key scientific questions identified for the MARVELS survey including, but not limited to: Do metal poor stars obey the same trends for planet occurrence as metal rich stars? What is the distribution of giant planets around intermediate-mass stars and binaries? Is the 'planet desert

  20. The Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Christopher P.; Alexandroff, Rachael; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anderson, Scott F.; Anderton, Timothy; Andrews, Brett H.; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barnes, Rory; Bautista, Julian; Beers, Timothy C.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Borde, Arnaud; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, W. N.; Brinkmann, J.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Busca, N. G.; Carithers, William; Carnero, Aurelio R.; Carr, Michael A.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Chen, Yanmei; Chiappini, Cristina; Comparat, Johan; Connolly, Natalia; Crepp, Justin R.; Cristiani, Stefano; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Davenport, James R. A.; Dawson, Kyle S.; de Putter, Roland; De Lee, Nathan; Delubac, Timothée; Dhital, Saurav; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Escoffier, S.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Ferreira, Leticia D.; Filiz Ak, N.; Finley, Hayley; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Pérez, A. E. García; Ge, Jian; Génova-Santos, R.; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Grebel, Eva K.; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Haggard, Daryl; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Harris, David W.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Huehnerhoff, J.; Ivans, Inese I.; Ivezić, Željko; Jacobson, Heather R.; Jiang, Linhua; Johansson, Jonas; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kirkby, David; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A.; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lee, Khee-Gan; Lee, Young Sun; Long, Daniel C.; Loomis, Craig P.; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Lupton, Robert H.; Ma, Bo; Ma, Zhibo; MacDonald, Nicholas; Mack, Claude E.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Makler, Martin; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, A.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; Martell, Sarah L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ménard, Brice; Meszaros, Sz.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Montesano, Francesco; Morrison, Heather L.; Muna, Demitri; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Myers, Adam D.; Neto, A. F.; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Owen, Russell; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Parihar, Prachi; Pâris, Isabelle; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Petitjean, Patrick; Pforr, Janine; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Rebolo, Rafael; Rich, James; Richards, Gordon T.; Robin, Annie C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio J.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Samushia, Lado; Sanchez Almeida, J.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basílio; Sayres, Conor; Schlegel, David J.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Schwope, Axel D.; Scóccola, C. G.; Seljak, Uros; Sheldon, Erin; Shen, Yue; Shu, Yiping; Simmerer, Jennifer; Simmons, Audrey E.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, A.; Sobreira, Flavia; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Strauss, Michael A.; Streblyanska, Alina; Suzuki, Nao; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tal, Tomer; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Tremonti, Christy A.; Vargas Magaña, M.; Verde, Licia; Viel, Matteo; Vikas, Shailendra K.; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weinberg, David H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; West, Andrew A.; White, Martin; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yanny, Brian; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Zamora, O.; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zhu, Guangtun; Zinn, Joel C.

    2012-11-19

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) presents the first spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This ninth data release (DR9) of the SDSS project includes 535,995 new galaxy spectra (median z=0.52), 102,100 new quasar spectra (median z=2.32), and 90,897 new stellar spectra, along with the data presented in previous data releases. These spectra were obtained with the new BOSS spectrograph and were taken between 2009 December and 2011 July. In addition, the stellar parameters pipeline, which determines radial velocities, surface temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities of stars, has been updated and refined with improvements in temperature estimates for stars with T_eff<5000 K and in metallicity estimates for stars with [Fe/H]>-0.5. DR9 includes new stellar parameters for all stars presented in DR8, including stars from SDSS-I and II, as well as those observed as part of the SDSS-III Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-2 (SEGUE-2). The astrometry error introduced in the DR8 imaging catalogs has been corrected in the DR9 data products. The next data release for SDSS-III will be in Summer 2013, which will present the first data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) along with another year of data from BOSS, followed by the final SDSS-III data release in December 2014.

  1. Singing in the key of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Mortensen, Malene Vejby; Hansen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    for the musical ear training, particularly singing-related activities. If implemented as part of aural/oral rehabilitation therapy, the proposed musical ear-training program could form a valuable complementary method of auditory rehabilitation, and, in the long term, contribute to an improved general quality...

  2. Speech versus singing: Infants choose happier sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieve eCorbeil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants’ attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech versus hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children’s song spoken versus sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children’s song versus a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age.

  3. Singing of Neoconocephalus robustus as an example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyse the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the katydid Neoconocephalus robustus. We capture the dynamics by analysing a recording of the singing activity. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and test it against determinism and ...

  4. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  5. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Aihara, Hiroaki; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anderson, Scott F.; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Bosman, Casey T.; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, W. N.; Breslauer, Ben; Brewington, Howard J.; Brinkmann, J.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burger, Dan; Busca, Nicolas G.; Campbell, Heather; Cargile, Phillip A.; Carithers, William C.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Carr, Michael A.; Chang, Liang; Chen, Yanmei; Chiappini, Cristina; Comparat, Johan; Connolly, Natalia; Cortes, Marina; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cunha, Katia; da Costa, Luiz N.; Davenport, James R. A.; Dawson, Kyle; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; de Simoni, Fernando; Dean, Janice; Dhital, Saurav; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eiting, Jacob M.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Dutra Ferreira, Leticia; Fitzgerald, Greg; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Ford, Eric B.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García Pérez, Ana Elia; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ge, Jian; Ghezzi, Luan; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Gilmore, G.; Girardi, Léo; Gott, J. Richard; Gould, Andrew; Grebel, Eva K.; Gunn, James E.; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Harding, Paul; Harris, David W.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Inada, Naohisa; Ivans, Inese I.; Jiang, Linhua; Jiang, Peng; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jordan, Cathy; Jordan, Wendell P.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kazin, Eyal; Kirkby, David; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapp, G. R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Koesterke, Lars; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Kron, Richard G.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lang, Dustin; Lawler, James E.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Lee, Brian L.; Lee, Young Sun; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Liu, Jian; Long, Daniel C.; Loomis, Craig P.; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Lupton, Robert H.; Ma, Bo; Ma, Zhibo; MacDonald, Nicholas; Mack, Claude; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Makler, Martin; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; Maseman, Paul; Masters, Karen L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McDonald, Patrick; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Mena Requejo, Olga; Ménard, Brice; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Morrison, Heather L.; Mullally, Fergal; Muna, Demitri; Murayama, Hitoshi; Myers, Adam D.; Naugle, Tracy; Neto, Angelo Fausti; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Paegert, Martin; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pandey, Parul; Parejko, John K.; Pâris, Isabelle; Pellegrini, Paulo; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Pfaffenberger, Robert; Pforr, Janine; Phleps, Stefanie; Pichon, Christophe; Pieri, Matthew M.; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Ramos, Beatriz H. F.; Reid, I. Neill; Reyle, Celine; Rich, James; Richards, Gordon T.; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio J.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Roe, Natalie A.; Rollinde, Emmanuel; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossetto, Bruno; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basilio; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo; Schlegel, David J.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Sellgren, Kris; Shelden, Alaina; Sheldon, Erin; Shetrone, Matthew; Shu, Yiping; Silverman, John D.; Simmerer, Jennifer; Simmons, Audrey E.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smee, Stephen; Smith, Verne V.; Snedden, Stephanie A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stockett, Mark H.; Stollberg, Todd; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Tojeiro, Rita; Tremonti, Christy A.; Vargas Magaña, Mariana; Verde, Licia; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; White, Martin; White, Simon D. M.; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Yanny, Brian; Yasuda, Naoki; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Young, Erick; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Bo

    2011-09-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8), which was made public in 2011 January and includes SDSS-I and SDSS-II images and spectra reprocessed with the latest pipelines and calibrations produced for the SDSS-III investigations. This paper presents an overview of the four surveys that comprise SDSS-III. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Lyα forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation feature of large-scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z R = λ/Δλ ≈ 1800) optical spectra of 118,000 stars in a variety of target categories, probing chemical evolution, stellar kinematics and substructure, and the mass profile of the dark matter halo from the solar neighborhood to distances of 100 kpc. APOGEE, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, will obtain high-resolution (R ≈ 30,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >= 100 per resolution element), H-band (1.51 μm data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of 2011 January, SDSS-III has obtained spectra of more than 240,000 galaxies, 29,000 z >= 2.2 quasars, and 140,000 stars, including 74,000 velocity measurements of 2580 stars for MARVELS.

  6. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education. Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involved during sight-singing; 2. to explore strategies of problem solving when difficulties appear; 3. to investigate the self-evaluation perspectives of students; and 4. to relate students' learning experience to the strategies used. The sample consisted of 89 music students from higher music education in Belgrade and The Hague. They filled in the questionnaire based on self-reports, covering general data about their music education background, different issues of sight-singing, such as planning, problem solving, monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, and three melodic examples written in different musical styles. Results showed that strategies used during sight-singing can be roughly sorted into three groups that differ according to the 'key accent' given: cognitive, intuitive and no-strategy. The music cognitive strategies involved cover three levels of musical organization and representation: a relying on smaller chunks of the musical piece, referring to existing knowledge and learning experience; b leaning on a slightly 'bigger picture' of familiar patterns; and c mental representation of melodic/rhythmic/harmonic structures. When faced with a problem, half of the students employed analytic approaches. Comparisons between sub-samples showed, for example, that future performing musicians more often used 'tone-to-tone' thinking and 'bottom-up' strategies in approaching musical structure, while music theory students had better insight into the whole and used

  7. The singing revolution : part II-III / Mait Ando Raun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raun, Mait, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    Tartu rahu ja vabariigi aastapäeva tähistamisest 1988. aastal; Sündmused veebruarist aprillini 1988: üliõpilaste demonstratsioonist veebruaris, Loominguliste Liitude ühispleenumist, Rahvarinde loomisest ja Tartu muinsuskaitsepäevadest aprillis. Järg nr.4, lk.70-73

  8. A Case Study: Middle School Boys' Perceptions of Singing and Participation in Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to learn about the perceptions of singing and participation in choir of the author's eighth grade choir students. Specific areas of focus included insight on why the eighth grade boys sing and enjoy singing, perceptions of singing in a daily choir class, and perceptions of singing in an auditioned…

  9. The National Singing Programme for Primary Schools in England: An Initial Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G. F.; Himonides, E.; Papageorgi, I.; Saunders, J.; Rinta, T.; Stewart, C.; Preti, C.; Lani, J.; Vraka, M.; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    The "Sing Up" National Singing Programme for primary schools in England was launched in November 2007 under the UK government's "Music Manifesto". "Sing Up" is a four-year programme whose overall aim is to raise the status of singing and increase opportunities for children throughout the country to enjoy singing as…

  10. Making non-fluent aphasics speak: sing along!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Amélie; Bard, Céline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2006-10-01

    A classic observation in neurology is that aphasics can sing words they cannot pronounce otherwise. To further assess this claim, we investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in eight brain-damaged patients suffering from a variety of speech disorders as a consequence of a left-hemisphere lesion. In Experiment 1, the patients were tested in the repetition and recall of words and notes of familiar material. Lyrics of familiar songs, as well as words of proverbs and prayers, were not better pronounced in singing than in speaking. Notes were better produced than words. In Experiment 2, the aphasic patients repeated and recalled lyrics from novel songs. Again, they did not produce more words in singing than in speaking. In Experiment 3, when allowed to sing or speak along with an auditory model while learning novel songs, aphasics repeated and recalled more words when singing than when speaking. Reduced speed or shadowing cannot account for this advantage of singing along over speaking in unison. The results suggest that singing in synchrony with an auditory model--choral singing--is more effective than choral speech, at least in French, in improving word intelligibility because choral singing may entrain more than one auditory-vocal interface. Thus, choral singing appears to be an effective means of speech therapy.

  11. THE ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH DATA RELEASES OF THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: FINAL DATA FROM SDSS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Shadab; Albareti, Franco D.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anders, F.; Anderson, Scott F.; Anderton, Timothy; Andrews, Brett H.; Armengaud, Eric; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E.; Bailey, Stephen; Basu, Sarbani; Beaton, Rachael L.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All of the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 deg 2 of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include the measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 deg 2 of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 deg 2 ; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 of the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra

  12. The Eleventh and Twelfth Data Releases of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Final Data from SDSS-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadab; Albareti, Franco D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anders, F.; Anderson, Scott F.; Anderton, Timothy; Andrews, Brett H.; Armengaud, Eric; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Basu, Sarbani; Bautista, Julian E.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Beers, Timothy C.; Bender, Chad F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Beutler, Florian; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Bovy, Jo; Shelden Bradley, A.; Brandt, W. N.; Brauer, D. E.; Brinkmann, J.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolás G.; Cai, Zheng; Capozzi, Diego; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Carr, Michael A.; Carrera, Ricardo; Chambers, K. C.; Chaplin, William James; Chen, Yen-Chi; Chiappini, Cristina; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Clerc, Nicolas; Comparat, Johan; Covey, Kevin; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Cunha, Katia; da Costa, Luiz N.; Da Rio, Nicola; Davenport, James R. A.; Dawson, Kyle S.; De Lee, Nathan; Delubac, Timothée; Deshpande, Rohit; Dhital, Saurav; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Dwelly, Tom; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ellsworth, Tristan; Elsworth, Yvonne; Epstein, Courtney R.; Eracleous, Michael; Escoffier, Stephanie; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Fernández-Alvar, Emma; Feuillet, Diane; Filiz Ak, Nurten; Finley, Hayley; Finoguenov, Alexis; Flaherty, Kevin; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Foster, Jonathan; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Galbraith-Frew, J. G.; García, Rafael A.; García-Hernández, D. A.; García Pérez, Ana E.; Gaulme, Patrick; Ge, Jian; Génova-Santos, R.; Georgakakis, A.; Ghezzi, Luan; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; Goddard, Daniel; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Grebel, Eva K.; Green, Paul J.; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Grieves, Nolan; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Harding, Paul; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hayden, Michael; Hearty, Fred R.; Hekker, Saskia; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Huber, Daniel; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Ivans, Inese I.; Jiang, Linhua; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koenig, Xavier P.; Lam, Charles R.; Lan, Ting-Wen; Lang, Dustin; Laurent, Pierre; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lee, Khee-Gan; Lee, Young Sun; Licquia, Timothy C.; Liu, Jian; Long, Daniel C.; López-Corredoira, Martín; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Lupton, Robert H.; Mack, Claude E., III; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, A.; Manera, Marc; Mao, Qingqing; Maraston, Claudia; Marchwinski, Robert C.; Margala, Daniel; Martell, Sarah L.; Martig, Marie; Masters, Karen L.; Mathur, Savita; McBride, Cameron K.; McGehee, Peregrine M.; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ménard, Brice; Menzel, Marie-Luise; Merloni, Andrea; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Miller, Adam A.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Miyatake, Hironao; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; More, Surhud; Morganson, Eric; Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Morrison, Heather L.; Mosser, Benôit; Muna, Demitri; Myers, Adam D.; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Neyrinck, Mark; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Nuza, Sebastián E.; O'Connell, Julia E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; O'Connell, Ross; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Audrey E.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Osumi, Keisuke; Owen, Russell; Padgett, Deborah L.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Paegert, Martin; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Pâris, Isabelle; Park, Changbom; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Pellejero-Ibanez, M.; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; P´rez-Ra`fols, Ignasi; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Protopapas, Pavlos; Raddick, M. Jordan; Rahman, Mubdi; Reid, Beth A.; Rich, James; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruan, John J.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Salvato, Mara; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basílio; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schlegel, David J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Schwope, Axel D.; Scóccola, C. G.; Scott, Caroline; Sellgren, Kris; Seo, Hee-Jong; Serenelli, Aldo; Shane, Neville; Shen, Yue; Shetrone, Matthew; Shu, Yiping; Silva Aguirre, V.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smith, Verne V.; Sobreira, Flávia; Souto, Diogo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stello, Dennis; Strauss, Michael A.; Streblyanska, Alina; Suzuki, Nao; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Tayar, Jamie; Terrien, Ryan C.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thomas, Neil; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Troup, Nicholas W.; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose A.; Verde, Licia; Viel, Matteo; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weinberg, David H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; White, Martin; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Ye`che, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Zamora, O.; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou, Xu; Zhou, Zhimin; Zou, Hu; Zhu, Guangtun

    2015-07-01

    The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All of the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 deg2 of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include the measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 deg2 of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 deg2; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 of the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra.

  13. The eleventh and twelfth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Final data from SDSS-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Shadab; Albareti, Franco D.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anders, F.; Anderson, Scott F.; Anderton, Timothy; Andrews, Brett H.; Armengaud, Eric; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Basu, Sarbani; Bautista, Julian E.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Beers, Timothy C.; Bender, Chad F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Beutler, Florian; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Bovy, Jo; Bradley, A. Shelden; Brandt, W. N.; Brauer, D. E.; Brinkmann, J.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolás G.; Cai, Zheng; Capozzi, Diego; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Carr, Michael A.; Carrera, Ricardo; Chambers, K. C.; Chaplin, William James; Chen, Yen-Chi; Chiappini, Cristina; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Clerc, Nicolas; Comparat, Johan; Covey, Kevin; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Cunha, Katia; Costa, Luiz N. da; Rio, Nicola Da; Davenport, James R. A.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Lee, Nathan De; Delubac, Timothée; Deshpande, Rohit; Dhital, Saurav; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Dwelly, Tom; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ellsworth, Tristan; Elsworth, Yvonne; Epstein, Courtney R.; Eracleous, Michael; Escoffier, Stephanie; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Fernández-Alvar, Emma; Feuillet, Diane; Ak, Nurten Filiz; Finley, Hayley; Finoguenov, Alexis; Flaherty, Kevin; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Foster, Jonathan; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Galbraith-Frew, J. G.; García, Rafael A.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Pérez, Ana E. García; Gaulme, Patrick; Ge, Jian; Génova-Santos, R.; Georgakakis, A.; Ghezzi, Luan; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; Goddard, Daniel; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A.; Hernández, Jonay I. González; Grebel, Eva K.; Green, Paul J.; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Grieves, Nolan; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Harding, Paul; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hayden, Michael; Hearty, Fred R.; Hekker, Saskia; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Huber, Daniel; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Ivans, Inese I.; Jiang, Linhua; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koenig, Xavier P.; Lam, Charles R.; Lan, Ting-Wen; Lang, Dustin; Laurent, Pierre; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lee, Khee-Gan; Lee, Young Sun; Licquia, Timothy C.; Liu, Jian; Long, Daniel C.; López-Corredoira, Martín; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Lupton, Robert H.; III, Claude E. Mack; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, A.; Manera, Marc; Mao, Qingqing; Maraston, Claudia; Marchwinski, Robert C.; Margala, Daniel; Martell, Sarah L.; Martig, Marie; Masters, Karen L.; Mathur, Savita; McBride, Cameron K.; McGehee, Peregrine M.; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ménard, Brice; Menzel, Marie-Luise; Merloni, Andrea; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Miller, Adam A.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Miyatake, Hironao; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; More, Surhud; Morganson, Eric; Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Morrison, Heather L.; Mosser, Benôit; Muna, Demitri; Myers, Adam D.; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Neyrinck, Mark; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Nuza, Sebastián E.; O’Connell, Julia E.; O’Connell, Robert W.; O’Connell, Ross; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Audrey E.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Osumi, Keisuke; Owen, Russell; Padgett, Deborah L.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Paegert, Martin; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Pâris, Isabelle; Park, Changbom; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Pellejero-Ibanez, M.; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Pe´rez-Ra`fols, Ignasi; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Mello, Gustavo F. Porto de; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Protopapas, Pavlos; Raddick, M. Jordan; Rahman, Mubdi; Reid, Beth A.; Rich, James; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruan, John J.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Salvato, Mara; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basílio; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schlegel, David J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Schwope, Axel D.; Scóccola, C. G.; Scott, Caroline; Sellgren, Kris; Seo, Hee-Jong; Serenelli, Aldo; Shane, Neville; Shen, Yue; Shetrone, Matthew; Shu, Yiping; Aguirre, V. Silva; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smith, Verne V.; Sobreira, Flávia; Souto, Diogo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stello, Dennis; Strauss, Michael A.; Streblyanska, Alina; Suzuki, Nao; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Tayar, Jamie; Terrien, Ryan C.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thomas, Neil; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Troup, Nicholas W.; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose A.; Verde, Licia; Viel, Matteo; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weinberg, David H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; White, Martin; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Ye`che, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Zamora, O.; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou (周旭), Xu; Zhou (周志民), Zhimin; Zou (邹虎), Hu; Zhu, Guangtun

    2015-07-20

    The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All of the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 deg2 of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include the measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 deg2 of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 deg2; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 of the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra.

  14. [How did the castratos sing? Historical observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Deuster, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Historical observations In Church music from the early beginnings to the 19th century, women were not allowed to sing, because of a wrongly interpreted quote of the Apostle Paul. Paul had ordered women to keep silence in ecclesia, it means: in the community and in the congregation, but he himself never mentioned a ban on singing in church. The castratos gradually replaced the men singing falsetto due to the latter's weaker singing performance from the 17th century onwards. They originated mostly from simple social backgrounds. Many poor families in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries had up to 15 children and there was far too little work for the population. Some castratos were the stars of the opera. But as human beings they were discriminated. The castration took place mostly between the 7th and 12th years of their lives and many died as a result of the operation. The singing-lessons thereafter lasted 5-6 years. In the 18th century, the most famous castrato was Carlo Broschi, named Farinelli (1705-1782). Numerous arias sung by him are still in existence as scores, some are high quality concert pieces. There are modem versions on CD sung by a counter-tenor or a mezzo-soprano as soloists. Farinelli was able, during a visit to Spain, to improve with his singing the mood of two severely depressive kings. In the late 18th and in the 19th century, the castratos were increasingly replaced by tenors and women singers. The only historical sound recordings were sung by one of the last castratos, Alessandro Moreschi (1858-1922). The recordings were made in 1902 and 1904 in the Vatican. The arias are in the style of the end of the 19th century and contain no longer anything of the bravura arias so admired by the audiences in the 18th century. Since the end of World War II, the high male voices have experienced a renaissance.

  15. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Aihara, Hiroaki; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anderson, Scott F.; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Eric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Lyα forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature of large scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z 5 evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for ∼ 15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s -1 , ∼ 24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of January 2011, SDSS-III has obtained spectra of more than 240,000 galaxies, 29,000 z (ge) 2.2 quasars, and 140,000 stars, including 74,000 velocity measurements of 2580 stars for MARVELS. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8) in January 2011.

  16. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part II. Cultural Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    including horse, camel, mammoth, Ertm E-TR-48-III-II 20 musk ox, and certain species of bison, goat, and bear, which had previously inhabited the marsh and...34 - - -9,$.. 𔄃 Im I I I Si to * Location lype/Contents Affiliation 42B@644 rid e over cr ek - P/J depression, cleared areas, Fr elon (f4-5-18-92) ground

  17. Updated 34-band Photometry for the SINGS/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, D. A.; Turner, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie WY (United States); Cook, D. O. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA (United States); Roussel, H. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, Paris (France); Armus, L.; Helou, G. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Boquien, M. [Unidad de Astronomía, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA (United States); Looze, I. De [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Gent (Belgium); Galametz, M. [European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany); Gordon, K. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD (United States); Groves, B. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Jarrett, T. H. [Astronomy Department, University of Capetown, Rondebosch (South Africa); Herrera-Camus, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ (United States); Hunt, L. K. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Murphy, E. J., E-mail: ddale@uwyo.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and SINGS ( Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX , SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO , 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , Spitzer , Herschel , Planck , JCMT , and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR {sub C} I {sub C} and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  18. Updated 34-band Photometry for the SINGS/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Turner, J. A.; Cook, D. O.; Roussel, H.; Armus, L.; Helou, G.; Bolatto, A. D.; Boquien, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Calzetti, D.; Looze, I. De; Galametz, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Groves, B. A.; Jarrett, T. H.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Hinz, J. L.; Hunt, L. K.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Murphy, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and SINGS ( Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX , SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO , 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , Spitzer , Herschel , Planck , JCMT , and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR C I C and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  19. Bayesian galaxy shape measurement for weak lensing surveys - III. Application to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.; Heymans, C.; Kitching, T. D.; van Waerbeke, L.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Mellier, Y.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Coupon, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Fu, L.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Hudson, M. J.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuijken, K.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Vafaei, S.; Velander, M.

    2013-03-01

    A likelihood-based method for measuring weak gravitational lensing shear in deep galaxy surveys is described and applied to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS comprises 154 deg2 of multi-colour optical data from the CFHT Legacy Survey, with lensing measurements being made in the i' band to a depth i'AB noise ratio νSN ≳ 10. The method is based on the lensfit algorithm described in earlier papers, but here we describe a full analysis pipeline that takes into account the properties of real surveys. The method creates pixel-based models of the varying point spread function (PSF) in individual image exposures. It fits PSF-convolved two-component (disc plus bulge) models to measure the ellipticity of each galaxy, with Bayesian marginalization over model nuisance parameters of galaxy position, size, brightness and bulge fraction. The method allows optimal joint measurement of multiple, dithered image exposures, taking into account imaging distortion and the alignment of the multiple measurements. We discuss the effects of noise bias on the likelihood distribution of galaxy ellipticity. Two sets of image simulations that mirror the observed properties of CFHTLenS have been created to establish the method's accuracy and to derive an empirical correction for the effects of noise bias.

  20. Singing with yourself: evidence for an inverse modeling account of poor-pitch singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Mantell, James T

    2014-05-01

    Singing is a ubiquitous and culturally significant activity that humans engage in from an early age. Nevertheless, some individuals - termed poor-pitch singers - are unable to match target pitches within a musical semitone while singing. In the experiments reported here, we tested whether poor-pitch singing deficits would be reduced when individuals imitate recordings of themselves as opposed to recordings of other individuals. This prediction was based on the hypothesis that poor-pitch singers have not developed an abstract "inverse model" of the auditory-vocal system and instead must rely on sensorimotor associations that they have experienced directly, which is true for sequences an individual has already produced. In three experiments, participants, both accurate and poor-pitch singers, were better able to imitate sung recordings of themselves than sung recordings of other singers. However, this self-advantage was enhanced for poor-pitch singers. These effects were not a byproduct of self-recognition (Experiment 1), vocal timbre (Experiment 2), or the absolute pitch of target recordings (i.e., the advantage remains when recordings are transposed, Experiment 3). Results support the conceptualization of poor-pitch singing as an imitative deficit resulting from a deficient inverse model of the auditory-vocal system with respect to pitch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An Overview of Existing Research about Children's Singing and the Implications for Teaching Children to Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the findings of the studies devoted to the child voice, most of which have occurred in the past 25 years, and to present a synthesis of these findings with respect to the pedagogy, or art and science, of teaching children to sing. The data suggest that a philosophical disparity exists about…

  2. Contemporary Commercial Music Singing Students-Voice Quality and Vocal Function at the Beginning of Singing Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina M; Sobol, Maria; Olszowska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-10-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the voice quality and the vocal tract function in popular singing students at the beginning of their singing training at the High School of Music. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study consisted of 45 popular singing students (35 females and 10 males, mean age: 19.9 ± 2.8 years). They were assessed in the first 2 months of their 4-year singing training at the High School of Music, between 2013 and 2016. Voice quality and vocal tract function were evaluated using videolaryngostroboscopy, palpation of the vocal tract structures, the perceptual speaking and singing voice assessment, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, the Voice Handicap Index, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI). Twenty-two percent of Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with vocal nodules. Palpation of the vocal tract structure showed in 50% correct motions and tension in speaking and in 39.3% in singing. Perceptual voice assessment showed in 80% proper speaking voice quality and in 82.4% proper singing voice quality. The mean vocal fundamental frequency while speaking in females was 214 Hz and in males was 116 Hz. Dysphonia Severity Index was at the level of 2, and maximum phonation time was 17.7 seconds. The Voice Handicap Index and the SVHI remained within the normal range: 7.5 and 19, respectively. Perceptual singing voice assessment correlated with the SVHI (P = 0.006). Twenty-two percent of the Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with organic vocal fold lesions. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

  4. Read, Sing, Play, and Create a Musical Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2012-01-01

    Dayle Ann Dodds and Rosanne Litzinger's children's book, "Sing, Sophie!" provides the elementary general music teacher with an opportunity to read a captivating children's story, sing the main character's song and play her guitar, and create a song as well as instrumental music. Lessons outlined in this article may culminate in a veritable musical…

  5. Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…

  6. Chronic pain and pattern of health care utilization among Malaysian elderly population: National Health and Morbidity Survey III (NHMS III, 2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Zaki, Lily R; Hairi, Noran N

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to report prevalence of chronic pain and to examine whether chronic pain influence healthcare usage among elderly Malaysian population. This was a sub-population analysis of the elderly sample in the Malaysia's Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) 2006, a nation-wide population based survey. A subset of 4954 elderly aged 60 years and above was used in the analysis. Chronic pain, pain's interference and outcome variables of healthcare utilization (hospital admission and ambulatory care service) were all measured and determined by self-report. Prevalence of chronic pain among elderly Malaysian was 15.2% (95% CI: 14.5, 16.8). Prevalence of chronic pain increased with advancing age, and the highest prevalence was seen among the old-old group category (21.5%). Across young-old and old-old groups, chronic pain was more prevalent among females, Indian ethnicity, widows/widowers, rural residency and those with no educational background. Our study showed that chronic pain alone increased hospitalization but not visits to ambulatory facilities. Presence of chronic pain was significantly associated with the frequency of hospitalization (aIRR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02, 1.38) but not ambulatory care service. Chronic pain is a prevalent health problem among the elderly in Malaysia and is associated with higher hospitalization rate among the elderly population. This study provides insight into the distribution of chronic pain among the elderly and its relationship with the patterns of healthcare utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DSM-5 Tobacco Use Disorder and Sleep Disturbance: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C; Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A

    2017-12-06

    The DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder diagnosis incorporates tobacco misuse, addictive behaviors and withdrawal symptomology. Tobacco use is bidirectionally associated with sleep pathology; however, no epidemiological studies have yet evaluated the associations between DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder and self-reported sleep disturbance. The current study aimed to evaluate health, medical and sleep-related factors among individuals within this diagnostic stratum. A total of N = 36,177 adults who participated in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) were included for analyses. The adjusted odd ratios (AOR) for individual classifications of DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder among those with subjective sleep disturbances were used as the primary outcome measure and relevant demographic, clinical and medical factors were considered in all univariate and multivariable analyses. Current and lifetime DSM-5 tobacco use disorder diagnoses were associated with poorer health and medical outcomes and higher rates of subjective sleep disturbances (all p DSM-5 tobacco use disorder and subjective sleep disturbances were maintained in multivariable analyses following adjustment for a range of health, lifestyle, and psychiatric factors (adjusted OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.00-1.23 and adjusted OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.15-1.34, respectively); however, these relationships were fully explained by diagnoses of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. Data from this large, representative survey indicate that the association between DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder and sleep disturbance is explained by underlying diagnoses of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. Multifaceted substance abuse treatment protocols may improve treatment outcomes for affected patient groups.

  8. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  9. Sing Your Heart Out: community singing as part of mental health recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Tom; Whieldon, Alice

    2017-11-25

    This paper reports on a qualitative evaluation of a Norfolk-based network of community singing workshops aimed at people with mental health conditions and the general public. The aims of the study were (a) to evaluate the effectiveness of the Sing Your Heart Out (SYHO) project and (b) to identify the key features which made the project distinctive. The study draws on 20 interviews with participants, two focus groups with organisers and workshop leaders, and participative observation over a 6-month period. Interviewees all reported improvement in or maintenance of their mental health and well-being as a direct result of engagement in the singing workshops. For most it was a key component, and for some the only and sufficient component in their recovery and ongoing psychological stability. SYHO was regarded as different from choirs and from most other social groups and also different from therapy groups, music or otherwise. The combination of singing with an inclusive social aspect was regarded as essential in effecting recovery. The lack of pressure to discuss their condition and the absence of explicit therapy was also mentioned by most participants as an important and welcome element in why SYHO worked for them. The combination of singing and social engagement produced an ongoing feeling of belonging and well-being. Attendance provided them with structure, support and contact that improved functioning and mood. We conclude that the SYHO model offers a low-commitment, low-cost tool for mental health recovery within the community. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Harvard U., Phys. Dept.; Weinberg, David H.; /Ohio State U.; Agol, Eric; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Aihara, Hiroaki; /Tokyo U.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; /Laguna U., Tenerife; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arns, James A.; /Michigan U.; Aubourg, Eric; /APC, Paris /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bailey, Stephen; /LBL, Berkeley; Balbinot, Eduardo; /Rio Grande do Sul U. /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Barkhouser, Robert; /Johns Hopkins U. /Michigan State U.

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Ly{alpha} forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature of large scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z < 0.7 and at z {approx} 2.5. SEGUE-2, a now-completed continuation of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, measured medium-resolution (R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} 1800) optical spectra of 118,000 stars in a variety of target categories, probing chemical evolution, stellar kinematics and substructure, and the mass profile of the dark matter halo from the solar neighborhood to distances of 100 kpc. APOGEE, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, will obtain high-resolution (R {approx} 30,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {ge} 100 per resolution element), H-band (1.51 {micro}m < {lambda} < 1.70 {micro}m) spectra of 10{sup 5} evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for {approx} 15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s{sup -1}, {approx} 24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of January 2011, SDSS-III has obtained

  11. Developing Singing Confidence in Early Childhood Teachers Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Group Singing: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Bodkin-Allen, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are often required to sing, which requires confidence. The purpose of the present study was to treat early childhood teachers who self-identified as uncertain singers using either a group singing (GS) approach, or a talking approach, based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The aim of the study was to increase…

  12. A Pilot Study: The Effect of Singing and Non-Singing--Instructional Strategies on Harmonic Listening Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Cynthia I.; Brinckmeyer, Lynn; Beckman, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of singing and non-singing experiences when students develop harmonic listening skills. Participants were children and adolescents who participate in a community youth choir (N = 21). Ages ranged from 9-16 years. The subjects were organized into four separate groups. All subjects attended…

  13. Factors associated with singers' perceptions of choral singing well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Elliana R; van Leer, Eva; Phero, Heidi J; Xie, Changchun; Khosla, Sid

    2013-11-01

    Choral singing is a popular vocational pastime across cultures. The potential health benefits associated with choral singing, including positive effect on well-being, are a topic of interest in health research. However, anecdotal reports from voice professionals suggest that the unique demands of choral singing may enforce unhealthy singing habits. This study explores suboptimal vocal behaviors that are sometimes associated with choral singing, which include singing outside comfortable pitch range, singing too loudly, and singing too softly for blend. The relationships between suboptimal choral singing habits, vocal warm-ups (WUs), vocal fatigue, and singing-related well-being were assessed via a 14-item Likert-based response format questionnaire. Participants consisted of 196 attendees of the international World Choir Games. The final study group consisted of 53 male and 143 female international amateur singers aged 10-70. Results indicated a positive correlation between vocal fatigue and suboptimal singing behaviors (r = 0.34, P singing behavior experienced increased singing-related well-being (r = -0.32, P singing well-being. Substantially, more participants from this demographic preferred choir over solo singing (X²[1, N = 196] = 22.93, P singing behaviors may result in vocal fatigue and reduction of choral singing well-being and should therefore be considered when examining the effect of choral singing on singing-related well-being and health. Future research will compare the amateurs' perceptions of choral singing with perceptions from professional singers and will look at determinants of choral singing well-being. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Investigation of Singing, Health and Well-Being as a Group Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of singing as a group process deriving from two research studies: (i) Study 1: CETL (Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning): C4C (Collaboration for Creativity) Research Project called Singing, Health and Well-being and (ii) Study 2: iSING. The studies consider singing in relation to health…

  15. Singing and Vocal Instruction in Primary Schools: An Analysis from Six Case Studies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Albina; Rusinek, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how specialist music teachers sing and teach how to sing, based on data collected from six case studies carried out in Spanish primary schools. The study aimed at understanding classroom singing practices, and in particular the provision or absence of vocal instruction in relation with teachers' singing models. The findings…

  16. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO...... or small groups of galaxies, suggesting that the sample may include a significant fraction of luminous infrared galaxies. The source counts extracted from a reliable subset of the detected sources are in agreement with strongly evolving models of the starburst galaxy population....

  17. Acoustical study of classical Peking Opera singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Gu, Lide; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    Acoustic characteristics of classical opera singing differ considerably between the Western and the Chinese cultures. Singers in the classical Peking opera tradition specialize on one out of a limited number of standard roles. Audio and electroglottograph signals were recorded for four performers of the Old Man role and three performers of the Colorful Face role. Recordings were made of the singers' speech and when they sang recitatives and songs from their roles. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and spectrum characteristics were analyzed. Histograms showing the distribution of fundamental frequency showed marked peaks for the songs, suggesting a scale tone structure. Some of the intervals between these peaks were similar to those used in Western music. Vibrato rate was about 3.5Hz, that is, considerably slower than in Western classical singing. Spectra of vibrato-free tones contained unbroken series of harmonic partials sometimes reaching up to 17 000Hz. Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) curves showed no trace of a singer's formant cluster. However, the Colorful Face role singers' LTAS showed a marked peak near 3300Hz, somewhat similar to that found in Western pop music singers. The mean LTAS spectrum slope between 700 and 6000Hz decreased by about 0.2dB/octave per dB of equivalent sound level. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The SWELLS survey - III. Disfavouring 'heavy' initial mass functions for spiral lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewer, Brendon J.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Marshall, Philip J.; Barnabè, Matteo; Bolton, Adam S.; Koo, David C.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.

    We present gravitational lens models for 20 strong gravitational lens systems observed as part of the Sloan WFC Edge-on Late-type Lens Survey (SWELLS) project. 15 of the lenses are taken from Paper I, while five are newly discovered systems. The systems are galaxy-galaxy lenses where the foreground

  19. The ice-breaker effect: singing mediates fast social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that singing evolved to facilitate social cohesion. However, it remains unclear whether bonding arises out of properties intrinsic to singing or whether any social engagement can have a similar effect. Furthermore, previous research has used one-off singing sessions without exploring the emergence of social bonding over time. In this semi-naturalistic study, we followed newly formed singing and non-singing (crafts or creative writing) adult education classes over seven months. Participants rated their closeness to their group and their affect, and were given a proxy measure of endorphin release, before and after their class, at three timepoints (months 1, 3 and 7). We show that although singers and non-singers felt equally connected by timepoint 3, singers experienced much faster bonding: singers demonstrated a significantly greater increase in closeness at timepoint 1, but the more gradual increase shown by non-singers caught up over time. This represents the first evidence for an 'ice-breaker effect' of singing in promoting fast cohesion between unfamiliar individuals, which bypasses the need for personal knowledge of group members gained through prolonged interaction. We argue that singing may have evolved to quickly bond large human groups of relative strangers, potentially through encouraging willingness to coordinate by enhancing positive affect.

  20. Contributions of neuroimaging in singing voice studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geová Oliveira de Amorim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.

  1. Predictors of continued playing or singing--from childhood and adolescence to adult years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Lennartsson, A-K; Madison, G; Mosing, M A; Ullén, F

    2015-03-01

    Many individuals play an instrument or sing during childhood, but they often stop later in life. This study surveyed adults representative of the Swedish population about musical activities during childhood. We asked 3820 adults (65% women) aged from 27 to 54 from the Swedish Twin Registry, who took extra music lessons to those provided at school, to fill in a web-based questionnaire. Factors analysed were the age they started studying music, the instrument they played, kind of teaching, institution and educational content, number of lessons and perceived characteristics of the lessons, the music environment during their childhood years and their preferred music genre. All variables were dichotomised. Factors strongly associated with continued playing or singing were male sex, young starting age, cultural family background, self-selected instrument, attending music classes and more than once a week, church-related or private education, pop, rock or classical music, playing by ear and improvisation. Several significant predictors determined whether a child continued to sing or play an instrument as an adult and many could be externally influenced, such as starting at a young age, taking music classes more than once a week, improvisation and the type of music they played. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND NEBULAR OXYGEN ABUNDANCES OF THE SPITZER/SINGS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, John; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Dale, Daniel A.; Smith, John-David T.; Calzetti, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    We present intermediate-resolution optical spectrophotometry of 65 galaxies obtained in support of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy we obtain a nuclear, circumnuclear, and semi-integrated optical spectrum designed to coincide spatially with mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We make the reduced, spectrophotometrically calibrated one-dimensional spectra, as well as measurements of the fluxes and equivalent widths of the strong nebular emission lines, publicly available. We use optical emission-line ratios measured on all three spatial scales to classify the sample into star-forming, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and galaxies with a mixture of star formation and nuclear activity. We find that the relative fraction of the sample classified as star forming versus AGN is a strong function of the integrated light enclosed by the spectroscopic aperture. We supplement our observations with a large database of nebular emission-line measurements of individual H II regions in the SINGS galaxies culled from the literature. We use these ancillary data to conduct a detailed analysis of the radial abundance gradients and average H II-region abundances of a large fraction of the sample. We combine these results with our new integrated spectra to estimate the central and characteristic (globally averaged) gas-phase oxygen abundances of all 75 SINGS galaxies. We conclude with an in-depth discussion of the absolute uncertainty in the nebular oxygen abundance scale.

  3. Quasars in the field of SA94. III. A colour survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, S.; Barbieri, C.; La Franca, F.; Nota, A.

    1989-01-01

    A new sample of quasars has been selected in the central 10 square degrees of SA 94. The colour-colour U - B, B - V diagram has been used to identify low-redshift quasar candidates down to B = 19.8.99 extragalactic emission-line objects have been spectroscopically confirmed. The quasar surface density for QSOs with z ≤ 2.25 and other properties of this sample are derived and compared with other surveys

  4. The Gould's Belt very large array survey. III. The Orion region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radiostronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 μJy), large-scale (2.26 deg{sup 2}) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known young stellar objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for follow-up Very Long Baseline Array radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.

  5. THE IMACS CLUSTER BUILDING SURVEY. III. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF FIELD GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Dressler, Alan [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Gladders, Michael G.; Abramson, Louis [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fritz, Jacopo [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2013-06-10

    Using data from the IMACS Cluster Building Survey and from nearby galaxy surveys, we examine the evolution of the rate of star formation in field galaxies from z = 0.60 to the present. Fitting the luminosity function to a standard Schechter form, we find a rapid evolution of M{sub B}{sup *} consistent with that found in other deep surveys; at the present epoch M{sub B}{sup *} is evolving at the rate of 0.38 Gyr{sup -1}, several times faster than the predictions of simple models for the evolution of old, coeval galaxies. The evolution of the distribution of specific star formation rates (SSFRs) is also too rapid to explain by such models. We demonstrate that starbursts cannot, even in principle, explain the evolution of the SSFR distribution. However, the rapid evolution of both M{sub B}{sup *} and the SSFR distribution can be explained if some fraction of galaxies have star formation rates characterized by both short rise and fall times and by an epoch of peak star formation more recent than the majority of galaxies. Although galaxies of every stellar mass up to 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} show a range of epochs of peak star formation, the fraction of ''younger'' galaxies falls from about 40% at a mass of 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} to zero at a mass of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. The incidence of younger galaxies appears to be insensitive to the density of the local environment; but does depend on group membership: relatively isolated galaxies are much more likely to be young than are group members.

  6. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids⋆. III. Results for 33 X-type objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañada-Assandri, M.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Benavidez, P.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows the simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data of a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 33 X-type objects are presented, several of them are being polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we found polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for different groups among this taxonomic class and that there are objects with very different albedo in the sub-classes of the X taxonomic complex. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A11

  7. Behavioral symptoms of eating disorders in Native Americans: results from the ADD Health Survey Wave III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Holtzman, Niki; Dierker, Lisa; Becker, Anne E; Swaney, Gyda

    2011-09-01

    To examine prevalence and correlates (gender, Body Mass Index) of disordered eating in American Indian/Native American (AI/NA) and white young adults. We examined data from the 10,334 participants (mean age 21.93 years, SD = 1.8) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Wave III for gender differences among AI/NA participants (236 women, 253 men) and ethnic group differences on measures of eating pathology. Among AI/NA groups, women were significantly more likely than men to report loss of control and embarrassment due to overeating. In gender-stratified analyses, a significantly higher prevalence of AI/NA women reported disordered eating behaviors compared with white women; there were no between group differences in prevalence for breakfast skipping or having been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Among men, disordered eating behaviors were uncommon and no comparison was statistically significant. Our study offers a first glimpse into the problem of eating pathology among AI/NA individuals. Gender differences among AI/NA participants are similar to results reported in white samples. That AI/NA women were as likely as white women to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder is striking in light of well documented under-utilization of mental health care among AI/NA individuals. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Oral health and cognitive function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert; Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; D'Aiuto, Francesco; Watt, Richard G

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the association between oral health and cognitive function in early-, mid-, and late-adult life. A secondary analysis was carried out of a large, well-characterized community sample (NHANES III). Analyzed variables included three measures of oral health (gingival bleeding, loss of periodontal attachment, loss of teeth) and three measures of cognitive function: the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) (both in 5138 participants aged 20-59 years), and a Story Recall test (in 1555 participants aged >or=70 years). Other covariates in linear regression models included age, gender, ethnicity, education and poverty, and cardiovascular risk factors. Worse scores on all three measures of oral health status were significantly associated with poorer performance on all three measures of cognitive function after adjustment for age. Education was an important confounding factor. However, after full adjustment for all other covariates, gingival bleeding (%) and loss of periodontal attachment (%) remained associated with relative impairment on SDST score (B coefficients both = 0.003), and gingival bleeding was associated with relative impairment on SDLT (B = 0.017). No effect modification by age was observed. Poor oral health is associated with worse cognitive function throughout adult life. This may, in part, be accounted for by early life education and social status. However, the possibility of direct causal pathways requires further investigation.

  9. THE ARECIBO METHANOL MASER GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. III. DISTANCES AND LUMINOSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, J. D.; Menten, K. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    We derive kinematic distances to the 86 6.7 GHz methanol masers discovered in the Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey. The systemic velocities of the sources were derived from 13 CO (J = 2-1), CS (J = 5-4), and NH 3 observations made with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, the APEX telescope, and the Effelsberg 100 m telescope, respectively. Kinematic distance ambiguities were resolved using H I self-absorption with H I data from the VLA Galactic Plane Survey. We observe roughly three times as many sources at the far distance compared to the near distance. The vertical distribution of the sources has a scale height of ∼ 30 pc, and is much lower than that of the Galactic thin disk. We use the distances derived in this work to determine the luminosity function of 6.7 GHz maser emission. The luminosity function has a peak at approximately 10 -6 L sun . Assuming that this luminosity function applies, the methanol maser population in the Large Magellanic Cloud and M33 is at least 4 and 14 times smaller, respectively, than in our Galaxy.

  10. THE MICRO-ARCSECOND SCINTILLATION-INDUCED VARIABILITY (MASIV) SURVEY. III. OPTICAL IDENTIFICATIONS AND NEW REDSHIFTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursimo, Tapio [Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, 38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain); Ojha, Roopesh [NVI Inc./U. S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington DC (United States); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science and Mount Stromlo Observatory, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Rickett, Barney J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Dutka, Michael S. [The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Ave., N.E., Washington DC 20064 (United States); Koay, Jun Yi; Bignall, Hayley E.; Macquart, Jean-Pierre [ICRAR, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6845 (Australia); Lovell, James E. J. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, TAS 7001 (Australia); Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna, E-mail: tpursimo@not.iac.es [School of Physics and Astrophysics, UNSW, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-04-10

    Intraday variability (IDV) of the radio emission from active galactic nuclei is now known to be predominantly due to interstellar scintillation (ISS). The MASIV (The Micro-Arcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability) survey of 443 flat spectrum sources revealed that the IDV is related to the radio flux density and redshift. A study of the physical properties of these sources has been severely handicapped by the absence of reliable redshift measurements for many of these objects. This paper presents 79 new redshifts and a critical evaluation of 233 redshifts obtained from the literature. We classify spectroscopic identifications based on emission line properties, finding that 78% of the sources have broad emission lines and are mainly FSRQs. About 16% are weak lined objects, chiefly BL Lacs, and the remaining 6% are narrow line objects. The gross properties (redshift, spectroscopic class) of the MASIV sample are similar to those of other blazar surveys. However, the extreme compactness implied by ISS favors FSRQs and BL Lacs in the MASIV sample as these are the most compact object classes. We confirm that the level of IDV depends on the 5 GHz flux density for all optical spectral types. We find that BL Lac objects tend to be more variable than broad line quasars. The level of ISS decreases substantially above a redshift of about two. The decrease is found to be generally consistent with ISS expected for beamed emission from a jet that is limited to a fixed maximum brightness temperature in the source rest frame.

  11. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). III. 142 ADDITIONAL O-TYPE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apellániz, J. Maíz; Sota, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Herrero, A.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Gamen, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R  ∼ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al.

  12. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). III. 142 ADDITIONAL O-TYPE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apellániz, J. Maíz [Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, campus ESAC, camino bajo del castillo s/n, E-28 692 Madrid (Spain); Sota, A.; Alfaro, E. J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18 008 Granada (Spain); Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena (Chile); Walborn, N. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21 218 (United States); Simón-Díaz, S.; Herrero, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38 200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Negueruela, I.; Marco, A. [DFISTS, EPS, Universidad de Alicante, carretera San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, E-03 690 Alicante (Spain); Leão, J. R. S. [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte—UFRN, Caixa Postal 1524, CEP 59 078-970, Natal—RN (Brazil); Gamen, R. C., E-mail: jmaiz@cab.inta-csic.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET, UNLP), Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R  ∼ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al.

  13. THE TIME-DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: UNDERSTANDING THE OPTICALLY VARIABLE SKY WITH SEQUELS IN SDSS-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Davenport, James R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Green, Paul J.; Morganson, Eric [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy 3905, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Badenes, Carles [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT-PACC), University of Pittsburgh (United States); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Heckman, Timothy M. [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Isler, Jedidah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d’astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ross, Nicholas P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Paris, Isabelle, E-mail: jruan@astro.washington.edu [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-07-10

    The Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS) is an SDSS-IV eBOSS subproject primarily aimed at obtaining identification spectra of ∼220,000 optically variable objects systematically selected from SDSS/Pan-STARRS1 multi-epoch imaging. We present a preview of the science enabled by TDSS, based on TDSS spectra taken over ∼320 deg{sup 2} of sky as part of the SEQUELS survey in SDSS-III, which is in part a pilot survey for eBOSS in SDSS-IV. Using the 15,746 TDSS-selected single-epoch spectra of photometrically variable objects in SEQUELS, we determine the demographics of our variability-selected sample and investigate the unique spectral characteristics inherent in samples selected by variability. We show that variability-based selection of quasars complements color-based selection by selecting additional redder quasars and mitigates redshift biases to produce a smooth quasar redshift distribution over a wide range of redshifts. The resulting quasar sample contains systematically higher fractions of blazars and broad absorption line quasars than from color-selected samples. Similarly, we show that M dwarfs in the TDSS-selected stellar sample have systematically higher chromospheric active fractions than the underlying M-dwarf population based on their H α emission. TDSS also contains a large number of RR Lyrae and eclipsing binary stars with main-sequence colors, including a few composite-spectrum binaries. Finally, our visual inspection of TDSS spectra uncovers a significant number of peculiar spectra, and we highlight a few cases of these interesting objects. With a factor of ∼15 more spectra, the main TDSS survey in SDSS-IV will leverage the lessons learned from these early results for a variety of time-domain science applications.

  14. THE TIME-DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: UNDERSTANDING THE OPTICALLY VARIABLE SKY WITH SEQUELS IN SDSS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Davenport, James R. A.; Green, Paul J.; Morganson, Eric; Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William N.; Myers, Adam D.; Badenes, Carles; Bershady, Matthew A.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Dawson, Kyle S.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Isler, Jedidah C.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Paris, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS) is an SDSS-IV eBOSS subproject primarily aimed at obtaining identification spectra of ∼220,000 optically variable objects systematically selected from SDSS/Pan-STARRS1 multi-epoch imaging. We present a preview of the science enabled by TDSS, based on TDSS spectra taken over ∼320 deg 2 of sky as part of the SEQUELS survey in SDSS-III, which is in part a pilot survey for eBOSS in SDSS-IV. Using the 15,746 TDSS-selected single-epoch spectra of photometrically variable objects in SEQUELS, we determine the demographics of our variability-selected sample and investigate the unique spectral characteristics inherent in samples selected by variability. We show that variability-based selection of quasars complements color-based selection by selecting additional redder quasars and mitigates redshift biases to produce a smooth quasar redshift distribution over a wide range of redshifts. The resulting quasar sample contains systematically higher fractions of blazars and broad absorption line quasars than from color-selected samples. Similarly, we show that M dwarfs in the TDSS-selected stellar sample have systematically higher chromospheric active fractions than the underlying M-dwarf population based on their H α emission. TDSS also contains a large number of RR Lyrae and eclipsing binary stars with main-sequence colors, including a few composite-spectrum binaries. Finally, our visual inspection of TDSS spectra uncovers a significant number of peculiar spectra, and we highlight a few cases of these interesting objects. With a factor of ∼15 more spectra, the main TDSS survey in SDSS-IV will leverage the lessons learned from these early results for a variety of time-domain science applications.

  15. Phenomenological survey on the potential profile evolution in III-V binary compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendoza Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el cambio en el perfil de eficacia potencial de algunos compuestos cuando el bandmixing de huecos ligeros y pesados se altera. Se obtuvieron mediante la aplicación de este teorema generalizado Shur a un problema de valores propios cuadrática obtenidos a partir de un sistema con N ecuaciones de segundo orden, junto en el contexto de la aproximación de masa efectiva multibanda. Se consideraron los valores de energía incidente que fue menor, igual y superior a la altura de la barrera de dispersión potencial de diferentes compuestos de semiconductores III-V binario. La mayoría de las propiedades estándar de los compuestos binarios en este estudio están garantizados, pero no todos los materiales que elegimos, han puesto de manifiesto la evolución que se espera en su perfil de potencial efectivo: algunos de los que constituyen los pozos cuánticos (QW en aplicaciones tecnológicas sólo convertirse en efectiva barrera (B las conductas de los agujeros de luz (LH cuando están en la energía incidente diferente (E se extiende y bandmixing diferentes presentes. Ninguno de los compuestos que constituyen barreras para las aplicaciones tecnológicas en este estudio se convierte en eficaz comportamientos QW válido tanto para la LH y HH. Sorprendentemente, todos los compuestos en este estudio que constituyen barreras estándar en las aplicaciones tecnológicas, las transiciones presente desde CS a B para la LH en el rango donde el valor de E es mayor que la altura de la barrera.

  16. The Taiwanese-American occultation survey project stellar variability. III. Detection of 58 new variable stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Cook, K. H.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bianco, F. B. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Byun, Y.-I. [Department of Astronomy and University Observatory, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, W. P.; Ngeow, C.-C. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 320, Taiwan (China); Kim, D.-W. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rice, J. A., E-mail: ishioka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Statistics, University of California Berkeley, 367 Evans Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey project is designed for the detection of stellar occultations by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects, and it has monitored selected fields along the ecliptic plane by using four telescopes with a 3 deg{sup 2} field of view on the sky since 2005. We have analyzed data accumulated during 2005-2012 to detect variable stars. Sixteen fields with observations of more than 100 epochs were examined. We recovered 85 variables among a total of 158 known variable stars in these 16 fields. Most of the unrecovered variables are located in the fields observed less frequently. We also detected 58 variable stars which are not listed in the International Variable Star Index of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. These variable stars are classified as 3 RR Lyrae, 4 Cepheid, 1 δ Scuti, 5 Mira, 15 semi-regular, and 27 eclipsing binaries based on the periodicity and the profile of the light curves.

  17. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. III. KINEMATIC DISTANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Rood, Robert T., E-mail: Loren.Anderson@mail.wvu.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Using the H I emission/absorption method, we resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity and derive distances for 149 of 182 (82%) H II regions discovered by the Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS). The HRDS is an X-band (9 GHz, 3 cm) GBT survey of 448 previously unknown H II regions in radio recombination line and radio continuum emission. Here, we focus on HRDS sources from 67 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 18 Degree-Sign , where kinematic distances are more reliable. The 25 HRDS sources in this zone that have negative recombination line velocities are unambiguously beyond the orbit of the Sun, up to 20 kpc distant. They are the most distant H II regions yet discovered. We find that 61% of HRDS sources are located at the far distance, 31% at the tangent-point distance, and only 7% at the near distance. 'Bubble' H II regions are not preferentially located at the near distance (as was assumed previously) but average 10 kpc from the Sun. The HRDS nebulae, when combined with a large sample of H II regions with previously known distances, show evidence of spiral structure in two circular arc segments of mean Galactocentric radii of 4.25 and 6.0 kpc. We perform a thorough uncertainty analysis to analyze the effect of using different rotation curves, streaming motions, and a change to the solar circular rotation speed. The median distance uncertainty for our sample of H II regions is only 0.5 kpc, or 5%. This is significantly less than the median difference between the near and far kinematic distances, 6 kpc. The basic Galactic structure results are unchanged after considering these sources of uncertainty.

  18. Cardiac and Respiratory Patterns Synchronize between Persons during Choir Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Dyadic and collective activities requiring temporally coordinated action are likely to be associated with cardiac and respiratory patterns that synchronize within and between people. However, the extent and functional significance of cardiac and respiratory between-person couplings have not been investigated thus far. Here, we report interpersonal oscillatory couplings among eleven singers and one conductor engaged in choir singing. We find that: (a) phase synchronization both in respiration and heart rate variability increase significantly during singing relative to a rest condition; (b) phase synchronization is higher when singing in unison than when singing pieces with multiple voice parts; (c) directed coupling measures are consistent with the presence of causal effects of the conductor on the singers at high modulation frequencies; (d) the different voices of the choir are reflected in network analyses of cardiac and respiratory activity based on graph theory. Our results suggest that oscillatory coupling of cardiac and respiratory patterns provide a physiological basis for interpersonal action coordination. PMID:21957466

  19. "I'm Not Sure if I Can...But I Want to Sing!" Research on Singing as a Soloist through the Art of Improvising Verses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Albert; Vilar, Merce; Ayats, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Singing individually is both a necessary activity within the music class and an essential part of the cultural activity of improvising verses through singing. In this article we show how the introduction of this activity in the educational system of Catalonia has made it possible to obtain positive results with regard to participation in singing,…

  20. Singing modulates parvalbumin interneurons throughout songbird forebrain vocal control circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Toktas, Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074

  1. Singing for respiratory health: theory, evidence and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Mary L; Nicol, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    The premise that singing is a health promoting activity for people with respiratory conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma is a growing area of interest being investigated by researchers from various disciplines. The preliminary evidence, a theoretical framework and identification of methodological challenges are discussed in this perspective article with an eye to recommendations for further research to advance knowledge. After a brief summary of main research findings on singing in healthy people to provide background context, research is reviewed on singing in people with COPD and asthma. Studies include published research and as yet unpublished work by the authors. Methodological challenges arising from the reviewed studies are identified such as attrition from singing or control groups based on weak and strong, respectively, beliefs about singing's effectiveness. Potential solutions for these problems are considered with further recommendations made for other singing research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A Review of Training Opportunities for Singing Voice Rehabilitation Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Julia

    2016-05-01

    Training opportunities for singing voice rehabilitation specialists are growing and changing. This is happening despite a lack of agreed-on guidelines or an accredited certification acknowledged by the governing bodies in the fields of speech-language pathology and vocal pedagogy, the American Speech-Language Hearing Association and the National Association of Teachers of Singing, respectively. The roles of the speech-language pathologist, the singing teacher, and the person who bridges this gap, the singing voice rehabilitation specialist, are now becoming better defined and more common among the voice care community. To that end, this article aims to review the current opportunities for training in the field of singing voice rehabilitation. A review of available university training programs, private training programs and mentorships, clinical fellowships, professional organizations, conferences, vocal training across genres, and self-study opportunities was conducted. All institutional listings are with permission from program leaders. Although many avenues are available for training of singing voice rehabilitation specialists, there is no accredited comprehensive training program at this point. This review gathers information on current training opportunities from across various modalities. The listings are not intended to be comprehensive but rather representative of possibilities for interested practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  4. Meterwavelength Single-pulse Polarimetric Emission Survey. III. The Phenomenon of Nulling in Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rahul; Mitra, Dipanjan; Melikidze, George I., E-mail: rahulbasu.astro@gmail.com [Janusz Gil Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, ul. Szafrana 2, 65–516 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2017-09-10

    A detailed analysis of nulling was conducted for the pulsars studied in the Meterwavelength Single-pulse Polarimetric Emission Survey. We characterized nulling in 36 pulsars including 17 pulsars where the phenomenon was reported for the first time. The most dominant nulls lasted for a short duration, less than five periods. Longer duration nulls extending to hundreds of periods were also seen in some cases. A careful analysis showed the presence of periodicities in the transition from the null to the burst states in 11 pulsars. In our earlier work, fluctuation spectrum analysis showed multiple periodicities in 6 of these 11 pulsars. We demonstrate that the longer periodicity in each case was associated with nulling. The shorter periodicities usually originate from subpulse drifting. The nulling periodicities were more aligned with the periodic amplitude modulation, indicating a possible common origin for both. The most prevalent nulls last for a single period and can be potentially explained using random variations affecting the plasma processes in the pulsar magnetosphere. On the other hand, longer-duration nulls require changes in the pair-production processes, which need an external triggering mechanism for the changes. The presence of periodic nulling puts an added constraint on the triggering mechanism, which also needs to be periodic.

  5. On the limitations of statistical absorption studies with the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys I-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ting-Wen; Ménard, Brice; Baron, Dalya; Johnson, Sean; Poznanski, Dovi; Prochaska, J. Xavier; O'Meara, John M.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the limitations of statistical absorption measurements with the SDSS optical spectroscopic surveys. We show that changes in the data reduction strategy throughout different data releases have led to a better accuracy at long wavelengths, in particular for sky line subtraction, but a degradation at short wavelengths with the emergence of systematic spectral features with an amplitude of about one percent. We show that these features originate from inaccuracy in the fitting of modeled F-star spectra used for flux calibration. The best-fit models for those stars are found to systematically over-estimate the strength of metal lines and under-estimate that of Lithium. We also identify the existence of artifacts due to masking and interpolation procedures at the wavelengths of the hydrogen Balmer series leading to the existence of artificial Balmer α absorption in all SDSS optical spectra. All these effects occur in the rest-frame of the standard stars and therefore present Galactic longitude variations due to the rotation of the Galaxy. We demonstrate that the detection of certain weak absorption lines reported in the literature are solely due to calibration effects. Finally, we discuss new strategies to mitigate these issues.

  6. The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts III: Polarization properties of FRBs 160102 & 151230

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleb, M.; Keane, E. F.; van Straten, W.; Kramer, M.; Macquart, J. P.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bhandari, S.; Burgay, M.; Farah, W.; Jameson, A.; Jankowski, F.; Johnston, S.; Petroff, E.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B.; Tiburzi, C.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman

    2018-05-01

    We report on the polarization properties of two fast radio bursts (FRBs): 151230 and 160102 discovered in the SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts (SUPERB) at the Parkes radio telescope. FRB 151230 is observed to be 6 ± 11% circularly polarized and 35 ± 13 % linearly polarized with a rotation measure (RM) consistent with zero. Conversely, FRB 160102 is observed to have a circular polarization fraction of 30 ± 11 %, linear polarization fraction of 84 ± 15 % for RM =-221(6) rad m-2 and the highest measured DM (2596.1 ± 0.3 pc cm-3) for an FRB to date. We examine possible progenitor models for FRB 160102 in extragalactic, non-cosmological and cosmological scenarios. After accounting for the Galactic foreground contribution, we estimate the intrinsic RM to be -256(9) rad m-2 in the low-redshift case and ˜-2.4 × 102 rad m-2 in the high-redshift case. We assess the relative likeliness of these scenarios and how each can be tested. We also place constraints on the scattering measure and study the impact of scattering on the signal's polarization position angle.

  7. THE DiskMass SURVEY. III. STELLAR KINEMATICS VIA CROSS-CORRELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new cross-correlation (CC) approach used by our survey to derive stellar kinematics from galaxy-continuum spectroscopy. This approach adopts the formal error analysis derived by Statler, but properly handles spectral masks. Thus, we address the primary concerns regarding application of the CC method to censored data, while maintaining its primary advantage by consolidating kinematic and template-mismatch information toward different regions of the CC function. We identify a systematic error in the nominal CC method of approximately 10% in velocity dispersion incurred by a mistreatment of detector-censored data, which is eliminated by our new method. We derive our approach from first principles, and we use Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate its efficacy. An identical set of Monte Carlo simulations performed using the well-established penalized-pixel-fitting code of Cappellari and Emsellem compares favorably with the results from our newly implemented software. Finally, we provide a practical demonstration of this software by extracting stellar kinematics from SparsePak spectra of UGC 6918.

  8. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; O' Connell, Ross [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong; Schlegel, David; Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94702 (United States); Ross, Ashley [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Hirata, Christopher; Huff, Eric; Weinberg, David [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 510, Upton NY 11375 (United States); Strauss, Michael; Bahcall, Neta [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brinkmann, J. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie, E-mail: shirleyh@andrew.cmu.edu [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2015-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0∼ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h{sup −3} Gpc{sup 3}. In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimator in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼ 25% over a bin width of δ{sub l} ∼ 10−15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0ℓ ∼ 2−3). Observational systematics can strongly bias clustering measurements on large scales, which can mimic cosmologically relevant signals such as deviations from Gaussianity in the spectrum of primordial perturbations. We account for systematics by employing a new method recently proposed by Agarwal et al. (2014) to the clustering of photometrically classified quasars. We carefully apply our methodology to mitigate known observational systematics and further remove angular bins that are contaminated by unknown systematics. Combining quasar data with the photometric luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of Ross et al. (2011) and Ho et al. (2012), and marginalizing over all bias and shot noise-like parameters, we obtain a constraint on local primordial non-Gaussianity of f{sub NL} = −113{sup +154}{sub −154} (1σ error). We next assume that the bias of quasar and galaxy distributions can be obtained independently from quasar/galaxy-CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements (such as those in Sherwin et al. (2013)). This can be facilitated by spectroscopic observations of the sources, enabling the redshift distribution to be

  9. The Effect of Traditional Singing Warm-Up Versus Semioccluded Vocal Tract Exercises on the Acoustic Parameters of Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Emily; Plexico, Laura W; Sandage, Mary J; Hoch, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of traditional vocal warm-up versus semioccluded vocal tract exercises on the acoustic parameters of voice through three questions: does vocal warm-up condition significantly alter the singing power ratio of the singing voice? Is singing power ratio dependent upon vowel? Is perceived phonatory effort affected by warm-up condition? Hypotheses were that vocal warm-up would alter the singing power ratio, and that semioccluded vocal tract warm-up would affect the singing power ratio more than no warm-up or traditional warm-up, that singing power ratio would vary across vowel, and that perceived phonatory effort would vary with warm-up condition. This study was a within-participant repeated measures design with counterbalanced conditions. Thirteen male singers were recorded under three different conditions: no warm-up, traditional warm-up, and semioccluded vocal tract exercise warm-up. Recordings were made of these singers performing the Star Spangled Banner, and singing power ratio (SPR) was calculated from four vowels. Singers rated their perceived phonatory effort (PPE) singing the Star Spangled Banner after each warm-up condition. Warm-up condition did not significantly affect SPR. SPR was significantly different for /i/ and /e/. PPE was not significantly different between warm-up conditions. The present study did not find significant differences in SPR between warm-up conditions. SPR differences for /i/, support previous findings. PPE did not differ significantly across warm-up condition despite the expectation that traditional or semioccluded warm-up would cause a decrease. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - III. An Observed Link Between AGN Eddington Ratio and Narrow-Emission-Line Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lamperti, Isabella; Ricci, Claudio; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Berney, Simon; Crenshaw, D. Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass (M(sub BH)), bolometric luminosity (L(sub bol)) and Eddington ratio (lambda(sub Edd)) with optical emission-line ratios ([N II] lambda6583/Halpha, [S II]lambda-lamda6716, 6731/Halpha, [O I] lamda6300/Halpha, [O III] lamda5007/Hbeta, [Ne III] lamda3869/Hbeta and He II lamda4686/Hbeta) of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We show that the [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio exhibits a significant correlation with lamda(sub Edd) (R(sub Pear) = -0.44, p-value 3 x 10(exp. -13) sigma = 0.28 dex), and the correlation is not solely driven by M(sub BH) or L(sub bol). The observed correlation between [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio and M(sub BH) is stronger than the correlation with L(sub bol), but both are weaker than the lamda(sub Edd) correlation. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We propose that [N II] lamda6583/Halpha is a useful indicator of Eddington ratio with 0.6 dex of rms scatter, and that it can be used to measure lambda(sub Edd) and thus M(sub BH) from the measured L(sub bol), even for high-redshift obscured AGN. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.

  11. Singing together or apart: The effect of competitive and cooperative singing on social bonding within and between sub-groups of a university Fraternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; van Duijn, Max; Rotkirch, Anna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-01-01

    Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive ‘Cliques’: recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both ‘competitively’ (contests between Cliques) and ‘cooperatively’ (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group. PMID:27777494

  12. Radiation protection and antitumor effects in Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes sing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Gu, Yeunhwa; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Park, Sangrae; Hasegawa, Takeo; Tsukada, Sekihito; Terai, Kaoru; Tawaraya, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    The effect on an anti-tumor is admitted in the lyophyllum decastes sing extraction thing, and it has the action mechanism cleared to depend on the immunity action. The existence of the synergistic effect in effect on an anti-tumor radiation irradiation, an individual with the medication of lyophyllum decastes sing and effect on combination and the effect on protection of the leukocyte decrease by the radiation was examined by this research. After about 2x10 6 inoculated sarcoma 180 on the ICR mice, a lyophyllum decastes sing extraction thing gave 100mg/kg for 2 weeks in endoceliac at the every other day. After that, the radiation irradiation of 2 Gy was done three times, and it went to the sutra time target the number of the leukocytes, the lymph node ball some prizes of measurement. And, weight and tumor size were measured after the cancer cell inoculation two weeks. The decrease of the clear tumor size was recognized by the group that only a cancer cell was inoculated by the radiation independent irradiation group, lyophyllum decastes sing and the radiation combination group though tumor size increased as it passed. It faced by the group that only a cancer cell was inoculated after the irradiation 15 days though it died the precedent, and a half existed by lyophyllum decastes sing and the radiation combination group. And, the numbers of the leukocytes, the number of the lymphocyte were on the increase regardless of the existence of the radiation irradiation by the medication of lyophyllum decastes sing. It thinks with the thing that the effect is shown for the effect on immunity recovery in the radiotherapy and the prevention of a side effect of the radiation from this result. Showing the effect for not only effect on prevention of the cancer and effect on healing but also the effect on immunity recovery in the radiotherapy, the prevention of a side effect by taking lyophyllum decastes sing is considered

  13. THE FMOS-COSMOS SURVEY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6. III. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Sugiyama, N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan); Sanders, D.; Zahid, J.; Kewley, L. J.; Chu, J.; Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI, 96822 (United States); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, Hawaii, 96720 (United States); Renzini, A. [Instituto Nazionale de Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova, Italy, EU (Italy); Rodighiero, G.; Baronchelli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Juneau, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay (France); Nagao, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zürich, CH-8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, O., E-mail: john.silverman@ipmu.jp [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); and others

    2015-09-15

    We present a spectroscopic survey of galaxies in the COSMOS field using the Fiber Multi-object Spectrograph (FMOS), a near-infrared instrument on the Subaru Telescope. Our survey is specifically designed to detect the Hα emission line that falls within the H-band (1.6–1.8 μm) spectroscopic window from star-forming galaxies with 1.4 < z < 1.7 and M{sub stellar} ≳ 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. With the high multiplex capability of FMOS, it is now feasible to construct samples of over 1000 galaxies having spectroscopic redshifts at epochs that were previously challenging. The high-resolution mode (R ∼ 2600) effectively separates Hα and [N ii]λ6585, thus enabling studies of the gas-phase metallicity and photoionization state of the interstellar medium. The primary aim of our program is to establish how star formation depends on stellar mass and environment, both recognized as drivers of galaxy evolution at lower redshifts. In addition to the main galaxy sample, our target selection places priority on those detected in the far-infrared by Herschel/PACS to assess the level of obscured star formation and investigate, in detail, outliers from the star formation rate (SFR)—stellar mass relation. Galaxies with Hα detections are followed up with FMOS observations at shorter wavelengths using the J-long (1.11–1.35 μm) grating to detect Hβ and [O iii]λ5008 which provides an assessment of the extinction required to measure SFRs not hampered by dust, and an indication of embedded active galactic nuclei. With 460 redshifts measured from 1153 spectra, we assess the performance of the instrument with respect to achieving our goals, discuss inherent biases in the sample, and detail the emission-line properties. Our higher-level data products, including catalogs and spectra, are available to the community.

  14. RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS, GAS AND DUST IN SINGS GALAXIES. I. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY AND MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present ultraviolet through far-infrared (FIR) surface brightness profiles for the 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). The imagery used to measure the profiles includes Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV data, optical images from Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, near-IR data from Two Micron All Sky Survey, and mid- and FIR images from Spitzer. Along with the radial profiles, we also provide multi-wavelength asymptotic magnitudes and several nonparametric indicators of galaxy morphology: the concentration index (C 42 ), the asymmetry (A), the Gini coefficient (G), and the normalized second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M-bar 20 ). In this paper, the first of a series, we describe the technical aspects regarding the surface photometry, and present a basic analysis of the global and structural properties of the SINGS galaxies at different wavelengths. The homogeneity in the acquisition, reduction, and analysis of the results presented here makes these data ideal for multiple unanticipated studies on the radial distribution of the properties of stars, dust, and gas in galaxies. Our radial profiles show a wide range of morphologies and multiple components (bulges, exponential disks, inner and outer disk truncations, etc.) that vary not only from galaxy to galaxy but also with wavelength for a given object. In the optical and near-IR, the SINGS galaxies occupy the same regions in the C 42 -A-G-M-bar 20 parameter space as other normal galaxies in previous studies. However, they appear much less centrally concentrated, more asymmetric, and with larger values of G when viewed in the UV (due to star-forming clumps scattered across the disk) and in the mid-IR (due to the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 8.0 μm and very hot dust at 24 μm). In an accompanying paper by Munoz-Mateos et al., we focus on the radial distribution of dust

  15. THE CLUSTERING OF GALAXIES IN THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: LUMINOSITY AND COLOR DEPENDENCE AND REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hong; Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, OH 44106 (United States); Zheng Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT 84112 (United States); Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy and CCAPP, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Berlind, Andreas A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Chen Yanmei [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McBride, Cameron K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ho, Shirley; Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kazin, Eyal [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Samushia, Lado [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Nuza, Sebastian E. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K. [Department of Physics, Yale University, 260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2013-04-20

    We measure the luminosity and color dependence and the redshift evolution of galaxy clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Ninth Data Release. We focus on the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of subsets of its CMASS sample, which includes about 260,000 galaxies over {approx}3300 deg{sup 2} in the redshift range 0.43 < z < 0.7. To minimize the selection effect on galaxy clustering, we construct well-defined luminosity and color subsamples by carefully accounting for the CMASS galaxy selection cuts. The 2PCF of the whole CMASS sample, if approximated by a power-law, has a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 7.93 {+-} 0.06 h {sup -1} Mpc and an index of {gamma} = 1.85 {+-} 0.01. Clear dependences on galaxy luminosity and color are found for the projected 2PCF in all redshift bins, with more luminous and redder galaxies generally exhibiting stronger clustering and steeper 2PCF. The color dependence is also clearly seen for galaxies within the red sequence, consistent with the behavior of SDSS-II main sample galaxies at lower redshifts. At a given luminosity (k + e corrected), no significant evolution of the projected 2PCFs with redshift is detected for red sequence galaxies. We also construct galaxy samples of fixed number density at different redshifts, using redshift-dependent magnitude thresholds. The clustering of these galaxies in the CMASS redshift range is found to be consistent with that predicted by passive evolution. Our measurements of the luminosity and color dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy clustering will allow for detailed modeling of the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos and new constraints on galaxy formation and evolution.

  16. Singing for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; Epsley, Charlotte; Coren, Esther; McKeough, Zoe J

    2017-12-19

    Singing is a complex physical activity dependent on the use of the lungs for air supply to regulate airflow and create large lung volumes. In singing, exhalation is active and requires active diaphragm contraction and good posture. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, chronic lung disease characterised by airflow obstruction. Singing is an activity with potential to improve health outcomes in people with COPD. To determine the effect of singing on health-related quality of life and dyspnoea in people with COPD. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Specialised Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization trials portal and PEDro, from their inception to August 2017. We also reviewed reference lists of all primary studies and review articles for additional references. We included randomised controlled trials in people with stable COPD, in which structured supervised singing training of at least four sessions over four weeks' total duration was performed. The singing could be performed individually or as part of a group (choir) facilitated by a singing leader. Studies were included if they compared: 1) singing versus no intervention (usual care) or another control intervention; or 2) singing plus pulmonary rehabilitation versus pulmonary rehabilitation alone. Two review authors independently screened and selected trials for inclusion, extracted outcome data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted authors of trials for missing data. We calculated mean differences (MDs) using a random-effects model. We were only able to analyse data for the comparison of singing versus no intervention or a control group. Three studies (a total of 112 participants) were included. All studies randomised participants to a singing group or a control group. The comparison groups included a film workshop, handcraft work, and no intervention. The frequency of the singing intervention in the studies ranged from 1 to 2 times a week over a 6 to 24

  17. Birds reveal their personality when singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Zsolt Garamszegi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in social behaviour may have consequences for mate choice and sexual signalling, because partners should develop preferences for personalities that maximize reproductive output. Here we propose that behavioural traits involved in sexual advertisement may serve as good indicators of personality, which is fundamental for sexual selection to operate on temperament. Bird song has a prominent and well-established role in sexual selection, and it displays considerable variation among individuals with a potentially strong personality component. Therefore, we predicted that features of song would correlate with estimates of personality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field study of free-living male collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we characterised personality based on the exploration of an altered breeding environment, and based on the risk taken when a potential predator was approaching during a simulated territorial interaction. We found that explorative and risk-taker individuals consistently sang at lower song posts than shy individuals in the presence of a human observer. Moreover, males from lower posts established pair-bonds relatively faster than males from higher posts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results may demonstrate that risk taking during singing correlates with risk taking during aggression and with exploration, thus personality may be manifested in different contexts involving sexual advertisement. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that the male's balance between investment in reproduction and risk taking is reflected in sexual displays, and it may be important information for choosy females that seek partners with personality traits enhancing breeding success.

  18. Birds reveal their personality when singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2008-07-09

    Individual differences in social behaviour may have consequences for mate choice and sexual signalling, because partners should develop preferences for personalities that maximize reproductive output. Here we propose that behavioural traits involved in sexual advertisement may serve as good indicators of personality, which is fundamental for sexual selection to operate on temperament. Bird song has a prominent and well-established role in sexual selection, and it displays considerable variation among individuals with a potentially strong personality component. Therefore, we predicted that features of song would correlate with estimates of personality. In a field study of free-living male collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we characterised personality based on the exploration of an altered breeding environment, and based on the risk taken when a potential predator was approaching during a simulated territorial interaction. We found that explorative and risk-taker individuals consistently sang at lower song posts than shy individuals in the presence of a human observer. Moreover, males from lower posts established pair-bonds relatively faster than males from higher posts. Our results may demonstrate that risk taking during singing correlates with risk taking during aggression and with exploration, thus personality may be manifested in different contexts involving sexual advertisement. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that the male's balance between investment in reproduction and risk taking is reflected in sexual displays, and it may be important information for choosy females that seek partners with personality traits enhancing breeding success.

  19. Mock Quasar-Lyman-α forest data-sets for the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, Julian E.; Busca, Nicolas G. [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Bailey, Stephen; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Schlegel, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pieri, Matthew M. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 38 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, 13388, Marseille (France); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A. [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona/IEEC, 1 Martí i Franquès, Barcelona 08028, Catalonia (Spain); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Rich, James; Goff, Jean Marc Le [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, D128, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dawson, Kyle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 100 E, RM 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Feng, Yu; Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213 (United States); Ge, Jian [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Pâris, Isabelle [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Rossi, Graziano, E-mail: bautista@astro.utah.edu [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    We describe mock data-sets generated to simulate the high-redshift quasar sample in Data Release 11 (DR11) of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The mock spectra contain Lyα forest correlations useful for studying the 3D correlation function including Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). They also include astrophysical effects such as quasar continuum diversity and high-density absorbers, instrumental effects such as noise and spectral resolution, as well as imperfections introduced by the SDSS pipeline treatment of the raw data. The Lyα forest BAO analysis of the BOSS collaboration, described in Delubac et al. 2014, has used these mock data-sets to develop and cross-check analysis procedures prior to performing the BAO analysis on real data, and for continued systematic cross checks. Tests presented here show that the simulations reproduce sufficiently well important characteristics of real spectra. These mock data-sets will be made available together with the data at the time of the Data Release 11.

  20. Partially Overlapping Brain Networks for Singing and Cello Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segado, Melanie; Hollinger, Avrum; Thibodeau, Joseph; Penhune, Virginia; Zatorre, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    This research uses an MR-Compatible cello to compare functional brain activation during singing and cello playing within the same individuals to determine the extent to which arbitrary auditory-motor associations, like those required to play the cello, co-opt functional brain networks that evolved for singing. Musical instrument playing and singing both require highly specific associations between sounds and movements. Because these are both used to produce musical sounds, it is often assumed in the literature that their neural underpinnings are highly similar. However, singing is an evolutionarily old human trait, and the auditory-motor associations used for singing are also used for speech and non-speech vocalizations. This sets it apart from the arbitrary auditory-motor associations required to play musical instruments. The pitch range of the cello is similar to that of the human voice, but cello playing is completely independent of the vocal apparatus, and can therefore be used to dissociate the auditory-vocal network from that of the auditory-motor network. While in the MR-Scanner, 11 expert cellists listened to and subsequently produced individual tones either by singing or cello playing. All participants were able to sing and play the target tones in tune (singing in many areas within the auditory-vocal network. These include primary motor, dorsal pre-motor, and supplementary motor cortices (M1, dPMC, SMA),the primary and periprimary auditory cortices within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) including Heschl's gyrus, anterior insula (aINS), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and Cerebellum but, notably, exclude the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and basal ganglia (Putamen). Second, we found that activity within the overlapping areas is positively correlated with, and therefore likely contributing to, both singing and playing in tune determined with performance measures. Third, we found that activity in auditory areas is functionally

  1. Partially Overlapping Brain Networks for Singing and Cello Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Segado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research uses an MR-Compatible cello to compare functional brain activation during singing and cello playing within the same individuals to determine the extent to which arbitrary auditory-motor associations, like those required to play the cello, co-opt functional brain networks that evolved for singing. Musical instrument playing and singing both require highly specific associations between sounds and movements. Because these are both used to produce musical sounds, it is often assumed in the literature that their neural underpinnings are highly similar. However, singing is an evolutionarily old human trait, and the auditory-motor associations used for singing are also used for speech and non-speech vocalizations. This sets it apart from the arbitrary auditory-motor associations required to play musical instruments. The pitch range of the cello is similar to that of the human voice, but cello playing is completely independent of the vocal apparatus, and can therefore be used to dissociate the auditory-vocal network from that of the auditory-motor network. While in the MR-Scanner, 11 expert cellists listened to and subsequently produced individual tones either by singing or cello playing. All participants were able to sing and play the target tones in tune (<50C deviation from target. We found that brain activity during cello playing directly overlaps with brain activity during singing in many areas within the auditory-vocal network. These include primary motor, dorsal pre-motor, and supplementary motor cortices (M1, dPMC, SMA,the primary and periprimary auditory cortices within the superior temporal gyrus (STG including Heschl's gyrus, anterior insula (aINS, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and Cerebellum but, notably, exclude the periaqueductal gray (PAG and basal ganglia (Putamen. Second, we found that activity within the overlapping areas is positively correlated with, and therefore likely contributing to

  2. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on the Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinatto, Ana Paula A; Duprat, André de Campos; Silva, Marta Andrada E; Bracher, Eduardo Sawaya Botelho; Benedicto, Camila de Carvalho; Luz, Victor Botta Colangelo; Nogueira, Maruan Nogueira; Fonseca, Beatriz Suster Gomes

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on the singing voice of male individuals. Randomized, controlled, case-crossover trial. Twenty-nine subjects were selected among male members of the Heralds of the Gospel. This association was chosen because it is a group of persons with similar singing activities. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: (A) chiropractic SMT procedure and (B) nontherapeutic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) procedure. Recordings of the singing voice of each participant were taken immediately before and after the procedures. After a 14-day period, procedures were switched between groups: participants who underwent SMT on the first day were subjected to TENS and vice versa. Recordings were subjected to perceptual audio and acoustic evaluations. The same recording segment of each participant was selected. Perceptual audio evaluation was performed by a specialist panel (SP). Recordings of each participant were randomly presented thus making the SP blind to intervention type and recording session (before/after intervention). Recordings compiled in a randomized order were also subjected to acoustic evaluation. No differences in the quality of the singing on perceptual audio evaluation were observed between TENS and SMT. No differences in the quality of the singing voice of asymptomatic male singers were observed on perceptual audio evaluation or acoustic evaluation after a single spinal manipulative intervention of the thoracic and cervical spine. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Singing Education on Some Preschool Education Students' Music Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaškovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Singing education is an important segment of educating students--future preschool teachers at faculties of preschool teacher education. Singing is an elementary mode of children's music expression. The task of future preschool teachers is to gain knowledge and awareness about the importance and influence of singing on children's development.…

  5. Boys' Perceptions of Singing: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Boys seem to progress through phases in which they like to sing in early elementary school, they think that singing is for girls and, thus, unacceptable in late elementary school, and then, gradually, singing again becomes acceptable later in life. Studies speak to the difficulty that choir directors have in recruiting boys. Research shows that…

  6. Tensile properties of cotton yarn as affected by different yarn singeing machine variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausief, M.Q.; Mahmood, N.; Iqbal, W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study endeavours to optimise the yam quality in respect of its tensile properties by choosing the best combination of the yam singeing machine variables for excellent manufacture results. This research study revealed that different values of winding speed, gas pressure and air pressure of yam singeing machine put significant effect upon the tensile properties of cotton yam after singeing. (author)

  7. Sight-Singing Pedagogy: A Content Analysis of Choral Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Eva G.; Haning, Marshall A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sight-singing pedagogy content of choral methods textbooks, with the intent of determining what elements of sight-singing pedagogy are most commonly included in these resources. A content analysis was conducted to analyze information related to sight-singing pedagogy in 10 textbooks that are commonly…

  8. "Ring" in the solo child singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Williams, Jenevora; Herbst, Christian T

    2014-03-01

    Listeners often describe the voices of solo child singers as being "pure" or "clear"; these terms would suggest that the voice is not only pleasant but also clearly audible. The audibility or clarity could be attributed to the presence of high-frequency partials in the sound: a "brightness" or "ring." This article aims to investigate spectrally the acoustic nature of this ring phenomenon in children's solo voices, and in particular, relating it to their "nonring" production. Additionally, this is set in the context of establishing to what extent, if any, the spectral characteristics of ring are shared with those of the singer's formant cluster associated with professional adult opera singers in the 2.5-3.5kHz region. A group of child solo singers, acknowledged as outstanding by a singing teacher who specializes in teaching professional child singers, were recorded in a major UK concert hall performing Come unto him, all ye that labour, from the aria He shall feed his flock from The Messiah by GF Handel. Their singing was accompanied by a recording of a piano played through in-ear headphones. Sound pressure recordings were made from well within the critical distance in the hall. The singers were observed to produce notes with and without ring, and these recordings were analyzed in the frequency domain to investigate their spectra. The results indicate that there is evidence to suggest that ring in child solo singers is carried in two areas of the output spectrum: first in the singer's formant cluster region, centered around 4kHz, which is more than 1000Hz higher than what is observed in adults; and second in the region around 7.5-11kHz where a significant strengthening of harmonic presence is observed. A perceptual test has been carried out demonstrating that 94% of 62 listeners label a synthesized version of the calculated overall average ring spectrum for all subjects as having ring when compared with a synthesized version of the calculated overall average nonring

  9. SOME METHODIC ASPECTS OF VOCAL RESPIRATION WITHIN ACADEMIC SINGING TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGA LUDMILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the author’s reflections on the methodical problems of vocal respiration treated by Ludmila Aga as one of the essential elements of vocal technique. Based on her own rich experience as opera soloist and vocal teacher, the author reviews some theoretical principles which treat this problem. Besides, L. Aga proposes some helpful exercises for developing vocal respiration abilities. The article combines data from physiology, history and the theory of performing arts, methods of singing. Having an applied character, this work might be helpful for the singing teachers from the colleges and higher instituti­ons of music proile, as well as for the students of the Academic Singing Department.

  10. Acoustic Analyses of the Singing Vibrato in Traditional Peking Opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qichao; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2017-07-01

    China's traditional Peking Opera has four standard categories of roles: Sheng, Dan, Jing, and Chou, the singing vibrato of each displaying a different auditory effect. The audio and respiratory signals were recorded for two performers of the Qing Yi role, one of the Jing role, one of the Chou role, one of the Lao Sheng role, one of the Xiao Sheng role, and one of the Lao Dan role. The recordings gained eventually consisted of 24 representative songs from six roles. The rates and extents of vibrato, fundamental frequency, and rib cage signals were analyzed. Two findings were obtained: (1) the classical opera singing vibratos of China and Western countries are acoustically different from each other; and (2) in Peking Opera, the singing vibratos of different roles show significant acoustic differences. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Do singing rock hyraxes exploit conspecific calls to gain attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiyaal Ilany

    Full Text Available Signal detection theory predicts that signals directed at distant or busy receivers in noisy backgrounds will begin with an alert component, in order to draw attention. Instead of an alert component, however, animals could get the same effect by using an external stimulus. Here we combined observations of free-living rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis with playback experiments to elucidate the circumstances under which males begin singing. We show that males sing following hyrax pup screams, which elicit a strong response from hyraxes within hearing distance, which are potential receivers. We hypothesize that singers enhance their singing display by exploiting the rarely emitted pup screams. To our knowledge, our findings are the first indication that animals may enhance signal reception by exploiting conspecifics' signals and the differential attention to these signals. We suggest that the utilization of external stimuli by signalers may be widespread, as an adaptive strategy for communication in complex environments.

  12. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Singing abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eCLEMENT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific Language impairment (SLI is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012. The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Brandt et al., 2012; Corriveau et al., 2007. In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al, submitted. Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in 8 children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition. The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents. In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.

  14. Position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 10 CMASS sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wagner, Christian; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schmidt, Fabian; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the three-point function with the position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 10 CMASS sample. This new observable measures the correlation between two-point functions of galaxy pairs within different subvolumes, ξ-circumflex (ř,ř L ), where ř L is the location of a subvolume, and the corresponding mean overdensities, δ-bar (ř L ). This correlation, which we call the 'integrated three-point function', iζ(r)≡(ξ-circumflex (ř,ř L )δ-bar (ř L )), measures a three-point function of two short- and one long-wavelength modes, and is generated by nonlinear gravitational evolution and possibly also by the physics of inflation. The iζ(r) measured from the BOSS data lies within the scatter of those from the mock galaxy catalogs in redshift space, yielding a ten-percent-level determination of the amplitude of iζ(r). The tree-level perturbation theory in redshift space predicts how this amplitude depends on the linear and quadratic nonlinear galaxy bias parameters (b 1 and b 2 ), as well as on the amplitude and linear growth rate of matter fluctuations (σ 8 and f). Combining iζ(r) with the constraints on b 1σ 8 and fσ 8 from the global two-point correlation function and that on σ 8 from the weak lensing signal of BOSS galaxies, we measure b 2 =0.41±0.41 (68% C.L.) assuming standard perturbation theory at the tree level and the local bias model

  15. Epidemiology of DSM-5 bipolar I disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos; Compton, Wilson M; Saha, Tulshi D; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present 12-month and lifetime prevalence, correlates, comorbidity, treatment and disability of DSM-5 bipolar I disorder. Nationally representative U.S. adult sample (N = 36,309), the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III. Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime DSM-5 bipolar I disorder were 1.5% and 2.1% and did not differ between men (1.6% and 2.2%) and women (1.5% and 2.0%). Prevalences of bipolar I disorder were greater among Native Americans, and lower among Blacks, Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders than whites. Rates were also lower among younger than older individuals, those previously married than currently married and with lower education and income relative to higher education and income. Bipolar I disorder was more strongly related to borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (adjusted odds ratios (AORS) = 2.2-4.7)), than to anxiety disorders (AORs = 1.3-2.9), and substance use disorders (AORs = 1.3-2.1) overall and among men and women. Quality of life was lower among individuals with bipolar I disorder relative to those without the disorder. Treatment rates among individuals with bipolar I disorder were low in the total sample (46%, SE = 2.63), among men (36.7%, SE = 3.82) and among women (55.8%, SE = 3.32). Bipolar I disorder continues to be common disabling and highly comorbid disorder among men and women, contributing substantially to low quality of life and burden of disease in our society. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  17. Choral singing in the early years of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Biljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses choral singing as a form of extracurricular activity and teaching in elementary school. It considers the historical development of choral singing in order to highlight the continuity of its existence and importance in society and reviews the importance of choral singing in musical and overall upbringing and education of elementary school students. Authors analyze the curricula of grades I to IV in order to determine how much attention is given to choral singing. Didactic and methodological issues related to the formation of the choir in elementary school are reviewed, together with methodical approach for working with early grades choir, proper selection of the musical compositions and the role of teachers. Listed is the recommended choral literature to supplement the current curricula. Special attention was given to literature containing the Kosovo-Metohija folk songs, suitable for choral arrangement. Performing of these songs in a choral arrangement will contribute to stimulating the interest of students towards musical folklore of Kosovo and Metohija, and therefore its preservation and fostering. It is highlighted that singing in the choir contributes to the development of hearing, voice, harmonic feeling, a sense of rhythm, melody and group play. By mastering different compositions, students become familiar with valuable achievements of artist, spiritual and folk music. The significant meaning and importance of this kind of work is reflected in the possibilities of achieving the tasks of socio-moral education. Choral singing develops a sense of collective responsibility, conscious discipline, perseverance, endurance, helps establish a sense of understanding, mutual respect and tolerance, friendship and a sense of teamwork. Singing in the choir develops aesthetic attitude and taste in music. Students are trained to perceive and to value the true qualities of beauty, grace, harmony and authenticity in music. The value of

  18. LACERTA I AND CASSIOPEIA III. TWO LUMINOUS AND DISTANT ANDROMEDA SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES FOUND IN THE 3π PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r P1 - and i P1 -band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M V ∼ –12) located at projected distances of 20.°3 and 10.°5 from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756 +44 -28 kpc and 772 +61 -56 kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275 ± 7 kpc and 144 +6 -4 kpc. The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r h = 4.2 +0.4 -0.5 arcmin or 912 +124 -93 pc for Lac I; r h = 6.5 +1.2 -1.0 arcmin or 1456 ± 267 pc for Cas III) and consequently low surface brightness (μ 0 ∼ 26.0 mag arcsec –2 ), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3π Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.

  19. Gesture and Body-Movement as Teaching and Learning Tools in the Classical Voice Lesson: A Survey into Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the use of gesture and body-movement in the teaching of singing and reports on a survey amongst professional singing teachers in Germany regarding their use of gesture and body movement as pedagogic tools in their teaching. The nomenclature of gestures and movements used in the survey is based on a previous study by the…

  20. Conceptualizing how group singing may enhance quality of life with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen A; Talmage, Alison; McCann, Clare; Fogg, Laura; Purdy, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Group singing could be a promising component of neurorehabilitative care. This article aims to conceptualize how group singing may enable people with Parkinson's disease (PD) to synchronize their movement patterns to musical rhythm and enhance quality of life. Spanning the medical and social sciences, the article draws conceptually on literature on PD, group singing and rhythm in music; personal experience; and reasoning. Conceptualizing PD in terms of disruptions to social and biological rhythms, we hypothesize how group singing may produce two socio-psychological states - connectedness and flow - that may entrain rhythm in people with PD. The states connect during group singing to elicit and enhance motor processes but may also reawaken after the group singing, through the recall and reactivation of the musical rhythms encoded during group singing. In people with PD, this continuity of flow is hypothesized to be conducive to rhythmic entrainment during and after group singing and in turn to reduced deficits in motor timing and emotional processing, and improvements in quality of life. Empirical studies are needed to test this hypothesis in people with movement disorders such as PD. Implications for Rehabilitation Musical rhythm in group singing may enhance quality of life, and rehabilitation, in people with PD. Use group singing to produce two socio-psychological states - connectedness and flow - that may yield these health benefits. Include people with PD in singing groups to facilitate perceptual exposure to familiar music with melodic distinctiveness and a regular beat.

  1. Singing Ability, Musical Self-Concept, and Future Music Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Steven M.; Kelley, Jamey; Pfordresher, Peter Q.

    2017-01-01

    Research on adults who identify as "tone deaf" suggest that their poor musical self-concept is shaped by a view of themselves as nonsingers even when their perceptual skills and singing ability are not significantly worse than the general population. Many of these adults self-selected out of further participation as children but…

  2. A Transactional Approach to "Sing" by Raposo and Lichtenheld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Tom Lichtenheld shares a new story of the power of music by illustrating Joe Raposo's classic "Sesame Street" song "Sing." In addition to lesson suggestions for general music classes, a discussion of and application to the theory of transactional reading are included.

  3. Creative Futures: Act, Sing, Play. Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Sarah; Griggs, Julia; Lloyd, Cheryl; Morris, Stephen; Kiss, Zsolt; Skipp, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Act, Sing, Play (ASP) offered music and drama tuition to Year 2 pupils. The aim of the programme was to evaluate whether music workshops had a bigger impact than drama workshops in terms of pupils' maths and literacy attainment. The evaluation was based on the hypothesis that participation in high-quality music instruction promotes educational…

  4. Sing, Play, and Create: All in 20 Minutes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Young teachers often struggle with pacing and the ability to cover more than one or two songs and activities in a single 30-minute general music class. Included in this article are lesson activities that show it is not only possible to include many of the National Standards in a single lesson, but also possible to sing, play, and create in every…

  5. Facial temperature data Sing-a-Song StressTest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input, body movements and behavior of people involved in conducting the experiment. In our Sing-a-Song

  6. Sing a Song Please: Musical Contexts and Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Lisa M.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    1987-01-01

    Six language-impaired children, aged 4-7, were studied in two routinized contexts (a lesson without music and a singing session) and child-teacher talk was analyzed. Results showed that the addition of music to a routinized context has the potential to increase the language-impaired child's ability to interact non-verbally. (Author/JDD)

  7. Effects of a Preparatory Singing Pattern on Melodic Dictation Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of a preparatory contextual singing pattern on melodic dictation test scores. Forty-nine undergraduate music education majors took melodic dictations under three conditions. After hearing an orienting chord sequence, they (1) sang a preparatory solfége pattern in the key, meter, and tempo of the…

  8. Singing Greeting Card Beeper as a Finger Pulse Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belusic, Gregor; Zupancic, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a robust and low-priced finger pulse sensor from a singing greeting card beeper. The beeper outputs the plethysmographic signal, which is indistinguishable from that of commercial grade sensors. The sensor can be used in school for a number of experiments in human cardiovascular physiology.

  9. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  10. Singing Well-Becoming: Student Musical Therapy Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Much research supports the everyday therapeutic and deeper social-neurophysiological influence of singing songs alone and in groups (Austin, 2008; Cozolino, 2013; Sacks, 2007). This study looks at what happens when Japanese students teach short English affirmation songlet-routines to others out of the classroom (clandestine folk music therapy). I…

  11. Task-Based Variability in Children's Singing Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of task demands on children's singing accuracy. A 2 × 4 factorial design was used to examine the performance of fourth-grade children (N = 120) in solo and doubled response conditions. Each child sang four task types: single pitch, interval, pattern, and the song "Jingle Bells." The…

  12. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities.

  13. Singing in groups for Parkinson's disease (SING-PD): a pilot study of group singing therapy for PD-related voice/speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ludy C; Piel, Jordan; Warren, Amanda; Kraics, Lauren; Silver, Althea; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Simon, David K; Tarsy, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson's disease related speech and voice impairment have significant impact on quality of life measures. LSVT(®)LOUD voice and speech therapy (Lee Silverman Voice Therapy) has demonstrated scientific efficacy and clinical effectiveness, but musically based voice and speech therapy has been underexplored as a potentially useful method of rehabilitation. We undertook a pilot, open-label study of a group-based singing intervention, consisting of twelve 90-min weekly sessions led by a voice and speech therapist/singing instructor. The primary outcome measure of vocal loudness as measured by sound pressure level (SPL) at 50 cm during connected speech was not significantly different one week after the intervention or at 13 weeks after the intervention. A number of secondary measures reflecting pitch range, phonation time and maximum loudness also were unchanged. Voice related quality of life (VRQOL) and voice handicap index (VHI) also were unchanged. This study suggests that a group singing therapy intervention at this intensity and frequency does not result in significant improvement in objective and subject-rated measures of voice and speech impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume III. Area II: graphic data, Section III-IX Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all of the graphic data for Area II, which include map lines 1660 to 3400 and 5360 to 5780 and tie lines 6100, 6120, and 6160. Due to the large map scale of the data presented (1:62,500), this area was further subdivided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets. It should be noted that TL6100 resides in both Areas II and III. The graphic data for TL6100 are presented in Volume IV - Area III - Graphic Data of this report

  15. Sing Your Lungs Out: a qualitative study of a community singing group for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Amanda; Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Gayle; Levack, William M M

    2016-09-20

    To explore the ways in which participation in a community singing group contributed to the health and well-being of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative description, based on transcripts from individual interviews and a focus group meeting with people with COPD participating in the singing group, regarding their experience. Urban community, Wellington, New Zealand. 23 people (13 women and 10 men), 51-91 years with COPD (21) or interstitial lung disease (2). The weekly singing group was a well-attended activity, with self-reported benefits to health and well-being. 4 key themes were identified: being in the 'right space', connection, purpose and growth, and participation in a meaningful physical activity. This study helps us to better understand how participation in a community singing group can benefit the health and well-being of patients with COPD. ACTRN12615000736549; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  17. Can't Sing? Won't Sing? Aotearoa/New Zealand "Tone-Deaf" Early Childhood Teachers' Musical Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Bodkin-Allen, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Singing is an important part of teaching for early childhood teachers. However, some teachers find this difficult and may even identify themselves as "tone-deaf". We invited a group of early childhood teachers who self-identified as "tone-deaf" to participate in a study to investigate their beliefs and behaviours about singing…

  18. THE SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY: A HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY ANTHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Schlawin, E. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Staudaher, S.; Smith, J. D. T.; Armus, L.; Helou, G.; Jarrett, T. H.; Murphy, E. J.; Sheth, K.; Buckalew, B. A.; Moustakas, J.; Roussel, H.; Bot, C.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Gordon, K. D.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution mid-infrared spectra are presented for 155 nuclear and extranuclear regions from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). The fluxes for nine atomic forbidden and three molecular hydrogen mid-infrared emission lines are also provided, along with upper limits in key lines for infrared-faint targets. The SINGS sample shows a wide range in the ratio of [S III] 18.71 μm/[S III] 33.48 μm, but the average ratio of the ensemble indicates a typical interstellar electron density of 300-400 cm -3 on ∼23'' x 15'' scales and 500-600 cm -3 using ∼11'' x 9'' apertures, independent of whether the region probed is a star-forming nuclear, a star-forming extranuclear, or an active galactic nuclei (AGN) environment. Evidence is provided that variations in gas-phase metallicity play an important role in driving variations in radiation field hardness, as indicated by [Ne III] 15.56 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm, for regions powered by star formation. Conversely, the radiation hardness for galaxy nuclei powered by accretion around a massive black hole is independent of metal abundance. Furthermore, for metal-rich environments AGN are distinguishable from star-forming regions by significantly larger [Ne III] 15.56 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm ratios. Finally, [Fe II] 25.99 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm versus [Si II] 34.82 μm/[S III] 33.48 μm also provides an empirical method for discerning AGN from normal star-forming sources. However, similar to [Ne III] 15.56 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm, these mid-infrared line ratios lose their AGN/star-formation diagnostic powers for very low metallicity star-forming systems with hard radiation fields.

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume IV. Area III: graphic data. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all the graphic data for Area III, which includes lines 3420 to 5320 and tie lines 6080, 6100, and 6140. Due to the large map scale of the data presented (1:62,500), this area was further subdivided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets

  20. Psalm 98: Sing ’n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Prinsloo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sing a new song in praise of the king, Yahweh This article surveys the problems of interpreting Psalm 98. The chief problems are those concerned with determining the Gattung, the redactional history, strophic division and the dating of the Psalm. A textimmanent reading of the Psalm is used in an effort to make a significant contribution to the debate. The conclusion arrived at is that the Psalm forms a coherent, artistic whole and that a variety of poetic techniques is used in its composition. The poetic function of the Psalm can be described as persuasive. That is to say, the Psalm is intended to persuade the reader/auditor that Yahweh is worthy of praise and that his dependability is manifest in his acts of salvation.

  1. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotseva, Kornelia

    2009-03-14

    The first and second EUROASPIRE surveys showed high rates of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. The third EUROASPIRE survey was done in 2006-07 in 22 countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved and if the Joint European Societies\\' recommendations on cardiovascular disease prevention are being followed in clinical practice.

  2. Nursing problem-based learning activity: song writing and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2014-08-01

    The function of song is not only to deliver individual's messages, but also to serve as a learning approach to facilitate students' learning. To observe the effectiveness of songs in facilitating students' learning, a Problem-based Learning (PBL) class with twenty students was divided into four groups with five students per group. Each group was asked to write a song based on two given scenarios, to sing the song out loud, and to participate in a follow-up focus group interview afterwards. The four songs reflected the students' understanding of academic knowledge and their perspectives toward the protagonists in the presented scenarios. Two songs are presented in this paper to demonstrate how the approach was carried out in the nursing PBL class. This paper aims to show the implication of song writing and singing in PBL and shed some light on teaching and learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Living, Breathing Songs: Singing Along with Bob Dylan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Negus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking issue with approaches to Bob Dylan’s art that are preoccupied with his lyrics, this article suggests a route into thinking about his music by focusing on how Dylan’s vocal melodies work at the intersection of speech and singing. Drawing on Gino Stefani’s work on popular melodies, this article explores this issue through a discussion of how people sing along with Dylan’s songs at concerts. The discussion focuses on the song “It Ain’t Me Babe,” and examines more general points about the ways in which Dylan’s melodies connect with the everyday lives of his listeners.

  4. Approaches to the mechanisms of song memorization and singing provide evidence for a procedural memory

    OpenAIRE

    Hultsch,Henrike; Todt,Dietmar

    2004-01-01

    There is growing evidence that, during song learning, birds do not only acquire 'what to sing' (the inventory of behavior), but also 'how to sing' (the singing program), including order-features of song sequencing. Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos acquire such serial information by segmenting long strings of heard songs into smaller subsets or packages, by a process reminiscent of the chunking of information as a coding mechanism in short term memory. Here we report three tutoring ex...

  5. Moving to the Beat and Singing are Linked in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The abilities to sing and to move to the beat of a rhythmic auditory stimulus emerge early during development, and both engage perceptual, motor, and sensorimotor processes. These similarities between singing and synchronization to a beat may be rooted in biology. Patel (2008) has suggested that motor synchronization to auditory rhythms may have emerged during evolution as a byproduct of selection for vocal learning (“vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis”). This view predicts a strong link between vocal performance and synchronization skills in humans. Here, we tested this prediction by asking occasional singers to tap along with auditory pulse trains and to imitate familiar melodies. Both vocal imitation and synchronization skills were measured in terms of accuracy and precision or consistency. Accurate and precise singers tapped more in the vicinity of the pacing stimuli (i.e., they were more accurate) than less accurate and less precise singers. Moreover, accurate singers were more consistent when tapping to the beat. These differences cannot be ascribed to basic motor skills or to motivational factors. Individual differences in terms of singing proficiency and synchronization skills may reflect the variability of a shared sensorimotor translation mechanism. PMID:26733370

  6. Trends in Singing Voice Research: An Innovative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Pedro Melo; Vaz-Freitas, Susana; Manso, Maria Conceição

    2018-01-11

    The objectives of this study were to trace and describe research patterns in singing voice, to compare the amount of published research over time, to identify journals that published most papers on "singing voice," and to establish the most frequent research topics. The study uses qualitative and quantitative approaches through descriptive statistics, text mining, and clustering. The authors conducted a search to identify scientific papers. The titles and abstracts were analyzed regarding word frequency and relations between them, through hierarchical cluster analysis and co-occurrence networks. The frequency of journals was calculated, as well as the amount of papers across time. Since 1949, 754 papers were published and an increase was noticed. Even though 162 journals were identified by the authors, the Journal of Voice holds the majority of papers, in every analyzed period. An evolution of studied topics is described. Up to 2010, the main theme was professional singers, especially classical and opera interpreters. Since then, voice quality and the effects of training gathered more attention. The growing interest in singing has been conspicuous since the first indexed paper. However, it has been slightly slowing down. Until 2010, great importance was given to the voice quality of singers and their occupational demands. Acoustic analysis was widely used to study the effects of training. Since 2010, the concern with functionality is increasing, rather than the organic voice structures. Musical perception studies have been a trend, as well as the use of electroglottography. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A survey of Type III restriction-modification systems reveals numerous, novel epigenetic regulators controlling phase-variable regulons; phasevarions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Yang, Yuedong; Jennings, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many bacteria utilize simple DNA sequence repeats as a mechanism to randomly switch genes on and off. This process is called phase variation. Several phase-variable N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases from Type III restriction-modification systems have been reported in bacterial pathogens. Random switching of DNA methyltransferases changes the global DNA methylation pattern, leading to changes in gene expression. These epigenetic regulatory systems are called phasevarions — phase-variable regulons. The extent of these phase-variable genes in the bacterial kingdom is unknown. Here, we interrogated a database of restriction-modification systems, REBASE, by searching for all simple DNA sequence repeats in mod genes that encode Type III N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases. We report that 17.4% of Type III mod genes (662/3805) contain simple sequence repeats. Of these, only one-fifth have been previously identified. The newly discovered examples are widely distributed and include many examples in opportunistic pathogens as well as in environmental species. In many cases, multiple phasevarions exist in one genome, with examples of up to 4 independent phasevarions in some species. We found several new types of phase-variable mod genes, including the first example of a phase-variable methyltransferase in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Phasevarions are a common epigenetic regulation contingency strategy used by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:29554328

  8. Self- and other-directed forms of violence and their relationship with lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Kerridge, Bradley T; Grant, Bridget F

    2018-04-01

    A combined history of violence toward self and others has been reported in clinical and incarcerated populations. Psychiatric disorders have been implicated as risk factors. This study examines the lifetime prevalence of this combined violence in the general population and its associations with DSM-5 psychiatric disorders in comparison with other- and self-directed violence. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were analyzed, including 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Violent behavior was defined by suicide attempts; recurrent suicidal behavior; gestures, threats, or self-mutilating behavior (self-directed); and multiple items of violence toward others (other-directed) in four categories: none, self-directed only, other-directed only, and combined self-/other-directed. Multinomial logistic regression examined these violence categories in association with sociodemographics and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders. Results show that approximately 18.1% of adults reported violent behavior, including self-directed only (4.4%), other-directed only (10.9%), and combined self- and other-directed violence (2.8%). DSM-5 psychiatric disorders significantly associated with the violence typology include alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drug use disorders; mood disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; and schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Findings extend the clinical literature regarding the co-occurrence of self- and other-directed violent behaviors to the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prognostic value of fasting versus nonfasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels on long-term mortality: insight from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Bethany; Guo, Yu; Xu, Jinfeng; Weintraub, Howard; Mora, Samia; Maron, David J; Bangalore, Sripal

    2014-08-12

    National and international guidelines recommend fasting lipid panel measurement for risk stratification of patients for prevention of cardiovascular events. However, the prognostic value of fasting versus nonfasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is uncertain. Patients enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES-III), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey performed from 1988 to 1994, were stratified on the basis of fasting status (≥8 or fasting and nonfasting cohorts with similar baseline characteristics. The risk of outcomes as a function of LDL-C and fasting status was assessed with the use of receiver operating characteristic curves and bootstrapping methods. The interaction between fasting status and LDL-C was assessed with Cox proportional hazards modeling. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome was cardiovascular mortality. One-to-one matching based on propensity score yielded 4299 pairs of fasting and nonfasting individuals. For the primary outcome, fasting LDL-C yielded prognostic value similar to that for nonfasting LDL-C (C statistic=0.59 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.61] versus 0.58 [95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.60]; P=0.73), and LDL-C by fasting status interaction term in the Cox proportional hazards model was not significant (Pinteraction=0.11). Similar results were seen for the secondary outcome (fasting versus nonfasting C statistic=0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.66] versus 0.62 [95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.66]; P=0.96; Pinteraction=0.34). Nonfasting LDL-C has prognostic value similar to that of fasting LDL-C. National and international agencies should consider reevaluating the recommendation that patients fast before obtaining a lipid panel. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Singing for Lung Health: a qualitative assessment of a British Lung Foundation programme for group leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam; Cave, Phoene; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Singing for Lung Health (SLH) groups are an increasingly popular intervention for people with respiratory disease. There are limited data as to how these groups should be developed and run. We aimed to evaluate the experience of singing leaders both to assess the training provided by the British Lung Foundation (BLF) and to provide information to guide future development of programmes. Methods A convenience sample of 15 leaders who had received BLF SLH training participated in the BLF service evaluation. Fifteen singing groups were observed, and singing leader interviews and questionnaires were collected. Inductive themes from the qualitative data were the primary outcome. The content of observed singing groups was also rated against the training leaders had received. Results Singing leaders valued the BLF training but felt that a significant level of expertise is required before joining. Singing leaders often found setting up groups challenging and some found clinician support beneficial. There were important technical aspects of running a lung health group including issues around content, for example, choice of repertoire to suit breathing pattern, and delivery, for example, pace, rhythm and management of group dynamics. Leaders said that group participants reported physical health improvements such as reduced breathlessness on activity. The content and delivery of singing classes observed displayed a good level of fidelity, suggesting that SLH training is effective. Conclusion The experience of the leaders highlights the requirements, support and technical skills needed to run SLH groups, which have features distinct from generic community singing groups. PMID:29071079

  11. Impact of cercal air currents on singing motor pattern generation in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The cercal system of crickets detects low-frequency air currents produced by approaching predators and self-generated air currents during singing, which may provide sensory feedback to the singing motor network. We analyzed the effect of cercal stimulation on singing motor pattern generation to reveal the response of a singing interneuron to predator-like signals and to elucidate the possible role of self-generated air currents during singing. In fictive singing males, we recorded an interneuron of the singing network while applying air currents to the cerci; additionally, we analyzed the effect of abolishing the cercal system in freely singing males. In fictively singing crickets, the effect of short air stimuli is either to terminate prematurely or to lengthen the interchirp interval, depending on their phase in the chirp cycle. Within our stimulation paradigm, air stimuli of different velocities and durations always elicited an inhibitory postsynaptic potential in the singing interneuron. Current injection in the singing interneuron elicited singing motor activity, even during the air current-evoked inhibitory input from the cercal pathway. The disruptive effects of air stimuli on the fictive singing pattern and the inhibitory response of the singing interneuron point toward the cercal system being involved in initiating avoidance responses in singing crickets, according to the established role of cerci in a predator escape pathway. After abolishing the activity of the cercal system, the timing of natural singing activity was not significantly altered. Our study provides no evidence that self-generated cercal sensory activity has a feedback function for singing motor pattern generation. PMID:26334014

  12. The SDSS-III DR12 MARVELS radial velocity data release: the first data release from the multiple object Doppler exoplanet survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Li, Rui; Senan Seieroe Grieves, Nolan; Ma, Bo; de Lee, Nathan M.; Lee, Brian C.; Liu, Jian; Bolton, Adam S.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Weaver, Benjamin; SDSS-Iii Marvels Team

    2015-01-01

    We present the first data release from the SDSS-III Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) through the SDSS-III DR12. The data include 181,198 radial velocity (RV) measurements for a total of 5520 different FGK stars with V~7.6-12, of which more than 80% are dwarfs and subdwarfs while remainders are GK giants, among a total of 92 fields nearly randomly spread out over the entire northern sky taken with a 60-object MARVELS dispersed fixed-delay interferometer instrument over four years (2008-2012). There were 55 fields with a total of 3300 FGK stars which had 14 or more observations over about 2-year survey window. The median number of observations for these plates is 27 RV measurements. This represents the largest homogeneous sample of precision RV measurements of relatively bright stars. In this first released data, a total of 18 giant planet candidates, 16 brown dwarfs, and over 500 binaries with additional 96 targets having RV variability indicative of a giant planet companion are reported. The released data were produced by the MARVELS finalized 1D pipeline. We will also report preliminary statistical results from the MARVELS 2D data pipeline which has produced a median RV precision of ~30 m/s for stable stars.

  13. Engaging College Students by Singing the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Heineman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Setting scientific ideas to music can increase student engagement and help with memorization. However, some instructors may be intimidated by the thought of performing educational music for their STEM students, or concerned that it is frivolous. To address this issue, I spell out step by step protocols for either writing one’s own parody songs to teach specific concepts, or finding songs online (which can be used directly or modified. I also discuss presentation techniques that help students, such as showing lyrics and adding annotations that clarify or emphasize ideas. A survey suggests that this approach is appreciated and effective.

  14. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: the Sung Performance Battery (SPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowska, Magdalena; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB). The SPB starts from the assessment of participants' vocal range followed by five tasks: (1) single-pitch matching, (2) pitch-interval matching, (3) novel-melody matching, (4) singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable), and (5) singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable) at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing. PMID:24151475

  15. Changes in singing performance and fMRI activation following right temporal lobe surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Abbott, David F; Tailby, Chris; Gentle, Ellen C; Merrett, Dawn L; Jackson, Graeme D

    2013-10-01

    This study arose in the context of having to estimate risk to the musical abilities of a trained singer (patient A.M.) recommended for right anterior temporal lobectomy (RATL) to ameliorate medically intractable seizures. To date there has been no systematic investigation of reorganisation of musical functions in the presence of epileptogenic lesions, although it is well established that RATL can impair pitch processing in nonmusicians. Using fMRI, we compared the network activated by covert singing with lyrics in A.M. before and after surgery, while taking language activation and singing expertise into consideration. Before surgery, A.M. showed lower pitch accuracy of singing relative to individuals of similar experience (experts), thus we compared her to 12 healthy controls matched for singing pitch accuracy. We found atypical organisation of A.M.'s singing network before surgery in the presence of a malformation of cortical development, including partial activation of the singing network of pitch-matched controls, and diffuse activation along the midline spreading laterally into association cortex, typical of generalised cortical hyperexcitability in intractable epilepsy. After tailored RATL, A.M. showed striking behavioural and neuroimaging changes, including significant improvement in pitch accuracy of singing relative to controls (p = .026) and the subjective experience of being a more technically proficient singer. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in cortical activation (p singing activation emerging, including decreased involvement of frontal language regions. These changes were largely specific to singing, with A.M. showing language activation and performance similar to controls. This case provides evidence for selective disruption of the singing network that reorganised after successful resection of an epileptogenic lesion and likely occurred through decoupling of the singing and language networks. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by

  16. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: The Sung Performance Battery (SPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eBerkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies. Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers, thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB. The SPB starts from the assessment of participants’ vocal range followed by five tasks: 1 single-pitch matching, 2 pitch-interval matching, 3 novel-melody matching, 4 singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable, and 5 singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing.

  17. Sing Your Lungs Out—a community singing group for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 1-year pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Amanda; Weatherall, Mark; Williams, Mathew; McNaughton, Harry; Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Gayle; Beasley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Objective Singing group participation may benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies are limited by small numbers of participants and short duration of generally hospital-based singing group intervention. This study examines the feasibility of long-term participation in a community singing group for patients with COPD who had completed pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods This was a feasibility cohort study. Patients with COPD who had completed PR and were enrolled in a weekly community exercise group were recruited to a new community-based singing group which met weekly for over 1 year. Measurements at baseline, 4 months and 1 year comprised comprehensive pulmonary function tests including lung volumes, 6 min walk test (6MWT), Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and hospital admission days for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) for 1 year before and after the first singing group session. Findings There were 28 participants with chronic lung disease recruited from 140 people approached. Five withdrew in the first month. 21 participants meeting Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria for COPD completed 4-month and 18 completed 1-year assessments. The mean attendance was 85%. For the prespecified primary outcome measure, total HADS score, difference between baseline and 12 months was −0.9, 95% CI −3.0 to 1.2, p=0.37. Of the secondary measures, a significant reduction was observed for HADS anxiety score after 1 year of −0.9 (95% CI −1.8 to −0.1) points, p=0.038 and an increase in the 6MWT at 1 year, of 65 (95% CI 35 to 99) m compared with baseline psinging group for adults with COPD who have completed PR and are enrolled in a weekly community exercise group and provide evidence of improved exercise capacity and a reduction in anxiety. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000736549; Results. PMID:28119393

  18. Sing Your Lungs Out-a community singing group for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 1-year pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Amanda; Weatherall, Mark; Williams, Mathew; McNaughton, Harry; Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Gayle; Beasley, Richard

    2017-01-24

    Singing group participation may benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies are limited by small numbers of participants and short duration of generally hospital-based singing group intervention. This study examines the feasibility of long-term participation in a community singing group for patients with COPD who had completed pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). This was a feasibility cohort study. Patients with COPD who had completed PR and were enrolled in a weekly community exercise group were recruited to a new community-based singing group which met weekly for over 1 year. Measurements at baseline, 4 months and 1 year comprised comprehensive pulmonary function tests including lung volumes, 6 min walk test (6MWT), Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and hospital admission days for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) for 1 year before and after the first singing group session. There were 28 participants with chronic lung disease recruited from 140 people approached. Five withdrew in the first month. 21 participants meeting Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria for COPD completed 4-month and 18 completed 1-year assessments. The mean attendance was 85%. For the prespecified primary outcome measure, total HADS score, difference between baseline and 12 months was -0.9, 95% CI -3.0 to 1.2, p=0.37. Of the secondary measures, a significant reduction was observed for HADS anxiety score after 1 year of -0.9 (95% CI -1.8 to -0.1) points, p=0.038 and an increase in the 6MWT at 1 year, of 65 (95% CI 35 to 99) m compared with baseline psinging group for adults with COPD who have completed PR and are enrolled in a weekly community exercise group and provide evidence of improved exercise capacity and a reduction in anxiety. ACTRN12615000736549; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  19. National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A): III. Concordance of DSM-IV/CIDI Diagnoses with Clinical Reassessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Green, Jennifer; Gruber, Michael J.; Guyer, Margaret; He, Yulei; Jin, Robert; Kaufman, Joan; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2009-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnoses that was based on the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and implemented in the National comorbidity survey replication adolescent supplement is found to have good individual-level concordance with diagnosis based on blinded…

  20. Tracking Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Development of Singing Skills and Confidence: An Applied Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the effects of a music methods course on the singing skills of preservice kindergarten teachers, (b) document the nature and development of their skills during the course, and (c) trace any changes in their confidence levels toward singing as a result of the course. As an applied study which was carried…

  1. A Nationwide Overview of Sight-Singing Requirements of Large-Group Choral Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sight-singing requirements at junior and senior high school large-group ratings-based choral festivals throughout the United States. Responses to the following questions were sought from each state: (1) Are there ratings-based large-group choral festivals? (2) Is sight-singing a requirement? (3) Are there…

  2. Singing Maternity through Autoethnography: Making Visible the Musical World of Myself as a Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    There is perhaps no image more maternal and musical than that of a young mother cradling a child to her breast as she softly sings a sweet lullaby. Yet the way that a mother experiences, relates to and renders meaningful the social and musical moment of singing to her children remains silent and hidden in popular and academic discourse. In this…

  3. Singing, Sissies, and Sexual Identity: How LGBTQ Choral Directors Negotiate Gender Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how choral directors negotiate personal and professional identity in relation to gender discourse. Many music teachers have tried hypermasculine messages, such as "Real men sing," used as recruitment tools for getting adolescent boys to join choir. Designed to counter the perception that "singing is for…

  4. Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

  5. Effect of singing training on total laryngectomees wearing a tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, Fernanda; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Takeshita-Monaretti, Telma Kioko; Prado, Maria Yuka de Almeida; Aguiar-Ricz, Lílian Neto

    2013-02-01

    To assess the effect of a program of singing training on the voice of total laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis, considering the quality of alaryngeal phonation, vocal extension and the musical elements of tunning and legato. Five laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis completed the singing training program over a period of three months, with exploration of the strengthening of the respiratory muscles and vocalization and with evaluation of perceptive-auditory and singing voice being performed before and after 12 sessions of singing therapy. After the program of singing voice training, the quality of tracheoesophageal voice showed improvement or the persistence of the general degree of dysphonia for the emitted vowels and for the parameters of roughness and breathiness. For the vowel "a", the pitch was displaced to grave in two participants and to acute in one, and remained adequate in the others. A similar situation was observed also for the vowel "i". After the singing program, all participants presented tunning and most of them showed a greater presence of legato. The vocal extension improved in all participants. Singing training seems to have a favorable effect on the quality of tracheoesophageal phonation and on singing voice.

  6. Layò ÒGÚNLO LÁ Abstract Singing has become

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    love people have for singing is so great that we can relate it to the Yorùbá saying: “etí were ni .... Page 5 .... Singing and dancing to meet King Saul with tumbrels, with song .... heaven… Mr. Driver, limit your speed/2times. Life has no duplicate.

  7. Having Their Song Heard: Tracking Pre-Service Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions and Confidence in Their Singing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study investigating pre-service kindergarten teachers' confidence levels and perceptions regarding their singing skills, and the impact of a music methods course on these self-perceptions. The course incorporated singing instruction in 24 lectures and two 10-minute private singing tutorials at the beginning and middle of the…

  8. THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY Pi GHz SKY SURVEY. III. THE ELAIS-N1, COMA, AND LOCKMAN HOLE FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Steve; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Whysong, David [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    We present results from a total of 459 repeated 3.1 GHz radio continuum observations (of which 379 were used in a search for transient sources) of the ELAIS-N1, Coma, Lockman Hole, and NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey fields as part of the Pi GHz Sky Survey. The observations were taken approximately once per day between 2009 May and 2011 April. Each image covers 11.8 square degrees and has 100'' FWHM resolution. Deep images for each of the four fields have rms noise between 180 and 310 {mu}Jy, and the corresponding catalogs contain {approx}200 sources in each field. Typically 40-50 of these sources are detected in each single-epoch image. This represents one of the shortest cadence, largest area, multi-epoch surveys undertaken at these frequencies. We compare the catalogs generated from the combined images to those from individual epochs, and from monthly averages, as well as to legacy surveys. We undertake a search for transients, with particular emphasis on excluding false positive sources. We find no confirmed transients, defined here as sources that can be shown to have varied by at least a factor of 10. However, we find one source that brightened in a single-epoch image to at least six times the upper limit from the corresponding deep image. We also find a source associated with a z = 0.6 quasar which appears to have brightened by a factor {approx}3 in one of our deep images, when compared to catalogs from legacy surveys. We place new upper limits on the number of transients brighter than 10 mJy: fewer than 0.08 transients deg{sup -2} with characteristic timescales of months to years; fewer than 0.02 deg{sup -2} with timescales of months; and fewer than 0.009 deg{sup -2} with timescales of days. We also plot upper limits as a function of flux density for transients on the same timescales.

  9. Evidence for opioid involvement in the motivation to sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V.

    2009-01-01

    Songbirds produce high rates of song within multiple social contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to sing and that song production itself may be rewarding. Progress has been made in understanding the neural basis of song learning and sensorimotor processing, however little is known about neurobiological mechanisms regulating the motivation to sing. Neural systems involved in motivation and reward have been conserved across species and in songbirds are neuroanatomically well-positioned to influence the song control system. Opioid neuropeptides within these systems play a primary role in hedonic reward, at least in mammals. In songbirds, opioid neuropeptides and receptors are found throughout the song control system and within several brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Growing research shows these regions to play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is sexually-motivated in response to a female, used for territorial defense or sung as part of a flock but not directed towards an individual (undirected song). Opioid pharmacological manipulations and immunocytochemical data demonstrate a role for opioid activity possibly within VTA and POM in the regulation of song production. Although future research is needed, data suggest that opioids may be most critically involved in reinforcing song that does not result in any obvious form of immediate externally-mediated reinforcement, such as undirected song produced in large flocks or during song learning. Data are reviewed supporting the idea that dopamine activity underlies the motivation or drive to sing, but that opioid release is what makes song production rewarding. PMID:19995531

  10. High-frequency energy in singing and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian Bruce

    While human speech and the human voice generate acoustical energy up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy above approximately 5 kHz has been largely neglected. Evidence is accruing that this high-frequency energy contains perceptual information relevant to speech and voice, including percepts of quality, localization, and intelligibility. The present research was an initial step in the long-range goal of characterizing high-frequency energy in singing voice and speech, with particular regard for its perceptual role and its potential for modification during voice and speech production. In this study, a database of high-fidelity recordings of talkers was created and used for a broad acoustical analysis and general characterization of high-frequency energy, as well as specific characterization of phoneme category, voice and speech intensity level, and mode of production (speech versus singing) by high-frequency energy content. Directionality of radiation of high-frequency energy from the mouth was also examined. The recordings were used for perceptual experiments wherein listeners were asked to discriminate between speech and voice samples that differed only in high-frequency energy content. Listeners were also subjected to gender discrimination tasks, mode-of-production discrimination tasks, and transcription tasks with samples of speech and singing that contained only high-frequency content. The combination of these experiments has revealed that (1) human listeners are able to detect very subtle level changes in high-frequency energy, and (2) human listeners are able to extract significant perceptual information from high-frequency energy.

  11. Evidence for opioid involvement in the motivation to sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V

    2010-03-01

    Songbirds produce high rates of song within multiple social contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to sing and that song production itself may be rewarding. Progress has been made in understanding the neural basis of song learning and sensorimotor processing, however little is known about neurobiological mechanisms regulating the motivation to sing. Neural systems involved in motivation and reward have been conserved across species and in songbirds are neuroanatomically well-positioned to influence the song control system. Opioid neuropeptides within these systems play a primary role in hedonic reward, at least in mammals. In songbirds, opioid neuropeptides and receptors are found throughout the song control system and within several brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Growing research shows these regions to play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is sexually motivated in response to a female, used for territorial defense or sung as part of a flock but not directed towards an individual (undirected song). Opioid pharmacological manipulations and immunocytochemical data demonstrate a role for opioid activity possibly within VTA and POM in the regulation of song production. Although future research is needed, data suggest that opioids may be most critically involved in reinforcing song that does not result in any obvious form of immediate externally mediated reinforcement, such as undirected song produced in large flocks or during song learning. Data are reviewed supporting the idea that dopamine activity underlies the motivation or drive to sing, but that opioid release is what makes song production rewarding. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Singing by speechless (aphasic) children: Victorian medical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie Perlman; Greenblatt, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, British clinicians made observations regarding the ability of individuals with impaired language abilities to sing or hum. One notable publication was of two cases of children briefly observed by John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) in 1871. These children were speechless but could produce some musical expression. Other such cases attracted the attention of Victorian clinicians who were actively pursuing theoretical questions regarding the organization of brain function and laterality. The presence of musical expression in children who failed to develop spoken language was seen as a notable symptom for early practitioners of pediatric neurology. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Répertoire postural du singe Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii , dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les cercopithèques sont des espèces de singe très actifs. A l\\'instar des autres espèces, ils adoptent la majeure partie du temps des postures diverses. Le but de notre étude est de décrire le comportement de posture du cercopithèque nictitans. La méthode instantanée de collecte des données a été utilisée de février 2002 ...

  14. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: constraining modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eva-Maria; Percival, Will; Linder, Eric; Alam, Shadab; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Beutler, Florian; Brinkmann, Jon

    2018-04-01

    We use baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift space distortion from the completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, corresponding to Data Release 12 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, combined sample analysis in combination with cosmic microwave background, supernova, and redshift space distortion measurements from additional spectroscopic surveys to test deviations from general relativity. We present constraints on several phenomenological models of modified gravity: First, we parametrize the growth of structure using the growth index γ, finding γ = 0.566 ± 0.058 (68 per cent C.L.). Secondly, we modify the relation of the two Newtonian potentials by introducing two additional parameters, GM and GL. In this approach, GM refers to modifications of the growth of structure whereas GL to modification of the lensing potential. We consider a power law to model the redshift dependence of GM and GL as well as binning in redshift space, introducing four additional degrees of freedom, GM(z 0.5), GL(z 0.5). At 68 per cent C.L., we measure GM = 0.980 ± 0.096 and GL = 1.082 ± 0.060 for a linear model, GM = 1.01 ± 0.36 and GL = 1.31 ± 0.19 for a cubic model as well as GM(z 0.5) = 0.986 ± 0.022, GL(z 0.5) = 1.037 ± 0.029. Thirdly, we investigate general scalar tensor theories of gravity, finding the model to be mostly unconstrained by current data. Assuming a one-parameter f(R) model, we can constrain B0 < 7.7 × 10-5 (95 per cent C.L). For all models we considered, we find good agreement with general relativity.

  15. Singing by male and female Kloss gibbons (Hylobates klossii) in the Peleonan Forest, Siberut Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Helen M; Judge, Debra S; Schmitt, Lincoln H

    2013-01-01

    Kloss gibbons (Hylobates klossii) are endemic to the Mentawai Islands in Indonesia and are one of only two gibbon species in which mated pairs do not sing duets. This is the first long-term study of the factors influencing the singing activity of Kloss gibbons within a northern Siberut Island population and follows two previous studies in central Siberut nearly 30 years ago. We collected data on the presence/absence of male and female singing within the study area on 198 days and within a focal group on 47 days. Rainfall during the time period in which they normally sing inhibits singing in both males and females. Our study supports the hypothesis that male and female songs function in intrasexual resource defence, as singing is associated with singing by same-sex neighbours, and same-sex choruses are more likely to occur after one or more days of silence (from that sex), suggesting there is pressure for individuals to communicate with same-sex neighbours regularly. Singing was not coordinated within a mated pair, suggesting that vocal coordination of the pair has been lost with the loss of the duet and that Kloss gibbon songs do not convey information to neighbours about the strength of the pair bond. On days when males sang predawn, females were more likely to sing after dawn and earlier in the morning. Additionally, the number of groups singing in female choruses was positively associated with the number of males that had sung in the predawn male chorus. We suggest that female songs have an intersexual territory defence as well as an intrasexual function.

  16. Disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest in phase III surgical trials: survey of ten general surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Valérie; Moutel, Grégoire; Schwarz, Lilian; Michot, Francis; Herve, Christian; Tuech, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Discussions regarding disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest (COI) in published peer-reviewed journal articles are becoming increasingly more common and intense. The aim of the present study was to examine whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in leading surgery journals report funding sources and COI. All articles reporting randomized controlled phase III trials published January 2005 through December 2010 were chosen for review from ten international journals. We evaluated the number of disclosed funding sources and COI, and the factors associated with such disclosures. From a review of 657 RCT from the ten journals, we discovered that presence or absence of a funding source and COI was disclosed by 47 % (309) and 25.1 % (165), respectively. Most articles in "International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-affiliated journals" did not disclose COI. Disclosure of funding was associated with a journal impact factor >3 (51.7 vs 41.6 %; p funding sources (i.e., whether or not there was a funding source), and almost three quarters did not disclose whether COI existed. Our findings suggest the need to adopt best current practices regarding disclosure of competing interests to fulfill responsibilities to readers and, ultimately, to patients.

  17. Searches for new Milky Way satellites from the first two years of data of the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey: Discovery of Cetus III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Daisuke; Chiba, Masashi; Okamoto, Sakurako; Komiyama, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanaka, Mikito; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Hayashi, Kohei; Arimoto, Nobuo; Garmilla, José A.; Lupton, Robert H.; Strauss, Michael A.; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    We present the results from a search for new Milky Way (MW) satellites from the first two years of data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) ˜300 deg2 and report the discovery of a highly compelling ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidate in Cetus. This is the second ultra-faint dwarf we have discovered after Virgo I reported in our previous paper. This satellite, Cetus III, has been identified as a statistically significant (10.7 σ) spatial overdensity of star-like objects, which are selected from a relevant isochrone filter designed for a metal-poor and old stellar population. This stellar system is located at a heliocentric distance of 251^{+24}_{-11}kpc with a most likely absolute magnitude of MV = -2.4 ± 0.6 mag estimated from a Monte Carlo analysis. Cetus III is extended with a half-light radius of r_h = 90^{+42}_{-17}pc, suggesting that this is a faint dwarf satellite in the MW located beyond the detection limit of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Further spectroscopic studies are needed to assess the nature of this stellar system. We also revisit and update the parameters for Virgo I, finding M_V = -0.33^{+0.75}_{-0.87}mag and r_h = 47^{+19}_{-13}pc. Using simulations of Λ-dominated cold dark matter models, we predict that we should find one or two new MW satellites from ˜300 deg2 HSC-SSP data, in rough agreement with the discovery rate so far. The further survey and completion of HSC-SSP over ˜1400 deg2 will provide robust insights into the missing satellites problem.

  18. Association between asthma and physical activity in Korean adolescents: the 3rd Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2012-12-01

    Asthma is the leading chronic illness among children and adolescents in several nations. This study investigated the association between asthma and physical activity (PA). The findings in this study are based on the data obtained from the 2007 3rd Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS-III), a cross-sectional survey of health-risk behaviours among a representative sample of Korean middle- and high-school students aged 13-18 years. This survey is conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 72 943 study subjects were selected using the complex sampling design of the survey. The association between asthma and PA was assessed by conducting multiple logistic regression analyses of the data by using the statistical software SPSS 17.0 Complex Sample. Compared with the adolescents without current asthma, significantly fewer adolescents with current asthma had a sedentary time of 3 h or less per day (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.97). Sedentary time was defined as time spent watching television, surfing the Internet, or playing computer games and excluded the time spent doing homework or study during leisure time. The analysis was adjusted for age, gender, family affluence level (FAL), obesity, allergic rhinitis, atopy and smoking. With regard to participation in adequate vigorous or moderate PA, strengthening exercise or physical education class, no significant differences were found between the adolescent students with current asthma and those without current asthma. In addition, it was found that all PA had no significant differences in their effects on asthma severity (medication, inability to work and absence from school). Our results show that the amount of sedentary time influenced asthma prevalence; however, PA did not influence asthma prevalence in Korean adolescents.

  19. The LAMOST survey of background quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33 – III. results from the 2013 regular survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Zhi-Ying; Shi, Jian-Rong; Yang, Ming; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yang; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report new quasars discovered in fields in the vicinity of the Andromeda (M31) and Triangulum (M33) galaxies with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also called the Guo Shou Jing Telescope) during the 2013 observational season, the second year of the regular survey. In total, 1330 new quasars are discovered in an area of ∼133 deg 2 around M31 and M33. With i magnitudes ranging from 14.79 to 20.0 and redshifts from 0.08 to 4.85, the 1330 new quasars represent a significant increase in the number of identified quasars in fields in the vicinity of M31 and M33. Up to now, there have been a total of 1870 quasars discovered by LAMOST in this area. The much enlarged sample of known quasars in this area can potentially be utilized to construct a precise astrometric reference frame for the measurement of minute proper motions of M31, M33 and their associated substructures, which are vital for understanding the formation and evolution of M31, M33 and the Local Group of galaxies. Moreover, in the sample, there are a total of 45, 98 and 225 quasars with i magnitudes brighter than 17.0, 17.5 and 18.0 respectively. In the aforementioned brightness bins, 15, 35 and 84 quasars are reported here for the first time, and 6, 21 and 81 are reported in our pervious work. In addition, 0, 1 and 6 are from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 24, 41 and 54 are from the NED database. These bright quasars provide an invaluable sample to study the kinematics and chemistry of the interstellar/intergalactic medium of the Local Group. (paper)

  20. Histoplasmosis and Paracoccidioidomycosis in northwestern Argentina III. Epidemiological survey in Vipos, La Toma, and Choromoro - Trancas, Tucuman, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaid, Aida van Gelderen de; Duran, Estela; Kestelman, Isabel Borges de

    1999-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to obtain epidemiological data on the extent and distribution of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum and Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis diseases in the Vipos, La Toma and Choromoro areas. Skin test surveys with histoplasmin and paracoccidioidin were carried out in the permanent human population of those localities. Mycological sputum studies and serological tests were performed to skin test reactors to determine if there were signs or symptoms of active mycotic disease. La Toma and Choromoro are highly prevalent areas of histoplasmosis ( > 30% the histoplasmin positive individuals) whereas Vipos can be relatively considered a highly prevalent area (between 20-30% the histoplasmin reactors) according to the normally accepted range used to define an endemic disease [2]. Early Histoplasma capsulatum infection ( < 10 years old) is reported for Vipos and Choromoro. La Toma has the highest rate of previous exposure to P. brasiliensis detected in the studied area (10.2%). Vipos residents are not infected with P. brasiliensis

  1. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupka, R.C.; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  2. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupka, Richard C.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  3. Speech-Language Pathology production regarding voice in popular singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Lorena Badaró; Vieira, Naymme Barbosa; Oliveira, Domingos Sávio Ferreira de

    2011-12-01

    To present a literature review about the Brazilian scientific production in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology regarding voice in popular singing in the last decade, as for number of publications, musical styles studied, focus of the researches, and instruments used for data collection. Cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in two stages: search in databases and publications encompassing the last decade of researches in this area in Brazil, and reading of the material obtained for posterior categorization. The databases LILACS and SciELO, the Databasis of Dissertations and Theses organized by CAPES, the online version of Acta ORL, and the online version of OPUS were searched, using the following uniterms: voice, professional voice, singing voice, dysphonia, voice disorders, voice training, music, dysodia. Articles published between the years 2000 and 2010 were selected. The researches found were classified and categorized after reading their abstracts and, when necessary, the whole study. Twenty researches within the proposed theme were selected, all of which were descriptive, involving several musical styles. Twelve studies focused on the evaluation of the popular singer's voice, and the most frequently used data collection instrument was the auditory-perceptual evaluation. The results of the publications found corroborate the objectives proposed by the authors and the different methodologies. The number of studies published is still restricted when compared to the diversity of musical genres and the uniqueness of popular singer.

  4. Dimensionality of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder and its association with suicide attempts: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung M; Yoon, Young-Hee; Harford, Thomas C; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-06-01

    Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies suggest that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is best characterized by seven factors, including re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal. The seven factors, however, have been found to be highly correlated, suggesting that one general factor may exist to explain the overall correlations among symptoms. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, a large, national survey of 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older, this study proposed and tested an exploratory bifactor hybrid model for DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. The model posited one general and seven specific latent factors, whose associations with suicide attempts and mediating psychiatric disorders were used to validate the PTSD dimensionality. The exploratory bifactor hybrid model fitted the data extremely well, outperforming the 7-factor CFA hybrid model and other competing CFA models. The general factor was found to be the single dominant latent trait that explained most of the common variance (~76%) and showed significant, positive associations with suicide attempts and mediating psychiatric disorders, offering support to the concurrent validity of the PTSD construct. The identification of the primary latent trait of PTSD confirms PTSD as an independent psychiatric disorder and helps define PTSD severity in clinical practice and for etiologic research. The accurate specification of PTSD factor structure has implications for treatment efforts and the prevention of suicidal behaviors.

  5. Serum phosphorus and mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III): effect modification by fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-10-01

    Serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality in some but not all studies. Because dietary intake prior to measurement can affect serum phosphorus levels, we hypothesized that the association between serum phosphorus level and mortality is strongest in those who have fasted longer. Prospective cohort study. Nationally representative sample of 12,984 participants 20 years or older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Serum phosphorus level, fasting duration (dichotomized as ≥ 12 or fasting duration recorded as time since food or drink other than water was consumed. Individuals fasting 12 or more hours had lower serum phosphorus levels than those fasting less than 12 hours (3.34 vs 3.55 mg/dL; P fasting 12 or more hours (adjusted HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.38-2.20; reference, lowest quartile) but not in participants fasting less than 12 hours (adjusted HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.32; P for interaction = 0.002). Relationships were consistent using 8 hours as the fasting cutoff point or cardiovascular mortality as the outcome. Observational study, lack of fibroblast growth factor 23 or intact parathyroid hormone measurements. Fasting but not nonfasting serum phosphorus levels were associated with increased mortality. Risk prognostication based on serum phosphorus may be improved using fasting levels. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Singing for Lung Health-a systematic review of the literature and consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam; Cave, Phoene; Stern, Myra; Welch, Lindsay; Taylor, Karen; Russell, Juliet; Doyle, Anne-Marie; Russell, Anne-Marie; McKee, Heather; Clift, Stephen; Bott, Julia; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2016-12-01

    There is growing interest in Singing for Lung Health (SLH), an approach where patients with respiratory disease take part in singing groups, intended to improve their condition. A consensus group was convened in early 2016 to address issues including: the specific features that make SLH distinct from other forms of participation in singing; the existing evidence base via a systematic review; gaps in the evidence base including the need to define value-based outcome measures for sustainable commissioning of SLH; defining the measures needed to evaluate both individuals' responses to SLH and the quality of singing programmes. and core training, expertise and competencies required by singing group leaders to deliver high-quality programmes. A systematic review to establish the extent of the evidence base for SLH was undertaken. Electronic databases, including Pubmed, OVID Medline and Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane central register of controlled trials and PEDro, were used. Six studies were included in the final review. Quantitative data suggest that singing has the potential to improve health-related quality of life, particularly related to physical health, and levels of anxiety without causing significant side effects. There is a significant risk of bias in many of the existing studies with small numbers of subjects overall. Little comparison can be made between studies owing to their heterogeneity in design. Qualitative data indicate that singing is an enjoyable experience for patients, who consistently report that it helps them to cope with their condition better. Larger and longer-term trials are needed.

  7. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  8. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Group Singing as a Therapy during Diabetes Training--A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, J B; Neus, I; Kopf, S; Hartmann, M; Schanz, J; Kliemank, E; Wetekam, B; Kihm, L; Fleming, T; Herzog, W; Nawroth, P P

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive diabetes treatment has been shown to reduce quality of life in diabetic patients. However, there is evidence to suggest that group singing can have positive effects on quality of life in various clinical settings. In this randomized controlled pilot study, the effect of singing as a therapy to reduce stress and improve quality of life was investigated in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, undergoing a lifestyle intervention program. Patients from the singing group felt less discontented following treatment. This effect, however, was lost after 3 months. No effect on serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels could be seen when comparing the singing group with the control group, although reduced levels of ACTH and cortisol 3 days after treatment could be found and were still present after 3 months within the group of patients who undertook singing as a therapy. Singing led to an increase in bodyweight, which interestingly had no effect on glucose control or methylglyoxal levels. Therefore, singing during a lifestyle intervention program for insulin-dependent diabetic patients had a short lasting and weak effect on patients' mood without affecting glucose control, but no significant effect on stress related hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Possible benefits of singing to the mental and physical condition of the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The evaluation and management of stress are important for the prevention of both depression and cardiovascular disease. In addition, the maintenance of the oral condition of the elderly is essential to enable them to stay healthy, especially to prevent aspiration pneumonia and improve mental health in an aging society. Therefore, we examined the efficacy of singing on the oral condition, mental health status, and immunity of the elderly to determine if singing could contribute to the improvement of their physical condition. Methods Forty-four subjects (10 men, 34 women), aged 60 years or older, participated in this study. The efficacy of singing on mental health status and immunocompetence was examined by swallowing function, oral condition, blood, and saliva tests, as well as through questionnaires taken before and after singing. Results The results showed that the amount of saliva increased and the level of cortisol, a salivary stress marker, decreased after singing. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for feeling refreshed, comfortable, pleasurable, light-hearted, relieved, and relaxed; the tension and confusion subscale score; and the total mood disturbance (TMD) score of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) all showed improvements. Furthermore, the same tendencies were shown regardless of whether or not the subjects liked singing. Conclusions Our results suggest that singing can be effective in improving the mental health and oral condition of the elderly. PMID:24864162

  11. Singing for Lung Health—a systematic review of the literature and consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam; Cave, Phoene; Stern, Myra; Welch, Lindsay; Taylor, Karen; Russell, Juliet; Doyle, Anne-Marie; Russell, Anne-Marie; McKee, Heather; Clift, Stephen; Bott, Julia; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in Singing for Lung Health (SLH), an approach where patients with respiratory disease take part in singing groups, intended to improve their condition. A consensus group was convened in early 2016 to address issues including: the specific features that make SLH distinct from other forms of participation in singing; the existing evidence base via a systematic review; gaps in the evidence base including the need to define value-based outcome measures for sustainable commissioning of SLH; defining the measures needed to evaluate both individuals' responses to SLH and the quality of singing programmes. and core training, expertise and competencies required by singing group leaders to deliver high-quality programmes. A systematic review to establish the extent of the evidence base for SLH was undertaken. Electronic databases, including Pubmed, OVID Medline and Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane central register of controlled trials and PEDro, were used. Six studies were included in the final review. Quantitative data suggest that singing has the potential to improve health-related quality of life, particularly related to physical health, and levels of anxiety without causing significant side effects. There is a significant risk of bias in many of the existing studies with small numbers of subjects overall. Little comparison can be made between studies owing to their heterogeneity in design. Qualitative data indicate that singing is an enjoyable experience for patients, who consistently report that it helps them to cope with their condition better. Larger and longer-term trials are needed. PMID:27906158

  12. Choir versus Solo Singing: Effects on Mood, and Salivary Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schladt, T Moritz; Nordmann, Gregory C; Emilius, Roman; Kudielka, Brigitte M; de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of salivary oxytocin (OXT) concentrations emerges as a helpful tool to assess peripheral OXT secretion at baseline and after various challenges in healthy and clinical populations. Both positive social interactions and stress are known to induce OXT secretion, but the relative influence of either of these triggers is not well delineated. Choir singing is an activity known to improve mood and to induce feelings of social closeness, and may therefore be used to investigate the effects of positive social experiences on OXT system activity. We quantified mood and salivary OXT and cortisol (CORT) concentrations before, during, and after both choir and solo singing performed in a randomized order in the same participants (repeated measures). Happiness was increased, and worry and sadness as well as salivary CORT concentrations were reduced, after both choir and solo singing. Surprisingly, salivary OXT concentrations were significantly reduced after choir singing, but did not change in response to solo singing. Salivary OXT concentrations showed high intra-individual stability, whereas salivary CORT concentrations fluctuated between days within participants. The present data indicate that the social experience of choir singing does not induce peripheral OXT secretion, as indicated by unchanged salivary OXT levels. Rather, the reduction of stress/arousal experienced during choir singing may lead to an inhibition of peripheral OXT secretion. These data are important for the interpretation of future reports on salivary OXT concentrations, and emphasize the need to strictly control for stress/arousal when designing similar experiments.

  13. Nosologic Comparisons of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; June Ruan, W.; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine prevalences and concordances between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), and Fifth Edition (DSM-5) substance use disorders (SUDs) in a newly completed U.S. epidemiologic survey. Method: The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III surveyed 36,309 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults. SUDs were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–5. Concordances between DSM-IV and DSM-5 disorders were assessed using kappa statistics. Results: Prevalences of past-year substance-specific DSM-5 disorders (2+ criteria) were modestly higher than those of DSM-IV dependence and abuse combined for alcohol, sedatives/tranquilizers, opioids, and heroin, but lower for cannabis, cocaine, and stimulants. Lifetime prevalences were lower under DSM-5. Prevalences were similar between moderate to severe (4+ criteria) DSM-5 disorders and dependence, whereas prevalences of DSM-5 disorders at 3+ criteria (DSM-5 [3+]) were higher, particularly for cannabis. Past-year concordances were excellent for DSM-IV dependence and abuse combined versus any DSM-5 and DSM-IV dependence versus DSM-5 moderate to severe disorders; lifetime concordances were fair to excellent. Past-year concordances between DSM-IV and DSM-5 (3+) were generally similar to or modestly higher than those with any DSM-5 disorder; lifetime concordances were mostly lower. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with those informing the development of DSM-5. Future research should examine differences in patterns between past-year and lifetime disorders, particularly for cannabis. Other questions warranting investigation include whether different combinations of the same numbers of criteria carry different clinical or nosologic implications, whether changes innosology yield changes in treatment demand, and whether changes in characteristics of individuals with DSM-5 SUDs

  14. The acoustic and perceptual differences to the non-singer's singing voice before and after a singing vocal warm-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Angela

    The present study analyzed the acoustic and perceptual differences in non-singer's singing voice before and after a vocal warm-up. Experiments were conducted with 12 females who had no singing experience and considered themselves to be non-singers. Participants were recorded performing 3 tasks: a musical scale stretching to their most comfortable high and low pitches, sustained productions of the vowels /a/ and /i/, and singing performance of the "Star Spangled Banner." Participants were recorded performing these three tasks before a vocal warm-up, after a vocal warm-up, and then again 2-3 weeks later after 2-3 weeks of practice. Acoustical analysis consisted of formant frequency analysis, singer's formant/singing power ratio analysis, maximum phonation frequency range analysis, and an analysis of jitter, noise to harmonic ratio (NHR), relative average perturbation (RAP), and voice turbulence index (VTI). A perceptual analysis was also conducted with 12 listeners rating comparison performances of before vs. after the vocal warm-up, before vs. after the second vocal warm-up, and after both vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the formant frequency analysis of the vowel /a/, but there was significance for the 1st formant frequency analysis of the vowel /i/. Singer's formant analyzed via Singing Power Ratio analysis showed significance only for the vowel /i/. Maximum phonation frequency range analysis showed a significant increase after the vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the acoustic measures of jitter, NHR, RAP, and VTI. Perceptual analysis showed a significant difference after a vocal warm-up. The results indicate that a singing vocal warm-up can have a significant positive influence on the singing voice of non-singers.

  15. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of “speech” on the productive level and “music” on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory. PMID:24319438

  16. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory.

  17. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eChristiner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous research on speech imitation, musicality and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Fourty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64 % of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66 % of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi could be explained by working memory together with a singer’s sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and sound memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. 1. Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. 2. Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. 3. The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory short term memory.

  18. Listener perception of the effect of abdominal kinematic directives on respiratory behavior in female classical singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Kenny, Dianna T; Archer, Michaele

    2011-01-01

    Breath management training in classical singing is becoming increasingly physiologically focused, despite evidence that directives focusing on chest-wall kinematic (ribcage and abdominal) behavior effect minimal change in acoustical measures of singing. A direct and proportionate relationship between breathing behavior and vocal quality is important in singing training because singing teachers rely primarily on changes in sound quality to assess the efficacy of breath management modification. Pedagogical opinion is also strongly divided over whether the strategy of retarding the reduction in abdominal dimension during singing has a negative effect on vocal quality. This study investigated whether changes in abdominal kinematic strategy were perceptible and whether listeners preferred a particular strategy. Fourteen experienced singing teachers and vocal coaches assessed audio samples of five female classical singers whose respiratory kinematic patterns during singing had been recorded habitually and under two simple, dichotomous directives: Gradually drawing the abdomen inward and gradually expanding the abdomen, during each phrase. Listeners rated the singers on standard of singing and of breath management. Ratings analysis took into consideration changes in kinematic behavior under each directive determined from the respiratory recordings. Listener ratings for two singers were unaffected by directive. For three singers, ratings were lower when the directive opposed habitual kinematic behavior. The results did not support the pedagogical assumption of a direct and proportional link between respiratory behavior and standard of singing or that the abdomen-outward strategy was deleterious to vocal quality. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering habitual breathing behavior in both research and pedagogical contexts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The KMOS Cluster Survey (KCS). III. Fundamental Plane of Cluster Galaxies at z ≃ 1.80 in JKCS 041

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Laura J.; Davies, Roger L.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Chan, Jeffrey C. C.; Cappellari, Michele; Houghton, Ryan C. W.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Bender, Ralf; Galametz, Audrey; Saglia, Roberto P.; Stott, John P.; Wilman, David J.; Lewis, Ian J.; Sharples, Ray; Wegner, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We present data for 16 galaxies in the overdensity JKCS 041 at z≃ 1.80 as part of the K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) Cluster Survey (KCS). With 20 hr integrations, we have obtained deep absorption-line spectra from which we derived velocity dispersions for seven quiescent galaxies. We combined photometric parameters derived from Hubble Space Telescope images with the dispersions to construct a fundamental plane (FP) for quiescent galaxies in JKCS 041. From the zero-point evolution of the FP, we derived a formation redshift for the galaxies of {z}{form}=3.0+/- 0.3, corresponding to a mean age of 1.4 ± 0.2 Gyr. We tested the effect of structural and velocity dispersion evolution on our FP zero-point and found a negligible contribution when using dynamical mass-normalized parameters (˜ 3 % ) but a significant contribution from stellar-mass-normalized parameters (˜ 42 % ). From the relative velocities of the galaxies, we probed the 3D structure of these 16 confirmed members of JKCS 041 and found that a group of galaxies in the southwest of the overdensity had systematically higher velocities. We derived ages for the galaxies in the different groups from the FP. We found that the east-extending group had typically older galaxies ({2.1}-0.2+0.3 Gyr) than those in the southwest group (0.3 ± 0.2 Gyr). Although based on small numbers, the overdensity dynamics, morphology, and age results could indicate that JKCS 041 is in formation and may comprise two merging groups of galaxies. This result could link large-scale structure to ages of galaxies for the first time at this redshift. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDs: 095.A-0137(A) and 096.A-0189(A)).

  20. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. A QUINTUPLE STELLAR POPULATION IN NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Jerjen, H.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; D’Antona, F.; Ventura, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present the first results from multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 as an extension of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs (GO-13297 and previous proprietary and HST archive data). Our analysis allowed us to disclose a multiple-stellar-population phenomenon in NGC 2808 even more complex than previously thought. We have separated at least five different populations along the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB), which we name A, B, C, D, and E (though an even finer subdivision may be suggested by the data). We identified the RGB bump in four out of the five RGBs. To explore the origin of this complex color–magnitude diagram, we have combined our multi-wavelength HST photometry with synthetic spectra, generated by assuming different chemical compositions. The comparison of observed colors with synthetic spectra suggests that the five stellar populations have different contents of light elements and helium. Specifically, if we assume that NGC 2808 is homogeneous in [Fe/H] (as suggested by spectroscopy for Populations B, C, D, E, but lacking for Population A) and that population A has a primordial helium abundance, we find that populations B, C, D, E are enhanced in helium by ΔY ∼ 0.03, 0.03, 0.08, 0.13, respectively. We obtain similar results by comparing the magnitude of the RGB bumps with models. Planned spectroscopic observations will test whether Population A also has the same metallicity, or whether its photometric differences with Population B can be ascribed to small [Fe/H] and [O/H] differences rather than to helium

  1. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. III. MEASURES BELOW THE DIFFRACTION LIMIT OF THE WIYN TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Van Altena, William F.; Howell, Steve B.; Sherry, William H.; Ciardi, David R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the ability of CCD- and electron-multiplying-CCD-based speckle imaging to obtain reliable astrometry and photometry of binary stars below the diffraction limit of the WIYN 3.5 m Telescope. We present a total of 120 measures of binary stars, 75 of which are below the diffraction limit. The measures are divided into two groups that have different measurement accuracy and precision. The first group is composed of standard speckle observations, that is, a sequence of speckle images taken in a single filter, while the second group consists of paired observations where the two observations are taken on the same observing run and in different filters. The more recent paired observations were taken simultaneously with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, which is a two-channel speckle imaging system. In comparing our results to the ephemeris positions of binaries with known orbits, we find that paired observations provide the opportunity to identify cases of systematic error in separation below the diffraction limit and after removing these from consideration, we obtain a linear measurement uncertainty of 3-4 mas. However, if observations are unpaired or if two observations taken in the same filter are paired, it becomes harder to identify cases of systematic error, presumably because the largest source of this error is residual atmospheric dispersion, which is color dependent. When observations are unpaired, we find that it is unwise to report separations below approximately 20 mas, as these are most susceptible to this effect. Using the final results obtained, we are able to update two older orbits in the literature and present preliminary orbits for three systems that were discovered by Hipparcos.

  2. Singing can improve speech function in aphasics associated with intact right basal ganglia and preserve right temporal glucose metabolism: Implications for singing therapy indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, we know that some aphasic patients can sing well despite their speech disturbances. Herein, we report 10 patients with non-fluent aphasia, of which half of the patients improved their speech function after singing training. We studied ten patients with non-fluent aphasia complaining of difficulty finding words. All had lesions in the left basal ganglia or temporal lobe. They selected the melodies they knew well, but which they could not sing. We made a new lyric with a familiar melody using words they could not name. The singing training using these new lyrics was performed for 30 minutes once a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training, their speech functions were assessed by language tests. At baseline, 6 of them received positron emission tomography to evaluate glucose metabolism. Five patients exhibited improvements after intervention; all but one exhibited intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, but all exhibited left basal ganglia lesions. Among them, three subjects exhibited preserved glucose metabolism in the right temporal lobe. We considered that patients who exhibit intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, together with preserved right hemispheric glucose metabolism, might be an indication of the effectiveness of singing therapy.

  3. Audience as analyst: Dennis Potter's The Singing Detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, W

    1997-06-01

    Author Dennis Potter has written an exceptional psychoanalytically informed television series in The Singing Detective. Potter succeeds by echewing the usual portrayal of psychoanalysis in cinema and television as a therapy which the viewer observes but instead creates, by means of the content and structure of the series, a production that forces the audience into a role of analyst. The story of the current life and the childhood of the protagonist, Philip Marlow, has depth and context which allows the audience to examine the personality of Marlow, including character pathology and traits, sexuality, fantasy, dreams, and delusions from several metapsychological viewpoints. Potter allows the audience to use the dynamic, genetic, topographic, and, most unusual in drama, structural viewpoints. The audience can experience aspects of an analyst's experience, including the process of formulating and evaluating over time analytic hypotheses and coping with emotional reactions to the material which at times has transferencelike qualities.

  4. The Epidemiology of Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-01-01

    To present current, nationally representative US findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and adulthood antisocial behavioral syndrome without conduct disorder before 15 years of age (AABS). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents (N = 36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, and specific drug use disorders and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, respectively, and were highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress, and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder (ORs = 1.3-1.6); AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders (ORs = 1.2-1.3). Both were associated with significant disability (P antisocial survey respondents were untreated. One in 4 US adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before 15 years of age, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of

  5. Regular exercise behaviour and intention and symptoms of anxiety and depression in coronary heart disease patients across Europe: Results from the EUROASPIRE III survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugger, Christof; Wellmann, Jürgen; Heidrich, Jan; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Smedt, Delphine; De Backer, Guy; Reiner, Željko; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Fras, Zlatko; Gaita, Dan; Jennings, Catriona; Kotseva, Kornelia; Wood, David; Keil, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Regular exercise lowers the risk of cardiovascular death in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. We aimed to investigate regular exercise behaviour and intention in relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression in CHD patients across Europe. This study was based on a multicentre cross-sectional survey. In the EUROpean Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) III survey, 8966 CHD patients patients exercised or intended to exercise regularly was assessed using the Stages of Change questionnaire in 8330 patients. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Total physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in patients from a subset of 14 countries. Overall, 50.3% of patients were not intending to exercise regularly, 15.9% were intending to exercise regularly, and 33.8% were exercising regularly. Patients with severe symptoms of depression less frequently exercised regularly than patients with symptoms in the normal range (20.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 14.8-26.8 vs 36.7%, 95% CI 29.8-44.2). Among patients not exercising regularly, patients with severe symptoms of depression were less likely to have an intention to exercise regularly (odds ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.85). Symptoms of anxiety did not affect regular exercise intention. In sensitivity analysis, results were consistent when adjusting for total physical activity. Lower frequency of regular exercise and decreased likelihood of exercise intention were observed in CHD patients with severe depressive symptoms. Severe symptoms of depression may preclude CHD patients from performing regular exercise. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  6. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: cosmic flows and cosmic web from luminous red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Metin; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Angulo, Raul E.; Ferraro, Simone; Gil-Marín, Hector; McDonald, Patrick; Hernández Monteagudo, Carlos; Müller, Volker; Yepes, Gustavo; Autefage, Mathieu; Baumgarten, Falk; Beutler, Florian; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Guo, Hong; Ho, Shirley; McBride, Cameron; Neyrinck, Mark; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Percival, Will J.; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schlegel, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Streblyanska, Alina; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana

    2017-06-01

    We present a Bayesian phase-space reconstruction of the cosmic large-scale matter density and velocity fields from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 12 CMASS galaxy clustering catalogue. We rely on a given Λ cold dark matter cosmology, a mesh resolution in the range of 6-10 h-1 Mpc, and a lognormal-Poisson model with a redshift-dependent non-linear bias. The bias parameters are derived from the data and a general renormalized perturbation theory approach. We use combined Gibbs and Hamiltonian sampling, implemented in the argo code, to iteratively reconstruct the dark matter density field and the coherent peculiar velocities of individual galaxies, correcting hereby for coherent redshift space distortions. Our tests relying on accurate N-body-based mock galaxy catalogues show unbiased real space power spectra of the non-linear density field up to k ˜ 0.2 h Mpc-1, and vanishing quadrupoles down to r ˜ 20 h-1 Mpc. We also demonstrate that the non-linear cosmic web can be obtained from the tidal field tensor based on the Gaussian component of the reconstructed density field. We find that the reconstructed velocities have a statistical correlation coefficient compared to the true velocities of each individual light-cone mock galaxy of r ˜ 0.68 including about 10 per cent of satellite galaxies with virial motions (about r = 0.75 without satellites). The power spectra of the velocity divergence agree well with theoretical predictions up to k ˜ 0.2 h Mpc-1. This work will be especially useful to improve, for example, baryon acoustic oscillation reconstructions, kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich, integrated Sachs-Wolfe measurements or environmental studies.

  7. Inflammation gene variants and susceptibility to albuminuria in the U.S. population: analysis in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1991-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Man-huei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Albuminuria, a common marker of kidney damage, serves as an important predictive factor for the progression of kidney disease and for the development of cardiovascular disease. While the underlying etiology is unclear, chronic, low-grade inflammation is a suspected key factor. Genetic variants within genes involved in inflammatory processes may, therefore, contribute to the development of albuminuria. Methods We evaluated 60 polymorphisms within 27 inflammatory response genes in participants from the second phase (1991-1994 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, a population-based and nationally representative survey of the United States. Albuminuria was evaluated as logarithm-transformed albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, as ACR ≥ 30 mg/g, and as ACR above sex-specific thresholds. Multivariable linear regression and haplotype trend analyses were conducted to test for genetic associations in 5321 participants aged 20 years or older. Differences in allele and genotype distributions among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans were tested in additive and codominant genetic models. Results Variants in several genes were found to be marginally associated (uncorrected P value IL1B (rs1143623 among Mexican Americans remained significantly associated with increased odds, while IL1B (rs1143623, CRP (rs1800947 and NOS3 (rs2070744 were significantly associated with ACR ≥ 30 mg/g in this population (additive models, FDR-P TNF rs1800750, which failed the test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions in this population. Haplotypes within MBL2, CRP, ADRB2, IL4R, NOS3, and VDR were significantly associated (FDR-P Conclusions Our findings suggest a small role for genetic variation within inflammation-related genes to the susceptibility to albuminuria. Additional studies are needed to further assess whether genetic variation in these, and untested, inflammation genes alter the

  8. Contact Quotient of Female Singers Singing Four Pitches for Five Vowels in Normal and Pressed Phonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong Tan, Kendrich Graemer

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contact quotient (CQ) values of breathy, normal, and pressed phonation types in four different sections of the female singing range. Electroglottography (EGG) and acoustic signals were recorded from 10 female singing teachers. Five vowels were sung for 1-3 seconds each, in three phonation types-normal, breathy, and pressed, in four pitches representing registration change points in the singing range. CQ values were automatically generated from the EGG signal using VoceVista at 35% threshold level. Sound pressure levels were checked in Praat. Unianova and correlations were performed using an SPSS program. CQ values of female participants in the study yielded ranges of 0.25-0.62 in normal and 0.34-0.73 in pressed. Normal and pressed CQ differed significantly from each other at P singing. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Let me sing your songs: how Finns found xöömei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Heikkilä

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author of this essay, musician and founder of the Throat Singing Association of Finland (1997, tells the story of how an association of throat singing practitioners came to be in Finland, and how to teach this art to those wishing to learn it. The story also covers the author’s own musical preferences and his life-changing visit to a week-long workshop led by Boris Salchak from Tuva in 1995. Two years later, the author and other aficionados of Tuvan xöömei founded the Throat Singing Association and started holding festivals featuring invited Tuvan singers and throat singing courses. The author describes his collaboration with renowned Tuvan performers, as well as throat singing scholars from the USA, the Netherlands, UK, Italy, etc. The author holds that throat (or overtone singing is a special sound practice. Tuvan practices can be compared with similar techniques developed by indigenous peoples of Africa, North America, Japan and Tibet. Throat singing as a practice is closely linked to specific ancient worldviews of peoples and cultures living close to nature. Finns are also considered living in close proximity to nature, which may explain their partiality to throat signing. Dozens actively practice xöömei and hundreds have experienced it, which is a much larger percentage than in other European states. In the essay, the author also focuses on the throat singing courses he has been giving for a while and shares his observations of his students, their motivation, specific training techniques and adapting them to the desires and intentions of his students. He believes that almost everybody can learn singing, and most people can have a command of throat singing. The essay also covers the main problems that aspiring throat singers can face, as well as specific styles of the xöömei, concluding with the idea that it is impossible to master throat singing in a short period of time. The key to success is only found in regular and extensive

  10. Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets. PMID:23170234

  11. Task-specific singing dystonia: vocal instability that technique cannot fix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Lucinda A; McBroom, Deanna M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw

    2015-01-01

    Singer's dystonia is a rare variation of focal laryngeal dystonia presenting only during specific tasks in the singing voice. It is underdiagnosed since it is commonly attributed to technique problems including increased muscle tension, register transition, or wobble. Singer's dystonia differs from technique-related issues in that it is task- and/or pitch-specific, reproducible and occurs independently from the previously mentioned technical issues.This case series compares and contrasts profiles of four patients with singer's dystonia to increase our knowledge of this disorder. This retrospective case series includes a detailed case history, results of singing evaluations from individual voice teachers, review of singing voice samples by a singing voice specialist, evaluation by a laryngologist with endoscopy and laryngeal electromyography (LEMG), and spectral analysis of the voice samples by a speech-language pathologist. Results demonstrate the similarities and unique differences of individuals with singer's dystonia. Response to treatment and singing status varied from nearly complete relief of symptoms with botulinum toxin injections to minor relief of symptoms and discontinuation of singing. The following are the conclusions from this case series: (1) singer's dystonia exists as a separate entity from technique issues, (2) singer's dystonia is consistent with other focal task-specific dystonias found in musicians, (3) correctly diagnosing singer's dystonia allows singer's access to medical treatment of dystonia and an opportunity to modify their singing repertoire to continue singing with the voice they have, and (4) diagnosis of singer's dystonia requires careful sequential multidisciplinary evaluation to isolate the instability and confirm dystonia by LEMG and spectral voice analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Corollary discharge inhibition of wind-sensitive cercal giant interneurons in the singing field cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Crickets carry wind-sensitive mechanoreceptors on their cerci, which, in response to the airflow produced by approaching predators, triggers escape reactions via ascending giant interneurons (GIs). Males also activate their cercal system by air currents generated due to the wing movements underlying sound production. Singing males still respond to external wind stimulation, but are not startled by the self-generated airflow. To investigate how the nervous system discriminates sensory responses to self-generated and external airflow, we intracellularly recorded wind-sensitive afferents and ventral GIs of the cercal escape pathway in fictively singing crickets, a situation lacking any self-stimulation. GI spiking was reduced whenever cercal wind stimulation coincided with singing motor activity. The axonal terminals of cercal afferents showed no indication of presynaptic inhibition during singing. In two ventral GIs, however, a corollary discharge inhibition occurred strictly in phase with the singing motor pattern. Paired intracellular recordings revealed that this inhibition was not mediated by the activity of the previously identified corollary discharge interneuron (CDI) that rhythmically inhibits the auditory pathway during singing. Cercal wind stimulation, however, reduced the spike activity of this CDI by postsynaptic inhibition. Our study reveals how precisely timed corollary discharge inhibition of ventral GIs can prevent self-generated airflow from triggering inadvertent escape responses in singing crickets. The results indicate that the responsiveness of the auditory and wind-sensitive pathway is modulated by distinct CDIs in singing crickets and that the corollary discharge inhibition in the auditory pathway can be attenuated by cercal wind stimulation. PMID:25318763

  13. Variation in singing style use in the reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus: influencing factors and possible functions

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, P; Pasinelli, G

    2010-01-01

    The two main functions of bird song are territory defence and mate attraction. Considerable progress has been made in understanding how species adjust the use of songs to serve these and other (presumed) functions of bird song, but the striking variety of singing behavior observable in wild birds remains enigmatic. Some species make do with simple songs and small repertoires, while others show large, complex repertoires and still others have evolved several distinct singing styles. In most sp...

  14. Effects of singing classes on pulmonary function and quality of life of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gimenes Bonilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amanda Gimenes Bonilha1, Fernanda Onofre2, Maria Lucia Vieira1, Maria Yuka Almeida Prado2, José Antônio Baddini Martinez11Internal Medicine Department, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Music Department, School of Arts and Communications, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 00500526Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of weekly singings classes on pulmonary function parameters and quality of life (QoL of COPD patients. Forty-three patients were randomized to weekly classes of singing practice, or handcraft work. They performed spirometry and completed maximal respiratory pressure measurements, evaluations of dyspnea, and the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, before and after 24 training classes. A functional evaluation, immediately after 10 minutes of singing practice, was also performed at the end of the study. Fifteen subjects completed the study in each group. In comparison to controls the singing group exhibited transitory elevations on the dyspnea Borg scale (p = 0.02, and inspiratory capacity (p = 0.01, and decreases of expiratory reserve volume (p = 0.03, just after a short session of singing. There was a significant difference on changes of maximal expiratory pressures in the comparison between groups at the end of training. While the control group showed deterioration of maximal expiratory pressure, the singing group exhibited a small improvement (p = 0.05. Both groups showed significant improvements of QoL in within group comparisons. We have concluded that singing classes are a well tolerated activity for selected subjects with COPD. Regular practice of singing may improve QoL, and preserve the maximal expiratory pressure of these patients.Keywords: COPD; pulmonary function tests; breathing exercises

  15. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  16. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Alexander; Poznyakovskiy, Anton; Platzek, Ivan; Fleischer, Mario; Sundberg, Johan; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9%) and volume (+ 16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  17. Potential Benefit of Singing for People with Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnish, Jean; Atkinson, Rachel A; Barran, Susannah M; Barnish, Maxwell S

    2016-06-03

    There is evidence that participation in performing arts brings psychosocial benefits in the general population and in recent years there has been substantial interest in the potential therapeutic benefit of performing arts, including singing, for people with chronic medical conditions including those of neurological aetiology. To systematically review the existing body of evidence regarding the potential benefit of singing on clinical outcomes of people with PD. Seven online bibliographic databases were systematically searched in January 2016 and supplementary searches were conducted. Full-text original peer-reviewed scientific papers that investigated the potential benefit of singing on at least one of speech, functional communication, cognitive status, motor function and quality of life in human participants with PD were eligible for inclusion. 449 unique records were identified, 25 full-text articles were screened and seven studies included in the review. All seven studies assessed the impact of singing on speech, five found partial evidence of benefit and two found no evidence of benefit. One study assessed each of functional communication and quality of life and no significant benefit was found. No included study assessed the impact of singing on motor function or cognitive status. Singing may benefit the speech of people with PD, although evidence is not unequivocal. Further research is required to assess wider benefits including on functional communication, cognitive status, motor function and quality of life. Substantial methodological limitations were identified in the existing literature. Recommendations are made for advancing the state of the literature.

  18. Behavioral and neural lateralization of vision in courtship singing of the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Isabelle; Hara, Erina; Hessler, Neal A

    2006-09-01

    Along with human speech and language processing, birdsong has been one of the best-characterized model systems for understanding the relationship of lateralization of brain function to behavior. Lateralization of song production has been extensively characterized, and lateralization of song perception has begun to be studied. Here we have begun to examine whether behavior and brain function are lateralized in relation to communicative aspects of singing, as well. In order to monitor central brain function, we assayed the levels of several activity dependent immediate early genes after directed courtship singing. Consistent with a lateralization of visual processing during communication, there were higher levels of expression of both egr-1 and c-fos in the left optic tectum after directed singing. Because input from the eyes to the brain is almost completely contralateral in birds, these results suggest that visual input from the right eye should be favored during normal singing to females. Consistent with this, we further found that males sang more when they could use only their right eye compared to when they could use only their left eye. Normal levels of singing, though, required free use of both eyes to view the female. These results suggest that there is a preference for visual processing by the right eye and left brain hemisphere during courtship singing. This may reflect a proposed specialization of the avian left hemisphere in sustaining attention on stimuli toward which a motor response is planned.

  19. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders among veterans: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon M; Goldstein, Rise B; Grant, Bridget F

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence, correlates and psychiatric comorbidity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (n = 3119 veteran respondents). The overall prevalence of lifetime PTSD was 6.9%. Lifetime PTSD prevalence was higher among veterans who were female (13.2%), aged 18-29 years (15.3%), Native American (24.1%) or Black (11.0%), previously or never married (9.6% and 11.2, respectively), had incomes less than $70,000 (7.2%-10.1%) and had >2 traumatic events (5.2%-14.7%). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity between lifetime PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was highest for any personality disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 11.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7, 21.5), any mood disorder (AOR = 9.7, 95% CI, 4.6, 20.4) and any anxiety disorder (AOR = 9.6, 95% CI, 5.1, 17.7), followed by nicotine, drug, and alcohol use disorders (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.8, 6.5; AOR = 3.1, 95% CI, 2.0, 5.9; 2.1, 95% CI, 1.5, 3.1, respectively). Associations remained with any mood, anxiety, and personality disorders after controlling for other psychiatric disorders (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.2, 10.9; AOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.6, 7.4; AOR = 4.5, 95% CI, 2.3, 8.7, respectively). Veterans who sought treatment for PTSD had more comorbid conditions, although treatment was only associated with comorbid drug use disorder (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.0, 5.7). In U.S. veterans, PTSD is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Although many veterans remain untreated, comorbidity may influence treatment seeking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Epidemiology of Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D.; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P.; Ruan, W. June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present current, nationally representative U.S. findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 (AABS). Method Face-to-face interviews with respondents (n=36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, specific drug use disorders, and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–5. Results Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (ORs=1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder; AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders. Both were associated with significant disability (pantisocial respondents were untreated. Conclusions One in 4 U.S. adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before age 15, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of whether treatment for comorbidity hastens symptomatic remission and improves

  1. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: cosmological analysis of the DR12 galaxy sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadab; Ata, Metin; Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blazek, Jonathan A.; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Ho, Shirley; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Maraston, Claudia; McBride, Cameron K.; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Reid, Beth A.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Rubiño-Martín, Jose Alberto; Saito, Shun; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Satpathy, Siddharth; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Scóccola, Claudia G.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Sheldon, Erin S.; Simmons, Audrey; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael A.; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Magaña, Mariana Vargas; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Verde, Licia; Wake, David A.; Wang, Yuting; Weinberg, David H.; White, Martin; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Yèche, Christophe; Zehavi, Idit; Zhai, Zhongxu; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2017-09-01

    We present cosmological results from the final galaxy clustering data set of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. Our combined galaxy sample comprises 1.2 million massive galaxies over an effective area of 9329 deg2 and volume of 18.7 Gpc3, divided into three partially overlapping redshift slices centred at effective redshifts 0.38, 0.51 and 0.61. We measure the angular diameter distance DM and Hubble parameter H from the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) method, in combination with a cosmic microwave background prior on the sound horizon scale, after applying reconstruction to reduce non-linear effects on the BAO feature. Using the anisotropic clustering of the pre-reconstruction density field, we measure the product DMH from the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) effect and the growth of structure, quantified by fσ8(z), from redshift-space distortions (RSD). We combine individual measurements presented in seven companion papers into a set of consensus values and likelihoods, obtaining constraints that are tighter and more robust than those from any one method; in particular, the AP measurement from sub-BAO scales sharpens constraints from post-reconstruction BAOs by breaking degeneracy between DM and H. Combined with Planck 2016 cosmic microwave background measurements, our distance scale measurements simultaneously imply curvature ΩK = 0.0003 ± 0.0026 and a dark energy equation-of-state parameter w = -1.01 ± 0.06, in strong affirmation of the spatially flat cold dark matter (CDM) model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Our RSD measurements of fσ8, at 6 per cent precision, are similarly consistent with this model. When combined with supernova Ia data, we find H0 = 67.3 ± 1.0 km s-1 Mpc-1 even for our most general dark energy model, in tension with some direct measurements. Adding extra relativistic species as a degree of freedom loosens the constraint only slightly, to H0 = 67.8 ± 1.2 km s-1 Mpc-1. Assuming flat

  2. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  3. Acoustic properties of vocal singing in prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yitao; Zhang, Mengchao; Nutter, Heather; Zhang, Yijing; Zhou, Qixin; Liu, Qiaoyun; Wu, Weijing; Xie, Dinghua; Xu, Li

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate vocal singing performance of hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants (CI) and hearing aids (HA) as well as to evaluate the relationship between demographic factors of those hearing-impaired children and their singing ability. Thirty-seven prelingually-deafened children with CIs and 31 prelingually-deafened children with HAs, and 37 normal-hearing (NH) children participated in the study. The fundamental frequencies (F0) of each note in the recorded songs were extracted and the duration of each sung note was measured. Five metrics were used to evaluate the pitch-related and rhythm-based aspects of singing accuracy. Children with CIs and HAs showed significantly poorer performance in either the pitch-based assessments or the rhythm-based measure than the NH children. No significant differences were seen between the CI and HA groups in all of these measures except for the mean deviation of the pitch intervals. For both hearing-impaired groups, length of device use was significantly correlated with singing accuracy. There is a marked deficit in vocal singing ability either in pitch or rhythm accuracy in a majority of prelingually-deafened children who have received CIs or fitted with HAs. Although an increased length of device use might facilitate singing performance to some extent, the chance for the hearing-impaired children fitted with either HAs or CIs to reach high proficiency in singing is quite slim. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotion Recognition From Singing Voices Using Contemporary Commercial Music and Classical Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanpää, Tua; Waaramaa, Teija; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2018-02-22

    This study examines the recognition of emotion in contemporary commercial music (CCM) and classical styles of singing. This information may be useful in improving the training of interpretation in singing. This is an experimental comparative study. Thirteen singers (11 female, 2 male) with a minimum of 3 years' professional-level singing studies (in CCM or classical technique or both) participated. They sang at three pitches (females: a, e1, a1, males: one octave lower) expressing anger, sadness, joy, tenderness, and a neutral state. Twenty-nine listeners listened to 312 short (0.63- to 4.8-second) voice samples, 135 of which were sung using a classical singing technique and 165 of which were sung in a CCM style. The listeners were asked which emotion they heard. Activity and valence were derived from the chosen emotions. The percentage of correct recognitions out of all the answers in the listening test (N = 9048) was 30.2%. The recognition percentage for the CCM-style singing technique was higher (34.5%) than for the classical-style technique (24.5%). Valence and activation were better perceived than the emotions themselves, and activity was better recognized than valence. A higher pitch was more likely to be perceived as joy or anger, and a lower pitch as sorrow. Both valence and activation were better recognized in the female CCM samples than in the other samples. There are statistically significant differences in the recognition of emotions between classical and CCM styles of singing. Furthermore, in the singing voice, pitch affects the perception of emotions, and valence and activity are more easily recognized than emotions. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Objective Identification of Prepubertal Female Singers and Non-singers by Singing Power Ratio Using Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Geetha, Y V; Darshan, Y S

    2017-03-01

    The field of music is increasingly gaining scope and attracting researchers from varied fields in terms of improvising the art of voice modulation in singing. There has been a lot of competition, and young budding singers are emerging with more talent. This study is aimed to develop software to differentiate a prepubertal voice as that of a singer or a non-singer using an objective tool-singing power ratio (SPR)-as an objective measure to quantify the resonant voice quality. Recordings of singing and phonation were obtained from 30 singers and 30 non-singer girls (8-10 years). Three professional singers perceptually evaluated all samples using a rating scale and categorized them as singers or non-singers. Using Matlab, a program was developed to automatically calculate the SPR of a particular sample and classify it into either of two groups based on the normative values of SPR developed manually. Positive correlation for SPR of phonation or singing was found between perceptual and manual ratings, and objective values of SPR. Software could automatically give the SPR values for samples that are fed and could further differentiate them as singer or non-singer. Researchers need not depend on professional singers or musicians for the judgment of voice for research purposes. This software uses an objective tool, which serves as an instrument to judge singing talent using singing and phonation samples of children. Also, it can be used as a first line of judgment in any singing audition process, which could ease the work of professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  6. Die sing van psalms in die erediens: Twintig jaar later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoba H. van Rooy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available About 20 years ago the HSRC (Human Sciences Research Council conducted an empirical investigation on the singing of psalms in three Afrikaans reformed churches. Vos and M�ller (1990 dealt with different aspects of this investigation, especially the questions of which melodies are sung in the churches, what the frequency of the use of the different psalms is, the way in which new songs are introduced, the situation in the different churches and the influence of church attendance on the love of the psalms. In an investigation undertaken in 2008 (Van Rooy 2009 these matters were investigated in the Reformed Churches in South Africa, a denomiation that introduced a new hymnal in 2003. The comparison of the two investigations revealed that the number of favourite psalms and the same psalms remained fairly constant. The acceptance of new hymns is related to a number of factors, especially the melody and the liturgical usefulness of the new hymns. The new metrical version of the psalms is still not used very frequently in the Reformed Churches in South Africa. This can partly be ascribed to the lack of structured programmes to learn the new hymns.

  7. Patterns of FOS protein induction in singing female starlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V.

    2013-01-01

    Females of many songbird species produce song, but information about the neural correlates of singing behavior is limited in this sex. Although well studied in males, activity in premotor song control regions and social behavior regions has not been examined in females during song production. Here, we examined the immediate early gene protein product FOS in both song control and social behavior brain regions after female starlings defending nest boxes responded to an unfamiliar female in a naturalistic setting. We found that females that sang in response to the intruder had much higher numbers of fos-immunoreactive neurons (fos-ir) in the vocal control regions HVC, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), and the dorsomedial part of the nucleus intercollicularis (DM of the ICo). In HVC, fos-ir correlated positively with song length. In RA, DM and Area X, fos-ir correlated positively with number of songs produced. In social behavior regions, singers showed higher fos-ir in the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala, the dorsal part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the ventromedial hypothalamus than non-singers. Overall, patterns of fos-ir in song control regions in females were similar to those reported for males, but differences in fos-ir were identified in social behavior regions. These differences may reflect a distinct role for brain regions involved in social behavior in female song, or they may reflect differences in the social function of female and male song. PMID:23022365

  8. Choir singing and health status in people affected by cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagon, C; Gale, N; Dow, R; Lewis, I; van Deursen, R

    2017-09-01

    Cancer survival rates have improved dramatically over recent years, however, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for many patients, survivors and their families remains low even after successful treatment. This mixed-methods observational study explored the effects of participation in community choirs on HRQoL in individuals who have had cancer (patients) or have been affected by cancer (non-patients). This included a longitudinal analysis of choristers commencing the Tenovus Cancer Care "Sing with Us" choirs across Wales and a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants completed the Short-form 36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale on commencement of the choir and 3 and 6 months later. On joining the choir, several domains of the SF36 were lower, indicating worse HRQoL and greater depression in patients than non-patients (p < .05). In patients, choir participation improved vitality, overall mental health and anxiety. In non-patients, choir participation improved anxiety (p < .05). Participants experienced the choirs as both an uplifting musical activity and a supportive community group. The results support the provision of a spectrum of support options to meet the different needs and preferences of people affected by cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Adiposity signals predict vocal effort in Alston's singing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Tracy T; Westwick, Rebecca R; Phelps, Steven M

    2018-04-25

    Advertisement displays often seem extravagant and expensive, and are thought to depend on the body condition of a signaller. Nevertheless, we know little about how signallers adjust effort based on condition, and few studies find a strong relationship between natural variation in condition and display. To examine the relationship between body condition and signal elaboration more fully, we characterized physiological condition and acoustic displays in a wild rodent with elaborate vocalizations, Alston's singing mouse, Scotinomys teguina We found two major axes of variation in condition-one defined by short-term fluctuations in caloric nutrients, and a second by longer-term variation in adiposity. Among acoustic parameters, song effort was characterized by high rates of display and longer songs. Song effort was highly correlated with measures of adiposity. We found that leptin was a particularly strong predictor of display effort. Leptin is known to influence investment in other costly traits, such as immune function and reproduction. Plasma hormone levels convey somatic state to a variety of tissues, and may govern trait investment across vertebrates. Such measures offer new insights into how animals translate body condition into behavioural and life-history decisions. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. Singing well-becoming: Student musical therapy case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Murphey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research supports the everyday therapeutic and deeper socialneurophysiological influence of singing songs alone and in groups (Austin, 2008; Cozolino, 2013; Sacks, 2007. This study looks at what happens when Japanese students teach short English affirmation songlet-routines to others out of the classroom (clandestine folk music therapy. I investigate 155 student-conducted musical case studies from 7 semester-long classes (18 to 29 students per class over a 4-year period. The assignments, their in-class training, and their results are introduced, with examples directly from their case studies. Each class published their own booklet of case studies (a class publication, available to readers online for research replication and modeling. Results show that most primary participants enjoyed spreading these positive songlets as they became “well-becoming agents of change” in their own social networks. “Well-becoming” emphasizes an agentive action or activity that creates better well-being in others, an action such as the sharing or teaching of a songlet. The qualitative data reveals a number of types of well-becoming such as social and familial bonding, meaning-making, teaching-rushes, and experiencing embodied cognition. The project also stimulated wider network dissemination of these well-becoming possibilities and pedagogical insights.

  11. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating the potential of group singing to enhance the well-being of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane W; McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna; Lange, Andrea; Jenkins, Sue; Lewin, Gill

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a singing program developed specifically for older community-dwelling people on measures of health and well-being. An eight-week singing program was developed and evaluated using standardised measures of health and well-being, measures designed to examine specific singing program outcomes, and semi-structured interviews. Participants aged 70 years and older were recruited through a home care service provider (n = 17) and an advertisement in a community newspaper (n = 19). Standard outcome measures indicated that the program had little effect on health and well-being. However, study-specific measures indicated that many participants had positive gains. Those in the home care group required more assistance to attend and continue in the program than those in the general community. Participants reported that the community-based singing facilitator was essential to the program's success. Well-structured community-based singing programs have the potential to impact positively upon the well-being of older people, but program viability depends on support with recruitment, transport and funding. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  13. Four-part choral synthesis system for investigating intonation in a cappella choral singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Daffern, Helena; Brereton, Jude

    2013-10-01

    Accurate tuning is an important aspect of singing in harmony in the context of a choir or vocal ensemble. Tuning and 'pitch drift' are concerning factors in performance for even the most accomplished professional choirs when singing a cappella (unaccompanied). In less experienced choirs tuning often lacks precision, typically because individual singers have not developed appropriate listening skills. In order to investigate accuracy of tuning in ensemble singing situations, a chorally appropriate reference is required against which frequency measurements can be made. Since most basic choral singing involves chords in four parts, a four-part reference template is used in which the fundamental frequencies of the notes in each chord can be accurately set. This template can now be used in experiments where three of the reference parts are tuned in any musical temperament (tuning system), in this case equal and just temperaments, and played over headphones to a singer to allow her/his tuning strategy to be investigated. This paper describes a practical implementation of a four-part choral synthesis system in Pure Data (Pd) and its use in an investigation of tuning of notes by individual singers using an exercise originally written to explore pitch drift in a cappella choral singing.

  14. Experiences of Persons With Parkinson's Disease Engaged in Group Therapeutic Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Hurt, Tera R; O'Connor, Margaret C; Camp, Randie D; Green, Chrishelda W; Pattee, Jenna C; Williams, Ebony K

    2018-01-13

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to altered neural control of movement, including the control of voice, respiration, and swallowing. There is a prevalent need to provide therapy for voice, respiration, and swallowing difficulties because current pharmacological and surgical treatments do not effectively treat these impairments. Previous research has demonstrated that singing may be a treatment option to target voice, respiratory, and swallowing impairments, as well as quality of life. However, participants' perspectives related to reasons for enrolling and engaging in programs as well as evaluation of singing programs have been neglected. The purpose of this descriptive study was thus to solicit participants' views of their involvement in a group singing intervention (GSI) led by credentialed music therapists. Twenty persons with PD were interviewed 4 to 6 months after completing the singing intervention. Participants were asked about 1) why they chose to participate, 2) what were the beneficial and non-beneficial aspects of participating, and 3) how to improve overall design and delivery of the GSI. Using content analysis procedures, we learned that participants regarded their involvement in the study as mutually beneficial, fun, and engaging. Participants appreciated the fellowship with other persons with PD and offered minimal constructive criticism. This study provided greater insight into how a therapeutic singing program may benefit participants and positively impact their lives. © American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical features of western operatic singing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Magis, David; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The operatic singing technique is frequently used in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains unclear. This study aims to further characterize the Western operatic singing technique by observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice. Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic melody) with two vocal techniques (with and without operatic singing technique). The common quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate, and extent), perturbation parameters (standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, jitter, and shimmer), and musical features (fundamental frequency of the starting note, average tempo, and sound pressure level) of the 200 sung performances were analyzed. The results regarding the effect of melody and technique on the acoustical and musical parameters show that the choice of melody had a limited impact on the parameters observed, whereas a particular vocal profile appeared depending on the vocal technique used. This study confirms that vocal technique affects most of the parameters examined. In addition, the observation of quality, perturbation, and musical parameters contributes to a better understanding of the Western operatic singing technique. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined Functional Voice Therapy in Singers With Muscle Tension Dysphonia in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Rzepakowska, Anna; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate vocal tract function and the voice quality in singers with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) after undergoing combined functional voice therapy of the singing voice. This is a prospective, randomized study. Forty singers (29 females and 11 males, mean age: 24.6 ± 8.8 years) with MTD were enrolled in the study. The study group consisted of 20 singers who underwent combined functional voice therapy (10-15 individual sessions, 30-40 minutes each). Singers who did not opt for vocal rehabilitation consisted of the control group. Effects of rehabilitation were assessed with videolaryngostroboscopy, palpation of the vocal tract structures, flexible fiberoptic evaluation of the pharynx and the larynx, perceptual speaking and singing voice assessment, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, and the Voice Handicap Index. After combined functional voice therapy in the study group, great improvement was noticed in palpation of the vocal tract structures (P singing range obtained from acoustic analysis of glissando (P singing. Development of palpation and perceptual singing voice examination protocols enables one to compare results before and after rehabilitation in clinics. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. INFLUENCE OF CHORAL SINGING ON PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATE OF SINGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Grigoriev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have described certain correlation between the protein composition of mixed saliva (PCMS and human psycho-emotional state (PES. In this investigation, the analysis of PCMS was used to study the change of PES in the group in the process of creative activities, i.e. choral singing. During the experiment, three groups of singers performed different parts of songs in the course of their regular sessions. The saliva for the analysis was collected from the singers just before and after the choral singing. The results led to the following conclusions. The vast number of singers showed evidence of healthy mental state. During the experiment, in each of the three creative teams there was a relatively harmonious PES of the participants. Collective singing strengthened the positive PES of the most singers. In particular, after singing in the choir a few people were found to have changed their PES from depressive to normal. Also, the processing of the collected data showed that the analysis of the PCMS characteristics allows evaluating not only the direction of the PES change against the background of the creative process, but also the depth of the emotional experience. In conclusion, the results of the research provide an objective basis for the confirmation of the beneficial effects of choral singing on the psyche of the singers.

  18. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-05-05

    Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown.

  19. Feasibility planning study for a behavior database. Volume III Appendix B, Compendium of survey questions on drinking and driving and occupant restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The general objective of the project was to determine the feasibility of and the general requirements for a centralized database on driver behavior and attitudes related to drunk driving and occupant restraints. Volume III is a compendium of question...

  20. Singing-Related Activity in Anterior Forebrain of Male Zebra Finches Reflects Courtship Motivation for Target Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Mai; Poulsen, Thomas M.; Oka, Kotaro; Hessler, Neal A.

    2013-01-01

    A critical function of singing by male songbirds is to attract a female mate. Previous studies have suggested that the anterior forebrain system is involved in this courtship behavior. Neural activity in this system, including the striatal Area X, is strikingly dependent on the function of male singing. When males sing to attract a female bird rather than while alone, less variable neural activity results in less variable song spectral features, which may be attractive to the female. These characteristics of neural activity and singing thus may reflect a male's motivation for courtship. Here, we compared the variability of neural activity and song features between courtship singing directed to a female with whom a male had previously formed a pair-bond or to other females. Surprisingly, across all units, there was no clear tendency for a difference in variability of neural activity or song features between courtship of paired females, nonpaired females, or dummy females. However, across the population of recordings, there was a significant relationship between the relative variability of syllable frequency and neural activity: when syllable frequency was less variable to paired than nonpaired females, neural activity was also less variable (and vice-versa). These results show that the lower variability of neural activity and syllable frequency during directed singing is not a binary distinction from undirected singing, but can vary in intensity, possibly related to the relative preference of a male for his singing target. PMID:24312344

  1. The Effects of Psychomotor Skills Instruction on Attitude toward Singing and General Music among Students in Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Aitchison, Randall E.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of psychomotor skills instruction on student attitudes in grades 4-6 towards singing and general music instruction. Finds females have more positive attitudes, interest declines as grade-level increases, group vocal instruction may produce more positive attitudes, and a positive relationship between liking to sing in…

  2. Fa-fa-fa-fa, de doo doo doo, de da da da, sha la la la lee : What is the optimal syllable in improvised singing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, Laura; Gilbers, Dicky; Lowie, Wander; Kager, René; Grijzenhout, Janet; Sebregts, Koen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and account for the optimal syllable structure in improvised singing without lyrics. Improvised singing has an overall relaxed character and it is abstracted from meaning. Furthermore, singing in general involves an exaggerated articulation of speech sounds.

  3. THE STUDY OF THE SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS OF TEACHING SINGING IN THE CLASS OF PROFESSOR MIHAIL MUNTEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISTREANU ELENA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the scientifi c aspects of teaching singing in the class of Professor Mihail Muntean. It presents the methodological core of teaching singing, which underlies the perception of M. Muntean`s method of addressing the process of working on the voice, breathing, developing the voice range, clearing the larynx and all the problems of the phonatory process. Th e article brings to the fore the problem of the methods of teaching singing, researched by such authors as E. Cernei, L. Câmpeanu, P. Ciochină, A. Varlamov, I. Nazarenko etc. Th ese authors have treated vocal positioning problems, sound formation, voice classifi cation, according to range, correct breathing, vocal resistance development etc. Th e study of this complex of investigation elucidates the principles that M. Muntean uses to work on his own phonatory apparatus and the way he passes this knowledge to his students.

  4. Understanding the Experience of Group Singing for Couples Where One Partner Has a Diagnosis of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unadkat, Shreena; Camic, Paul M; Vella-Burrows, Trish

    2017-06-01

    There is a continuing interest around the use of group singing in dementia care. Although studies generally indicate positive outcomes, limited research has been carried out from a relational perspective, which places the couple relationship in a central position. This study aimed to better understand how group singing benefits people with dementia and their partners. Interview data from 17 couples (N = 34) with one member having dementia, who participated in a range of different types of singing groups, were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Five key areas were identified, resulting in the development of the group singing model in dementia for couple dyads. Group singing was experienced as being both joyful and accessible. The accessibility of singing, combined with effective facilitation, created an environment for active participation and enjoyment. The group effect mediated further benefits for the person with dementia and for the caregiver which, when combined, increased benefits for the couple through participation in new experiences. An opportunity for couples to share in-the-moment creative expression and the positive affect of artistic creation circumventing cognitive impairment is likely to contribute positively to the experience of the relationship. A more refined understanding of shared creative processes in relationship-centered models of care could inform dementia support services. Future research would benefit from longitudinally exploring the links between creativity in couples and relationship resilience. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Tuning Features of Chinese Folk Song Singing: A Case Study of Hua'er Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham; Sundberg, Johan; Himonides, Evangelos

    2015-07-01

    The learning and teaching of different singing styles, such as operatic and Chinese folk singing, was often found to be very challenging in professional music education because of the complexity of varied musical properties and vocalizations. By studying the acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study identified distinctive tuning characteristics of a particular folk music in China-Hua'er music-to inform the ineffective folk singing practices, which were hampered by the neglect of inherent tuning issues in music. Thirteen unaccompanied folk song examples from four folk singers were digitally audio recorded in a sound studio. Using an analyzing toolkit consisting of Praat, PeakFit, and MS Excel, the fundamental frequencies (F0) of these song examples were extracted into sets of "anchor pitches" mostly used, which were further divided into 253 F0 clusters. The interval structures of anchor pitches within each song were analyzed and then compared across 13 examples providing parameters that indicate the tuning preference of this particular singing style. The data analyses demonstrated that all singers used a tuning pattern consisting of five major anchor pitches suggesting a nonequal-tempered bias in singing. This partly verified the pentatonic scale proposed in previous empirical research but also argued a potential misunderstanding of the studied folk music scale that failed to take intrinsic tuning issues into consideration. This study suggests that, in professional music training, any tuning strategy should be considered in terms of the reference pitch and likely tuning systems. Any accompanying instruments would need to be tuned to match the underlying tuning bias. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Excitability of the motor system: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study on singing and speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Lidji, Pascale; Théoret, Hugo; Russo, Frank A; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The perception of movements is associated with increased activity in the human motor cortex, which in turn may underlie our ability to understand actions, as it may be implicated in the recognition, understanding and imitation of actions. Here, we investigated the involvement and lateralization of the primary motor cortex (M1) in the perception of singing and speech. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied independently for both hemispheres over the mouth representation of the motor cortex in healthy participants while they watched 4-s audiovisual excerpts of singers producing a 2-note ascending interval (singing condition) or 4-s audiovisual excerpts of a person explaining a proverb (speech condition). Subjects were instructed to determine whether a sung interval/written proverb, matched a written interval/proverb. During both tasks, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral mouth muscle (orbicularis oris) of the stimulated motor cortex compared to a control task. Moreover, to investigate the time course of motor activation, TMS pulses were randomly delivered at 7 different time points (ranging from 500 to 3500 ms after stimulus onset). Results show that stimulation of the right hemisphere had a similar effect on the MEPs for both the singing and speech perception tasks, whereas stimulation of the left hemisphere significantly differed in the speech perception task compared to the singing perception task. Furthermore, analysis of the MEPs in the singing task revealed that they decreased for small musical intervals, but increased for large musical intervals, regardless of which hemisphere was stimulated. Overall, these results suggest a dissociation between the lateralization of M1 activity for speech perception and for singing perception, and that in the latter case its activity can be modulated by musical parameters such as the size of a musical interval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation between vocal tract symptoms and modern singing handicap index in church gospel singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2017-08-24

    To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (psinging. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.

  8. Characterization of combustion in a fabric singeing burner operating with varsol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana M, Juan C; Mendoza S, Cesar Camilo; Molina Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The textile industry uses singeing burners to diminish the amount of pilling on surface fabrics. Some of these burners use Stoddard solvent which has high cost per unit of energy, high flammability and emits volatile organic compounds that pose an occupational safety hazard. This study characterized a singing burner operating with varsol performing measurements of temperature downstream the burner, air and fuel flows, and concentration of CO, CO 2 , O 2 and NO x . These measurements defined the most important characteristics of the Stoddard solvent flame that should be maintained to obtain a similar behavior in an eventual change to natural gas.

  9. Does Singing a Low-Pitch Tone Make You Look Angrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Bach, Christian Camoro; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have shown that auditory and visual information influence each other, the link between some intermodal associations are less clear. We here replicate and extend an earlier experiment with ratings of pictures of people singing high and low-pitched tones. To this aim, we video...... recorded 19 participants singing high and low pitches and combined these into picture pairs. In a two-alternative forced choice test, two groups of six assessors were then asked to view the 19 picture pairs and select the "friendlier", and "angrier" expression respectively. The result is that assessors...

  10. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing long familiar songs in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit. My...... hypotheses are …  … that singing has an influence on persons with dementia, and that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics.  … that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system of communicative...

  11. Relationship between aerodynamic measures of glottal efficiency and stroboscopic findings in asymptomatic singing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, D S; Roy, S; Casiano, R R; Evans, J; Sullivan, P A; Xue, J W

    2000-06-01

    Singing requires exquisite coordination between the respiratory and phonatory systems to efficiently control glottal airflow. Asymptomatic singing students underwent pulmonary function testing (PFT), videostrobolaryngoscopic examination, and measures of glottal efficiency (maximum phonation time [MPT], glottal flow rate [GFR], and phonation quotient [PQ]) performed in both a sung and spoken tone. Pulmonary function and glottal efficiency values were within reported normative data for professional singers. However, sung tones were made with significantly higher GFR and PQ and lower PQ than spoken tones. The mean GFR was not related to the degree of glottal closure (by videostrobolaryngoscopy) or underlying pulmonary support.

  12. Biodegradation of softwood lignin and guaiacylglycerol-beta-guiacyl ether by extracellular enzyme in shiitake Lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, T.; Senba, Y.; Ishikawa, H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to explain the biodegradation of softwood lignin by shiitake (Lentinus edodes Berk. Sing.), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sekb. and Zucc.) dioxane lignin (NDL) and guaicylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether (I) were degraded by extracellular enzyme from the NDL-contained potato and malt extracts cultures of shiitake TMI-563 and 655 at 25 degrees C for a prolonged period. The main results on the basis of a functional group analysis and gel-filtration of NDL before and after the enzymatic degradation showed that the degraded DL had a higher content of phenolic OH groups than sound lignin, whereas the methoxyl or aromatic aldehyde-yielding group content was lower in the degraded lignin. The main degradation products formed from I in a crude enzyme solution were guaiacol, guaiacylglycerol, guaiacylglycol-beta-guaiacyl ether (II), and guaiacoxyacetoguaiacone (III), although the polymer was formed at pH 4.0, which is the optimum pH of peroxidase and laccase. It also was clarified that the oxidative polymerization of NDL and I occurred preferably in a crude enzyme solution at pH 4.0, and that these compounds were degraded to lower molecular fragments at pH 6.8 under the same conditions. From the above results, it is suggested that softwood lignin is more effectively degraded by the other enzyme than polyphenoloxidase, such as laccase and peroxidase, in a crude enzyme solution of L. edodes. (Refs. 9).

  13. A survey on job satisfaction among nursing staff before and after introduction of the NIDCAP model of care in a level III NICU in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielenga, Joke M.; Smit, Bert J.; Unk, Karel A.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the effect of introduction of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) on nursing staff job satisfaction. SUBJECTS: Registered nurses, with specialist neonatal qualifications or in training, in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in

  14. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  15. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultti, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is used to…

  17. Singing in Primary Schools: Case Studies of Good Practice in Whole Class Vocal Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra; Daubney, Alison; Spruce, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of British initiatives in music education such as the Wider Opportunities programme in England and the recommendations of the Music Manifesto emphasising the importance of singing in primary schools, the current paper explores examples of good practice in whole-class vocal tuition. The research included seven different primary…

  18. Acoustic parameters of infant-directed singing in mothers of infants with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon; Behura, Samarth; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2017-11-01

    This study compared the acoustic parameters and degree of perceived warmth in two types of infant-directed (ID) songs - the lullaby and the playsong - between mothers of infants with Down syndrome (DS) and mothers of typically-developing (TD) infants. Participants included mothers of 15 DS infants and 15 TD infants between 3 and 9 months of age. Each mother's singing voice was digitally recorded while singing to her infant and subjected to feature extraction and data mining. Mothers of DS infants and TD infants sang both lullabies and playsongs with similar frequency. In comparison with mothers of TD infants, mothers of DS infants used a higher maximum pitch and more key changes during playsong. Mothers of DS infants also took more time to establish a rhythmic structure in their singing. These differences suggest mothers are sensitive to the attentional and arousal needs of their DS infants. Mothers of TD infants sang with a higher degree of perceived warmth which does not agree with previous observations of "forceful warmth" in mothers of DS infants. In comparison with lullaby, all mothers sang playsong with higher overall pitch and slower tempo. Playsongs were also distinguished by higher levels of spectral centroid properties related to emotional expressivity, as well as higher degrees of perceived warmth. These similarities help to define specific song types, and suggest that all mothers sing in an expressive manner that can modulate infant arousal, including mothers of DS infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Real-Time Visual Feedback on Pre-Service Teachers' Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, S.; Cheng, L.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study focuses on the use real-time visual feedback technology (VFT) in vocal training. The empirical research has two aims: to ascertain the effectiveness of the real-time visual feedback software "Sing & See" in the vocal training of pre-service music teachers and the teachers' perspective on their experience with…

  20. Sing, Soothe and Sleep: A Lullaby Education Programme for First-Time Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Felicity; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an education programme conducted with first-time mothers. The study aimed to establish whether mothers found an education session on lullaby singing beneficial for them and their babies as well as reporting what lullabies were sung and why. Twenty first-time mothers were provided with examples of lullabies and asked to sing…

  1. The effect of singing training on voice quality for people with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Buttifant, Mary; Berlowitz, David J

    2014-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of voice impairment in quadriplegia, the exact nature of these impairments is not well described in the literature. This article details objective and subjective voice assessments for people with quadriplegia at baseline and after a respiratory-targeted singing intervention. Randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four participants with quadriplegia were randomly assigned to a 12-week program of either a singing intervention or active music therapy control. Recordings of singing and speech were made at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postintervention. These deidentified recordings were used to measure sound pressure levels and assess voice quality using the Multidimensional Voice Profile and the Perceptual Voice Profile. Baseline voice quality data indicated deviation from normality in the areas of breathiness, strain, and roughness. A greater percentage of intervention participants moved toward more normal voice quality in terms of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio; however, the improvements failed to achieve statistical significance. Subjective and objective assessments of voice quality indicate that quadriplegia may have a detrimental effect on voice quality; in particular, causing a perception of roughness and breathiness in the voice. The results of this study suggest that singing training may have a role in ameliorating these voice impairments. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Singing Teacher's Role in Educating Children's Abilities, Sensibilities and Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuno, Emily Achieng'

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Kenya, song is widely used to enhance the whole curriculum in lower primary classes. Song is used especially to aid recall and therefore teachers adapt tunes that children already know, inserting relevant words from the subject at hand. Despite this widespread practice, this form of singing in schools is not recognised by the…

  3. Choral singing therapy following stroke or Parkinson's disease: an exploration of participants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Buetow, Stephen; Talmage, Alison; McCann, Clare M; Leão, Sylvia H S; Tippett, Lynette; Leung, Joan; McPherson, Kathryn M; Purdy, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke or Parkinson's disease (PD) live with reduced mood, social participation and quality of life (QOL). Communication difficulties affect 90% of people with PD (dysarthria) and over 33% of people with stroke (aphasia). These consequences are disabling in many ways. However, as singing is typically still possible, its therapeutic use is of increasing interest. This article explores the experiences of and factors influencing participation in choral singing therapy (CST) by people with stroke or PD and their significant others. Participants (eight people with stroke, six with PD) were recruited from a community music therapy choir running CST. Significant others (seven for stroke, two for PD) were also recruited. Supported communication methods were used as needed to undertake semi-structured interviews (total N = 23). Thematic analysis indicated participants had many unmet needs associated with their condition, which motivated them to explore self-management options. CST participation was described as an enjoyable social activity, and participation was perceived as improving mood, language, breathing and voice. Choral singing was perceived by people with stroke and PD to help them self-manage some of the consequences of their condition, including social isolation, low mood and communication difficulties. Choral singing therapy (CST) is sought out by people with stroke and PD to help self-manage symptoms of their condition. Participation is perceived as an enjoyable activity which improves mood, voice and language symptoms. CST may enable access to specialist music therapy and speech language therapy protocols within community frameworks.

  4. Voice Range Profiles of Singing Students: The Effects of Training Duration and Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycke, Hugo; Siupsinskiene, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in voice parameters measured by the physiological voice range profile (VRP) in groups of vocally healthy subjects differentiated by the duration of vocal training and the training institution. Six basic frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters and the frequency dip of the register transition zone were determined from VRP recordings of 162 females studying in individual singing lessons (1st-5th level) in Dutch, Belgian, English, and French public or private training facilities. Sixty-seven nonsinging female students served as controls. Singing students in more advanced singing classes demonstrated a significantly greater frequency range, particularly at high frequencies, than did first-year students. Students with private training showed a significantly increased mean intensity range in comparison to those in group classes, while students with musical theater training exhibited significantly increased frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters in comparison to the students with classical training. When compared to nonsingers, all singing student subgroups showed significant increases in all basic VRP parameters. However, the register transition parameter was not influenced by training duration or institution. Our study suggests that the extension of physiological vocal limits might depend on training duration and institution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Singing mitigation in an export riser via liquid injection: a field case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Korst, H.J.C.; Beek, P.J.G. van; Lunde, K.; Eidsvik, I.G.; Hansen, F.; Olsen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible Risers are prone to the generation of high amplitude tonal noise, i.e. a so-called singing riser. Recently, severe vibrations and high noise levels were encountered on the turret of an FPSO in the Norwegian Sea, resulting in significantly reduced production. The vibrations could be

  6. Qualification of new design of flexible pipe against singing: testing at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Lunde, K.; Vijlbrief, O.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible pipes for production of oil and gas typically present a corrugated inner surface. This has been identified as the cause of "singing risers": Flow-Induced Pulsations due to the interaction of sound waves with the shear layers at the small cavities present at each of the multiple

  7. Adapting Choral Singing Experiences for Older Adults: The Implications of Sensory, Perceptual, and Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg

    2014-01-01

    As people age, they naturally experience sensory, perceptual, and cognitive changes. Many of these changes necessitate adaptations in designing programs for older adults. Choral singing is an activity that has many potential benefits for older adults, yet the rehearsal environment, presentation style, and content of material presented may need to…

  8. Supporting English Language Arts Standards within the Context of Early Singing Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    Music teachers may integrate a variety of English language arts content standards into their curriculum to enhance students' music experiences while also supporting their language development. John M. Feierabend and Melanie Champagne's picture book adaptation of "My Aunt Came Back" lends itself to multiple singing and discussion…

  9. "Row, Row, Row Your Boat": Singing, Identity and Belonging in a Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The concept of belonging is widely recognised as a fundamental part of human development and a key element of early childhood curricula. The research presented here explores the role of singing in the development of children's sense of belonging in a day nursery for children aged from six months to two years. The research design incorporated…

  10. The Magic of Music: A Study into the Promotion of Children's Well-Being through Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the spiritual nature of music making and in particular the activity of singing. As a music teacher for children aged 5-11, I have recently observed a change in the behaviour and self-esteem of certain children in school since they joined the choir. This has also inspired them to flourish in other areas of school life. This…

  11. The attitude of the state sphere towards singing associations in Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial dependence of singing societies in the state of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia is particularly analyzed in the paper, with a view to pointing to problems which hindered the advancement of music culture in the civil society. As other similar institutions of civic type, choirs did not have at their disposal sufficient financial, social and symbolic capital independent of the state, so they did not possess the power to influence on the government authorities. Although the period between World Wars brought evident improvement in the state treatment of music institutions, it could not be interpreted as a fundamental shift. The treatment of the Yugoslav singing union (Južnoslovenski pevački savez, which fought for promotion of music culture in the Yugoslav society, is particularly indicative. This largest music organization in the country, fostering ideology of integral Yugoslavism, strived to contribute to ethnic and social cohesion of different regions through singing. In its plans for improving singing practice this organization exhibited a clear vision for activism in favor of the nation and state, but the state authorities did not know how or did not desire to make use of it. Certain information suggests indolent and at times negative, discouraging attitude of authorities towards different ways of improvement of music practice, both art and society wise, which opens a new horizon for future studies and for better comprehension of contemporary problems as well.

  12. The Construction of Male Gender Identity through Choir Singing at a Spanish Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorriaga, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have recently investigated the psychological aspects that play a determinant role in choral singing during adolescence. One of these aspects is vocal identity, which influences the construction of gender identity according to adolescents' needs and societal gender roles. This article focuses on gender aspects of vocal identity…

  13. Eesti talendid raadiokonkurssidel "New Talent" ja "Let the Peoples Sing" / Karin Kopra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopra, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Bratislavas toimunud noorte interpreetide võistlusest "New Talent", kus osales ka pianist Mihkel Poll ning rahvusvahelisest amatöörkooride konkursist "Let the Peoples Sing" Kölnis, kus osalesid Eesti Televisiooni tütarlastekoor ja Tallinna Muusikakeskkooli lastekoor

  14. PARDISEKO III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, H.; Sack, C.

    1975-05-01

    This report gives a detailed description of the latest version of the PARDISEKO code, PARDISEKO III, with particular emphasis on the numerical and programming methods employed. The physical model and its relation to nuclear safety as well as a description and the results of confirming experiments are treated in detail in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre report KFK-1989. (orig.) [de

  15. What works for wellbeing? A systematic review of wellbeing outcomes for music and singing in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Norma; Mansfield, Louise; Meads, Catherine; Julier, Guy; Tomlinson, Alan; Payne, Annette; Grigsby Duffy, Lily; Lane, Jack; D'Innocenzo, Giorgia; Burnett, Adele; Kay, Tess; Dolan, Paul; Testoni, Stefano; Victor, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The role of arts and music in supporting subjective wellbeing (SWB) is increasingly recognised. Robust evidence is needed to support policy and practice. This article reports on the first of four reviews of Culture, Sport and Wellbeing (CSW) commissioned by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded What Works Centre for Wellbeing ( https://whatworkswellbeing.org/ ). To identify SWB outcomes for music and singing in adults. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in PsychInfo, Medline, ERIC, Arts and Humanities, Social Science and Science Citation Indexes, Scopus, PILOTS and CINAHL databases. From 5,397 records identified, 61 relevant records were assessed using GRADE and CERQual schema. A wide range of wellbeing measures was used, with no consistency in how SWB was measured across the studies. A wide range of activities was reported, most commonly music listening and regular group singing. Music has been associated with reduced anxiety in young adults, enhanced mood and purpose in adults and mental wellbeing, quality of life, self-awareness and coping in people with diagnosed health conditions. Music and singing have been shown to be effective in enhancing morale and reducing risk of depression in older people. Few studies address SWB in people with dementia. While there are a few studies of music with marginalised communities, participants in community choirs tend to be female, white and relatively well educated. Research challenges include recruiting participants with baseline wellbeing scores that are low enough to record any significant or noteworthy change following a music or singing intervention. There is reliable evidence for positive effects of music and singing on wellbeing in adults. There remains a need for research with sub-groups who are at greater risk of lower levels of wellbeing, and on the processes by which wellbeing outcomes are, or are not, achieved.

  16. Self-Regulation and Infant-Directed Singing in Infants with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K

    2015-01-01

    Infants learn how to regulate internal states and subsequent behavior through dyadic interactions with caregivers. During infant-directed (ID) singing, mothers help infants practice attentional control and arousal modulation, thus providing critical experience in self-regulation. Infants with Down syndrome are known to have attention deficits and delayed information processing as well as difficulty managing arousability, factors that may disrupt their efforts at self-regulation. The researcher explored responses to ID singing in infants with Down syndrome (DS) and compared them with those of typically developing (TD) infants. Behaviors measured included infant gaze and affect as indicators of self-regulation. Participants included 3- to 9-month-old infants with and without DS who were videotaped throughout a 2-minute face-to-face interaction during which their mothers sang to them any song(s) of their choosing. Infant behavior was then coded for percentage of time spent demonstrating a specific gaze or affect type. All infants displayed sustained gaze more than any other gaze type. TD infants demonstrated intermittent gaze significantly more often than infants with DS. Infant status had no effect on affect type, and all infants showed predominantly neutral affect. Findings suggest that ID singing effectively maintains infant attention for both TD infants and infants with DS. However, infants with DS may have difficulty shifting attention during ID singing as needed to adjust arousal levels and self-regulate. High levels of neutral affect for all infants imply that ID singing is likely to promote a calm, curious state, regardless of infant status. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. What works for wellbeing? A systematic review of wellbeing outcomes for music and singing in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Norma; Mansfield, Louise; Meads, Catherine; Julier, Guy; Tomlinson, Alan; Payne, Annette; Grigsby Duffy, Lily; Lane, Jack; D’Innocenzo, Giorgia; Burnett, Adele; Kay, Tess; Dolan, Paul; Testoni, Stefano; Victor, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The role of arts and music in supporting subjective wellbeing (SWB) is increasingly recognised. Robust evidence is needed to support policy and practice. This article reports on the first of four reviews of Culture, Sport and Wellbeing (CSW) commissioned by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded What Works Centre for Wellbeing (https://whatworkswellbeing.org/). Objective: To identify SWB outcomes for music and singing in adults. Methods: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in PsychInfo, Medline, ERIC, Arts and Humanities, Social Science and Science Citation Indexes, Scopus, PILOTS and CINAHL databases. From 5,397 records identified, 61 relevant records were assessed using GRADE and CERQual schema. Results: A wide range of wellbeing measures was used, with no consistency in how SWB was measured across the studies. A wide range of activities was reported, most commonly music listening and regular group singing. Music has been associated with reduced anxiety in young adults, enhanced mood and purpose in adults and mental wellbeing, quality of life, self-awareness and coping in people with diagnosed health conditions. Music and singing have been shown to be effective in enhancing morale and reducing risk of depression in older people. Few studies address SWB in people with dementia. While there are a few studies of music with marginalised communities, participants in community choirs tend to be female, white and relatively well educated. Research challenges include recruiting participants with baseline wellbeing scores that are low enough to record any significant or noteworthy change following a music or singing intervention. Conclusions: There is reliable evidence for positive effects of music and singing on wellbeing in adults. There remains a need for research with sub-groups who are at greater risk of lower levels of wellbeing, and on the processes by which wellbeing outcomes are, or are not, achieved. PMID:29130840

  18. Laryngoscopic and spectral analysis of laryngeal and pharyngeal configuration in non-classical singing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Lanas, Andres; Olavarria, Christian; Azocar, Maria Josefina; Muñoz, Daniel; Madrid, Sofia; Monsalve, Sebastian; Martinez, Francisca; Vargas, Sindy; Cortez, Pedro; Mayerhoff, Ross M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess three different singing styles (pop, rock, and jazz) with laryngoscopic, acoustic, and perceptual analysis in healthy singers at different loudness levels. Special emphasis was given to the degree of anterior-posterior (A-P) laryngeal compression, medial laryngeal compression, vertical laryngeal position (VLP), and pharyngeal compression. Prospective study. Twelve female trained singers with at least 5 years of voice training and absence of any voice pathology were included. Flexible and rigid laryngeal endoscopic examinations were performed. Voice recording was also carried out. Four blinded judges were asked to assess laryngoscopic and auditory perceptual variables using a visual analog scale. All laryngoscopic parameters showed significant differences for all singing styles. Rock showed the greatest degree for all of them. Overall A-P laryngeal compression scores demonstrated significantly higher values than overall medial compression and VLP. High loudness level produced the highest degree of A-P compression, medial compression, pharyngeal compression, and the lowest VLP for all singing styles. Additionally, rock demonstrated the highest values for alpha ratio (less steep spectral slope), L1-L0 ratio (more glottal adduction), and Leq (more vocal intensity). Statistically significant differences between the three loudness levels were also found for these acoustic parameters. Rock singing seems to be the style with the highest degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activity in healthy singers. Although, supraglottic activity during singing could be labeled as hyperfunctional vocal behavior, it may not necessarily be harmful, but a strategy to avoid vocal fold damage. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of singing on respiratory function, voice, and mood after quadriplegia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Grocke, Denise; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of singing training on respiratory function, voice, mood, and quality of life for people with quadriplegia. Randomized controlled trial. Large, university-affiliated public hospital, Victoria, Australia. Participants (N=24) with chronic quadriplegia (C4-8, American Spinal Injury Association grades A and B). The experimental group (n=13) received group singing training 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. The control group (n=11) received group music appreciation and relaxation for 12 weeks. Assessments were conducted pre, mid-, immediately post-, and 6-months postintervention. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, assessments of voice quality (Perceptual Voice Profile, Multidimensional Voice Profile), and Voice Handicap Index, Profile of Mood States, and Assessment of Quality of Life instruments. The singing group increased projected speech intensity (P=.028) and maximum phonation length (P=.007) significantly more than the control group. Trends for improvements in respiratory function, muscle strength, and recruitment were also evident for the singing group. These effects were limited by small sample sizes with large intersubject variability. Both groups demonstrated an improvement in mood (P=.002), which was maintained in the music appreciation and relaxation group after 6 months (P=.017). Group music therapy can have a positive effect on not only physical outcomes, but also can improve mood, energy, social participation, and quality of life for an at-risk population, such as those with quadriplegia. Specific singing therapy can augment these general improvements by improving vocal intensity. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physicians Experience with and Expectations of the Safety and Tolerability of WHO-Step III Opioids for Chronic (Low Back Pain: Post Hoc Analysis of Data from a German Cross-Sectional Physician Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Ueberall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe physicians’ daily life experience with WHO-step III opioids in the treatment of chronic (low back pain (CLBP. Methods. Post hoc analysis of data from a cross-sectional online survey with 4.283 Germany physicians. Results. With a reported median use in 17% of affected patients, WHO-step III opioids play a minor role in treatment of CLBP in daily practice associated with a broad spectrum of positive and negative effects. If prescribed, potent opioids were reported to show clinically relevant effects (such as ≥50% pain relief in approximately 3 of 4 patients (median 72%. Analgesic effects reported are frequently related with adverse events (AEs. Only 20% of patients were reported to remain free of any AE. Most frequently reported AE was constipation (50%, also graded highest for AE-related daily life restrictions (median 46%. Specific AE countermeasures were reported to be necessary in approximately half of patients (median 45%; nevertheless AE-related premature discontinuation rates reported were high (median 22%. Fentanyl/morphine were the most/least prevalently prescribed potent opioids mentioned (median 20 versus 8%. Conclusion. Overall, use of WHO-step III opioids for CLBP is low. AEs, especially constipation, are commonly reported and interfere significantly with analgesic effects in daily practice. Nevertheless, beneficial effects outweigh related AEs in most patients with CLBP.

  1. Fermilab III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding

  2. Fermilab III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding.

  3. Levantamento da fauna entomológica no estado do Paraná III: Saturniidae (Lepidoptera Survey of the entomological fauna in Paraná State. III: Saturniidae (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Marinoni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the Survey of the Entomological Fauna in Paraná State, the family Saturniidae was studied in its ecological and faunistic aspects. The material was captured using one light trap installed in eight different sites of the State: Antonina, São José dos Pinhais, Colombo, Ponta Grossa, Telêmaco Borba, Jundiaí do Sul, Guarapuava and Fênix, from October 1986 to September 1987. The total number of specimens and means values of capture were analyzed. Indices of diversity and evenness were used to discuss richness and dominance of species in each locality. Besides using ecological indices, the data were also compared by Clustering Analysts, Principal Coordinate Analysis, Minimum Spanning Tree and Linear Correlation Coefficient. The results were compared with meteorological and floristic conditions in the eight localities.

  4. Persistent dysphonia in two performers affecting the singing and projected speaking voice: a report on a collaborative approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Janet

    2002-01-01

    The projected speaking voice and the singing voice are highly sensitive to external and internal influences, and teachers of spoken voice and singing are in a unique position to identify subtle and more serious vocal difficulties in their students. Persistent anomalies may herald early onset of changes in vocal fold structure, neurophysiological control, or emotional stability. Two cases are presented to illustrate the benefits of a collaborative approach to diagnosis and management. The first, a 21-year-old male drama and singing student with an abnormally high speaking voice and falsetto singing voice was found to have a psychogenic dysphonia referred to as "puberphonia" or "mutational falsetto". The second, a 34-year-old female alto with strained phonation and perceived stutter of the vocal folds was diagnosed with "adductor spasmodic dysphonia" or "focal laryngeal dystonia" of neurological origin.

  5. A longitudinal observation of one-to-one singing lessons: The effects of personality and Adult attachment.

    OpenAIRE

    Serra-Dawa, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental and singing teaching has previously been studied with par- particular focus on pedagogical, cognitive, technical, developmental aspects. However, the relationship and interactions that take place between the teachers and students in that setting deserve more extensive exploration. This study approaches the singing teacher-student relationship with a particular focus on the observation of personality traits and the levels of attachment identified between teacher and student. Eleve...

  6. The role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassa, Ayelet; Amir, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    Language deficits in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest, among other things, in a gradual deterioration of spontaneous speech. People with AD tend to speak less as the disease progresses and their speech becomes confused. However, the ability to sing old tunes sometimes remains intact throughout the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage AD. Six participants attended group music therapy sessions over a one-month period. Using content analysis, we qualitatively examined transcriptions of verbal and sung content during 8 group sessions for the purpose of understanding the relationship between specific songs and conversations that occurred during and following group singing. Content analysis revealed that songs from the participants' past-elicited memories, especially songs related to their social and national identity. Analyses also indicated that conversation related to the singing was extensive and the act of group singing encouraged spontaneous responses. After singing, group members expressed positive feelings, a sense of accomplishment, and belonging. Carefully selecting music from the participants' past can encourage conversation. Considering the failure in spontaneous speech in people with middle to late stage AD, it is important to emphasize that group members' responses to each other occurred spontaneously without the researcher's encouragement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götell, Eva; Brown, Steven; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Music and singing are considered to have a strong impact on human emotions. Such an effect has been demonstrated in caregiving contexts with dementia patients. The aim of the study was to illuminate vocally expressed emotions and moods in the communication between caregivers and persons with severe dementia during morning care sessions. Three types of caring sessions were compared: the "usual" way, with no music; with background music playing; and with the caregiver singing to and/or with the patient. Nine persons with severe dementia living in a nursing home in Sweden and five professional caregivers participated in this study. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine videotaped recordings of morning care sessions, with a focus on vocally expressed emotions and moods during verbal communication. Compared to no music, the presence of background music and caregiver singing improved the mutuality of the communication between caregiver and patient, creating a joint sense of vitality. Positive emotions were enhanced, and aggressiveness was diminished. Whereas background music increased the sense of playfulness, caregiver singing enhanced the sense of sincerity and intimacy in the interaction. Caregiver singing and background music can help the caregiver improve the patient's ability to express positive emotions and moods, and to elicit a sense of vitality on the part of the person with severe dementia. The results further support the value of caregiver singing as a method to improve the quality of dementia care.

  8. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part III. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: An Item Response Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the third of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we use item response theory to analyze students' responses to three out of the four conceptual cosmology surveys we developed. The specific item response theory model we use is…

  9. THE WYOMING SURVEY FOR Hα. III. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH LOOK AT ATTENUATION BY DUST IN GALAXIES OUT TO z ∼ 0.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Carolynn A.; Dale, Daniel A.; Barlow, Rebecca J.; Cohen, Seth A.; Cook, David O.; Johnson, L. C.; Kattner, ShiAnne M.; Staudaher, Shawn M.; Lee, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the Wyoming Survey for Hα (WySH), a comprehensive four-square degree survey to probe the evolution of star-forming galaxies over the latter half of the age of the universe. We have supplemented the Hα data from WySH with infrared data from the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey and ultraviolet data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey. This data set provides a multi-wavelength look at the evolution of the attenuation by dust, and here we compare a traditional measure of dust attenuation (L(TIR)/L(FUV)) to a diagnostic based on a recently developed robust star formation rate (SFR) indicator, [Ha obs +24μm]/Ha obs . With such data over multiple epochs, the evolution in the attenuation by dust with redshift can be assessed. We present results from the ELAIS-N1 and Lockman Hole regions at z ∼ 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, and 0.40. While the ensemble averages of both diagnostics are relatively constant from epoch to epoch, each epoch individually exhibits a larger attenuation by dust for higher SFRs. Hence, an epoch-to-epoch comparison at a fixed SFR suggests a mild decrease in dust attenuation with redshift.

  10. Effect of mother singing on adaptation of preemies to extra-uterine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Lúcia Hagi Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sounds are part of our life and are able to produce effects on physical and emotional balance of people. Objective: To evaluate the effects of mother’s singing on the preemie using as parameters the heart and respiratory frequency and blood oxygen concentration of preemies, and also the mother perception related to baby behavior during the exposition to her singing. Methods: It is an exploratory investigation with quantitative and qualitative analyzes. Twenty preemies babies were observed during three consecutive days. Each child was exposed to the mother singing during ten minutes for three periods. The data were collected before and immediately after the music exposition. The heart and respiratory frequency and blood oxygen concentration of the baby were registered in two moments: pre and post- music exposition; the two measures were analyzed and compared. In the third day, the mother was interviewed to know her perception related to baby behavior during the singing exposition. The assessment of data was performed from March to July 2015 in two public hospitals in Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. For the statistical analysis, Wilcoxon, Mc Nemar and variance test of Friedman were applied. Results and Conclusion: Statistics showed no significant results, however the qualitative analyzes showed positive results from the mother’s speech, such as benefic changes on babies behavior, recognition of mother’s voice and in helping to consolidate the bond between mother and her baby. s positivos nos discursos obtidos das mães, tais como alterações comportamentais benéficas, reconhecimento da voz materna e auxílio na consolidação do vínculo mãe-bebê. Palavras-chave: musicoterapia; cuidados de enfermagem; prematuro; adaptação fisiológica; humanização da assistência.

  11. Connections between children's speaking and singing behaviours : implications for education and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rinta, Tiija Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The putpose of the study was to investigate potential connections between children's speaking and singing behaviouts, as well as to explore the potential use of such connections in speech or voice therapy and in educational settings. The objectives of the study were addressed through an exploratory approach. In the literature review, potential connections between the two vocal behaviours were investigated theoretically from the physiological (including neurological)...

  12. Learning to sing with the accompaniment of the gusle in Serbia in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, learning to sing with the accompaniment of the gusle is reconsidered within the concept of the preservation of traditional folk music as an intangible cultural heritage, that is, as a specific form of music education. Having dealt with a traditional way of providing continuity in the practice of guslars` (i. e. gusle players - which is learning by observing and imitating more experienced family members or guslars from nearby surrounding - some crucial moments in the history of singing with the accompaniment of the gusle, which also influenced the process of transmitting this skill, are demonstrated. In recent times, singing with the accompaniment of the gusle has been mastered not only within family circles but also in associations of guslars, at private schools of music, and lately there has also been an opportunity to learn this skill at some state schools of music. Accordingly, interviews with the members of an Association of guslars association that is particularly distinguished by the fostering young guslars, and interviews with gusle teachers and pupils who attend schools of music were used as primary sources for this paper, together with the specific experience of the author as a president of the jury in a young guslars’ competition. Since the poetic content of the songs is primarily learnt from printed collections or audio recordings, future guslars in fact master the musical skills of playing and singing along the instrument, that is, the skill of the vocal interpretation of a chosen written poetic text. Concerning these, some programmes and methods are discussed, as well as their effects on young guslars’ competence, principally from the point of style and aesthetics. Attention is particularly drawn to flaws in the teaching concept of future gusle players at state schools of music. In conclusion, the necessity of applying ethnomusicological findings to activities concerning the preservation of an intangible cultural

  13. Signal interactions and interference in insect choruses: singing and listening in the social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic insects usually sing amidst conspecifics, thereby creating a social environment-the chorus-in which individuals communicate, find mates, and avoid predation. A temporal structure may arise in a chorus because of competitive and cooperative factors that favor certain signal interactions between neighbors. This temporal structure can generate significant acoustic interference among singers that pose problems for communication, mate finding, and predator detection. Acoustic insects can reduce interference by means of selective attention to only their nearest neighbors and by alternating calls with neighbors. Alternatively, they may synchronize, allowing them to preserve call rhythm and also to listen for predators during the silent intervals between calls. Moreover, males singing in choruses may benefit from reduced per capita predation risk as well as enhanced vigilance. They may also enjoy greater per capita attractiveness to females, particularly in the case of synchronous choruses. In many cases, however, the overall temporal structure of the chorus is only an emergent property of simple, pairwise interactions between neighbors. Nonetheless, the chorus that emerges can impose significant selection pressure on the singing of those individual males. Thus, feedback loops may occur and potentially influence traits at both individual and group levels in a chorus.

  14. PRAYER IN ALEXANDER BLOK'S LYRIC POETRY ("A GIRL WAS SINGING IN THE CHURCH CHOIR..."

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    Irina Aleksandrovna Spiridonova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the genre clash of a prayer and stanzas in Alexander Blok’s poem A girl was singing in the church choir... (1905. Prayer is the main ecclesiastical source, shaping the poem’s lyric model. The genre canon of stanzas with the strophes detached substantially and compositionally, transforms the central musical theme into four scene-developments linked by dissonance. Each of the strophes in A girl was singing in the church choir... has its own semantic point (prayer – singings – illusion – enlightenment and reveals a different content of the event, intensifies and develops the tragic theme of two worlds, intended and unintended substitutions, spiritual quest and time losses. Blok’s stanzas are poetic evidence of a modern man’s exit from a prayerful concentration. The model of “conflicting synthesis” of ecclesiastical and literary genres reflects the religious/mystical opposition in symbolism aesthetics and strengthens the tragic pathos of Blok’s lyric poetry.

  15. Effects of Bel Canto Training on Acoustic and Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monica A; Evans, Joseph; Powitzky, Eric

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of 2 years of operatic training on acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of the singing voice. This is a longitudinal study. Participants were 21 graduate students and 16 undergraduate students. They completed a variety of tasks, including laryngeal videostroboscopy, audio recording of pitch range, and singing of syllable trains at full voice in chest, passaggio, and head registers. Inspiration, intraoral pressure, airflow, and sound pressure level (SPL) were captured during the syllable productions. Both graduate and undergraduate students significantly increased semitone range and SPL. The contributions to increased SPL were typically increased inspiration, increased airflow, and reduced laryngeal resistance, although there were individual differences. Two graduate students increased SPL without increased airflow and likely used supraglottal strategies to do so. Students demonstrated improvements in both acoustic and aerodynamic components of singing. Increasing SPL primarily through respiratory drive is a healthy strategy and results from intensive training. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Approaches to the mechanisms of song memorization and singing provide evidence for a procedural memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hultsch Henrike

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that, during song learning, birds do not only acquire 'what to sing' (the inventory of behavior, but also 'how to sing' (the singing program, including order-features of song sequencing. Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos acquire such serial information by segmenting long strings of heard songs into smaller subsets or packages, by a process reminiscent of the chunking of information as a coding mechanism in short term memory. Here we report three tutoring experiments on nightingales that examined whether such 'chunking' was susceptible to experimental cueing. The experiments tested whether (1 'temporal phrasing' (silent intersong intervals spaced out at particular positions of a tutored string, or (2 'stimulus novelty' (groups of novel song-types added to a basic string, or (3 'pattern similarity' in the phonetic structure of songs (here: sharing of song initials would induce package boundaries (or chunking at the manipulated sequential positions. The results revealed cueing effects in experiments (1 and (2 but not in experiment (3. The finding that birds used temporal variables as cues for chunking does not require the assumption that package formation is a cognitive strategy. Rather, it points towards a mechanism of procedural memory operating in the song acquisition of birds.

  17. Approaches to the mechanisms of song memorization and singing provide evidence for a procedural memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, Henrike; Todt, Dietmar

    2004-06-01

    There is growing evidence that, during song learning, birds do not only acquire 'what to sing' (the inventory of behavior), but also 'how to sing' (the singing program), including order-features of song sequencing. Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos acquire such serial information by segmenting long strings of heard songs into smaller subsets or packages, by a process reminiscent of the chunking of information as a coding mechanism in short term memory. Here we report three tutoring experiments on nightingales that examined whether such 'chunking' was susceptible to experimental cueing. The experiments tested whether (1) 'temporal phrasing' (silent intersong intervals spaced out at particular positions of a tutored string), or (2) 'stimulus novelty' (groups of novel song-types added to a basic string), or (3) 'pattern similarity' in the phonetic structure of songs (here: sharing of song initials) would induce package boundaries (or chunking) at the manipulated sequential positions. The results revealed cueing effects in experiments (1) and (2) but not in experiment (3). The finding that birds used temporal variables as cues for chunking does not require the assumption that package formation is a cognitive strategy. Rather, it points towards a mechanism of procedural memory operating in the song acquisition of birds.

  18. Closed quotient and spectral measures of female adolescent singers in different singing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette

    2010-05-01

    Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise Science Principles and the Vocal Warm-up: Implications for Singing Voice Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew; Sandage, Mary J

    2018-01-01

    Principles from exercise science literature were applied to singing warm-up pedagogy as a method for examining parallels between athletic and voice training. Analysis of the use of exercise principles in vocal warm-up should illuminate aspects of voice training that may be further developed in the future. A selected canon of standard voice pedagogy texts and well-regarded warm-up methods were evaluated for use of exercise science principles for skill acquisition and fatigue resistance. Exercises were then categorized according to whether they were used for the purpose of skill acquisition (specificity), training up to tasks (overload), or detraining (reversibility). A preliminary review of well-established voice pedagogy programs reveals a strong bias toward the skill acquisition aspects of vocal warm-up, with little commentary on the fatigue management aspects. Further, the small number of vocalises examined that are not skill-acquisition oriented fall into a third "habilitative" category that likewise does not relate to overload but may play a role in offsetting reversibility. Although a systematic pedagogy for skill acquisition has emerged in the literature and practice of voice pedagogy, a parallel pedagogy for fatigue management has yet to be established. Identification of a systematic pedagogy for training up to specific singing genres and development of a singing maintenance program to avoid detraining may help the singer avoid injury. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence-based Frameworks for Teaching and Learning in Classical Singing Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Laura; Madill, Catherine J; McCabe, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The study systematically reviews evidence-based frameworks for teaching and learning of classical singing training. This is a systematic review. A systematic literature search of 15 electronic databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Eligibility criteria included type of publication, participant characteristics, intervention, and report of outcomes. Quality rating scales were applied to support assessment of the included literature. Data analysis was conducted using meta-aggregation. Nine papers met the inclusion criteria. No complete evidence-based teaching and learning framework was found. Thematic content analysis showed that studies either (1) identified teaching practices in one-to-one lessons, (2) identified student learning strategies in one-to-one lessons or personal practice sessions, and (3) implemented a tool to enhance one specific area of teaching and learning in lessons. The included studies showed that research in music education is not always specific to musical genre or instrumental group, with four of the nine studies including participant teachers and students of classical voice training only. The overall methodological quality ratings were low. Research in classical singing training has not yet developed an evidence-based framework for classical singing training. This review has found that introductory information on teaching and learning practices has been provided, and tools have been suggested for use in the evaluation of the teaching-learning process. High-quality methodological research designs are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social and cognitive functions of music based on the example of Tuvan throat singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Mou Hsu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is pervasive across human cultures and throughout times. Particularly, music serves great importance at social functions. Like many cultures’ use of music, throat singing or khöömei, the most distinguished aspect of Tuva’s music, contributes significantly to social communication, emotional expression, social bonding and religious rituals. Acknowledgment and consideration of current social cognitive findings of music may thus provide a better insight into the nature of throat singing. To date, evidence has indicated that similar to language, music is a fundamental channel of communication, and these two constructs may have common origins in a single communicative system. Moreover, music may modulate neural activity in the brain structures associated with emotions and alter our autonomic responses. In addition to information sharing, music thus has the capacity to convey emotions. This ability may further render music a powerful mechanism to facilitate social bonding and ritual practice, as individuals’ internal states during these social events become synchronized through musical engagement. In conclusion, I suggest that those social cognitive perspectives may point toward new directions for a continuing discourse on our understanding of throat singing.

  2. Singing as Social Life: Three Perspectives on Kwv Txhiaj from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonán Ó Briain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent influx of predominantly foreign-produced recordings of Hmong popular music, the vocal art form of kwv txhiaj still plays an important role in the daily lives of manyVietnamese-Hmong people. While previous studies of Vietnamese-Hmong music have tended to focus solely on the musical sounds, this article attempts to illustrate how kwv txhiaj is made meaningful in live performance by contextualizing the musical examples with ethnographic data. Using Timothy Rice’s Time, Place, and Metaphor model (2003 as a theoretical basis, three contrasting case studies of singers and their songs are examined: an elderly woman sings a song she learned at the time of her marriage at the age of nine, a younger woman sings while planting rice in her fields, and another sings about the importance of education at the local government cultural center. Based on fifteen months of fieldwork in northern Vietnam, this study examines a representative sample of performances from the Sa Pa district of Lào Cai province in an attempt to uncover what makes kwv txhiaj a vital aspect of Vietnamese-Hmong culture.

  3. Effect of changing from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III spirometry reference range to that of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 at Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embling, Laura A K; Zagami, Debbie; Sriram, Krishna Bajee; Gordon, Robert J; Sivakumaran, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    The categorisation of lung disease into obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD) and tendency to a restrictive ventilatory defect (TRVD) patterns using spirometry is used to guide both prognostication and treatment. The effectiveness of categorisation depends upon having reference ranges that accurately represent the population they describe. The Global Lung Initiative 2012 (GLI 2012) has spirometry reference ranges drawn from the largest sample size to date. This study aimed to determine whether using spirometry reference ranges from the new GLI 2012 dataset, compared to the previously used National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES III) dataset, resulted in a change in diagnosis between OVD, TRVD and normal ventilatory pattern (NVP). Spirometry data were collected from 301 patients, aged 18-80 years, undergoing investigation at the Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service (GCHHS) throughout February and March 2014. OVD was defined as a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) divided by forced vital capacity (FVC) less than lower limit of normal (LLN). TRVD was defined as FEV 1 /FVC ≥ LLN, FEV 1 reference range resulted in a change in diagnosis of lung disease in 5.9% of the individuals included in this study. This variance in diagnosis when changing reference ranges should be taken into account by clinicians as it may affect patient management.

  4. INNOVATIVE TENDENCIES OF FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ SINGING TRAINING IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Daofen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the innovative tendencies of singing training of Art institutes students at pedagogical universities is presented. The issue introduced in the article is relevant as processes of modernization of higher art and pedagogical education require implementing new scientific approaches and innovative technologies into future music teachers’ training to ensure the comprehensive development of a young generation in modern conditions. So the aim of the article is to disclose the main features of implementing innovative technologies into future music teachers’ training. The analysis of pedagogical and psychological literature shows that the main features of methodological training to work with schoolchildren are the following: mastering professional knowledge, taking into account characteristics of adults’ and children’s phonation; considering aesthetical and value qualities of vocal sound according to modern standards of singers’ training; comprehensive development of vocal, melodic and harmonic hearing; an ability to get schoolchildren’s correct vocal sound; developing skills of methodological analysis of singing process. Due to analysis of scientific works by V. Antoniuk, N. Hrebeniuk, V. Morozov it is reported that efficiency of students and singers’ performance depends on their readiness to make independent decisions in practical creative and performing process, that is a general tendency in the singing training. That’s why one of the main objectives of future music teacher training to performing activities during the years of study is thought to be developing singers’ independence. Among the most effective innovative technologies of future music teachers’ singing training the author proposes technologies of vocal and choral performance by V. Yemelianova, V. Morozova, H. Struve. It is proved that none of innovative concepts, discussed in the article, cannot be mechanically implemented in current national conditions

  5. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjeldanes, L F [Univ. of California, Berkeley; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-01-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100 g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock cod and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the food that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  6. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling and boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the foods that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  7. Using threshold regression to analyze survival data from complex surveys: With application to mortality linked NHANES III Phase II genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xiao, Tao; Liao, Dandan; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting

    2018-03-30

    The Cox proportional hazards (PH) model is a common statistical technique used for analyzing time-to-event data. The assumption of PH, however, is not always appropriate in real applications. In cases where the assumption is not tenable, threshold regression (TR) and other survival methods, which do not require the PH assumption, are available and widely used. These alternative methods generally assume that the study data constitute simple random samples. In particular, TR has not been studied in the setting of complex surveys that involve (1) differential selection probabilities of study subjects and (2) intracluster correlations induced by multistage cluster sampling. In this paper, we extend TR procedures to account for complex sampling designs. The pseudo-maximum likelihood estimation technique is applied to estimate the TR model parameters. Computationally efficient Taylor linearization variance estimators that consider both the intracluster correlation and the differential selection probabilities are developed. The proposed methods are evaluated by using simulation experiments with various complex designs and illustrated empirically by using mortality-linked Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Phase II genetic data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The COS/UVES absorption survey of the Magellanic stream. III. Ionization, total mass, and inflow rate onto the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Ely, Justin; Kumari, Nimisha; Wakker, Bart P.; Hernandez, Audra K.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen A.; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher; Richter, Philipp; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Charlton, Jane C.; Westmeier, Tobias; Misawa, Toru; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between the two Magellanic Clouds have flung large quantities of gas into the halo of the Milky Way. The result is a spectacular arrangement of gaseous structures, including the Magellanic Stream, the Magellanic Bridge, and the Leading Arm (collectively referred to as the Magellanic System). In this third paper of a series studying the Magellanic gas in absorption, we analyze the gas ionization level using a sample of 69 Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph sightlines that pass through or within 30° of the 21 cm emitting regions. We find that 81% (56/69) of the sightlines show UV absorption at Magellanic velocities, indicating that the total cross-section of the Magellanic System is ≈11,000 deg 2 , or around one-quarter of the entire sky. Using observations of the Si III/Si II ratio together with Cloudy photoionization modeling, we calculate the total gas mass (atomic plus ionized) of the Magellanic System to be ≈2.0 × 10 9 M ☉ (d/55 kpc) 2 , with the ionized gas contributing around three times as much mass as the atomic gas. This is larger than the current-day interstellar H I mass of both Magellanic Clouds combined, indicating that they have lost most of their initial gas mass. If the gas in the Magellanic System survives to reach the Galactic disk over its inflow time of ∼0.5-1.0 Gyr, it will represent an average inflow rate of ∼3.7-6.7 M ☉ yr –1 , potentially raising the Galactic star formation rate. However, multiple signs of an evaporative interaction with the hot Galactic corona indicate that the Magellanic gas may not survive its journey to the disk fully intact and will instead add material to (and cool) the corona.

  9. The COS/UVES absorption survey of the Magellanic stream. III. Ionization, total mass, and inflow rate onto the Milky Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Ely, Justin; Kumari, Nimisha [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wakker, Bart P.; Hernandez, Audra K.; Haffner, L. Matthew [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barger, Kathleen A.; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Richter, Philipp [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Haus 28, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, D-14476, Potsdam (Germany); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Charlton, Jane C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Westmeier, Tobias [ICRAR, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Misawa, Toru [School of General Education, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Paola, E-mail: afox@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic interactions between the two Magellanic Clouds have flung large quantities of gas into the halo of the Milky Way. The result is a spectacular arrangement of gaseous structures, including the Magellanic Stream, the Magellanic Bridge, and the Leading Arm (collectively referred to as the Magellanic System). In this third paper of a series studying the Magellanic gas in absorption, we analyze the gas ionization level using a sample of 69 Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph sightlines that pass through or within 30° of the 21 cm emitting regions. We find that 81% (56/69) of the sightlines show UV absorption at Magellanic velocities, indicating that the total cross-section of the Magellanic System is ≈11,000 deg{sup 2}, or around one-quarter of the entire sky. Using observations of the Si III/Si II ratio together with Cloudy photoionization modeling, we calculate the total gas mass (atomic plus ionized) of the Magellanic System to be ≈2.0 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} (d/55 kpc){sup 2}, with the ionized gas contributing around three times as much mass as the atomic gas. This is larger than the current-day interstellar H I mass of both Magellanic Clouds combined, indicating that they have lost most of their initial gas mass. If the gas in the Magellanic System survives to reach the Galactic disk over its inflow time of ∼0.5-1.0 Gyr, it will represent an average inflow rate of ∼3.7-6.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, potentially raising the Galactic star formation rate. However, multiple signs of an evaporative interaction with the hot Galactic corona indicate that the Magellanic gas may not survive its journey to the disk fully intact and will instead add material to (and cool) the corona.

  10. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: theoretical systematics and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, Antonio J.; O'Connell, Ross; Ross, Ashley J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Percival, Will J.; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Beutler, Florian; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Rossi, Graziano; Seo, Hee-Jong; Brownstein, Joel R.; Olmstead, Matthew; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the potential sources of theoretical systematics in the anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) distance scale measurements from the clustering of galaxies in configuration space using the final Data Release (DR12) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We perform a detailed study of the impact on BAO measurements from choices in the methodology such as fiducial cosmology, clustering estimators, random catalogues, fitting templates, and covariance matrices. The theoretical systematic uncertainties in BAO parameters are found to be 0.002 in the isotropic dilation α and 0.003 in the quadrupolar dilation ɛ. The leading source of systematic uncertainty is related to the reconstruction techniques. Theoretical uncertainties are sub-dominant compared with the statistical uncertainties for BOSS survey, accounting 0.2σstat for α and 0.25σstat for ɛ (σα, stat ˜ 0.010 and σɛ, stat ˜ 0.012, respectively). We also present BAO-only distance scale constraints from the anisotropic analysis of the correlation function. Our constraints on the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble parameter H(z), including both statistical and theoretical systematic uncertainties, are 1.5 per cent and 2.8 per cent at zeff = 0.38, 1.4 per cent and 2.4 per cent at zeff = 0.51, and 1.7 per cent and 2.6 per cent at zeff = 0.61. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering data set from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are cross-checked with other BAO analysis in Alam et al. The systematic error budget concerning the methodology on post-reconstruction BAO analysis presented here is used in Alam et al. to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  11. Molecular epidemiological survey of the quinolone- and carbapenem-resistant genotype and its association with the type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Melina Lorraine; Dantas, Raquel Cavalcanti; Faria, Ana Luiza Souza; Gonçalves, Iara Rossi; Silveira de Brito, Cristiane; Queiroz, Lícia Ludendorff; Gontijo-Filho, Paulo P; Ribas, Rosineide Marques

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the predictors of mortality and the impact of inappropriate therapy on the outcomes of patients with bacteraemia and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Additionally, we evaluated the correlation of the type III secretion system (TTSS) effector genotype with resistance to carbapenems and fluoroquinolones, mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs), metallo-β-lactamase and virulence factors. A retrospective cohort was conducted at a tertiary hospital in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa bacteraemia (157 patients) and VAP (60 patients). The genes for blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSIM, blaGIM and blaSPM and virulence genes (exoT, exoS, exoY, exoU, lasB, algD and toxA) were detected; sequencing was conducted for QRDR genes on fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. The multivariate analyses showed that the predictors independently associated with death in patients with bacteraemia were cancer and inappropriate therapy. Carbapenem resistance was more frequent among strains causing VAP (53.3 %), and in blood we observed the blaSPM genotype (66.6 %) and blaVIM genotype (33.3 %). The exoS gene was found in all isolates, whilst the frequency was low for exoU (9.4 %). Substitution of threonine to isoleucine at position 83 in gyrA was the most frequent mutation among fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. Our study showed a mutation at position 91 in the parC gene (Glu91Lys) associated with a mutation in gyrA (Thre83Ile) in a strain of extensively drug-resistant P. aeruginosa, with the exoT(+)exoS(+)exoU(+) genotype, that has not yet been described in Brazil to the best of our knowledge. This comprehensive analysis of resistance mechanisms to carbapenem and fluoroquinolones and their association with TTSS virulence genes, covering MDR P. aeruginosa in Brazil, is the largest reported to date. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. MASSIV: Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS. III. Evidence for positive metallicity gradients in z ~ 1.2 star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queyrel, J.; Contini, T.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Epinat, B.; Amram, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Moultaka, J.; Paioro, L.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Perez-Montero, E.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: The estimate of radial abundance gradients in high-redshift galaxies allows to constrain their star formation history and their interplay with the surrounding intergalactic medium. Methods: We present VLT/SINFONI integral-field spectroscopy of a first sample of 50 galaxies at z ~ 1.2 in the MASSIV survey. Using the N2 ratio between the [N ii]6584 and Hα rest-frame optical emission lines as a proxy for oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium, we measured the metallicity of the sample galaxies. We developed a tool to extract spectra in annular regions, leading to a spatially resolved estimate of the oxygen abundance in each galaxy. We were able to derive a metallicity gradient for 26 galaxies in our sample and discovered a significant fraction of galaxies with a "positive" gradient. Using a simple chemical evolution model, we derived infall rates of pristine gas onto the disks. Results: Seven galaxies display a positive gradient at a high confidence level. Four out of these are interacting, and one is a chain galaxy. We suggest that interactions might be responsible for shallowing and even inverting the abundance gradient. We also identify two interesting correlations in our sample: a) galaxies with higher gas velocity dispersion have shallower/positive gradients; and b) metal-poor galaxies tend to show a positive gradient, whereas metal-rich ones tend to show a negative one. This last observation can be explained by the infall of metal-poor gas into the center of the disks. We address the question of the origin of this infall under the influence of gas flows triggered by interactions and/or cold gas accretion. All the data published in this paper are publicly available at the time of publication following this link: http://cosmosdb.lambrate.inaf.it/VVDS-SINFONI. This work is based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, as part of the Programs 179.A-0823, 78.A-0177, and 75.A-0318. This

  13. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). III. THE DEPENDENCE OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR GAS SURFACE DENSITIES ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Leroy, Adam K.; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Walter, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H 2 formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H 2 shielding. We also find that the H 2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk

  14. Common features of neural activity during singing and sleep periods in a basal ganglia nucleus critical for vocal learning in a juvenile songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase.

  15. Every Child a Singer: Techniques for Assisting Developing Singers--All Children Can Sing if You Take the Time to Teach Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Humans sing to express emotions beyond mere words. Making music transcends literal communication and expresses intense feelings that defy verbal description. Even very young children can, and do, express inexpressible feelings in song. Singing is present in every culture. It provides a sense of community and belonging. Music is a component of…

  16. Developing Singing in Third-Grade Music Classrooms: The Effect of a Concurrent-Feedback Computer Game on Pitch-Matching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.; Kay, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of concurrent visual feedback on pitch-matching skill development in third-grade students. Participants played a computer game, "SingingCoach," which scored the accuracy of their singing of the song "America." They followed the contour of the melody on the screen as the…

  17. Global Properties of M31’s Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey. III. Measuring the Stellar Velocity Dispersion Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Tollerud, Erik; Beaton, Rachael L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Bullock, James S.; Chiba, Masashi; Kalirai, Jason S.; Kirby, Evan N.; Majewski, Steven R.; Tanaka, Mikito

    2018-01-01

    We present the velocity dispersion of red giant branch stars in M31’s halo, derived by modeling the line-of-sight velocity distribution of over 5000 stars in 50 fields spread throughout M31’s stellar halo. The data set was obtained as part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo (SPLASH) Survey, and covers projected radii of 9 to 175 kpc from M31’s center. All major structural components along the line of sight in both the Milky Way (MW) and M31 are incorporated in a Gaussian Mixture Model, including all previously identified M31 tidal debris features in the observed fields. The probability that an individual star is a constituent of M31 or the MW, based on a set of empirical photometric and spectroscopic diagnostics, is included as a prior probability in the mixture model. The velocity dispersion of stars in M31’s halo is found to decrease only mildly with projected radius, from 108 km s‑1 in the innermost radial bin (8.2 to 14.1 kpc) to ∼80 to 90 km s‑1 at projected radii of ∼40–130 kpc, and can be parameterized with a power law of slope ‑0.12 ± 0.05. The quoted uncertainty on the power-law slope reflects only the precision of the method, although other sources of uncertainty we consider contribute negligibly to the overall error budget. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  18. The global online sexuality survey (GOSS): The United States of America in 2011 Chapter III--Premature ejaculation among English-speaking male Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-07-01

    The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders. In 2010, the first report of GOSS came from the Middle East. This report studies the prevalence rate of premature ejaculation (PE) in the U.S. as of 2011-2012 and evaluates risk factors for PE. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male web surfers in the USA via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Prevalence of PE as per the International Society of Sexual Medicine's (ISSM) definition. With a mean age of 52.38 years ± 14.5, 1,133 participants reported on sexual function. As per the ISSM definition of PE, the prevalence rate of PE in the USA as of 2011 was 6.3%. This is in contrast to 49.6% as per the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), 77.6% as per unfiltered subjective reports, and 14.4% as per subjective reporting on more consistent basis. 56.3% of the latter reported lifelong PE. 63.2% could be classified as having natural variable PE. Erectile dysfunction is a possible predisposing factor for acquired PE, while genital size concerns may predispose to lifelong PE. Age, irregular coitus, circumcision, and the practice of masturbation did not pose a risk for PE, among other risk factors. Oral treatment for PE was more frequently used and reported to be more effective than local anesthetics, particularly in those with lifelong PE. Applying the ISSM definition, prevalence of PE is far less than diagnosed by other methods, 6.3% among Internet users in USA as of the year 2011. PEDT measures both lifelong and acquired PE, in addition to 35% men with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction, making it inaccurate for isolating lifelong and acquired PE cases. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS. III. THE TRANSITION FROM PRIMORDIAL DISKS TO DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Cieza, Lucas; Koerner, David W.; Case, April; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Chapman, Nicholas; Padgett, Deborah L.; Brooke, Tim; Keller, James R.; MerIn, Bruno; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Sargent, Anneila; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Allen, Lori; Blake, Geoff; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid- to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than L disk /L * = 2 x 10 -3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than L disk /L * = 5 x 10 -4 in 4 Myr.

  20. The radio continuum-star formation rate relation in WSRT sings galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesen, Volker; Brinks, Elias; Leroy, Adam K.; Heald, George; Braun, Robert; Bigiel, Frank; Beck, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the spatially resolved radio continuum-star formation rate (RC-SFR) relation using state-of-the-art star formation tracers in a sample of 17 THINGS galaxies. We use SFR surface density (Σ SFR ) maps created by a linear combination of GALEX far-UV (FUV) and Spitzer 24 μm maps. We use RC maps at λλ22 and 18 cm from the WSRT SINGS survey and Hα emission maps to correct for thermal RC emission. We compare azimuthally averaged radial profiles of the RC and FUV/mid-IR (MIR) based Σ SFR maps and study pixel-by-pixel correlations at fixed linear scales of 1.2 and 0.7 kpc. The ratio of the integrated SFRs from the RC emission to that of the FUV/MIR-based SF tracers is R int =0.78±0.38, consistent with the relation by Condon. We find a tight correlation between the radial profiles of the radio and FUV/MIR-based Σ SFR for the entire extent of the disk. The ratio R of the azimuthally averaged radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ SFR agrees with the integrated ratio and has only quasi-random fluctuations with galactocentric radius that are relatively small (25%). Pixel-by-pixel plots show a tight correlation in log-log diagrams of radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ SFR , with a typical standard deviation of a factor of two. Averaged over our sample we find (Σ SFR ) RC ∝(Σ SFR ) hyb 0.63±0.25 , implying that data points with high Σ SFR are relatively radio dim, whereas the reverse is true for low Σ SFR . We interpret this as a result of spectral aging of cosmic-ray electrons (CREs), which are diffusing away from the star formation sites where they are injected into the interstellar medium. This is supported by our finding that the radio spectral index is a second parameter in pixel-by-pixel plots: those data points dominated by young CREs are relatively radio dim, while those dominated by old CREs are slightly more RC bright than what would be expected from a linear extrapolation. We studied the ratio R of radio to FUV/MIR-based integrated SFR as a function of

  1. THE DAILY CLASSROOM AS A SPACE FOR NARRATIVE SELF INSIDE OF CORAL SINGING LESSONS IN A SOCIAL PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Doris Sala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a reflection on the teaching of music, highlighting issues related to social projects. The musical educator narrates their dilemmas, written between April 2010 and December 2012, as a teacher of choral singing for teenager in a social project, whose methodology "own narrative" and "self-narratives" (OLIVEIRA, 2009 that is reflected through the diaries of class (ZABALZA, 2004. The study aims to investigate the role of the teacher and the ways these in their teaching, using the tool of the daily class as a place to "write itself" and "narrative of oneself", promoting reflections in order to understand and modify their practices and thus shape their professional identity. The text also examines the conflicts present in practice in social projects (KATER, 2004; KLEBER, 2006, 2008;; questions the practice of choral singing (AMATO, 2007; TEIXEIRA, 2008, recounts classroom situations, focusing on professional identities involved in changing practices for achieving teenagers to class percussionists of choral singing.

  2. Distinct neurogenomic states in basal ganglia subregions relate differently to singing behavior in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Hilliard

    Full Text Available Both avian and mammalian basal ganglia are involved in voluntary motor control. In birds, such movements include hopping, perching and flying. Two organizational features that distinguish the songbird basal ganglia are that striatal and pallidal neurons are intermingled, and that neurons dedicated to vocal-motor function are clustered together in a dense cell group known as area X that sits within the surrounding striato-pallidum. This specification allowed us to perform molecular profiling of two striato-pallidal subregions, comparing transcriptional patterns in tissue dedicated to vocal-motor function (area X to those in tissue that contains similar cell types but supports non-vocal behaviors: the striato-pallidum ventral to area X (VSP, our focus here. Since any behavior is likely underpinned by the coordinated actions of many molecules, we constructed gene co-expression networks from microarray data to study large-scale transcriptional patterns in both subregions. Our goal was to investigate any relationship between VSP network structure and singing and identify gene co-expression groups, or modules, found in the VSP but not area X. We observed mild, but surprising, relationships between VSP modules and song spectral features, and found a group of four VSP modules that were highly specific to the region. These modules were unrelated to singing, but were composed of genes involved in many of the same biological processes as those we previously observed in area X-specific singing-related modules. The VSP-specific modules were also enriched for processes disrupted in Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases. Our results suggest that the activation/inhibition of a single pathway is not sufficient to functionally specify area X versus the VSP and support the notion that molecular processes are not in and of themselves specialized for behavior. Instead, unique interactions between molecular pathways create functional specificity in particular brain

  3. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF FUTURE MUSIC ART TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR SINGING ACTIVITY OF COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL SENIOR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the functional analysis of future music art teachers’ training for singing activity of comprehensive school senior students is depicted. This issue is very important because improving educators and musicians’ training contributes not only to professional selfactualisation, but also to young generation’s encouraging for thorough learning music art works and their creative development in the process of group music tuitions. Extracurricular singing activity also plays an important part. It reveals art images to students, enriching creativity experience, forms the spiritual world, develops independent thinking, awakens creativity. The author points out the main functions of future music art teachers’ training. They are system and value, information, communication, creative and transformative, projective functions. The special attention is paid to characterizing the features of each function. The author claims that system and value function relates to the necessity to analyze the results of the educational process that contributes to productive solving problems by students and main tasks of music training. Information function is a subject background of art music teachers’ and pedagogical activities. Communicative function is realized in a teacher’s ability to develop the student’ initiative to plan cooperative activities, to be able to distribute duties, to carry out instructions, to coordinate cooperative activities, to create special situations for the implementation of educational influence. The analysis of pedagogical and methodological literature shows that The creative and transformative function is manifested in the creative use of pedagogical and methodological ideas in specific pedagogical conditions. The projective function is thought to promote the most complete realization of content of comprehensive and art education. Functional analysis of students’ training of art faculties at pedagogical universities to

  4. The Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Mixed Singing in Two Hybridizing Songbird Species (Luscinia spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurková, Jana; Petrusková, Tereza; Reifová, Radka; Kozman, Alexandra; Mořkovský, Libor; Kipper, Silke; Weiss, Michael; Reif, Jiří; Dolata, Paweł T.; Petrusek, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Bird song plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of prezygotic reproductive barriers. When two closely related species come into secondary contact, song convergence caused by acquisition of heterospecific songs into the birds’ repertoires is often observed. The proximate mechanisms responsible for such mixed singing, and its effect on the speciation process, are poorly understood. We used a combination of genetic and bioacoustic analyses to test whether mixed singing observed in the secondary contact zone of two passerine birds, the Thrush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) and the Common Nightingale (L. megarhynchos), is caused by introgressive hybridization. We analysed song recordings of both species from allopatric and sympatric populations together with genotype data from one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci. Semi-automated comparisons of our recordings with an extensive catalogue of Common Nightingale song types confirmed that most of the analysed sympatric Thrush Nightingale males were ‘mixed singers’ that use heterospecific song types in their repertoires. None of these ‘mixed singers’ possessed any alleles introgressed from the Common Nightingale, suggesting that they were not backcross hybrids. We also analysed songs of five individuals with intermediate phenotype, which were identified as F1 hybrids between the Thrush Nightingale female and the Common Nightingale male by genetic analysis. Songs of three of these hybrids corresponded to the paternal species (Common Nightingale) but the remaining two sung a mixed song. Our results suggest that although hybridization might increase the tendency for learning songs from both parental species, interspecific cultural transmission is the major proximate mechanism explaining the occurrence of mixed singers among the sympatric Thrush Nightingales. We also provide evidence that mixed singing does not substantially increase the rate of interspecific hybridization and discuss the

  5. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. III. CHARACTERIZING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN THE GEMINI OB1 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Merello, Manuel; Rosolowsky, Erik; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Aguirre, James; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, Eric Todd; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Schlingman, Wayne; Shirley, Yancy L.; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    We present the 1.1 mm Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) observations of the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud complex, and targeted NH 3 observations of the BGPS sources. When paired with molecular spectroscopy of a dense gas tracer, millimeter observations yield physical properties such as masses, radii, mean densities, kinetic temperatures, and line widths. We detect 34 distinct BGPS sources above 5σ = 0.37 Jy beam -1 with corresponding 5σ detections in the NH 3 (1,1) transition. Eight of the objects show water maser emission (20%). We find a mean millimeter source FWHM of 1.12 pc and a mean gas kinetic temperature of 20 K for the sample of 34 BGPS sources with detections in the NH 3 (1,1) line. The observed NH 3 line widths are dominated by non-thermal motions, typically found to be a few times the thermal sound speed expected for the derived kinetic temperature. We calculate the mass for each source from the millimeter flux assuming the sources are isothermal and find a mean isothermal mass within a 120'' aperture of 230 ± 180 M sun . We find a total mass of 8400 M sun for all BGPS sources in the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud, representing 6.5% of the cloud mass. By comparing the millimeter isothermal mass to the virial mass calculated from the NH 3 line widths within a radius equal to the millimeter source size, we find a mean virial parameter (M vir /M iso ) of 1.0 ± 0.9 for the sample. We find mean values for the distributions of column densities of 1.0 x 10 22 cm -2 for H 2 , and 3.0 x 10 14 cm -2 for NH 3 , giving a mean NH 3 abundance of 3.0 x 10 -8 relative to H 2 . We find volume-averaged densities on the order of 10 3 -10 4 cm -3 . The sizes and densities suggest that in the Gem OB1 region the BGPS is detecting the clumps from which stellar clusters form, rather than smaller, higher density cores where single stars or small multiple systems form.

  6. Description of CRIB, the GIPSY retrieval mechanism, and the interface to the General Electric MARK III Service : CRIB, the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey--guide for public users, 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James Alfred; Keefer, Eleanor K.; Ofsharick, Regina A.; Mason, George T.; Tracy, Patricia; Atkins, Mary

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan

  7. Exploring the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir: an international cross-sectional mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Hilary; Lynch, Julie; O'Donoghue, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study investigates the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir from an international sample of choristers. An online questionnaire including demographic information, 28 quantitative statements and two qualitative questions relating to the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir was distributed via email and social media over a period of 4 months to a sample of 1,779 choristers. Basic descriptives and comparisons between subgroups of the sample are presented along with thematic analysis of qualitative comments. Basic descriptives suggest an overwhelmingly positive response. Females scored significantly higher than males on physical benefits, social benefits and emotional benefits. Professional singers reported significantly more physical, social and spiritual benefits than amateur singers. Bias may be present in these findings as the results were entirely self-reported by people who already sing in choirs. Qualitative thematic analysis identified six key themes which may counter this bias by providing deeper understanding of the perceived benefits for choir singers. These include social connection, physical and physiological benefits (specifically respiratory health), cognitive stimulation, mental health, enjoyment and transcendence. Choral singing elicits a positive response in the chorister across a plethora of domains. This research confirms previous findings on the health benefits of singing but offers evidence from the largest sample of singers to date. However, results are based on self-perceptions of choristers, and findings are, therefore, limited. Results may be used as a base on which to develop further research in this area. It also provides confirmatory evidence to support choral singing as a means of improving wellbeing in many populations, including but not limited to workplaces, schools, nursing homes, communities and churches.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow for singers and nonsingers while speaking, singing, and humming a rote passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two groups of singers (n = 12,13) and a group of nonsingers (n = 12) each produced the national anthem by (1) speaking and (2) singing the words and by (3) humming the melody. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at rest and during each phonation task from seven areas in each hemisphere by the 133 Xe-inhalation method. Intrahemisphere, interhemisphere, and global rCBF were generally similar across phonation tasks and did not yield appreciable differences among the nonsingers and the singers

  9. Adaptation of Sing Lee's model to the Filippov type plasma focus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V; Tafreshi, M A; Sobhanian, S; Khorram, S

    2005-01-01

    A new model for plasma behaviour in Filippov type plasma focus (PF) systems has been described and used. This model is based on the so-called slug model and Sing Lee's model for Mather type PF devices. Using the model, the discharge current and its derivative as a function of time, and the pinch time and the maximum discharge current as a function of pressure, have been predicted. At the end, the predicted data are compared with the experimental data obtained through a Filippov type PF facility with a nominal maximum energy of 90 kJ

  10. Discontinuities in the Telecom Industry: Strategic Choices for SingTel

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Siak Kwee

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the corporate strategy of SingTel and show how they can be derived from a combined analysis of its internal and external environment. An outside-in, position-based approach using the Porter���¢��������s Five Forces (PFF) model is used to analyse the complexities and forces shrouding the industry with the aim of identifying the key opportunities and threats. An inside-out, resource-based approach using the Resource Based View (RBV) is also undertaken to reveal ...

  11. How one-year-old children become capable of singing songs and speaking due to encouragement from others

    OpenAIRE

    諸冨, 満希子

    2018-01-01

    This is a report of continuous observations on how children become capable of singing songs due to encouragement from others (usually the mother). In infants, many aspects of “speaking” and “singing” are difficult to distinguish, so I also recorded all acts of “speaking,” limiting the definition of the act of “singing” to the narrow sense of “singing an established song.” The targeted infants were fraternal twin girls, and observations regarding their “speaking” and “singing” were made in the...

  12. Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    Full Text Available Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness.12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable=mf, very soft=pp, very loud=ff, respectively. Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation.The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch.For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted.

  13. Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Burk, Fabian; Burdumy, Michael; Traser, Louisa; Richter, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness. 12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable=mf, very soft=pp, very loud=ff, respectively). Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation. The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch. For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted.

  14. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  15. Singing as a Therapeutic Agent, inThe Etude, 1891-1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter

    1999-01-01

    The Etude music magazine, founded by Theodore Presser, was one of a number of popular music magazines published in the years prior to the establishment of the music therapy profession in 1950. During its publication run from 1883 to 1957, over 100 music therapy related articles appeared, including 13 on the health benefits of singing published between 1891 and 1949. Written by authors with diverse backgrounds, such as the famous Battle Creek, Michigan physician John Harvey Kellogg and Boston music critic Louis C. Elson, the articles contained consistent and adamant support regarding the health benefits of singing. The advantages described were both physical and psychological, and were recommended prophylactically for well persons and therapeutically for ill persons. Although the articles varied in perspective, from philosophical to theoretical to pedagogical, there is a consistent holistic medicine theme that appeared almost ahead of its time and no doubt linked to the push for vocal music education in that era. The importance of The Etude in promulgating ideas that helped shape the early practice of music therapy should not be underestimated. For much of its publication run The Etude was the largest music periodical in print, reaching its peak circulation of 250,000 copies per month in 1924.

  16. Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsby, Jonna L; Porneala, Bianca C; Vassy, Jason L; Yang, Quanhe; Florez, José C; Dupuis, Josée; Liu, Tiebin; Yesupriya, Ajay; Chang, Man-Huei; Ned, Renee M; Dowling, Nicole F; Khoury, Muin J; Meigs, James B

    2012-04-27

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1) HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs) for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2) association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3) association of SNPs with mortality. We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American) to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error = 0.05. RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p differed by race-ethnicity (NHW: 10.4, NHB: 11.0, MA: 10.7, p race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality.

  17. Most Recent Sampling Results for Annex III Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains email from Scott Miller, US EPA to Scott Kramer. Subject: Most Recent Sampling Results for Annex III Building. (2:52 PM) and Gore(TM) Surveys Analytical Results U.S. Geological Survey, Montgomery, AL.

  18. Evaluación mediante enumeración de estados de la confiabilidad del Sistema Interconectado del Norte Grande de Chile (SING State enumeration approach in reliability assessment of the Chilean far north power system (SING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Fuentes Morales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una evaluación de la confiabilidad del SING* chilen, mediante el método probabilístico analítico enumeración de estados que permite determinar el índice de indisponibilidad del sistema de transmisión y el factor de sobrecosto asociado. Esta evaluación posibilita un análisis comparativo con el índice de indisponibilidad y el factor de sobrecosto asociado que el agente regulador chileno, CNE**, entrega para este sistema en los informes técnicos de precios de nudo. De esta manera, los resultados propuestos sugieren una solución a las reiteradas observaciones que realizan las empresas eléctricas del SING en los informes técnicos de precios de nudo, con respecto a los criterios utilizados para modelar y determinar la indisponibilidad de transmisión y los sobrecostos asociados. La evaluación de la confiabilidad se realiza abordando al SING en forma compuesta, es decir, considerando tanto las instalaciones de generación como de transmisión en conjunto. * SING: Sistema Interconectado del Norte Grande. Sistema de transmisión de energía eléctrica de alto voltaje del norte de Chile. ** CNE: Comisión Nacional de Energía. Organismo gubernamental chileno que fiscaliza los sistemas de transmisión de energía eléctrica.This paper presents a reliability evaluation of the Chilean SING* by means of an analytical and probabilistic method for the enumeration of states, which permits to determine the unavailability index and the associated overcharge factor. This evaluation allows a comparative analysis between the unavailability index and the associated overcharge factor, the CNE**, provides in its technical reports of local the nodal price. Hereby, the proposed results suggest a solution for continuous observations made by SING electric companies in the technical reports of nodal price, with respect to the criteria used for modeling and determining the unavailability of transmition and associated overcharge

  19. Muusikamaailm : "Let the Peoples Sing 1999". Bruckneri päevad Viinis. Festival Huddersfieldis. Kolmelt pianistide konkursilt / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise raadiokonkursi "Let the Peoples Sing" võitjatest. A. Bruckneri 175. sünniaastapäeva puhul toimunud Bruckneri päevadest Viinis. Kaasaegse muusika festivalist Huddersfieldist. Pianistide konkurssidest - Dino Ciani nim. konkursist Milanos, 7. Schuberti-nim. konkursist Dortmundis ja Ferruccio Busoni nim. konkursist Itaalias Bolzanos

  20. Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interaction: The Communicative Value of Infant-Directed Talking and Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diana; Peña, Marcela

    Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother. Behavioral response was analyzed from offline video coding, and brain response was estimated from the analysis of electrophysiological recordings. We found that during ID talking, infants displayed a significantly higher number of visual contacts, vocalizations, and body movements than during ID singing. Moreover, only during ID talking were the number of visual contacts and vocalizations positively correlated with the number of questions and pauses in the mother's speech. Our results suggest that ID talking provides infants with specific cues that allow them not only to react to mother stimulation, but also to act toward them, displaying a rudimentary version of turn-taking behavior. Brain activity partially supported that interpretation. The relevance of our results for bonding is discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Analysis of high-frequency energy in long-term average spectra of singing, speech, and voiceless fricatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Story, Brad H.

    2012-01-01

    The human singing and speech spectrum includes energy above 5 kHz. To begin an in-depth exploration of this high-frequency energy (HFE), a database of anechoic high-fidelity recordings of singers and talkers was created and analyzed. Third-octave band analysis from the long-term average spectra showed that production level (soft vs normal vs loud), production mode (singing vs speech), and phoneme (for voiceless fricatives) all significantly affected HFE characteristics. Specifically, increased production level caused an increase in absolute HFE level, but a decrease in relative HFE level. Singing exhibited higher levels of HFE than speech in the soft and normal conditions, but not in the loud condition. Third-octave band levels distinguished phoneme class of voiceless fricatives. Female HFE levels were significantly greater than male levels only above 11 kHz. This information is pertinent to various areas of acoustics, including vocal tract modeling, voice synthesis, augmentative hearing technology (hearing aids and cochlear implants), and training/therapy for singing and speech. PMID:22978902

  2. Resonance phase and sings of P-odd and P-even effects, observable in the reactions with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smotritskij, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that introduction of the resonance phase for two quasistationary states with a similar spin and counter parity makes it possible to correlate the sing dependence of both the P-odd and P-even effects, experimentally observed in the reactions with neutrons. The common description of such effects enables determination of the theory unknown (free) parameters from the experiment [ru

  3. Analysis of high-frequency energy in long-term average spectra of singing, speech, and voiceless fricatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2012-09-01

    The human singing and speech spectrum includes energy above 5 kHz. To begin an in-depth exploration of this high-frequency energy (HFE), a database of anechoic high-fidelity recordings of singers and talkers was created and analyzed. Third-octave band analysis from the long-term average spectra showed that production level (soft vs normal vs loud), production mode (singing vs speech), and phoneme (for voiceless fricatives) all significantly affected HFE characteristics. Specifically, increased production level caused an increase in absolute HFE level, but a decrease in relative HFE level. Singing exhibited higher levels of HFE than speech in the soft and normal conditions, but not in the loud condition. Third-octave band levels distinguished phoneme class of voiceless fricatives. Female HFE levels were significantly greater than male levels only above 11 kHz. This information is pertinent to various areas of acoustics, including vocal tract modeling, voice synthesis, augmentative hearing technology (hearing aids and cochlear implants), and training/therapy for singing and speech.

  4. Games Unplugged! "Dolanan Anak," Traditional Javanese Children's Singing Games in the 21st-Century General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Educated in a digital world, millennial children lack social interaction and actual hands-on activities involving tactile and kinesthetic training. To counteract this educational trend, traditional singing games that allow children to explore and make sense of their world physically can be valuable. This article introduces the traditional Javanese…

  5. Effectiveness of group music therapy versus recreational group singing for depressive symptoms of elderly nursing home residents: pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jasmin; Wosch, Thomas; Gold, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have suggested positive effects of music therapy in dementia, but research on age-related depression has been limited and of insufficient quality. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of interactive group music therapy versus recreational group singing on depressive symptoms in elderly nursing home residents. Residents of two German nursing homes with sufficient length of stay who were not bedridden were invited to participate in a pragmatic trial. A total of 117 participants, grouped into four clusters (based on their wards), were randomised to interactive group music therapy (n = 62; 20 units of 40 minutes, 2×/week) or recreational group singing (n = 55; 10 units of 90 minutes, 1×/week). The level of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale at baseline (47% with at least mild depression) and follow-up in the 6th and 12th weeks. There was no blinding of assessors. The level of depressive symptoms improved significantly more in those assigned to music therapy (n = 60) than in recreational singing (n = 53), both in 6th week (mean difference 3.0 scores, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.79, p = 0.001) and 12th week (mean difference 4.50 scores, 95% CI 2.51 to 6.50, p elderly people in nursing homes more effectively than recreational singing.

  6. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  7. The Effects of Gesture and Movement Training on the Intonation of Children's Singing in Vocal Warm-Up Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mei-Ying; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gesture and movement training for beginning children's choirs with regard to improving intonation. It was a between-subjects design with one independent variable Training Technique (TT). One dependent variable was measured: intonation in the singing of vocal pattern warm-up…

  8. Promoting Vocal Health in the Choral Rehearsal: When Planning for and Conducting Choral Rehearsals, Guide Your Students in Healthful Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    Choral conductors can positively affect the voices in their choirs through their instruction. It is their job to teach the choir not only the music, but also the healthy ways of singing it. Promoting vocal health benefits both singers and conductors. For singers, it helps remove the risk factors for vocal fatigue. For the choral conductor,…

  9. European Blackbirds Exposed to Aircraft Noise Advance Their Chorus, Modify Their Song and Spend More Time Singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sierro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution has a strong impact on wildlife by disrupting vocal communication or inducing physiological stress. Songbirds are particularly reliant on vocal communication as they use song during territorial and sexual interactions. Birds living in noisy environments have been shown to change the acoustic and temporal parameters of their song presumably to maximize signal transmissibility. Also, research shows that birds advance their dawn chorus in urban environments to avoid the noisiest hours, but little is known on the consequences of these changes in the time they spent singing at dawn. Here we present a comprehensive view of the European blackbird singing behavior living next to a large airport in Madrid, using as a control a population living in a similar but silent forest. Blackbird song is composed of two parts: a series of loud low-frequency whistles (motif and a final flourish (twitter. We found that airport blackbirds were more likely to sing songs without the twitter part. Also, when songs included a twitter part, airport blackbirds used a smaller proportion of song for the twitter than control blackbirds. Interestingly, our results show no differences in song frequency between airport and control populations. However airport blackbirds not only sang earlier but also increased the time they spent singing when chorus and aircraft traffic overlapped on time. This effect disappeared as the season progressed and the chorus and the aircraft traffic schedule were separated on time. We propose that the typical urban upshift in frequency might not be useful under the noise conditions and landscape structure found near airports. We suggest that the modifications in singing behavior induced by aircraft noise may be adaptive and that they are specific to airport acoustic habitat. Moreover, we found that adjustment of singing activity in relation to noise is plastic and possibly optimized to cope with aircraft traffic activity. In a

  10. Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III

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    Grimsby Jonna L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1 HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2 association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3 association of SNPs with mortality. Methods We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error = 0.05. Results RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p ATP11A, the SNP RAF was 54% in NHB, 18% in MA and 14% in NHW (p 1c in NHW (β = 0.012 HbA1c increase per risk allele, p = 0.04 and MA (β = 0.021, p = 0.005 but not NHB (β = 0.007, p = 0.39. The genotype score was not associated with mortality in any group (NHW: OR (per risk allele increase in mortality = 1.07, p = 0.09; NHB: OR = 1.04, p = 0.39; MA: OR = 1.03, p = 0.71. Conclusion At many HbA1c loci in NHANES III there is substantial RAF race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality.

  11. Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1) HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs) for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2) association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3) association of SNPs with mortality. Methods We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American) to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error = 0.05. Results RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p HbA1c in NHW (β = 0.012 HbA1c increase per risk allele, p = 0.04) and MA (β = 0.021, p = 0.005) but not NHB (β = 0.007, p = 0.39). The genotype score was not associated with mortality in any group (NHW: OR (per risk allele increase in mortality) = 1.07, p = 0.09; NHB: OR = 1.04, p = 0.39; MA: OR = 1.03, p = 0.71). Conclusion At many HbA1c loci in NHANES III there is substantial RAF race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality. PMID:22540250

  12. The effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on the risk of developing prescription opioid use disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmed N; Foll, Bernard Le; Imtiaz, Sameer; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of baseline post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and each symptoms cluster on the risk of developing opioid use disorder (OUD) in those exposed to opioid painkillers and to assess the effect of comorbid PTSD and OUD on functioning, OUD severity, and treatment seeking compared with individuals with OUD only. We obtained data from 4025 individuals exposed to opioid painkillers from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III. We matched individuals with baseline PTSD with individuals without PTSD on demographics, developmental background, family history, personalities, and exposure to stressful life events with propensity score methodology. We controlled for clinical diagnoses and other risk factors that may have occurred after PTSD onset. Quality of life was assessed with the SF-12; the number of diagnostic criteria met indicated OUD severity. Baseline PTSD predicted OUD after controlling for matching variables and other risk factors, including baseline mood/anxiety disorders and other substance use disorders (odds ratio[OR]: 1.58; 95% confidence interval[CI]: 1.14-2.17; p=0.02). Among individuals with PTSD, arousal/reactivity cluster predicted OUD. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and OUD had lower mean scores on the SF-12 scale and greater severity of OUD than individuals with OUD. There were no differences in help-seeking. Baseline PTSD increases the risk of developing OUD after exposure to opioid painkillers. Clinicians should screen for PTSD diagnosis and arousal/reactivity symptoms prior to prescribing painkillers. Integrated treatments are strongly recommended for patients with this dual diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Healing notes: singing for well-being in an African bank

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    Alta van As

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, Dr Steve Booysen - then Group Chief Executive of the Absa Group - initiated an internal choir festival as a platform for social interaction and teambuilding of staff across all cultures, age groups and post levels in the bank. Towards the end of 2005, based on the widely held perception that the effects of the project had exceeded all expectations, it was decided to repeat the initiative, which has since become an annual event. To date, Absa has invested, and continues to invest, millions of rands in their choir project - confirmation that choir participation offers valuable benefits to the ordinary employee. This paper uses data from an investigation into the ‘extra-musical benefits of this project to reflect on the value of the 2005-2008 Absa choir project for building social capital and strengthening individuals’ sense of coherence (SOC through singing together.

  14. Singing it for "us": Team passion displayed during national anthems is associated with subsequent success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Matthew J; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K

    2018-05-01

    The present research examined the link between passion displayed by team members during the singing of national anthems at UEFA Euro 2016 and team performance in the tournaments' 51 games. Drawing on social identity theorising, we hypothesised a positive relationship between passion and performance. Consistent with this hypothesis, results showed that teams that sang national anthems with greater passion went on to concede fewer goals. Moreover, results provided evidence that the impact of passion on the likelihood of winning a game depended on the stage of the competition: in the knockout stage (but not the group stage) greater passion was associated with a greater likelihood of victory. Extending recent reviews that highlight the importance of social identity processes in sporting contexts, these results suggest that team members' identity-based expression of passion for the collective can be an important predictor of subsequent performance.

  15. Performa Inhibitory Control dengan Induksi Sing-a-Song Stress Test pada Dewasa Awal

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    Akhmad Kurniawan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control is able to control attention by inhibiting internal tendencies and external influences. Inhibitory control is controlled by dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, that can be affected by stress variable. Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST is a current method to induce stress that has never been practiced in study of inhibitory control. This study aimed to determine the effect of SSST against inhibitory control in early adult. Between subjects design was applied in this study. A number of 35 participants with age range from 17 to 21 years old were randomly assigned into experimental group (n = 17 and control group (n = 18. Inhibitory control was measured using Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test (CSCWT. Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS was used to conduct a manipulation check. Independent-Samples T Test explained no significant effect of stress on inhibitory control (t = -0,117; p > 0,05.

  16. Music Information Retrieval from a Singing Voice Using Lyrics and Melody Information

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    Shozo Makino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several music information retrieval (MIR systems which retrieve musical pieces by the user's singing voice have been developed. All of these systems use only melody information for retrieval, although lyrics information is also useful for retrieval. In this paper, we propose a new MIR system that uses both lyrics and melody information. First, we propose a new lyrics recognition method. A finite state automaton (FSA is used as recognition grammar, and about 86% retrieval accuracy was obtained. We also develop an algorithm for verifying a hypothesis output by a lyrics recognizer. Melody information is extracted from an input song using several pieces of information of the hypothesis, and a total score is calculated from the recognition score and the verification score. From the experimental results, 95.0% retrieval accuracy was obtained with a query consisting of five words.

  17. Music Information Retrieval from a Singing Voice Using Lyrics and Melody Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Motoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several music information retrieval (MIR systems which retrieve musical pieces by the user's singing voice have been developed. All of these systems use only melody information for retrieval, although lyrics information is also useful for retrieval. In this paper, we propose a new MIR system that uses both lyrics and melody information. First, we propose a new lyrics recognition method. A finite state automaton (FSA is used as recognition grammar, and about retrieval accuracy was obtained. We also develop an algorithm for verifying a hypothesis output by a lyrics recognizer. Melody information is extracted from an input song using several pieces of information of the hypothesis, and a total score is calculated from the recognition score and the verification score. From the experimental results, 95.0 retrieval accuracy was obtained with a query consisting of five words.

  18. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-08-23

    The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms.

  19. A Neural Parametric Singing Synthesizer Modeling Timbre and Expression from Natural Songs

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    Merlijn Blaauw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We recently presented a new model for singing synthesis based on a modified version of the WaveNet architecture. Instead of modeling raw waveform, we model features produced by a parametric vocoder that separates the influence of pitch and timbre. This allows conveniently modifying pitch to match any target melody, facilitates training on more modest dataset sizes, and significantly reduces training and generation times. Nonetheless, compared to modeling waveform directly, ways of effectively handling higher-dimensional outputs, multiple feature streams and regularization become more important with our approach. In this work, we extend our proposed system to include additional components for predicting F0 and phonetic timings from a musical score with lyrics. These expression-related features are learned together with timbrical features from a single set of natural songs. We compare our method to existing statistical parametric, concatenative, and neural network-based approaches using quantitative metrics as well as listening tests.

  20. Using an alternate light source to detect electrically singed feathers and hair in a forensic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, Tabitha C; Kagan, Rebecca A; Johnson, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Mortality due to electrical injury in wildlife may occur in the form of lightning strike or power line contact. Evidence of electrical contact may be grossly obvious, with extensive singeing, curling, and blackening of feathers, fur, or skin. Occasionally, changes may be subtle, owing to lower current or reduced conductivity, making a definitive diagnosis of electrocution more difficult. We describe the use of an alternate light source in the examination of cases of lightning strike and power line contact in wildlife, and the enhanced detection of changes due to electrical currents in the hair and feathers of affected animals. Subtle changes in the wing feathers of 12 snow geese and 1 wolf that were struck by separate lightning events were made obvious by the use of an alternate light source. Similarly, this technique can be used to strengthen the evidence for power line exposure in birds. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. The singing nurse?! Music therapy, interdisciplinarity and an overview of research in psychosocial interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    Conference: Music Therapy and Dementia Care in the 21st Century Dementia is one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people, with agitation in dementia as the most significant symptom causing patient distress and caregiver burden in later stages of the disease. Music...... in various forms (e.g. caregiver singing or music listening) is widely used in nursing homes for people with dementia; however these practices are generally little informed by music therapy theory and research. In this presentation, an overview of research in non- pharmacological approaches is given.......g. in dyads with caregivers or relatives and the person with dementia. The aim is to provide and develop psychosocial interventions in the interdisciplinary team, and to support staff and caregivers in their use of music as part of the daily culture of care. References Bunt, L. & Stige, B. (2014). Music...

  2. Aerobic Exercise as a Warm-up for Singing: Acoustic Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monica A; Evans, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    In a previous work, it was found that a 30-minute aerobic workout significantly increased singers' sound pressure level and airflow during voicing, suggesting a shift to flow phonation. This companion study was designed to assess the impact of the same workout on pitch accuracy, vibrato rate, extent and regularity, and the singing power ratio. This study is a cohort experimental study. Twenty-two students in an academic vocal performance program participated. They performed an aerobic workout for 30 minutes. Before and after the workout, they sang the first seven notes of the "Star-Spangled Banner" on /pa/, producing seven /pa/s on the last note. The students then sang an ascending and descending scale to the ninth on "ah." The following measures were obtained from the "Star-Spangled Banner": pitch accuracy calculated on the seventh note ("by"); and vibrato rate, regularity, and extent, calculated on the most sustained sixth note ("see"). For the scale, the following measures were calculated from each note: pitch accuracy; vibrato rate, regularity, and extent; and the singing power ratio. There were no significant differences from pre- to postworkout across any measures. It appears that an aerobic workout positively impacts the respiratory driving force for voice production but does little for phonation. Critical for performance is the fine tuning and balancing across the respiratory, laryngeal, and resonance systems. It appears that this can only be achieved with vocalization exercises, facilitating coordination within and across the physiological systems involved in the complex art of bel canto. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Double Effect and Black Revenge in Lessing’s The Grass Is Singing

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    Pedram Lalbakhsh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A white woman’s murder by a black man, as depicted in Doris Lessing’s The Grass IS Singing, incorporates the revengeful act of an abandonment-neurotic black servant against a white female master with tactile delirium in the course of a paradoxical relationship of love and hate. The final homicide and the consequent act of surrender by Moses, the murderer, convey his paradoxical attitude toward his white master-beloved. This attitude begins with hatred, intensifies with mutual affection, and ends in murder. Focusing on the interracial revenge that takes place in the novel under study, the authors of this paper argue that Moses’ motivation in killing Mary originates from the ambivalence of his state of living under colonization and his learnings in Christianity, struggling with the Double-Effect Reasoning inaugurated by and in defense of black honor or negritude. As such, Moses’ sense of guilt and his subsequent surrender are the consequences of traditional and colonial internalization of sin, already present in him as a native of his revenge or honor-based society, influenced by Lobengula’s rule in which the criminal submits to punishment willingly, as well as missionary teachings. Through an interdisciplinary link between the Double-Effect Reasoning and the psychoanalytical perspective to the black problem promoted by Frantz Fanon, The Grass Is Singing thus seems to exempt Moses in his crime against the white race, represented by Mary, as well as to justify Moses self-surrender in defense of negritude and black honor.

  4. Assessment of breathing patterns and respiratory muscle recruitment during singing and speech in quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2011-02-01

    To explore how respiratory impairment after cervical spinal cord injury affects vocal function, and to explore muscle recruitment strategies used during vocal tasks after quadriplegia. It was hypothesized that to achieve the increased respiratory support required for singing and loud speech, people with quadriplegia use different patterns of muscle recruitment and control strategies compared with control subjects without spinal cord injury. Matched, parallel-group design. Large university-affiliated public hospital. Consenting participants with motor-complete C5-7 quadriplegia (n=6) and able-bodied age-matched controls (n=6) were assessed on physiologic and voice measures during vocal tasks. Not applicable. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, the Voice Handicap Index, and the Perceptual Voice Profile. The group with quadriplegia had a reduced lung capacity (vital capacity, 71% vs 102% of predicted; P=.028), more perceived voice problems (Voice Handicap Index score, 22.5 vs 6.5; P=.046), and greater recruitment of accessory respiratory muscles during both loud and soft volumes (P=.028) than the able-bodied controls. The group with quadriplegia also demonstrated higher accessory muscle activation in changing from soft to loud speech (P=.028). People with quadriplegia have impaired vocal ability and use different muscle recruitment strategies during speech than the able-bodied. These findings will enable us to target specific measurements of respiratory physiology for assessing functional improvements in response to formal therapeutic singing training. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  6. Context-Related Melodies in Oral Culture: An Attempt to Describe Words-and-Music Relationships in Local Singing Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taive Särg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In oral folk song traditions we often find many lyrics, but not nearly as many melodies. The terms “polyfunctionalism”, “group melodies” or “general melodies” have been used by Estonian researches to indicate the phenomenon that many lyrics were sung to only one, or a small handful, of tunes. The scarcity of melodies is supposed to be one of several related phenomena characteristic to an oral, text-centred singing culture.In this article the Estonian folk song tradition will be analysed against a quantity of melodies and their usage in the following aspects: word-and-melody relationships and context-and-melody relationships in Karksi parish (south Estonia; a singer; and native musical terms and the process of singing and (recreation.

  7. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” in research about music and singing in everyday rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    , Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University The VELUX FOUNDATION, Denmark, funds the research. Number 342010. References Baker F., & Wigram, T. (2005). (Eds.). Songwriting: Methods, techniques and clinical applications for music therapy clinicians, educators and students. London: Jessica......Persons with dementia “are given a voice” in research about music and singing in everyday rehabilitation Background During a post-doctoral action research project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what...... importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort (Carroll et al. 2005; Simpson & House 2002; Swane 1996). Methodology The choice of method is person attuned (Parkes et al. 2014) and the action research process planned as a creative process, based...

  8. Is there potential for learning in amusia? A study of the effect of singing intervention in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Himonides, Evangelos; Wise, Karen; Welch, Graham; Stewart, Lauren

    2012-04-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of musical perception and production. Much research has focused on characterizing the deficits within this special population; however, it is also important from both a psychological and educational perspective to determine which aspects of the disorder may be subject to change because this will also constrain theorizing about the nature of the disorder, as well as facilitating possible future remediation programs. In this small-scale study, a professional singing teacher used a broad-brush intervention approach with five individuals diagnosed with congenital amusia. The compensatory elements were designed to enhance vocal efficiency and health, singing technique, musical understanding, pitch perception, and production. Improvements were observed in most individuals in perception, indexed via the Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia scale subtest and in the vocal performance of familiar songs. The workshop setting gave a unique opportunity for observation and discussion to inform further investigations of this disorder. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Is group singing special? Health, well-being and social bonds in community-based adult education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Machin, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M

    Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (four singing, N =84, and three comparison classes studying creative writing or crafts, N =51) were followed over seven months. Self-report questionnaire data on mental and physical health, well-being, and social bonding were collected at Months 1, 3 and 7. We demonstrate that physical and mental health and satisfaction with life significantly improved over time in both conditions. Path analysis did not show any indirect effects via social bonding of Condition on health and well-being. However, higher collective-bonding at timepoint 3 significantly predicted increased flourishing, reduced anxiety and improved physical health independently of baseline levels. In contrast, relational-bonding showed no such effects, suggesting that it is feeling part of a group that particularly yields health and well-being benefits. Moreover, these results indicate that singing may not improve health and well-being more than other types of activities. Nonetheless, these findings encourage further work to refine our understanding of the social aspects of community-based adult education classes in promoting health, well-being and community cohesion.

  10. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737 has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  11. Automatic Assessment of Acoustic Parameters of the Singing Voice: Application to Professional Western Operatic and Jazz Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Claudia; Barbagallo, Davide; Baracca, Giovanna; Orlandi, Silvia; Bandini, Andrea; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2015-07-01

    The obvious perceptual differences between various singing styles like Western operatic and jazz rely on specific dissimilarities in vocal technique. The present study focuses on differences in vibrato acoustics and in singer's formant as analyzed by a novel software tool, named BioVoice, based on robust high-resolution and adaptive techniques that have proven its validity on synthetic voice signals. A total of 48 professional singers were investigated (29 females; 19 males; 29 Western operatic; and 19 jazz). They were asked to sing "a cappella," but with artistic expression, a well-known musical phrase from Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, in their own style: either operatic or jazz. A specific sustained note was extracted for detailed vibrato analysis. Beside rate (s(-1)) and extent (cents), duration (seconds) and regularity were computed. Two new concepts are introduced: vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer, by analogy with the traditional jitter and shimmer of voice signals. For the singer's formant, on the same sustained tone, the ratio of the acoustic energy in formants 1-2 to the energy in formants 3, 4, and 5 was automatically computed, providing a quality ratio (QR). Vibrato rates did not differ among groups. Extent was significantly larger in operatic singers, particularly females. Vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer were significantly smaller in operatic singers. Duration of vibrato was also significantly longer in operatic singers. QR was significantly lower in male operatic singers. Some vibrato characteristics (extent, regularity, and duration) very clearly differentiate the Western operatic singing style from the jazz singing style. The singer's formant is typical of male operatic singers. The new software tool is well suited to provide useful feedback in a pedagogical context. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Interactions between Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing Hyphae and Bacteria in Casing Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Masaphy, Segula; Levanon, D.; Tchelet, R.; Henis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the hyphae of Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing and bacteria from the mushroom bed casing layer were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Hyphae growing in the casing layer differed morphologically from compost-grown hyphae. Whereas the compost contained thin single hyphae surrounded by calcium oxalate crystals, the casing layer contained mainly wide hyphae or mycelial strands without crystals. The bacterial population in the hyphal environment consisted of several ...

  13. Personal, musical and social benefits of singing in a community ensemble: Three case studies in Melbourne (Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia has a diverse, multilayered society that reflects its rich musical life. There are many community choirs formed by various cultural and linguistically diverse groups. This article is part of an ongoing project, Well-being and ageing: community, diversity and the arts (since 2008, undertaken by Deakin University and Monash University, that explores the cultural diversity within Australian society and how active music engagement fosters well-being. The singing groups selected for this discussion are the Skylarkers, the Bosnian Behar Choir, and the Coro Furlan. The Skylarkers and the Bosnian Behar Choir are mixed groups who respectively perform popular music from their generation and celebrate their culture through music. The Coro Furlan is an Italian male choir who understand themselves as custodians of their heritage. In these interpretative, qualitative case studies semi-structured interviews were undertaken and analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In this approach there is an exploration of participants’ understanding of their lived experiences. The analysis of the combined data identified musical and social benefits that contribute to participants’ sense of individual well-being. Musical benefits occurred through sharing, learning and singing together. Social benefits included opportunities to build friendships, overcome isolation and gain a sense of validation. Many found that singing enhanced their health and happiness. Active music making in community choirs and music ensembles continues to be an effective way to support individuals, build community, and share culture and heritage.

  14. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masayuki; Yuba, Toru; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Yukari; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing. PMID:26483829

  15. Vocalizations as a conservation tool: an auditory survey of the Andean titi monkey Callicebus oenanthe Thomas, 1924 (Mammalia: Primates: Pitheciidae) at Tarangue, Northern Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldrich, B.C.; Molleson, L.; Nekaris, K.A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Titi monkeys (Callicebus), morphologically cryptic primates, have been difficult to survey using traditional sighting-based line transect methods. Callicebus-species regularly engage in loud, ritualized singing bouts, which could allow for the use of alternate, potentially more accurate call-based

  16. Sing to the Lord a New Song: John Calvin and the Spiritual Discipline of Metrical Psalmody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Bellanti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the way that psalmody - specifically metrical psalmody - serves as a sort of spiritual discipline. In other words, this essay seeks to demonstrate how the singing of psalms can be a tool to aid in spiritual growth. Much of the research for this essay focuses on the theological writings of the Protestant reformer John Calvin, as well as the way in which he incorporated metrical psalmody into his liturgical framework. The research also comprises primary writings from Aristotle, Plato, Saint John Chrysostom, Saint Basil, and Saint Augustine - all of whom influenced Calvin’s own philosophy regarding the use of art, music, and psalmody in worship. Additional areas examined in this research include the historical musical development of psalmody and the collection and arrangement of metrical psalms into psalters. For reference, specific examples of metrical psalms and psalters have been added. These additional areas and examples help to give a more holistic understanding of the nature of metrical psalmody, and they help to show how it may accurately be considered a spiritual discipline.

  17. Effects of irradiation and drying on volatile components of fresh shiitake (Lentinus edodes Sing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ming-Sheng; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Horng, Deng-Tsen; Yang, Jui-Sen

    1998-01-01

    Fresh shiitake (Lentinus edodes Sing) was irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 kGy using 60 Co. Effects of γ-irradiation and drying on the volatile composition of shiitake were studied by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. Irradiation above 1.0 kGy could inhibit the growth and mould decay of fresh shiitakes after harvesting. Irradiation with 2 kGy increased the eight-carbon volatile components of fresh shiitake. Treatment at 1 kGy irradiation of fresh shiitake produced some new volatile compounds in the dry product, such as methylethyl disulphide, sulphinylbis methane, methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulphide and N-(3-methylbutyl) acetamide. The eight-carbon compounds mostly disappeared after drying. The amount of sulphur-containing volatile compounds in dried shiitake became lower during irradiation. Irradiation with doses of 1 or 2 kGy of fresh shiitake did not increase the volatile content of shiitake after drying

  18. Acoustic markers to differentiate gender in prepubescent children's speaking and singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Muñoz, Daniel; Vivero, Martin; Marín, Natalia; Ramírez, Mirta; Rivera, María Trinidad; Vidal, Carla; Gerhard, Julia; González, Catalina

    2014-10-01

    Investigation sought to determine whether there is any acoustic variable to objectively differentiate gender in children with normal voices. A total of 30 children, 15 boys and 15 girls, with perceptually normal voices were examined. They were between 7 and 10 years old (mean: 8.1, SD: 0.7 years). Subjects were required to perform the following phonatory tasks: (1) to phonate sustained vowels [a:], [i:], [u:], (2) to read a phonetically balanced text, and (3) to sing a song. Acoustic analysis included long-term average spectrum (LTAS), fundamental frequency (F0), speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), equivalent continuous sound level (Leq), linear predictive code (LPC) to obtain formant frequencies, perturbation measures, harmonic to noise ratio (HNR), and Cepstral peak prominence (CPP). Auditory perceptual analysis was performed by four blinded judges to determine gender. No significant gender-related differences were found for most acoustic variables. Perceptual assessment showed good intra and inter rater reliability for gender. Cepstrum for [a:], alpha ratio in text, shimmer for [i:], F3 in [a:], and F3 in [i:], were the parameters that composed the multivariate logistic regression model to best differentiate male and female children's voices. Since perceptual assessment reliably detected gender, it is likely that other acoustic markers (not evaluated in the present study) are able to make clearer gender differences. For example, gender-specific patterns of intonation may be a more accurate feature for differentiating gender in children's voices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute toxicity of Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, aqueous extract in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Berti Kirsten

    Full Text Available Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, is a hallucinogen mushroom that has been used since the old times by humans, causing several psychotic effects. P. cubensis contains two tryptamine derivates: psilocybin and psilocin, agonists of the 5-HT2 receptor (serotonin. The main objective of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity effects of P. cubensis aqueous extract (PCAE administration in mice. Male and female adult Swiss mice received PCAE 0.1 mL/10 g i.p., and were observed individually, directly in a glass box and in an open-field. In relation to the data of the control group, PCAE-treated animals presented: an increased gnawing, appearance of wet-dog shakes and a decreased locomotion and rearing frequencies after 29-38 min. Also a clear gender difference was detected, being female mice more sensible to the PCAE than males. It was suggested that PCAE administration produced specific effects on mice behaviors, characteristic of drugs which interfere on central serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Finally, the observational methods here employed were efficient to evaluate the toxic effects of the extract.

  20. Choral Singing: Using Gestures as an Aid to Intonation and Tone Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weider Martins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The work of tone quality and intonation is a fundamental task of the conductor; and body movements associated with learning are favorable attitudes to effective learning. The objective of this article is to describe self-perception in the use of gesture for intonation and tone quality for singers in different contexts. The sample consisting of 45 volunteers divided into two groups, amateur group (N=30 and layman group (N=15, that underwent an evaluation by means of the Voice and Corporal Expression Protocol, as well as to a trial of the methodology used by conductors Henry Leck and  Randy Stenson (2012. The results showed on average improved body awareness of 87% of cases; just over 85% improved intonation and respiratory control; 80% asserted it easier to reach higher notes; 56% (layman group and 73% (amateur group felt less strain to sing. In both groups, the findings of this study confirm that the use of corporal gesture is beneficial, whether in a context of amateurs or laymen, improving intonation, resonance, respiratory support and less strain.

  1. Difference in the volatile composition of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Hee; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-06-28

    The differences in volatile components of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades were observed by applying multivariate statistical methods to GC-MS data sets. A total of 35 and 37 volatile components were identified in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms, respectively. The volatile components in pine-mushrooms were primarily composed of C8 species, such as 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, (E)-2-octenal, and octanoic acid. The levels of ethyl octanoate, junipene, and 3-methyl-3-buten-2-one were much higher in raw pine-mushroom of higher grades, whereas the reverse was true for C8 components. On the other hand, furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone, 2(5H)-furanone, (E)-2-methyl-2-butenal, furfural, phenylacetaldehyde, benzoic acid methyl ester, camphene, and beta-pinene were the major components of cooked mushrooms. These volatile components formed by various thermal reactions could be mainly responsible for the difference in volatile components of cooked pine-mushrooms according to their grades.

  2. Gender and vocal production mode discrimination using the high frequencies for speech and singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Story, Brad H.

    2014-01-01

    Humans routinely produce acoustical energy at frequencies above 6 kHz during vocalization, but this frequency range is often not represented in communication devices and speech perception research. Recent advancements toward high-definition (HD) voice and extended bandwidth hearing aids have increased the interest in the high frequencies. The potential perceptual information provided by high-frequency energy (HFE) is not well characterized. We found that humans can accomplish tasks of gender discrimination and vocal production mode discrimination (speech vs. singing) when presented with acoustic stimuli containing only HFE at both amplified and normal levels. Performance in these tasks was robust in the presence of low-frequency masking noise. No substantial learning effect was observed. Listeners also were able to identify the sung and spoken text (excerpts from “The Star-Spangled Banner”) with very few exposures. These results add to the increasing evidence that the high frequencies provide at least redundant information about the vocal signal, suggesting that its representation in communication devices (e.g., cell phones, hearing aids, and cochlear implants) and speech/voice synthesizers could improve these devices and benefit normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. PMID:25400613

  3. Precursors of Dancing and Singing to Music in Three- to Four-Months-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Watanabe, Hama; Oohashi, Hiroki; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Dancing and singing to music involve auditory-motor coordination and have been essential to our human culture since ancient times. Although scholars have been trying to understand the evolutionary and developmental origin of music, early human developmental manifestations of auditory-motor interactions in music have not been fully investigated. Here we report limb movements and vocalizations in three- to four-months-old infants while they listened to music and were in silence. In the group analysis, we found no significant increase in the amount of movement or in the relative power spectrum density around the musical tempo in the music condition compared to the silent condition. Intriguingly, however, there were two infants who demonstrated striking increases in the rhythmic movements via kicking or arm-waving around the musical tempo during listening to music. Monte-Carlo statistics with phase-randomized surrogate data revealed that the limb movements of these individuals were significantly synchronized to the musical beat. Moreover, we found a clear increase in the formant variability of vocalizations in the group during music perception. These results suggest that infants at this age are already primed with their bodies to interact with music via limb movements and vocalizations. PMID:24837135

  4. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...... the putative differences between the rat brain MT isoforms, namely MT-I+II and MT-III, in the freeze lesion model of brain damage, and for developing an ELISA for MT-III suitable for brain samples. In the normal rat brain, MT-III was mostly present primarily in astrocytes. However, lectin staining indicated...

  5. A Survey of Secondary School Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Use of Drugs by Teenagers. Part I, Part II, Part III.; A Survey of Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions of the Role of the Schools in Dealing with Teenage Drug Use. A General Overview of Survey Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Three volumes report the findings of a student survey among a random sample of 2,777 junior high and senior high school students. Volume one presents the overall findings: the typical student believes that drug use and experimentation are not common, except for marihuana, alcohol, cigarettes, and glue; believes that drug use is increasing; is not…

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-31b:HST/Spitzer transmission spectral survey (Sing+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, D. K.; Wakeford, H. R.; Showman, A. P.; Nikolov, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Burrows, A. S.; Ballester, G. E.; Deming, D.; Aigrain, S.; Desert, J.-M.; Gibson, N. P.; Henry, G. W.; Knutson, H.; Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.; Pont, F.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Williamson, M. W.; Wilson, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    We observed two transits of WASP-31b with the HST STIS G430L grating during 2012 June 13 and 26, as well as one transit with the STIS G750L during 2012 July 10. In addition to the STIS data, observations of WASP-31b were also conducted in the infrared with WFC3 on the HST. Observations began on 2012 May 13 at 12:53 using the IR G141 grism in forward spatial scan mode over five HST orbits. We analyse two transit observations obtained using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) instrument (Programme 90092 with P.I. Desert) on the Spitzer space telescope in the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels in subarray mode (32x32 pixel, or 39 centred on the planets host). The 3.6 μm observation was performed on UT 2013 March 9 (between 06:59 and 11:37) and the 4.5 observation was performed on UT 2013 March 19 (between 12:19 and 16:58). (1 data file).

  7. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...... and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... have when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in everyday life and in their interaction and relationship with caregivers and what impact does it have on their quality of life and well-being? b) What impact does it have, from a professional and an interdisciplinary...

  8. Singing emotionally: A study of pre-production, production, and post-production facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Rachel Quinto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Singing involves vocal production accompanied by a dynamic and meaningful use of facial expressions, which may serve as ancillary gestures that complement, disambiguate, or reinforce the acoustic signal. In this investigation, we examined the use of facial movements to communicate emotion, focusing on movements arising in three epochs: before vocalisation (pre-production, during vocalisation (production, and immediately after vocalisation (post-production. The stimuli were recordings of seven vocalists’ facial movements as they sang short (14 syllable melodic phrases with the intention of communicating happiness, sadness, irritation, or no emotion. Facial movements were presented as point-light displays to 16 observers who judged the emotion conveyed. Experiment 1 revealed that the accuracy of emotional judgement varied with singer, emotion and epoch. Accuracy was highest in the production epoch, however, happiness was well communicated in the pre-production epoch. In Experiment 2, observers judged point-light displays of exaggerated movements. The ratings suggested that the extent of facial and head movements is largely perceived as a gauge of emotional arousal. In Experiment 3, observers rated point-light displays of scrambled movements. Configural information was removed in these stimuli but velocity and acceleration were retained. Exaggerated scrambled movements were likely to be associated with happiness or irritation whereas unexaggerated scrambled movements were more likely to be identified as neutral. An analysis of the motions of singers revealed systematic changes in facial movement as a function of the emotional intentions of singers. The findings confirm the central role of facial expressions in vocal emotional communication, and highlight individual differences between singers in the amount and intelligibility of facial movements made before, during, and after vocalization.

  9. Gender Bias in The Rural Community as Reflected in Minfong Ho’s Sing to The Dawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanus Wahyaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the evidences of gender-biased behaviour and actions and at finding the possible reasons why those gender-biased behaviour and actions happen within the life of the rural community as depicted in the novel. The problems, therefore, are formulated as follows: 1. What are the evidences of gender-biased behaviour and actions experienced by the major female characters of Ho’sSing to the Dawn?and 2. Why do the gender-biased behaviour and actions occur within the life of the rural communityas in Ho’sSing to the Dawn? This study is a library research. The primary source is the novel itself, Sing to the Dawn. The secondary sources are obtained from several relevant books related to literary theories such as the critical approach, the theory of gender, the theory of society, and the review of Thai society. In order to relate the gender bias and a certain community, the socio-cultural approach is used to examine the novel. This study found that gender biased behaviour and actions committed by the male characters towards the major female characters manifest in several manners; they are subordination of women, mental violence, violent intention, physical violence, sex role stereotyping, and marginalization. The possible reasons enabling the manifestation of gender biased behaviour and actions committed by the male characters towards the major female characters are cultural construction on women subordination, cultural construction on sex roles stereotyping as the result of patriarchal system, religious misinterpretation, and poverty.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150205

  10. Fostering Spontaneous Visual Attention in Children on the Autism Spectrum: A Proof-of-Concept Study Comparing Singing and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grace Anne; Abel, Larry Allen

    2018-01-22

    Children on the autism spectrum are reported to have lower rates of social gaze as early as toddlerhood, and this pattern persists across the lifespan. Finding ways to promote more natural and spontaneous engagement in social interactions may help to boost developmental opportunities in the child's home and community settings. This proof-of-concept study hypothesized that a video of a singer would elicit more attention to the performer, particularly to her face, than a video of her reading a story, and that the child's familiarity with the material would enhance attention. Sixteen children on the autism spectrum (7-10 years old) watched 4 videos 1 min long comprising a favorite song or story, and an unfamiliar song and story. Eye movements were recorded, and three-way repeated measures ANOVAs examined the proportion of total valid visual dwell time and fixations, in each trial and each target area. For proportion of both dwell time and fixation counts, children were significantly more likely to look at the performer's face and body and less at the prop during singing than story-telling and when familiar rather than unfamiliar material was presented. These findings raise important issues for supporting children to naturally initiate looking toward a person's face. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Children on the autism spectrum may have difficulty looking at people, particularly their faces. In this study, children watched videos of someone singing or reading a story. The results show that children look more at the person if they were singing and if the story was familiar to them. Using songs and familiar stories may be a way to help children with autism to naturally engage with others. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of a Straw Phonation Protocol on Acoustic Measures of an SATB Chorus Singing Two Contrasting Renaissance Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manternach, Jeremy N; Clark, Chad; Daugherty, James F

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have found that semi-occluded vocal tract (SOVT) exercises may increase vocal economy by reducing phonation threshold pressure and effort while increasing or maintaining consistent acoustic output. This research has focused solely on individual singers. Much singing instruction, however, takes place in choral settings. Choral singers may use different resonance strategies or unconsciously adjust their singing based on the ability to hear their own sound in relation to others. Results of studies with individual singers, then, may not be directly applicable to choral settings. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the effect of an SOVT protocol (ie, straw phonation) on acoustic changes of conglomerate, choral sound. This is a quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-posttest design. Participants in this study constituted an intact SATB choir (soprano, alto, tenor, and bass) (N = 15 singers) who performed from memory two unaccompanied pieces of varied tempos from memory, participated in a 4-minute straw phonation protocol with a small stirring straw, and then sang each piece a second time. The long-term average spectrum results indicated small, statistically significant increases in spectral energy for both pieces in the 0-10 kHz (.32 and .20 dB Sound Pressure Level) and 2-4 kHz regions (.46 and .25 dB SPL). These results, although not likely audible to average hearing humans, seem consistent with the assertion that singers enjoy vocal benefits with consistent or increased vocal output. SOVT exercises, therefore, may be useful as a time-efficient way to evoke more efficient and economical singing during choral warm-up and voice building procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A singing choir: Understanding the dynamics of hope, hopelessness, and despair in palliative care patients. A longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsman, Erik; Leget, Carlo; Duggleby, Wendy; Willems, Dick

    2015-12-01

    Hope, despair, and hopelessness are dynamic in nature; however, they have not been explored over time. The objective of the present study was to describe hope, hopelessness, and despair over time, as experienced by palliative care patients. We employed a qualitative longitudinal method based on narrative theories. Semistructured interviews with palliative care patients were prospectively conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Data on hope, hopelessness and despair were thematically analyzed, which led to similarities and differences between these concepts. The concepts were then analyzed over time in each case. During all stages, the researchers took a reflexive stance, wrote memos, and did member checking with participants. A total of 29 palliative care patients (mean age, 65.9 years; standard deviation, 14.7; 14 females) were included, 11 of whom suffered from incurable cancer, 10 from severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 8 from severe heart failure. They were interviewed a maximum of three times. Participants associated hope with gains in the past or future, such as physical improvement or spending time with significant others. They associated hopelessness with past losses, like loss of health, income, or significant others, and despair with future losses, which included the possibility of losing the future itself. Over time, the nature of their hope, hopelessness, and despair changed when their condition changed. These dynamics could be understood as voices in a singing choir that can sing together, alternate with each other, or sing their own melody. Our findings offer insight into hope, hopelessness, and despair over time, and the metaphor of a choir helps to understand the coexistence of these concepts. The findings also help healthcare professionals to address hope, hopelessness, and despair during encounters with patients, which is particularly important when the patients' physical condition has changed.

  13. DIALECTIC READING OF FREEDOM AND IMPRISONMENT IN MAYA ANGELOU‟S POEM I KNOW WHY THE CAGED BIRD SINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ikhwan Rosyidi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the dialectic reading of freedom and, in opposite, an imprisonment as hypogram in Maya Angelou‘s Poem I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. The method applied for reading this poem will be semiotic approach which is developed by Riffaterre (1984. The result of this study will be the semiotic reading which describes the heuristic reading of this poem by defining dictionary meaning of words, phrases, clauses in the poem and hermeneutic reading by defining the matrix, model, and potential hypogram that reflected on the dialectic of freedom and imprisonment by Black people in America.

  14. DIALECTIC READING OF FREEDOM AND IMPRISONMENT IN MAYA ANGELOU‟S POEM I KNOW WHY THE CAGED BIRD SINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Ikhwan Rosyidi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the dialectic reading of freedom and, in opposite, an imprisonment as hypogram in Maya Angelou‘s Poem I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. The method applied for reading this poem will be semiotic approach which is developed by Riffaterre (1984). The result of this study will be the semiotic reading which describes the heuristic reading of this poem by defining dictionary meaning of words, phrases, clauses in the poem and hermeneutic reading by defining the ma...

  15. Do females invest more into eggs when males sing more attractively? Postmating sexual selection strategies in a monogamous reed passerine

    OpenAIRE

    Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Majtan, Juraj; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Hoi, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Maternal investment can play an important role for offspring fitness, especially in birds, as females have to provide their eggs with all the necessary nutrients for the development of the embryo. It is known that this type of maternal investment can be influenced by the quality of the male partner. In this study, we first verify that male song is important in the mate choice of female Eurasian reed warblers, as males mate faster when their singing is more complex. Furthermore, female egg inv...

  16. Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Interactions between Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing Hyphae and Bacteria in Casing Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaphy, Segula; Levanon, D.; Tchelet, R.; Henis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Relationships between the hyphae of Agaricus bisporus (Lang) Sing and bacteria from the mushroom bed casing layer were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Hyphae growing in the casing layer differed morphologically from compost-grown hyphae. Whereas the compost contained thin single hyphae surrounded by calcium oxalate crystals, the casing layer contained mainly wide hyphae or mycelial strands without crystals. The bacterial population in the hyphal environment consisted of several types, some attached to the hyphae with filamentlike structures. This attachment may be important in stimulation of pinhead initiation. Images PMID:16347340

  17. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2018.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  18. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  19. Workshop 96. Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.).

  20. Workshop 96. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.)

  1. Apoio respiratório na voz cantada: perspectiva de professores de canto e fonoaudiólogos Support and singing voice: perspective of singing teachers and speech language pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gava Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a definição de apoio respiratório, assim como as estratégias de trabalho e benefícios de sua aplicação, segundo a perspectiva de professores de canto e fonoaudiólogos. MÉTODOS: seis profissionais com experiência em voz cantada foram entrevistados sobre questões relacionadas ao apoio respiratório no canto. As respostas foram submetidas à análise de conteúdo e definidas quatro categorias: definição de apoio respiratório, tipo de apoio, estratégias e benefícios. RESULTADOS: os aspectos mais mencionados pelos entrevistados foram: a definição de apoio está relacionada com a participação do músculo diafragma e dos intercostais; o tipo de apoio mais adequado é o intercostal e diafragmático; dentre as estratégias de trabalho, utilizadas para a adequação do apoio respiratório, as mais citadas foram propriocepção corporal, conscientização da musculatura envolvida, equilíbrio do fluxo aéreo, alívio de tensões e correção da postura. Há discrepâncias com relação à utilização da contração abdominal, do uso de objetos de apoio, de imagens mentais e realização de vocalizes. Para os entrevistados, o maior benefício do apoio respiratório está no alívio das tensões laríngeas e melhoria na coordenação pneumofonoarticulatória. Houve pouca concordância sobre a ação benéfica do apoio, principalmente quanto à sua melhoria na emissão cantada. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados apontam para uma convergência da maioria dos entrevistados quanto à definição, estratégias de trabalho e benefícios do apoio respiratório, porém ainda sem consenso.PURPOSE: to analyze the definition of breath support, as well as the strategies used to achieve it and their benefits according to both singing teachers and Speech Language Pathologists (SLP. METHODS: six professionals experienced in singing voice answered an interview on issues pertaining to singing breath support. The answers were submitted to

  2. Describing different styles of singing: a comparison of a female singer's voice source in "Classical", "Pop", "Jazz" and "Blues".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalén, M; Sundberg, J

    2001-01-01

    The voice is apparently used in quite different manners in different styles of singing. Some of these differences concern the voice source, which varies considerably with loudness, pitch, and mode of phonation. We attempt to describe voice source differences between Classical, Pop, Jazz and Blues styles of singing as produced in a triad melody pattern by a professional female singer in soft, middle and loud phonation. An expert panel was asked to identify these triads as examples of either Classical, Pop, Jazz or Blues. The voice source was analysed by inverse filtering. Subglottal pressure Ps, closed quotient QClosed, glottal compliance (ratio between the air volume contained in a voice pulse and Ps), and the level difference between the two lowest source spectrum partials were analysed in the styles and in four modes of phonation: breathy, flow, neutral, and pressed. The same expert panel rated the degree of pressedness in the entire material. Averages across pitch were calculated for each mode and style and related to their total range of variation in the subject. The glottogram data showed a high correlation with the ratings of pressedness. Based on these correlations a pressedness factor was computed from the glottogram data. A phonation map was constructed with the axes representing mean adduction factor and mean Ps, respectively. In this map Classical was similar to flow phonation, Pop and Jazz to neutral and flow phonation, and Blues to pressed phonation.

  3. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  4. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  5. Vocal warm-up practices and perceptions in vocalists: a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Allison; Kunduk, Melda; Sims, Loraine; McWhorter, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Investigated in a pilot study the type, duration, and frequency of vocal warm-up regimens in the singing community using a survey. One hundred seventeen participants completed an online survey. Participants included voice students from undergraduate, masters, and doctoral music programs and professional singers. Fifty-four percent of participants reported always using vocal warm-up before singing. Twenty-two percent of the participants used vocal cool down. The most preferred warm-up duration was of 5-10 minutes in duration. Despite using vocal warm-up, 26% of the participants reported experiencing voice problems. Females tended to use vocal warm-up more frequently than males. Females also tended to use longer warm-up sessions than males. Education of the participants did not appear to have any noticeable effect on the vocal warm-up practices. The most commonly used singing warm-up exercises were ascending/descending five-note scales, ascending/descending octave scales, legato arpeggios, and glissandi. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FY 2000 report on the results of the survey on the biomass-derived energy conversion technology. III; 2000 nendo biomass shigen wo genryo to suru energy henkan gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to the biomass-derived energy conversion technology which was regarded as promising from the results of the survey already made, the survey was made on the present situation and subjects of the technical development, social needs, energy efficiency, economical efficiency and the future. Studies were conducted on the development of technology for effective biomass utilization and the conceptual design and evaluation of a system for effective biomass utilization. As to the effective biomass utilization technology, the survey was made on the biomass combustion power generation technology/gasification power generation technology, gasification methanol synthesis of biomass, biomass gasification dimethyl ether synthesis, technology of ethanol production by alcohol fermentation via saccharification of biomass, methy-esterification of grease biomass, especially palm oil, and diesel oil production via reformation of by-product glycerin, and energy production from biomass using super- (sub- ) critical reaction. As to the system for effective biomass utilization, the survey was carried out of the regional outline, resource amount and sampling amount, selection of the conversion technology, and economical efficiency of Takatsuki city, Osaka, Shimokawa town, Hokkaido, Yufutsu/Hidaka region, Hokkaido, and Aogaki town, Hyogo. (NEDO)

  7. Contemporary commercial music (CCM) survey: who's teaching what in nonclassical music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVetri, Jeannette L; Weekly, Edrie Means

    2003-06-01

    Currently, there is an increasing interest in and demand for training in a wide variety of nonclassical music--contemporary commercial music (CCM)--and most particularly for music theater. A survey of singing teachers was completed to elucidate their training, education, and experience with and methods of teaching CCM. Teachers were at colleges, universities, and conservatories as well as in private studios, both nationally and in several foreign countries. A substantial percentage of those teaching CCM had neither formal education in teaching it nor professional experience. Many of the respondents indicated conflict between classical and CCM styles. Respondents were generally familiar with voice science and voice medicine as well as certain CCM terminology. Teachers expressed an interest in obtaining more information, with an emphasis on healthy vocal production. These results are discussed, as well as implications for the singing teacher who desires specific training to teach CCM.

  8. Assessments of Voice Use and Voice Quality among College/University Singing Students Ages 18–24 through Ambulatory Monitoring with a Full Accelerometer Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloneger, Matthew; Hunter, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The multiple social and performance demands placed on college/university singers could put their still developing voices at risk. Previous ambulatory monitoring studies have analyzed the duration, intensity, and frequency (in Hz) of voice use among such students. Nevertheless, no studies to date have incorporated the simultaneous acoustic voice quality measures into the acquisition of these measures to allow for direct comparison during the same voicing period. Such data could provide greater insight into how young singers use their voices, as well as identify potential correlations between vocal dose and acoustic changes in voice quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the voice use and estimated voice quality of college/university singing students (18–24 y/o, N = 19). Ambulatory monitoring was conducted over three full, consecutive weekdays measuring voice from an unprocessed accelerometer signal measured at the neck. From this signal were analyzed traditional vocal dose metrics such as phonation percentage, dose time, cycle dose, and distance dose. Additional acoustic measures included perceived pitch, pitch strength, LTAS slope, alpha ratio, dB SPL 1–3 kHz, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Major findings from more than 800 hours of recording indicated that among these students (a) higher vocal doses correlated significantly with greater voice intensity, more vocal clarity and less perturbation; and (b) there were significant differences in some acoustic voice quality metrics between non-singing, solo singing and choral singing. PMID:26897545

  9. Maternal singing of lullabies during pregnancy and after birth: Effects on mother-infant bonding and on newborns' behaviour. Concurrent Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Giuseppina; Antolini, Laura; Vergani, Patrizia; Costantini, Walter; Nardi, Maria Teresa; Bellotti, Lidia

    2017-08-01

    Mother-infant bonding is of great importance for the development and the well-being of the baby. The aim of this Concurrent Cohort Study was to investigate the effects of mothers singing lullabies on bonding, newborns' behaviour and maternal stress. Eighty-three (singing cohort) and 85 (concurrent cohort) women were recruited at antenatal classes at 24 weeks g.a. and followed up to 3 months after birth. The Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS) were used to assess maternal-foetal attachment and postnatal bonding. No significant influence was found on Prenatal Attachment; by contrast, Postnatal Bonding was significantly greater (i.e. lower MIBS) in the singing group 3 months after birth (mean 1.28 vs 1.96; p=0.001). In the same singing group, the incidence of neonatal crying episodes in the first month was significantly lower (18.5% vs 28.2; psinging group, even in the second month after birth (22.8% vs 36.5; p=0.002). At the same time, a reduction was observed in the neonatal nightly awakening (1.5% vs 4.7; psinging lullabies could improve maternal-infant bonding. It could also have positive effects on neonatal behaviour and maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Supporting the Health of College Solo Singers: The Relationship of Positive Emotions and Stress to Changes in Salivary IgA and Cortisol during Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robert J.; Gottfried, Terry L.; Hall, David J.; Cisler, Caitlin A.; Bozeman, Kenneth W.

    2006-01-01

    Singers appear to experience health benefits from singing, but their art makes physical demands that may leave them prone to health problems. The study sought to measure singers' immunocompetence under practice and performance conditions. Salivary IgA and cortisol measurements were assayed from multiple pre-post saliva samples obtained from 10…

  11. Summary of Session III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002

  12. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community singing on mental health-related quality of life of older people: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Simon; Clift, Stephen; Skingley, Ann; Rodriguez, John

    2015-09-01

    As the population ages, older people account for a greater proportion of the health and social care budget. Whereas some research has been conducted on the use of music therapy for specific clinical populations, little rigorous research has been conducted looking at the value of community singing on the mental health-related quality of life of older people. To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community group singing for a population of older people in England. A pilot pragmatic individual randomised controlled trial comparing group singing with usual activities in those aged 60 years or more. A total of 258 participants were recruited across five centres in East Kent. At 6 months post-randomisation, significant differences were observed in terms of mental health-related quality of life measured using the SF12 (mean difference = 2.35; 95% CI = 0.06-4.76) in favour of group singing. In addition, the intervention was found to be marginally more cost-effective than usual activities. At 3 months, significant differences were observed for the mental health components of quality of life (mean difference = 4.77; 2.53-7.01), anxiety (mean difference = -1.78; -2.5 to -1.06) and depression (mean difference = -1.52; -2.13 to -0.92). Community group singing appears to have a significant effect on mental health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression, and it may be a useful intervention to maintain and enhance the mental health of older people. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. The Impact of a Teaching or Singing Career on the Female Vocal Quality at the Mean Age of 67 Years: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Bettens, Kim; Leemans, Laura; Van Calster, Ann-Sophie; Van Damme, Nina; Thijs, Zoë; Daelman, Julie; Leyns, Clara; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the objective and subjective vocal quality in women aged between 60 and 75 years. Secondly, the impact of a teaching or singing career on the vocal quality was investigated by comparing the vocal quality of retired women with different careers. This is a case-control study. Seventy-three retired women between 60 and 75 years (mean age: 67 years, standard deviation: 4.49) participated in the study and were divided into three groups: women with a teaching career (n = 21), choir singers with a singing career (n = 12), and women with a non-vocal career (n = 40). All subjects underwent the same assessment protocol consisting of objective (aerodynamic, maximum performance, vocal range, acoustic measurements, and the Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (the Voice Handicap Index, auditory-perceptual evaluations by three listeners) voice measurements. In all three groups, objective and perceptual voice analysis showed a mild dysphonia. No differences in the Dysphonia Severity Index were found between the three groups. The voices of choir singers with a singing career were perceived significantly less rough than voices of the women with a non-vocal career. Additionally, the lowest frequency of the frequency range was significantly lower in the retired teachers and choir singers than in the controls. The results of this study prudently suggest that a singing or a teaching career compared with a non-vocal career has a positive impact on the vocal frequency range, and that singing has a positive impact on the perceptual vocal quality of the older female voice. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Levantamento da fauna de abelhas silvestres na "zona da mata" de Minas Gerais: III. Mata secundária na região de Viçosa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea Survey of the wild bees of the "zona da mata" of Minas Gerais, Brazil: III. Secondary forest in Viçosa region (Hymenoptera, Apoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Cure

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of a wild bee fauna survey in a secondary forest is reported. Sampling was carried out mainly on herbaceous and shrubby vegetation under and at the border of the forest. Results are compared with data collected with the same methodology from a previously surveyed grassland nearby. The secondary forest was richer in Anthophoridae and Apidae species, and less diverse in Megachilidae. Similarity between the two habitats was low. Several unidentified species of Ceratinula, Trichocerapis mirabilis and the stingless bees Melipona bicolor, M. quadrifasciata, M. marginata, Paratrigona subnuda, Scaptotrigona tubiba and S. xanthotricha, are among the species dependent on the forest environment to survive. Bee population densities in the forest understory are as large as the largest values found for open vegetation in Southeastern Brazil; species richness is also comparable to those of other areas in Southeastern Brazil. Sampling strategies are discussed.

  15. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  16. [Fundamental frequency analysis - a contribution to the objective examination of the speaking and singing voice (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Coulon, H J

    1975-07-01

    The applicability of a newly developed fundamental frequency analyzer to diagnosis in phoniatrics is reviewed. During routine voice examination, the analyzer allows a quick and accurate measurement of fundamental frequency and sound level of the speaking voice, and of vocal range and maximum phonation time. By computing fundamental frequency histograms, the median fundamental frequency and the total pitch range can be better determined and compared. Objective studies of certain technical faculties of the singing voice, which usually are estimated subjectively by the speech therapist, may now be done by means of this analyzer. Several examples demonstrate the differences between correct and incorrect phonation. These studies compare the pitch perturbations during the crescendo and decrescendo of a swell-tone, and show typical traces of staccato, thrill and yodel. Conclusions of the study indicate that fundamental frequency analysis is a valuable supplemental method for objective voice examination.

  17. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  18. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  19. The genesis of Jan Steens painting 'As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe' from the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denker, A.; Kleinert, K.; Laurenze-Landsberg, C.; Reimelt, M.; Schroeder-Smeibidl, B.

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with the research reactor of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin is the only institute worldwide, which systematically employs the method of Neutron-Activation-Autoradiography to analyze paintings and painting techniques. To date more than 70 paintings were investigated with this effective, non-destructive, and exceptional method. It allows the visualization of structures and layers beneath the top surface and, in addition, enables the identification of elements contained in the pigments. The instrument B8 at the research reactor BER II is dedicated to this research. Jan Steen is one of the prolific artists from the 17th century. Like other artists from that time he produced several versions of one specific topic during life-time. The topic 'As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe' was painted by Jan Steen in 13 versions. The painting from the Gemaeldegalerie is an exception in this series as it differs in style and content from the other oeuvres. The question arises: why did the artist deviate from his usual scheme? The possible answer is provided by X-ray images and neutron autoradiographs made of the painting, allowing insight into hidden paint layers and, therefore, in the genesis of the painting. Jan Steen did not simply change the composition of the room and the figures. He originally intended an altogether different topic. Assumedly it was supposed to be a so-called merry company, located in a generous, stately room. Many pieces of this sophisticated ambiance have been eliminated from the version visible today; others were modified and integrated into the composition of the new painting. Thus, Jan Steen commenced the topic 'As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe' from a different context.

  20. Collaboration and conquest: MTD as viewed by voice teacher (singing voice specialist) and speech-language pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi-Fynn, Jeanne C; Carroll, Linda M

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed as a qualitative case study to demonstrate the process of diagnosis and treatment between a voice team to manage a singer diagnosed with muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). Traditionally, literature suggests that MTD is challenging to treat and little in the literature directly addresses singers with MTD. Data collected included initial medical screening with laryngologist, referral to speech-language pathologist (SLP) specializing in voice disorders among singers, and adjunctive voice training with voice teacher trained in vocology (singing voice specialist or SVS). Initial target goals with SLP included reducing extrinsic laryngeal tension, using a relaxed laryngeal posture, and effective abdominal-diaphragmatic support for all phonation events. Balance of respiratory forces, laryngeal coordination, and use of optimum filtering of the source signal through resonance and articulatory awareness was emphasized. Further work with SVS included three main goals including a lowered breathing pattern to aid in decreasing subglottic air pressure, vertical laryngeal position to lower to allow for a relaxed laryngeal position, and a top-down singing approach to encourage an easier, more balanced registration, and better resonance. Initial results also emphasize the retraining of subject toward a sensory rather than auditory mode of monitoring. Other areas of consideration include singers' training and vocal use, the psychological effects of MTD, the personalities potentially associated with it, and its relationship with stress. Finally, the results emphasize that a positive rapport with the subject and collaboration between all professionals involved in a singer's care are essential for recovery. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-02-23

    The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session ('developing a sense of group belonging') and perceptions of its design and delivery ('creating the conditions for engagement'). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections should be a core feature of a general framework for the design and delivery of group interventions. Published by the

  2. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. Setting The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. Participants A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Intervention Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Results Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session (‘developing a sense of group belonging’) and perceptions of its design and delivery (‘creating the conditions for engagement’). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Conclusions Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections

  3. Hierarchical temporal structure in music, speech and animal vocalizations: jazz is like a conversation, humpbacks sing like hermit thrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T; Bella, Simone Dalla; Médé, Butovens; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure-syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchical temporal structures in speech, song and music. The method identifies temporal events as peaks in the sound amplitude envelope, and quantifies event clustering across a range of timescales using Allan factor (AF) variance. AF variances were analysed and compared for over 200 different recordings from more than 16 different categories of signals, including recordings of speech in different contexts and languages, musical compositions and performances from different genres. Non-human vocalizations from two bird species and two types of marine mammals were also analysed for comparison. The resulting patterns of AF variance across timescales were distinct to each of four natural categories of complex sound: speech, popular music, classical music and complex animal vocalizations. Comparisons within and across categories indicated that nested clustering in longer timescales was more prominent when prosodic variation was greater, and when sounds came from interactions among individuals, including interactions between speakers, musicians, and even killer whales. Nested clustering also was more prominent for music compared with speech, and reflected beat structure for popular music and self-similarity across timescales for classical music. In summary, hierarchical temporal structures reflect the behavioural and social processes underlying complex vocalizations and musical performances. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of general medical outpatient clinics using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omech, Bernard; Tshikuka, Jose-Gaby; Mwita, Julius C; Tsima, Billy; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries, including Botswana, are facing rising prevalence of obesity and obesity-related cardiometabolic complications. Very little information is known about clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in the outpatient setting during routine visits. We aimed to assess the prevalence and identify the determinants of metabolic syndrome among the general outpatients' attendances in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 involving outpatients aged ≥20 years without diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. A precoded questionnaire was used to collect data on participants' sociodemographics, risk factors, and anthropometric indices. Fasting blood samples were drawn and analyzed for glucose and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. In total, 291 participants were analyzed, of whom 216 (74.2%) were females. The mean age of the total population was 50.1 (±11) years. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.1% (n=79), with no significant difference between the sexes (female =29.6%, males =20%, P=0.11). A triad of central obesity, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure constituted the largest proportion (38 [13.1%]) of cases of metabolic syndrome, followed by a combination of low high-density lipoprotein, elevated triglycerides, central obesity, and elevated blood pressure, with 17 (5.8%) cases. Independent determinants of metabolic syndrome were antihypertensive use and increased waist circumference. Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the general medical outpatients clinics. Proactive approaches are needed to screen and manage cases targeting its most important predictors.

  5. [The application of aerodynamic method for the evaluation of the efficiency of the vocal, articulation and respiratory organs during singing and playing wind instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Z; Zółtowski, M; Kazanecka, E

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the aerodynamic method for the estimation of the efficiency of the vocal articulation and respiratory organ during singing and playing wind instruments. An evaluation of the vocal and respiratory organ was carried out on the basis of an analysis and correlation between the following parameters: PV--phonation volume, MPT--maximum phonation/playing time, SP--subglottal/blowing pressure, MFR--mean flow rate, GR--glottal resistance, EP--expiratory power, W--work. Volume and airflow was measured by a pneumotachometr with an electronic spirometer. The application of a plethysmographic booth made it possible to carry out non-invasive, indirect measurements of the subglottal and blowing pressure. Changes of pressure during singing and playing were recorded in the form of an aerodynamogram curve. This curve was used to determine the maximum duration of sound. Other quantities were derived from a mathematical analysis.

  6. Coralistas amadores: auto-imagem, dificuldades e sintomas na voz cantada A